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Sample records for scientists solve mystery

  1. Solve Medical Mysteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

  2. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the evolution of stars. This embarrassing discrepancy has been known since the 1960s. To resolve this mystery, astronomers needed to find a double star containing a Cepheid where the orbit happened to be seen edge-on from Earth. In these cases, known as eclipsing binaries, the brightness of the two stars dims as one component passes in front of the other, and again when it passes behind the other star. In such pairs astronomers can determine the masses of the stars to high accuracy [3]. Unfortunately neither Cepheids nor eclipsing binaries are common, so the chance of finding such an unusual pair seemed very low. None are known in the Milky Way. Wolfgang Gieren, another member of the team, takes up the story: "Very recently we actually found the double star system we had hoped for among the stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It contains a Cepheid variable star pulsating every 3.8 days. The other star is slightly bigger and cooler, and the two stars orbit each other in 310 days. The true binary nature of the object was immediately confirmed when we observed it with the HARPS spectrograph on La Silla." The observers carefully measured the brightness variations of this rare object, known as OGLE-LMC-CEP0227 [4], as the two stars orbited and passed in front of one another. They also used HARPS and other spectrographs to measure the motions of the stars towards and away from the Earth - both the orbital motion of both stars and the in-and-out motion of the surface of the Cepheid as it swelled and contracted. This very complete and detailed data allowed the observers to determine the orbital motion, sizes and masses of the two stars with very high accuracy - far surpassing what had been done before for a Cepheid. The mass of the Cepheid is now known to about 1% and agrees exactly with predictions from the theory of stellar pulsation. However, the larger mass predicted by stellar evolution theory was shown to be significantly in error. The much-improved mass estimate is only one outcome of this work, and the team hopes to find other examples of these remarkably useful pairs of stars to exploit the method further. They also believe that from such binary systems they will eventually be able to pin down the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud to 1%, which would mean an extremely important improvement of the cosmic distance scale. Notes [1] The first Cepheid variables were spotted in the 18th century and the brightest ones can easily be seen to vary from night to night with the unaided eye. They take their name from the star Delta Cephei in the constellation of Cepheus (the King), which was first seen to vary by John Goodricke in England in 1784. Remarkably, Goodricke was also the first to explain the light variations of another kind of variable star, eclipsing binaries. In this case two stars are in orbit around each other and pass in front of each other for part of their orbits and so the total brightness of the pair drops. The very rare object studied by the current team is both a Cepheid and an eclipsing binary. Classical Cepheids are massive stars, distinct from similar pulsating stars of lower mass that do not share the same evolutionary history. [2] The period luminosity relation for Cepheids, discovered by Henrietta Leavitt in 1908, was used by Edwin Hubble to make the first estimates of the distance to what we now know to be galaxies. More recently Cepheids have been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope and with the ESO VLT on Paranal to make highly accurate distance estimates to many nearby galaxies. [3] In particular, astronomers can determine the masses of the stars to high accuracy if both stars happen to have a similar brightness and therefore the spectral lines belonging to each of the two stars can be seen in the observed spectrum of the two stars together, as is the case for this object. This allows the accurate measurement of the motions of both stars towards and away from Earth as they orbit, using the Doppler effect. [4] The name OGLE-LMC-CEP0227 arises because the star was first discovered to be a variable during the OGLE search for gravitational microlensing. More details about OGLE are available at: http://ogle.astrouw.edu.pl/. More information This research was presented in a paper to appear in the journal Nature on 25 November 2010. The team is composed of G. Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), I. B. Thompson (Carnegie Observatories, USA), W. Gieren (Universidad de Concepción, Chile), D. Graczyk (Universidad de Concepción, Chile), G. Bono (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Universita' di Roma, Italy), A. Udalski (Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), I. Soszyński (Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), D. Minniti (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile) and B. Pilecki (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  3. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of distance. "Our measurements showed that the pulsar is about 950 light-years from Earth, essentially the same distance as the supernova remnant," said Steve Thorsett, of the University of California, Santa Cruz. "That means that the two almost certainly were created by the same supernova blast," he added. With that problem solved. the astronomers then turned to studying the pulsar's neutron star itself. Using a variety of data from different telescopes and armed with the new distance measurement, they determined that the neutron star is between 16 and 25 miles in diameter. In such a small size, it packs a mass roughly equal to that of the Sun. The next result of learning the pulsar's actual distance was to provide a possible answer to a longstanding question about cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are subatomic particles or atomic nuclei accelerated to nearly the speed of light. Shock waves in supernova remnants are thought to be responsible for accelerating many of these particles. Scientists can measure the energy of cosmic rays, and had noted an excess of such rays in a specific energy range. Some researchers had suggested that the excess could come from a single supernova remnant about 1000 light-years away whose supernova explosion was about 100,000 years ago. The principal difficulty with this suggestion was that there was no accepted candidate for such a source. "Our measurement now puts PSR B0656+14 and the Monogem Ring at exactly the right place and at exactly the right age to be the source of this excess of cosmic rays," Brisken said. With the ability of the VLBA, one of the telescopes of the NRAO, to make extremely precise position measurements, the astronomers expect to improve the accuracy of their distance determination even more. "This pulsar is becoming a fascinating laboratory for studying astrophysics and nuclear physics," Thorsett said. In addition to Brisken and Thorsett, the team of astronomers includes Aaron Golden of the National University of Ireland, Robert Benjamin of the University of Wisconsin, and Miller Goss of NRAO. The scientists are reporting their results in papers appearing in the Astrophysical Journal Letters in August. The VLBA is a continent-wide system of ten radio- telescope antennas, ranging from Hawaii in the west to the U.S. Virgin Islands in the east, providing the greatest resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, in astronomy. Dedicated in 1993, the VLBA is operated from the NRAO's Array Operations Center in Socorro, New Mexico. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  4. NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical) NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus Discovery Is Decades in the Making ... the structure of a protein related to the Hepatitis B virus. Their findings, reported in Structure, could ...

  5. Mystery of Cometary X-Rays Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    On July 14, 2000 NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imaged Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) and detected X-rays from oxygen and nitrogen ions. The details of the X-ray emission, as recorded on Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, show that they are produced by collisions of ions racing away from the Sun with gas in the comet. "This observation solves one mystery. It proves how comets produce X-rays," said Dr. Carey Lisse of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) leader of a team of scientists from STScI, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Max Planck Institute in Germany, Johns Hopkins University, the University of California, Berkeley, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "With an instrument like Chandra, we can now study the chemistry of the solar wind, and observe the X-ray glow from the atmospheres of comets as well as planets such as Venus. It may even be possible to observe other, nearby solar systems." Comets, which resemble "dirty snow balls" a few miles in diameter, were thought to be too cold for such energetic emission, so the detection of X-rays by the ROSAT observatory from comet Hyakutake in 1996 was a surprise. Several explanations were suggested, but the source of cometary X-ray emission remained a puzzle until the Chandra observation of Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). Chandra's imaging spectrometer revealed a strong X-ray signal from oxygen and nitrogen ions, clinching the case for the production of X-rays due to the exchange of electrons in collisions between nitrogen and oxygen ions in the solar wind and electrically neutral elements (predominantly hydrogen) in the comets atmosphere. The Chandra observation was taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on July 14, 2000 for a total of 2 ½ hours. The comet will be re-observed with Chandra during the weeks of July 29 - Aug 13. Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) was discovered in September 1999 by the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project, which is operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory to search for Earth-approaching objects. In addition to Dr. Lisse, the science team involved with the Chandra observations includes: Drs. Damian Christian (CSC/STScI), Konrad Dennerl (MPE), Frank Marshall, Robert Petre, and Steven Snowden (NASA/GSFC), Harold Weaver (JHU), Brett Stroozas (CEA), and Scott Wolk (CfA) ) The ACIS instrument was built for NASA by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and Pennsylvania State University, University Park. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov

  6. Mysterious "Twofaced" Star Explained, Scientists Say

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    There's a simple reason why a curious neutron star in the M15 globular star cluster has shown two faces over the years, beaming an X-ray portrait as perplexing as Mona Lisa's smile. The reason: That's not one star system, but two. Scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., capitalized on the exquisite resolution afforded by the Chandra X-ray Observatory to find a second neutron-star binary source just a hair west of the first binary source. The sources had blended together in all earlier observations. The broader implication of the Chandra discovery is that these types of binaries (a neutron star orbiting another star) can be quite common in star clusters, as was theorized but never observed. Drs. Nicholas White and Lorella Angelini of Goddard's Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics present their findings today in Washington, D.C., at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "We had long assumed there should be more of these neutron star binary systems, and now we are finally finding them," says White. "Past observations of M15, seemingly contradictory, also now make sense in retrospect. The first neutron star is coy, completely hiding behind the swirl of gas that is falling on to it. The second neutron star is prone to outbursts in X-ray light that reveal the star's surface." Previously, and inexplicably, astronomers had never seen more than one of these neutron star binaries, called low-mass X-ray binaries, in any given globular cluster, a tight spherical region crowded with stars. M15, a beautiful display containing over a million stars, is one of the largest globular clusters, located in the constellation Pegasus some 34,000 light years from Earth. Astronomers discovered one neutron star system in M15, called 4U2127, with the Einstein X-ray satellite in 1984. Characteristic of a low-mass X-ray binary, 4U2127 contains a city-sized neutron star orbiting a "living" hydrogen-burning star slightly smaller than our Sun, named AC211. Escaped gas from AC211 falls onto the neutron star, attracted by its strong center of gravity. The transfer of gas, called an accretion disk, glows hot in X rays. The data revealed that the neutron star itself was not directly visible in X-ray light because it was hidden behind the accretion disk. This neat picture was put into doubt when the Japanese Ginga X-ray satellite saw luminous X-ray bursts from the region in 1990. The length of the burst and other light characteristics implied that the surface of the neutron star was directly visible, a complete contradiction to earlier observations. Using Chandra's HETGS instrument, White and Angelini observed the region for nearly six hours on August 24, 2000. Chandra is capable of 0.5 arcsecond imaging resolution, several times sharper than Einstein. White and Angelini discovered that what was thought to be one X-ray source is really two sources separated by 2.7 arcseconds. (The distance across Mars, from our vantage point on Earth, forms an angle of about 5 arcseconds. So imagine a gap smaller than that pinpoint of light from Mars.) The new X-ray source, which they dubbed M15-X2, is likely a neutron star orbiting a faint blue star, Angelini said. Globular clusters, with their myriad stars, should contain several low-mass X-ray binary systems. The fact that there was never more than one seen in any globular cluster, including the massive M15, led some theorists to speculate that these binaries are short-lived. Or, perhaps neutron stars -- created from burned-out, collapsed stars during supernova explosions -- are ejected from globular clusters with a thunderous kick as the neutron stars forms. The Chandra observation has eliminated the need for such elaborate scenarios. M15 has at least two low-mass X-ray binary systems, and perhaps multiple systems in other cluster will be discovered given advancements in X-ray resolution. Indeed, M15 also has many radio pulsars, which may be the remnants of low-mass X-ray binary systems. Angelini joins NASA Goddard through the University Space Research Association. The Chandra HETGS, or High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, was built by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For images of M15, refer to http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/20010906twofaced.html.

  7. Internet Investigations: Solving Mysteries on the Information Superhighway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy; Brown, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a group of gifted primary-school children in New Zealand explored the Internet in a workshop project organized around solving the mystery of what happened to the Titanic. Insets include the student "contract," a listing of Web sites, and the evaluation instrument. (DB)

  8. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a mystery solved?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The permeability transition (PT) denotes an increase of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability to solutes with molecular masses up to about 1500 Da. It is presumed to be mediated by opening of a channel, the permeability transition pore (PTP), whose molecular nature remains a mystery. Here I briefly review the history of the PTP, discuss existing models, and present our new results indicating that reconstituted dimers of the FOF1 ATP synthase form a channel with properties identical to those of the mitochondrial megachannel (MMC), the electrophysiological equivalent of the PTP. Open questions remain, but there is now promise that the PTP can be studied by genetic methods to solve the large number of outstanding problems. PMID:23675351

  9. Baby Stars in Orion Solve Solar System Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    What do X-rays, meteoroids, infant stars in the Orion Nebula, and our solar system have in common? Perhaps much more than anyone thought. Eric Feigelson of Penn State University stumbled onto a connection one day while his thoughts were far from the solar system, turned toward the vibrant neighborhood of young stars, hot gas, and caliginous dust of the Orion Nebula. This nebula, 1500 light-years away, is visible to the naked eye in the constellation Orion, a gem to behold with a good pair of binoculars or a telescope under dark skies. In Orion, Feigelson inadvertently found a possible solution to a long-standing mystery about our own solar system: the presence of exotic isotopes locked away in meteoroids. Scientists have assumed that these short-lived isotopes - special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26 and calcium-41 - were transported here by a nearby supernova. Only tenuous evidence for such an explosion exists, but what else could have made the isotopes? The isotopes are about as old as the solar system, and the Sun couldn t possibly have been powerful enough to create them. Well, maybe we need to give the Sun a little more credit. Feigelson found that very young, midsized stars in the Orion Nebula - in the same stellar class as our Sun except they are only a million years old - produce powerful flares visible in X-rays. His team spotted these X-ray flares with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. These baby-tantrum flares are indeed energetic enough to forge heavy isotopes, Feigelson says. If the infant stars in Orion can do it now, then our Sun could have done the same when the solar system was forming about 4.5 billion years ago, when the Sun itself was only a few million years old.

  10. "Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts - Mystery Solved?????"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2006-01-01

    After over a decade of speculation about the nature of short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the recent detection of afterglow emission from a small number of short bursts has provided the first physical constraints on possible progenitor models. While the discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a real breakthrough linking their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, the progenitors, energetics, and environments for short gamma-ray burst events remain elusive despite a few recent localizations. Thus far, the nature of the host galaxies measured indicates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. On the other hand, some of the short burst afterglow observations cannot be easily explained in the coalescence scenario. These observations raise the possibility that short GRBs may have different or multiple progenitors systems. The study of the short-hard GRB afterglows has been made possible by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, launched in November of 2004. Swift is equipped with a coded aperture gamma-ray telescope that can observe up to 2 steradians of the sky and can compute the position of a gamma-ray burst to within 2-3 arcmin in less than 10 seconds. The Swift spacecraft can slew on to this burst position without human intervention, allowing its on-board x ray and optical telescopes to study the afterglow within 2 minutes of the original GRB trigger. More Swift short burst detections and afterglow measurements are needed before we can declare that the mystery of short gamma-ray burst is solved.

  11. Anomalous OI-989 Å intensity profile: solving an old mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, B. A.; Gerard, J. M.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, R.

    2012-12-01

    Sounding rocket measurements conducted in 1988 under high solar activity conditions had revealed that the intensity of the thermospheric OI emission at 989 Å presents an anomalous vertical profile. Observation presents an intensity much higher than what can be expected compared with theoretical results including the photochemical sources of excited oxygen and the radiative transfer of the photons of the OI-989 sextuplet especially above the exobase. Attempts were conducted to clarify the discrepancy by including the non-thermal O(3P) population that appears around the exobase and higher, and that can scatter Doppler-shifted photons of the line profile farther from the rest wavelength. All attempts based on detail modeling of the photochemical processes and radiative transfer revealed unable to account for the discrepancy. Recently the FUV and EUV solar flux has been obtained at very high spectral resolution with the SOHO-SUMER instrument, revealing a significant solar oxygen emission at 989 Å, i.e. a source of photons that had never been accounted for before. In this study, we compute the radiative transfer of the OI-989 Å multiplet including the photochemical sources of excited oxygen, the scattering of incident solar photons and the effect of non-thermal atoms. We find a good agreement with the previous sounding rocket observation, solving the old mystery. We also compare the model simulations with the observations of the STP-78 satellite to better determine the relative importance of the various parameters at work in the radiative transfer of the OI-989 Å multiplet.

  12. Solving the Mystery of Short Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. Until this year, the origin of short gamma-ray bursts was a complete mystery. A new NASA satellite named Swift has now captured the first images of these events and found that they are caused by tremendous explosions in the distant universe.

  13. Rosetta - a new target to solve planetary mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    This delay meant that the original mission's target, Comet Wirtanen, could no longer be reached. Instead, a new target has been selected, Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which Rosetta will encounter in 2014 after a ‘billiard ball’ journey through the Solar System lasting more than ten years. Rosetta’s name comes from the famous ‘Rosetta Stone’, from which Egyptian hieroglyphics were deciphered almost 200 years ago. In a similar way, scientists hope that the Rosetta spacecraft will unlock the mysteries of the Solar System. Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. In orbiting Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and landing on it, Rosetta will collect information essential to an understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules that, delivered to Earth through impacts, perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, ‘volatile’ light elements carried by comets might also have played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions undertaken so far,” says Professor David Southwood, ESA Director of Science. “No one has ever attempted such a mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres.” Before reaching its target in 2014, Rosetta will circle the Sun four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; the spacecraft will then closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be landing on a small, fast-moving ‘cosmic bullet’ about whose 'geography' very little is known yet. An amazing 10-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a three-tonne box-type spacecraft about three metres high, with two 14-metre solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately one metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the orbiter during the journey to Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will be kept in hibernation during most of its 10-year trek towards the comet. Why does Rosetta's cruise need to take so long? To reach Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the spacecraft needs to go out into deep space as far out from the Sun as Jupiter. No launcher could possibly get Rosetta there directly. ESA's spacecraft will gather speed from gravitational ‘kicks’ provided by four planetary fly-bys: one of Mars in 2007 and three of Earth in 2005, 2007 and 2009. During the trip, Rosetta will also twice pass through the asteroid belt, where a fly-by with one or more of these primitive objects is possible. A number of candidate targets have already been identified, but the final selection will be made after launch, once the amount of surplus fuel has been verified by mission engineers. During these encounters, scientists plan to switch on Rosetta's instruments for scientific studies of these largely unexplored Solar System bodies. Long trips in deep space include many hazards, such as extreme changes in temperature. Rosetta will leave the benign environment of near-Earth space to the dark, frigid regions beyond the asteroid belt. To manage these thermal loads, experts have done very tough pre-launch tests to study Rosetta's endurance. For example, they have heated its external surfaces to more than 150°C, then cooled it to -150°C in the next test. The spacecraft will be fully reactivated prior to the comet rendezvous manoeuvre in 2014. Then, Rosetta will orbit the comet - an object only about 4 kilometres in diameter - while it cruises through the inner Solar System at 135 000 kilometres per hour. At the time of the rendezvous - around 675 million kilometres from the Sun - Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko will hardly show any surface activity. This means that the characteristic ‘coma’ (the comet’s ‘atmosphere’) and the tail will not be formed yet, because of the distance from the Sun. The comet's tail is in fact made of dust grains and frozen gases from the comet's surface that vaporise because of the Sun's heat. Over a period of six months, Rosetta will extensively map the comet's surface, prior to selecting a landing site. In November 2014, the lander will be ejected from the spacecraft from a height which could be as low as one kilometre. Touchdown will be at walking speed, about one metre per second. Immediately after touchdown, the lander will fire a harpoon into the ground to avoid bouncing off the surface back into space, since the comet’s extremely weak gravity alone would not hold onto the lander. Operations and scientific observations on the surface will last at least a week, but may continue for many months. Besides taking close-up pictures, the lander will drill into the dark organic crust and sample the primordial ices and gases. During and after the lander operations, Rosetta will continue orbiting and studying the comet: it will be the first spacecraft to witness at close quarters the changes taking place in a comet when the comet approaches the Sun and grows its coma and tail and then travels away from it. The trip will end in December 2015, after 12 years of adventure, when the comet has made its closest approach to the Sun and is on its way towards the outer Solar System. Studying a comet on the spot Rosetta's goal is to examine the comet in great detail. The instruments on the orbiter include several cameras and spectrometers that work at different wavelengths: infrared, ultraviolet, visible and microwave. In addition, there are various other instruments to make in situ analysis. Together, they will provide, amongst other things, very high-resolution images and information about the shape, density, temperature and chemical composition of the comet. Rosetta’s instruments will analyse the gases and dust grains in the coma that forms when the comet becomes active, as well as the interaction with the solar wind. The ten experiments on the lander will make an on-the-spot analysis of the composition and structure of the comet’s surface and subsurface material. A drilling system will take samples down to 30 centimetres below the surface and feed these to the ‘composition analysers’. Other instruments will measure properties such as near-surface strength, density, texture, porosity, ice phases and thermal properties. Microscopic studies of individual grains will tell us about the texture. Ground operations All scientific data including those relayed from the lander will be stored on the orbiter for downlink to Earth at the next ground station contact. ESA has installed a new deep-space antenna at New Norcia, near Perth in Western Australia, as the main communications link between the spacecraft and ESOC Mission Control in Darmstadt, Germany. This 35-metre diameter parabolic antenna allows the radio signal to reach distances of more than a million kilometres from Earth. The radio signals, travelling at the speed of light, will take up to 50 minutes to cover the distance between the spacecraft and Earth. Rosetta's Science Operations Centre, which will be responsible for collecting and distributing the scientific data, will share locations at ESOC and ESTEC in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. The Lander Control Centre is located at DLR in Cologne, Germany, and the Lander Science Centre at CNES in Toulouse, France. Building Rosetta Rosetta was selected as a mission in 1993. The spacecraft has been built by Astrium Germany as prime contractor. Major subcontractors are Astrium UK (spacecraft platform), Astrium France (spacecraft avionics), and Alenia Spazio (assembly, integration, and verification). Rosetta’s industrial team involves more than 50 contractors from 14 European countries, Canada and the United States. Scientific consortia from institutes across Europe and the United States have provided the instruments on the orbiter. A European consortium under the leadership of the German Aerospace Research Institute (DLR) has provided the lander. Rosetta has cost ESA EUR 770 million at 2000 economic conditions. This includes the launch and the entire period of development and mission operations from 1996 to 2015. The lander and the experiments, the so-called 'payload', are not included since they are funded by the member states through scientific institutes.

  14. Rosetta - a comet ride to solve planetary mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. By orbiting Comet Wirtanen and landing on it, Rosetta will collect essential information to understand the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules, that - delivered to Earth through impacts - perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, “volatile” light elements carried by comets may have also played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmopshere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions ever undertaken so far”, says Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, “No one before attempted a similar mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres”. Before reaching its target in 2011, Rosetta will circle the Sun almost four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Wirtanen, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; then the spacecraft will closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be like landing on a small, fast-moving cosmic bullet that still has - at present - an almost unknown 'geography'. An amazing 8-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a 3-tonne box-type spacecraft about 3 metres high, with two 14-metre long solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately 1 metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the Rosetta orbiter during the journey to Comet Wirtanen. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will be kept in hibernation during most of its 8-year trek towards Wirtanen. What makes Rosetta's cruise so long? To reach Comet Wirtanen, the spacecraft needs to go out in deep space as far from the Sun as Jupiter is. No launcher could possibly get Rosetta there directly. ESA's spacecraft will gather speed from gravitational ‘kicks’ provided by three planetary fly-bys: one of Mars in 2005 and two of Earth in 2005 and 2007. During the trip, Rosetta will also visit two asteroids, Otawara (in 2006) and Siwa (in 2008). During these encounters, scientists will switch on Rosetta's instruments for calibration and scientific studies. Long trips in deep space include many hazards, such as extreme changes in temperature. Rosetta will leave the benign environment of near-Earth space to the dark, frigid regions beyond the asteroid belt. To manage these thermal loads, experts have done very tough pre-launch tests to study Rosetta's endurance. For example, they have heated its external surfaces to more than 150°C, then quickly cooled it to -180°C in the next test. The spacecraft will be fully reactivated prior to the comet rendezvous manoeuvre in 2011. Then, Rosetta will orbit the comet - an object only 1.2 km wide - while it cruises through the inner Solar System at 135 000 kilometres per hour. At that time of the rendezvous - around 675 million km from the Sun - Wirtanen will hardly show any surface activity. It means that the carachteristic coma (the comet’s ‘atmosphere’) and the tail will not be formed yet, because of the large distance from the Sun. The comet's tail is in fact made of dust grains and frozen gases from the comet's surface that vapourise because of the Sun's heat. During 6-month, Rosetta will extensively map the comet surface, prior to selecting a landing site. In July 2012, the lander will self-eject from the spacecraft from a height of just one kilometre. Touchdown will take place at walking speed - less than 1 metre per second. Immediately after touchdown, the lander will fire a harpoon into the ground to avoid bouncing off the surface back into space, since the extremely weak comet’s gravity alone would not hold onto the lander. Operations and scientific observations on the comet surface will last 65 hours as a minimum, but may continue for many months. During and after the lander operations, Rosetta will continue orbiting and studying the comet: Rosetta will be the first spacecraft to witness at close quarters the changes taking place in a comet when the comet approaches the Sun and grows its coma and tail. The trip will end in July 2013, after 10.5 years of adventure, when the comet is closest to the Sun. Studying a comet on the spot Rosetta's goal is to examine the comet in great detail. The instruments on Rosetta orbiter include several cameras, spectrometers, and experiments that work at different wavelengths --infrared, ultraviolet, microwave, radio and a number of sensors. They will provide, among other things, very high-resolution images and information about the shape, density, temperature, and chemical composition of the comet. Rosetta’s instruments will analyse the gases and dust grains in the so-called “coma” that forms when the comet becomes active, as well as the interaction with the solar wind. The 10 instruments on board the lander will do an on-the-spot analysis of the composition and structure of the comet’s surface and subsurface material. A drilling system will take samples down to 30 centimetres below the surface and will feed these to the ‘composition analysers’. Other instruments will measure properties such as near-surface strength, density, texture, porosity, ice phases, and thermal properties. Microscopic studies of individual grains will tell us about the texture. In addition, instruments on the lander will study how the comet changes during the day-night cycle, and while it approaches the Sun. Ground operations Data from the lander are relayed to the orbiter, which stores them for downlink to Earth at the next ground station contact. ESA has installed a new deep-space antenna at New Norcia, near Perth in Western Australia, as the main communications link between the spacecraft and the ESOC Mission Control in Darmstadt, Germany. This 35-metre diameter parabolic antenna allows the radio signal to reach distances of more than 1 million kilometres from Earth. The radio signals, travelling at the speed of light, will take up to 50 minutes to cover the distance between the spacecraft and Earth. Rosetta's Science Operations Centre, which is responsible for collecting and distributing the scientific data, will share a location at ESOC and ESTEC in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. The Lander Control Centre is located in DLR in Cologne, Germany, and the Lander Science Centre in CNES in Toulouse, France. Building Rosetta Rosetta was selected as a mission in 1993. The spacecraft has been built by Astrium Germany as prime contractor. Major subcontractors are Astrium UK (spacecraft platform), Astrium France (spacecraft avionics), and Alenia Spazio (assembly, integration, and verification). Rosetta’s industrial team involves more than 50 contractors from 14 European countries, Canada and the United States. Scientific consortia from institutes across Europe and the United States have provided the instruments on the orbiter. A European consortium under the leadership of the German Aerospace Research Institute (DLR) has provided the lander. Rosetta has cost ESA Euro 701 million at 2000 economic conditions. This amount includes the launch and the entire period of development and mission operations from 1996 to 2013. The lander and the experiments, the so-called 'payload', are not included since they are funded by the member states through the scientific institutes. Note to editors Europe is certainly a pioneer in comet exploration. In 1986, ESA’s spacecraft Giotto performed the closest comet fly-by ever achieved by any spacecraft (at a distance of 600 kilometres of Halley). It sent back wonderful pictures and data that showed that comets contain complex organic molecules. These kinds of compounds are rich in carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Intriguingly, these are the elements which make up nucleic acids and amino acids, which are essential ingredients for life as we know it. Giotto continued its successful journey and flew by Comet Grigg-Skjellerup in 1992 within about 200 km distance. Now scientists will be eagerly waiting to be able to answer some of the new intriguing questions that arose from analysing the exciting results from Giotto. Other past missions that have flown by a comet were: NASA’s ICE mission in 1985, the two Russian VEGA spacecraft and the two Japanese spacecraft Suisei and Sakigake that were part of the armada that visited comet Halley in 1986; NASA’s Deep Space 1 flew-by comet Borelly in 2001 and NASA’s Stardust will fly-by comet Wild 2 in early 2004 and will return samples of the comet’s coma in 2006. Unfortunately NASA’s Contour launched in Summer 2002 failed when it was inserted onto its interplanetary trajectory. In 2004 we will see the launch of Deep Impact, a spacecraft that will shoot a massive block of copper into a comet nucleus.

  15. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) astronomical project will not only enlarge our knowledge of the vast Universe beyond the imaginable. It will also help scientists learn more about the human body. Located 5000m above sea level, in the Chilean Atacama desert, ALMA is the highest site for ground-based astronomy. This property will be put to good use for academic institutions in Chile and in Europe in order to study the human response to extreme altitude conditions. During a ceremony held on 2 April in Antofagasta, the largest town close to ESO's Very Large Telescope, representatives from ALMA, ESO and the University of Antofagasta have officially launched a collaborative agreement that also involves the University of Chile and the University of Copenhagen (Denmark). The newly established cooperation aims at contributing to the promotion of teaching, scientific research, and the expansion of altitude physiology and medicine or other related areas considered appropriate. ESO PR Photo 20/07 ESO PR Photo 20/07 Working at 5000 metres "An increasing number of people are periodically exposed to brisk changes in altitude, and not only for astronomical research," said Jacques Lassalle, the ALMA Safety Manager. "Short stays at high altitude alternate with short stays at sea level but the corresponding shifts are very often established by agreement, and not based on scientific arguments. With this project, we aim at improving our knowledge and procedures in order to protect the long term health of the operators, engineers, and scientists as well as ALMA visitors of all ages and all physical conditions," he added. Around the world, a large number of people systematically commute between sea level and high altitude, for example when working in mountainous mines. This poses stringent conditions that may affect health, wellbeing and working performance. Some of the factors in question are the shift work regime, the perturbation of circadian rhythms, fatigue, family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership among Europe, Japan and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of Japan by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI).

  16. SNO: solving the mystery of the missing neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Jelley, Nick; Poon, Alan

    2007-03-30

    The end of an era came on 28 November 2006 when the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) finally stopped data-taking after eight exciting years of discoveries. During this time the Observatory saw evidence that neutrinos, produced in the fusion of hydrogen in the solar core, change flavour while passing through the Sun on their way to the Earth. This observation explained the longstanding puzzle as to why previous experiments had seen fewer solar neutrinos than predicted and confirmed that these elusive particles have mass. Solar neutrinos were first detected in Ray Davis's radiochemical experiment in 1967, for which discovery he shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. Surprisingly he found only about a third of the number predicted from models of the Sun's output. This deficit, the so-called Solar Neutrino Problem, was confirmed by Kamiokande-II while other experiments saw related deficits of solar neutrinos. A possible explanation for this deficit, suggested by Gribov and Pontecorvo in 1969, was that some of the electron-type neutrinos, which are produced in the Sun, had ''oscillated'' into neutrinos that could not be detected in the Davis detector. The oscillation mechanism requires that neutrinos have non-zero mass. The unique advantage, which was pointed out by the late Herb Chen in 1985, of using heavy water (D{sub 2}O) to detect the neutrinos from {sup 8}B decays in the solar fusion process is that it enables both the number of electron-type and of all types of neutrinos to be measured. A comparison of the flux of electron-type neutrinos to that of all flavours could then reveal whether flavour transformation is the cause of the solar neutrino deficit. In heavy water neutrinos of all types can break a deuteron apart into its constituent proton and neutron (neutral-current reaction), while only electron-type neutrinos can change the deuteron into two protons and release an electron (charged-current reaction). SNO was designed by scientists from Canada, the USA and the UK to attain a detection rate of about 10 solar neutrinos per day using 1000 tonnes of heavy water. Neutrino interactions were detected by 9,456 photomultiplier tubes surrounding the heavy water, which was contained in a 12-m diameter acrylic sphere. This sphere was surrounded by 7000 tonnes of ultra-pure water to shield against radioactivity. Figure 1 shows the layout of the SNO detector, which is located about 2 km underground in Inco's Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury in Canada, to all but eliminate cosmic rays from reaching the detector. The pattern of hit photomultiplier tubes following the creation of an electron by an electron-type neutrino is shown in Figure 2.

  17. ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Integral solves mystery hi-res Size hi-res: 60 kb Credits: Credit: ESA, F. Lebrun (CEA-Saclay). ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery The central regions of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as seen by Integral in gamma rays. With its superior ability to see faint details, Integral correctly reveals the individual sources that comprised the foggy, gamma-ray background seen by previous observatories. The brightest 91 objects seen in this image were classified by Integral as individual sources, while the others appear too faint to be properly characterized at this stage. During the spring and autumn of 2003, Integral observed the central regions of our Galaxy, collecting some of the perpetual glow of diffuse low-energy gamma rays that bathe the entire Galaxy. These gamma rays were first discovered in the mid-1970s by high-flying balloon-borne experiments. Astronomers refer to them as the 'soft' Galactic gamma-ray background, with energies similar to those used in medical X-ray equipment. Initially, astronomers believed that the glow was caused by interactions involving the atoms of the gas that pervades the Galaxy. Whilst this theory could explain the diffuse nature of the emission, since the gas is ubiquitous, it failed to match the observed power of the gamma rays. The gamma rays produced by the proposed mechanisms would be much weaker than those observed. The mystery has remained unanswered for decades. Now Integral's superb gamma-ray telescope IBIS, built for ESA by an international consortium led by Principal Investigator Pietro Ubertini (IAS/CNR, Rome, Italy), has seen clearly that, instead of a fog produced by the interstellar medium, most of the gamma-rays are coming from individual celestial objects. In the view of previous, less sensitive instruments, these objects appeared to merge together. In a paper published today in "Nature", Francois Lebrun (CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France) and his collaborators report the discovery of 91 gamma-ray sources towards the direction of the Galactic centre. Lebrun's team includes Ubertini and seventeen other European scientists with long-standing experience in high-energy astrophysics. Much to the team's surprise, almost half of these sources do not fall in any class of known gamma-ray objects. They probably represent a new population of gamma-ray emitters. The first clues about a new class of gamma-ray objects came last October, when Integral discovered an intriguing gamma-ray source, known as IGRJ16318-4848. The data from Integral and ESA's other high-energy observatory XMM-Newton suggested that this object is a binary system, probably including a black hole or neutron star, embedded in a thick cocoon of cold gas and dust. When gas from the companion star is accelerated and swallowed by the black hole, energy is released at all wavelengths, mostly in the gamma rays. However, Lebrun is cautious to draw premature conclusions about the sources detected in the Galactic centre. Other interpretations are also possible that do not involve black holes. For instance, these objects could be the remains of exploded stars that are being energised by rapidly rotating celestial 'powerhouses', known as pulsars. Observations with another Integral instrument (SPI, the Spectrometer on Integral) could provide Lebrun and his team with more information on the nature of these sources. SPI measures the energy of incoming gamma rays with extraordinary accuracy and allows scientist to gain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms that generate them. However, regardless of the precise nature of these gamma-ray sources, Integral's observations have convincingly shown that the energy output from these new objects accounts for almost ninety per cent of the soft gamma-ray background coming from the centre of the Galaxy. This result raises the tantalising possibility that objects of this type hide everywhere in the Galaxy, not just in its centre. Again, Lebrun is cautious, saying, "It is tempting to think that we can simply extrapolate our results to the entire Galaxy. However, we have only looked towards its centre and that is a peculiar place compared to the rest." Next on Integral's list of things to do is to extend this work to the rest of the Galaxy. Christoph Winkler, ESA's Integral Project Scientist, says, "We now have to work on the whole disc region of the Galaxy. This will be a tough and long job for Integral. But at the end, the reward will be an exhaustive inventory of the most energetic celestial objects in the Galaxy." Note to editors The paper explaining these results will appear on the 18 March 2004 issue of "Nature". The author list includes F. Lebrun, R. Terrier, A. Bazzano, G. Belanger, A. Bird, L. Bouchet, A. Dean, M. Del Santo, A. Goldwurm, N. Lund, H. Morand, A. Parmar, J. Paul, J.-P. Roques, V. Schoenfelder, A. Strong, P. Ubertini, R. Walter and C. Winkler. For information about the related INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton discovery of IGRJ16318-4848, see: http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2003_s_en.html Integral The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (Integral) is the first space observatory that can simultaneously observe celestial objects in gamma rays, X-rays and visible light. Integral was launched on a Russian Proton rocket on 17 October 2002 into a highly elliptical orbit around Earth. Its principal targets include regions of the galaxy where chemical elements are being produced and compact objects, such as black holes. IBIS, Imager on Board the Integral Satellite - IBIS provides sharper gamma-ray images than any previous gamma-ray instrument. It can locate sources to a precision of 30 arcseconds, the equivalent of measuring the height of a person standing in a crowd, 1.3 kilometres away. The Principal Investigators that built the instrument are P. Ubertini (IAS/CNR, Rome, Italy), F. Lebrun (CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France), G. Di Cocco (ITESRE, Bologna, Italy). IBIS is equipped with the first un-cooled semiconductor gamma-ray camera, called ISGRI, which is responsible for its outstanding sensitivity. ISGRI was developed and built for ESA by CEA Saclay, France. SPI, Spectrometer on Integral - SPI measures the energy of incoming gamma rays with extraordinary accuracy. It is more sensitive to faint radiation than any previous gamma ray instrument and allows the precise nature of gamma ray sources to be determined. The Principal Investigators that developed SPI are J.-P. Roques, (CESR, Toulouse, France) and V. Schoenfelder (MPE, Garching, Germany). XMM-Newton XMM-Newton can detect more X-ray sources than any previous observatory and is helping to solve many cosmic mysteries of the violent Universe, from black holes to the formation of galaxies. It was launched on 10 December 1999, using an Ariane-5 rocket from French Guiana. Its orbit takes it almost a third of the way to the Moon, so that astronomers can enjoy long, uninterrupted views of celestial objects.

  18. In a Flash, NASA Helps Solve 35-Year-Old Cosmic Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Scientists have solved the 35-year-old mystery of the origin of powerful, split-second flashes of light known as short gamma-ray bursts. These flashes, brighter than a billion galaxies, yet lasting only a few milliseconds, have been simply too fast to catch - until now. Through the unprecedented coordination of observations from several ground-based telescopes and NASA satellites, scientists determined the flashes arise from violent collisions in space. The clashes are either between a black hole and a neutron star or between two neutron stars. In either scenario, the impact creates a new black hole. In at least one burst, scientists saw tantalizing, first-time evidence of a black hole eating a neutron star. The neutron star was first stretched into a crescent, then swallowed by the black hole. Two recently detected bursts are featured in four papers in this week's Nature magazine. These observations could enable direct detection of exotic gravitational waves that have never before been seen. "Gamma-ray bursts in general are notoriously difficult to study, but the shortest ones have been next to impossible to pin down," said Dr. Neil Gehrels, principal investigator for the Swift satellite at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "All that has changed. We now have the tools in place to study these events," he said. Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Gamma-ray bursts, first detected in the 1960s, are the most powerful explosions known. They are random, fleeting and can occur from any region of the sky. Two years ago, scientists discovered longer bursts, lasting more than two seconds, arise from the explosion of very massive stars. About 30 percent of bursts are short and under two seconds. The Swift satellite detected a short burst on May 9, and NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) detected another on July 9. The May 9 event marked the first time scientists identified an afterglow for a short gamma-ray burst, something commonly seen after long bursts. "We had a hunch that short gamma-ray bursts came from a neutron star crashing into a black hole or another neutron star, but these new detections leave no doubt," said Dr. Derek Fox, assistant professor of Astronomy & Astrophysics at Penn State University, State College, Pa. Fox is lead author of one Nature report detailing a multi-wavelength observation. Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Fox's team discovered the X-ray afterglow of the July 9 burst with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A team led by Jens Hjorth, a professor at the University of Copenhagen identified the optical afterglow using the Danish 1.5-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Fox's team continued studying the afterglow with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes of the Carnegie Institution, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. "The July 9 burst was like the dog that didn't bark," said Dr. George Ricker, HETE principal investigator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and co-author of another Nature article. "Powerful telescopes detected no supernova as the gamma-ray burst faded, arguing against the explosion of a massive star. Also, the July 9 burst, and probably the May 9 burst, are located in the outskirts of their host galaxies, just where old merging binaries are expected," he added. Mergers create gravitational waves, ripples in space-time predicted by Einstein but never directly detected. The July 9 burst was about 2 billion light-years away. A big merger closer to the Earth could be detected by the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). If Swift detects a nearby short burst, scientists could go back and check the data with a precise time and location. "This is good news for LIGO," said Dr. Albert Lazzarini, Data & Computing group leader at the California Institute of Technology LIGO Lab, Pasadena. "The connection between short bursts and mergers firms up projected rates for LIGO, and they appear to be at the high end of previous estimates. Also, observations provide tantalizing hints of black hole-neutron star mergers, which have not been detected before," he said. For information about this discovery, visit: For information about this discovery, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/swift/bursts/short_burst_oct5.html For information about NASA and agency programs on the Web, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html

  19. Mystery #1

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #1     View ... Burr. What is the name of the garden?   Mystery Solved     MISR was built and is managed by ... project:  MISR category:  gallery mystery Pacific date:  Jun 12, 2001 Images:  ...

  20. Neolithic trepanation decoded- A unifying hypothesis: Has the mystery as to why primitive surgeons performed cranial surgery been solved?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    The perplexing mystery of why so many trephined skulls from the Neolithic period have been uncovered all over the world representing attempts at primitive cranial surgery is discussed. More than 1500 trephined skulls have been uncovered throughout the world, from Europe and Scandinavia to North America, from Russia and China to South America (particularly in Peru). Most reported series show that from 5-10% of all skulls found from the Neolithic period have been trephined with single or multiple skull openings of various sizes. The unifying hypothesis proposed by the late medical historian Dr. Plinio Prioreschi (1930-2014) regarding the reason for these trepanations (trephinations) is analyzed. It is concluded that Dr. Prioreschi's cohesive explanation to explain the phenomenon is valid and that his intriguing hypothesis is almost certainly correct. In the opinion of this author, the mystery within an enigma has been solved. PMID:25984386

  1. VLBA "Movie" Gives Scientists New Insights On Workings of Mysterious Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have made a 42-day movie showing unprecedented detail of the inner workings of a strange star system that has puzzled scientists for more than two decades. Their work is providing new insights that are changing scientists' understanding of the enigmatic stellar pairs known as microquasars. SS 433 Frame from SS 433 Movie: End to end is some 200 billion miles. CREDIT: Mioduszewski et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Image Files Single Frame Overall Jet View (above image) VLBA Movie (animated gif, 2.3 MB) Animated graphic of SS 433 System (18MB) (Created using software by Robert Hynes, U.Texas) Annotated brightening graphic Unannotated brightening Frame 1 Unannotated brightening Frame 2 "This once-a-day series of exquisitely-detailed images is the best look anyone has ever had at a microquasar, and already has made us change our thinking about how these things work," said Amy Mioduszewski, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of radio telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Caribbean, to follow daily changes in a binary-star system called SS 433, some 15,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Aquila. Mioduszewski worked with Michael Rupen, Greg Taylor and Craig Walker, all of NRAO. They reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. SS 433 consists of a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole is drawing material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense, central object prior to being pulled onto that object. This disk propels jets of subatomic particles outward from its poles. In SS 433, the particles in the jets move at 26 percent of the speed of light; in other microquasars, the jet material moves at 90-95 percent of light speed. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to move in a circle every 164 days. By imaging SS 433 daily, the astronomers were able to trace individual ejections of material in these jets as they moved outward from the center. In addition, they could track the jets' precession, the movement caused by the disk's wobble. In other microquasars, blobs of material shot from the core become fainter, as seen with radio telescopes, as they move outward. However, in SS 433, blobs routinely brighten at specific distances from the core. From earlier studies, researchers had concluded that such brightening always occurs at one specific distance. The VLBA movie shows, instead, that there are multiple brightening regions and not all blobs brighten at all the regions. "We think the ejected material brightens because it's slamming into something," Rupen said. "However, whatever it's hitting has to be replenished somehow so that the brightening can occur again when the jet sweeps through that area the next time," he added. "It also appears that it isn't always replenished, because the brightening doesn't always happen," Mioduszewski pointed out. The VLBA movie revealed vital new information about another part of SS 433 -- material moving outward from the core, but not part of the superfast jets. This material moves outward in a direction not quite perpendicular to the direction of the jets. Discovered with the VLBA in 2000, this material had been seen only in one-time snapshots before, but the movie shows the steady evolution of its movement for the first time. That motion was the key to a possible answer to two riddles -- the source of the slower-moving material itself and the source of whatever the jet blobs are hitting when they brighten. "What seems most plausible to us is that the accretion disk is putting out a broad wind," Rupen explained. That broad wind from the disk hits a denser wind coming from the "normal" companion star to generate the radio waves seen coming from the nonjet region. The same disk-generated wind could be the source of the material that replenishes the regions where the jet blobs brighten, the researchers say. "The motion we measure for this slower-moving material is fast enough -- about 10,000 kilometers per second -- to put new material in a brightening region before the jet circles around to that spot again," Mioduszewski said. Because accretion disks like that around the dense central star of SS 433 are known to be unstable, any wind put out by such a disk could vary, putting out symmetric chunks in opposite directions. This, the scientists think, may explain why the jet brightening regions don't always get replenished with the material needed to cause brightening. "We still have more questions than answers about this microquasar, but the VLBA movie shows us that following the system on a daily basis with such greatly-detailed images is the most powerful tool available so far to understand these phenomena," Rupen said. The astronomers now hope to follow SS 433 with the VLBA for an entire, 164-day cycle of the jet wobble. At the same time, they would like to observe the object with visible-light telescopes, then follow up with larger- scale images using the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. The VLA images would trace blob motions in the jets beyond the distances traced with the VLBA. SS 433 and Microquasars SS 433 was first noted in the 1960s by astronomers Bruce Stephenson and Nicholas Sanduleak, who included it in a catalog they published of stars with unusual features in their spectra. As the 433rd object in Stephenson and Sanduleak's catalog, it became known as SS 433. In 1978, David Clark and Paul Murdin identified SS 433 as the visible-light counterpart of a small object that had been found to be emitting both radio waves and X-rays. The small object also sat within a large supernova remnant called W50. Clark and Murdin, using the Anglo-Australian Telescope in Australia, also produced a spectrum of SS 433 that showed strange features. In addition, the object not only varied in its brightness, but features within the spectrum changed. By 1979, further research, including work by Bruce Margon and George Abell, had shown that SS 433 was producing jets of material moving in opposite directions. The strange stellar system received a wealth of media coverage, dubbed "the star that is both coming and going" in one story. A 1981 Sky & Telescope article was entitled, "SS433 -- Enigma of the Century." The late Robert Hjellming of NRAO spearheaded studies of motions within the radio-emitting jets of SS 433 in the early 1980s. SS 433 was the first example of what are now termed microquasars, binary systems with either a neutron star or black hole orbited by another star, and emitting jets of material at high speeds. With the VLA's discovery of jets moving at 92 percent of the speed of light in an object called GRS 1915+105 in 1994, such systems became known as microquasars. Several others have since been discovered and studied. Because microquasars in our own Milky Way Galaxy are thought to produce their high-speed jets of material through processes similar to those that produce jets from the cores of galaxies, the nearby microquasars serve as a convenient "laboratory" for studying the physics of jets. The microquasars are closer and show changes more quickly than their larger cousins. The Very Long Baseline Array The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The VLBA is a system of ten radio-telescope antennas, each with a dish 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter and weighing 240 tons. From Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the VLBA spans more than 5,000 miles, providing astronomers with the sharpest vision of any telescope on Earth or in space. Dedicated in 1993, the VLBA has an ability to see fine detail equivalent to being able to stand in New York and read a newspaper in Los Angeles. The VLBA's scientific achievements include making the most accurate distance measurement ever made of an object beyond the Milky Way Galaxy; the first mapping of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; movies of motions in powerful cosmic jets and of distant supernova explosions; the first measurement of the propagation speed of gravity; and long-term measurements that have improved the reference frame used to map the Universe and detect tectonic motions of Earth's continents. The VLBA is operated from the NRAO's Array Operations Center in Socorro, NM. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  2. The Eclipsing Binary Di Herculis: One Mystery Solved, But Another Takes Its Place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Nicole; Guinan, E.; Maloney, F.

    2010-01-01

    The 8th-mag eclipsing binary DI Herculis has perplexed scientists for the past few decades due to its anomalously slow apsidal motion rate. DI Her consists of two main-sequence stars (B5V, B6V), with P(orb) = 10.55 days, and eccentricity(e= 0.489). Since the apsidal motion is dominated by General Relativity, the system is one of the few tests available for verifying the theory. Combining the expected classical (1.93/100 yr) and relativistic (2.34/100 yr) effects, the predicted apsidal motion rate is 4.27/100 yr. Our recent determination of the apsidal motion yields 1.33+/-0.25 /100 yr, based on eclipse timings from 1936-2008. Recently, Albrecht et al (2009, Nature 461) have apparently solved the apsidal motion anomaly of DI Her, finding that the axes of both stars are significantly inclined from the normal to the orbital plane. This was determined from the radial velocity curves and observing the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect during primary and secondary eclipses. Having significantly misaligned axes of rotation produces a perturbation that greatly reduces the classical apsidal motion effect, thus explaining the observed small apsidal motion rate. Even though this discovery apparently solves the problem, it raises new questions as to how the axes are so tilted. Additionally, tilted axes are expected to contribute to other orbital effects, such as changes in orbital inclination, which have not yet observed from the apparent constancy in eclipse depths over time. We have also searched for evidence of small periodic oscillations in the eclipse timings and found no evidence of a light travel time effect arising from a possible tertiary component. Further, we find evidence that the projected rotation axes of the stars may be precessing, since it appears that the value of V(rot)sini has increased over the past 30 years. This research was supported by NSF/RUI Grants AST05-07536/42.

  3. Solving a Five Decade-Old Mystery: Why is there Carbon Dating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machleidt, Ruprecht

    2008-05-01

    Carbon dating is due to the fact that the half-life of 14C is unusually long, namely, 5730 years, after which it decays in to 14N. A priori one would not expect the beta decay of 14C to extend over archaeological times, because the quantum numbers of the initial and final states satisfy the selection rules for an allowed Gamow-Teller transition. The expected half-live would therefore be in the order of minutes or hours. The corresponding nuclear transition matrix element is very small, but it has been a mystery for half a century why it is so small. In a recently published paper [1], we have shown that by incorporating hadronic medium modifications into the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force the decay of 14C is strongly suppressed, explaining the long life-time. The medium modifications are based upon Brown-Rho scaling [2], which predicts that hadron masses decrease at finite nuclear density due to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry. [1] J.W. Holt, G.E. Brown, T.T.S. Kuo, J.D. Holt, and R. Machleidt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 062501 (2008). [2] G.E. Brown and M. Rho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2720 (1991).

  4. The mysteries of the sea: How magnetics can help to solve them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barckhausen, Udo

    2015-04-01

    Determination of the Earth's magnetic field over the oceans played a key role in understanding plate tectonics in the 1960s and has helped to answer many geodynamic questions since then. Satellite missions have nicely charted the Earth's magnetic field over its entire surface during the last 20 years. However, at the altitude of satellite orbits merely wavelengths greater than ~ 100 km can be resolved, thus, implying that most of the geologically interesting anomalies with sources in the Earth's crust can only be measured on the ground. For a long time these ground measurements have been carried out with the robust and easy-to-use Proton Precession magnetometers towed astern of research vessels. By using oriented Vector Magnetometers we are now returning to the Gaussian roots of measurements, quantifying the magnetic field in its components. This is realised either with towed instruments or with sensors mounted to the superstructure of research vessels. Applications for the use of modern instruments and methods applicable to vector data range from large scale analysis of seafloor spreading anomalies over addressing long standing tectonic questions in isolated ocean basins to high resolution investigations of mineral deposits at the seafloor. In the equatorial Eastern Pacific it was possible to precisely date the age of the oceanic crust over large areas between the Clarion and Galapagos fracture zones, where differences to existing global age models of more than 10 m.y. in some places could be found. In the Colombia Basin of the Caribbean, the analysis of vector data provides an unexpected new insight into the tectonic origin of at least one part of the Caribbean platform. High-resolution magnetic mapping at the sea surface and deep tow profiles reveal hydrothermally-altered rocks near active spreading centres and associated polymetallic sulphide deposits. During marine survey expeditions, magnetic measurements can be carried out almost any time and in combination with a wide range of other geophysical investigations. Modern magnetometers can be piggy-backed to many deep towed instruments, providing additional information with little extra effort. Latest technical developments combine deep tow magnetics with electromagnetic methods, opening a further fascinating window to the mysteries of the sea.

  5. NCI Scientists Solve Structure of Protein that Enables MERS Virus to Spread | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the Frederick National Lab have produced three crystal structures that reveal a specific part of a protein that can be targeted to fight the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes an emerging viral respiratory illness. Senior Investigator David Waugh, Ph.D., Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, has solved the structure of an enzyme known as the 3C-like protease (3CLpro), which, if blocked, can prevent the virus from replicating...

  6. Reanalysis of the Benešov bolide and recovery of polymict breccia meteorites - old mystery solved after 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, Pavel; Haloda, Jakub; Borovička, Jiří; Shrbený, Lukáš; Halodová, Patricie

    2014-10-01

    The main motivation for this work was to explain and solve the old mystery connected with the detailed instrumental observation of the Benešov superbolide on 7 May 1991 over the central part of the Czech Republic. Detailed analyses of this undoubted meteorite fall were published in several papers, and this is one of the best documented bolides (at least of the superbolide category) ever observed. However, despite high-quality data, favorable trajectory, relatively large terminal mass, and especially great efforts and many attempts, no meteorite was found in the weeks and years after the fall. Here we solve and explain this old mystery. In spring 2011, just before the twentieth anniversary of this extraordinary case, we remeasured all available all-sky records and reanalyzed the data. We used slightly different methods and new approaches, which we gradually developed to analyze several recent instrumentally observed meteorite falls (Morávka, Neuschwanstein, Jesenice, Bunburra Rockhole, Mason Gully, and Košice). We assembled a new consistent picture of the Benešov event, which resulted in a slightly revised impact location and suggested a new strategy that might lead to a recovery of Benešov meteorites after 20 years. The reality completely confirmed all our assumptions and surpassed our expectations. We found four small highly weathered fragments irregular in form and completely without fusion crust with a total mass of 11.63 g (1.54 g (H5), 7.72 g (with achondritic clast), 1.99 g, 0.38 g (all LL3.5)). They were recovered exactly in the predicted impact area for corresponding masses, namely within 40 m from the highest probability line. Although all fragments are very small and their weathering grade is high (W3 for all pieces), their interior was preserved enough for reliable analysis (except for the smallest one). The meteorite is classified as a polymict breccia containing three recognized lithologies with different texture, chemical, and mineralogical composition. This result is pioneering in many aspects. We proved that in some special cases it is still possible to predict and find meteorites a long time after the fall. The most important result, however, is the heterogeneity of the recovered meteorites. This case clearly shows that larger meteoroids can be compositionally very complicated bodies. We discovered that the Benešov meteoroid consisted of at least three different types of material - LL3.5, H5, and primitive achondrite. This case also implies that it is very useful to study as many fragments as possible from one fall because there can be significant differences among them.

  7. Young Stars in Orion May Solve Mystery of Our Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Scientists may have to give the Sun a little more credit. Exotic isotopes present in the early Solar System--which scientists have long-assumed were sprinkled there by a powerful, nearby star explosion--may have instead been forged locally by our Sun during the colossal solar-flare tantrums of its baby years. The isotopes--special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26, calcium-41, and beryllium-10--can form in the X-ray solar flares of young stars in the Orion Nebula, which behave just like our Sun would have at such an early age. The finding, based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has broad implications for the formation of our own Solar System. Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, led a team of scientists on this Chandra observation and presents these results in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "The Chandra study of Orion gives us the first chance to study the flaring properties of stars resembling the Sun when our solar system was forming," said Feigelson. "We found a much higher rate of flares than expected, sufficient to explain the production of many unusual isotopes locked away in ancient meteorites. If the young stars in Orion can do it, then our Sun should have been able to do it too." Scientists who study how our Solar System formed from a collapsed cloud of dust and gas have been hard pressed to explain the presence of these extremely unusual chemical isotopes. The isotopes are short-lived and had to have been formed no earlier than the creation of the Solar System, some five billion years ago. Yet these elements cannot be produced by a star as massive as our Sun under normal circumstances. (Other elements, such as silver and gold, were created long before the creation of the solar system.) The perplexing presence of these isotopic anomalies, found in ancient meteoroids orbiting the Earth, led to the theory that a supernova explosion occurred very close to the Solar System's progenitor gas cloud, simultaneously triggering its collapse and seeding it with short-lived isotopes. Solar flares could produce such isotopes, but the flares would have to be hundreds of thousands of times more powerful and hundreds of times more frequent than those our Sun generates. Enter the stars in the Orion Nebula. This star-forming region has several dozen new stars nearly identical to our Sun, only much younger. Feigelson's team used Chandra to study the flaring in these analogs of the early Sun and found that nearly all exhibit extremely high levels of X-ray flaring--powerful and frequent enough to forge many of the kinds of isotopes found in the ancient meteorites from the early solar system. "This is a very exciting result for space X-ray astronomy," said Donald Clayton, Centennial Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University. "The Chandra Penn State team has shown that stellar-flare acceleration produces radioactive nuclei whether we want them or not. Now the science debate can concentrate on whether such irradiation made some or even all of the extinct radioactivities that were present when our solar system was formed, or whether some contamination of our birth molecular cloud by external material is also needed." "This is an excellent example of how apparently distant scientific fields, like X-ray astronomy and the origins of solar systems, can in fact be closely linked," said Feigelson. The Orion observation was made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Gordon Garmire, the Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State. The Penn State observation team includes Pat Broos, James Gaffney, Gordon Garmire, Leisa Townsley and Yohko Tsuboi. Collaborators also include Lynne Hillenbrand of CalTech and Steven Pravdo of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Background: Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have different numbers of neutrons. Many isotopes are unstable, or radioactive, and decay into other elements. A famous example is carbon-14 whose decay gives scientists the opportunity to date organic materials over thousands of years. A rare type of ancient meteorite called carbonaceous chondrites, which are rocks from the Asteroid Belt whose orbits are perturbed and fall to the Earth, date back to the formation of our Solar System 4.55 billion years ago. Studying carbonaceous chondrites gives us a unique window on conditions in the solar nebula when the Sun and Solar System were forming. Certain portions of carbonaceous chondrites, small melted pebbles called Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions or CAIs, have unusually high abundances of decay products of rare, short-lived isotopes. These include beryllium-10, calcium-41, 26-aluminum and 53-manganese, among others. Explaining the presence of these short-lived isotopes, which do not appear anywhere else in solar system material, has been one of the toughest challenges of solar system science. The favored explanation has been that a star exploded in a supernova and triggered a nearby cloud of dust and gas to collapse to form our Sun and planetary system. But conditions have to be carefully adjusted for this model, and it cannot be widely applied to all stars. The principal alternative model is that energetic particles from violent flares hit particles in the solar nebula and transformed some of their atoms to radioactive isotopes. A drawback to this model has been that the level of flaring needed, around 100,000 times the flaring level of the Sun today, was thought to be impossibly high. However, the X-ray observations reported here give direct evidence for just this high level of flaring. In addition, this model readily applied to all young stars and solar systems, not just a few.

  8. Solving Wakulla Springs underwater mysteries. Using GPS to map Florida's underground caverns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Am, Ende B.

    2002-01-01

    Located in the Woodville Karst Plain stretching south from Tallahassee to the Gulf of Mexico, Florida's Wakulla Springs is one of the largest and deepest freshwater Springs in the world. It is also a gateway into one of the longest underwater cave system in the United States, a system that remained largely unexplored until recently. Soon, however, thanks to one of the world's most extreme scientific and exploration-related diving projects ever undertaken, visitors to Wakulla Springs State Park will be able to take a virtual tour through the Spring's huge underwater labyrinth. Using such cutting-edge technology as a 3D Digital Wall Mapper (DWM) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Wakulla 2 Expedition - with 151 volunteer cave divers, scientists and engineers from all over the world - created the world's first three-dimensional digital map of an underwater cave. Underwater caves are priceless treasures, helping supply fresh water to the region as well as acting as 'time capsules' to the past. Home to creatures found in few other places, areas such as Wakulla face threats of pollution and over-development. Wakulla 2 hopes their 3D interactive 'swim through' will help increase the understanding and preservation of these important areas.

  9. Perfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

    2012-04-01

    PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.

  10. Geometry-Lithology-Origin: Solving the mystery of the Late Miocene mounded features below Lake Balaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnovitz, Ferenc; Horvth, Ferenc; Surnyi, Gergely

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences of Etvs University has carried out single- and multichannel water seismic surveys at the Lake Balaton since 1993. The dense grid of 2D profiles offers a high resolution image of the Late Miocene sedimentary strata (Tihany, Soml and Szk Formations) up to a thickness of 200 meters below the lake. These strata can be divided into smaller sedimentary units by numerous parasequence boundaries (Sztan&Magyar, 2007). In one of these parasequence interesting, high amplitude mounded features have been observed that follow a seismic horizon over large area. It means that these features indicate a Late Miocene regional event. In terms of their shape these mounds are few tens of meters wide, several tens to a hundreds of meters long and few meters high. Their geometry and inner structure were mapped from 2D segments that were used for 3D reconstructions. The shape and stratigraphic position of these features have inspired Sacchi and Horvath (1999) to interpret them as the subsurface equivalent of the fresh-water siliceous-limestone mounds exposed on the Tihany Peninsula. They held these mounds as an evidence of dryland conditions in the time period of the formation of a Late Miocene erosional surface (PAN-2) that they regarded as a 3rd order sequence boundary. In addition to this so called "travertine" concept another explanation was also formulated as the mounds are the product of sedimentary failures e.g. slumps or water escape. To solve the problem an offshore drilling with a total depth of 19 meters was accomplished in October 2013 to sample one of these mounds and determine their origin. The well has not crossed any travertine body, instead alternating layers of clay-silt and very fine sand - without any convincing sign of fluid escape structures - were found in the core (typical lithology of the Tihany Formation). 3D structural analysis of the mounds revealed spherical organization composing bodies that are superposed on each other. The latter can be interpreted as series of small thrusts in a relatively thin mudstone layer. As coring has found silty material, without the presence of any fluid escape structures the most possible explanation for these features is sheet slumping mechanism that could be induced by seismicity. Although "travertine" concept has been rejected, these mounds should indicate a regionally important geological event that could strengthen correlation of erosional surfaces such us PAN-2 from outcrop to water seismic images. Such an event could be possible the start of the 8 Ma volcanism in the area. Work was financed by OTKA NK83400 research fund. References: Sacchi, M.; Horvth, F.; Magyari O. (1999). Role of unconformity-bounded units in the stratigraphy of the continental record: a case study from the Late Miocene of the western Pannonian basin, Hungary. In: Durand, B. Jolivet, L., Horvth F. & Sranne, M. (eds), The Mediterranean Basins: Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 156, 357-390. Sztan, O. & Magyar I. (2007): Deltaic parasequences on gamma logs, ultra-high resolution seismic images and outcrops of Lake Pannon deposits. Joannea Geol. Palaont. 9: 105-108.

  11. Palaeoclimate: Aptian mystery solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Heather M.

    2016-02-01

    The volcanic eruption that created the Ontong Java Plateau released large quantities of carbon dioxide. A reconstruction of CO2 concentrations suggests that the eruption promoted climate change and the expansion of ocean anoxia.

  12. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  13. The relationship between displaying and perceiving nonverbal cues of affect: a meta-analysis to solve an old mystery.

    PubMed

    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Eisenkraft, Noah

    2010-02-01

    The authors address the decades-old mystery of the association between individual differences in the expression and perception of nonverbal cues of affect. Prior theories predicted positive, negative, and zero correlations in performance-given empirical results ranging from r = -.80 to r = +.64. A meta-analysis of 40 effects showed a positive correlation for nonverbal behaviors elicited as intentional communication displays but zero for spontaneous, naturalistic, or a combination of display types. There was greater variation in the results of studies having round robin designs and analyzed with statistics that do not account for the interdependence of data. The authors discuss implications for theorists to distinguish emotional skills in terms of what people are capable of doing versus what people actually do. PMID:20085402

  14. Mystery Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

  15. Modern Solar Mysteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2004-01-01

    100 years ago we thought that the Sun and stars shone as a result of slow gravitational contraction over a few tens of millions of years - putting astronomers at odds with geologists who claimed that the Earth was much, much older. That mystery was solved in the 1920s and 30s with the discovery of nuclear energy (proving that the geologists had it right all along). Other scientific mysteries concerning the Sun have come and gone but three major mysteries remain: 1) How does the Sun produce sunspots with an 11-year cycle? 2) What produces the huge explosions that result in solar flares, prominence eruptions, and coronal mass ejections? and 3) Why is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, so darned hot? Recent progress in solar astronomy reveals a single key to understanding all three of these mysteries.

  16. Mysterious Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkcombe, Josie; Ellyn, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Introduce students to humankind's mysterious beginnings with a captivating sense of mystery. Low lighting and simple percussion music will add to the mood. Allow students time to leave behind the sunshine of this modern era and crawl through the narrow tunnel of their imaginations into an immense, dark, underground cave. This is, in fact, was what

  17. Mysterious Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkcombe, Josie; Ellyn, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Introduce students to humankind's mysterious beginnings with a captivating sense of mystery. Low lighting and simple percussion music will add to the mood. Allow students time to leave behind the sunshine of this modern era and crawl through the narrow tunnel of their imaginations into an immense, dark, underground cave. This is, in fact, was what…

  18. Mystery #21

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... This mystery concerns a particular type of cloud, one example of which was imaged by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in November, 2001. Usually, clouds take their names - cirrus, cumulus, and stratus - from Latin terms that ...

  19. Mystery #7

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #7     View Larger Image ... true. Which one is false?   A.   Coal mining and food processing are important to the local economy.   B.   Transshipment ...

  20. Mystery #17

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #17     ... image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) represents an area of about 372 kilometers x 425 kilometers, and was captured ... of the aforementioned city were warned not to drink from the municipal water supply. 8.   The dark blue lake apparent at left-hand edge ...

  1. Mystery #12

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #12     View Larger Image ... latitude.   B.   The city was established about 300 years ago.   C.   There are hundreds of bridges within the metropolitan ...

  2. Mystery #16

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... x 184 kilometers (right panel). This mystery concerns two coral atoll ecosystems located in different parts of the globe. Use any ... production.   B.   Symbiotic zooxanthellae provide reef corals with the calcium and nutrients they need to grow.   C. ...

  3. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  4. Biology Today. Ah, Sweet Mysteries of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Mysteries of the biological past that paleontologists are trying to solve are discussed. Topics include first seeds, fossils and computers, packrat middens, charcoal clues, soft parts, Burgess shale, halkieriids, toe count, whales with feet, long necks, and changing functions. (KR)

  5. Mystery and Horror: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Billie R.; Troilo, Vivian

    This quinmester course guide focuses upon a course that explores various kinds of mysteries, including the detective story, the Gothic mystery, and stories of the supernatural. Discussion of specific criteria for evaluating the mystery story is emphasized. By capitalizing on the wide appeal of the mystery, it is hoped that students who seldom read…

  6. Mystery #8

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on April 12, 2001. Below are eight statements about this river, only some of which ... this river. 7.   Scientists believe that 100 million years ago the region through which the river flows was farther from the equator ...

  7. Cles: Etes-vous bon detective?; Enigmes grammaticales; Problemes policiers; Kidnapping (Keys: Are You a Good Detective?; Grammatical Puzzles; Detective Mysteries; Kidnapping).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debyser, Francis; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four sets of French classroom activities are presented: a mystery whose clues include two postcard messages; three puzzles with grammar-related clues; a mystery contained in three comic strip frames; and the solving of a kidnapping mystery. (MSE)

  8. Detective Scientist - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA has many detectives looking for clues to solve a mystery, like "science detective" Monsi Roman. She is making sure the water and air on board the International Space Station are safe for the a...

  9. Who Dun It? Mysteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanarini, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 23 mysteries that will appeal to adolescent readers. Notes that further lists of excellent titles in the category of juvenile and young adult mystery are available on the Edgar Allen Poe website at http://www.mysterywriters.org/awards.html. (SR)

  10. The Mystery Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2008-01-01

    All teachers and media specialists are looking for the "hook" that will engage their students and make them want to learn--and according to the author, mystery stories are a perfect way to create that hook. Here, she presents a unit on mysteries, intended for collaboration between media specialists and language arts teachers. The unit uses

  11. The Mystery Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2008-01-01

    All teachers and media specialists are looking for the "hook" that will engage their students and make them want to learn--and according to the author, mystery stories are a perfect way to create that hook. Here, she presents a unit on mysteries, intended for collaboration between media specialists and language arts teachers. The unit uses…

  12. Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2011-01-01

    A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and

  13. Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2011-01-01

    A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and…

  14. A Coprolite Mystery: Who Dung It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Discover the secrets contained in fossilized feces. Few topics in middle school classrooms capture students' enthusiasm and interest as do coprolites. These trace fossils offer classroom opportunities for integrated life and Earth sciences study, a stranger-than-fiction history of science, and an opportunity to solve mysteries. (Contains 8…

  15. A Coprolite Mystery: Who Dung It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Discover the secrets contained in fossilized feces. Few topics in middle school classrooms capture students' enthusiasm and interest as do coprolites. These trace fossils offer classroom opportunities for integrated life and Earth sciences study, a stranger-than-fiction history of science, and an opportunity to solve mysteries. (Contains 8

  16. Using Classic Mystery Stories in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Stephen H.; Noronha, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    One third-year clinical clerkship in pediatrics has included Sherlock Holmes mysteries in its introductory curriculum, providing students with a model clinical problem-solving process and a list of issues on which they will need information. The nonclinical cases provide an effective and entertaining vehicle for learning clinical reasoning. (MSE)

  17. The Paluxy River Footprint Mystery--Solved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R., Ed.; Godfrey, Laurie R., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This document points out that creationists claim that humans and dinosaurs lived together in Texas just before Noah's flood by citing alleged human footprints found side-by-side with those of dinosaurs in the Cretaceous limestone of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. An investigation was conducted to determine if this claim were true.…

  18. Enigmatic star EZ Pegasi - a mystery solved

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, S.B.; Bopp, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    EZ Peg, a ninth-magnitude G star that has been classified by various authors as an irregular variable, a U Gem system, and a contact binary, is shown to have all the spectroscopic and photometric characteristics of an active-chromosphere RS CVn binary. It is suggested that the reported outburst of 1943, when the spectrum appeared to be that of a B star, never occurred. The strong Ca II H and K reversals, viewed with low spectral resolution, caused the photospheric Ca II absorption to appear abnormally weak, mimicking a much earlier spectral type. 20 references.

  19. Cell biology solves mysteries of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sutovsky, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Reproduction and fertility have been objects of keen inquiry since the dawn of humanity. Medieval anatomists provided the first accurate depictions of the female reproductive system, and early microscopists were fascinated by the magnified sight of sperm cells. Initial successes were achieved in the in vitro fertilization of frogs and the artificial insemination of dogs. Gamete and embryo research was in the cradle of modern cell biology, providing the first evidence of the multi-cellular composition of living beings and pointing out the importance of chromosomes for heredity. In the 20th century, reproductive research paved the way for the study of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, and the cell cycle. In the last three decades, the advent of reproductive cell biology has brought us human in vitro fertilization, animal cloning, and human and animal embryonic stem cells. It has contributed to the development of transgenesis, proteomics, genomics, and epigenetics. This Special Issue represents a sample of the various areas of reproductive biology, with emphasis on molecular and cell biological aspects. Advances in spermatology, ovarian function, fertilization, and maternal-fetal interactions are discussed within the framework of fertility and diseases such as endometriosis and diabetes. PMID:22864985

  20. Solving the Mystery of Plant Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mardiney, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Details how the study of wildflower names provides clues to their history, use, or appearance and ties in with other disciplines such as religion, linguistics, medicine, and history. Cites seven references. (NEC)

  1. Lake Baikal deepwater renewal mystery solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Martin; Budnev, Nikolay M.; Granin, Nick G.; Sturm, Michael; Schurter, Michael; Wüest, Alfred

    2008-05-01

    Deepwater renewal by intrusions and turbulent diffusion in Lake Baikal is very effective despite the enormous depth of up to 1642 m and the permanently stable stratification below ~300 m depth. Temperature time series recorded at the bottom of a mooring installed since March 2000 in the South Basin of the lake indicate recurrent freshwater intrusions with volumes of 50 to 100 km3, about one order of magnitude larger than previously observed intrusions. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the advective deep water renewal. Here we present for the first time direct observations which prove that they are caused by coastal downwelling and subsequent thermobaric instability along the steep lake shores. Understanding these mechanisms is an important prerequisite for studying biogeochemical cycles, for predicting the effects of climate change on this unique ecosystem and for evaluating the local climate history from the extraordinary sedimentary record of Lake Baikal.

  2. Element Genesis - Solving the Mystery (Video Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Yuko

    2001-10-01

    Our institute (RIKEN) produced a video on nucleosynthesis. Its new English version is presented. Y. M., I. Tanihata, Y. Yano, and R. Boyd are science editors for this. Time length of the video is 30 minutes. The primary characteristic of this video is that we have employed a number of 2-D and 3-Dimensional visualizations and animations based on an updated understanding of nuclear physics and astrophysics. One of the emphasized points is that microscopic physics (i.e., nuclear physics) and macroscopic physics (i.e., astrophysics) are strongly connected. It contains explanation on the chart of the nuclides, nuclear burning in the sun, big-bang nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis, ``beta-stability valley", the s-process, the r-process, production of an RI beam, etc., and professors D. Arnett, T. Kajino, K. Langanke, K. Sato, C. Sneden, I. Tanihata, and F.-K. Thielemann appear as interviewees. Our prime target is college freshmen. We hope that this video would be useful for education both in the fields of astrophysics and nuclear physics at universities and even at high schools. Our institute is accordingly developing a distribution system of this video and it will be available soon at the cost price (please visit our web site for details: http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/video). The Japanese version was awarded the prize of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan 2001.

  3. Ideas in action: Solving a cavitation mystery

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Cavitation caused significant erosion from 1985 through 1990 on turbine runners at the 970-MW Murray 1 Power Station operated by Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Authority (SMHEA) in Australia. The problem was perplexing because no obvious cause could be found. Investigation eventually showed the problems stemmed form the runners sagging slightly from the correct height. Corrective measures, which included adjustment of runners and new control settings for the units, appear to have relieved the cavitation. The adjustments also reduced stress on the unit thrust-bearings, eliminating a future maintenance headache.

  4. Groundwater: from mystery to management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2009-07-01

    Groundwater has been used for domestic and irrigation needs from time immemorial. Yet its nature and occurrence have always possessed a certain mystery because water below the land surface is invisible and relatively inaccessible. The influence of this mystery lingers in some tenets that govern groundwater law. With the birth of modern geology during the late nineteenth century, groundwater science became recognized in its own right. Over the past two centuries, groundwater has lost its shroud of mystery, and its scientific understanding has gradually grown hand-in-hand with its development for human use. Groundwater is a component of the hydrological cycle, vital for human sustenance. Its annual renewability from precipitation is limited, and its chemical quality is vulnerable to degradation by human action. In many parts of the world, groundwater extraction is known to greatly exceed its renewability. Consequently, its rational management to benefit present and future generations is a matter of deep concern for many nations. Groundwater management is a challenging venture, requiring an integration of scientific knowledge with communal will to adapt to constraints of a finite common resource. As scientists and policy makers grapple with the tasks of groundwater management, it is instructive to reflect on the evolution of groundwater knowledge from its initial phase of demystification at the beginning of the nineteenth century, through successive phases of technological conquest, scientific integration, discovery of unintended consequences and the present recognition of an imperative for judicious management. The following retrospective provides a broad context for unifying the technical contributions that make up this focus issue on groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability.

  5. Space Mysteries: Making Science and Astronomy Learning Fun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, P.; Tim, G.; Cominsky, L.

    2001-12-01

    How do you get and keep a student's attention during class? Make learning fun! Using a game to teach students ensures that they have fun, enjoy the lesson and remember it. We have developed a series of interactive web and CD based games called "Space Mysteries" to teach students math, physics and astronomy. Using real NASA data, the students must find out Who (or What) dunit in an engaging astronomy mystery. The games include video interviews with famous scientists, actors playing roles who give clues to the solution, and even a few blind alleys and red herrings. The first three games are currently online in beta release at http://mystery.sonoma.edu.

  6. Mystery #13 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #13: Amu Darya River     View Larger Image This false-color image of the Amu Darya river was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in late ...

  7. Building Collections. Mystery and Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    Mystery and Adventure travel the same path. Within every mystery is an adventure, be it a struggle for survival, network of suspense, or matching of wits. A mystery is a secret jigsaw puzzle. Its popularity lies in the author's skillful engagement of the reader in putting together the pieces by using such elements as clues, foreshadowing, and…

  8. Mysterious Chickpea Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mysterious disease of chickpea is widespread this year in the Palouse region. Symptoms started showing in late June, and symptomatic plants were scattered all over in fields. Initial symptoms included necrosis/die back of growing tips. The leaves of infected plants turned bronze/yellow, and the...

  9. Passport to Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wilda

    2010-01-01

    Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

  10. Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-06-10

    The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

  11. Mystery Box Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  12. A Microbial Murder Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Melissa A.; Mitchell, James K.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a microbial mystery activity to test students' knowledge of human anatomy and their ability to identify microbes. Provides an opportunity for students to develop logical deductive reasoning. Includes national science education standards related to this activity, activity sheets with whole procedures, and Internet resources. (KHR)

  13. Mystery in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kristen

    1989-01-01

    Describes "Mystery in Progress," a traveling exhibit which traces the development of Predynastic Egypt. The exhibit provides a time line for Predynastic Egypt, depicts the history of the Hierakonpolis expedition, documents the formation of Egypt's first centralized nation state, and summarizes the emergence of a unified Egypt. (LS)

  14. Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

  15. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  16. Increasing the Relevance: A Who Done It Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the approach she used to teach American government to high school seniors. Beginning with a court procedure unit, the central strategy she used for this unit was a murder mystery that peaked the students' curiosity and encouraged them to think like scientists and lawyers. The court procedure lesson uses a…

  17. Increasing the Relevance: A Who Done It Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the approach she used to teach American government to high school seniors. Beginning with a court procedure unit, the central strategy she used for this unit was a murder mystery that peaked the students' curiosity and encouraged them to think like scientists and lawyers. The court procedure lesson uses a

  18. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  19. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All who live on Earth must recognize that they play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. People must solve this great atmospheric mystery if they are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  20. Glueballs: Advances, problems, mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkov, S.

    1989-04-25

    Identifying glueballs is intimately intertwined with the study of meson spectroscopy. Recent expreimental results agree remarkably well with OCD inspired predictions for the masses of the 0/sup /minus/+/, 1/sup +/minus//, 1/sup + +/ mesons. For the 0/sup /minus/+/ and 1/sup + +/ systems, these agreements lead to the possibility of identifying additional states as candidates for exotica. Major mysteries are: what is the theta(1720), and why are the 2/sup + +/ g/sub T/ states not seen in J//psi/ /r arrow/ ..gamma../phi//phi/, in view of the fact that the OZI-violating mechanism should be a good way to produce glueballs.

  1. History Mystery: A Documents-Based Lesson on Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libresco, Andrea S.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson used with fourth and fifth graders focusing on women's rights in the 1880s in which students solve a mystery through historical research. States the lesson prepares elementary students to investigate historical questions by examining primary sources. (CMK)

  2. The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Christy; Biglan, Barbara; Ritson, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches…

  3. The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Christy; Biglan, Barbara; Ritson, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches

  4. A long-standing mystery solved: the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine is catalyzed by CYP2C8 but prior glucuronidation of desloratadine by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B10 is an obligatory requirement.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Faraz; Barbara, Joanna E; Yerino, Phyllis; Parkinson, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Desloratadine (Clarinex), the major active metabolite of loratadine (Claritin), is a nonsedating long-lasting antihistamine that is widely used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. For over 20 years, it has remained a mystery as to which enzymes are responsible for the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine, the major active human metabolite, largely due to the inability of any in vitro system tested thus far to generate this metabolite. In this study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved human hepatocytes (CHHs) form 3-hydroxydesloratadine and its corresponding O-glucuronide. CHHs catalyzed the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine with a Km of 1.6 μM and a Vmax of 1.3 pmol/min per million cells. Chemical inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in CHHs demonstrated that gemfibrozil glucuronide (CYP2C8 inhibitor) and 1-aminobenzotriazole (general P450 inhibitor) inhibited 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation by 91% and 98%, respectively. Other inhibitors of CYP2C8 (gemfibrozil, montelukast, clopidogrel glucuronide, repaglinide, and cerivastatin) also caused extensive inhibition of 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation (73%-100%). Assessment of desloratadine, amodiaquine, and paclitaxel metabolism by a panel of individual CHHs demonstrated that CYP2C8 marker activity robustly correlated with 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation (r(2) of 0.70-0.90). Detailed mechanistic studies with sonicated or saponin-treated CHHs, human liver microsomes, and S9 fractions showed that both NADPH and UDP-glucuronic acid are required for 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation, and studies with recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and P450 enzymes implicated the specific involvement of UGT2B10 in addition to CYP2C8. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time that desloratadine glucuronidation by UGT2B10 followed by CYP2C8 oxidation and a deconjugation event are responsible for the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine. PMID:25595597

  5. The mystery of reincarnation

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of “reincarnation” which literally means “to take on the flesh again.” As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was “East” and “West.” The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  6. The mystery of reincarnation.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  7. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This presentation highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines around "mystery planets" using orbiting "spacecraft" (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle/high school age audiences. However, we also show a scaled-down version that has been used with elementary school age audiences.

  8. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

  9. Oriental mystery: ginseng

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, T.K.; Cho, H.O.; Yun, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the natural killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.

  10. Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    A year ago, when many national science budgets were coming under intense scrutiny—particularly in the United States—many scientists began exhorting their colleagues to be more vocal in the public debate. Such outreach was touted as a matter of survival for scientists.Neal Lane, however, asserts that scientists must have a higher goal than self-preservation. In several recent speeches, the director of the National Science Foundation has prodded scientists to assume a “new, additional role that scientists must play in society.” Lane has declared a need for “civic scientists,” researchers who are not just aware of but responsive to the needs of the society around them.

  11. Working Like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    "Real" science is about formulating and trying to solve practical and conceptual problems on the basis of shared beliefs about the world. Scientists build theories and test hypotheses by observation and experiment. They try their best to eliminate personal bias, and are "extremely canny in their acceptance of the claims of others" (Ziman, 2000).…

  12. Famous Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Presents ways to incorporate discussion of the lives of famous scientists into the classroom. Suggests a monthly focus on a different scientist with students researching each subject and using the information in a poster or timeline project toward the end of the year. (DDR)

  13. Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery Preface Over the past ...

  14. The Mystery Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for larger view

    This high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the region containing the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station. Scientists examined this patch on the 13th and 15th martian days, or sols, of Spirit's journey. Using nearly all the science instruments located on the rover's instrument deployment device or 'arm,' scientists yielded some puzzling results including the detection of a mineral called olivine and the appearance that the soil is stronger and more cohesive than they expected. Like detectives searching for clues, the science team will continue to peruse the landscape for explanations of their findings.

    Data taken from the camera's red, green and blue filters were combined to create this approximate true color picture, acquired on the 12th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey.

    The yellow box (see inset above) in this high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit outlines the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station.

  15. New VLA Images Unlocking Galactic Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Astronomers have produced a scientific gold mine of detailed, high-quality images of nearby galaxies that is yielding important new insights into many aspects of galaxies, including their complex structures, how they form stars, the motions of gas in the galaxies, the relationship of "normal" matter to unseen "dark matter," and many others. An international team of scientists used more than 500 hours of observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to produce detailed sets of images of 34 galaxies at distances from 6 to 50 million light-years from Earth. Their project, called The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey, or THINGS, required two years to produce nearly one TeraByte of data. HI ("H-one") is an astronomical term for atomic hydrogen gas. The astronomers presented their initial findings to the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) meeting in Austin, Texas. "Studying the radio waves emitted by atomic hydrogen gas in galaxies is an extremely powerful way to learn what's going on in nearby galaxies. The THINGS survey uses that tool to provide sets of images of the highest quality and sensitivity for a substantial sample of galaxies of different types," said Fabian Walter, of the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. IC2574M74 Dwarf galaxy IC2574, left, and spiral galaxy M74, in THINGS images. Credit: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click images for high-resolution files (33 KB & 25 KB) Spiral Galaxies in THINGS Most of the galaxies studied in the THINGS survey also have been observed at other wavelengths, including Spitzer space telescope infrared images and GALEX ultraviolet images. This combination provides an unprecedented resource for unravelling the mystery of how a galaxy's gaseous material influences its overall evolution. Analysis of THINGS data already has yielded numerous scientific payoffs. For example, one study has shed new light on astronomers' understanding of the gas-density threshold required to start the process of star formation. "Using the data from THINGS in combination with observations from NASA's space telescopes has allowed us to investigate how the processes leading to star formation differ in big spiral galaxies like our own and much smaller, dwarf galaxies," said Adam Leroy and Frank Bigiel of the Max-Planck Insitute for Astronomy at the Austin AAS meeting. Because atomic hydrogen emits radio waves at a specific frequency, astronomers can measure motions of the gas by noting the Doppler shift in frequency caused by those motions. "Because the THINGS images are highly detailed, we have been able to measure both the rotational motion of the galaxies and non-circular random motions within the galaxies," noted Erwin de Blok of the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Galaxy Dynamics in THINGS The motion measurements are providing new information about the mysterious, unseen "dark matter" in the galaxies. "The non-circular motions revealed by the THINGS observations, turn out to be too small to solve a long-standing problem in cosmology, namely the inability of state-of-the-art computer simulations to describe the distribution of dark matter in disk galaxies. It was thought that random motions could explain that inability, but our data show otherwise," de Blok explained. The THINGS images revealed what Elias Brinks of the University of Hertfordshire, UK, called a "stunning complexity of structures in the tenuous interstellar medium of the galaxies." These structures include large shells and "bubbles," presumably caused by multiple supernova explosions of massive stars. Analyzing the detail of these complex structures will help astronomers better understand the differences in star formation processes in the varied types of galaxies. Even such a simple question such as how big are the disks of gas in spiral galaxies had largely eluded astronomers previously. "The quality and sensitivity of the THINGS images has allowed us to see the actual edges of these disks in a large sample of galaxies," said Brinks. Dwarf Galaxies in THINGS The new survey also showed a fundamental difference between the nearby galaxies -- part of the "current" Universe, and far more distant galaxies, seen as they were when the Universe was much younger. "It appears that the gas in the galaxies in the early Universe is much more 'stirred up,' possibly because galaxies were colliding more frequently then and there was more intense star formation causing material outflows and stellar winds," explained Martin Zwaan of the European Southern Observatory. The information about gas in the more distant galaxies came through non-imaging analysis. These discoveries, the scientists predict, are only the tip of the iceberg. "This survey produced a huge amount of data, and we've only analyzed a small part of it so far. Further work is sure to tell us much more about galaxies and how they evolve. We expect to be surprised," Walter said. In addition to the presentations made at the Austin AAS meeting, THINGS team members also have submitted a series of scientific papers to the Astronomical Journal. The THINGS project is a large international collaboration led by Walter and includes research teams led by Brinks, de Blok, Michele Thornley of the Bucknell University in the U.S. and Rob Kennicutt of the Cambridge University in the UK. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. Mysteries of morality.

    PubMed

    DeScioli, Peter; Kurzban, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Evolutionary theories of morality, beginning with Darwin, have focused on explanations for altruism. More generally, these accounts have concentrated on conscience (self-regulatory mechanisms) to the neglect of condemnation (mechanisms for punishing others). As a result, few theoretical tools are available for understanding the rapidly accumulating data surrounding third-party judgment and punishment. Here we consider the strategic interactions among actors, victims, and third-parties to help illuminate condemnation. We argue that basic differences between the adaptive problems faced by actors and third-parties indicate that actor conscience and third-party condemnation are likely performed by different cognitive mechanisms. Further, we argue that current theories of conscience do not easily explain its experimentally demonstrated insensitivity to consequences. However, these results might be explicable if conscience functions, in part, as a defense system for avoiding third-party punishment. If conscience serves defensive functions, then its computational structure should be closely tailored to the details of condemnation mechanisms. This possibility underscores the need for a better understanding of condemnation, which is important not only in itself but also for explaining the nature of conscience. We outline three evolutionary mysteries of condemnation that require further attention: third-party judgment, moralistic punishment, and moral impartiality. PMID:19505683

  17. Swedish Scientists have Solved Honey's Enigma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, it was discovered by Olofsson and Vasquez (2008) that a novel flora composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, exists in the honey stomach of the honey bee Apis mellifera. The twelve different flora members varied numerically with the sources o...

  18. Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia

    SciTech Connect

    Balos, Sebastian; Benscoter, Arlan; Pense, Alan

    2009-04-15

    A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

  19. Big Mysteries: Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-15

    Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

  20. Big Mysteries: Dark Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

  1. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  2. Ranking scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2015-11-01

    Currently the ranking of scientists is based on the $h$-index, which is widely perceived as an imprecise and simplistic though still useful metric. We find that the $h$-index actually favours modestly performing researchers and propose a simple criterion for proper ranking.

  3. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological

  4. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.

  5. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  6. USGS Scientist

    Janice Albers presents study results at the 6th International Symposium on Sturgeon in Wuhan, China in 2009. USGS scientists and their collaborators in the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project provided six presentations at the symposium on topics ranging from reproductive readiness, migration, sp...

  7. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  8. Dr. Earl N. Meyer, in the lab, with a scalpel: a murder mystery as a biochemistry recruitment tool.

    PubMed

    Vulcu, Felicia; Heirwegh, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student participation in science is an ongoing challenge for many universities. In this active learning workshop, centered on inquiry and teamwork, we introduce high-school students to biochemistry and molecular biology techniques using a murder mystery activity. During this intensive 3 hr workshop, we engage students in a murder scenario entitled "The Case of the Silenced Scientist." A commercially available DNA fingerprinting kit was used as a basis to create a customized scenario whereby students collaborate with one another to solve a murder mystery. Through analysis of DNA samples taken from the crime scene and suspects, students can identify the murderer while developing technical, teamwork, and critical thinking skills. Emphasis is placed on teamwork by immersing students in the collaborative process of research inquiry. Though short in duration, this workshop aims to build student relationships to science through creativity and exploration. In this article, we describe the key customized applications of this workshop as a blueprint for science recruitment. We focus on the workshop facilitators' perceived learning impact on students. PMID:25395001

  9. The 'Razorback' Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The pointy features in this image may only be a few centimeters high and less than 1 centimeter (0.4 inches) wide, but they generate major scientific interest. Dubbed 'Razorback,' this chunk of rock sticks up at the edge of flat rocks in 'Endurance Crater.' Based on their understanding of processes on Earth, scientists believe these features may have formed when fluids migrated through fractures, depositing minerals. Fracture-filling minerals would have formed veins composed of a harder material that eroded more slowly than the rock slabs.

    Possible examination of these features using the instruments on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity may further explain what these features have to do with the history of water on Mars. This false-color image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  10. Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

  11. Theorem of Mystery: Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Real, Francis

    2008-01-01

    While the author was searching the web, he came across an article by Michael Keyton of IMSA (Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy) called "Theorems of mystery". The phrase is Keyton's own, and he defines such a theorem as "a result that has considerable structure with minimal hypotheses." The simplest of his 10 examples is one that many…

  12. Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the

  13. The Fellowship of the Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Wesley

    1976-01-01

    Author states that religion involves cosmic vision as well as ethical philosophy, and that religious ethics become impotent without this vision. Mystery, defined as the sense of wonder at the revelation of the nature of the cosmos, can be expressed only through art. (RW)

  14. How To Write a Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinhart, Larry

    Drawing on examples from the best and most popular works in mystery writing--from Raymond Chandler and Mickey Spillane to Scott Turow and Thomas Harris--this book introduces the fledgling writer to his or her most indispensable "partners in crime": character, plot, and procedure; the secrets to creating heroes and villains; the art of scripting…

  15. Technological Clues to Ancient Mysteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    The components of archeological research, including the low and high tech tools employed in its pursuit, are described. Archeology appeals to students because of its sense of mystery and is rich in cross-curricular possibilities. Activities based on the Anasazi people (prehistoric people of southwest United States) are included. (KR)

  16. Geological mysteries on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

    The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  17. Mystery big cats’ in the Peruvian Amazon: morphometrics solve a cryptozoological mystery

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Hocking, Peter; Sanchez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Two big cat skulls procured from hunters of Yanachaga National Park, Peru, were reported as those of cats informally dubbed the ‘striped tiger’ and ‘anomalous jaguar’. Observations suggested that both skulls were distinct from those of jaguars, associated descriptions of integument did not conform to this species, and it has been implied that both represent members of one or two novel species. We sought to resolve the identity of the skulls using morphometrics. DNA could not be retrieved since both had been boiled as part of the defleshing process. We took 36 cranial and 13 mandibular measurements and added them to a database incorporating nearly 300 specimens of over 30 felid species. Linear discriminant analysis resolved both specimens as part of Panthera onca with high probabilities for cranial and mandibular datasets. Furthermore, the specimens exhibit characters typical of jaguars. If the descriptions of their patterning and pigmentation are accurate, we assume that both individuals were aberrant. PMID:24688867

  18. Latitude: How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    First longitude, now latitude. From Latitude's title we cannot help thinking of Dava Sobel's recent bestseller, Longitude. I suppose it's unlikely to be such a moneymaker, but this delightful new book by Bill and Merri Sue Carter, a father and daughter team, is similar to Sobel's book. Both are physically small, with short chapters, which makes for a quick read. And both have a clear hero: John Harrison and his chronometers for longitude; and Seth Carlo Chandler Jr. and his almucantar for latitude. Both books eschew academic-style footnoting, although Latitude does list a few useful sources for each chapter and provides a comprehensive list of Chandler's astronomical publications. Chandler's name is known to most AGU members for its association with the 14-month wobble of the Earth's pole. He also discovered the slightly smaller annual wobble, and an argument can be made that he was the principal discoverer of polar motion, or latitude variation, in general.

  19. Solving the mystery of the internal structure of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Ingham, B; Erlangga, G D; Smialowska, A; Kirby, N M; Wang, C; Matia-Merino, L; Haverkamp, R G; Carr, A J

    2015-04-14

    The interpretation of milk X-ray and neutron scattering data in relation to the internal structure of the casein micelle is an ongoing debate. We performed resonant X-ray scattering measurements on liquid milk and conclusively identified key scattering features, namely those corresponding to the size of and the distance between colloidal calcium phosphate particles. An X-ray scattering feature commonly assigned to the particle size is instead due to protein inhomogeneities. PMID:25711160

  20. Lunar Regoliths: Solving Geochemical Mysteries Using Lunar Impact Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, N.; Delano, J.; Swindle, T.

    2010-12-01

    This report provides an update of the on-going geochemical and geochronological results obtained from the study of lunar impact glasses extracted from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 regolith samples. Lunar impact glasses are droplets of melt produced by energetic cratering events that were quenched during ballistic flight and possess the unmodified refractory element ratios of the original fused target materials at the sites of impacts. They are quite abundant in the lunar regolith and their compositions can be used to not only constrain the impact history of the Moon but also to decipher how the lunar regolith has evolved over time. Previously, we showed that Clementine color image data of the regional provenance of the Apollo 14 site provided a context in which to interpret the geochemistry of Apollo 14 lunar impact glasses. The results suggest that the highlands in the Frau Mauro region of the Moon consist of a basaltic debris layer that overlies a more feldspathic terrain in some areas (Zellner et al. 2002). Thus, the mapping effort demonstrated the efficacy of using Clementine image data to place lunar sample information into a regional context. Apollo 16 impact glasses have also been studied, and orbital geochemical data indicate that the region is KREEP-poor and representative of typical highland basalt; a large fraction of glasses extracted from the Apollo 16 regolith sample studied possess this composition. Geochemical studies of some of the glasses, however, indicate a source region that is comprised of low-Mg high-K Frau Mauro materials. The 40Ar/39Ar ages from these four impact glasses show that the Moon experienced a significant impact at ~3730 Ma, somewhere in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 landing site (Delano et al. 2007). However, while evident in the lunar impact glass samples, this composition has not yet been revealed explicitly by orbital data. On-going analyses of the lunar impact glasses, interpreted in conjunction with their age, have identified other groups of glasses with similar ages that most likely formed in one impact event and also glasses with compositions that are quite atypical of the local (i.e., typical) regoliths from which they were extracted. Preliminary results will be presented here. Lunar orbital data may allow us to place these atypical glasses into a regional, and perhaps global, context.

  1. Mystery of a cryptogenic stroke solved by an abdominal angiogram.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Kaushik; Venkatasubramanian, Shankar; Umaiorubahan, Meenakshisundaram; Cannigaiper, Velmurugendran

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the field of imaging and diagnostics, the incidence of cryptogenic stroke is still around 30-40% in modern stroke databases. Our patient presented with recurrent midbrain infarcts over 3 years and was initially labelled as a patient with cryptogenic stroke. His blood investigations were normal, work up for autoimmune disorders was negative, CT brain angiogram was normal and a two-dimensional echo showed a small patent foramen ovale with a left to right shunt. He later presented with a right perinephric haematoma and an abdominal angiogram revealed multiple microaneurysms of the renal arteries, coeliac trunk and the mesenteric arterial system. The feeding renal artery was embolised. A diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa was made. The patient was subjected to digital subtraction angiography of neck and intracranial vessels, which revealed multiple microaneurysms in internal and external carotid artery territory. He was discharged with steroids and azathioprine. PMID:26677149

  2. Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.; DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the kidnapping of a child whose fingerprints were not found inside the crime vehicle. Discusses the investigation that followed and led to knowledge of the differences between the fingerprints of children and adults. (DDR)

  3. Subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers: enduring enigma or mystery solved?

    PubMed

    Cullen, John J

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) is not a unique ecological response to environmental conditions; rather, a broad range of interacting processes can contribute to the formation of persistent layers of elevated chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) that are nearly ubiquitous in stratified surface waters. Mechanisms that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the SCMLs include a local maximum in phytoplankton growth rate near the nutricline, photoacclimation of pigment content that leads to elevated Chl relative to phytoplankton biomass at depth, and a range of physiologically influenced swimming behaviors in motile phytoplankton and buoyancy control in diatoms and cyanobacteria that can lead to aggregations of phytoplankton in layers, subject to grazing and physical control. A postulated typical stable water structure characterizes consistent patterns in vertical profiles of Chl, phytoplankton biomass, nutrients, and light across a trophic gradient structured by the vertical flux of nutrients and characterized by the average daily irradiance at the nutricline. Hypothetical predictions can be tested using a nascent biogeochemical global ocean observing system. Partial results to date are generally consistent with predictions based on current knowledge, which has strong roots in research from the twentieth century. PMID:25251268

  4. The enigmatic star EZ Pegasi - A mystery solved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, S. B.; Bopp, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    EZ Peg, a ninth-magnitude G star that has been classified by various authors as an irregular variable, a U Gem system, and a contact binary, is shown to have all the spectroscopic and photometric characteristics of an active-chromosphere RS CVn binary. It is suggested that the reported outburst of 1943, when the spectrum appeared to be that of a B star, never occurred. The strong Ca II H and K reversals, viewed with low spectral resolution, caused the photospheric Ca II absorption to appear abnormally weak, mimicking a much earlier spectral type.

  5. Mystery solved: Trehalose kickstarts autophagy by blocking glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Pablo; Rubinsztein, David C; Hetz, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Although vertebrates cannot synthesize the natural disaccharide trehalose, exogenous administration of trehalose to mammalian cells may be beneficial for protein misfolding disorders. In this issue, DeBosch et al. show that trehalose may also be useful in treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and identify inhibition of cellular glucose import through SLC2A (also known as GLUT) transporters as a mechanism by which trehalose stimulates autophagy through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). PMID:26905424

  6. Extreme Events: Magic, Mysteries, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentsch, Volker; Kantz, Holger; Albeverio, Sergio

    Extreme events (henceforth Xevents) occur in natural, technical and societal environments. They may be natural or anthropogenic in origin, or they can arise simply from "chance". They often entail loss of life and/or materials. They usually occur "by surprise" and therefore often only become the focus of scientific attention after their onset. Knowledge of Xevents is often rather fragmentary, and recorded experience is limited. Indeed, scientists do not really understand what causes extreme events, how they develop, and when and where they occur. In addition, we are rarely able to cope with their consequences, due to lack of anticipation and preparedness. All this has motivated us, the editors of this volume, to bring together specialists from a variety of fields of expertise, all of whom have a common background in mathematics and physics. We asked them to write their views about Xevents. The result is the present book of essays that will (hopefully) enable the reader to unlock the mysteries surrounding Xevents.

  7. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Halley's Legacy: The Selfless Genius Who Founded Geophysics, Led the Science Community to Solve the Problem of Finding Longitude at Sea, and Whose Work in Areas from Geomagnetism to Planetology Still Has Meaning For Today's Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, J.

    2005-12-01

    2005 marks the 300th anniversary of Edmond Halley's publication of his infamous synopsis predicting the accurate return of the comet that would come to bear his name. On this occasion, it is time to remember him not only as the founder of geophysics but for his contributions to the world of science beyond his comet work. Halley's comet-transformed by the first triumph of the Newtonian revolution from a dire supernatural omen to a predictable element of the universe's clockwork-remains a recurring symbol of the scientific age of the Enlightenment. His comet is hurtling through space at some 20,000 miles per hour and won't be back until 2061. But it can remind us of past epochs and everlastingly of Halley's contributions to geophysics and the world of science writ large. For a start, Halley completed a series of little known sea voyages in his effort to solve one of his life-long quests: the problem of determining longitude at sea. On the basis of his earlier theories on magnetism, his approach entailed mapping the magnetic deviation across the test-bed of the Atlantic Ocean. In this paper, his findings from the voyages, which technically comprised the first science mission funded by a government and stand as the forerunner of all big science projects, will be reconsidered and put into the context of today's notions about terrestrial magnetism, including the geodynamo. To this day, scientists remain perplexed about exactly how core's dynamo regenerates its energy. When Halley was sailing his vessel, the Paramore, across the North Atlantic and making the first charts of geomagnetism, little did he ever imagine magnetism would underpin today's stunning advances in information technology and electromagnetic engineering. Magnetism also offers ways to study phase transitions, random disorder, and physics in low dimensions, which looks at particle interactions at ever higher energies in order to essentially study matter at smaller and smaller size scales. The presentation will also give an overview of his legacy to geophysics, which includes his contributions to meteorology, hydrology, ocean sciences, among other disciplines.

  9. The Mysteries of Real Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The presentation will consist of showing arc jet data mysterious to the modelers. It will show pictures from an arc jet test where a material (unidentified) exhibited a failure mode that nobody understands followed by thermocouple data from arc jet tests on another (unidentified) material of interest in which the T/Cs exhibit repeatable, consistent, fascinating yet frustrating response characteristics that have the modelers stumped. This all happens between RT and 200 F. Unless we figure out what the responsible phenomenology is and can model it, we can't size the TPS with any confidence.

  10. Teaching physics mysteries versus pseudoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttner, Fred

    2007-04-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics (and the encounter with consciousness) is contentious and has been called ``physics' skeleton in the closet.'' The reluctance of physicists to share this enigma with students and with the larger public has left the discussion open to the wild claims of purveyors of pseudoscience. The movie ``What the Bleep'' is a recent example. Bringing the enigma into the open is the best way to combat pseudoscience and share the true, deep mysteries that physics has uncovered. I will discuss my own experience and that of colleagues with ways of presenting this material to physics majors, non-majors, and the public.

  11. High-altitude flashes mystify scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, Julie

    San Francisco—Until a few years ago, the only place mysterious flashes high above thunderstorm clouds received much respect was in the pages of the Handbook of Unusual Natural Phenomena. Although over the course of the past century there were various anecdotal accounts scattered in the scientific literature, most scientists didn't take reports of upward-shooting lightning seriously.Nowadays, all that has changed, however. In the very hard-core atmospheric research arena, the luminous discharges are taking center stage. And scientists no longer think that the elusive flashes are rare or isolated events. In fact, in the past couple of years, scientists from four institutions have put more than 1000 sightings of the so-called “sprites” in the files.

  12. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  13. Teaching U.S. History as Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David; Zevin, Jack

    One way to engage students in grades 7 through 12 is to encourage them to investigate history as a puzzle, a set of dilemmas, a collection of conflicting viewpoints in short, a mysterious and provocative subject. In this book a collection of cases have been assembled both real mysteries and purposely constructed classroom problems with techniques…

  14. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.

  15. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  16. Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing Disorders Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... a teenager that took away her sense of smell. Photo courtesy of Malone University Imagine, if you ...

  17. The mystery of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Marc D.; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C.; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J.; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

  18. Particles, Mysteries, and Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brau, James E.

    2003-05-01

    One of the great intellectual accomplishments of the Twentieth Century was the development of the Standard Model of elementary particles, a vigorously tested theory of the fundamental particles and interactions. While no experimental conflicts with this theory have been confirmed, it is not theoretically complete, suggesting new physics at higher energies. The nature of the new physics could appear in many forms, including Higgs bosons, superpartners to the known particles of the Standard Model, and extra dimensions. The properties of this new physics shaped the early universe, perhaps with complexities in space and time beyond our current thinking. The mysterious nature of this new physics and its role in the structure of the "old" physics of the Standard Model will be explored early in the Twenty First Century. The Large Hadron Collider is scheduled to begin unravelling this story later in this decade. Building on the success of the SLAC Linear Collider, a world-wide effort to build a high-energy (TeV) electron-positron linear collider is underway, and will provide additional insight into the nature of the physical universe.

  19. The New Explorers teacher`s guide: Mystery through the lens

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, J.

    1997-09-01

    The video, ``Mystery Through the Lens``, has as its goal to make students able to understand and use some processes, techniques, methods, and equipment associated with microscopy and spectroscopy, and understand the principles of scientific research and their application in simple research projects. This teacher`s guide describes a visit to Argonne National Laboratory; biographical sketches of scientists and how they became scientists; classroom activities in the use of a microscope, models of the atom, understanding fluorescence before visiting Argonne, and career activities; and activities at Argonne, such as sample preparation, introduction to X-ray emission analysis, radiation protection, optical and electron microscopes, and superconductivity.

  20. Mars Rock Formation Poses Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, close-up image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' located on the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are studying this area for clues about the rock outcrop's composition. This image measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and was taken on the 15th day of Opportunity's journey (Feb. 8, 2004).

  1. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  2. The Responsibility of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses several kinds of responsibilities scientists have, including moral/ethical responsibilities related to research methodology. Areas addressed include use of science in war, approaches to decision-making, scientists and smoking, importance of education related to social responsibility. (JN)

  3. A Computational Modeling Mystery Involving Airfoil Trailing Edge Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Yeunun; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    In a curious result, Fairman (2002) observed that steady RANS calculations predicted larger lift than the experimentally-measured data for six different airfoils with non-traditional trailing edge treatments, whereas the time average of unsteady RANS calculations matched the experiments almost exactly. Are these results reproducible? If so, is the difference between steady and unsteady RANS calculations a numerical artifact, or is there a physical explanation? The goals of this project are to solve this thirteen year old mystery and further to model viscous/load coupling for airfoils with non-traditional trailing edges. These include cupped, beveled, and blunt trailing edges, which are common anti-singing treatments for marine propeller sections. In this talk, we present steady and unsteady RANS calculations (ANSYS Fluent) with careful attention paid to the possible effects of asymmetric unsteady vortex shedding and the modeling of turbulence anisotropy. The effects of non-traditional trailing edge treatments are visualized and explained.

  4. Inspiring Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  5. Pump thrombosis—A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the state of the art regarding the subject of pump thrombosis (PT). The historical context of PT and the clinical data are described, the etiologic factors are elucidated, preventive strategies are explored, diagnostic modalities are reviewed, and management principles are defined. There clearly remains much work to be done towards solving this riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma, but promising foundations are being established. PMID:25452905

  6. Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom through the study of historical mysteries. What better place to snoop around and dig through mysterious graves than in history class? This book takes ten mysterious events in history from ancient Egypt to the 21st century for…

  7. Mysterious Magnetar Yielding Secrets to VLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    A giant flash of energy from a supermagnetic neutron star thousands of light-years from Earth may shed a whole new light on scientists' understanding of such mysterious "magnetars" and of gamma-ray bursts. In the nearly two months since the blast, the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) has produced a wealth of surprising information about the event, and "the show goes on," with continuing observations. This graphic illustrates the VLA measurements of the exanding fireball from the December 27, 2004, outburst from the magnetar SGR 1806-20. Each color indicates the observed size of the fireball at a different time. The sequence covers roughly three weeks of VLA observing. The outline of the fireball in each case is not an actual image, but rather a "best-fit" model of the shape that best matches the data from the VLA. Click on image for larger version. CREDIT: G.B. Taylor, NRAO/AUI/NSF The blast from an object named SGR 1806-20 came on December 27, 2004, and was first detected by orbiting gamma-ray and X-ray telescopes. It was the brightest outburst ever seen coming from an object beyond our own Solar System, and its energy overpowered most orbiting telescopes. The burst of gamma rays and X-rays even disturbed the Earth's ionosphere, causing a sudden disruption in some radio communications. While the intensely bright gamma ray burst faded away in a matter of minutes, the explosion's "afterglow" has been tracked by the VLA and other radio telescopes for weeks, providing most of the data needed by astronomers trying to figure out the physics of the blast. A magnetar is a superdense neutron star with a magnetic field thousands of trillions of times more intense than that of the Earth. Scientists believe that SGR 1806-20's giant burst of energy was somehow triggered by a "starquake" in the neutron star's crust that caused a catastrophic disruption in the magnetar's magnetic field. The magnetic disruption generated the huge burst of gamma rays and "boiled off" particles from the star's surface into a rapidly-expanding fireball that continues to emit radio waves for weeks or months. The VLA first observed SGR 1806-20 on January 3, and has been joined by other radio telescopes in Australia, the Netherlands, and India. Scientific papers prepared for publication based on the first month's radio observations report a number of key discoveries about the object. Scientists using the VLA have found: * The fireball of radio-emitting material is expanding at roughly one-third the speed of light. * The expanding fireball is elongated, and may change its shape quickly. * Alignment of the radio waves (polarization) confirms that the fireball is not spherical. * The flare emitted an amount of energy that represents a significant fraction of the total energy stored in the magnetar's magnetic field. Of the dozen or so magnetars known to astronomers, only one other has been seen to experience a giant outburst. In 1998, SGR 1900+14 put out a blast similar in many respects to SGR 1806-20's, but much weaker. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) astronomer Dale Frail observed the 1998 outburst and has been watching SGR 1806-20 for a decade. Both magnetars are part of the small group of objects called soft gamma-ray repeaters, because they repeatedly experience much weaker outbursts of gamma rays. In early January, he was hosting a visiting college student while processing the first VLA data from SGR 1806-20's giant outburst. "I literally could not believe what I was looking at," Frail said. "Immediately I could see that this flare was 100 times stronger than the 1998 flare, and 10,000 times brighter than anything this object had done before." "I couldn't stay in my chair, and this student got to see a real, live astronomer acting like an excited little kid," Frail said. The excitement isn't over, either. "The show goes on and we continue to observe this thing and continue to get surprises," said Greg Taylor, an astronomer for NRAO and the Kavli Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology in Stanford, CA. One VLA measurement may cause difficulties for scientists trying to fit SGR 1806-20 into a larger picture of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs, seen regularly from throughout the Universe, come in two main types -- very short bursts and longer ones. The longer ones are generally believed to result when a massive star collapses into a black hole, rather than into a neutron star as in a supernova explosion. The strength and short duration of SGR 1806-20's December outburst has led some astronomers to speculate that a similar event could be seen out to a considerable distance from Earth. That means, they say, that magnetars may be the source of the short-period GRBs. That interpretation is based to some extent on a previous measurement that indicates SGR 1806-20 is nearly 50,000 light-years from Earth. One team of observers, however, analyzed the radio emission from SGR 1806-20 and found evidence that the magnetar is only about 30,000 light-years distant. The difference, they say, reduces the likelihood that SGR 1806-20 could be a parallel for short-period GRBs. In any case, the wealth of information astronomers have gathered about the tremendous December blast makes it an extremely important event for understanding magnetars and GRBs. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  8. Mysteries of the Lunar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar atmosphere has been probed by various instruments since the Apollo program, and continues to be measured today by the instruments onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LRO. But like Sisyphus' trek, the progress has not been linear. LAMP, The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project, onboard LRO, measured He in the lunar exosphere, confirming the Apollo 17 result from the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Hoffman et al., 1973), but LAMP did not observe Ar although the expected 0.1 R should have been detectable by their instrument (Gladstone et al., Science, 2010). A surfeit of O+ was reported in the lunar wake (Mall et al. 1998; Hilchenbach et al. 1992;1993), but the origin of those ions is unknown, since oxygen has not been seen. Water and OH were measured on the surface of the moon, but theory tells us that efficiencies of production of water by solar wind proton bombardment may be low (Burke et al., Icarus, 2011). Starukhina and Shukaratov (LPSC, abstract 1385, 2010) suggest that the observed diurnal variation in the 3 micron band at the moon is due to thermal emission and not to variation in OH. LAMP observed Hg vapor following the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater, but Hg atoms at 800 K (Wooden et al., LPSC abstract 2025, 2010) are too heavy to reach the altitudes where they would be exposed to sunlight, and thereby resonantly scatter photons, unless they are entrained in a gas with bulk velocity 3.5 km/s (Hurley et al., JGR, 2012). This bulk velocity is high for a 2 km/s impact. Another mystery from LCROSS is the H2 energy budget. Given the large amount of H2 observed after the LCROSS impact, and the high velocity required (a few km/s) to get in the field of view when it did, the kinetic energy associated with the H2 is too large of a fraction of the impactor energy. One possibility is that the H2 is produced by an exothermic reaction, which has implications for how it is stored in the regolith in permanently shadowed regions. The Na density is known to be low in the lunar exosphere when the Moon enters and traverses the Earth's magnetosphere, even though the major source processes should still be operative there. The high-energy component of Na observed in the extended Na tail at the moon, along with the very energetic Ca and Mg atoms observed at Mercury, also suggest the possibility of exothermic chemical reactions at or near the surfaces of these bodies. LCROSS also reported the presence of organics (Colaprete et al., Science, 2010), but their origin is unknown. The Apollo 15 coronal photographs recorded light scattering that was attributed to dust lofted from the lunar surface. More recently, upper limits on line of sight dust column of 103 cm-2 for 0.1 micron grains have been made via an analysis of Clementine star tracker data, much less than that predicted from Apollo results (Glenar et al., NLSI, 2012). We will report on modeling efforts that aim to resolve some of these uncertainties. Future observations by LADEE will be used along with models to further constrain the source and loss rates of volatiles.

  9. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed

    Shugart, Erika C; Racaniello, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or "Sagan effect" associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist's career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  10. Putting a Little Mystery in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Bryan; Ristvey, John

    2011-01-01

    Posing mysteries is not just a gimmicky way to increase the entertainment value of a lesson; it taps into students' innate human desire to explore and learn about their environments. Instead of coming right out and providing students with the answers, teachers can build suspense, piquing students' natural curiosity. Teachers can guide students,…

  11. Mysterious quantum Cheshire cat: an illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michielsen, K.; Lippert, Th.; De Raedt, H.

    2015-09-01

    We provide a mystery-free explanation for the experimentally observed facts in the neutron interferometry quantum Cheshire cat experiment of Denkmayr et al. [Nat. Comm. 5, 4492, 2014] in terms of a discrete-event simulation model, demonstrating that the quantum Cheshire cat is an illusion.

  12. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2014-08-12

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  13. From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frissell, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constructivist approach, students can explore and construct their learning as they continue to use…

  14. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2012-09-06

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  15. Taking the "Mystery" Out of Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cite, Suleyman; Hanuscin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers have developed "tried and true" lessons that they look forward to teaching-- mystery powders is one that these authors like. Originally part of the Elementary Science Study curricula in the 1960s, there are now many different versions of this well-known activity in which students examine physical and chemical properties of…

  16. Mystery Boxes: Helping Children Improve Their Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2007-01-01

    This guest editorial describes ways teachers can use guessing games about an unknown item in a "mystery box" to help children improve their abilities to listen to others, recall information, ask purposeful questions, classify items by class, make inferences, synthesize information, and draw conclusions. The author presents information from a…

  17. THE FEASIBILITY OF IDENTIFYING MYSTERY OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals ...

  18. Unraveling the Mystery of an Environmental Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Grollman

    2008-05-15

    For many years, residents of farming villages along the Danube River basin suffered from a fatal kidney disease and an associated urinary tract cancer. The cause of the disease remained a mystery for more than 50 years. Recently, however, Arthur Grollman and his colleagues have determined that home-baked bread is implicated in the disease, known as Balkan endemic nephropathy.

  19. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-28

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  20. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-06-03

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  1. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed Central

    Shugart, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or “Sagan effect” associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist’s career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  2. Solving Quartics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    A technique is presented, which is different from the well-known Ferrari's method, to solve a general quartic equation. Formulae for the four roots of quartic are derived. A numerical example verifies the formulae obtained.

  3. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  4. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future

  5. Solving the Riddle of Unidentified High-Energy ?-RAY Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraveo, Patrizia A.

    2007-10-01

    Unidentified objects dominate current catalogues of high-energy (MeV-to-GeV) sources. Solving the mystery of such unidentified ?-ray sources is a major challenge for astronomy. Different approaches towards source identification have been tried in the past, with limited success. The wealth of gamma-ray sources expected in the near future calls for a novel approach.

  6. Misquoted Scientists Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

  7. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  8. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.

  9. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  10. USGS Scientist Anna Chalfoun

    Dr. Anna D. Chalfoun, a USGS scientist and assistant leader at the Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scien...

  11. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  12. USGS Scientist Gavin Hayes

    Dr. Gavin Hayes,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Haye...

  13. USGS Scientist Burke Minsley

    Dr. Burke Minsley,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Minsl...

  14. Mysterious chronic urticaria caused by Blastocystis spp.?

    PubMed

    Lepczyńska, Małgorzata; Chen, Wen-Chieh; Dzika, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Blastocystis, which are single-cell, intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and animals, remain mysterious, with unclear clinical and epidemiologic significance. In recent years, many researchers have suggested a possible connection between Blastocystis spp. infection and chronic urticaria. In the present article, we review the literature and discuss the possible associations between the clinical symptomatology and pathogenicity of this organism in terms of its subtypes, morphologic forms, genetic diversity, and interactions with other intestinal microbiota. PMID:26469206

  15. Dark matter more mysterious than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jałocha, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Based on the lecture Dark Matter --- more mysterious than expected}, given by me at the Cosmology School in Kielce on 18 July 2015, I will briefly discuss in this essay the history of dark matter and why this notion is so essential for the contemporary physics. Next, I will present the point of view of the research team I work with, on the presence of nonbaryonic dark matter in the Universe and in spiral galaxies.

  16. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    ScienceCinema

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2010-09-01

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  17. 'Mystery shoppers' can uncover ED weaknesses.

    PubMed

    2006-12-01

    One veteran "mystery shopper" has uncovered several common ED practices that can hurt patient satisfaction. You can learn from her observations to improve your ED's customer service: Be sure to let all of your patients know how long they might expect to wait before seeing a doctor. Wash your hands where the patient can see you, so they can be confident you are practicing good hygiene. Clearly explain all forms and discharge instructions to help ensure patient compliance. PMID:17209484

  18. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2007-05-30

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  19. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain on of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics in spite of recent observational advances and intense theoretical work. Although some of the basic properties of bursts were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in the past five years. Recent observations of bursts and some proposed models will be discussed.

  20. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope used to detect the sugar molecule has been a pioneer instrument in the detection of molecules in space. Built in 1967, it made the first detections of dozens of the molecules now known to exist in space, including the important first discovery of carbon monoxide, now widely used by astronomers as a signpost showing regions where stars are being formed. The 12 Meter Telescope is scheduled to be closed at the end of July, in preparation for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, an advanced system of 64 radio-telescope antennas in northern Chile now being developed by an international partnership. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Giant Molecular Cloud Near Milky Way's Center The giant molecular cloud, known as Sagittarius B2 (North), as seen by the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. This is the cloud in which scientists using the 12 Meter Telescope detected the simple sugar molecule glycolaldehyde. This VLA image shows hydrogen gas in a region nearly 3 light-years across. In this image, red indicates stronger radio emission; blue weaker. The 12 Meter Telescope studied this region at much shorter wavelengths, which revealed the evidence of sugar molecules. CREDIT: R. Gaume, M. Claussen, C. De Pree, W.M. Goss, D. Mehringer, NRAO/AUI/NSF.

  1. Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1996-04-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

  2. The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F.

    1998-12-31

    The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

  3. Modeling the Nature of Science with the Mystery Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Oftentimes physics is portrayed as merely a list of facts that we know about the world around us, when in fact it is a way of knowing about that world. At times physics claims to understand the inner working of objects that cannot be directly observed, such as the core of the planets and Sun, or the structure of an atom. It is important for students to learn not only the facts of what we know about science, but also how we know what we know about science, even if we cannot directly observe it. This article describes a new take on a black box activity that has been around for years, the mystery tube.1 It is simple to construct but effective at demonstrating the nature of science (NOS). It illustrates the difference between observation and inference, and steps students through the scientific process. Beginning with a scientific question, students make observations, form a hypothesis, predict further observations, and test them before revising or strengthening their hypothesis. This activity provides a fantastic introduction to NOS, either as an alternative to other NOS activities2 or as a lead-in to a discussion of NOS.3 It can be used as an in-class activity, starting off a discussion of how scientists can claim to know what we know, or it can be used as an introductory lab, setting the foundation for how all subsequent activities should be conducted.

  4. Brazil's scientists scramble to solve the Zika puzzle.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization has declared the recent leap in the number of microcephaly cases and their suspected association with Zika virus a public health emergency of international concern. Ana Bispo tells Andréia Azevedo Soares why Brazil should have some scientific answers in coming months. PMID:26966326

  5. Scientists Track Polar Bears

    Scientists track Polar bears with by attaching GPS equipped collars to a sample population.  These collars transmit data that help develop maps like this one that shows a swim of nearly 220 miles long....

  6. Another challenge for scientists.

    PubMed

    Christian, Laura M; Naqvi, Hassan R; Schmidt, Christian; Covarrubias, David; Mathur, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    By nature, scientists contribute to our understanding of nature and ourselves. As communities undergo significant changes, new challenges are presented. Here, we offer alternative views on recent changes in society. PMID:18637170

  7. Scientists and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  8. Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists

  9. Scientists as writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre, strategies, target audiences, and expectations for their writing.

  10. The ALTE mysteries: who's to blame?

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In this column, Sara Wickham takes a sideways look at issues relevant to midwives, students, women and families, inviting us to sit down with a cup of tea and ponder what we think we know. A recent paper on apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) in newborn babies brought to mind an experience from practice, the cause of which remains a mystery. As many similar events are unexplained, is it acceptable that there is a tendency in the literature to claim that skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding are risk factors for ALTEs? PMID:27008761

  11. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  12. A Mysterious Twin of Epsilon-Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Sumin; Grindlay, J. E.; Bildsten, L.; collaborators, many

    2013-07-01

    We present our recent discovery of a mysterious twin of Epsilon-Aurigae from DASCH. It showed a 4 mag decline which lasted for 3 years in 1940s, and now, 68 years later, is at decline phase again. The magnitude changes in optical and NIR bands are comparable, indicating opaque bodies are blocking the light. We suggest that it is an eclipsing binary system, similar to Epsilon-Aurigae, probably caught in a short stage in binary evolution. We will describe the DASCH discovery data, our current follow-up observations, and a model for the system and its evolution.

  13. Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve

    2014-04-14

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

  14. Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve

    2014-05-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

  15. Reconciling Scientists and Journalists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, H.

    2006-12-01

    The very nature of scientists' and journalists' jobs can put them at cross-purposes. Scientists work for years on one research project, slowly accumulating data, and are hesitant to draw sweeping conclusions without multiple rounds of hypothesis-testing. Journalists, meanwhile, are often looking for "news"—a discovery that was just made ("scientists have just discovered that...") or that defies conventional wisdom and is therefore about to turn society's thinking on its head. The very criteria that the mediamakers often use to determine newsworthiness can automatically preclude some scientific progress from making the news. There are other built-in problems in the relationship between journalists and scientists, some of which we can try to change and others of which we can learn to work around. Drawing on my personal experience as a journalist who has written for a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and web sites, this talk will illustrate some of the inherent difficulties and offer some suggestions for how to move beyond them. It will provide a background on the way news decisions are made and how the journalist does her job, with an eye toward finding common ground and demonstrating how scientists can enjoy better relationships with journalists—relationships that can help educate the public on important scientific topics and avoid misrepresentation of scientific knowledge in the media.

  16. Make a Mystery Circuit with a Bar Light Fixture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lietz, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Teachers have been building mystery circuits or so-called "black box circuits" to use as a demonstration with their students for years. This paper presents an easy way to make simple mystery circuits using inexpensive light fixtures (see Fig. 1) available at almost any home improvement store. In a black box circuit, only the lightbulbs are visible…

  17. The Mystery Tour; Exploring the Designed Environment with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Richard C.; St. Clair, Alison Igo

    The Mystery Tour is a multi-sensory approach to the man-made environment. It is designed to acquaint children with historical significance of buildings and architecture and thus prepare them to participate in decisions concerning historical preservation. Developed through a grant from the national Endowment for the Arts, the Mystery Tour guides…

  18. The Mystery in Science: A Neglected Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papacosta, Pangratios

    2008-01-01

    Of the many valuable tools available to science education, the mystery in science is the one that is most ignored, underused, or misunderstood. whenever it is used, it is only as mere entertainment or as an attention grabber. In this article, the author discusses how the mystery in science can improve student attitudes, generate a life-long…

  19. Library Programs for Teens: Mystery Theater. VOYA Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siwak, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    It's no mystery that fun and exciting programs bring teens into the library. Theater programs provide a venue for teens to express themselves creatively, encourage their participation in library programming, and offer them the opportunity for lively interaction with peers and adults. In "Library Programs for Teens: Mystery Theater," Karen Siwak…

  20. Library Programs for Teens: Mystery Theater. VOYA Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siwak, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    It's no mystery that fun and exciting programs bring teens into the library. Theater programs provide a venue for teens to express themselves creatively, encourage their participation in library programming, and offer them the opportunity for lively interaction with peers and adults. In "Library Programs for Teens: Mystery Theater," Karen Siwak

  1. Campus Spies? Using Mystery Students to Evaluate University Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Alex; Douglas, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Background: This paper explores the appropriateness of using mystery customer programmes in higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK. Purpose: The main aim of the paper is to examine potential advantages and disadvantages of mystery customer programmes within HEIs, and to identify any issues that would need to be successfully resolved were…

  2. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

  3. Structural biology of intrinsically disordered proteins: Revisiting unsolved mysteries.

    PubMed

    Sigalov, Alexander B

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has challenged the classical protein structure-function paradigm by introducing a new paradigm of "coupled binding and folding". This paradigm suggests that IDPs fold upon binding to their partners. Further studies, however, revealed a novel and previously unrecognized phenomenon of "uncoupled binding and folding" suggesting that IDPs do not necessarily fold upon interaction with their lipid and protein partners. The complex and often unusual biophysics of IDPs makes structural characterization of these proteins and their complexes not only challenging but often resulting in opposite conclusions. For this reason, some crucial questions in this field remain unsolved for well over a decade. Considering an important role of IDPs in cellular regulation, signaling and control in health and disease, more efforts are needed to solve these mysteries. Here, I focus on two long-standing contradictions in the literature concerning dimerization and membrane-binding activities of IDPs. Molecular explanation of these discrepancies is provided. I also demonstrate how resolution of these critical issues in the field of IDPs results in our expanded understanding of cell function and has multiple applications in biology and medicine. PMID:27004461

  4. An attractive remedy: Matching scientists with teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, I.D.

    1994-12-31

    In too many of today`s precollege classrooms, little hands-on, inquiry-based science instruction can be found and much of the content-based science curricula is out of date and irrelevant. We purpose an intervention strategy to renew the science teacher who is unflagging in dedication and commitment. It is a strategy also to revitalize the science teacher clearly flagging, disillusioned, and out of touch. The strategy is to provide teachers with the opportunity to become full-share partners in the scientific community through scientific work experience in a laboratory setting. Characterized by intensive immersion in the day-to-day world of the scientist, the experience frees teachers from their classroom persona and lets them be scientists engaged in uncovering knowledge and solving problems. By matching teachers with scientists in laboratories for extended research experiences, we couple science education with ongoing research.

  5. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  6. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  7. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and

  8. Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

  9. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  10. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  11. Talk Like a Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

    2010-01-01

    In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in which students conduct their own science symposiums. This article presents the science symposium…

  12. USGS Scientist Tonie Rocke

    USGS scientist Tonie Rocke is working to immunize populations of free-ranging prairie dogs against plague with an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). Here, she stands beside a prairie dog hole at the Pitchfork Ranch in Wyoming, holding a sample of the brightly colored, peanut butter flavor...

  13. USGS Scientist Tonie Rocke

    USGS scientist Tonie Rocke is working to immunize populations of free-ranging prairie dogs against plague with an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). If successful, the SPV could help protect endangered black-footed ferret populations in the western U.S. because the ferrets rely on pr...

  14. Scientist Releases Common Loon

    As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

  15. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools

  16. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  17. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on

  18. Nurturing the Child Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

  19. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

  20. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become

  1. Women Scientists. American Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglahn, Nancy, J.

    This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

  2. A romantic scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaar Jacobsen, Anja

    2013-12-01

    While giving a lecture on electricity, electrochemistry and magnetism in the spring of 1820, the Danish scientist Hans Christian Ørsted noticed something remarkable: the magnetic needle he was using for one of his demonstrations was deflected by an electric current in a nearby wire.

  3. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  4. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  5. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people

  6. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's

  7. Quantum physics and the beam splitter mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnault, Franois

    2015-09-01

    Optical lossless beam splitters are frequently encountered in fundamental physics experiments regarding the nature of light, including "which-way" determination or the EPR paradox and their measurement apparatus. Although they look as common optical components at first glance, their behaviour remains somewhat mysterious since they apparently exhibit stand-alone particle-like features, and then wave-like characteristics when inserted into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In this communication are examined and discussed some basic properties of these beamssplitters, both from a classical optics and quantum physics point of view. Herein the most evident convergences and contradictions are highlighted, and the results of a few emblematic experiments demonstrating photon existence are discussed. Alternative empirical models are also proposed in order to shed light on some remaining issues.

  8. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  9. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  10. The peroxisome: still a mysterious organelle

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, H. Dariush

    2008-01-01

    More than half a century of research on peroxisomes has revealed unique features of this ubiquitous subcellular organelle, which have often been in disagreement with existing dogmas in cell biology. About 50 peroxisomal enzymes have so far been identified, which contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of ether phospholipids and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and render peroxisomes indispensable for human health and development. It became obvious that peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that rapidly assemble, multiply and degrade in response to metabolic needs. However, many aspects of peroxisome biology are still mysterious. This review addresses recent exciting discoveries on the biogenesis, formation and degradation of peroxisomes, on peroxisomal dynamics and division, as well as on the interaction and cross talk of peroxisomes with other subcellular compartments. Furthermore, recent advances on the role of peroxisomes in medicine and in the identification of novel peroxisomal proteins are discussed. PMID:18274771

  11. Mysterious Transient Emission Features in Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. C.; Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M.; Ishibashi, K.; Eta Carinae Treasury Project Team

    2004-12-01

    HST/STIS observations for the ? Carinae Hubble Treasury Project are providing unique insights into the nature of the mysterious 2003 spectroscopic event. These data have far better spatial resolution than ground-based spectroscopy, allowing separation of the star from nearby ejecta. We have found that many spectral features varied in novel ways. Some of them imply a strange set of physical conditions during the event. Others, whose behavior patterns are linked to the event, remain unidentified -- which is unusual in ? Carinae's well-studied spectrum. Altogether, these results give fresh information which has not otherwise been obtainable. So far they have revealed at least as many new puzzles as answers to older questions.

  12. Unraveling the mystery of the "Maoshan Bugle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Qin, Ming; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun

    2014-02-01

    The mystery of the "Maoshan Bugle," first classified in 1997, involves the surprising production of clearly audible bugle-like sounds in response to a launched firecracker blast in the square in front of the Southern Jiangsu Victory Monument in Jiangsu, China. In this paper, we analyze the origin of these sounds, attributing them to interference due to six groups of stairs leading to a monument in the square. Our analysis indicates that the stairs act as a reflection grating for the sounds produced by a firecracker blast. Based on Kirchhoff's diffraction formula, we calculate the spectra and the fundamental frequencies of the bugle-like echoes using the parameters of the actual structures. The calculated spectra fits well with the experimental results derived from the audio samples recorded on site.

  13. Unraveling the mystery of exozodiacal dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, Steve; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Thebault, Philippe; Absil, Olivier; Bonsor, Amy; Defrere, Denis; Kral, Quentin; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Lebreton, Jeremy; Coude du Foresto, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    Exozodiacal dust clouds are thought to be the extrasolar analogs of the Solar System's zodiacal dust. Studying these systems provides insights in the architecture of the innermost regions of planetary systems, including the habitable zone. Furthermore, the mere presence of the dust may result in major obstacles for direct imaging of earth-like planets. Our EXOZODI project aims to detect and study exozodiacal dust and to explain its origin. We are carrying out the first large, near-infrared interferometric survey in the northern (CHARA/FLUOR) and southern (VLTI/PIONIER) hemisphere. Preliminary results suggest a detection rate of up to 30% around A to K type stars and interesting trends with spectral type and age. In addition to the statistical analysis of our survey results, detailed modeling studies of single systems, modeling of possible dust creation mechanisms and the development of next-generation modeling tools dedicated to address the mystery of exozodiacal dust are main tasks of our project.

  14. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  15. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  16. [The critical scientists' voice].

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, F

    2000-01-01

    The intricate debate over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves powerful economic interests, as well as ethical, legal, emotional and scientific aspects, some of which are dealt with in this paper.(It is possible to identify two main groups of scientists across the GMOs divide: the triumphalist and the critical group.) Scientists in the triumphalist group state that GMOs and their derivatives are safe for the environment and do not offer health hazards any more than similar, non-genetically modified, products. This view is disputed by the critical scientists, who are prompted by the scarcity of studies on the environmental impacts and toxicity of GMOs, and who point out flaws in tests performed by the same companies which hold the patents. They are also critical of the current state of the process of gene transference, lacking accuracy, a fact which, coupled with the scant knowledge available about 97% of the genome functions, may produce unforseeable effects with risks for the environment and public health yet to be assessed. Examples of such effects are: the transference of alien genes [??] to other species, the emergence of toxins, the creation of new viruses, the impacts on beneficial insects and on biodiversity in general. PMID:16683329

  17. Scientists in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, J.

    2009-12-01

    High school science is often the first time students are presented with the scientific method as a tool to assist discovery. I aim to help students ‘think like a scientist’, through my role as a graduate student NSF GK-12 fellow in the Ocean and Coastal Interdisciplinary Science (OACIS) program, where I am paired with a high school science teacher and their classes for the year. To help students gain a familiarity and understanding of how scientists approach research, I will (1) utilize technology, including youtube, powerpoint, and research modeling applications; (2) bring in experts from the University to demonstrate the diversity of the science community; (3) connect with the classroom research from meetings, journals and reports. The goal is to broaden the scope of how research science is conducted, but also to allow individual students to be involved in projects, from developing a hypothesis to presenting their data. A survey at the beginning of the academic year and a survey before the AGU Fall meeting will be compared to assess the influence of having a research scientist present. Results will include how students view of science and scientists has changed, feedback on how successfully technology has improved students’ comprehension, and ideas for making science approachable for diverse high school learners.

  18. ESA's X-ray space telescope proves supernovae can cause mysterious gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    By analysing the afterglow of the gamma-ray burst in the X-ray light, scientists produced the first ever evidence of the presence of chemical elements which were the unmistakable remnants of a supernova explosion which had occurred just a few days before. "We can now confidently say that the death of a massive star, a supernova, was the cause of a gamma-ray burst. However we still don't know exactly how and why these bursts, the most energetic phenomena in the Universe, are triggered," says ESA astronomer Norbert Schartel, a co-author of the original paper, published today in Nature. Gamma-ray bursts were first discovered in 1967 by chance, when satellites designed to look for violations of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty detected strong gamma-ray emissions coming from sources not in the vicinity of Earth, but from outer space. They have been a mystery ever since. They occur as often as several times a day but last for no longer than a couple of minutes, and there is no way to predict when or where the next burst will occur. Consequently they are very difficult to study. For three decades it was not even known whether the explosions were close, in our own Milky Way galaxy, or far away in distant galaxies. But astronomers set up an 'alert system'. This allows them to see the 'afterglow' of the burst before it fades away, by quickly aiming their telescopes at the precise location in the sky shortly after a detector triggers the alert. It is now clear that the bursts occur in galaxies millions of light-years away. The longest burst Technically called 'GRB 011211', it was first detected on 11 December 2001 at 19:09:21 (Universal Time), by the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX. The burst lasted for 270 seconds - the longest one observed by the satellite. A few hours afterwards, when a first analysis confirmed that a burst had indeed been registered, the BeppoSAX team alerted the rest of the astronomical community. ESA's XMM-Newton arrived on the scene 11 hours after the original event. If XMM-Newton astronomers had reacted five hours later it would have been too late; but they were lucky and were able to study the afterglow when it was still 7 million times brighter (in X-rays) than a whole galaxy. This was the third time that XMM-Newton had tried to pinpoint a gamma-ray burst afterglow - the results of the previous two observations were inconclusive. On this occasion the observations revealed two important facts: first, the material in the source was moving quickly towards Earth, at a tenth % of the speed of light; and second, chemical analysis of this material showed that it had to be the remnant of a supernova explosion. "We were seeing a spherical shell of material ejected from a very recent supernova, heated by the gamma-ray burst. The fact that the material was coming in our direction means that the sphere was expanding," explains Schartel. Silicon, sulphur, argon and calcium XMM-Newton detected large amounts of magnesium, silicon, sulphur, argon and calcium, but very little iron. This is the kind of material a massive star would produce during its latest stages of evolution, just before exploding as a supernova. Nuclear reactions in the star's core fuse light chemical elements into heavier ones, a process that generates the energy needed by the star to shine; different elements are synthesised at each stage of the star's evolution. The supernova explosion would have ejected this material into the surrounding environment, producing the sphere subsequently illuminated by the gamma-ray burst afterglow seen by XMM-Newton. Astronomers were even able to measure the size of the sphere: 10 thousand million kilometres in radius. With that in hand, and knowing the velocity of the material, they also estimated that the supernova explosion had occurred a few days earlier. Such a timescale is consistent with the low amounts of iron detected, because this element forms in the material ejected by the supernova only about two months after the explosion itself. The reason why the neutron star collision hypothesis can be ruled out also stems from these data. "Such an event wouldn't have expelled sufficient quantities of matter (magnesium etc.) into the surrounding medium to explain what we see," says Schartel. Moreover, the relatively low amounts of iron could not be explained by the neutron star collision theory. Stars become neutron stars only after exploding as supernovae, but many years - not just a few days - are needed for the object to evolve from one stage to the next. According to Fred Jansen, ESA's XMM-Newton project scientist, "this kind of study is made possible by the unprecedented collecting area and high sensitivity of XMM-Newton. The Earth's atmosphere prevents X-rays from being detected by ground-based instruments, and no other space telescope in operation could have performed an analysis of equal quality of this gamma-ray burst afterglow. We are now at least one step closer to solving the mystery of these energetic phenomena." However, many questions remain open in the 'case of the gamma-ray bursts'. Why are all supernova explosions not followed by a burst? What is the precise physical mechanism that triggers the burst? In October this year ESA is launching a space mission to address precisely these questions. Its International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, INTEGRAL, will be the most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched, able to detect radiation from the most distant violent events. Note to editors XMM-Newton, ESA's X-ray Multi-Mirror satellite, is the most powerful X-ray telescope ever placed in orbit. It was launched by an Ariane 5 rocket from ESA's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, on 10 December 1999. With its unprecedented sensitivity it observes the X-ray sky, helping to solve many cosmic mysteries, ranging from extremely violent and exotic processes, such as enigmatic black holes, to the formation of galaxies. XMM-Newton also observes celestial objects within our Solar System, such as comets and planets. The XMM-Newton results are reported in: 'Evidence for outflowing supernova ejects in the afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst GRB 011211' by J.N. Reeves, D. Watson, J.P. Osborne, K.A. Pounds, P.T. O'Brien, A.D.T. Short, M.J.L. Turner, M.G. Watson, K.O. Mason, M. Ehle and N. Schartel, Nature, 4 April 2002. More information on the ESA Science Programme, including XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL, can be found at: http://sci.esa.int Information on ESA can be found at http://www.esa.int

  19. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

  20. CHIPPING AWAY AT THE MYSTERY OF DRUG RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chipping away at the mystery of drug responses
    John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 2771...

  1. Joan Lowery Nixon: The Grande Dame of Young Adult Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavonetti, Linda M.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the writing of Joan Lowery Nixon, award-winning author of young adult mystery novels. Discusses telling a good story, narrative form, characterization, stereotypes, social commentary, classroom implications, and caring for an audience. (SR)

  2. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann

    2007-01-01

    With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or colliding compact objects in distant galaxies. The pieces of the puzzle are beginning to fall into place and yet the story isn't quite finished. I will frame the history of gamma-ray bursts as a mystery story and will end with a description of what we still don't know and what we'll have to do to get the next clues.

  3. Addressing Unsolved Mysteries of Polymer Viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Ronald G.

    2008-02-01

    By using coarse-grained bead-spring and entanglement tube models, much progress has been made over the past 50 years in understanding and modeling the dynamics and rheology of polymers, both in dilute solution state and in entangled solutions and melts. However, several major issues have remained unresolved, and these are now being addressed using microscopic simulations resolved at the level of the monomer. In the dilute solution state, the dynamics can be described by a coarse-grained bead-spring model, with each spring representing around 100 backbone bonds, even at frequencies high enough that one expects to see modes of relaxation associated with local motions of smaller numbers of bonds. The apparent absence of these local modes has remained a mystery, but microscopic simulations now indicate that these modes are slowed down by torsional barriers to the extent that they are coincident with much longer ranged spring-like modes. Other mysteries of dilute solution rheology include extension-thinning behavior observed at very high extension rates, an apparent lack of complete stretching of polymers in fast extensional flows as measured by light scattering experiments, and the unusual molecular weight dependence of polymer scission in fast flows. In entangled solutions, it is still not entirely clear how, or even if, the rheology can be mapped onto that of a "dynamically equivalent" melt, and, if so, what the scaling laws are for choosing the appropriate renormalized monomer size and renormalized time and modulus scales. It is also not yet clear to what extent "dynamic dilution" can be used to simplify and organize constraint release effects in the relaxation of monodisperse and polydisperse linear and long-chain branched polymers. For multiply-branched polymers, the motion of the branch point is critical in determining the rate of relaxation of the molecule, and theories for this motion have not been adequately tested. As with dilute solutions, simulations resolved at the level of the monomer are now helping to settle these issues. For example, molecular dynamics simulations of branched polymers show that ideas of hierarchical relaxation, introduced by McLeish and coworkers, appear to be valid. Similar simulations indicate that the effective "tube diameter" increases gradually starting at times as short as the "equilibration time" at which the polymer first "feels" the presence of the tube, and that this slow increase in effective tube diameter can help explain some anomalies in the relaxation of asymmetric star branched polymers.

  4. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  5. Eisenhower, Scientists, and Sputnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigden, John S.

    2006-12-01

    On October 4, 1957, the Russians launched a 184-pound satellite into Earth orbit. This event had a tremendous impact on Americans as it called into question the capability of U. S. science v*s-a-v*s that of the Russians. On October 15, President Dwight D. Eisenhower called "his scientists" to the Oval Office and a meeting took place that Hans Bethe has called an "unforgettable hour." At this meeting, I. I. Rabi, Chairman of the Science Advisory Committee, made several proposals to President Eisenhower that the President accepted immediately. We are still living with the legacy of the proposals that Eisenhower adopted that day.

  6. Astronomer to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

  7. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  8. THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF KARST HYDROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    D. Field collecting stream samples.

    Dr. Malcolm Field works for the National Center for Environmental Assessment, and may be the only EPA scientist actively working in ...

  9. The Mystery of the Sparkling Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' reveals shiny, spherical objects embedded within the trench wall at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are highly intrigued by these objects and may further investigate them. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  10. Problem Solving and Game-Based Learning: Effects of Middle Grade Students' Hypothesis Testing Strategies on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spires, Hiller A.; Rowe, Jonathan P.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted as a highly desired skill for contemporary work and life, problem solving is central to game-based learning research. In this study, middle grade students achieved significant learning gains from gameplay interactions that required solving a science mystery based on microbiology content. Student trace data results indicated that effective…

  11. Problem Solving and Game-Based Learning: Effects of Middle Grade Students' Hypothesis Testing Strategies on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spires, Hiller A.; Rowe, Jonathan P.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted as a highly desired skill for contemporary work and life, problem solving is central to game-based learning research. In this study, middle grade students achieved significant learning gains from gameplay interactions that required solving a science mystery based on microbiology content. Student trace data results indicated that effective

  12. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    Astronomers using radio telescopes from around the world have discovered a spinning neutron star with a superpowerful magnetic field -- called a magnetar -- doing things no magnetar has been seen to do before. The strange behavior has forced them to scrap previous theories about radio pulsars and promises to give new insights on the physics behind these extreme objects. Magnetar Artist's Conception of Magnetar With Radio Beams ALL IMAGES AND ANIMATIONS CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Image and Animation Files Magnetar Graphic (above image, JPEG, 32K) Animation With Sound From GBT Detection of XTE J1810-197 (8.6M) Animation With Sound From GBT Detection of XTE J1810-197 (Full Size, 29M) The magnetar, approximately 10,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, is emitting powerful, regularly-timed pulses of radio waves just like radio pulsars, which are neutron stars with far less intense magnetic fields. Usually, magnetars are visible only in X-rays and sometimes very weakly in optical and infrared light. "No one has ever found radio pulses coming from a magnetar before. We thought that magnetars didn't do this," said Fernando Camilo of Columbia University. "This object is going to teach us new things about magnetar physics that we would never have learned otherwise," Camilo added. Neutron stars are the remnants of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. Containing more mass than the Sun, they are compressed to a diameter of only about 15 miles, making them as dense as atomic nuclei. Ordinary pulsars are neutron stars that emit "lighthouse beams" of radio waves along the poles of their magnetic fields. As the star spins, the beam of radio waves is flung around, and when it passes the direction of Earth, astronomers can detect it with radio telescopes. Scientists have found about 1700 pulsars since their first discovery in 1967. While pulsars have strong magnetic fields, about a dozen neutron stars have been dubbed magnetars because their magnetic fields are 100-1,000 times stronger than those of typical pulsars. It is the decay of those incredibly strong fields that powers their strange X-ray emission. "The magnetic field from a magnetar would make an aircraft carrier spin around and point north quicker than a compass needle moves on Earth," said David Helfand, of Columbia University. A magnetar's field is 1,000 trillion times stronger than Earth's, Helfand pointed out. The new object -- named XTE J1810-197 -- was first discovered by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer when it emitted a strong burst of X-rays in 2003. While the X-rays were fading in 2004, Jules Halpern of Columbia University and collaborators identified the magnetar as a radio-wave emitter using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Any radio emission is highly unusual for a magnetar. Because magnetars had not been seen to regularly emit radio waves, the scientists presumed that the radio emission was caused by a cloud of particles thrown off the neutron star at the time of its X-ray outburst, an idea they soon would realize was wrong. With knowledge that the magnetar emitted some form of radio waves, Camilo and his colleagues observed it with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in March and immediately detected astonishingly strong radio pulsations every 5.5 seconds, corresponding to the previously-determined rotation rate of the neutron star. As they continued to observe XTE J1810-197, the scientists got more surprises. Whereas most pulsars become weaker at higher radio frequencies, XTE J1810-197 does not, remaining a strong emitter at frequencies up to 140 GHz, the highest frequency ever detected from a radio pulsar. In addition, unlike normal pulsars, the object's radio emission fluctuates in strength from day to day, and the shape of the pulsations changes as well. These variations likely indicate that the magnetic fields around the pulsar are changing as well. What's causing this behavior? At the moment, the scientists believe that the magnetar's intense magnetic field is twisting, causing changes in the locations where huge electric currents flow along the magnetic-field lines. These currents likely generate the radio pulsations. "To solve this mystery, we'll continue monitoring this crazy object with as many telescopes as we can get our hands on and as often as possible. Hopefully, seeing all these changes with time will give us a deeper understanding of what is really going on in this very extreme environment," said team member Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Because they expect that XTE J1810-197 will fade at all wavelengths, including the radio, the scientists also have observed it with the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Parkes and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in Australia, the IRAM telescope in Spain, and the Nancay Observatory in France. John Reynolds and John Sakissian of Parkes Observatory, Neil Zimmerman of Columbia University and Juan Penalver and Aris Karastergiou of IRAM also are members of the research team. The scientists reported their initial findings in the August 24 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  13. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  14. Unraveling the Mysterious Origin of GRB 070125

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    We propose a modest {2 WFC3 orbits} HST program to ascertain the origin of the mysterious gamma-ray burst GRB 070125. With a duration of 60 s and a high local {i.e. parsec scale} circum-burst density, GRB 070125 resembles a canonical {i.e. massive-star progenitor} long-duration event. However, we have strong evidence that GRB 070125 exploded in the halo of its host galaxy, far away from the bulk of massive star formation. The UV detection of a compact, star-forming cluster would confirm our original hypothesis that GRB 070125 exploded in a tidal tail formed by galaxy interactions {analogous to the Tadpole and Antenna galaxies} at z = 1.54. Alternatively, the absence of ongoing star formation and the presence of an old stellar population would require a novel explosion process unassociated with massive stars. While the former would open a new path to study star formation and galaxy interactions at high redshift, the latter would require a re-thinking of one of the fundamental tenets of GRB astronomy: the 1:1 mapping between duration and progenitor system.

  15. An investigation into the Paulding Mystery Lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Jeremy P.; Norkus, William; Maurer, Michael; Sims, Douglas; Middlebrook, Christopher; Roggeman, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    The Paulding Mystery Lights are a purportedly unexplained optical phenomenon, occurring nightly, deep in the woods of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The Michigan Tech Student Chapter of the SPIE initiated a project in 2008 to understand the cause of the Paulding Lights. Previous investigations by skeptics attributed the lights to headlights without explicitly identifying a source location. Our team applied a number of straightforward techniques to identify and then verify the source location of the Paulding Light. Beginning with observation through a telescope, the team moved to using tools such as detailed topographical maps and more common tools such as Google Street View to identify a candidate source location. The candidate source location was then validated by first recreating the light using a vehicle parked in that location. Additional verification was achieved by examining the correlation between the occurrence of the light and the passing of cars at the source location. A spectrometer was also used to compare the visible spectrum of the light to automotive headlamps. Our findings, presented here, indicate that the source of the Paulding light is automobile traffic on a stretch of road about 7 km from the viewing location.

  16. Mysterious object He2-90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have stumbled upon a mysterious object that is grudgingly yielding clues to its identity. A quick glance at the Hubble picture at top shows that this celestial body, called He2-90, looks like a young, dust-enshrouded star with narrow jets of material streaming from each side. But it's not. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star. But the Hubble observations suggest that it may not fit that classification, either. The Hubble astronomers now suspect that this enigmatic object may actually be a pair of aging stars masquerading as a single youngster. One member of the duo is a bloated red giant star shedding matter from its outer layers. This matter is then gravitationally captured in a rotating, pancake-shaped accretion disk around a compact partner, which is most likely a young white dwarf (the collapsed remnant of a sun-like star). The stars cannot be seen in the Hubble images because a lane of dust obscures them.

  17. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with both the scientists and engineers to coordinate the performance requirements and calibration metrics and to optimize the instrument to achieve the maximal scientific output. I am also one of the few engineers/scientists in the community to research both coronagraph and occulter technology. I have been PI on all of the leading Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) for occulters as well as being a member of the Exo-S study. This puts me in a unique position to be able to fulfill the role of CGI adjutant scientist as well as ensure that the WFIRST/AFTA spacecraft is â€oeocculter ready― in anticipation of a decadal review. For much of my career I have straddled the boundary between science and engineering, working closely with astronomers and physicists on key technology to enable world-class science. I am enthusiastic about bringing that experience to the CAS position. I also have proven communication and leadership skills that will allow me to fulfill the duties associated with enhancing the communication between the SIT andFSWG and the instrument team, to coordinate and lead the FSWG meetings, and to interact with the astronomical community and the WFIRST Science Center. Bold part of below is in the spreadsheet but not the pdf

  18. Helping early career research scientists ascend the professional ladder.

    PubMed

    King, Laina

    2013-08-01

    The Keystone Symposia Early Career Investigator Travel Award initiative is a unique successful research mentoring program tailored for 'end of the pipeline' life and biomedical scientists from academia and industry. Using targeted educational, mentoring, and networking activities, the program benefits early career scientists in solving a specific laboratory-based research question that is limiting their evolving research and could increase their ability to obtain new grants and improve their career progression. PMID:23889774

  19. NCI Women Scientist Advisors (WSA)

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Women Scientist Advisors (WSA) was established 1992 for IRP women scientists to have an open forum to discuss and exchange ideas. Each WSA is elected by the women scientists of her IC or appointed and serves a two-year term. The NCI WSA's are resp

  20. Developmental Potential among Creative Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culross, Rita R.

    2008-01-01

    The world of creative scientists is dramatically different in the 21st century than it was during previous centuries. Whether biologists, chemists, physicists, engineers, mathematicians, or computer scientists, the livelihood of research scientists is dependent on their abilities of creative expression. The view of a solitary researcher who…

  1. Another Kind of Scientist Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

  2. Another Kind of Scientist Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time

  3. NCI Women Scientist Advisors (WSA)

    Cancer.gov

    NIH 1. Hold regular meetings with her Scientific Director in order to advise him/her about issues relevant to women scientists. Attend Lab/Branch Chief meetings to serve as a representative of women scientists. 2. Inform the Institute's women scientists o

  4. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2014-05-06

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  5. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2012-04-23

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  6. Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharlin, H.I.

    1992-09-01

    The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

  7. Women Scientists in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Women scientists in training at Marshall Space Flight Center, (top to bottom) Carolyn Griner, Ann Whitaker, and Dr. Mary Johnston, are shown simulating weightlessness while undergoing training in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator. These women were part of a special program dedicated to gaining a better understanding of problems involved in performing experiments in space. The three were engaged in designing and developing experiments for space, such as materials processing for Spacelabs. Dr. Johnston specialized in metallurgical Engineering, Dr. Whitaker in lubrication and surface physics, and Dr. Griner in material science. Dr. Griner went on to become Acting Center Director at Marshall Space Flight Center from January to September 1998. She was the first woman to serve

  8. Scientists Link Brain Chemical to Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... in New York City. He noted that "the causes of autism have remained a mystery with many disproven theories ... do not have an answer to the actual cause of this disease, it is further evidence that the mystery of autism may have connections to the neurotransmitter GABA, and ...

  9. Role of Exposure Analysis in Solving the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur. PMID:17589972

  10. Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893 Torare River "chloromelanite" is an extremely close match texturally and mineralogically with the jadeitite jade gouge, including Nb-rich titanite—thus a match, but that (2) the axes are omphacitites that have a geologically similar origin (high pressure/low-temperature subduction channel) but do not share the jadeite+aegerine-rich pyroxene or Nb-Y rich accessory phases. This research clearly shows that natural history collections are important archives that contain samples of potentially important value for science and cultural research. Moreover, research like this that connects geology, archaeology, history and preserved collections can yield a story that makes science and collections tangible and interesting to a popular audience. References: Harlow et al. 2012, Eur. J. Mineral. 24, 391-399.

  11. Chandra solves the mystery: Understanding the UV anomaly discovered by HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Smita; Gupta, Anjali

    2016-04-01

    A strange anomaly was discovered during our 180 day HST campaign to observe NGC5548 for reverberation mapping. The UV emission lines responded to changes in the UV continuum, as they should, during most ofthe observing season. However, there was a period of about 60--70 days during which the UV emission lines decorrelated from continuum variations. Understanding this anomaly is vital to the success of reverberation mapping technique. We also observed the source 4 times with Chandra during the 180 day HST observations. Chandra observations revealed the presence of soft excess during the anomaly, but there was no soft excess before or after the anomaly. This suggests that the accretion disk temperature increased from the ``normal'' state, peaking in FUV, to that peaking in soft X-rays during the anomaly. Thus, there was no ionizing continuum to which to reverberate. There are more curious things about the response of emission lines, such as the time at which the anomaly sets in and the amount flux decrease during the anomaly. I will discuss the details of this first-of-its-kind behavior and present detailed explanation.

  12. Solving the Mystery of Mock Mummies: Using Scientific Inquiry Skills in an Integrated Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgopal, Meena; Cornwall, Shaun; Gill-Robinson, Heather; Reinhart, Damien S.

    2009-01-01

    When the nature of science (NOS) is reinforced, middle school students will be able to appreciate scientific inquiry processes and communication, as outlined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). To this end, the authors developed a mummy-making and dissection activity to help sixth- and seventh-grade students learn more about…

  13. What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150 year old mystery (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxon Acanthosoma chrysalis Mayer, 1844, described from Germany on a number of alleged parasites encysted in the peritoneal wall of the stomach of edible frogs, is revised and shown to be first instar larvae of blow flies (Calliphoridae). Based on the shape of mouthhooks and abdominal cuticular ...

  14. [Solving the mystery of cellular inclusions. A contribution to the history of virology].

    PubMed

    Diosi, P

    1998-01-01

    In the middle of the 19th century cell inclusions were observed with increasing frequency in more and more diseases and were closely scrutinized by researchers working in different fields. Because of their distinct viewpoints, however, the various authors came inevitably to different conclusions. The morphologists interpreted the inclusions as artefacts or degenerative changes, the etiologists, on the other hand, took them for pathogenic protozoa, for cellular lesions inflicted by invisible agents or, conversely--for aggregated products of the cellular defense. Various morphological, parasitological and bacteriological methods have been used to clear up the pros and cons of these hypotheses. It was the rapid progress realized in virology at the middle of the 20th century that finally brought to light their real significance. PMID:10024769

  15. MALDI and Related Methods: A Solved Problem or Still a Mystery?

    PubMed Central

    Knochenmuss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    MALDI ionization mechanisms remain a topic of controversy. Some of the major modern models are compared, with emphasis on those of the author. Primary formation, secondary reaction, and loss mechanisms are considered. PMID:24349925

  16. Nonthermal radiative transfer of oxygen 98.9 nm ultraviolet emission: Solving an old mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, B.; Gérard, J.-C.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sounding rocket measurements conducted in 1988 under high solar activity conditions revealed that the intensity of thermospheric OI emissions at 98.9 nm presents an anomalous vertical profile, showing exospheric intensities much higher than expected from radiative transfer model results, which included the known sources of excited oxygen. All attempts based on modeling of the photochemical processes and radiative transfer were unable to account for the higher than predicted brightnesses. More recently, the SOHO-Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation instrument measured the UV solar flux at high-spectral resolution, revealing the importance of a significant additional source of oxygen emission at 98.9 nm that had not been accounted for before. In this study, we simulate the radiative transfer of the OI-98.9 nm multiplet, including the photochemical sources of excited oxygen, the resonant scattering of solar photons, and the effects of nonthermal atoms, i.e., a population of fast-moving oxygen atoms in excess of the Maxwellian distribution. Including resonance scattering of the 98.9 nm solar multiplet, we find good agreement with the previous sounding rocket observation. The inclusion of a nonthermal oxygen population with a consistent increase of the total density produces a larger intensity at high altitude that apparently better accounts for the observation, but such a correction cannot be demonstrated given the uncertainties of the observations. A good agreement between model and sounding rocket observation is also found with the triplet at 130.4 nm. We further investigate the radiative transfer of the OI-98.9 nm multiplet and the oxygen emissions at 130.4 and 135.6 nm using observations from the STP78-1 satellite. We find a less satisfying agreement between the model and the STP78-1 data that can be accounted for by scaling the modeled intensity within a range acceptable given the uncertainties on the STP78-1 absolute calibration.

  17. Solving the mystery of human sleep schedules one mutation at a time

    PubMed Central

    Hallows, William C.; Ptáček, Louis J.; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Sleep behavior remains one of the most enigmatic areas of life. The unanswered questions range from “why do we sleep?” to “how we can improve sleep in today's society?” Identification of mutations responsible for altered circadian regulation of human sleep lead to unique opportunities for probing these territories. In this review, we summarize causative circadian mutations found from familial genetic studies to date. We also describe how these mutations mechanistically affect circadian function and lead to altered sleep behaviors, including shifted or shortening of sleep patterns. In addition, we discuss how the investigation of mutations can not only expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the circadian clock and sleep duration, but also bridge the pathways between clock/sleep and other human physiological conditions and ailments such as metabolic regulation and migraine headaches. PMID:24001255

  18. Oxyluciferin photoacidity: the missing element for solving the keto-enol mystery?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lus Pinto; Simkovitch, Ron; Huppert, Dan; da Silva, Joaquim C G Esteves

    2013-10-21

    The oxyluciferin family of fluorophores has been receiving much attention from the research community and several systematic studies have been performed in order to gain more insight regarding their photophysical properties and photoprotolytic cycles. In this minireview, we summarize the knowledge obtained so far and define several possible lines for future research. More importantly, we analyze the impact of the discoveries on the firefly bioluminescence phenomenon made so far and explain how they re-open again the discussion regarding the identity (keto or enol species) of the bioluminophore. PMID:23843204

  19. Of mice and men: solving the molecular mysteries of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    SHELBOURNE, P. F.

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in the manipulation of mouse embryos provide opportunities for the disciplines of neuroscience and molecular genetics to join forces and tackle some previously intractable questions in this area of research. Even Huntington's disease has started to yield clues to its complex pathophysiology as a result of the recent application of transgenic technologies. This short review, while necessarily providing some background clinical information on Huntington's disease, will focus on how modifications of the mouse genome have contributed, and are continuing to contribute, to our understanding of the complex disease process. Such new insights may well turn the hope of developing the first effective treatment for this devastating disease into reality. PMID:10923992

  20. Solving the mystery: the true prevalence of gestational diabetes in indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Saad, Nathalie; Wilson, Don; Donovan, Lois E

    2015-07-01

    This commentary briefly reviews what is currently known about estimating the prevalence of gestational diabetes in indigenous women. It offers insights into numerous factors likely playing a role in its observed variability. It also highlights important key concepts to consider in the overall evaluation and management of gestational diabetes in this particular population. PMID:25782614

  1. Solving the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) budget mystery using surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Newman, P. A.; Daniel, J. S.; Reimann, S.; Hall, B. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance, with an ozone depletion potential (with respect to CFC-11) of 0.82. CCl4 is also a greenhouse gas and the 100-yr global warming potential is 1,400. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol (MP) included CCl4, and production and consumption were phased out for developed countries in 1996. Developing countries were allowed a delayed reduction, but CCl4 was fully phased out from emissive uses in 2010. However, the near-zero 2007-2012 emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage cannot be reconciled with the observed slow decline of atmospheric concentrations, year-to-year variability, and the inter-hemispheric gradient (IHG). We use available source and sink data in the NASA 3-Dimensional (3-D) Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM, to test existing emissions and lifetime estimates against CCl4 mixing ratio observations. Our model results show that the IHG and global trend provide useful information for quantitatively constraining CCl4 emissions and lifetime estimates. The observed IHG (1.5±0.2 ppt for 2000-2012) is primarily caused by ongoing current emissions, while ocean and soil losses and stratosphere-troposphere exchange together contribute a small negative gradient (~0 - -0.3 ppt). Using the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Global Monitoring Division (NOAA-GMD) and Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) networks, we deduce the mean global emissions for the 2000-2012 period are 39 (34-45, lower-upper limit emission estimates) Gg/yr (~ 30% of the peak 1980s emissions) and a corresponding total lifetime of 35 (37-32, upper-lower limit lifetime estimates) years. These results point to the need for a more accurate bottom-up estimate of CCl4 emissions as well as re-evaluation of the CCl4 best estimate lifetime (currently 25 years).

  2. [Freedom in research and responsibilities of scientists].

    PubMed

    Mittelstrass, J

    1990-04-01

    The future of the modern world, which in its structure is a Leonardo world, depends on the future of science. Science solves problems but it creates problems, too. Hence, the conflict over scientific (and technological) progress is normal and talk about a crisis of acceptance is misleading. Freedom of research--within the scientific triangle formed by pure basic research, application-oriented basic research, and applied research for product development--finds its limits in the responsibility of the scientist. The scientific imperative, without which a Leonardo world cannot survive, must be supplemented by an ethical imperative, without which it cannot steer a reasonable course. PMID:2342584

  3. Mystery of the Toxic Flea Dip: An Interactive Approach to Teaching Aerobic Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Baines, A. T.; McVey, M.; Rybarczyk, B.; Thompson, J. T.; Wilkins, H. R.

    2004-01-01

    We designed an interrupted case study to teach aerobic cellular respiration to major and nonmajor biology students. The case is based loosely on a real-life incident of rotenone poisoning. It places students in the role of a coroner who must determine the cause of death of the victim. The case is presented to the students in four parts. Each part is followed by discussion questions that the students answer in small groups prior to a classwide discussion. Successive parts of the case provide additional clues to the mystery and help the students focus on the physiological processes involved in aerobic respiration. Students learn the information required to solve the mystery by reading the course textbook prior to class, listening to short lectures interspersed throughout the case, and discussing the case in small groups. The case ends with small group discussions in which the students are given the names and specific molecular targets of other poisons of aerobic respiration and asked to determine which process (i.e., glycolysis, citric acid cycle, or the electron transport chain) the toxin disrupts. PMID:22039346

  4. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  5. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

  6. Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  7. Advocacy is scientists' responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstadt, Gene

    In reading S. Fred Singer's comments in Forum (Eos, May 21, 1991) on the earlier letter by Kaula and Anderson on AGU's proper role in society (Eos, April 9, 1991), I find myself entirely in agreement with his admonition that AGU positions, in this case specifically on global warming, must add “a certain amount of political sophistication.” But while I cannot disagree with the view that geophysicists should confine their advice to matters in which they have expertise, I also wonder if any of us deserves criticism when, noting the difficulty political leaders have in connecting causes with effects, we yield occasionally to the temptation to stray beyond mere facts and spell out potentially unfavorable connections. Early linking of complex but subtly related phenomena is one of the areas in which we have some credibility, is it not?Even as scientists we are, after all, compelled to share destinies with the other passengers crammed into the stairwells of the national vehicle, a bus tailgating an oil tanker careening right and left at high speed down the global highway, driven by a crew of politicians drunk on paleozoic distillate and trained in the Alfred E. Newman College of Navigation, where the principal graduation requirement is an intense desire to sit in front and steer.

  8. Mars Rock Formation Poses Mystery-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, close-up image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' located on the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are studying the spherule, or small sphere, in the center of the image that appears to be protruding from the rock formation. This image measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and was taken on the 15th day of Opportunity's journey (Feb. 8, 2004).

  9. The Mysterious Martian Mountains of Mitchel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image covers an 800 by 300 km (500 by 190 mi) area located deep within the boundary of the seasonal south polar frost cap of Mars. Centered at 70oS, 320oW, this view--taken in early spring when sunlight has just begun to shine on the region for the first time in many months--includes a bright region (diagonal from center-left to lower right) known for nearly two centuries as the 'Mountains of Mitchel.' This feature was named for Ormsby McKnight Mitchel (1809-1862), an astronomer at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, who discovered it while observing Mars through a telescope in 1846. Mitchel noticed that this area is typically 'left behind' as a bright peninsula when the rest of the polarcap recedes past this area later in the spring.

    Mitchel deduced that this area might be mountainous because it seemed analogous to the snow that is left on Earth's mountain ranges in late spring and into summer. Snow can remain on high peaks because the air temperature decreases with elevation (or altitude). MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations of this region show the bright 'Mountains of Mitchel' to be a somewhat elevated region of rough, heavily cratered southern highlands. However, the 'Mountains of Mitchel' do not appear to be mountains-there are other areas nearby at similar elevation that do not retain frost well into southern spring. Part of the Mountains of Mitchel feature includes a prominent, south-facing scarp (at center-left) that would tend to retain frost longer in the spring because it is somewhat protected from sunlight (which comes from the north). The persistence of frost on the Mountains of Mitchel remains mysterious, but new observations from the MGS MOC are helping to unravel the story. Thus far, it seems that the frost here--for whatever reason--tends to be brighter than frost in most other places within the polar cap. This brighter frost reflects sunlight and thus sublimes more slowly than adjacent, darker frost surfaces.

    This color picture was compiled from MOC red and blue wide angle images. North is up and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The surface does not appear to be white--as might be expected for frost--because of dust both on the surface and in the atmosphere, as well dark sand that was being exposed from beneath the retreating frost at the time that the picture was taken.

  10. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious...

  11. The mystery of Morgellons disease: infection or delusion?

    PubMed

    Savely, Virginia R; Leitao, Mary M; Stricker, Raphael B

    2006-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder that was first described more than 300 years ago. The disease is characterized by fiber-like strands extruding from the skin in conjunction with various dermatologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this respect, Morgellons disease resembles and may be confused with delusional parasitosis. The association with Lyme disease and the apparent response to antibacterial therapy suggest that Morgellons disease may be linked to an undefined infectious process. Further clinical and molecular research is needed to unlock the mystery of Morgellons disease. PMID:16489838

  12. Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists…

  13. USGS Scientists Monitor Animas River

    USGS scientist collecting water samples along the Animas River in Farmington, New Mexico on August 8, 2015. Scientists from the USGS New Mexico Water Science Center obtained water samples from the Animas and San Juan Rivers before and after arrival of the August 5 Gold King Mine ...

  14. Environmental Problems and the Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batisse, Michel

    1973-01-01

    Suggests that any environmental problem can be traced at biosphere, technosphere, sociosphere, and noosphere level. Scientists have generally ignored the latter two spheres in making scientific discoveries. New social ethics need to be recognized that are based on progress, and scientists must consider how these ethics are influenced by their…

  15. Technical Writing for Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John S.; Blake, Reed H.

    The purpose of this book is to teach technical writing to social scientists. The authors argue that too few social scientists take enough care with words that are outside the technical vocabulary of the social sciences. Chapters discuss such topics as: the need for better social science writing, planning what is to be written, writing sentences…

  16. Frontier Scientists use Modern Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'connell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

  17. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

    2004-06-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  18. Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA Image of SS 433: Red-and-Blue Line Shows Path of Constant-Speed Jets. Note Poor Match of Path to Image. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF SS 433 Same Image, With Colored Beads Representing Particle Ejections at Different Speeds. Particle Path Now Matches. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click Here for Page of Full-Sized Graphics The new VLA image shows two full turns of the jets' corkscrew on both sides of the core. Analyzing the image showed that if material came from the core at a constant speed, the jet paths would not accurately match the details of the image. "By simulating ejections at varying speeds, we were able to produce an exact match to the observed structure," Blundell explained. The scientists first did their match to one of the jets. "We then were stunned to see that the varying speeds that matched the structure of one jet also exactly reproduced the other jet's path," Blundell said. Matching the speeds in the two jets reproduced the observed structure even allowing for the fact that, because one jet is moving more nearly away from us than the other, it takes light longer to reach us from it, she added. The astrophysicists speculate that the changes in ejection speed may be caused by changes in the rate at which material is transferred from the companion star onto the accretion disk. The detailed new VLA image also allowed the astrophysicists to determine that SS 433 is nearly 18,000 light-years distant from Earth. Earlier estimates had the object, in the constellation Aquila, as near as 10,000 light-years. An accurate distance, the scientists said, now allows them to better determine the age of the shell of debris blown out by the supernova explosion that created the dense, compact object in the microquasar. Knowing the distance accurately also allows them to measure the actual brightness of the microquasar's components, and this, they said, improves their understanding of the physical processes at work in the system. The breakthrough image was made using 10 hours of observing time with the VLA in a configuration that maximizes the VLA's ability to see fine detail. It represents the longest "time exposure" of SS 433 at radio wavelengths, and thus shows the faintest details. It also represents the best such image that can be done with current technology. Because the jets in SS 433 are moving, their image would be "smeared" in a longer observation. In order to see even fainter details in the jets, the astrophysicists must await the greater sensitivity of the Expanded VLA, set to become available in a few years. SS 433 was the first example of what now are termed microquasars, binary systems with either a neutron star or black hole orbited by another star, and emitting jets of material at high speeds. The strange stellar system received a wealth of media coverage in the late 1970s and early 1980s. A 1981 Sky & Telescope article was entitled, "SS 433 -- Enigma of the Century." Because microquasars in our own Milky Way Galaxy are thought to produce their high-speed jets of material through processes similar to those that produce jets from the cores of galaxies, the nearby microquasars serve as a convenient "laboratory" for studying the physics of jets. The microquasars are closer and show changes more quickly than their larger cousins. Katherine Blundell is a University Research Fellow funded by the UK's Royal Society. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  19. Mystery of a Dimming White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In the wake of the recent media attention over an enigmatic, dimming star, another intriguing object has been discovered: J1529+2928, a white dwarf that periodically dims. This mystery, however, may have a simple solution with interesting consequences for future surveys of white dwarfs.Unexpected VariabilityJ1529+2928 is an isolated white dwarf that appears to have a mass of slightly more than the Sun. But rather than radiating steadily, J1529+2928 dims once every 38 minutes almost as though it were being eclipsed.The team that discovered these variations, led by Mukremin Kilic (University of Oklahoma), used telescopes at the Apache Point Observatory and the McDonald Observatory to obtain follow-up photometric data of J1529+2928 spread across 66 days. The team also took spectra of the white dwarf with the Gemini North telescope.Kilic and collaborators then began, one by one, to rule out possible causes of this objects variability.Eliminating OptionsThe period of the variability is too long for J1529+2928 to be a pulsating white dwarf with luminosity variation caused by gravity-wave pulsations.The variability cant be due to an eclipse by a stellar or brown-dwarf companion, because there isnt any variation in J1529+2928s radial velocity.Its not due to the orbit of a solid-body planetary object; such a transit would be too short to explain observations.It cant be due to the orbit of a disintegrated planet; this wouldnt explain the light curves observed in different filters plus the light curve doesnt change over the 66-day span.Spotty SurfaceTop and middle two panels: light curves from three different nights observing J1529+2928s periodic dimming. Bottom panel: The Fourier transform shows a peak at 37.7 cycles/day (and another, smaller peak at its first harmonic). [Kilic et al. 2015]So what explanation is left? The authors suggest that J1529+2928s variability is likely caused by a starspot on the white dwarfs surface that rotates into and out of our view. Estimates show that the observed light curves could be created by a starspot at about 10,000K (compared to the white dwarfs effective temperature of ~11,900K), covering 14% of the surface area at an inclination of 90.The formation of such a starspot would almost certainly require the presence of magnetic fields. Interestingly, J1529+2928 doesnt have a strong magnetic field; from its spectra, the team can constrain its field strength to be less than 70 kG.Given that up to 15% of white dwarfs are thought to have kG magnetic fields, eclipse-like events such as this one might in fact be common for white dwarfs. If so, then many similar events will likely be observed with future surveys of transients like Keplers ongoing K2 mission, which is expected to image another several hundred white dwarfs, or the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will image 13 million white dwarfs.CitationMukremin Kilic et al 2015 ApJ 814 L31. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/814/2/L31

  20. Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanosystems: Solving Polyacetylene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyacetylene has been a paradigm conjugated organic conductor since well before other conjugated carbon systems such as nanotubes and graphene became front and center. It is widely acknowledged that Raman spectroscopy of these systems is extremely important to characterize them and understand their internal quantum behavior. Here we show, for the first time, what information the Raman spectrum of polyacetylene contains, by solving the 35-year-old mystery of its spectrum. Our methods have immediate and clear implications for other conjugated carbon systems. By relaxing the nearly universal approximation of ignoring the nuclear coordinate dependence of the transition moment (Condon approximation), we find the reasons for its unusual spectroscopic features. When the Kramers–Heisenberg–Dirac Raman scattering theory is fully applied, incorporating this nuclear coordinate dependence, and also the energy and momentum dependence of the electronic and phonon band structure, then unusual line shapes, growth, and dispersion of the bands are explained and very well matched by theory.

  1. Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 Classroom Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalewicz, Eva A.; Coffee, Gina

    2014-01-01

    This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator--an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention--as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing…

  2. The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

  3. The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savran, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students try…

  4. Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the

  5. The mystery shopper: an anonymous review of your services.

    PubMed

    Steiner, K

    1986-06-01

    Mystery shoppers can provide an unbiased report on the day-to-day functioning of hospital activities. For this study, six shoppers "used" various hospital services and reported their impressions through a questionnaire. The general findings may be applicable to many other well-run health care organizations. PMID:10277499

  6. Waiting for Brandon: How Readers Respond to Small Mysteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrig, Richard J.; Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    When readers experience narratives they often encounter small mysteries--questions that a text raises that are not immediately settled. In our experiments, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper names (e.g., "It's just that Brandon hasn't called in so long"). "Resolved" versions of the stories specified the functions those…

  7. The Mystery of Matter, World of the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, William G.

    This booklet is one in the "World of the Atome Series" for junior high school students and their teachers. It describes the fascinating story of the search for the key to the structure of matter. These topics are reviewed: the chemical atom of the 19th century, the planetary atom, the wave atom, inside the elementary particles, and the mystery of…

  8. Exploring Mystery in Fifth Grade: A Journey of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Claudia; Martinez, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    An instructional framework that included the use of a touchstone text, literature circles, and independent reading and writing created a rich context for the study of mysteries in a fifth-grade classroom. Key points include a) the complexity of the touchstone text as a key factor in shaping the instructional goals in this genre study, and b) the

  9. Use of the Mystery Motivator for a High School Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of one interdependent group contingency intervention, the mystery motivator, as it affected three students identified as exhibiting problem behaviors, as well as the effects on nonidentified students in a ninth-grade high school biology class. An A/B/A/B single-case design was used to evaluate the effects of the…

  10. Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Left, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to…

  11. Exploring Mystery in Fifth Grade: A Journey of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Claudia; Martinez, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    An instructional framework that included the use of a touchstone text, literature circles, and independent reading and writing created a rich context for the study of mysteries in a fifth-grade classroom. Key points include a) the complexity of the touchstone text as a key factor in shaping the instructional goals in this genre study, and b) the…

  12. Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Left, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to

  13. Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…

  14. The Computer Scientist: Computer Languages for the Amateur Scientist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, William, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews diverse types of computer programing languages and provides examples of representative programs from the most significant languages in use. Matches programing languages most suitable for various types of experimental applications for the amateur scientist. (JJK)

  15. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.

  16. Students and Scientists Take a "Lichen" To Air Quality Assessment in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anthony P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project in which students in a number of areas in Ireland collect environmental data for use by scientists working to solve real-life problems. Reports on the follow-up survey to the study. (DDR)

  17. USGS Scientists Taking Field Measurements

    USGS scientists (from left) Judy Drexler, Tamara Kraus and Bryan Downing and Katy O’Donnell preparing to take spot field measurements in the San Francisco estuary. Location: Northern San Francisco Estuary, CA...

  18. Looking out for future scientists.

    PubMed

    Marder, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Proposals to reduce the number of students who do PhDs are misguided, writes Eve Marder, because they would exclude young scientists with qualities that do not show up in exam results and interviews. PMID:25291257

  19. Scientists Check for Volcanic Activity

    Four scientists are busy reviewing seismic data, checking maps, and uploading activity updates in the USGS Volcano Hazards Program's Volcano Observatory operations room from the Menlo Park, California USGS campus....

  20. Looking out for future scientists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Proposals to reduce the number of students who do PhDs are misguided, writes Eve Marder, because they would exclude young scientists with qualities that do not show up in exam results and interviews. PMID:25291257

  1. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  2. Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower-energy X-ray background, showing that it arose in very faraway galaxies with extremely bright cores, called quasars or Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The Chandra team sampled a region of the sky about one-fifth the angular area of a full moon and resolved about 80 percent of the more-energetic X-ray background into discrete sources. Stretched across the entire sky, this would account for approximately 70 million sources, most of which would be identified with galaxies. Their analysis confirms that a significant fraction of the X-ray background cannot be due to diffuse radiation from hot, intergalactic gas. Combined X-ray and optical observations showed that nearly one third of the sources are galaxies whose cores are very bright in X rays yet emit virtually no optical light from the core. The observation suggests that these "veiled galactic nuclei" galaxies may number in the tens of millions over the whole sky. They almost certainly harbor a massive black hole at their core that produces X rays as the gas is pulled toward it at nearly the speed of light. Their bright X-ray cores place these galaxies in the AGN family. Because these numerous AGN are bright in X rays, but optically dim, the Chandra observation implies that optical surveys of AGN are very incomplete. A second new class of objects, comprising approximately one-third of the background, is assumed to be "ultra-faint galaxies." Mushotzky said that these sources may emit little or no optical light, either because the dust around the galaxy blocks the light totally or because the optical light is eventually absorbed by relatively cool gas during its long journey across the universe. In the latter scenario, Mushotzky said that these sources would have a redshift of 6 or higher, meaning that they are well over 14 billion light years away and thus the earliest, most distant objects ever identified. "This is a very exciting discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure and Evolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observedthirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been the Holy Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." Drs. Cowie and Barger are searching for the optical counterparts to the newly discovered X-ray sources with the powerful Keck telescope atop Mauna Kea in hopes of determining their distance. However, these sources are very faint optically: They show up as a dim blue smudge or not at all. Further observations with the Hubble Space Telescope or Keck will be extremely difficult, and the power of the Next Generation Space Telescope and Constellation-X may be required to fully understand these sources. Resolution of the X-ray background relied on a 27.7-hour Chandra observation using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) in early December 1999, and also utilized data from the Japan-U.S. Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). The Chandra team has also reproduced the ROSAT lower-energy X-ray background observation with a factor of 2-5 times the resolution and sensitivity. For images connected to this release, and to follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2000/bg/index.html AND http://chandra.nasa.gov The ACIS instrument was built for NASA by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and Pennsylvania State University, University Park. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

  3. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  4. What would surgeons like from materials scientists?

    PubMed

    Grundfest-Broniatowski, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Surgery involves the repair, resection, replacement, or improvement of body parts and functions and in numerous ways, surgery should be considered human engineering. There are many areas in which surgical materials could be improved, but surgeons are generally unaware of materials available for use, while materials scientists do not know what surgeons require. This article will review some of the areas where surgeons and materials scientists have interacted in the past and will discuss some of the most pressing problems which remain to be solved. These include better implant materials for hernia repair, breast reconstruction, the treatment of diabetes, vascular stenting and reconstruction, and electrical pacing devices. The combination of tissue engineering and nanomaterials has great potential for application to nearly every aspect of surgery. Tissue engineering will allow cells or artificial organs to be grown for specific uses while nanotechnology will help to ensure maximal biocompatibility. Biosensors will be combined with improved electrodes and pacing devices to control impaired neurological functions. PMID:23533092

  5. Epistemological undercurrents in scientists' reporting of research to teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, George E.; Bentley, Michael L.

    2000-07-01

    Our investigation focused upon how scientists, from both a practical and epistemological perspective, communicated the nature and relevance of their research to classroom teachers. Six scientists were observed during presentations of cutting-edge research at a conference for science teachers. Following the conference, these scientists were interviewed to discern how each perceived the nature of science, technology, and society in relation to his particular research. Data were analyzed to determine the congruence and/or dissimilarity in how scientists described their research to teachers and how they viewed their research epistemologically. We found that a wide array of scientific methodologies and research protocols were presented and that all the scientists expressed links between their research and science-technology-society (STS) issues. When describing their research during interviews, the scientists from traditional content disciplines reflected a strong commitment to empiricism and experimental design, whereas engineers from applied sciences were more focused on problem-solving. Implicit in the data was a commitment to objectivity and the tacit assumption that science may be free of values and ethical assumptions. More dialogue is recommended between the scientific community, science educators, and historians/philosophers of science about the nature of science, STS, and curriculum issues.

  6. The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, James E

    2010-11-23

    The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

  7. The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators

    ScienceCinema

    Brau, James E [University of Oregon

    2014-06-25

    The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

  8. The Mystery of the Gun Turret in the Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R. D.

    2015-11-30

    The mystery of the gun turret in the desert began with an ingenious idea: to develop a reusable open-air line of sight diagnostic device to support LLNL’s early nuclear weapons development efforts. Obtained from the Mare Island Navy Shipyard (MINS) in January 1957, the gun turret traveled by ship to the Naval Construction Battalion base at Port Hueneme, California, and then by truck to Area 2 in the Yucca Flats valley at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS).

  9. Problem-Solving Pointers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Robertta H.

    1990-01-01

    Problem solving is defined and characteristics of good problem solvers are highlighted. The cognitive processes used in problem solving are discussed. Suggestions for methods which can be used to teach problem solving are provided. Research implications from mathematics education are listed. (CW)

  10. Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews…

  11. Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews

  12. Unraveling the mystery of music: music as an evolved group process.

    PubMed

    Loersch, Chris; Arbuckle, Nathan L

    2013-11-01

    As prominently highlighted by Charles Darwin, music is one of the most mysterious aspects of human nature. Despite its ubiquitous presence across cultures and throughout recorded history, the reason humans respond emotionally to music remains unknown. Although many scientists and philosophers have offered hypotheses, there is little direct empirical evidence for any perspective. Here we address this issue, providing data which support the idea that music evolved in service of group living. Using 7 studies, we demonstrate that people's emotional responses to music are intricately tied to the other core social phenomena that bind us together into groups. In sum, this work establishes human musicality as a special form of social cognition and provides the first direct support for the hypothesis that music evolved as a tool of social living. In addition, the findings provide a reason for the intense psychological pull of music in modern life, suggesting that the pleasure we derive from listening to music results from its innate connection to the basic social drives that create our interconnected world. PMID:23895270

  13. Materials analysis: A key to unlocking the mystery of the Columbia tragedy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeaux, Brian M.; Collins, Thomas E.; Jerman, Gregory A.; McDanels, Steven J.; Piascik, Robert S.; Russell, Richard W.; Shah, Sandeep R.

    2004-02-01

    Materials analyses of key forensic evidence helped unlock the mystery of the loss of space shuttle Columbia that disintegrated February 1, 2003 while returning from a 16-day research mission. Following an intensive four-month recovery effort by federal, state, and local emergency management and law officials, Columbia debris was collected, catalogued, and reassembled at the Kennedy Space Center. Engineers and scientists from the Materials and Processes (M&P) team formed by NASA supported Columbia reconstruction efforts, provided factual data through analysis, and conducted experiments to validate the root cause of the accident. Fracture surfaces and thermal effects of selected airframe debris were assessed, and process flows for both nondestructive and destructive sampling and evaluation of debris were developed. The team also assessed left hand (LH) airframe components that were believed to be associated with a structural breach of Columbia. Analytical data collected by the M&P team showed that a significant thermal event occurred at the left wing leading edge in the proximity of LH reinforced carbon carbon (RCC) panels 8 and 9. The analysis also showed exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,649°C, which would severely degrade the support structure, tiles, and RCC panel materials. The integrated failure analysis of wing leading edge debris and deposits strongly supported the hypothesis that a breach occurred at LH RCC panel 8.

  14. Materials Analysis: A Key to Unlocking the Mystery of the Columbia Tragedy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeaux, Brian M.; Collins, Thomas E.; Piascik, Robert S.; Russel, Richard W.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Shah, Sandeep R.; McDanels, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    Materials analyses of key forensic evidence helped unlock the mystery of the loss of space shuttle Columbia that disintegrated February 1, 2003 while returning from a 16-day research mission. Following an intensive four-month recovery effort by federal, state, and local emergency management and law officials, Columbia debris was collected, catalogued, and reassembled at the Kennedy Space Center. Engineers and scientists from the Materials and Processes (M&P) team formed by NASA supported Columbia reconstruction efforts, provided factual data through analysis, and conducted experiments to validate the root cause of the accident. Fracture surfaces and thermal effects of selected airframe debris were assessed, and process flows for both nondestructive and destructive sampling and evaluation of debris were developed. The team also assessed left hand (LH) airframe components that were believed to be associated with a structural breach of Columbia. Analytical data collected by the M&P team showed that a significant thermal event occurred at the left wing leading edge in the proximity of LH reinforced carbon carbon (RCC) panels 8 and 9. The analysis also showed exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,649 C, which would severely degrade the support structure, tiles, and RCC panel materials. The integrated failure analysis of wing leading edge debris and deposits strongly supported the hypothesis that a breach occurred at LH RCC panel 8.

  15. The Unsolved Mysteries of Atmospheric Chemistry for High School Students and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    The grant "CAREER: New Molecular Markers of Asian Air Emissions - Anthropogenic Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds" (ATM-0239823) was funded by NSF from 2003-2008. The CAREER proposal described the integration of research and outreach education activities in the field of atmospheric chemistry, specifically atmospheric measurements and atmospheric transport. The primary objective of the research was to identify anthropogenic semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) that could be used as molecular markers for Asian air emissions and trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. The outreach education activity was integrated with the research by developing curriculum to introduce underrepresented minority high school students, and their teachers, to atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric measurements through Oregon State University's National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences funded Hydroville Curriculum Project (http://www.hydroville.org/iaq_resources). A curriculum was developed to allow students to assume the role of "Air Quality Scientist" and measure air temperature, air flow, relative humidity, CO, CO2, O3, and volatile organic compounds in out-door and in-door air. The students gained an understanding of atmospheric transport and compared measured concentrations to recommended guidelines. In addition, the outreach education activities included the development of the "Unsolved Mysteries of Human Health" website (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu/), including a specific module on the research conducted under the CAREER grant (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu /Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry-Overview). The PI of the CAREER proposal, Dr. Staci Massey Simonich, is now a full professor at Oregon State University. To date, she has published over 50 peer-review journal articles, as well as mentored 9 undergraduate students, 20 graduate students, 3 post-doctoral scholars, and 3 international visiting scientists in her laboratory.

  16. Cassini Scientist for a Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael W.; Murray, C. D.; Piazza, E.; McConnell, S.

    2007-10-01

    The Cassini Mission's "Scientist for a Day" program allows students the opportunity to be in scientists' shoes, evaluate various options and learn how to make decisions based on scientific value. Students are given three or more possible imaging targets. They research these targets and decide which one will bring the best scientific results. They then defend their choice in a 500-word essay. The essay with the best scientific argument for a chosen target wins the contest. Cassini will take the images on Nov. 30, 2007. A few days later, winners (and as many other students as possible) are invited to discuss the results with Cassini scientists via videoconferences. Entries are judged by a committee composed of Cassini scientists, Cassini mission planners, Cassini Outreach and JPL Education Specialists. The contest has been held on a smaller scale three times. This edition is open to all U.S. schools. Students will be divided in two groups, grades 5 to 8 and grades 9 to 12. The contest will also be held in England, and possibly in other countries.

  17. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  18. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  19. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  20. Scientist Using Terrestrial Lidar Equipment

    Chris Soulard using the Terrestrial Lidar to scan study area in the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, AZ.  Note the bag of ice on the equipment.  High temperates can cause equipment to overheat, requiring scientists to be creative in protecting equipment....

  1. A Woman Scientist at a Catholic College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Jolane Baumgarten

    1992-01-01

    Provides retrospective on author's experience as a woman scientist who began her career on campus in the 1960s. Reveals much about the general position of women scientists of her generation. Concludes that, despite some gains for women scientists, much remains to be done to foster full equity for women scientists, whatever their campus setting.…

  2. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis S. Sandrelli INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy (stefano.sandrelli@brera.inaf.it / Fax: 02 72001600 / Phone: +39 02 72320337) "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held both at the Perugia (2004) and the Genova Science Festival (2005), obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives in-charge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherd-moons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and water, represented by simple objects like apples, spinning tops and so on) to re-build the rings. The kids can buy the ingredients from different planets: every planet has ingredients in quantities which are proportionate to the real physical properties of that celestial object. After collecting the ingredients, they must carry them to the "The Red Giant" and indicate their best recipe to Mr Schioppanelli. Depending on the recipe, rings can be too strict or too luminous or too fast rotating and so on. The winning group is the one which prepares the best recipe to cook the rings in the smallest amount of time. After presentig this specific (and mysterious) case, we analyse the advantage- disadvantage ratio of such an activity, beeing as funny as dispersive.

  3. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of observations is needed to help us understand the complex relationship that exists among the various components," Blair said. The explosion of a star is a catastrophic event. The blast rips the star apart and unleashes a roughly spherical shock wave that expands outward at more than 22 million mph like an interstellar tsunami. The shock wave spreads out into surrounding space, sweeping up any tenuous interstellar gas and dust into an expanding shell. The stellar ejecta from the explosion initially trail behind the shock wave. It eventually catches up with the inner edge of the shell and is heated to X-ray temperatures. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Hubble Optical Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps that form behind the shock wave. Sankrit and Blair compared their HST observations with those taken with ground-based telescopes to obtain a more accurate distance to the supernova remnant of about 13,000 light-years. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Spitzer Infrared Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. SST is sensitive enough to detect both the densest regions seen by HST and the entire expanding shock wave, a spherical cloud of material. Instruments on SST also reveal information about the chemical composition and physical environment of the expanding clouds of gas and dust ejected into space. This dust is similar to dust which was part of the cloud of dust and gas that formed the sun and planets in our solar system. Interview with Dr. William Blair Interview with Dr. William Blair The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas. The hottest gas, higher-energy X-rays, is located primarily in the regions directly behind the shock front. These regions also show up in the HST observations and also align with the faint rim of material seen in the SST data. Cooler X-ray gas, lower-energy X-rays, resides in a thick interior shell and marks the location of the material expelled from the exploded star. There have been six known supernovas in our Milky Way over the past 1,000 years. Kepler's is the only one, which astronomers do not know what type of star exploded. By combining information from all three Great Observatories, astronomers may find the clues they need. "It's really a situation where the total is greater than the sum of the parts," Blair said. "When the analysis is complete, we will be able to answer several questions about this enigmatic object." Information and images from this research is available on the Web at: http://www.nasa.gov http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2004/29/ http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/

  4. The five mysteries of the mind, and their consequences.

    PubMed

    Doty, R W

    1998-10-01

    While Western man has recognized for almost 2500 years that mind derives exclusively from brain, clothing this fact with explanatory detail still proves elusive. First, is consciousness per se, created by processes demonstrably limited to certain, but still unspecified, neuronal arrangements and activities. Then there is perception, its ineffable qualia, and the fact that it arises from neuronal activity widely dispersed in space and time within networks of vast complexity. Voluntary control is equally dispersed as to neuronal participation, and nescient as to origin. An often overlooked mystery is the unity of mind and behavior that prevails despite the potential for bihemispheric duplication of processes and experience. Finally, there is memory, which while credibly within grasp of understanding as a synaptic alteration maintained via activation of the nuclear genome, still wholly defies comprehension when viewed as commanded recall of myriad, randomly selectable details of the past, a largely effortless and 'instantaneous' flood of memories. For two centuries science has endeavored to demonstrate how these mysteries proceed from physics and chemistry, as indeed they do; but viewed from this direction alone, mind is but the babbling of a robot, chained ineluctably to crude causality. In a bold and revolutionary stroke, Roger Sperry has conceived a more credible paradigm, that the totality of neuronal action, as a richly intercommunicating system, gives rise to effects transcendent to the individual physicochemical elements that compose it. A major achievement of this position is that it is immediately consonant with everyday human experience and belief. While neither Sperry's vision. nor the reduction of the mysteries to a dance of ions can yet be proven, the vast advantage of Sperry's thesis is that it again imbues human thought and action with responsibility, and opens morality to the light of science, while the long wait for certainty unfolds. PMID:9845053

  5. Scientists Sift Through Urban Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-05-01

    City soil gets tramped on, dumped on, and pushed around, but some soil scientists are carefully examining what is underfoot in urban areas. During a 3 May session on urban soils at the European Geosciences Union's General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, scientists discussed various aspects of city dirt. In a presentation about the large amount of rubble from buildings that were bombed during World War II, Beate Mekiffer with the Soil Protection Group at the Berlin Institute of Technology, Germany, noted that the sulfate concentration in Berlin's upper aquifer has increased continuously for decades. Many areas in Berlin now exceed a 240-milligram-per-liter “precaution value” for sulfate in drinking water, according to Mekiffer.

  6. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  7. Mathematics for the Student Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauten, A. Darien; Lauten, Gary N.

    1998-03-01

    The Earth Day:Forest Watch Program, introduces elementary, middle, and secondary students to field laboratory, and satellite-data analysis methods for assessing the health of Eastern White Pine ( Pinus strobus). In this Student-Scientist Partnership program, mathematics, as envisioned in the NCTM Standards, arises naturally and provides opportunities for science-mathematics interdisciplinary student learning. School mathematics becomes the vehicle for students to quantify, represent, analyze, and interpret meaningful, real data.

  8. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  9. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  10. Cardioprotection with adenosine: 'a riddle wrapped in a mystery'.

    PubMed

    Przyklenk, Karin; Whittaker, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Review of the published literature on adenosine and cardioprotection could lead one to paraphrase the famous words of Sir Winston Churchill (Radio broadcast, 1 October 1939 (in reference to Russia)) and conclude: 'I cannot forecast to you the action of adenosine. It is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma'. That is, although it is well-established that adenosine can render cardiomyocytes resistant to lethal ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury, new and intriguing insights continue to emerge as to the mechanisms by which adenosine might limit myocardial infarct size. PMID:15895103

  11. Mysterious hexagonal pyramids on the surface of Pyrobaculum cells.

    PubMed

    Rensen, Elena; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2015-11-01

    In attempts to induce putative temperate viruses, we UV-irradiated cells of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum oguniense. Virus replication could not be detected; however, we observed the development of pyramidal structures with 6-fold symmetry on the cell surface. The hexagonal basis of the pyramids was continuous with the cellular cytoplasmic membrane and apparently grew via the gradual expansion of the 6 triangular lateral faces, ultimately protruding through the S-layer. When the base of these isosceles triangles reached approximately 200 nm in length, the pyramids opened like flower petals. The origin and function of these mysterious nanostructures remain unknown. PMID:26115814

  12. Science, the Scientists and Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshner, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Although individual scientists engage in research for diverse reasons, society only supports the enterprise because it benefits humankind. We cannot always predict how that will happen, or whether individual projects will have clear and direct benefits, but in the aggregate, there is widespread agreement that we are all better off because of the quality and diversity of the science that is done. However, what scientists do and how it benefits humankind is often unclear to the general public and can at times be misunderstood or misrepresented. Moreover, even when members of the public do understand what science is being done they do not always like what it is showing and feel relatively free to disregard or distort its findings. This happens most often when findings are either politically inconvenient or encroach upon issues of core human values. The origins of the universe can fit into that latter category. This array of factors contributes to the obligation of scientists to reach out to the public and share the results of their work and its implications. It also requires the scientific community to engage in genuine dialogue with the public and find common ground where possible.

  13. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  14. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  15. Teaching through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

  16. Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    This chapter examines research on the cognitive processes involved in mathematical problem solving. The introduction includes definitions of key terms and a summary of four cognitive processes used in mathematical problem solving: (1) translating; (2) integrating; (3) planning; and (4) executing. Examples are then provided and exemplary research

  17. Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

  18. Teaching through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that

  19. Effective Family Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blechman, Elaine A.; McEnroe, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children with definite- and indefinite-solution tasks. Incentive and task independence were manipulated. It was found that definitions of effective problem solving based on directly observed measures of group interaction were more valid than definitions based on…

  20. Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    This chapter examines research on the cognitive processes involved in mathematical problem solving. The introduction includes definitions of key terms and a summary of four cognitive processes used in mathematical problem solving: (1) translating; (2) integrating; (3) planning; and (4) executing. Examples are then provided and exemplary research…

  1. Checkers is solved.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Jonathan; Burch, Neil; Bjrnsson, Yngvi; Kishimoto, Akihiro; Mller, Martin; Lake, Robert; Lu, Paul; Sutphen, Steve

    2007-09-14

    The game of checkers has roughly 500 billion billion possible positions (5 x 10(20)). The task of solving the game, determining the final result in a game with no mistakes made by either player, is daunting. Since 1989, almost continuously, dozens of computers have been working on solving checkers, applying state-of-the-art artificial intelligence techniques to the proving process. This paper announces that checkers is now solved: Perfect play by both sides leads to a draw. This is the most challenging popular game to be solved to date, roughly one million times as complex as Connect Four. Artificial intelligence technology has been used to generate strong heuristic-based game-playing programs, such as Deep Blue for chess. Solving a game takes this to the next level by replacing the heuristics with perfection. PMID:17641166

  2. Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Tom, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

  3. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile

  4. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

  5. Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Tom, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have

  6. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

  7. Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

  8. ALMA European Project Scientist Appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T.

    2007-06-01

    The new ALMA European Project Scientist is Dr. Leonardo Testi. He took up the appointment in May 2007. Leonardo Testi received his Ph.D. from the University of Florence in 1997. Subsequently he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory of Caltech. In 1998 he joined staff of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, and later on of INAF, for which he also served on the Science Council. Leonardo has been chair of the European ALMA Science Advisory committee and a member of the ALMA Science Advisory committee, so he well knows the details of the project as well as the science that can be carried out with ALMA.

  9. Give Young Scientists a Break

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  10. USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek

    USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek - Photo taken by Heidi Koontz, USGS Communications, Friday, Sept. 13. USGS scientist Ben Glass conducting current profiler measurements along Bear Creek near Bear Creek Lake in Morrison, Colo....

  11. MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing routine mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own routines for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-linear equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.

  12. The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Lin, C.; Clarac, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 12 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge funding from local charitable foundations and the NASA E/PO program.

  13. The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Jahn, J.; Hummel, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a ommunity partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We gratefully acknowledge partial funding for the YES Program from a NASA EPO grant.

  14. Building problem solving environments with the arches framework

    SciTech Connect

    Debardeleben, Nathan; Sass, Ron; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel; Ligon, Ill, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

  15. Still Persistent Global Problem of Scientists' Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to identify whether there is problem of image of scientists and determine where they receive about scientist image. Three hundred thirty five (105 from Turkey, 162 from Europe, 68 from US) elementary pre-service teachers participated in

  16. Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he takes a…

  17. Scientists Talking to Students through Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of connecting school students with scientists are well documented. This paper reports how New Zealand teachers brought scientists into the classrooms through the use of videos of New Zealand scientists talking about themselves and their research. Two researchers observed lessons in 9 different classrooms in which 23 educational videos

  18. Scientists Talking to Students through Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of connecting school students with scientists are well documented. This paper reports how New Zealand teachers brought scientists into the classrooms through the use of videos of New Zealand scientists talking about themselves and their research. Two researchers observed lessons in 9 different classrooms in which 23 educational videos…

  19. Still Persistent Global Problem of Scientists' Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to identify whether there is problem of image of scientists and determine where they receive about scientist image. Three hundred thirty five (105 from Turkey, 162 from Europe, 68 from US) elementary pre-service teachers participated in…

  20. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers

  1. Developing the Talents of Teacher/Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George

    2004-01-01

    Going on an expedition enables teachers to become better scientists and researchers and, thus, better classroom instructors. Teachers have the opportunities to go on exotic field trips around the world as amateur research assistants, do hands on research in their own backyards, or vicariously experience another scientist?s work via the Internet. A…

  2. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  3. Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimnes, Karin A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to

  4. Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, T.

    1995-12-01

    In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

  5. The mysterious multi-modal repellency of DEET

    PubMed Central

    DeGennaro, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    DEET is the most effective insect repellent available and has been widely used for more than half a century. Here, I review what is known about the olfactory and contact mechanisms of DEET repellency. For mosquitoes, DEET has at least two molecular targets: Odorant Receptors (ORs) mediate the effect of DEET at a distance, while unknown chemoreceptors mediate repellency upon contact. Additionally, the ionotropic receptor Ir40a has recently been identified as a putative DEET chemosensor in Drosophila. The mechanism of how DEET manipulates these molecular targets to induce insect avoidance in the vapor phase is also contested. Two hypotheses are the most likely: DEET activates an innate olfactory neural circuit leading to avoidance of hosts (smell and avoid hypothesis) or DEET has no behavioral effect on its own, but instead acts cooperatively with host odors to drive repellency (confusant hypothesis). Resolving this mystery will inform the search for a new generation of insect repellents. PMID:26252744

  6. Uncovering the Mystery of Gliding Motility in the Myxobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Beiyan; Zusman, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial gliding motility is the smooth movement of cells on solid surfaces unaided by flagella or pili. Many diverse groups of bacteria exhibit gliding, but the mechanism of gliding motility has remained a mystery since it was first observed more than a century ago. Recent studies on the motility of Myxococcus xanthus, a soil myxobacterium, suggest a likely mechanism for gliding in this organism. About forty M. xanthus genes were shown to be involved in gliding motility, and some of their protein products were labeled and localized within cells. These studies suggest that gliding motility in M. xanthus involves large multiprotein structural complexes, regulatory proteins, and cytoskeletal filaments. In this review, we summarize recent experiments that provide the basis for this emerging view of M. xanthus motility. We also discuss alternative models for gliding. PMID:21910630

  7. Viscous flow interpretation of Comet Halley's mystery transition

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-de-Tejada, H. )

    1989-08-01

    A study of the solar wind within comet Halley's ionosheath is presented. It is shown that the plasma changes seen across the intermediate (mystery) transition, located approximately half way between the bow shock and the cometopause along the Giotto trajectory, are similar to those occurring across an equivalent transition present within the Venus ionosheath. As in Venus, the observed plasma changes are consistent with those expected from the onset of friction phenomena between the shocked solar wind and the main body of ionospheric plasma. It is suggested that the intermediate transition in comet Halley's ionosheath represents the outer boundary of a thick viscous boundary layer that develops from the nose of the cometopause and extends along the flanks of the ionosheath. On the basis of this interpretation it is concluded that the subsolar position of the cometopause may have reached {approximately} 3.4 10{sup 5} km upstream from the nucleus at the time of the Giotto measurements.

  8. Fetus in fetu--a mystery in medicine.

    PubMed

    Majhi, A K; Saha, K; Karmakar, M; Sinha Karmakar, K; Sen, A; Das, S

    2007-01-01

    Fetus in Fetu (FIF) is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass resembling a fetus of 585 gm was removed. It had a trunk and four limbs with fingers and toes, umbilical stump, intestinal loops and abundant scalp hairs but was devoid of brain and heart. Histology showed various well-differentiated tissues in respective sites. FIF is a mystery in reproduction and it is scarce in literature in such well-developed stage. PMID:17334616

  9. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  10. Viscous flow interpretation of Comet Halley's mystery transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-de-Tejada, H.

    1989-08-01

    A study of the solar wind within Comet Halley's ionosheath is presented. It is shown that the plasma changes seen across the intermediate ('mystery') transition, located approximately half way between the bow shock and the cometopause along the Giotto trajectory, are similar to those occurring across an equivalent transition present within the Venus ionosheath. As in Venus, the observed plasma changes are consistent with those expected from the onset of friction phenomena between the shocked solar wind and the main body of ionospheric plasma. It is suggested that the intermediate transition on Comet Halley's ionosheath represents the outer boundary of a thick viscous boundary layer that develops from the nose of the cometopause and extends along the flanks of the ionosheath. On the basis of this interpretation it is concluded that the subsolar position of the cometopause may have reached about 340,000 km upstream from the nucleus at the time of the Giotto measurements.

  11. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P.; Kinsey, J. E.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  12. The Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Budget: Mystery or Not

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A.; Daniel, John S.; Reimann, Stefan; Hall, Bradley; Dutton, Geoff; Kuijpers, Lambert J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance and greenhouse gas and has been regulated under the Montreal Protocol. However, atmospheric observations show a very slow decline in CCl4 concentrations, inconsistent with the nearly zero emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage in recent years. It is now apparent that there are either unidentified industrial leakages, an unknown production source of CCl4, or large legacy emissions from CCl4 contaminated sites. In this paper we use a global chemistry climate model to assess the budget mystery of atmospheric CCl4. We explore various factors that affect the global trend and the gradient between the Northern and Southern hemispheres or interhemispheric gradient (IHG): emissions, emission hemispheric partitioning, and lifetime variations. We find a present-day emission of 30-50 Gg per yr and a total lifetime 25 - 36 years are necessary to reconcile both the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG.

  13. My snowflake is so unique … Experiences of a reluctant Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Kearns, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    As with many data scientists, this wasn't my initial career objective. In fact it wasn't even seen as a viable option at that time. However I needed to manage data for my physical science projects and the teams I supported, so I reluctantly accepted this task as part of my "real" science job. Over the years, many challenges have been solved, that then allow us the ability to address more difficult issues. This presentation will address current data scientist challenges from a "real" scientist's perspective at a federal archive.

  14. Data Scientist Training for Librarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, C.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that there will be a shortfall in the near future of skilled talent available to help take advantage of big data in organizations. Meanwhile, government initiatives have encouraged the research community to share their data more openly, raising new challenges for researchers. Librarians can assist in this new data-driven environment. Data Scientist Training for Librarians (or Data Savvy Librarians) is an experimental course being offered by the Harvard Library to train librarians to respond to the growing data needs of their communities. In the course, librarians familiarize themselves with the research data lifecycle, working hands-on with the latest tools for extracting, wrangling, storing, analyzing, and visualizing data. By experiencing the research data lifecycle themselves, and becoming data savvy and embracing the data science culture, librarians can begin to imagine how their services might be transformed.

  15. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  16. Doctoral training of African scientists.

    PubMed

    Doumbo, O K; Krogstad, D J

    1998-02-01

    There are two principal rationales for doctoral training of African scientists in health: 1) these scientists are essential for the nations of sub-Saharan Africa to define and implement their own health priorities, and 2) the research they perform is essential for development. However, this training is difficult because of its expense (> $20,000 per year), because many developed country mentors are unaware of the realities of research in sub-Saharan Africa, and because major differences in salary provide a financial disincentive to return. We describe a training strategy that reduces attrition because it is linked to the investigators' responsibilities before and after training, and to home country priorities. This strategy requires a close relationship between the developing country (on-site) and developed country (off-site) mentors, with joint participation in the selection and funding process, followed by course work and short-term, independent projects off-site that lead to a thesis project in the developing country, and subsequently to a defined professional position in the developing country after completion of the doctoral degree. For this strategy to succeed, the developed country mentor must have both field experience and investigative expertise; the developing country mentor must have an understanding of modern biology, as well as clinical and epidemiologic experience. In addition, we would like to emphasize that the long-term retention of these talented, highly-trained individuals requires a similar long-term commitment by their developed country mentors, well beyond the short term of most research funding. PMID:9502592

  17. Science alliance: A scientist/teacher partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstrand, A.

    1994-12-31

    Science Alliance, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, involves fifty NIH scientists, teachers in six elementary schools, and two school districts. The goals are to: (1) support teachers and schools as they develop science programs; (2) provide role models for students; (3) illustrate what scientists do; and (4) encourage a multidisciplinary approach to learning. Activities include classroom visits, workshops on hands-on science for teachers and scientists, a scientist training program, an electronic bulletin board, a workbook of activities that scientists have developed for classroom visits, and a newsletter. Aided by an annual evaluation, we have identified several elements critical to the success of Science Alliance. Teachers and scientists need a good personal relationship; good communications are fundamental. The responsibilities of participants must be clear, and both scientists and teachers need support and encouragement from their supervisors.

  18. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that is dedicated to the physics at FAIR. February 2015, Organizers of FAIRNESS 2014: Marco Destefanis, Tetyana Galatyuk, Fernando Montes, Diana Nicmorus, Hannah Petersen, Claudia Ratti, Laura Tolos, and Sascha Vogel. Support for holding the conference was provided by: Conference photograph

  19. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions about Scientist and What Factors Affecting the Image of the Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Students' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze image of scientist from drawn picture of scientists using The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) by 5th grade students and to analyze where this image comes from students minds in changing Turkish educational perspective. Two hundred eighty seven

  20. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions about Scientist and What Factors Affecting the Image of the Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Students' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze image of scientist from drawn picture of scientists using The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) by 5th grade students and to analyze where this image comes from students minds in changing Turkish educational perspective. Two hundred eighty seven…

  1. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  2. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.

  3. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change

  4. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:

  5. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  6. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  7. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  8. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  9. Solving Problems Reductively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith; Tirosh, Dina

    2005-01-01

    Solving problems by reduction is an important issue in mathematics and science education in general (both in high school and in college or university) and particularly in computer science education. Developing reductive thinking patterns is an important goal in any scientific discipline, yet reduction is not an easy subject to cope with. Still,…

  10. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  11. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…

  12. Inquiry and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

  13. Circumference and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Katie; White, David

    The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…

  14. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  15. Problem Solving by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

  16. Solving Problems through Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…

  17. Brightness Variations of Sun-like Stars: The Mystery Deepens - Astronomers facing Socratic "ignorance"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    An extensive study made with ESO's Very Large Telescope deepens a long-standing mystery in the study of stars similar to the Sun. Unusual year-long variations in the brightness of about one third of all Sun-like stars during the latter stages of their lives still remain unexplained. Over the past few decades, astronomers have offered many possible explanations, but the new, painstaking observations contradict them all and only deepen the mystery. The search for a suitable interpretation is on. "Astronomers are left in the dark, and for once, we do not enjoy it," says Christine Nicholls from Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia, lead author of a paper reporting the study. "We have obtained the most comprehensive set of observations to date for this class of Sun-like stars, and they clearly show that all the possible explanations for their unusual behaviour just fail." The mystery investigated by the team dates back to the 1930s and affects about a third of Sun-like stars in our Milky Way and other galaxies. All stars with masses similar to our Sun become, towards the end of their lives, red, cool and extremely large, just before retiring as white dwarfs. Also known as red giants, these elderly stars exhibit very strong periodic variations in their luminosity over timescales up to a couple of years. "Such variations are thought to be caused by what we call 'stellar pulsations'," says Nicholls. "Roughly speaking, the giant star swells and shrinks, becoming brighter and dimmer in a regular pattern. However, one third of these stars show an unexplained additional periodic variation, on even longer timescales - up to five years." In order to find out the origin of this secondary feature, the astronomers monitored 58 stars in our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud, over two and a half years. They acquired spectra using the high resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope and combined them with images from other telescopes [1], achieving an impressive collection of the properties of these variable stars. Outstanding sets of data like the one collected by Nicholls and her colleagues often offer guidance on how to solve a cosmic puzzle by narrowing down the plethora of possible explanations proposed by the theoreticians. In this case, however, the observations are incompatible with all the previously conceived models and re-open an issue that has been thoroughly debated. Thanks to this study, astronomers are now aware of their own "ignorance" - a genuine driver of the knowledge-seeking process, as the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates is said to have taught. "The newly gathered data show that pulsations are an extremely unlikely explanation for the additional variation," says team leader Peter Wood. "Another possible mechanism for producing luminosity variations in a star is to have the star itself move in a binary system. However, our observations are strongly incompatible with this hypothesis too." The team found from further analysis that whatever the cause of these unexplained variations is, it also causes the giant stars to eject mass either in clumps or as an expanding disc. "A Sherlock Holmes is needed to solve this very frustrating mystery," concludes Nicholls. Notes [1] Precise brightness measurements were made by the MACHO and OGLE collaborations, running on telescopes in Australia and Chile, respectively. The OGLE observations were made at the same time as the VLT observations. More information This research was presented in two papers: one appeared in the November issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ("Long Secondary Periods in Variable Red Giants", by C. P. Nicholls et al.), and the other has just been published in the Astrophysical Journal ("Evidence for mass ejection associated with long secondary periods in red giants", by P. R. Wood and C. P. Nicholls). The team is composed of Christine P. Nicholls and Peter R. Wood (Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australia National University), Maria-Rosa L. Cioni (Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, UK) and Igor Soszyński (Warsaw University Observatory). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  18. Where Are the Ticks? Solving the Mystery of a Tickborne Relapsing Fever Outbreak at a Youth Camp.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Marlene; Schumacher, Mare; Nieto, Nathan; Corrigan, Jennifer; Murray, Hugh; Maurer, Matt

    2016-04-01

    During the summer of 2014 an outbreak of tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) occurred in a group of high school students and staff at a youth camp, which was reported to Coconino County Public Health Services District. Six confirmed and five probable cases of TBRF occurred. During the environmental investigation two rodents tested positive for TBRF, but the vector, soft ticks, could not be found in their "normal" habitat. Ticks were finally located in areas not typical for soft ticks. PMID:27188066

  19. Hot Evolved Companions to Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars: Solving the Mystery of KOI-81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    The NASA Kepler Science Team recently announced the discovery of twotransiting binaries that have "planets" hotter than their host stars.These systems probably represent the first known examples of white dwarfsformed through mass loss and transfer among intermediate mass, closebinary stars. Here we propose to obtain COS FUV spectroscopy of one ofthese systems, KOI-81, in order to detect the hot companion in a part of the spectrum where it is relatively bright. The spectral flux and Doppler shift measurements will yield the temperatures, masses, radii, and compositions of both components. These observations will provide our first opportunity to explore this previously hidden stage of close binary evolution.

  20. A mystery solved? Photoelectron spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of the ion states of CeCp3(+).

    PubMed

    Coates, Rosemary; Coreno, Marcello; DeSimone, Monica; Green, Jennifer C; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Kerridge, Andrew; Narband, Naima; Sella, Andrea

    2009-08-14

    The electronic states of CeCp(3)(+) have been studied experimentally by variable photon energy photoelectron spectroscopy, and computationally using multi-configurational ab initio methods. Relative partial photoionisation cross section and branching ratio data are presented to confirm our previous conclusion that bands A and D in the valence photoelectron spectrum, despite their 3.2 eV separation, are produced by ionization of the single 4f electron of CeCp(3) [M. Coreno, M. de Simone, J. C. Green, N. Kaltsoyannis, N. Narband and A. Sella, Chem. Phys. Lett., 432, 2006, 17]. The origin of this effect is probed using the CASSCF/CASPT2 approach. While configurations based on the canonical CASSCF orbitals are found to be an unreliable description of the ground and excited states of CeCp(3)(+), the state-specific natural orbitals and their occupations yield greater insight, allowing us to characterize ion states in terms of the presence or otherwise of a Ce 4f-localised electron. Neither the CeCp(3)(+) ground state (assigned to band A), and two excited states ((1)A' and (1)A'', associated with band D), possess such a metal-based electron, as expected of f ionization. The (1)A' and (1)A'' states differ from the ground state in having a significant Ce 5d population, arising from Cp --> Ce charge transfer, which accompanies f ionization, and which is responsible for the energetic separation of bands A and D in the valence photoelectron spectrum. PMID:19623395

  1. Toward solving the mystery of the AGN soft X-ray excess with hard X-ray observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, R.; Mushotzky, R.; Reynolds, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Gallo, L.; Zoghbi, A.; Walton, D.

    2014-07-01

    The physical origin of the `soft excess' below 1keV in many AGN spectra remains unclear. Diverse models have been suggested, including ionised reflection from the inner part of the accretion disc, ionised winds/absorbers and Comptonisation. Ionised reflection suggests a natural link between the prominence of the soft excess and the 'hard excess' or Compton reflection hump strength above 10keV, but it has not been possible to test this relationship until now, with reliable simultaneous broad-band X-ray observations from joint XMM-NuSTAR campaigns. We present extensive simulations of spectra from ionised reflection and ionised absorption using current (XMM, NuSTAR) and future (ASTRO-H) instrumental responses, to determine how these models can be distinguished using simple broad-band observables. We propose a new diagnostic to distinguish soft-excess production mechanisms using a simple simultaneous measure of their soft excess and hard excess strengths (S, R). This approach can be straightforwardly extended to other soft-excess candidate models. Our work shows how current and future state-of-the-art observatories can offer real potential for progress on this issue.

  2. Australian scientists develop male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    1974-05-20

    The Australian Information Service in Canberra reports that Australian scientists have formulated a contraceptive pill to temporarily stop spermatogenesis in man, thus producing infertility. The research was done by a team consisting of Dr. Henry Burger, director of the Medical Reserach Center at Prince Henry's Hospital in Melbourne, Dr. Bryan Hudson, Principal Research Fellow at the Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Medicine at the Univeristy of Melbourne, and Dr. David de Kretser, senior lecturer in Monash University's Department of Medicine at Prince Henry's Hospital. The contraceptive pill consists of progestagen (d-norgestrel) with androgen (methyltestosterone), a combination that suppresses the production of the sperm but conserves libido and potency. The testing program has yet to be undertaken in human volunteers. There will be three phases to the drug trial: pretreatment, during which the health of the volunteers and the safety of the drug will be established; the treatment phase, lasting six months, during which the volunteers will be given daily oral dose of the drugs; and the recovery phase, lasting at least three months, during which the restoration of normal spermatogenesis will be observed. PMID:12333267

  3. What Is the (ethical) Role of Scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2014-12-01

    Many scientists are reluctant to speak out on issues of broad societal importance for fear that doing so crosses into territory that is not the scientists' domain. Others fear that scientists lose credibility when they address ethical and moral issues. A related concern is that discussing social or ethical questions runs the risk of politicizing science. Yet history shows that in the past, scientists often have spoken out on broad issues of societal concern, often (although not always) effectively. This paper explores the conditions under which scientists may be effective spokesmen and women on ethical and moral choices, and suggests some criteria by which scientists might decide when and whether it is appropriate for them to speak out beyond the circles of other technical experts.

  4. The soul of the scientist

    SciTech Connect

    DeBakey, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    The author addresses the essense of scientific personnel as the animating and vital principle in people credited with the facilities of thought, action and emotion. Science pervades our lives and civilization. The author provides a view of the nature of science as a way of thinking and of solving problems. Science is presented as a highly organized, integrated, dynamic structure with diverse branches and widely disparate components that often combine for producing remarkable and unexpected benefits. Medical science is used to illustrate the humane goals of science. Modern medical issues and the Nation`s concern for reform in our health management systems are used to show the need for priorities and furthering the scientific education of the nation. 3 refs.

  5. Digging Into the Mysteries of Delirium | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Delirium Research Digging Into the Mysteries of Delirium Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table ... by delirium experience its effects for weeks after the first occurrence. Why is this? That's part of ...

  6. Electric current solves mazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-07-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question: how can the electric current choose the right way and avoid dead ends?

  7. How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Baden, Michael [MD, New York Police, New York, New York, United States

    2009-09-01

    Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

  8. How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baden, Michael

    2006-05-17

    Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

  9. The effect of mystery shopper reports on age verification for tobacco purchases.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Brad S; Ponicki, William R; Grube, Joel W; DeJong, William

    2011-09-01

    Mystery shops involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been implemented in order to monitor retail stores' performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that mystery shop visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the effect of monthly and twice-monthly mystery shop reports on age verification. Mystery shoppers visited 45 Walgreens stores 20 times. The stores were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions. Control group stores received no feedback, whereas 2 treatment groups received feedback communications on every visit (twice monthly) or on every second visit (monthly) after baseline. Logit regression models tested whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Postbaseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, but only the stores receiving monthly communications had a significantly greater improvement compared with the control group stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all 3 groups, with delayed improvement among control group stores. Communication between managers regarding the mystery shop program may account for the delayed age-verification improvements observed in the control group stores. Encouraging interstore communication might extend the benefits of mystery shop programs beyond those stores that receive this intervention. PMID:21541874

  10. The benefits of mystery in nature on attention: assessing the impacts of presentation duration

    PubMed Central

    Szolosi, Andrew M.; Watson, Jason M.; Ruddell, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has provided prodigious evidence in support of the cognitive benefits that natural settings have over urban settings, all nature is not equal. Within nature, natural settings that contain mystery are often among the most preferred nature scenes. With the prospect of acquiring new information, scenes of this type could more effectively elicit a person's sense of fascination, enabling that person to rest the more effortful forms of attention. The present study examined the direct cognitive benefits that mystery in nature has on attention. Settings of this sort presumably evoke a form of attention that is undemanding or effortless. In order to investigate that notion, participants (n = 144) completed a Recognition Memory Task (RMT) that evaluated recognition performance based on the presence of mystery and presentation duration (300 ms, 1 s, 5 s, and 10 s). Results revealed that with additional viewing time, images perceived high in mystery achieved greater improvements in recognition performance when compared to those images perceived low in mystery. Tests for mediation showed that the effect mystery had on recognition performance occurred through perceptions of fascination. Implications of these and other findings are discussed in the context of Attention Restoration Theory. PMID:25505441

  11. The interface between the phonetic scientist and forensic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollien, Harry

    2003-10-01

    Many scientists find the interface with criminal/civil investigations and the resulting litigation quite challenging. The great variety found among such cases and their (sometimes) shockingly grim aspects, can be most daunting. Moreover, the aid these scientists can expect when attempting to learn their responsibilities (while good) tends to focus only on the roles they will play in the courts. The reality is that they also must serve in a second domain that of investigator/consultant to law enforcement personnel and attorneys. Since training, structure and guidelines are lacking in this area, the relevant problems must be addressed (and solved) directly by the scientist. To do so, he/she must (1) learn about the parallels between laboratory investigations and forensic investigations and organize links, (2) compensate for the differences between them, (3) organize scientific personnel for collaborations in support of the needs of the practitioners, (4) adapt laboratory procedures for forensic application, (5) establish criteria for these applications and (6) develop and articulate what can and cannot be expected of these procedures. Brief case reviews will be presented to illustrate each of these issues.

  12. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists.

    PubMed

    Via, Allegra; Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K

    2013-09-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists. PMID:23803301

  13. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists

    PubMed Central

    Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D.; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L.; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K.

    2013-01-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists. PMID:23803301

  14. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  15. Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers' perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that

  16. VLBA Scientists Study Birth of Sunlike Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    Three teams of scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to learn tantalizing new details about how Sun-like stars are formed. Young stars, still growing by drawing in nearby gas, also spew some of that material back into their surroundings, like impatient infants that eat too quickly. The VLBA observations are giving astronomers new insights on both processes -- the accretion of material by the new stars and the outflows of material from them. "For the first time, we're actually seeing what happens right down next to the star in these young systems," said Mark Claussen, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Claussen and other researchers announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. Material attracted by a young star's gravitational pull forms a flat, orbiting disk, called an accretion disk, in which the material circles closer and closer to the star until finally drawn into it. At the same time, material is ejected in "jets" speeding from the poles of the accretion disk. "The VLBA is showing us the first images of the region close to the star where the material in these jets is accelerated and formed into the `beams' of the jet," Claussen said. "We don't understand the details of these processes well," Claussen said. "These VLBA research projects are beginning to help unravel the mysteries of how stars like the Sun form." The teams are observing clumps of water vapor that naturally amplify radio emissions to see details smaller than the orbit of Mercury in young stellar systems as well as track gas motions. The clumps of gas are called masers, and amplify radio emission in much the same way that a laser amplifies light emission. "These images are just fantastic," said Al Wootten of NRAO in Charlottesville, VA. The maser clumps or "spots," emitting radio waves at a specific wavelength, can be tracked as they move over time. In addition, by measuring the Doppler shift in the wavelength of these emissions, astronomers can determine the speed at which the gas is moving. In an object known as S106FIR, 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus, a team of Japanese and U.S. VLBA observers led by Ray Furuya, a graduate student from Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory, has tracked the motion of material outward in the jet. This object, embedded in a dense cloud of molecular gas, the material from which the star is forming, shows maser spots moving in two directions as the jets emerge from both poles of the accretion disk. "The water masers are the only way we can detect the outflow from this young star," Furuya said. The VLBA observations can discern details as small as half the distance from the Earth to the Sun. "We can see outflow on scales the size of our Solar System. We think this object is one of the youngest protostars known," Furuya said. In another object, dubbed IRAS 16293-2422, in the constellation Ophiuchus, astronomers believe the water masers clearly show the outflowing jets of a young star and may be tracing the accretion disk as well. The young star is one of a pair of stars in a binary system some 500 light-years distant. The water-vapor masers are seen around only one of the pair, however. "In this system, we see outflow in the jet and also an elliptical ring of masers that may be part of the accretion disk," said Wootten, leader of the team observing this object. "The VLBA is showing us details as small as the size of Mercury's orbit around the Sun, a great help in understanding the physics going on there," Wootten said. A team composed largely of astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, also used the VLBA to study water masers in a young stellar object 2,500 light-years away in Cepheus. This team sees maser spots moving in opposite directions away from the young star on scales of ten times the diameter of the solar system, presumably tracing the jet or wind. On smaller scales, there is a circular loop of masers which the astronomers believe surrounds the young stellar object. "The loop probably represents the edge of a dusty shell of gas smaller than the Earth's orbit. The star is several times the mass of the Sun and its heat evaporates material closer in," said Nimesh Patel, leader of the team. The ability to see the details of stars still undergoing their formation processes is extremely valuable to understanding the details of those processes, according to Claussen, a member of the teams led by Furuya and Wootten. "The VLBA images show detail about 100 times better than those routinely available from other radio telescopes," Claussen said. "Studying these systems by observing the clumps of water vapor that act as masers is not particularly difficult with the VLBA. There are hundreds of young stars that we can study this way, and that means that we have a tremendous opportunity to learn just how stars similar to our Sun are formed and interact with their surroundings in the early parts of their lives." The VLBA is a system of ten radio-telescope antennas, each 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter, stretching some 5,000 miles from Mauna Kea in Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Operated from NRAO's Array Operations Center in Socorro, NM, the VLBA offers astronomers the greatest resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope currently operational. The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. Precise Heat Control: What Every Scientist Needs to Know About Pyrolytic Techniques to Solve Real Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devivar, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a material is greatly influenced by its thermal and chemical properties. Analytical pyrolysis, when coupled to a GC-MS system, is a powerful technique that can unlock the thermal and chemical properties of almost any substance and provide vital information. At NASA, we depend on precise thermal analysis instrumentation for understanding aerospace travel. Our analytical techniques allow us to test materials in the laboratory prior to an actual field test; whether the field test is miles up in the sky or miles underground, the properties of any involved material must be fully studied and understood in the laboratory.

  18. Astrochemistry: Fullerene solves an interstellar puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory measurements confirm that a 'buckyball' ion is responsible for two near-infrared absorption features found in spectra of the interstellar medium, casting light on a century-old astrochemical mystery. See Letter p.322

  19. Movement mysteries unveiled: spatial ecology of juvenile green sea turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.

    2013-01-01

    Locations of important foraging areas are not well defined for many marine species. Unraveling these mysteries is vital to develop conservation strategies for these species, many of which are threatened or endangered. Satellite-tracking is a tool that can reveal movement patterns at both broad and fine spatial scales, in all marine environments. This chapter presents records of the longest duration track of an individual juvenile green turtle (434 days) and highest number of tracking days in any juvenile green turtle study (5483 tracking days) published to date. In this chapter, we use spatial modeling techniques to describe movements and identify foraging areas for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) captured in a developmental habitat in south Texas, USA. Some green turtles established residency in the vicinity of their capture and release site, but most used a specific habitat feature (i.e., a jettied pass) to travel between the Gulf of Mexico and a nearby bay. Still others moved southward within the Gulf of Mexico into Mexican coastal waters, likely in response to decreasing water temperatures. These movements to waters off the coast of Mexico highlight the importance of international cooperation in restoration efforts undertaken on behalf of this imperiled species.

  20. Waiting for Brandon: How Readers Respond to Small Mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Gerrig, Richard J.; Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    When readers experience narratives they often encounter small mysteries—questions that a text raises that are not immediately settled. In our experiments, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper names (e.g., “It’s just that Brandon hasn’t called in so long”). Resolved versions of the stories specified the functions those characters’ assumed in their narrative worlds with respect to the other characters (e.g., Brandon was identified as the speaker’s grandson); unresolved versions of the stories did not immediately provide that information. We predicted that characters whose functions were still unresolved would remain relatively accessible in the discourse representations. We tested that prediction in Experiments 1 and 2 by asking participants to indicate whether a name (e.g., Brandon) had appeared in the story. Participants responded most swiftly when the characters remained unresolved. In the latter experiments, we demonstrated that the presence of an unresolved character disrupted processing of information that followed that character’s introduction (Experiment 3) but not information that preceded that introduction (Experiment 4). These results support the general importance of providing a theoretical account of readers’ responses to narrative mysteries. PMID:20046984

  1. The Complex World of Adolescent Literacy: Myths, Motivations, and Mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Overby, Melanie; Tysvaer, Nicole; Morris, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Elizabeth Birr Moje, Melanie Overby, Nicole Tysvaer, and Karen Morris challenge some of the prevailing myths about adolescents and their choices related to reading. The reading practices of youth from one urban community are examined using mixed methods in an effort to define what, how often, and why adolescents choose to read. By focusing on what features of texts youth find motivating, the authors find that reading and writing frequently occur in a range of literacy contexts outside school. However, only reading novels on a regular basis outside of school is shown to have a positive relationship to academic achievement as measured by school grades. This article describes how adolescents read texts that are embedded in social networks, allowing them to build social capital. Conclusions are framed in terms of the mysteries that remain — namely, how to build on what motivates adolescents' literacy practices in order to both promote the building of their social selves and improve their academic outcomes. PMID:19756223

  2. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

  3. The Mysteries of Auroral X-rays: Then and Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, G. K.

    2001-12-01

    This talk will review the history of auroral X-ray observations and their contributions to magnetospheric physics. X-rays were first discovered in the magnetic storm of July 1, 1957 over Minneapolis by John Winckler's research group. A cosmic ray particle experiment aloft a balloon detected an anomalous increase in counting rate that was later deduced to be atmospheric bremsstrahlung X-rays from precipitated energetic electrons. X-ray experiments subsequently carried out from the auroral zone yielded the important information that precipitated electrons are highly structured in space and time. Periodic 5-30s pulsations dominate the early morning sector, while =1s microbursts in the dawn to noon sector. Satellite observations have now obtained global features about the energetic electron precipitation. Most of the auroral X-rays have energies =20-100 keV but recent data indicate that electron precipitation frequently involves intense bursts of X-rays with MeV energies. John Winckler led the way on an exciting path that extends into the future, as researchers will continue to delve into the mystery of source mechanisms of pulsations, microbursts and the MeV X-rays.

  4. Jets Spout Far Closer to Black Hole Than Thought, Scientists Say

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, taking advantage of multiple unique views of black hole particle jets over the course of a year with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, have assembled a "picture" of the region that has revealed several key discoveries. They have found that the jets may be originating five times closer to the black hole than previously thought; they see in better detail how these jets change with time and distance from the black hole; and they could use this information as a new technique to measure black hole mass. Presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, the observation will ultimately help solve the mystery of the great cosmic contradiction, in which black holes, notorious for pulling matter in, somehow manage to also shoot matter away in particle jets moving close to the speed of light. The observation is of a familiar source named SS 433 -- a binary star system within our Galaxy in the constellation Aquila, the Eagle, about 16,000 light years away. The black hole and its companion are about two-thirds closer to each other than the planet Mercury is to the Sun. The jets shoot off at 175 million miles per hour, 26 percent of light speed. "The high-speed jets in nearby SS 433 may be caused by the same mechanisms as the powerful outflows in the most distant and much more massive black holes, such as quasars," said Laura Lopez, an undergraduate student at MIT and lead author on a paper about the result. "SS 433 provides a nice local laboratory to study the formation of and conditions in relativistic jets." Dr. Herman Marshall, Ms. Lopez's research supervisor, led the investigation. Matter from the companion star pours into the black hole via a swirling accretion disk, much like water down a drain. Black hole particles jets are thought to be produced as some of the matter encounters strong magnetic fields close to the black hole. SS 433 is angled in such a way that one jet is shooting away from us while the other is aimed slightly towards us. The black hole's companion star enters the picture here as it periodically eclipses parts of the jets. Scientists use the eclipse, called an occultation, as a tool to block one part of the jet so that they can study other parts more easily. Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, the MIT group measured many characteristics of the jets, forming the best view of a jet's structure ever obtained. No image was created, as in other Chandra observations. Rather, the scientists pieced together the scene through spectroscopy, the fingerprint of chemical elements that reveals temperature and velocity of matter in the jets. They determined the length of the X-ray-emitting portion of the jet (over one million miles, about five times the distance from the Earth to the Moon); the temperature range (dropping from about 100 million degrees Celsius to 10 million degrees farther out); the chemical abundances (iron, silicon, and more); and the jet opening angle. In a previous observation they measured the jet's density. With this information, the team could determine that the jet base was five times closer to the black hole than previously observed, with a base diameter of about 1,280 miles. Also, from a bit of geometry along with information on the size of the binary system from optical observations by a team led by Douglas Gies of Georgia State University, the MIT group determined that the size of the companion star that blocked the view of the receding jet is about nine times the size of the Sun. From that, they estimated that the black hole is 16 solar masses. (For many years scientists have speculated whether SS 433 contains a black hole or a neutron star. Today's announcement of a 16-solar-mass object confirms that it is indeed a black hole, too massive to be a neutron star.) "The uniqueness of SS 433 cannot be overstated," said Marshall. "SS 433 provides an excellent opportunity to study the origin, evolution, and long-term behavior of jets because the X rays come from a region very close to the black hole. Of the hundreds of jets observed in the radio and X-ray bands, this is the only one for which we have a solid statement that it contains atomic nuclei and for which we are sure of the internal temperature and density." Supermassive black holes with jets, such as quasars, might display similar behavior, but they are so massive and so distant that changes cannot be observed because time scales are too long. Thus SS 433 serves as a laboratory to study the jet phenomenon "close to home," Marshall said. As such, further Chandra observations are planned. Collaborators on the investigation were Claude Canizares, Julie Kane, and Norbert Schulz, all of MIT. For images, refer to http://space.mit.edu/~hermanm/ss433.html.

  5. USGS Scientists Monitor San Juan River

    USGS scientists collecting water samples along the San Juan River in Farmington, New Mexico on August 8, 2015. Scientists from the USGS New Mexico Water Science Center obtained water samples from the Animas and San Juan Rivers before and after arrival of the August 5 Gold King Mine spill....

  6. Secularization and Religious Change among Elite Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Park, Jerry Z.; Veliz, Phil Todd

    2008-01-01

    Sociologists of religion have often connected secularization to science, but have rarely examined the role of religion in the lives of scientists or how the sciences have changed religiously over time. Here we address this shortcoming by comparing religiosity between two samples of elite academic natural and social scientists, one in 1969 and one…

  7. Science denial: a guide for scientists.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    Evolution, climate change, and vaccination: in these cases and more, scientists, policymakers, and educators are confronted by organized campaigns to spread doubt, denial, and rejection of the scientific community's consensus on central scientific principles. To overcome these threats, scientists not only need to spread scientific knowledge, but must also address the social drivers of science denial. PMID:23164600

  8. Secularization and Religious Change among Elite Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Park, Jerry Z.; Veliz, Phil Todd

    2008-01-01

    Sociologists of religion have often connected secularization to science, but have rarely examined the role of religion in the lives of scientists or how the sciences have changed religiously over time. Here we address this shortcoming by comparing religiosity between two samples of elite academic natural and social scientists, one in 1969 and one

  9. Scientists' Views about Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besley, John C.; Dudo, Anthony; Storksdieck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses how scientists think about science communication training based on the argument that such training represents an important tool in improving the quality of interactions between scientists and the public. It specifically focuses on training related to five goals, including views about training to make science messages…

  10. Educators' Views of Collaboration with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated educators' views of collaboration with scientists, a baseline for COSEE Great Lakes efforts in facilitating dynamic collaborative relationships between Great Lakes researchers and educators. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how are educators in the Great Lakes region involved in collaboration with scientists,…

  11. Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

  12. Educating the Next Generation of Agricultural Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agriculture.

    The Committee on Evaluation of Trends in Agricultural Research at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Level was established to analyze issues related to the next generation of agricultural scientists. This report contains the findings, conclusions, and recommendations regarding the status and future needs of agricultural scientists. This report focuses…

  13. Communicating Like a Scientist with Multimodal Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Mark; Kuhn, Mason

    2012-01-01

    If students are to accurately model how scientists use written communication, they must be given opportunities to use creative means to describe science in the classroom. Scientists often integrate pictures, diagrams, charts, and other modes within text and students should also be encouraged to use multiple modes of communication. This article…

  14. How Scientists Develop Competence in Visual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This…

  15. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation…

  16. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation

  17. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  18. Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marty

    1991-01-01

    A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)

  19. How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2009-01-01

    The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are…

  20. Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

    2011-12-01

    Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

  1. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  2. How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2009-01-01

    The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are

  3. Solving crimes with hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Wester, William C; Hammond, D Corydon

    2011-04-01

    Following a brief review of the literature on hypnosis and memory, this paper overviews the procedures that are used in conducting forensic hypnosis interviews. Ten forensic hypnosis cases are then described. These real world cases are in stark contrast to research done in an artificial laboratory setting where the information to be recalled lacks personal relevance and was not associated with emotionally arousing situations. These cases illustrate how forensic hypnosis can result in obtaining important additional investigative leads which lead to the solving of crimes. PMID:21598840

  4. Analyzing Prospective Teachers' Images of Scientists Using Positive, Negative and Stereotypical Images of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Wojnowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the

  5. Analyzing Prospective Teachers' Images of Scientists Using Positive, Negative and Stereotypical Images of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Wojnowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the…

  6. The Virtual Scientist: Connecting University Scientists to the K-12 Classroom through Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Glenn B.; Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Shepherd, Virginia L.

    2007-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University Center for Science Outreach (CSO) connects university scientists to the K-12 community to enhance and improve science education. The Virtual Scientist program utilizes interactive videoconference (IVC) to facilitate this connection, providing 40-50 sessions per academic year to a national audience. Scientists, defined as…

  7. Mad City Mystery: Developing Scientific Argumentation Skills with a Place-based Augmented Reality Game on Handheld Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Kurt D.; Jan, Mingfong

    2007-02-01

    While the knowledge economy has reshaped the world, schools lag behind in producing appropriate learning for this social change. Science education needs to prepare students for a future world in which multiple representations are the norm and adults are required to "think like scientists." Location-based augmented reality games offer an opportunity to create a "post-progressive" pedagogy in which students are not only immersed in authentic scientific inquiry, but also required to perform in adult scientific discourses. This cross-case comparison as a component of a design-based research study investigates three cases (roughly 28 students total) where an Augmented Reality curriculum, Mad City Mystery, was used to support learning in environmental science. We investigate whether augmented reality games on handhelds can be used to engage students in scientific thinking (particularly argumentation), how game structures affect students' thinking, the impact of role playing on learning, and the role of the physical environment in shaping learning. We argue that such games hold potential for engaging students in meaningful scientific argumentation. Through game play, players are required to develop narrative accounts of scientific phenomena, a process that requires them to develop and argue scientific explanations. We argue that specific game features scaffold this thinking process, creating supports for student thinking non-existent in most inquiry-based learning environments.

  8. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea

  9. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  10. Real Science, Real Learning: Bridging the Gap Between Scientists, Educators and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Today as never before, America needs its citizens to be literate in science and technology. Not only must we only inspire a new generation of scientists and engineers and technologists, we must foster a society capable of meeting complex, 21st-century challenges. Unfortunately, the need for creative, flexible thinkers is growing at a time when our young students are lagging in science interest and performance. Over the past 17 years, the JASON Project has worked to link real science and scientists to the classroom. This link provide viable pipeline to creating the next generation scientists and researchers. Ultimately, JASON's mission is to improve the way science is taught by enabling students to learn directly from leading scientists. Through partnerships with agencies such as NOAA and NASA, JASON creates multimedia classroom products based on current scientific research. Broadcasts of science expeditions, hosted by leading researchers, are coupled with classroom materials that include interactive computer-based simulations, video- on-demand, inquiry-based experiments and activities, and print materials for students and teachers. A "gated" Web site hosts online resources and provides a secure platform to network with scientists and other classrooms in a nationwide community of learners. Each curriculum is organized around a specific theme for a comprehensive learning experience. It may be taught as a complete package, or individual components can be selected to teach specific, standards-based concepts. Such thematic units include: Disappearing Wetlands, Mysteries of Earth and Mars, and Monster Storms. All JASON curriculum units are grounded in "inquiry-based learning." The highly interactive curriculum will enable students to access current, real-world scientific research and employ the scientific method through reflection, investigation, identification of problems, sharing of data, and forming and testing hypotheses. JASON specializes in effectively applying technology in science education by designing animated interactive visualizations that promote student understanding of complex scientific concepts and systems (Rieber, 1990, 1996). JASON's experience in utilizing the power of simulation technology has been widely recognized for its effectiveness in exciting and engaging students in science learning by independent evaluations of JASON's multimedia science curriculum (Ba et al., 2001; Goldenberg et al., 2003). The data collected indicates that JASON's science products have had a positive impact on students' science learning, have positively influenced their perceptions of scientists and of becoming scientists, and have helped diverse students grasp a deeper understanding of complex scientific content, concepts and technologies.

  11. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...

  12. Pebble Puzzle Solved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 In the quest to determine if a pebble was jamming the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, scientists and engineers examined this up-close, approximate true-color image of the tool. The picture was taken by the rover's panoramic camera, using filters centered at 601, 535, and 482 nanometers, at 12:47 local solar time on sol 200 (August 16, 2004).

    Colored spots have been drawn on this image corresponding to regions where panoramic camera reflectance spectra were acquired (see chart in Figure 1). Those regions are: the grinding wheel heads (yellow); the rock abrasion tool magnets (green); the supposed pebble (red); a sunlit portion of the aluminum rock abrasion tool housing (purple); and a shadowed portion of the rock abrasion tool housing (brown). These spectra demonstrated that the composition of the supposed pebble was clearly different from that of the sunlit and shadowed portions of the rock abrasion tool, while similar to that of the dust-coated rock abrasion tool magnets and grinding heads. This led the team to conclude that the object disabling the rock abrasion tool was indeed a martian pebble.

  13. THE MYSTERY OF THE COSMIC DIFFUSE ULTRAVIOLET BACKGROUND RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Richard Conn; Murthy, Jayant; Overduin, James; Tyler, Joshua E-mail: jmurthy@yahoo.com E-mail: 97tyler@cardinalmail.cua.edu

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic background radiation in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV, 1300-1700 Å) is deduced to originate only partially in the dust-scattered radiation of FUV-emitting stars: the source of a substantial fraction of the FUV background radiation remains a mystery. The radiation is remarkably uniform at both far northern and far southern Galactic latitudes and increases toward lower Galactic latitudes at all Galactic longitudes. We examine speculation that this might be due to interaction of the dark matter with the nuclei of the interstellar medium, but we are unable to point to a plausible mechanism for an effective interaction. We also explore the possibility that we are seeing radiation from bright FUV-emitting stars scattering from a ''second population'' of interstellar grains—grains that are small compared with FUV wavelengths. Such grains are known to exist, and they scatter with very high albedo, with an isotropic scattering pattern. However, comparison with the observed distribution (deduced from their 100 μm emission) of grains at high Galactic latitudes shows no correlation between the grains' location and the observed FUV emission. Our modeling of the FUV scattering by small grains also shows that there must be remarkably few such ''smaller'' grains at high Galactic latitudes, both north and south; this likely means simply that there is very little interstellar dust of any kind at the Galactic poles, in agreement with Perry and Johnston. We also review our limited knowledge of the cosmic diffuse background at ultraviolet wavelengths shortward of Lyα—it could be that our ''second component'' of the diffuse FUV background persists shortward of the Lyman limit and is the cause of the reionization of the universe.

  14. Emanations and ``induced'' radioactivity: From mystery to (mis)use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolar, Z. I.

    1999-01-01

    Radon, Rn; atomic number Z=85; is a (gaseous) chemical element of which no stable but only radioactive isotopes exist. Three of them, namely actinon (219Rn), thoron (220Rn) and radon (222Rn) are the decay products of naturally occurring radioisotopes of radium:223Ra,224Ra and226Ra, respectively. The natural Rn isotopes were discovered within the period 1899-1902 and at that time referred to as emanations because they came out (emanated) of sources/materials containing actinium, thorium and radium, respectively. The (somewhat mysterious) emanations appeared to disintegrate into radioactive decay products which by depositing at solid surfaces gave rise to “induced” radioactivity i.e. radioactive substances with various half-lives. Following the discovery of the emanations the volume of the research involving them and their disintegration products grew steeply. The identity of a number of these radioactive products was soon established. Radium- emanation was soon used as a source of RaD (210Pb) to be applied as an “indicator” (radiotracer) for lead in a study on the solubility of lead sulphide and lead chromate. Moreover, radium and its emanation were introduced into the medical practice. Inhaling radon and drinking radon-containing water became an accepted medicinal use (or misuse?) of that gas. Shortly after the turn of the century, the healing (?) action of natural springs (spas) was attributed to their radium emanation i.e. radon. Bathing in radioactive spring water and drinking it became very popular. Even today, bathing in radon-containing water is still a common medical treatment in Jáchymov, Czech Republic.

  15. Toward an understanding of middle school students' problem-solving strategies: Establishing a foundation for teacher inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Gary

    During the past decade science teachers have made increasing use of a real-world, problem-based approach to science teaching. Without theories of how and why students use knowledge to solve such problems, teachers are constrained in their ability to diagnose students' difficulties in comprehending science concepts as well as students' problems in making connections among the concepts. In this study students from two middle schools were given a "hands-on" experience in solving a real-world forensics problem based on the Lawrence's Hall of Science's Mystery Festival, "The Case of the Missing Millionaire." Following the Mystery Festival, the students went to the computer lab to solve the computer-based transfer problems created with IMMEX problem-solving software. The software includes authoring capabilities and a tracking system that records students' use of knowledge and concepts to solve problems. Data from the computer-based pathways of 495 student pairs, video-records of pairs of students problem-solving, teachers' perception of processes in their classes, and my own observations of problem-solving in action yielded the following results: (1) Twice as many 7th and 8th graders as 6th graders were successful in solving "Roger Rabbit." (2) Approximately twice as many groups correctly solving the problem used an evidence-based approach compared to groups that missed the answer. Groups correctly answering the problem used the evidence-based method, a conjecture-based approach, and a mixed approach (integration of evidence and conjecture) with approximately the same frequencies. (3) Information selection strategies, from the first item a group selected to the last, as they attempted to solve the problem was classified in one of three categories: trial and error, menu-based, and logically linked. Trial and error and menu-based were the dominant strategies. (4) In a follow-up study, 7th and 8th graders attempted to solve "Roger Rabbit" without the hands-on experience of the Mystery Festival. These students comprised a comparison group whereas the original students were designated as the experimental group. The experimental groups were 1.5 times more likely to employ a logically linked strategy for selecting information. (5) Experimental groups that correctly solved the problem were more likely to use an evidence-based approach than were the comparison groups.

  16. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Garovic, Vesna D.; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S.; Winham, Stacey J.; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Milic, Natasa M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students’ fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists. PMID:27058055

  17. Attracting, Retaining, and Engaging Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan; Heal, Kate; Pringle, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Young Scientists Event, IUGG XXIV General Assembly; Perugia, Italy, 10 July 2007 This young scientists event was organized to engage younger scientists with the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and to provide a specific forum to express their views at the General Assembly. It comprised a panel discussion chaired by Kate Heal and with three young geosciences panelists (Masaki Hayashi, University of Calgary, Canada; Kalachand Sain, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India; and Simona Stefanescu, National Meteorological Administration, Bucharest). The group, which had identified several topics relevant to young geoscientists, presented their views in open discussion session. Thirty IUGG conference attendees were present.

  18. My path to becoming a data scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, G.

    2013-12-01

    The choice to become a data scientist wasn't one I consciously made. I began as a student assistant working on a small data analysis package, and have evolved since then (with various diversions along the way) to become NCAR's primary global climate model data manager and global climate model data scientist. I've witnessed how data management in this area of the earth sciences has changed, from notes attached to cases for magnetic tapes containing esoteric binary data, to today's standards for data formats and metadata standards. I'll talk about how I became a data scientist and the experiences I've had in my career.

  19. The Real Life of a Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, W. G.

    2011-12-01

    The choice to become a data scientist wasn't one I consciously made. I began as a student assistant working on a small data analysis package, and have evolved since then (with various diversions along the way) to become NCAR's primary global climate model data manager and global climate model data scientist. I've witnessed how data management in this area of the earth sciences has changed, from notes attached to cases for magnetic tapes containing esoteric binary data, to today's standards for data formats and metadata standards. I'll talk about how I became a data scientist and the experiences I've had in my career.

  20. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists.

    PubMed

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Garovic, Vesna D; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S; Winham, Stacey J; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Milic, Natasa M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students' fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists. PMID:27058055

  1. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving

  2. Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Alan

    Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…

  3. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    ScienceCinema

    Ron Zuckerman

    2010-01-08

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  4. USGS Scientists in Wadi Degla, Northern Egypt

    USGS scientists looking at Eocene sandstones and limestones in Wadi Degla, northern Egypt. This area was studied to understand the Levant Basin Province, as both regions have similar rock formations....

  5. Ask a Climate Scientist - Duration: 80 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

  6. USGS scientists Measure Floodwaters at Morganza Spillway

    USGS scientist Garron Ross is interviewed by CCTV reporters about USGS streamflow information. USGS streamflow information is used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to help them make informed flood management decisions....

  7. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Zuckerman

    2009-11-18

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  8. A Scientist's Guide to Science Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, J.

    2012-12-01

    Why are so many scientifically uncontroversial topics, from evolution and the age of the earth to climate change and vaccines, so contentious in society? The American public respects science and scientists, yet seems remarkably unaware of - or resistant to accepting - what scientists have learned about the world around us. This resistance holds back science education and undermines public policy discussions. Scientists and science communicators often react to science denial as if it were a question of scientific knowledge, and respond by trying to correct false scientific claims. Many independent lines of evidence show that science denial is not primarily about science. People reject scientific claims which seem to conflict with their personal identity - often because they believe that accepting those claims would threaten some deeply-valued cultural, political, or religious affiliation. Only by identifying, addressing, and defusing the underlying political and cultural concerns can educators, scientists, and science communicators undo the harm done by science denial.

  9. Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Jrène; Charbonneau, Paul

    1997-08-01

    The Draw-A-Scientist Test is an assessment tool devised to explore and measure children's stereotypical views of scientists. We administered this test to a group of 49 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in a teacher certification program. While this was originally intended as a purely pedagogical exercise, we were struck by the degree to which the drawings so produced resembled, in stereotypical content, those usually produced by children. This suggests that stereotypes of science and scientists formed during childhood, presumably via the influence of the media, remain largely unaffected by the subsequent passage through high school and college, despite the fact that numerous real-life figures of science teachers and scientists are presumably encountered throughout those formative years. We argue that this state of affairs has subtle and far reaching consequences, and is worthy of our collective attention.

  10. Education and Outreach: Advice to Young Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.

    2005-08-01

    Carl Sagan set an example to all scientists when he encouraged us to reach out to the public and share the excitement of discovery and exploration. The prejudice that ensued did not deter Sagan and, with the passing of years, more and more scientists have followed his example. Although at present scientists at all ranks are encouraged by their institutions to do outreach, the balancing of a successful scientific career with teaching and outreach is often not an easy one. Young scientists, in particular, may worry about how their outreach efforts are viewed in the community and how they will find the time and energy for these efforts. This talk will offer suggestions on how to balance an active science research program with outreach activities, the many different ways to engage in education and public outreach, and how the rewards are truly priceless.

  11. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  12. Climate Scientists Take To the Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    On 27 February 2013 amid hearings and talk of the looming across-the-board budget cuts known as sequestration, AGU partnered with 16 other scientific societies to bring 50 scientists studying different aspects of climate change to Washington, D. C., for the third annual Climate Science Congressional Visits Day on Capitol Hill. Representing a wide array of expertise, from meteorology to public health, paleoclimatology to agriculture, the scientists came to speak to members of Congress on the realities of climate change.

  13. Social scientist's viewpoint on conflict management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ertel, Madge O.

    1990-01-01

    Social scientists can bring to the conflict-management process objective, reliable information needed to resolve increasingly complex issues. Engineers need basic training in the principles of the social sciences and in strategies for public involvement. All scientists need to be sure that that the information they provide is unbiased by their own value judgments and that fair standards and open procedures govern its use.

  14. Mystery of the Hidden Cosmos [Complex Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Lincoln, Don

    2015-06-16

    Scientists know there must be more matter in the universe than what is visible. Searches for this dark matter have focused on a single unseen particle, but decades of experiments have been unsuccessful at finding it. Exotic possibilities for dark matter are looking increasingly plausible. Rather than just one particle, dark matter could contain an entire world of particles and forces that barely interact with normal matter. Complex dark matter could form dark atoms and molecules and even clump together to make hidden galactic disks that overlap with the spiral arms of the Milky Way and other galaxies. Experiments are under way to search for evidence of such a dark sector.

  15. Computer Problem-Solving Coaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

  16. Problem Solving with Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Solving real problems that are novel requires a thought process that is often far removed from what students are taught to do in high school and college chemistry courses. This paper presents a method that permits the students to work out their own logical pathway to a solution, rather than having to recall a previously learned series of solution steps. The students begin by analyzing the information content of the problem, writing out the objective and given, following which they work out a pathway. The reasoning to find the pathway begins from the objective and works backward step-by-step to the given. The answer is obtained by doing the calculations indicated by the pathway. In a study of the effectiveness of this method, it was found that use of the method correlated with greater success for the more difficult problems, but not for the easier problems. Student use of the method increased as the semester progressed, so that by the end of the semester, they used it for most problems. Previous grades in chemistry did not influence the use of the method. The greater success obtained using the method was thus not an artifact of the students’ prior experience.

  17. Cosmology Solved? Quite Possibly!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1999-03-01

    The discovery of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in 1964 by Penzias and Wilson led to the establishment of the hot big bang cosmological model some 10 years later. Discoveries made in 1998 may ultimately have as profound an effect on our understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe. Taken at face value, they confirm the basic tenets of inflation + cold dark matter, a bold and expansive theory that addresses all the fundamental questions left unanswered by the hot big bang model and holds that the universe is flat, slowly moving elementary particles provide the cosmic infrastructure, and quantum fluctuations seeded all the structure seen in the universe today. Just as it took a decade to establish the hot big bang model after the discovery of the CMB, it will likely take another 10 years to establish the latest addition to the standard cosmology and make the answer to ``Cosmology solved?'' ``YES!'' Whether or not 1998 proves to be a cosmic milestone, the coming avalanche of high-quality cosmological data promises to make the next 20 years an extremely exciting period for cosmology.

  18. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here's another chance to play geographical detective! This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. Use any reference materials you like and answer the following five questions: The large lagoon in the image is named for a particular type of bird. Name the bird. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. What did they call the river? A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. Which ONE of the following is most responsible for the formation of these cusps? Violent storm impacts on erosion and accretion Wind and tide-driven sediment transport and circulation Tectonic folding associated with nearby mountain ridges Bathymetric effects of dredging operations True or false: Changes in regional precipitation associated with large scale atmospheric circulation patterns have no effect on the salinity of the lagoon's water. Which one of these is NOT distributed within the area covered by this image? Ruppia maritima Chelonia mydas Tapirus bairdii Microcystis aeruginosa E-mail your answers, name (initials are acceptable if you prefer), and your hometown by Tuesday, February 19, 2002 to suggestions@mail-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. Answers will be published on the MISR web site in conjunction with the next weekly image release. The names and home towns of respondents who answer all questions correctly by the deadline will also be published in the order responses were received. The first 3 people on this list who are not affiliated with NASA, JPL, or MISR and who did not win a prize in the last quiz will be sent a print of the image. A new 'Where on Earth...?' mystery appears as the MISR 'image of the week' approximately once per month. A new image of the week is released every Wednesday at noon Pacific time on the MISR home page http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. The image also appears on the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center home page, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov, though usually with a several-hour delay. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  19. Ettore Majorana: The scientist and the man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, Erasmo

    2014-12-01

    Ettore Majorana was the brightest Italian theoretical physicist of the XX century (actually, Enrico Fermi regarded him as the brightest in the world of his time, and compared him to Galileo and Newton), even if to some people Majorana is often known mainly for his mysterious disappearance, in 1938, when he was 31. In this paper, we present a panoramic view of the main scientific articles published by him, as well as their significance. We also briefly outline his life, the biographical data being based on letters, documents, testimonies discovered or collected by the author during more than four decades, and contained since 1986 in Recami's book quoted in the text. Finally, extensive information and comments are added with regard to the scientific manuscripts left unpublished by Majorana. Two pictures complete the paper.

  20. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Restifo, Linda L.; Phelan, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap. PMID:21708897