Sample records for scientists solve mystery

  1. Mystery of Easter Island For centuries, scientists have tried to solve the mystery of

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    1 Mystery of Easter Island For centuries, scientists have tried to solve the mystery of how the colossal, multi-ton stone statues of Easter Island traveled up to 11 miles from the quarry where most of these experiments, visit http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2012/07/easter-island/ bloch-text.html. Their efforts

  2. Solve Medical Mysteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

  3. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzy?ski (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzy?ski introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the evolution of stars. This embarrassing discrepancy has been known since the 1960s. To resolve this mystery, astronomers needed to find a double star containing a Cepheid where the orbit happened to be seen edge-on from Earth. In these cases, known as eclipsing binaries, the brightness of the two stars dims as one component passes in front of the other, and again when it passes behind the other star. In such pairs astronomers can determine the masses of the stars to high accuracy [3]. Unfortunately neither Cepheids nor eclipsing binaries are common, so the chance of finding such an unusual pair seemed very low. None are known in the Milky Way. Wolfgang Gieren, another member of the team, takes up the story: "Very recently we actually found the double star system we had hoped for among the stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It contains a Cepheid variable star pulsating every 3.8 days. The other star is slightly bigger and cooler, and the two stars orbit each other in 310 days. The true binary nature of the object was immediately confirmed when we observed it with the HARPS spectrograph on La Silla." The observers carefully measured the brightness variations of this rare object, known as OGLE-LMC-CEP0227 [4], as the two stars orbited and passed in front of one another. They also used HARPS and other spectrographs to measure the motions of the stars towards and away from the Earth - both the orbital motion of both stars and the in-and-out motion of the surface of the Cepheid as it swelled and contracted. This very complete and detailed data allowed the observers to determine the orbital motion, sizes and masses of the two stars with very high accuracy - far surpassing what had been done before for a Cepheid. The mass of the Cepheid is now known to about 1% and agrees exactly with predictions from the theory of stellar pulsation. However, the larger mass predicted by stellar evolution theory was shown to be significantly in error. The much-improved mass estimate is only one outcome of this work, and the team hopes to find other examples of these

  4. Mucus balloons solve an ocean mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2005-06-09

    Some tadpole-sized ocean animals live in houses made of almost the very same stuff that leaks out of your nose when you have a cold. As researchers have just discovered, these mucus houses help solve the mystery of how creatures at the bottom of the ocean get enough food.

  5. NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Research 2013 January 2013 NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus Discovery Is ... the University of Oxford, U.K., have shed light on a long-standing enigma about the structure ...

  6. Use Clues to Solve an Ice Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ariel Zych

    2014-07-01

    Learners explore the variables that affect the properties of ice and the places where different types of ice are found. Using evidence from informational text and multiple media resources, as well as their own observations, learners will match six different mystery ice types to the place where each would most likely be found. Recipes for creating six different simulated ice types are provided.

  7. Lake Baikal deepwater renewal mystery solved Martin Schmid,1

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Lake Baikal deepwater renewal mystery solved Martin Schmid,1 Nikolay M. Budnev,2 Nick G. Granin,3 in Lake Baikal is very effective despite the enormous depth of up to 1642 m and the permanently stable and for evaluating the local climate history from the extraordinary sedimentary record of Lake Baikal. Citation

  8. Internet Investigations: Solving Mysteries on the Information Superhighway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy; Brown, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a group of gifted primary-school children in New Zealand explored the Internet in a workshop project organized around solving the mystery of what happened to the Titanic. Insets include the student "contract," a listing of Web sites, and the evaluation instrument. (DB)

  9. "Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts - Mystery Solved?????"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2006-01-01

    After over a decade of speculation about the nature of short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the recent detection of afterglow emission from a small number of short bursts has provided the first physical constraints on possible progenitor models. While the discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a real breakthrough linking their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, the progenitors, energetics, and environments for short gamma-ray burst events remain elusive despite a few recent localizations. Thus far, the nature of the host galaxies measured indicates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. On the other hand, some of the short burst afterglow observations cannot be easily explained in the coalescence scenario. These observations raise the possibility that short GRBs may have different or multiple progenitors systems. The study of the short-hard GRB afterglows has been made possible by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, launched in November of 2004. Swift is equipped with a coded aperture gamma-ray telescope that can observe up to 2 steradians of the sky and can compute the position of a gamma-ray burst to within 2-3 arcmin in less than 10 seconds. The Swift spacecraft can slew on to this burst position without human intervention, allowing its on-board x ray and optical telescopes to study the afterglow within 2 minutes of the original GRB trigger. More Swift short burst detections and afterglow measurements are needed before we can declare that the mystery of short gamma-ray burst is solved.

  10. Solving the Mystery of Short Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. Until this year, the origin of short gamma-ray bursts was a complete mystery. A new NASA satellite named Swift has now captured the first images of these events and found that they are caused by tremendous explosions in the distant universe.

  11. Reading and the Non-Academic Learner: A Mystery Solved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Anson

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effects of reading mystery novels on Hong Kong adult learners studying English for the purposes of pleasure or career development. Results show that novel readers made substantial proficiency gains, and that there were important motivational benefits as well. (Author/VWL)

  12. Solving the background mystery in acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changzheng Huang

    2002-01-01

    The acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST) aims to solving inverse scattering problems by decomposing the backscattering echoes into a background part and a resonance part. The former contains scatterers shape information, and the latter contains the material composition information. RST assumes the existence of an intermediate background for general scatterer and surrounding combinations. However, despite the efforts taken in the

  13. Rosetta - a comet ride to solve planetary mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. By orbiting Comet Wirtanen and landing on it, Rosetta will collect essential information to understand the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules, that - delivered to Earth through impacts - perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, “volatile” light elements carried by comets may have also played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmopshere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions ever undertaken so far”, says Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, “No one before attempted a similar mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres”. Before reaching its target in 2011, Rosetta will circle the Sun almost four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Wirtanen, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; then the spacecraft will closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be like landing on a small, fast-moving cosmic bullet that still has - at present - an almost unknown 'geography'. An amazing 8-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a 3-tonne box-type spacecraft about 3 metres high, with two 14-metre long solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately 1 metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the Rosetta orbiter during the journey to Comet Wirtanen. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will be kept in hibernation during most of its 8-year trek towards Wirtanen. What makes Rosetta's cruise so long? To reach Comet Wirtanen, the spacecraft needs to go out in deep space as far from the Sun as Jupiter is. No launcher could possibly get Rosetta there directly. ESA's spacecraft will gather speed from gravitational ‘kicks’ provided by three planetary fly-bys: one of Mars in 2005 and two of Earth in 2005 and 2007. During the trip, Rosetta will also visit two asteroids, Otawara (in 2006) and Siwa (in 2008). During these encounters, scientists will switch on Rosetta's instruments for calibration and scientific studies. Long trips in deep space include many hazards, such as extreme changes in temperature. Rosetta will leave the benign environment of near-Earth space to the dark, frigid regions beyond the asteroid belt. To manage these thermal loads, experts have done very tough pre-launch tests to study Rosetta's endurance. For example, they have heated its external surfaces to more than 150°C, then quickly cooled it to -180°C in the next test. The spacecraft will be fully reactivated prior to the comet rendezvous manoeuvre in 2011. Then, Rosetta will orbit the comet - an object only 1.2 km wide - while it cruises through the inner Solar System at 135 000 kilometres per hour. At that time of the rendezvous - around 675 million km from the Sun - Wirtanen will hardly show any surface activity. It means that the carachteristic coma (the comet’s ‘atmosphere’) and the tail will not be formed yet, because of the large distance from the Sun. The comet's tail is in fact made of dust grains and frozen gases from the comet's surface that vapourise because of the Sun's heat. During 6-month, Rosetta will extensively map the comet surface, prior to selecting a landing site. In July 2012, the lander will self-eject from the spacecraft from a height of just one kilometre. Touchdown will take place at walking speed - less than 1 metre per second. Immediately after touchdown, the lander will fire a harpoon into the ground to avoid bouncing off the surface back in

  14. ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Integral solves mystery hi-res Size hi-res: 60 kb Credits: Credit: ESA, F. Lebrun (CEA-Saclay). ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery The central regions of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as seen by Integral in gamma rays. With its superior ability to see faint details, Integral correctly reveals the individual sources that comprised the foggy, gamma-ray background seen by previous observatories. The brightest 91 objects seen in this image were classified by Integral as individual sources, while the others appear too faint to be properly characterized at this stage. During the spring and autumn of 2003, Integral observed the central regions of our Galaxy, collecting some of the perpetual glow of diffuse low-energy gamma rays that bathe the entire Galaxy. These gamma rays were first discovered in the mid-1970s by high-flying balloon-borne experiments. Astronomers refer to them as the 'soft' Galactic gamma-ray background, with energies similar to those used in medical X-ray equipment. Initially, astronomers believed that the glow was caused by interactions involving the atoms of the gas that pervades the Galaxy. Whilst this theory could explain the diffuse nature of the emission, since the gas is ubiquitous, it failed to match the observed power of the gamma rays. The gamma rays produced by the proposed mechanisms would be much weaker than those observed. The mystery has remained unanswered for decades. Now Integral's superb gamma-ray telescope IBIS, built for ESA by an international consortium led by Principal Investigator Pietro Ubertini (IAS/CNR, Rome, Italy), has seen clearly that, instead of a fog produced by the interstellar medium, most of the gamma-rays are coming from individual celestial objects. In the view of previous, less sensitive instruments, these objects appeared to merge together. In a paper published today in "Nature", Francois Lebrun (CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France) and his collaborators report the discovery of 91 gamma-ray sources towards the direction of the Galactic centre. Lebrun's team includes Ubertini and seventeen other European scientists with long-standing experience in high-energy astrophysics. Much to the team's surprise, almost half of these sources do not fall in any class of known gamma-ray objects. They probably represent a new population of gamma-ray emitters. The first clues about a new class of gamma-ray objects came last October, when Integral discovered an intriguing gamma-ray source, known as IGRJ16318-4848. The data from Integral and ESA's other high-energy observatory XMM-Newton suggested that this object is a binary system, probably including a black hole or neutron star, embedded in a thick cocoon of cold gas and dust. When gas from the companion star is accelerated and swallowed by the black hole, energy is released at all wavelengths, mostly in the gamma rays. However, Lebrun is cautious to draw premature conclusions about the sources detected in the Galactic centre. Other interpretations are also possible that do not involve black holes. For instance, these objects could be the remains of exploded stars that are being energised by rapidly rotating celestial 'powerhouses', known as pulsars. Observations with another Integral instrument (SPI, the Spectrometer on Integral) could provide Lebrun and his team with more information on the nature of these sources. SPI measures the energy of incoming gamma rays with extraordinary accuracy and allows scientist to gain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms that generate them. However, regardless of the precise nature of these gamma-ray sources, Integral's observations have convincingly shown that the energy output from these new objects accounts for almost ninety per cent of the soft gamma-ray background coming from the centre of the Galaxy. This result raises the tantalising possibility that objects of this type hide everywhere in the Galaxy, not just in its centre. Again, Lebrun is cautious, saying, "It is tempting to think that we can simply extrapolate our results to the entire Galaxy.

  15. In a Flash, NASA Helps Solve 35-Year-Old Cosmic Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Scientists have solved the 35-year-old mystery of the origin of powerful, split-second flashes of light known as short gamma-ray bursts. These flashes, brighter than a billion galaxies, yet lasting only a few milliseconds, have been simply too fast to catch - until now. Through the unprecedented coordination of observations from several ground-based telescopes and NASA satellites, scientists determined the flashes arise from violent collisions in space. The clashes are either between a black hole and a neutron star or between two neutron stars. In either scenario, the impact creates a new black hole. In at least one burst, scientists saw tantalizing, first-time evidence of a black hole eating a neutron star. The neutron star was first stretched into a crescent, then swallowed by the black hole. Two recently detected bursts are featured in four papers in this week's Nature magazine. These observations could enable direct detection of exotic gravitational waves that have never before been seen. "Gamma-ray bursts in general are notoriously difficult to study, but the shortest ones have been next to impossible to pin down," said Dr. Neil Gehrels, principal investigator for the Swift satellite at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "All that has changed. We now have the tools in place to study these events," he said. Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Gamma-ray bursts, first detected in the 1960s, are the most powerful explosions known. They are random, fleeting and can occur from any region of the sky. Two years ago, scientists discovered longer bursts, lasting more than two seconds, arise from the explosion of very massive stars. About 30 percent of bursts are short and under two seconds. The Swift satellite detected a short burst on May 9, and NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) detected another on July 9. The May 9 event marked the first time scientists identified an afterglow for a short gamma-ray burst, something commonly seen after long bursts. "We had a hunch that short gamma-ray bursts came from a neutron star crashing into a black hole or another neutron star, but these new detections leave no doubt," said Dr. Derek Fox, assistant professor of Astronomy & Astrophysics at Penn State University, State College, Pa. Fox is lead author of one Nature report detailing a multi-wavelength observation. Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Fox's team discovered the X-ray afterglow of the July 9 burst with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A team led by Jens Hjorth, a professor at the University of Copenhagen identified the optical afterglow using the Danish 1.5-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Fox's team continued studying the afterglow with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes of the Carnegie Institution, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. "The July 9 burst was like the dog that didn't bark," said Dr. George Ricker, HETE principal investigator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and co-author of another Nature article. "Powerful telescopes detected no supernova as the gamma-ray burst faded, arguing against the explosion of a massive star. Also, the July 9 burst, and probably the May 9 burst, are located in the outskirts of their host galaxies, just where old merging binaries are expected," he added. Mergers create gravitational waves, ripples in space-time predicted by Einstein but never directly detected. The July 9 burst was about 2 billion light-years away. A big merger closer to the Earth could be detected by the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). If Swift detects a nearby short burst, scientists could go back and check the data with a precise time and location. "This is good news for LIGO," said Dr. Albert Lazzarini, Data & Computing group leader at the California Institut

  16. The sinking of the Mary Rose warship: a medieval mystery solved?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Bell; J. A. Lee Thorp; A. Elkerton

    2009-01-01

    The cause of the sinking of Henry VIII's Vice Flagship, the Mary Rose, as she sailed out to meet the French fleet on 19th July AD 1545, has remained an enduring mystery and contested encounter between the English and French Navies. The French claim was that the ship was holed by French cannon fire, whilst the English maintained that she

  17. The Reading Detective Club: Solving the Mysteries of Reading. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Debra

    Noting that readers are a lot like detectives, this two-part book (a professional book for teachers and a fun "nonworkbook" for students) introduces students and teachers to "mystery cases" that are actually reading strategy lessons for third through eighth graders and their teachers. The teacher section offers a comprehensive overview of the…

  18. VLBA "Movie" Gives Scientists New Insights On Workings of Mysterious Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have made a 42-day movie showing unprecedented detail of the inner workings of a strange star system that has puzzled scientists for more than two decades. Their work is providing new insights that are changing scientists' understanding of the enigmatic stellar pairs known as microquasars. SS 433 Frame from SS 433 Movie: End to end is some 200 billion miles. CREDIT: Mioduszewski et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Image Files Single Frame Overall Jet View (above image) VLBA Movie (animated gif, 2.3 MB) Animated graphic of SS 433 System (18MB) (Created using software by Robert Hynes, U.Texas) Annotated brightening graphic Unannotated brightening Frame 1 Unannotated brightening Frame 2 "This once-a-day series of exquisitely-detailed images is the best look anyone has ever had at a microquasar, and already has made us change our thinking about how these things work," said Amy Mioduszewski, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of radio telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Caribbean, to follow daily changes in a binary-star system called SS 433, some 15,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Aquila. Mioduszewski worked with Michael Rupen, Greg Taylor and Craig Walker, all of NRAO. They reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. SS 433 consists of a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole is drawing material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense, central object prior to being pulled onto that object. This disk propels jets of subatomic particles outward from its poles. In SS 433, the particles in the jets move at 26 percent of the speed of light; in other microquasars, the jet material moves at 90-95 percent of light speed. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to move in a circle every 164 days. By imaging SS 433 daily, the astronomers were able to trace individual ejections of material in these jets as they moved outward from the center. In addition, they could track the jets' precession, the movement caused by the disk's wobble. In other microquasars, blobs of material shot from the core become fainter, as seen with radio telescopes, as they move outward. However, in SS 433, blobs routinely brighten at specific distances from the core. From earlier studies, researchers had concluded that such brightening always occurs at one specific distance. The VLBA movie shows, instead, that there are multiple brightening regions and not all blobs brighten at all the regions. "We think the ejected material brightens because it's slamming into something," Rupen said. "However, whatever it's hitting has to be replenished somehow so that the brightening can occur again when the jet sweeps through that area the next time," he added. "It also appears that it isn't always replenished, because the brightening doesn't always happen," Mioduszewski pointed out. The VLBA movie revealed vital new information about another part of SS 433 -- material moving outward from the core, but not part of the superfast jets. This material moves outward in a direction not quite perpendicular to the direction of the jets. Discovered with the VLBA in 2000, this material had been seen only in one-time snapshots before, but the movie shows the steady evolution of its movement for the first time. That motion was the key to a possible answer to two riddles -- the source of the slower-moving material itself and the source of whatever the jet blobs are hitting when they brighten. "What seems most plausible to us is that the accretion disk is putting out a broad wind," Rupen explained. That broad wind from the disk hits a denser wind coming from the "normal" companion star to generate the radio waves seen coming from the nonjet region. The same

  19. Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

  20. Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wadhams, Mark J.; Edson, Suni M.; Maynard, Kerry; Meyer, Carna E.; Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Cordula; Berger, Burkhard; Falsetti, Anthony B.; Gill, Peter; Parson, Walther; Finelli, Louis N.

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries for most of the twentieth century was the fate of the Romanov family, the last Russian monarchy. Following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, he and his wife, Alexandra, and their five children were eventually exiled to the city of Yekaterinburg. The family, along with four loyal members of their staff, was held captive by members of the Ural Soviet. According to historical reports, in the early morning hours of July 17, 1918 the entire family along with four loyal members of their staff was executed by a firing squad. After a failed attempt to dispose of the remains in an abandoned mine shaft, the bodies were transported to an open field only a few kilometers from the mine shaft. Nine members of the group were buried in one mass grave while two of the children were buried in a separate grave. With the official discovery of the larger mass grave in 1991, and subsequent DNA testing to confirm the identities of the Tsar, the Tsarina, and three of their daughters – doubt persisted that these remains were in fact those of the Romanov family. In the summer of 2007, a group of amateur archeologists discovered a collection of remains from the second grave approximately 70 meters from the larger grave. We report forensic DNA testing on the remains discovered in 2007 using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), autosomal STR, and Y- STR testing. Combined with additional DNA testing of material from the 1991 grave, we have virtually irrefutable evidence that the two individuals recovered from the 2007 grave are the two missing children of the Romanov family: the Tsarevich Alexei and one of his sisters. PMID:19277206

  1. Mystery Powder Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rachel HallettNjuguna

    2012-07-27

    Students will use their skills as scientists to identify a mystery white powder. This lesson is a hands-on, engaging way to build students' understanding of physical and chemical properties of several common compounds.

  2. 9/22/09 7:56 AMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there -Science Fair -USATODAY.com Page 1 of 3http://blogs.usatoday.com/sciencefair/2009/08/mystery-solved-dark-energy-isnt-there.html

    E-print Network

    Temple, Blake

    9/22/09 7:56 AMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there - Science Fair - USATODAY.com Page 1 of 3http://blogs.usatoday.com/sciencefair/2009/08/mystery-solved-dark-energy-isnt-there.html Search Most | Main | Coffee Break: Aug. 18 » Mystery solved: Dark energy isn't there Like this story? Share

  3. The mysteries of the sea: How magnetics can help to solve them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barckhausen, Udo

    2015-04-01

    Determination of the Earth's magnetic field over the oceans played a key role in understanding plate tectonics in the 1960s and has helped to answer many geodynamic questions since then. Satellite missions have nicely charted the Earth's magnetic field over its entire surface during the last 20 years. However, at the altitude of satellite orbits merely wavelengths greater than ~ 100 km can be resolved, thus, implying that most of the geologically interesting anomalies with sources in the Earth's crust can only be measured on the ground. For a long time these ground measurements have been carried out with the robust and easy-to-use Proton Precession magnetometers towed astern of research vessels. By using oriented Vector Magnetometers we are now returning to the Gaussian roots of measurements, quantifying the magnetic field in its components. This is realised either with towed instruments or with sensors mounted to the superstructure of research vessels. Applications for the use of modern instruments and methods applicable to vector data range from large scale analysis of seafloor spreading anomalies over addressing long standing tectonic questions in isolated ocean basins to high resolution investigations of mineral deposits at the seafloor. In the equatorial Eastern Pacific it was possible to precisely date the age of the oceanic crust over large areas between the Clarion and Galapagos fracture zones, where differences to existing global age models of more than 10 m.y. in some places could be found. In the Colombia Basin of the Caribbean, the analysis of vector data provides an unexpected new insight into the tectonic origin of at least one part of the Caribbean platform. High-resolution magnetic mapping at the sea surface and deep tow profiles reveal hydrothermally-altered rocks near active spreading centres and associated polymetallic sulphide deposits. During marine survey expeditions, magnetic measurements can be carried out almost any time and in combination with a wide range of other geophysical investigations. Modern magnetometers can be piggy-backed to many deep towed instruments, providing additional information with little extra effort. Latest technical developments combine deep tow magnetics with electromagnetic methods, opening a further fascinating window to the mysteries of the sea.

  4. Solving Wakulla Springs underwater mysteries. Using GPS to map Florida's underground caverns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Am, Ende B.

    2002-01-01

    Located in the Woodville Karst Plain stretching south from Tallahassee to the Gulf of Mexico, Florida's Wakulla Springs is one of the largest and deepest freshwater Springs in the world. It is also a gateway into one of the longest underwater cave system in the United States, a system that remained largely unexplored until recently. Soon, however, thanks to one of the world's most extreme scientific and exploration-related diving projects ever undertaken, visitors to Wakulla Springs State Park will be able to take a virtual tour through the Spring's huge underwater labyrinth. Using such cutting-edge technology as a 3D Digital Wall Mapper (DWM) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Wakulla 2 Expedition - with 151 volunteer cave divers, scientists and engineers from all over the world - created the world's first three-dimensional digital map of an underwater cave. Underwater caves are priceless treasures, helping supply fresh water to the region as well as acting as 'time capsules' to the past. Home to creatures found in few other places, areas such as Wakulla face threats of pollution and over-development. Wakulla 2 hopes their 3D interactive 'swim through' will help increase the understanding and preservation of these important areas.

  5. 9/18/09 2:02 PMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there -Science Fair -USATODAY.com Page 1 of 3http://blogs.usatoday.com/sciencefair/2009/08/mystery-solved-dark-energy-isnt-there.html

    E-print Network

    Temple, Blake

    9/18/09 2:02 PMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there - Science Fair - USATODAY.com Page 1 of 3http://blogs.usatoday.com/sciencefair/2009/08/mystery-solved-dark-energy-isnt-there.html Search Most Monday for the mystery of "dark energy" tearing the universe apart at an accelerating rate. It ain

  6. Geometry-Lithology-Origin: Solving the mystery of the Late Miocene mounded features below Lake Balaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnovitz, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Surányi, Gergely

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences of Eötvös University has carried out single- and multichannel water seismic surveys at the Lake Balaton since 1993. The dense grid of 2D profiles offers a high resolution image of the Late Miocene sedimentary strata (Tihany, Somló and Szák Formations) up to a thickness of 200 meters below the lake. These strata can be divided into smaller sedimentary units by numerous parasequence boundaries (Sztanó&Magyar, 2007). In one of these parasequence interesting, high amplitude mounded features have been observed that follow a seismic horizon over large area. It means that these features indicate a Late Miocene regional event. In terms of their shape these mounds are few tens of meters wide, several tens to a hundreds of meters long and few meters high. Their geometry and inner structure were mapped from 2D segments that were used for 3D reconstructions. The shape and stratigraphic position of these features have inspired Sacchi and Horvath (1999) to interpret them as the subsurface equivalent of the fresh-water siliceous-limestone mounds exposed on the Tihany Peninsula. They held these mounds as an evidence of dryland conditions in the time period of the formation of a Late Miocene erosional surface (PAN-2) that they regarded as a 3rd order sequence boundary. In addition to this so called "travertine" concept another explanation was also formulated as the mounds are the product of sedimentary failures e.g. slumps or water escape. To solve the problem an offshore drilling with a total depth of 19 meters was accomplished in October 2013 to sample one of these mounds and determine their origin. The well has not crossed any travertine body, instead alternating layers of clay-silt and very fine sand - without any convincing sign of fluid escape structures - were found in the core (typical lithology of the Tihany Formation). 3D structural analysis of the mounds revealed spherical organization composing bodies that are superposed on each other. The latter can be interpreted as series of small thrusts in a relatively thin mudstone layer. As coring has found silty material, without the presence of any fluid escape structures the most possible explanation for these features is sheet slumping mechanism that could be induced by seismicity. Although "travertine" concept has been rejected, these mounds should indicate a regionally important geological event that could strengthen correlation of erosional surfaces such us PAN-2 from outcrop to water seismic images. Such an event could be possible the start of the 8 Ma volcanism in the area. Work was financed by OTKA NK83400 research fund. References: Sacchi, M.; Horváth, F.; Magyari O. (1999). Role of unconformity-bounded units in the stratigraphy of the continental record: a case study from the Late Miocene of the western Pannonian basin, Hungary. In: Durand, B. Jolivet, L., Horváth F. & Séranne, M. (eds), The Mediterranean Basins: Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 156, 357-390. Sztanó, O. & Magyar I. (2007): Deltaic parasequences on gamma logs, ultra-high resolution seismic images and outcrops of Lake Pannon deposits. Joannea Geol. Palaont. 9: 105-108.

  7. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  8. Mystery #1

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... you like and see if you can answer these questions: 1.   This collection of islands, or archipelago, is part of what country? ... Jun 12, 2001 Images:  Mystery 1 location:  Mystery Images Order:  1 ...

  9. Scientists at NASA are working to solve a problem with driving robotic rovers on the planet Mars and an Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Scientists at NASA are working to solve a problem with driving robotic rovers on the planet Mars new technology that would make self-directed driving for rovers possible on the surface of Mars into a robot so that it can drive itself on Mars. With our technology, the robot can recognize rocks in its

  10. Mysterious Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkcombe, Josie; Ellyn, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Introduce students to humankind's mysterious beginnings with a captivating sense of mystery. Low lighting and simple percussion music will add to the mood. Allow students time to leave behind the sunshine of this modern era and crawl through the narrow tunnel of their imaginations into an immense, dark, underground cave. This is, in fact, was what…

  11. Mystery #11

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #11     View Larger Image Here's another chance to play geographical detective! These images ...   D.   Waste from a mineral manufacturing and refining process. 3.   A distinctively-shaped, dark-colored reservoir with a ...

  12. Mystery Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-03

    This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

  13. Planetary Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they explore the "mind-boggling mysteries" of our solar system. The article opens with a quick review of what we know about our solar system and how we've gathered that information. Students then "explore the mystery" of each planet within our solar system, which is presented though fun facts, evidence, theories, and NASA missions. The article ends with a nine-question quiz that gives students a fun way to test what they've learned.

  14. The Hot Tub Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    House, Herbert

    This case study sets up a mystery and asks students to solve it using science: why was the couple found dead in their hot tub? The material asks students to connect seemingly unrelated factors, such as blood pressure, hot water and alcohol. The material would be most appropriate for lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

  15. Mystery Jars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-19

    For this activity, the instructor prepares two mystery jars of identical size, one filled with smaller objects, one with larger objects. Students are asked to record their estimates of the number of objects in each jar on the downloadable recording sheet and explain their reasoning. Students are encouraged to understand the difference between guessing and estimating. Suggested discussion questions are included.

  16. Mystery Powders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2000-01-01

    In this activity on page 2 of the PDF, learners conduct chemical tests on certain powders used in cooking. After completing the tests, learners try to figure out the identity of a mystery powder. Learners record their observations on a chart. Note: you will need an adult helper for this activity.

  17. Mystery Tubes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-27

    Learners investigate a pre-constructed mystery tube to determine its interior mechanism. Working in small groups, learners pose explanations (hypotheses) for what they are observing and test their hypotheses. In a possible extension of this activity, learners build their own model to test their hypothesis. This lesson serves as a good introduction to the nature of scientific inquiry.

  18. Medical Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rice University presents Medical Mysteries (or MedMyst for short) "an Internet-based adventure...in which you are on a mission to discover the causes of diseases." Designed for middle and high school students, MedMyst offers an engaging, multimedia approach to learning about infectious diseases and the immune system, as well as pharmacology, chemistry, public health policy, and more. MedMyst also includes three downloadable mini-labs that expand on concepts covered in the multimedia adventure. The Web site also includes loads of useful links.

  19. Biology Today. Ah, Sweet Mysteries of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Mysteries of the biological past that paleontologists are trying to solve are discussed. Topics include first seeds, fossils and computers, packrat middens, charcoal clues, soft parts, Burgess shale, halkieriids, toe count, whales with feet, long necks, and changing functions. (KR)

  20. Mystery Boxes for Grades 3-5

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sharon Janulaw

    2010-01-01

    Learners manipulate opaque, sealed boxes and attempt to determine their interior structures. Each box contains a moving ball and one or more fixed barriers. Use this activity to introduce students to the scientific process--scientists make observations and collect evidence, scientists interpret evidence, scientists must work together to gain consensus about interpretations. This activity has been adapted for grades 3-5 from the ENSI lesson, Mystery Boxes: Uncertainty & Collaboration.

  1. Mystery Matter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-17

    This is an activity about the states of matter. Learners will participate in a demonstration to reintroduce them to three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The demonstration also introduces them to a fourth state of matter, plasma, through investigation of the properties of volume and shape as they relate to common solids, liquids, and gases, and to the mystery matter later identified at the end as plasma. The demonstration also covers plasma's connection to the Sun and connections to science related to the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, spacecraft. This activity complements other IBEX informal education materials. The demonstration requires use of a small plasma ball and, ideally, a slightly darkened room so that the plasma ball can be more easily seen. An instructional video explaining how to facilitate this activity is available: http://bit.ly/125ZW5k.

  2. Tsunami Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast explores some ideas about the cause of a 1946 tsunami which swept from Alaska through the Pacific and killed more than 150 people. The tsunami was one of the worst of the 20th Century. Scientists today still cannot agree on just what caused it. They think it was an earthquake, an undersea landslide, or possibly both. The answer may change how scientists study tsunamis and how people prepare for them. The clip is 6 minutes and 38 seconds in length.

  3. Swinging arms as we walk 'helps preserve energy' The mystery of why we swing our arms as we walk may have been solved, after scientists

    E-print Network

    Collins, Steven H.

    -could-help-identify- 200-year-old-Stronsay-Beast.html) Hillary Clinton's speech in full (/news/newstopics/uselection2008/democrats/2073000/Hillary-Clintons- speech-Full-text.html) Fitness shoes: do they work? (/health

  4. Unraveling the mystery of quantum-dot April 3, 2012

    E-print Network

    . At these tiny dimensions, the rules of quantum physics allow scientists to produce particles with finely tunable- 1 - Unraveling the mystery of quantum-dot blinking April 3, 2012 Unraveling the mystery of quantum-dot blinking Significant progress is being made in understanding the phenomenon of quantum

  5. Mystery Aircraft

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Federation of American Scientists offers this unique perspective into classified government aircraft, "some of which actually exist, some of which certainly do not, and all of which are fascinating in a way." This site is divided into two main sections. The first provides insight into several aircraft that were initially shrouded in secrecy but have since been revealed to the public. Some examples include the SR-71, the B-2, and the Hyper-X. The second section is devoted to aircraft that may or may not be currently under development or in operation by the US government. The much popularized Aurora is in this section, as well as exotic propulsion aircraft.

  6. Electric Mystery Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Dean

    1992-01-01

    Describes activities where students explore electrical mystery boxes to learn about electricity. The electrical devices utilized are a bulb, a battery, a wire, a diode, and an LED. Students first explore the materials and then try to infer arrangements of these devices in sealed boxes. Describes the construction of the mystery boxes and classroom…

  7. Mystery #11 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #11: Queensland, Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Queensland, Australia, were captured by the instrument's nadir camera on November 19, 2001, ...

  8. Scientist to Scientist Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of its mission to enhance collaboration between scientists and engineers from the US and other countries, the International Directorate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) placed the newsletter Scientist to Scientist online. Past issues of the newsletter (back to April 1992) report on funding opportunities and other programs (such as conferences, workshops, etc.) that "promote scientific cooperation in East Central Europe and the NIS."

  9. Solving the Orem mystery: an educational strategy.

    PubMed

    Reid, B; Allen, A F; Gauthier, T; Campbell, H

    1989-01-01

    Three years ago Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory was introduced in five pilot units at the Toronto General Hospital. To augment the existing implementation program and to introduce the basic concepts of the theory to staff from nonproject units, the clinical nurse specialist group developed a multimedia exhibit showing the theory in action. The theory was interpreted within the framework of the nursing process. A case study approach was developed so that a global perspective of the actual application of the model could be readily visualized. This article describes the activities involved in producing a self-learning educational presentation that can be put to a variety of uses, such as orientation of new staff and a review for current project unit staff, and that can also be revised and augmented as use of the theory becomes more sophisticated. PMID:2498403

  10. Solving the Mystery of the AFRICA Dummy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Englebert

    2000-01-01

    Most empirical studies have reported a negative effect on growth of being an African country, even when accounting for ethnic heterogeneity. Modeling policy choices has reduced this effect in recent studies, but these have begged the question of why Africa appears adverse to developmental policies. This paper uses a cross-sectional data set to show that the governments of arbitrary postcolonial

  11. Element Genesis - Solving the Mystery (Video Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Yuko

    2001-10-01

    Our institute (RIKEN) produced a video on nucleosynthesis. Its new English version is presented. Y. M., I. Tanihata, Y. Yano, and R. Boyd are science editors for this. Time length of the video is 30 minutes. The primary characteristic of this video is that we have employed a number of 2-D and 3-Dimensional visualizations and animations based on an updated understanding of nuclear physics and astrophysics. One of the emphasized points is that microscopic physics (i.e., nuclear physics) and macroscopic physics (i.e., astrophysics) are strongly connected. It contains explanation on the chart of the nuclides, nuclear burning in the sun, big-bang nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis, ``beta-stability valley", the s-process, the r-process, production of an RI beam, etc., and professors D. Arnett, T. Kajino, K. Langanke, K. Sato, C. Sneden, I. Tanihata, and F.-K. Thielemann appear as interviewees. Our prime target is college freshmen. We hope that this video would be useful for education both in the fields of astrophysics and nuclear physics at universities and even at high schools. Our institute is accordingly developing a distribution system of this video and it will be available soon at the cost price (please visit our web site for details: http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/video). The Japanese version was awarded the prize of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan 2001.

  12. Ideas in action: Solving a cavitation mystery

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Cavitation caused significant erosion from 1985 through 1990 on turbine runners at the 970-MW Murray 1 Power Station operated by Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Authority (SMHEA) in Australia. The problem was perplexing because no obvious cause could be found. Investigation eventually showed the problems stemmed form the runners sagging slightly from the correct height. Corrective measures, which included adjustment of runners and new control settings for the units, appear to have relieved the cavitation. The adjustments also reduced stress on the unit thrust-bearings, eliminating a future maintenance headache.

  13. The Paluxy River Footprint Mystery--Solved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R., Ed.; Godfrey, Laurie R., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This document points out that creationists claim that humans and dinosaurs lived together in Texas just before Noah's flood by citing alleged human footprints found side-by-side with those of dinosaurs in the Cretaceous limestone of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. An investigation was conducted to determine if this claim were true.…

  14. Some Mysteries of Love

    E-print Network

    Frankfurt, Harry

    2001-01-01

    SOME MYSTERIES OF LOVE by HARRY FRANKFURT The Lindley Lecture The University of Kansas 2000 The E. H . Lindley Memorial Lectureship Fund was established in 1941 in memo ry of Ernest H. Lind ley, Chancello r of the University of Kansas from...Sity or Kansas I.Jbran&s. Lawrence. Kansas (U.S.A.) 66045. Please include a 50' handling lee. 75' outside the United States. SOME MYSTERIES OF LOVE by HARRY FRANKFURT Professor of Philosophy Princeton University The Lindley Lecture, University...

  15. Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christa Colyer

    1999-01-01

    This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

  16. The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Hecker; E. F. Hammel

    1998-01-01

    The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy

  17. Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

  18. Passport to Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wilda

    2010-01-01

    Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

  19. Mystery Box Writing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Straits

    2005-11-01

    Developing writing skills along with content by incorporating hands-on science experiences and related writing lessons provides students with a purpose for writing, which makes it more meaningful to students. The Mystery Box lesson discussed in this article is a fun science/writing activity which helps students to develop observation skills while also motivating students to write.

  20. Mysteries of Catalhoyuk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catalhoyuk (chat-al-hoy-ook), which means "forked mound," is a major Neolithic archaeological site in south-central Turkey considered to be one of the first "urban" centers, built between 8,000 and 10,0000 years ago. This engaging multimedia Website, developed by the Science Museum of Minnesota for a general audience, examines the big mysteries underlying Catalhoyuk, as seen through the eyes of an international team of archaeologists and other specialists. Visitors may sift through artifacts and recent findings from the excavations, learn about the people and processes behind the digs, take a virtual tour of the site, or investigate the mysteries surrounding human remains, food habits, murals, clay balls, and goddess figurines.

  1. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All who live on Earth must recognize that they play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. People must solve this great atmospheric mystery if they are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  2. New VLA Images Unlocking Galactic Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Astronomers have produced a scientific gold mine of detailed, high-quality images of nearby galaxies that is yielding important new insights into many aspects of galaxies, including their complex structures, how they form stars, the motions of gas in the galaxies, the relationship of "normal" matter to unseen "dark matter," and many others. An international team of scientists used more than 500 hours of observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to produce detailed sets of images of 34 galaxies at distances from 6 to 50 million light-years from Earth. Their project, called The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey, or THINGS, required two years to produce nearly one TeraByte of data. HI ("H-one") is an astronomical term for atomic hydrogen gas. The astronomers presented their initial findings to the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) meeting in Austin, Texas. "Studying the radio waves emitted by atomic hydrogen gas in galaxies is an extremely powerful way to learn what's going on in nearby galaxies. The THINGS survey uses that tool to provide sets of images of the highest quality and sensitivity for a substantial sample of galaxies of different types," said Fabian Walter, of the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. IC2574M74 Dwarf galaxy IC2574, left, and spiral galaxy M74, in THINGS images. Credit: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click images for high-resolution files (33 KB & 25 KB) Spiral Galaxies in THINGS Most of the galaxies studied in the THINGS survey also have been observed at other wavelengths, including Spitzer space telescope infrared images and GALEX ultraviolet images. This combination provides an unprecedented resource for unravelling the mystery of how a galaxy's gaseous material influences its overall evolution. Analysis of THINGS data already has yielded numerous scientific payoffs. For example, one study has shed new light on astronomers' understanding of the gas-density threshold required to start the process of star formation. "Using the data from THINGS in combination with observations from NASA's space telescopes has allowed us to investigate how the processes leading to star formation differ in big spiral galaxies like our own and much smaller, dwarf galaxies," said Adam Leroy and Frank Bigiel of the Max-Planck Insitute for Astronomy at the Austin AAS meeting. Because atomic hydrogen emits radio waves at a specific frequency, astronomers can measure motions of the gas by noting the Doppler shift in frequency caused by those motions. "Because the THINGS images are highly detailed, we have been able to measure both the rotational motion of the galaxies and non-circular random motions within the galaxies," noted Erwin de Blok of the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Galaxy Dynamics in THINGS The motion measurements are providing new information about the mysterious, unseen "dark matter" in the galaxies. "The non-circular motions revealed by the THINGS observations, turn out to be too small to solve a long-standing problem in cosmology, namely the inability of state-of-the-art computer simulations to describe the distribution of dark matter in disk galaxies. It was thought that random motions could explain that inability, but our data show otherwise," de Blok explained. The THINGS images revealed what Elias Brinks of the University of Hertfordshire, UK, called a "stunning complexity of structures in the tenuous interstellar medium of the galaxies." These structures include large shells and "bubbles," presumably caused by multiple supernova explosions of massive stars. Analyzing the detail of these complex structures will help astronomers better understand the differences in star formation processes in the varied types of galaxies. Even such a simple question such as how big are the disks of gas in spiral galaxies had largely eluded astronomers previously. "The quality and sensitivity of the THINGS images has allowed us to see the actua

  3. It's a mystery : Mystery shopping in New Zealand's public libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Calvert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – To explore and evaluate the evidence about the effectiveness of “mystery shopping” as a technique for service evaluation in the public library system of one country. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A critical summary and review of the literature in this field. Interviews with public librarians in New Zealand who have used mystery shopping. Findings – Demonstrates that there were three

  4. The Mystery of the Chaetognatha: A Molecular Phylogenetic Approach Using Pelagic Chaetognath Species on Pelican Island, Galveston, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Towers, Leah Nicole

    2011-02-22

    The phylum Chaetognatha is a mysterious group of organisms that has eluded scientists for more than a century because of their unique morphology and developmental characteristics, i.e. protostome (mouth develops from ...

  5. Mysteries of the Deep

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Scientific American Frontiers website contains videos from the television episode Mysteries of the Deep, as well as related articles and student activities. The videos explore the technology that has opened up the farthest reaches of the ocean and made it possible to lift shipwrecks from the ocean floor. The videos total to approximately one hour in length. The articles explore evidence in support of the flood in the biblical story of Noah; what deep-ocean research has revealed about continental drift, plate tectonics, and the formation of the Earth; and how shipwrecks are lifted from the ocean floor.

  6. The Mysterious Hammerhead

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jonathan Bird Productions

    2007-03-01

    Of all the animals in the oceans, the hammerhead shark may be one of the strangest looking. The exact purpose of the wide, flat head is a mystery, but several theories abound. In this video, we travel to the shark-infested waters of the Galapagos in Ecuador and to a research station in Hawaii to learn about the unusual habits of these sinister-looking sharks. Jonathan swims in schools of hundreds of hammerheads, and yet the sharks ignore him. What are the sharks up to? Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  7. Murder mystery for student practice of pulmonary physiology calculations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Michael B Maron (Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine Physiology and Pharmacology)

    2008-02-26

    A paper and pencil exercise where students use many of the equations of pulmonary physiology to solve a murder mystery. These are instructor and student word document versions of the published Advan. Physiol. Edu. 261: 3S-6S, 1991 that may be used in the classroom.

  8. Who Took Jerell's iPod? -- An Organic Compound Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Doherty

    In this activity, students learn how to test for triglycerides, glucose, starch, and protein and then use these tests to solve a mystery. The activity reinforces students understanding of the biological functions and food sources of these different types of organic compounds.

  9. Scientists gather data, and as human beings

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    the interaction of the sun with Earth, space scientists are faced with a very tough challenge; they must understand what comprises a 100,000 km2 area of space between the Earth and sun and a radius at least ten to unraveling some of the mysteries held in the magnetosphere with a recent grant award from NASA's Sun- Earth

  10. Electricity: The Mysterious Force

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This document examines the mysterious force of electricity. The reading will focus on the physical properties of electricity and discuss topics such as (1) The Atom of Carbon, (2) Static electricity, (3) Magnets are special, (4) Magnetic fields can produce electricity, (5) Batteries produce electricity, (6) Electricity travels in circuits, (7) Secondary energy source, (8) Making electricity, (9) Moving electricity from power plants to homes, (10) Fuels that make electricity, (11) Fossil fuel power plants, (12) Nuclear power plants, (13) Hydropower plants, (14) What's a Watt, and (15) Cost of electricity. The document also depicts illustrations of a bar magnet, turbine generator, transporting electricity, U.S. electricity production, peak demand, and energy efficiency. This resource is structured as an informational booklet to supplement your energy activities or to generate discussion questions.

  11. The mystery of reincarnation.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  12. The Mystery Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for larger view

    This high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the region containing the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station. Scientists examined this patch on the 13th and 15th martian days, or sols, of Spirit's journey. Using nearly all the science instruments located on the rover's instrument deployment device or 'arm,' scientists yielded some puzzling results including the detection of a mineral called olivine and the appearance that the soil is stronger and more cohesive than they expected. Like detectives searching for clues, the science team will continue to peruse the landscape for explanations of their findings.

    Data taken from the camera's red, green and blue filters were combined to create this approximate true color picture, acquired on the 12th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey.

    The yellow box (see inset above) in this high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit outlines the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station.

  13. Exquisite Corpses : an architectural mystery

    E-print Network

    Canizares, Galo

    2014-01-01

    In 1937, writing about the parallels between mystery fiction and urban dwelling, Walter Benjamin wrote, ""in times of terror, when everyone is something of a conspirator, everybody will be in the position of having to play ...

  14. Working Like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    "Real" science is about formulating and trying to solve practical and conceptual problems on the basis of shared beliefs about the world. Scientists build theories and test hypotheses by observation and experiment. They try their best to eliminate personal bias, and are "extremely canny in their acceptance of the claims of others" (Ziman, 2000).…

  15. Mummy Tales and Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Myers

    2010-06-04

    Thanks to technology, history, and deductive reasoning, experts are able to access important scientific and cultural information about mummies. In turn, this information usually reveals much about the culture, religion, and daily lives of the members of a civilization. But how do scientists find out a mummy's sex, age, diet, social standing, cause of death, or original appearance? Utah State Core: Standard 1 - Students will gain an understanding of early civilizations and their contributions to the foundations of human culture. Objective 3 - Examine the major characteristics of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the ...

  16. An Antipodal Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clyde Freeman Herreid

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of the platypus had the scientific world in an uproar and kept it tantalized for decades. Here was the strangest animal ever seen. How was one to classify it? It had fur. So, was it a mammal? But then what to make of its duck-like bill? And how did it produce and suckle its young? Based on the book by Ann Moyal titled Platypus: The Extraordinary Story of How a Curious Creature Baffled the World, the case focuses on classification and evolution and models the scientific process, with scientists arguing, debating, collecting more information, and revising their opinions as more data become available.

  17. Agricultural scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. School to Careers Project

    2002-01-01

    What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  18. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... little supervision, forming their own hypotheses and developing experiments, accordingly. They often lead teams of technicians, and ... prospective medical scientists the opportunity to develop their experiments and, sometimes, to supervise undergraduates. Ph.D. programs ...

  19. Citizen Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katherine Bennett

    2010-09-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest

  20. Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Some organizations like to promote the teaching of history through architecture, immigration patterns, or transportation innovations. This project encourages students to learn about history through "the enticement of solving historical cold crimes." It's a compelling and intriguing premise, and the project, initiated in 1997, builds on the ideas of document-centered inquiry and "active learning" pedagogical thinking. First-time visitors should view the video introduction to the project, and then use the "Quick Access" drop-down menu to look at the twelve different mysteries featured. A good one to start with is the "Where is Vinland?" project. Here visitors can learn about this Viking colony, learn about historical artifacts associated with the colony, and then review the contemporary and historical findings on the subject. Moving on, the "Teachers" section includes lesson plans, briefing sheets, and student-oriented briefing sheets for use in the classroom.

  1. Mysteries of nature.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a group photograph of the Psychiatry and Neurology section of the 66th Meeting of the Society of German Natural Scientists and Doctors in Vienna, 24-30 September 1894 which Sigmund Freud attended. The society's origins in Naturphilosophie are indicated and a number of the participants are identified on the photo. They and the events at the conference are related to Sigmund Freud's work at the time and to his gradual abandonment of anatomy and of heredity and degeneration as significant aetiological factors in the neuroses. Philosophical problems, such as how phenomena should be described and how 'nature' is conceptualized, are also considered in the light of their implications for Freud's life and thought at that period. PMID:21473176

  2. Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

  3. Tales of Mystery and Imagination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar Allan Poe

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most exciting and haunting stories ever written are to be found in this collection of Poe's work, ranging from the poetic to the mysterious to the darkly comic, and all with the quality of the grotesque that defined Poe's writing. 'The Tell-Tale Heart' and 'The Fall of the House of Usher' are key works in the horror

  4. Technological Clues to Ancient Mysteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    The components of archeological research, including the low and high tech tools employed in its pursuit, are described. Archeology appeals to students because of its sense of mystery and is rich in cross-curricular possibilities. Activities based on the Anasazi people (prehistoric people of southwest United States) are included. (KR)

  5. Geological mysteries on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

    The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  6. The Scientist

    E-print Network

    Seroude, Laurent

    - containing food after adult emergence. Search News from The Scientist BioMed Central Top news stories China today Doctor in anthrax raid fired Telegraph August 20 Dialysis may have spread West Nile Boston Globe were removed late in fly life. Flies fed antibiotic-containing food during the fourth week of adulthood

  7. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  8. Mystery big cats’ in the Peruvian Amazon: morphometrics solve a cryptozoological mystery

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Hocking, Peter; Sanchez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Two big cat skulls procured from hunters of Yanachaga National Park, Peru, were reported as those of cats informally dubbed the ‘striped tiger’ and ‘anomalous jaguar’. Observations suggested that both skulls were distinct from those of jaguars, associated descriptions of integument did not conform to this species, and it has been implied that both represent members of one or two novel species. We sought to resolve the identity of the skulls using morphometrics. DNA could not be retrieved since both had been boiled as part of the defleshing process. We took 36 cranial and 13 mandibular measurements and added them to a database incorporating nearly 300 specimens of over 30 felid species. Linear discriminant analysis resolved both specimens as part of Panthera onca with high probabilities for cranial and mandibular datasets. Furthermore, the specimens exhibit characters typical of jaguars. If the descriptions of their patterning and pigmentation are accurate, we assume that both individuals were aberrant. PMID:24688867

  9. Surfing Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this Australian Broadcasting Corporation website, Ruben Meerman, the surfing scientist, offers a large number of entertaining experiments to excite students about science. At the science tricks link, users can discover how to balance nine nails on the head of a 10th, make a balloon shish kebab, make a super-strength straw, and much more. After each trick, the website offers information on how and why it worked. Everyone will have fun with the primary science lesson plans, demonstrations, and challenging conundrums. The activities are easy to do and use materials that are readily available.

  10. Solving the mystery of the internal structure of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Ingham, B; Erlangga, G D; Smialowska, A; Kirby, N M; Wang, C; Matia-Merino, L; Haverkamp, R G; Carr, A J

    2015-04-14

    The interpretation of milk X-ray and neutron scattering data in relation to the internal structure of the casein micelle is an ongoing debate. We performed resonant X-ray scattering measurements on liquid milk and conclusively identified key scattering features, namely those corresponding to the size of and the distance between colloidal calcium phosphate particles. An X-ray scattering feature commonly assigned to the particle size is instead due to protein inhomogeneities. PMID:25711160

  11. Lunar Regoliths: Solving Geochemical Mysteries Using Lunar Impact Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, N.; Delano, J.; Swindle, T.

    2010-12-01

    This report provides an update of the on-going geochemical and geochronological results obtained from the study of lunar impact glasses extracted from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 regolith samples. Lunar impact glasses are droplets of melt produced by energetic cratering events that were quenched during ballistic flight and possess the unmodified refractory element ratios of the original fused target materials at the sites of impacts. They are quite abundant in the lunar regolith and their compositions can be used to not only constrain the impact history of the Moon but also to decipher how the lunar regolith has evolved over time. Previously, we showed that Clementine color image data of the regional provenance of the Apollo 14 site provided a context in which to interpret the geochemistry of Apollo 14 lunar impact glasses. The results suggest that the highlands in the Frau Mauro region of the Moon consist of a basaltic debris layer that overlies a more feldspathic terrain in some areas (Zellner et al. 2002). Thus, the mapping effort demonstrated the efficacy of using Clementine image data to place lunar sample information into a regional context. Apollo 16 impact glasses have also been studied, and orbital geochemical data indicate that the region is KREEP-poor and representative of typical highland basalt; a large fraction of glasses extracted from the Apollo 16 regolith sample studied possess this composition. Geochemical studies of some of the glasses, however, indicate a source region that is comprised of low-Mg high-K Frau Mauro materials. The 40Ar/39Ar ages from these four impact glasses show that the Moon experienced a significant impact at ~3730 Ma, somewhere in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 landing site (Delano et al. 2007). However, while evident in the lunar impact glass samples, this composition has not yet been revealed explicitly by orbital data. On-going analyses of the lunar impact glasses, interpreted in conjunction with their age, have identified other groups of glasses with similar ages that most likely formed in one impact event and also glasses with compositions that are quite atypical of the local (i.e., typical) regoliths from which they were extracted. Preliminary results will be presented here. Lunar orbital data may allow us to place these atypical glasses into a regional, and perhaps global, context.

  12. Teaching physics mysteries versus pseudoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttner, Fred

    2007-04-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics (and the encounter with consciousness) is contentious and has been called ``physics' skeleton in the closet.'' The reluctance of physicists to share this enigma with students and with the larger public has left the discussion open to the wild claims of purveyors of pseudoscience. The movie ``What the Bleep'' is a recent example. Bringing the enigma into the open is the best way to combat pseudoscience and share the true, deep mysteries that physics has uncovered. I will discuss my own experience and that of colleagues with ways of presenting this material to physics majors, non-majors, and the public.

  13. The Mysteries of Real Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The presentation will consist of showing arc jet data mysterious to the modelers. It will show pictures from an arc jet test where a material (unidentified) exhibited a failure mode that nobody understands followed by thermocouple data from arc jet tests on another (unidentified) material of interest in which the T/Cs exhibit repeatable, consistent, fascinating yet frustrating response characteristics that have the modelers stumped. This all happens between RT and 200 F. Unless we figure out what the responsible phenomenology is and can model it, we can't size the TPS with any confidence.

  14. Overcoming the obstacles: life stories of scientists with learning disabilities 

    E-print Network

    Force, Crista Marie

    2009-05-15

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear ...

  15. By Jules Verne 1..........Mysterious Sounds

    E-print Network

    Har?El, Zvi

    ROBUR THE CONQUEROR (1886) By Jules Verne #12;#12;Contents 1..........Mysterious Sounds 2..........The Grand Collapse #12;#12;1 Chapter I MYSTERIOUS SOUNDS BANG! Bang! The pistol shots were almost before an aerial trumpet had blared its brazen notes through space immediately over that part of Canada

  16. HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity

    E-print Network

    ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the StanislausLeo #12;#12;ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the Stanislaus 1. Distribution of precipitation and soil salinity, Western United States. 1 INTRODUCTION

  17. Teaching U.S. History as Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David; Zevin, Jack

    One way to engage students in grades 7 through 12 is to encourage them to investigate history as a puzzle, a set of dilemmas, a collection of conflicting viewpoints in short, a mysterious and provocative subject. In this book a collection of cases have been assembled both real mysteries and purposely constructed classroom problems with techniques…

  18. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  19. The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Biglan

    2008-02-01

    Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches of North Carolina. Based on the original case from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science at the University at Buffalo (Kosal 2003), the authors modified the case and developed inquiry-based activities for use in the middle school classroom.

  20. From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Virginia Frissell

    2010-02-01

    Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constru

  1. The Mystery of the Magic Square: Quantum

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    The Mystery of the Magic Square: Quantum Communication Games and What They Tell US Jeffrey Bub Philosophy Department and IPST University of Maryland November, 2009 #12;The Magic Square Game (Aravind, 2002

  2. The mystery of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Marc D; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

  3. Adult Age Differences in Reading and Rereading Processes Associated with Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Gagne, Danielle D.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated age differences in reading and rereading processes associated with problem solving and explored the extent to which prior information affects rereading processes. Participants' reading times were recorded as they read short mysteries, twice, at their own pace on a computer, with the goal of providing the solution to the mystery. We…

  4. The MAD Scientist Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Mad Scientist Network, provided by Washington University at St. Louis Medical School, is a Web based "ask a scientist" forum. You ask a question, and a scientist answers it. Answers are usually concise. The expert scientists include high school teachers, university faculty, and others. Both questions and answers are submitted via Web forms. A browsable and searchable question and answer archive is maintained. Scientists interested in joining the Mad Scientist Network will find information at the site. The Mad Scientist Network is part of the St. Louis Science Education Network. http://medinfo.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/ Scientists interested in participating: http://medicine.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/join/ List of "Mad Scientists": http://medicine.wustl.edu/cgi/cgiwrap.cgi/~ysp/mad/mad.scilist

  5. Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery

    E-print Network

    Levine, Stuart

    2012-09-05

    1 Citation: Levine, Stuart. (2012) Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery [Kindle Edition]. Amazon Digital Services, Amazon.com. Published version: http://www.amazon.com/Killing-Okaraygua-Inspector-Irronogaray- ebook.../dp/B0096TUC9K/ref=sr_1_9?ie=UTF8&qid=1347294990&sr=8-9&keywords=Stuart+Levine Description: Killing in Okaraygua is an historical novel as well as a murder mystery that takes place in an imaginary Latin American nation in the 1980s. The characters found...

  6. Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom through the study of historical mysteries. What better place to snoop around and dig through mysterious graves than in history class? This book takes ten mysterious events in history from ancient Egypt to the 21st century for…

  7. Eratosthenes and the mystery of the stades

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Newlyn Walkup

    2005-01-01

    This article on the history of mathematics explains the famous measurement of the circumference of the Earth made by Eratosthenes, and discusses the mystery surrounding the accuracy of that measurement. A key element in the discussion is the ancient unit of length used in the measurement: the stade. The in-depth article uses diagrams as well as text to make its point.

  8. The Magic and Mysteries of Water

    E-print Network

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    The Magic and Mysteries of Water Speaker: Prof. Geri Richmond University of Oregon Water is ubiquitous in our lives. Covering more than two thirds of this planet, water surfaces provide a unique role in controlling our climate. In our bodies, water is the `canal of life', transporting and passing

  9. A WORLD OF SCIENCE AND MYSTERY

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    A WORLD OF SCIENCE AND MYSTERY M. BROCK FENTONAND NANCY SIMMONS #12;8 ½ x 11 240 pages, 80 color. Brock Fenton And nAncy SiMMonS There are more than 1,300 species of bats--or almost a quar- ter Ecology, also published by the University of Chicago Press. Nancy Simmons is curator

  10. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2012-09-06

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  11. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2014-08-12

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  12. From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frissell, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constructivist approach, students can explore and construct their learning as they continue to use…

  13. Mysterious Magnetar Yielding Secrets to VLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    A giant flash of energy from a supermagnetic neutron star thousands of light-years from Earth may shed a whole new light on scientists' understanding of such mysterious "magnetars" and of gamma-ray bursts. In the nearly two months since the blast, the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) has produced a wealth of surprising information about the event, and "the show goes on," with continuing observations. This graphic illustrates the VLA measurements of the exanding fireball from the December 27, 2004, outburst from the magnetar SGR 1806-20. Each color indicates the observed size of the fireball at a different time. The sequence covers roughly three weeks of VLA observing. The outline of the fireball in each case is not an actual image, but rather a "best-fit" model of the shape that best matches the data from the VLA. Click on image for larger version. CREDIT: G.B. Taylor, NRAO/AUI/NSF The blast from an object named SGR 1806-20 came on December 27, 2004, and was first detected by orbiting gamma-ray and X-ray telescopes. It was the brightest outburst ever seen coming from an object beyond our own Solar System, and its energy overpowered most orbiting telescopes. The burst of gamma rays and X-rays even disturbed the Earth's ionosphere, causing a sudden disruption in some radio communications. While the intensely bright gamma ray burst faded away in a matter of minutes, the explosion's "afterglow" has been tracked by the VLA and other radio telescopes for weeks, providing most of the data needed by astronomers trying to figure out the physics of the blast. A magnetar is a superdense neutron star with a magnetic field thousands of trillions of times more intense than that of the Earth. Scientists believe that SGR 1806-20's giant burst of energy was somehow triggered by a "starquake" in the neutron star's crust that caused a catastrophic disruption in the magnetar's magnetic field. The magnetic disruption generated the huge burst of gamma rays and "boiled off" particles from the star's surface into a rapidly-expanding fireball that continues to emit radio waves for weeks or months. The VLA first observed SGR 1806-20 on January 3, and has been joined by other radio telescopes in Australia, the Netherlands, and India. Scientific papers prepared for publication based on the first month's radio observations report a number of key discoveries about the object. Scientists using the VLA have found: * The fireball of radio-emitting material is expanding at roughly one-third the speed of light. * The expanding fireball is elongated, and may change its shape quickly. * Alignment of the radio waves (polarization) confirms that the fireball is not spherical. * The flare emitted an amount of energy that represents a significant fraction of the total energy stored in the magnetar's magnetic field. Of the dozen or so magnetars known to astronomers, only one other has been seen to experience a giant outburst. In 1998, SGR 1900+14 put out a blast similar in many respects to SGR 1806-20's, but much weaker. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) astronomer Dale Frail observed the 1998 outburst and has been watching SGR 1806-20 for a decade. Both magnetars are part of the small group of objects called soft gamma-ray repeaters, because they repeatedly experience much weaker outbursts of gamma rays. In early January, he was hosting a visiting college student while processing the first VLA data from SGR 1806-20's giant outburst. "I literally could not believe what I was looking at," Frail said. "Immediately I could see that this flare was 100 times stronger than the 1998 flare, and 10,000 times brighter than anything this object had done before." "I couldn't stay in my chair, and this student got to see a real, live astronomer acting like an excited little kid," Frail said. The excitement isn't over, either. "The show goes on and we continue to observe this thing and continue to get surprises," said Greg Taylor, an astronomer for

  14. Problem Solving with Patents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jerilou Moore

    2008-03-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

  15. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-28

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  16. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-06-03

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  17. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    ScienceCinema

    Lawrence Krauss

    2010-09-01

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  18. Chances Are: It's a Mystery to Me

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-26

    In this math lesson, learners extend their understanding of basic probability concepts as they learn to name all of the possible outcomes of an event as well as ways to express the likelihood of such an event occurring. Learners use large number cubes and oversized playing cards as they explore ways to express probability. Learners are then actively engaged in a probability experiment where they must collect, organize, display, and interpret data concerning thirty spins on a "mystery spinner."

  19. MAD Scientist Network: Ask

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The MAD Scientist Network is a collection of scientists from all over the country available to answer any of your science questions. Search the archive of over 25,000 questions, explore the MadSci Library for resources, demos and science fair project ideas, or read the FAQ that answers common questions, like why is the sky blue? Scientists will not answer homework questions, medical questions, or science fair project questions.

  20. Just Like Real Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about the scientists' work with chimpanzees in Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa, students conducted an animal behavior inquiry of their own--with their pets! In doing so, students modeled real scientists as they practiced keeping records while learning how to make and read graphs. Their "Great Moments in Record Keeping" are shared here.

  1. Scientists in Action!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scientists in Action provides news about natural scientists and what they do, including: how scientists must react to rockfalls and earthquakes; spy plane modification by NASA to gather data to help forecast brush fires and spot toxic waste; frog malformation and population decrease; the 'Geologists in the Parks' program, which involves new earth scientists in helping National Park staff understand and manage resources; recovery by micropaleontologists of a K-T core from the bottom of the ocean; mapping the Grand Canyon; managing the treasures of Yellowstone; fossil preparators combining art and science skills; and bringing panthers back to the Florida Everglades.

  2. The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

  3. USGS Scientist Burke Minsley

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dr. Burke Minsley,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Minsl...

  4. USGS Scientist Gavin Hayes

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dr. Gavin Hayes,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Haye...

  5. Growing Seeds and Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alicia M. Culp

    2009-09-01

    How do young children develop their ideas about science and scientists' work in their first year of school? How do we teach them to believe they are real scientists? In this article, the authors--a university science educator, a kindergarten teacher, and a

  6. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  7. Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve

    2014-04-14

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

  8. Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve

    2014-05-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

  9. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  10. Mystery Box: Making Observations and Collecting Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Perkins School for the Blind

    2012-06-26

    This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can use it to learn to differentiate between qualitative and quantitative observations and to practice data collection. In this activity, the learner works with a partner and describes and records the items in their mystery box. Low vision learners can practice using their vision to collect data by putting their objects in an open tub, while sighted learners can be encouraged to use their tactile senses by putting their objects in a closed box with access only for their hands to enter.

  11. The Case of the Mysterious Renters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will help students to identify ways in which water is used, determine how much water families use each day, recognize the importance of conserving water, and determine ways in which water can be conserved. The activity revolves around a simulated mystery in which the number of renters living in an apartment is determined by water usage. It is designed to lead students to recognize their own ability to make a difference in conserving and protecting our water resources and to make a life-long commitment to water stewardship.

  12. Another challenge for scientists

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Laura M; Naqvi, Hassan R; Schmidt, Christian; Covarrubias, David; Mathur, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    By nature, scientists contribute to our understanding of nature and ourselves. As communities undergo significant changes, new challenges are presented. Here, we offer alternative views on recent changes in society. PMID:18637170

  13. Ask-A-Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    Ask-A-Scientist is a Windows to the Universe feature that provides answers to users' submitted science questions. Users can check out the most recent questions answered on the first page of the Ask-A-Scientist section of Windows to the Universe, search the Ask-A-Scientist Archives to peruse questions on topics such as Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the Solar System, the Universe, physics, and biology, and send their own science questions to the Windows to the Universe scientists. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience.

  14. Hannaneh Hajishirzi Research Scientist

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    , Human Robot Interaction. Experience Research Scientist, University of Washington at Seattle Oct. 2012), 2014. · Hannaneh Hajishirzi, Leila Zilles, Dan Weld, and Luke Zettlemoyer, Joint Coreference Resolution Robot Interaction (HRI), 2012. · Hannaneh Hajishirzi and Erik T. Mueller, Question Answering in Natural

  15. Scientist of the Day

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maria Salinas

    2005-10-01

    A first grade teacher in an urban school, eager to bring authentic science into the classroom, provides an opportunity for her students to experience science adventures and explorations, while also getting parents involved. She implemented a program called Scientist of the Day which allows students to experience simple hands-on science experiments, and to involve their parents both in and out of the classroom. The idea is for every child to have a turn being "Scientist of the Day".

  16. Mystery to mastery: Shifting paradigms in gifted education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dona J. Matthews; Joanne F. Foster

    2005-01-01

    We provide here a brief historical analysis of a movement in progress from a belief?based “mystery” model to an evidence?based “mastery” model of giftedness and talent development. We have observed that educators concerned about exceptionally capable learners are moving from a categorical notion of “the typical gifted child” with somewhat mysteriously defined attributes and learning needs, toward the perspective that

  17. Make a Mystery Circuit with a Bar Light Fixture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lietz, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Teachers have been building mystery circuits or so-called "black box circuits" to use as a demonstration with their students for years. This paper presents an easy way to make simple mystery circuits using inexpensive light fixtures (see Fig. 1) available at almost any home improvement store. In a black box circuit, only the lightbulbs are visible…

  18. Campus Spies? Using Mystery Students to Evaluate University Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Alex; Douglas, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Background: This paper explores the appropriateness of using mystery customer programmes in higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK. Purpose: The main aim of the paper is to examine potential advantages and disadvantages of mystery customer programmes within HEIs, and to identify any issues that would need to be successfully resolved were…

  19. Researchers Resolve Intermediate Mass Black Hole Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    New research, funded by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Advanced Physical and Chemical Research, NASA and the University of Tokyo, solved the mystery of how a black hole, with the mass more than several hundreds times larger than that of our Sun, could be formed in the nearby starburst galaxy, M82. Recent observations of the Chandra X-ray observatory (Matsumoto et al., 2001 ApJ 547, L25) indicate the presence of an unusually bright source in the star cluster MGG11 in the starburst galaxy M82. The properties of the X-ray source are best explained by a black hole with a mass of about a thousand times the mass of the Sun, placing it intermediate between the relatively small (stellar mass) black holes in the Milky way Galaxy and the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of galaxies. For comparison, stellar-mass black holes are only a few times more massive than the Sun, whereas the black hole in the center of the Milky-way Galaxy is more than a few million times more massive than the Sun. An international team of researchers, using the world's fastest computer, the GRAPE-6 system in Japan, were engaged in a series of simulations of star clusters that resembled MGG11. They used the GRAPE-6 to perform simulations with two independently developed computer programs (Starlab and NBODY4 developed by Sverre Aarseth in Cambridge), both of which give the same qualitative result. The simulations ware initiated by high resolution observations of the star cluster MGG11 by McCrady et al (2003, ApJ 596, 240) using the Hubble Space Telescope and Keck, and by Harashima et al (2001) using the giant Subaru telescope. M82 Chandra X-ray image of the central region of the starburst galaxy M82. The GRAPE's detailed, star-by-star simulations represent the state of the art in cluster modeling. For the first time using the GRAPE, researchers perform simulations of the evolution of young and dense star clusters with up to 600000 stars; they calculate the orbital trajectory and the evolution of each star individually. Using this unique tool, the team found they could reproduce the observed characteristics of the star cluster MGG11. As a bonus, however, the star cluster produces a black hole with a mass between 800 and 3000 times the mass of the Sun. The black hole is produced within 4 million years which is in an early phase in the evolution of the star cluster. During this phase the stellar density in the center becomes so high that physical collisions between the stars become frequent. If the stellar densities exceed a million times the density in the neighborhood of the Sun, collision start to dominate the further evolution of the star cluster. In this over-dense cluster center, stars experience repeated collisions with each other, resulting in a collision runaway in which a single stars grows to enormous mass. After the central fuel of this star is exhausted, it collapses to a black hole of about 1000 times the mass of the Sun. New results of these detailed computer simulations, published in Nature show that the star cluster in which the X-ray source resides has characteristics such that a black hole of 800-3000 times the mass of the Sun can form within a very short time. The calculations therewith provide compelling evidence for the process which produces intermediate mass black holes and at the same time provide an explanation for the bright X-ray source observed in the cluster. The GRAPE team's members are Simon Portegies Zwart, from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands; Holger Baumgardt, from RIKEN in Tokyo; Piet Hut, of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J.; Jun Makino from Tokyo University; Steve McMillan, from Drexel University in Philadelphia. The GRAPE group's results appear in the April 15, 2004, issue of Nature. Relevant internet addresses: http://carol.wins.uva.nl/~spz/act/press/Nature2004/index.html http://www.astrogrape.org http://www.manybody.org http://www.manybody.org/manybody/starlab.html

  20. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

  1. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  2. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  3. The peroxisome: still a mysterious organelle

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, H. Dariush

    2008-01-01

    More than half a century of research on peroxisomes has revealed unique features of this ubiquitous subcellular organelle, which have often been in disagreement with existing dogmas in cell biology. About 50 peroxisomal enzymes have so far been identified, which contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as ?-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of ether phospholipids and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and render peroxisomes indispensable for human health and development. It became obvious that peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that rapidly assemble, multiply and degrade in response to metabolic needs. However, many aspects of peroxisome biology are still mysterious. This review addresses recent exciting discoveries on the biogenesis, formation and degradation of peroxisomes, on peroxisomal dynamics and division, as well as on the interaction and cross talk of peroxisomes with other subcellular compartments. Furthermore, recent advances on the role of peroxisomes in medicine and in the identification of novel peroxisomal proteins are discussed. PMID:18274771

  4. Unraveling the mystery of exozodiacal dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, Steve; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Thebault, Philippe; Absil, Olivier; Bonsor, Amy; Defrere, Denis; Kral, Quentin; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Lebreton, Jeremy; Coude du Foresto, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    Exozodiacal dust clouds are thought to be the extrasolar analogs of the Solar System's zodiacal dust. Studying these systems provides insights in the architecture of the innermost regions of planetary systems, including the habitable zone. Furthermore, the mere presence of the dust may result in major obstacles for direct imaging of earth-like planets. Our EXOZODI project aims to detect and study exozodiacal dust and to explain its origin. We are carrying out the first large, near-infrared interferometric survey in the northern (CHARA/FLUOR) and southern (VLTI/PIONIER) hemisphere. Preliminary results suggest a detection rate of up to 30% around A to K type stars and interesting trends with spectral type and age. In addition to the statistical analysis of our survey results, detailed modeling studies of single systems, modeling of possible dust creation mechanisms and the development of next-generation modeling tools dedicated to address the mystery of exozodiacal dust are main tasks of our project.

  5. Becoming a computer scientist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Pearl; Martha E. Pollack; Eve A. Riskin; Elizabeth Wolf; Becky Thomas; Alice Wu

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that women are significantly underrepresented in scientific fields in the United States, and computer science is no exception. As of 1987- 1988, women constituted slightly more than half of the U.S. population and 45% of employed workers in the U.S., but they made up only 30% of employed computer scientists. Moreover, they constituted only 10% of

  6. Nurturing the Child Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

  7. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

  8. ORIGINS OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNAPP, R.H.; GOODRICH, H.B.

    REPORTED ARE FACTORS WHICH HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVE AT THE UNDERGRADUATE LEVEL IN INFLUENCING MEN TO ENTER CAREERS IN SCIENCE. THE RESEARCH IS ESSENTIALLY DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS. PART 1 ASSESSES STATISTICALLY THE SCIENTIST PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF 490 UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES BY DETERMINING WHAT PROPORTION OF THEIR GRADUATES ENTERED CAREERS IN…

  9. Energy Demand Staff Scientist

    E-print Network

    Eisen, Michael

    #12;Sources: China National Bureau of Statistics; U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual consumption per ton steel #12;Industrial Energy EfficiencyIndustrial Energy Efficiency Policy AnalysisEnergy Demand in China Lynn Price Staff Scientist February 2, 2010 #12;Founded in 1988 Focused

  10. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  11. Scientists on Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.

  12. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  13. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  14. Soviet scientists speak out

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear

  15. Investigating Nature's Mysteries for Drug Development

    Cancer.gov

    More than half of the drugs approved to treat cancer come from a natural product or a natural product prototype. Scientists in NCI-Frederick's Natural Products Branch are exploring ways to harness chemicals produced by marine invertebrates, other animals, plants, and microbes for cancer drug discovery.

  16. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2014-05-06

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  17. CHIPPING AWAY AT THE MYSTERY OF DRUG RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chipping away at the mystery of drug responses John C. Rockett Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 2771...

  18. Excellent approximate solution to the mysterious mass equation by Koide

    E-print Network

    Wojciech Krolikowski

    2005-08-03

    It is shown that the efficient mass formula we found for charged leptons in 1992 can be considered as an excellent approximate solution to the mysterious charged-lepton mass equation proposed by Koide in 1981.

  19. The mystery of missing heritability: Genetic interactions create phantom heritability

    E-print Network

    Sunyaev, Shamil R.

    Human genetics has been haunted by the mystery of “missing heritability” of common traits. Although studies have discovered >1,200 variants associated with common diseases and traits, these variants typically appear to ...

  20. Helping early career research scientists ascend the professional ladder.

    PubMed

    King, Laina

    2013-08-01

    The Keystone Symposia Early Career Investigator Travel Award initiative is a unique successful research mentoring program tailored for 'end of the pipeline' life and biomedical scientists from academia and industry. Using targeted educational, mentoring, and networking activities, the program benefits early career scientists in solving a specific laboratory-based research question that is limiting their evolving research and could increase their ability to obtain new grants and improve their career progression. PMID:23889774

  1. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann

    2007-01-01

    With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or colliding compact objects in distant galaxies. The pieces of the puzzle are beginning to fall into place and yet the story isn't quite finished. I will frame the history of gamma-ray bursts as a mystery story and will end with a description of what we still don't know and what we'll have to do to get the next clues.

  2. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  3. Scientists want more children.

    PubMed

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows) who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences. PMID:21850232

  4. Ask a Marine Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is dedicated to ocean education. You will find all kinds of interesting information about things like: the biggest sea animals, marine biology careers, answers to common ocean and animal questions, and more. Check the Answer Archive for answers to your marine science questions, and if you do not find your answer, ask one of their scientists. This site also includes ocean news, world records, and information on summer camps.

  5. Scientists--Geeks and Nerds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates teachers' impressions of stereotypes of scientists and science. Uses the Draw a Scientist Test (DAST) for nonverbal assessment and makes recommendations for strategies to build more realistic and positive images. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  6. Problem Solving and Game-Based Learning: Effects of Middle Grade Students' Hypothesis Testing Strategies on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spires, Hiller A.; Rowe, Jonathan P.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted as a highly desired skill for contemporary work and life, problem solving is central to game-based learning research. In this study, middle grade students achieved significant learning gains from gameplay interactions that required solving a science mystery based on microbiology content. Student trace data results indicated that effective…

  7. Talking Science, Modeling Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anna O. Baldwin

    2006-07-01

    Do you want your students to share their investigation findings in a meaningful way? Or to communicate like real scientists do--beyond conducting investigations in the classroom? Fourth-grade students in the Upstate of South Carolina are doing just that as they log onto the Experimental Reflection Portal, or XRePort an online system that pairs students and teachers from different schools and allows them to "talk" about their common science investigations. In this way, students communicate their science knowledge and experience firsthand the benefits of the collaborative nature of science.

  8. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  9. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  10. The Scientist - Multimedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-20

    The Scientist magazine is written for life science professionals, but promises it to be "concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining." The magazine's online version has a great Multimedia section on its website that has "Videos," "Slideshows," and "Infographics." Visitors shouldn't miss the story titled "Bat Hunt" from the January 2012 issue, which profiles a mammologist working in the South Sudan. The photographs in included this story are excellent, and visitors will be amazed by the photo of the wide-eyed fruit bat cradling its baby. Back on the homepage, the Infographics section contains stories accompanied by colorful, easy-to-follow diagrams, and it is also well worth a look.

  11. The Dismal Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dismal Scientist, provided by Dismal Sciences, is a web site aimed at college students interested in the US economy. The site provides a "quick summary of major economic releases, along with an economist's perspective on its implications" and a summary table of the main indicators. It also contains regional data for all 50 states, Washington D.C., and 257 metro areas which can be ranked by different criteria. Other features include historical and forecast information for various geographical level variables and an economic data series dictionary.

  12. Astronomer to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

  13. The mysterious HI deficiency of NGC 3175

    E-print Network

    Michael Dahlem; Matthias Ehle; Stuart Ryder

    2001-03-06

    Australia Telescope Compact Array HI observations reveal the existence of 5.8x10^8 M_sun of HI gas in the central 7 kpc of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 3175. The detected HI and CO gas can explain why star formation, as traced by other emission processes, is going on in the inner part of its disk. On the other hand, the entire outer disk, beyond 3.5 kpc radius, shows no HI emission, has a very red colour and exhibits neither radio continuum nor H-alpha emission. This indicates that the outer part of NGC 3175 is quiescent, i.e. not forming stars at a measurable rate. Its HI deficiency and the small extent of the HI layer, which is confined to the boundaries of the optically visible disk, make NGC 3175 a peculiar spiral galaxy. No intergalactic HI gas in the NGC 3175 group was detected in our interferometric observations. Earlier Parkes telescope single dish HI observations put an upper limit on the amount of diffuse gas that might have been missed by the interferometer at 2x10^8 M_sun. On DSS plates no galaxy in the NGC 3175 group of galaxies (Garcia 1993) is close enough to it and none exhibits disturbances that could indicate a close interaction which might have led to the stripping of large parts of its HI gas. Thus, despite an extensive multi-wavelength investigation, the reason for the unusual absence of HI and star formation activity in the outer disk of NGC 3175 remains an intriguing mystery.

  14. Mysterious "Monsieur Leborgne": The mystery of the famous patient in the history of neuropsychology is explained.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Cezary W

    2013-01-01

    As of spring 2011, 150 years have passed since the death of one of the most famous neurological patients of the nineteenth century. A Frenchman, "Monsieur Leborgne" also known by the nickname "Tan," was hospitalized due to an almost complete loss of speech. His case was presented in 1861, during a seating of the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris by a physician, Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880), who used this occasion to report that he had discovered, in the middle part of patient's left frontal lobe, the cortical speech center. This area was later named "Broca's area." Both the patient and his medical records were the subject of numerous descriptions and citations in the medical literature. The patient's full identity and social background has remained a mystery until now. This article presents biographical data concerning Leborgne and his family based on archive registers in France. PMID:23323531

  15. Ask a Scientist!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Internet offers many opportunities to find quality answers to a host of important questions, ranging from the fields of the humanities to those in the hard sciences. One important resource that offers answers to a number of thorny questions is the Ask a Scientist! website created and maintained by the Centers for Materials Research at Cornell University. The site had its debut on September 17, 1998, when Professor Neil Ashcroft answered the timely question, "What is Jupiter made of?". Visitors to the site can browse or search for previously answered questions, and of course, they are also welcome to submit their own questions for consideration. Visitors will definitely want to view the "Frequently Viewed Questions", which feature responses to such favorites queries as "How can you tell if a diamond is real or fake?" or "How is glass made?"

  16. The Accidental Scientist: Cooking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

  17. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum,'' imported from...

  18. The mystery of Morgellons disease: infection or delusion?

    PubMed

    Savely, Virginia R; Leitao, Mary M; Stricker, Raphael B

    2006-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder that was first described more than 300 years ago. The disease is characterized by fiber-like strands extruding from the skin in conjunction with various dermatologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this respect, Morgellons disease resembles and may be confused with delusional parasitosis. The association with Lyme disease and the apparent response to antibacterial therapy suggest that Morgellons disease may be linked to an undefined infectious process. Further clinical and molecular research is needed to unlock the mystery of Morgellons disease. PMID:16489838

  19. MALDI and Related Methods: A Solved Problem or Still a Mystery?

    PubMed Central

    Knochenmuss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    MALDI ionization mechanisms remain a topic of controversy. Some of the major modern models are compared, with emphasis on those of the author. Primary formation, secondary reaction, and loss mechanisms are considered. PMID:24349925

  20. Solving the mystery of human sleep schedules one mutation at a time

    PubMed Central

    Hallows, William C.; Ptá?ek, Louis J.; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Sleep behavior remains one of the most enigmatic areas of life. The unanswered questions range from “why do we sleep?” to “how we can improve sleep in today's society?” Identification of mutations responsible for altered circadian regulation of human sleep lead to unique opportunities for probing these territories. In this review, we summarize causative circadian mutations found from familial genetic studies to date. We also describe how these mutations mechanistically affect circadian function and lead to altered sleep behaviors, including shifted or shortening of sleep patterns. In addition, we discuss how the investigation of mutations can not only expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the circadian clock and sleep duration, but also bridge the pathways between clock/sleep and other human physiological conditions and ailments such as metabolic regulation and migraine headaches. PMID:24001255

  1. Role of Exposure Analysis in Solving the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur. PMID:17589972

  2. Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893 Torare River "chloromelanite" is an extremely close match texturally and mineralogically with the jadeitite jade gouge, including Nb-rich titanite—thus a match, but that (2) the axes are omphacitites that have a geologically similar origin (high pressure/low-temperature subduction channel) but do not share the jadeite+aegerine-rich pyroxene or Nb-Y rich accessory phases. This research clearly shows that natural history collections are important archives that contain samples of potentially important value for science and cultural research. Moreover, research like this that connects geology, archaeology, history and preserved collections can yield a story that makes science and collections tangible and interesting to a popular audience. References: Harlow et al. 2012, Eur. J. Mineral. 24, 391-399.

  3. Protoplanetary dust porosity and FU Orionis outbursts: Solving the mystery of Earth’s missing volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander; Ebel, Denton S.

    2014-07-01

    The Earth is known to be depleted in volatile lithophile elements in a fashion that defies easy explanation. We resolve this anomaly with a model that combines the porosity of collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks with heating from FU Orionis events that dramatically raise protoplanetary disk temperatures. The heating from an FU Orionis event alters the aerodynamical properties of the dust while evaporating the volatiles. This causes the dust to settle, abandoning those volatiles. The success of this model in explaining the elemental composition of the Earth is a strong argument in favor of highly porous collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks outside our Solar System. Further, it demonstrates how thermal (or condensation based) alterations of dust porosity, and hence aerodynamics, can be a strong factor in planet formation, leading to the onset of rapid gravitational instabilities in the dust disk and the subsequent collapse that forms planetesimals.

  4. NIH Study Solves Ovarian Cell Mystery, Shedding New Light on Reproductive Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This page last reviewed on May 6, 2015 Social Media Links Contact Us Bookmark & Share External link – please review our disclaimer E-mail Updates Social Media & Outreach Twitter External link – please review our disclaimer ...

  5. Man's Best Friend? Using Animal Bones to Solve an Archaeological Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth Scharf

    2008-01-01

    In this case, students learn how archaeology operates as an historical science by collecting and analyzing material evidence to make claims about the past. Assuming the role of zooarchaeologists, they evaluate a hypothetical case in which “Dr. Jasper Eraillure” shocks the world by claiming a canid skull he has found at a Neanderthal site is actually that of a domestic dog. Students analyze modern skulls from wild and domestic canids, and develop a set of criteria for determining whether the “unknown” canid skull belonged to a domestic dog. They further explore the reasons behind the divergence between wild and domestic dog populations and evaluate the potential impact of Dr. Eraillure’s assertions on our understanding of the past. The case was designed for an introductory course in archaeology, but could be adpated for use in an introductory biology course.

  6. Solving the Mystery of Mock Mummies: Using Scientific Inquiry Skills in an Integrated Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgopal, Meena; Cornwall, Shaun; Gill-Robinson, Heather; Reinhart, Damien S.

    2009-01-01

    When the nature of science (NOS) is reinforced, middle school students will be able to appreciate scientific inquiry processes and communication, as outlined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). To this end, the authors developed a mummy-making and dissection activity to help sixth- and seventh-grade students learn more about…

  7. The Society for Amateur Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Society for Amateur Scientists created this website to present its goal "to create unique collaborations between world-class professionals and citizen scientists and to remove the roadblocks that prevent ordinary people from participating in extraordinary science." The website features The Citizen Scientist, a weekly publication presenting news and projects from amateur scientists. Students can learn about the educational program, LABRats. Photographers can submit interesting images to the Society' Gallery. With so many tools and resources, everyone interested in science should visit this website.

  8. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.

  9. Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  10. The mystery of the Kerr–Newman metric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Sidharth

    2004-01-01

    Though the Kerr–Newman metric which represents the field of a charged spinning black hole was deduced by Newman decades ago by introducing complex coordinates, the physical motivation has remained a mystery, as also the fact that this metric infact represents also the field of the electron including the purely Quantum Mechanical gyromagnetic ratio g=2. These two circumstances were characterized by

  11. Exploring Mystery in Fifth Grade: A Journey of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Claudia; Martinez, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    An instructional framework that included the use of a touchstone text, literature circles, and independent reading and writing created a rich context for the study of mysteries in a fifth-grade classroom. Key points include a) the complexity of the touchstone text as a key factor in shaping the instructional goals in this genre study, and b) the…

  12. Mystery Powders: An Introduction to Physical and Chemical Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leah Bulver

    In this classroom guided inquiry lesson, students will complete a serious of tests using five different mystery powders. Student will develop hypotheses, make observations, and draw conclusions about what each powder is and the physical and chemical reactions that occur when heat, water, iodine, and vinegar are added to each substance.

  13. Mysteries for College ESL Students; Why and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Anson

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case study that used mystery stories to help English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students develop their linguistic competence and reading skills. Instruction focuses on the symbolism used in both stories and the characterization of the major protagonists with the view to encourage discussion among students. Results suggest that literary…

  14. Mystery Mud : Exploring Changes in States of Matter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Join a group of middle-school students on a visit to a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they experiment with mystery mud and learn about the relationships between magnetism, particle motion, and changes in the state of matter.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identifying a mysterious aquatic fern gametophyte

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identifying a mysterious aquatic fern gametophyte Fay-Wei Li � Benito C. Tan � because of its ribbon-like thallus. How- ever, its antheridia are remarkably fern-like in morphology. To corroborate the hypothesis that Su¨�wassertang is a fern gametophyte and to determine its closest relative, we

  16. The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savran, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students try…

  17. Probing the Two Greatest Mysteries of the Universe

    E-print Network

    D. P. Roy

    2007-07-23

    The neutrinoless double beta decay and the direct dark matter detection experiments probe the origins of the two greatest mysteries of the universe, i.e. the baryon asymmetry and the invisible or dark matter. The underlying theoretical ideas are briefly discussed along with the experimental prospects.

  18. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

    2004-06-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  19. Weird Stellar Pair Puzzles Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have discovered a speedy spinning pulsar in an elongated orbit around an apparent Sun-like star, a combination never seen before, and one that has them puzzled about how the strange system developed. Orbital Comparison Comparing Orbits of Pulsar and Its Companion to our Solar System. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for full caption information and available graphics. "Our ideas about how the fastest-spinning pulsars are produced do not predict either the kind of orbit or the type of companion star this one has," said David Champion of the Australia Telescope National Facility. "We have to come up with some new scenarios to explain this weird pair," he added. Astronomers first detected the pulsar, called J1903+0327, as part of a long-term survey using the National Science Foundation's Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. They made the discovery in 2006 doing data analysis at McGill University, where Champion worked at the time. They followed up the discovery with detailed studies using the Arecibo telescope, the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, the Westerbork radio telescope in the Netherlands, and the Gemini North optical telescope in Hawaii. The pulsar, a city-sized superdense stellar corpse left over after a massive star exploded as a supernova, is spinning on its axis 465 times every second. Nearly 21,000 light-years from Earth, it is in a highly-elongated orbit that takes it around its companion star once every 95 days. An infrared image made with the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii shows a Sun-like star at the pulsar's position. If this is an orbital companion to the pulsar, it is unlike any companions of other rapidly rotating pulsars. The pulsar, a neutron star, also is unusually massive for its type. "This combination of properties is unprecedented. Not only does it require us to figure out how this system was produced, but the large mass may help us understand how matter behaves at extremely high densities," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Pulsars are neutron stars whose strong magnetic fields channel lighthouse-like beams of light and radio waves that whirl around as the star spins. Typical pulsars spin a few times a second, but some, like PSR J1903+0327, are much faster, rotating hundreds of times a second. They are called millisecond pulsars. Astronomers think most millisecond pulsars are sped up by material falling onto them from a companion star. This requires the pulsar to be in a tight orbit around its companion that becomes more and more circular with time. The orbits of some millisecond pulsars are the most perfect circles in the Universe, so the elongated orbit of the new pulsar is a mystery. "What we have found is a millisecond pulsar that is in the wrong kind of orbit around what appears to be the wrong kind of star," Champion said. "Now we have to figure out how this strange system was produced." The scientists are considering three possibilities. The first, that the pulsar simply was born spinning quickly, seems unlikely to them. Another possibility, they say, is that the pulsar was formed in a tight group of stars known as a globular cluster, where it had a companion that spun it up. Later, a close encounter with another star in the cluster stripped it of its companion and flung it out of the cluster. For several reasons, including the fact that they don't see a nearby cluster from which it could have come, they don't like that explanation either. A third scenario says the pulsar may be part of a triple, not a double, star system. In this case, the pulsar's 95-day orbit is around a neutron star or white dwarf, not the Sun-like star seen in the infrared image. The Sun-like star would then be in a more-distant orbit around the pulsar and its close companion. "We've found about 50 pulsars in binary systems. We may now have found our first pulsar in a stellar triple system," Ransom said. The international research team is busy trying to get their

  20. Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower-energy X-ray background, showing that it arose in very faraway galaxies with extremely bright cores, called quasars or Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The Chandra team sampled a region of the sky about one-fifth the angular area of a full moon and resolved about 80 percent of the more-energetic X-ray background into discrete sources. Stretched across the entire sky, this would account for approximately 70 million sources, most of which would be identified with galaxies. Their analysis confirms that a significant fraction of the X-ray background cannot be due to diffuse radiation from hot, intergalactic gas. Combined X-ray and optical observations showed that nearly one third of the sources are galaxies whose cores are very bright in X rays yet emit virtually no optical light from the core. The observation suggests that these "veiled galactic nuclei" galaxies may number in the tens of millions over the whole sky. They almost certainly harbor a massive black hole at their core that produces X rays as the gas is pulled toward it at nearly the speed of light. Their bright X-ray cores place these galaxies in the AGN family. Because these numerous AGN are bright in X rays, but optically dim, the Chandra observation implies that optical surveys of AGN are very incomplete. A second new class of objects, comprising approximately one-third of the background, is assumed to be "ultra-faint galaxies." Mushotzky said that these sources may emit little or no optical light, either because the dust around the galaxy blocks the light totally or because the optical light is eventually absorbed by relatively cool gas during its long journey across the universe. In the latter scenario, Mushotzky said that these sources would have a redshift of 6 or higher, meaning that they are well over 14 billion light years away and thus the earliest, most distant objects ever identified. "This is a very exciting discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure and Evolution of the universe science theme. "Since it

  1. The Scientist: The News Journal for the Life Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided with the cooperation of the Institute for Science Information (ISI) and the University of Pennsylvania, The Scientist (last discussed in the September 15, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a free newsletter for life scientists. Each issue features a variety of science news stories, focusing on recent developments, as well as commentary, opinion, "Hot Papers," professional information, commercial products and services, and jobs. Users can browse and search back issues and also subscribe to a free email notification service.

  2. [A brief history of the anatomy and physiology of a mysterious and hidden gland called the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    Because of its retrogastric location and appearance, which is similar to mesenteric fat, for centuries the pancreas has been a mysterious, hidden organ that has received little attention. However, its importance was intuited and described by Herophilus, Ruphos of Ephesus and Galen. This gland began to appearin distinct medical treatises from the 16th century. There are two important scientists in the history of the pancreas. The fist, Johann Georg Wirsung, described the main pancreatic duct in 1642, a date considered by many to be the start of Pancreatology. The second, Claude Bernard, described pancreatic exocrine function between 1849 and 1856 and is considered the father of pancreatic physiology. Besides these two outstanding figures, there is a constellation of personalities who contributed to improving knowledge of this enigmatic gland with the results of their studies. The aim of this article is to call attention to some of the most notable findings that have enhanced knowledge of this gland over the years. PMID:25288309

  3. SGR: Scientists for Global Responsibility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scientists for Global Responsibility (SGR) have created a site depicting the belief that "science and technology should be used responsibly in a way that contributes to justice and peace in human society and to the long-term well-being of the wider environment". Scientists can download reports that the group, consisting of 600 scientists, has written such as Cleaner Technologies: A Positive Choice. Students can learn about how to make wise career choices that will be both rewarding and environmentally friendly. The site also contains abstracts of future and previous conferences including Franks Barnaby's abstract The Rick of Nuclear Terrorism. All scientists and students interested in promoting ethical science and technology will want to explore this site.

  4. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  5. Scientists Check for Volcanic Activity

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Four scientists are busy reviewing seismic data, checking maps, and uploading activity updates in the USGS Volcano Hazards Program's Volcano Observatory operations room from the Menlo Park, California USGS campus....

  6. The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators

    ScienceCinema

    Brau, James E [University of Oregon

    2014-06-25

    The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

  7. The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, James E [University of Oregon

    2010-11-23

    The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

  8. Mastery, Mystery, and Misery: The Ideologies of Web Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Meeker

    2008-10-23

    A presentation on Jakob Nielson\\'s Alertbox from August 30, 2004. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20040830.html Jakob Nielson uses the titles mastery, mystery, and misery to describe three seperate approaches to web design. Mastery Mastery describes the ideology of empowering the user. The web designer does everything possible to give the user complete control over the website. For example, search engines are designed to put the ...

  9. The Unsolved Mysteries of Atmospheric Chemistry for High School Students and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    The grant "CAREER: New Molecular Markers of Asian Air Emissions - Anthropogenic Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds" (ATM-0239823) was funded by NSF from 2003-2008. The CAREER proposal described the integration of research and outreach education activities in the field of atmospheric chemistry, specifically atmospheric measurements and atmospheric transport. The primary objective of the research was to identify anthropogenic semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) that could be used as molecular markers for Asian air emissions and trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. The outreach education activity was integrated with the research by developing curriculum to introduce underrepresented minority high school students, and their teachers, to atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric measurements through Oregon State University's National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences funded Hydroville Curriculum Project (http://www.hydroville.org/iaq_resources). A curriculum was developed to allow students to assume the role of "Air Quality Scientist" and measure air temperature, air flow, relative humidity, CO, CO2, O3, and volatile organic compounds in out-door and in-door air. The students gained an understanding of atmospheric transport and compared measured concentrations to recommended guidelines. In addition, the outreach education activities included the development of the "Unsolved Mysteries of Human Health" website (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu/), including a specific module on the research conducted under the CAREER grant (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu /Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry-Overview). The PI of the CAREER proposal, Dr. Staci Massey Simonich, is now a full professor at Oregon State University. To date, she has published over 50 peer-review journal articles, as well as mentored 9 undergraduate students, 20 graduate students, 3 post-doctoral scholars, and 3 international visiting scientists in her laboratory.

  10. American Physiological Society: Women Life Scientists Units

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Crafted by educators at the American Physiological Society, this set of twenty life sciences modules is designed "to increase students' exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach activities." Each module includes a brief biography of a female science role model and a set of problem-solving life sciences with a multidisciplinary focus. The scientists profiled here include Barbara McClintock, Alice Huang, Deborah Gordon, Dian Fossey, and Betsy Dresser. The activities include suggestions for teachers, assessment ideas, and handouts for students. The site also contains additional inks to educational activities designed for K-12 educators and students, and visitors can sign up to receive updates about new materials via RSS feed or email.

  11. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  12. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy C. Payne

    2006-11-01

    Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

  13. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis S. Sandrelli INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy (stefano.sandrelli@brera.inaf.it / Fax: 02 72001600 / Phone: +39 02 72320337) "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held both at the Perugia (2004) and the Genova Science Festival (2005), obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives in-charge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherd-moons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and water, represented by simple objects like apples, spinning tops and so on) to re-build the rings. The kids can buy the ingredients from different planets: every planet has ingredients in quantities which are proportionate to the real physical properties of that celestial object. After collecting the ingredients, they must carry them to the "The Red Giant" and indicate their best recipe to Mr Schioppanelli. Depending on the recipe, rings can be too strict or too luminous or too fast rotating and so on. The winning group is the one which prepares the best recipe to cook the rings in the smallest amount of time. After presentig this specific (and mysterious) case, we analyse the advantage- disadvantage ratio of such an activity, beeing as funny as dispersive.

  14. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of observations is needed to help us understand the complex relationship that exists among the various components," Blair said. The explosion of a star is a catastrophic event. The blast rips the star apart and unleashes a roughly spherical shock wave that expands outward at more than 22 million mph like an interstellar tsunami. The shock wave spreads out into surrounding space, sweeping up any tenuous interstellar gas and dust into an expanding shell. The stellar ejecta from the explosion initially trail behind the shock wave. It eventually catches up with the inner edge of the shell and is heated to X-ray temperatures. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Hubble Optical Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps that form behind the shock wave. Sankrit and Blair compared their HST observations with those taken with ground-based telescopes to obtain a more accurate distance to the supernova remnant of about 13,000 light-years. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Spitzer Infrared Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. SST is sensitive enough to detect both the densest regions seen by HST and the entire expanding shock wave, a spherical cloud of material. Instruments on SST also reveal information about the chemical composition and physical environment of the expanding clouds of gas and dust ejected into space. This dust is similar to dust which was part of the cloud of dust and gas that formed the sun and planets in our solar system. Interview with Dr. William Blair Interview with Dr. William Blair The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas. The hottest gas, higher-energy X-rays, is located primarily in the regions directly behind the shock front. These regions also show up

  15. Student Scientist Partnerships: Shrewd Maneuvers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    1997-01-01

    Explores student-scientist partnerships (SSPs) that help students gain a unique understanding of both the content and the process of science. Discusses the potential of SSPs, the range of SSP activities, a strategy for national impact, the educational importance of SSPs, the research importance of SSPs, and technology as a facilitator. (JRH)

  16. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  17. Cassini Scientist for a Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael W.; Murray, C. D.; Piazza, E.; McConnell, S.

    2007-10-01

    The Cassini Mission's "Scientist for a Day" program allows students the opportunity to be in scientists' shoes, evaluate various options and learn how to make decisions based on scientific value. Students are given three or more possible imaging targets. They research these targets and decide which one will bring the best scientific results. They then defend their choice in a 500-word essay. The essay with the best scientific argument for a chosen target wins the contest. Cassini will take the images on Nov. 30, 2007. A few days later, winners (and as many other students as possible) are invited to discuss the results with Cassini scientists via videoconferences. Entries are judged by a committee composed of Cassini scientists, Cassini mission planners, Cassini Outreach and JPL Education Specialists. The contest has been held on a smaller scale three times. This edition is open to all U.S. schools. Students will be divided in two groups, grades 5 to 8 and grades 9 to 12. The contest will also be held in England, and possibly in other countries.

  18. NewScientist.com: Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The NewScientist magazine archive features articles on a variety of science topics. The search engine accepts a keyword or title. Quick links to back issues are provided, and magazines can also be browsed by selecting one of ten predetermined subject categories.

  19. Computer Networks: Prospects for Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Allen; Sproull, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the nature of computer networks and previews their development by focusing on ways they are useful to scientists and to science, including applications for remote computer access, electronic mail, bulletin boards, teleconferencing, file transfer, resource sharing, and imbedding nontextual communications. (JN)

  20. Peter T. Cummings Principal Scientist

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    21 Peter T. Cummings Principal Scientist Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Oak Ridge National Laboratory (865) 241-4779 peter.cummings@vanderbilt.edu Education University of Melbourne, Australia publications) Simpson, M. L. and Cummings, P. T., "Fluctuations and Correlations in Physical and Biological

  1. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  2. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  3. LiveScience.com: Life's Little Mysteries -How Do Post Office Machine... 8/27/2007 12:19 PM http://www.livescience.com/mysteries/070816_letter_reader.html 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    LiveScience.com: Life's Little Mysteries - How Do Post Office Machine... 8/27/2007 12:19 PM http Advertisement Monday August 20, 2007 #12;LiveScience.com: Life's Little Mysteries - How Do Post Office Machine

  4. On the Mysterious Propulsion of Synechococcus Kurt Ehlers1,2

    E-print Network

    Oster, George

    On the Mysterious Propulsion of Synechococcus Kurt Ehlers1,2 , George Oster3 * 1 Mathematics: Ehlers K, Oster G (2012) On the Mysterious Propulsion of Synechococcus. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36081. doi:10 26, 2012; Accepted March 26, 2012; Published May 2, 2012 Copyright: ß 2012 Ehlers, Oster

  5. Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Tom, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

  6. Ask-An-Earth-Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Hawaii, this educational Website covers topics in and beyond the fields of geology and geophysics. At the site, users may send (electronic) questions to 'real live scientists' regarding: Volcanoes and Igneous Rocks; Geochemistry, the Environment, and Pollution; Geophysics and General Geology; Earthquakes and Seismology; Hydrology and Water Quality; Natural Hazards; Minerals, Gems, Ores and Crystals; and Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Answers are thoughtful and content-rich, although many are specific to the Hawaiian Islands (as expected). To submit a question, users must select from a related topic area and then complete the online submission form. First-time users should begin by browsing previous questions and FAQs, however. This is a wonderful resource for students wishing to interact with established scientists, or for educators seeking clear and interesting explanations of natural phenomena.

  7. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  8. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  9. Science Explorations: Writing With Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Writing with Scientists is a workshop that provides in-depth information about crafting a science report. In this workshop students are guided through a six step process for writing a scientific report. Excerpts from student reports are used as examples. Students are encouraged to have researched a topic prior to the workshop so that they are working on a specific report.

  10. Solving Literal Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ball

    2012-09-14

    Learn how to solve equations and formulas for a specific variable Core Standard: A.CED.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. 1. Watch the following short videos NROC Video: Solving for a specific variable View the ...

  11. Problem Solving. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    No longer solely the domain of Mathematics, problem solving permeates every area of today's curricula. Ideally students are applying heuristics strategies in varied contexts and novel situations in every subject taught. The ability to solve problems is a basic life skill and is essential to understanding technical subjects. Problem-solving is a…

  12. Solving Systems of Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ball

    2012-09-13

    Learn how to solve systems of linear equations by graphing, substitution, and elimination. As we discovered in our Pet Sitters Unit, systems of equations are a useful way to model and solve real-world situations in business. They are also useful in science and social science applications. This online unit will help you become an expert at solving systems of linear equations. 1) ...

  13. Applied mathematical problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Lesh

    1981-01-01

    A case is presented for the importance of focusing on (1) average ability students, (2) substantive mathematical content, (3) real problems, and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. It is suggested that effective instructional techniques for teaching applied mathematical problem solving resembles “mathematical laboratory” activities, done in small group problem solving settings.

  14. Solving quadratic Introduction

    E-print Network

    Vickers, James

    Solving quadratic equations 3.2 Introduction A quadratic equation is one which can be written. In this section we describe several ways in which quadratic equations can be solved. ' & $ % Prerequisites Before completing this Section you should be able to . . . recognise a quadratic equation solve a quadratic

  15. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  16. My snowflake is so unique … Experiences of a reluctant Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Kearns, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    As with many data scientists, this wasn't my initial career objective. In fact it wasn't even seen as a viable option at that time. However I needed to manage data for my physical science projects and the teams I supported, so I reluctantly accepted this task as part of my "real" science job. Over the years, many challenges have been solved, that then allow us the ability to address more difficult issues. This presentation will address current data scientist challenges from a "real" scientist's perspective at a federal archive.

  17. LINDA J. SPILKER CASSINI PROJECT SCIENTIST

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    LINDA J. SPILKER CASSINI PROJECT SCIENTIST Mail Stop 230-205, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Linda Acquisition and interpretation of Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data to determine ring Propulsion Laboratory (1977 ­ present) Project Work Cassini Project Scientist (2010 - ) Cassini Deputy

  18. SURGICAL SCIENTIST PROGRAM Department of Surgery

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    SURGICAL SCIENTIST PROGRAM Department of Surgery McGill University The purpose of the Surgical Scientist Program of the Department of Surgery is to develop surgical scientists who will be the future leaders in academic surgery both at McGill and in other university Departments of Surgery. Application

  19. Developing the Talents of Teacher/Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George

    2004-01-01

    Going on an expedition enables teachers to become better scientists and researchers and, thus, better classroom instructors. Teachers have the opportunities to go on exotic field trips around the world as amateur research assistants, do hands on research in their own backyards, or vicariously experience another scientist?s work via the Internet. A…

  20. Space.com: Deep Impact Team Solves Blurry Photo Problem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article from Space.com describes how scientists from NASAâ??s Deep Impact mission intend to fix the spacecraftâ??s blurry vision problem by applying a mathematical process to the images after they have been transmitted to Earth. The author briefly descibes the process, called deconvolution, and discusses some challenges that the researchers will need to address. Readers can also learn more about the Deep Impact mission and its goal of learning about the makeup and nature of the mysterious nucleus of the comet Tempel 1. NASAâ??s Deep Impact mission was designed to uncover a cometâ??s innards by smashing a probe into Tempel 1. After being releases from the Flyby craft, the Impactor will position itself directly in front of the speeding comet for a head on collision. The impact is scheduled to occur at 1:52 a.m. EDT this July 4, 2005.

  1. Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, T.

    1995-12-01

    In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

  2. Consciousness platform: the greatest mystery of all time.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Sid

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the model for a very controversial edifice--the many-sided foundation for consciousness. What I refer to is, undoubtedly, the greatest mystery of all time--why do we have an awareness of our own existence? What is the evolutionary advantage of consciousness? Much of the material printed about consciousness has a religious flavor, with references to the human spirit and/or extrasensory perception, but I will have none of that here. In this study, consciousness is tied in with a platform, not a physical platform, of course, but a conceptual platform. This is because we are most comfortable imagining or visualizing an actual platform that has many connections to various parts of the brain, a sort of an old-fashioned telephone switchboard. PMID:20176523

  3. Murder with Southern Hospitality: An Exhibition of Mississippi Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those people who still think of Mississippi as solely being the land of such authors as Faulkner and his ilk, this fine online exhibit offered by the University of Mississippi Libraries may expand their knowledge of Southern writers. The exhibit prominently features the book covers of mystery novels written by a host of Mississippians, including such authors as Newton Gayle, Nevada Barr, and Colonel William C. Falkner. Here they may peruse the cover art of such novels as "The White Rose of Memphis" and Elmore Leonard's "Tishomingo Blues". For those who wish to locate authors by their location, an interactive map of Mississippi makes this process rather simple. The site is rounded out by a complete bibliography, which includes links to each work's cover art.

  4. The Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Budget: Mystery or Not

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A.; Daniel, John S.; Reimann, Stefan; Hall, Bradley; Dutton, Geoff; Kuijpers, Lambert J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance and greenhouse gas and has been regulated under the Montreal Protocol. However, atmospheric observations show a very slow decline in CCl4 concentrations, inconsistent with the nearly zero emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage in recent years. It is now apparent that there are either unidentified industrial leakages, an unknown production source of CCl4, or large legacy emissions from CCl4 contaminated sites. In this paper we use a global chemistry climate model to assess the budget mystery of atmospheric CCl4. We explore various factors that affect the global trend and the gradient between the Northern and Southern hemispheres or interhemispheric gradient (IHG): emissions, emission hemispheric partitioning, and lifetime variations. We find a present-day emission of 30-50 Gg per yr and a total lifetime 25 - 36 years are necessary to reconcile both the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG.

  5. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J. E. [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States)] [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)] [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  6. Resources for Scientists Teaching Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted by Cornell University, this site offers a number of resources and tips for scientists who teach. Collected from undergraduate courses in evolution, ecology, and animal behavior, but applicable to a range of science courses, the materials include writing assignment ideas, peer review guidelines, discussion tips, hints on using the Web, reading lists, exam questions, and sample syllabi, among others. The site also contains some annotated links for teaching, biology, writing, and TAs. A nice, straightforward collection of useful resources, many of which may be of use to teachers in any discipline.

  7. Give Young Scientists a Break

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  8. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions about Scientist and What Factors Affecting the Image of the Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Students' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze image of scientist from drawn picture of scientists using The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) by 5th grade students and to analyze where this image comes from students minds in changing Turkish educational perspective. Two hundred eighty seven…

  9. New paradigms in problem solving environments for scientific computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Chin Jr.; L. Ruby Leung; Karen L. Schuchardt; Deborah K. Gracio

    2002-01-01

    Computer and computational scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are studying and designing collaborative problem solving environments (CPSEs) for scientific computing in various domains. Where most scientific computing efforts focus at the level of the scientific codes, file systems, data archives, and networked computers, our analysis and design efforts are aimed at developing enabling technologies that are directly meaningful

  10. Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimnes, Karin A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to…

  11. Teaching through Trade Books: Mysteries of the Past

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Emily Morgan

    2010-09-01

    Paleontologists, scientists who study the history of life on Earth, work in a dynamic area of science. Think of putting together a jigsaw puzzle with most of the pieces missing--that's what creating the fossil record is like. Each time a new piece is disco

  12. Applied Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesh, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of nine papers, prepared for a conference held at Northwestern University in 1978, presents varied perspectives on applied problem solving. Assessing applied problem solving, planning for interest and motivation, developing a theory, reviewing research findings, considering learning disabilities, analyzing through information…

  13. Applied Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesh, Richard

    1981-01-01

    A case is presented for the importance of focusing on: (1) average ability students; (2) substantive mathematical content; (3) real problems; and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. Suggestions for ways to modify existing applied problem solving materials are given. (MP)

  14. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  15. Solving problems with technology

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    . -Asked to join Liberal Arts middle school (Not good enough for Math.) -Took some coding in High School! Bring high quality education to everyone in the world! #12;Things Computer Scientists Make #12;middle school, high school, college, then what? Graduate School! #12;Graduate School #12;Advantages

  16. Roaming in the Dark: Deciphering the Mystery of NO3 --> NO + O2 Photolysis

    E-print Network

    Grubb, Michael Patrick

    2012-07-16

    remained a mystery, and no energetically accessible transition state has ever been calculated. Using velocity map ion imaging experiments to carefully study the stereochemistry of the product fragments combined with theoretical calculations performed...

  17. How Things Work. Mystery Glow-Ball: When Is a Battery Not a Battery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the working mechanism of a commercial "Mystery Glow-Ball" by analyzing its electronic circuitry. Finds that the advertising for the ball is wrong; energy actually came from inserting a battery. (YP)

  18. BRAIN, BEHAVIOUR AND NEUROIMAGING A seminar to create awareness about the mysteries of the brain

    E-print Network

    Narayanan, H.

    BRAIN, BEHAVIOUR AND NEUROIMAGING A seminar to create awareness about the mysteries of the brain. Tapan Chakraborty Ex Asst. Director (Research) Bureau of Police Research and Development The Mind-brain

  19. Scientists Toast the Discovery of Vinyl Alcohol in Interstellar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, have discovered the complex organic molecule vinyl alcohol in an interstellar cloud of dust and gas near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The discovery of this long-sought compound could reveal tantalizing clues to the mysterious origin of complex organic molecules in space. Vinyl Alcohol and its fellow isomers "The discovery of vinyl alcohol is significant," said Barry Turner, a scientist at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Va., "because it gives us an important tool for understanding the formation of complex organic compounds in interstellar space. It may also help us better understand how life might arise elsewhere in the Cosmos." Vinyl alcohol is an important intermediary in many organic chemistry reactions on Earth, and the last of the three stable members of the C2H4O group of isomers (molecules with the same atoms, but in different arrangements) to be discovered in interstellar space. Turner and his colleague A. J. Apponi of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory in Tucson detected the vinyl alcohol in Sagittarius B -- a massive molecular cloud located some 26,000 light-years from Earth near the center of our Galaxy. The astronomers were able to detect the specific radio signature of vinyl alcohol during the observational period of May and June of 2001. Their results have been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Of the approximately 125 molecules detected in interstellar space, scientists believe that most are formed by gas-phase chemistry, in which smaller molecules (and occasionally atoms) manage to "lock horns" when they collide in space. This process, though efficient at creating simple molecules, cannot explain how vinyl alcohol and other complex chemicals are formed in detectable amounts. For many years now, scientists have been searching for the right mechanism to explain how the building blocks for vinyl alcohol and other chemicals are able to form the necessary chemical bonds to make larger molecules - those containing as many as six or more atoms. "It has been an ongoing quest to understand exactly how these more complex molecules form and become distributed throughout the interstellar medium," said Turner. Since the 1970s, scientists have speculated that molecules could form on the microscopic dust grains in interstellar clouds. These dust grains are thought to trap the fast-moving molecules. The surface of these grains would then act as a catalyst, similar to a car's catalytic converter, and enable the chemical reactions that form vinyl alcohol and the other complex molecules. The problem with this theory, however, is that the newly formed molecules would remain trapped on the dust grains at the low temperature characteristic of most of interstellar space, and the energy necessary to "knock them off" would also be strong enough to break the chemical bonds that formed them. "This last process has not been well understood," explained Turner. "The current theory explains well how molecules like vinyl alcohol could form, but it doesn't address how these new molecules are liberated from the grains where they are born." To better understand how this might be accomplished, the scientists considered the volatile and highly energetic region of space where these molecules were detected. Turner and others speculate that since this cloud lies near an area of young, energetic star formation, the energy from these stars could evaporate the icy surface layers of the grains. This would liberate the molecules from their chilly nurseries, depositing them into interstellar space where they can be detected by sensitive radio antennas on Earth. Astronomers are able to detect the faint radio signals that these molecules emit as they jump between quantum energy states in the act of rotating or vibrating. Turner cautions, however, that even though this discovery has shed new light on how certain h

  20. Scientists Turn Healthy Cells Cancerous

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    Biologists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research recently announced in the journal Nature that they have been able to genetically alter a healthy human cell to create a cancerous one. The discovery is being hailed as an important step forward towards the development of anti-cancer drugs. Previously, scientists have been able to turn normal cells cancerous by using chemicals and e-rays, but this is the first time it has been accomplished through genetic manipulation. This holds promise for a relatively new approach to treating cancer, one that attempts to remove the underlying genetic flaws that cause cancer instead of attacking both healthy and cancerous cells with present-day chemotherapy treatments. The sites listed provide information about this important new development in cancer research.

  1. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that is dedicated to the physics at FAIR. February 2015, Organizers of FAIRNESS 2014: Marco Destefanis, Tetyana Galatyuk, Fernando Montes, Diana Nicmorus, Hannah Petersen, Claudia Ratti, Laura Tolos, and Sascha Vogel. Support for holding the conference was provided by: Conference photograph

  2. What Is the (ethical) Role of Scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2014-12-01

    Many scientists are reluctant to speak out on issues of broad societal importance for fear that doing so crosses into territory that is not the scientists' domain. Others fear that scientists lose credibility when they address ethical and moral issues. A related concern is that discussing social or ethical questions runs the risk of politicizing science. Yet history shows that in the past, scientists often have spoken out on broad issues of societal concern, often (although not always) effectively. This paper explores the conditions under which scientists may be effective spokesmen and women on ethical and moral choices, and suggests some criteria by which scientists might decide when and whether it is appropriate for them to speak out beyond the circles of other technical experts.

  3. The Secret Life of Scientists & Engineers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

  4. 'How many female scientists do you know?'.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    The stereotypical scientist wears a lab-coat, is often eccentric and is usually male. Images of female scientists in popular culture remain rare. Some of the first portrayals of women in science occurred in a handful of British films made during the 1950s and 1960s. These films reflected the difficulties experienced by women in science at the time, but they might also explain why representations of female scientists in film continue to downplay their role as scientists and emphasize their identity as women. PMID:15935861

  5. Jets Spout Far Closer to Black Hole Than Thought, Scientists Say

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, taking advantage of multiple unique views of black hole particle jets over the course of a year with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, have assembled a "picture" of the region that has revealed several key discoveries. They have found that the jets may be originating five times closer to the black hole than previously thought; they see in better detail how these jets change with time and distance from the black hole; and they could use this information as a new technique to measure black hole mass. Presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, the observation will ultimately help solve the mystery of the great cosmic contradiction, in which black holes, notorious for pulling matter in, somehow manage to also shoot matter away in particle jets moving close to the speed of light. The observation is of a familiar source named SS 433 -- a binary star system within our Galaxy in the constellation Aquila, the Eagle, about 16,000 light years away. The black hole and its companion are about two-thirds closer to each other than the planet Mercury is to the Sun. The jets shoot off at 175 million miles per hour, 26 percent of light speed. "The high-speed jets in nearby SS 433 may be caused by the same mechanisms as the powerful outflows in the most distant and much more massive black holes, such as quasars," said Laura Lopez, an undergraduate student at MIT and lead author on a paper about the result. "SS 433 provides a nice local laboratory to study the formation of and conditions in relativistic jets." Dr. Herman Marshall, Ms. Lopez's research supervisor, led the investigation. Matter from the companion star pours into the black hole via a swirling accretion disk, much like water down a drain. Black hole particles jets are thought to be produced as some of the matter encounters strong magnetic fields close to the black hole. SS 433 is angled in such a way that one jet is shooting away from us while the other is aimed slightly towards us. The black hole's companion star enters the picture here as it periodically eclipses parts of the jets. Scientists use the eclipse, called an occultation, as a tool to block one part of the jet so that they can study other parts more easily. Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, the MIT group measured many characteristics of the jets, forming the best view of a jet's structure ever obtained. No image was created, as in other Chandra observations. Rather, the scientists pieced together the scene through spectroscopy, the fingerprint of chemical elements that reveals temperature and velocity of matter in the jets. They determined the length of the X-ray-emitting portion of the jet (over one million miles, about five times the distance from the Earth to the Moon); the temperature range (dropping from about 100 million degrees Celsius to 10 million degrees farther out); the chemical abundances (iron, silicon, and more); and the jet opening angle. In a previous observation they measured the jet's density. With this information, the team could determine that the jet base was five times closer to the black hole than previously observed, with a base diameter of about 1,280 miles. Also, from a bit of geometry along with information on the size of the binary system from optical observations by a team led by Douglas Gies of Georgia State University, the MIT group determined that the size of the companion star that blocked the view of the receding jet is about nine times the size of the Sun. From that, they estimated that the black hole is 16 solar masses. (For many years scientists have speculated whether SS 433 contains a black hole or a neutron star. Today's announcement of a 16-solar-mass object confirms that it is indeed a black hole, too massive to be a neutron star.) "The uniqueness of SS 433 cannot be overstated," said Marshall. "SS 433 provides an excellent opportunity to study the origin, evolution, and long-term beha

  6. Computer as Thinker\\/Doer: Problem-Solving Environments for Computational Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gallopoulos; E. Houstis; J. r. Rice

    1994-01-01

    During the early 1960s, scientists began to envision problem-solving computing environments not only powerful enough to solve complex problems but also able to interact with users on human terms. While many tried to create PSEs over the next few years, by the early 1970s they had abandoned almost all of these attempts. Technology could not yet support PSEs in computational

  7. DEQSOL and ELLPACK : Problem Solving Environments For Partial Differential Equations \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Ronald F.

    F. Boisvert Center for Computing and Applied Mathematics National Institute of Standards­solving environment must be designed. Such systems must be designed by computer scientists in close collaboration. The potential payoffs for the development of such systems is great. Solving PDE problems by writing Fortran code

  8. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  9. LAGEOS Satellite Drag: the Eclipse Season Mystery Remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabinski, Victor J.

    2012-05-01

    Thermal thrust (Yarkovsky) forces explain most of the observed drag on LAGEOS satellites. The large drag variation observed during eclipse seasons depends in part on the velocity direction during Earth eclipse relative to the satellite spin vector. Scharroo et al.(1991, JGR) demonstrated that a 0.02 difference in solar reflectivity between LAGEOS hemispheres could explain the LAGEOS 1 variation. LAGEOS 2 seems to require a similar difference. The cause of such a large reflectivity difference across the spin plane is unknown. Thermal thrust analyses have not previously accounted for the differential solar heating of the two hemispheres resulting from the reflectivity difference. The darker hemisphere absorbs more solar radiation and becomes warmer than the other, thereby emitting more blackbody radiation along its end of the spin axis. The increase in the blackbody radiation reaction force on the darker hemisphere partially compensates for the reduced force from the reduced reflection of solar radiation by that hemisphere. To obtain the observed force difference between hemispheres thus requires a larger reflectivity difference than in the simple Scharroo model, which heightens the reflectivity mystery. We propose an alternate hypothesis of uniform solar reflectivity, but with the aluminum bolts which hold the cube corner reflector assemblies in place screwed in tighter on one hemisphere. This results in a different heat flow between the retainer ring assemblies and the spacecraft interior in each hemisphere, resulting in an asymmetry in the blackbody radiation force.

  10. LAGEOS Satellite Drag: the Eclipse Season Mystery Remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabinski, Victor J.

    2011-04-01

    Thermal thrust (Yarkovsky) forces explain most of the observed drag on LAGEOS satellites. The large drag variation observed during eclipse seasons depends in part on the velocity direction during Earth eclipse relative to the satellite spin vector. Scharroo et al.(1991, JGR) demonstrated that a 0.02 difference in solar reflectivity between LAGEOS hemispheres could explain the LAGEOS 1 variation. LAGEOS 2 seems to require a similar difference. The cause of such a large reflectivity difference across the spin plane is unknown. Thermal thrust analyses have not previously accounted for the differential solar heating of the two hemispheres resulting from the reflectivity difference. The darker hemisphere absorbs more solar radiation and becomes warmer than the other, thereby emitting more blackbody radiation along its end of the spin axis. The increase in the blackbody radiation reaction force on the darker hemisphere partially compensates for the reduced force from the reduced reflection of solar radiation by that hemisphere. To obtain the observed force difference between hemispheres thus requires a larger reflectivity difference than in the simple Scharroo model, which heightens the reflectivity mystery. We propose an alternate hypothesis of uniform solar reflectivity, but with the aluminum bolts which hold the cube corner reflector assemblies in place screwed in tighter on one hemisphere. This results in a different heat flow between the retainer ring assemblies and the spacecraft interior in each hemisphere, resulting in an asymmetry in the blackbody radiation force.

  11. Solving Linear Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-14

    This webpage includes six examples of solving linear equations using balancing. Students learn to "keep the equation balanced by making the same changes to both sides of the equal sign." Six examples of this mathematical process are included, each one being slightly more challenging than the last. Equations include more than one operation, variables, multiple terms on the same side, parentheses and fractions. The process for solving each is explained step by step.

  12. Problem Solving - Programming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    kajigga

    2009-09-23

    Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...

  13. Real Science, Real Learning: Bridging the Gap Between Scientists, Educators and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Today as never before, America needs its citizens to be literate in science and technology. Not only must we only inspire a new generation of scientists and engineers and technologists, we must foster a society capable of meeting complex, 21st-century challenges. Unfortunately, the need for creative, flexible thinkers is growing at a time when our young students are lagging in science interest and performance. Over the past 17 years, the JASON Project has worked to link real science and scientists to the classroom. This link provide viable pipeline to creating the next generation scientists and researchers. Ultimately, JASON's mission is to improve the way science is taught by enabling students to learn directly from leading scientists. Through partnerships with agencies such as NOAA and NASA, JASON creates multimedia classroom products based on current scientific research. Broadcasts of science expeditions, hosted by leading researchers, are coupled with classroom materials that include interactive computer-based simulations, video- on-demand, inquiry-based experiments and activities, and print materials for students and teachers. A "gated" Web site hosts online resources and provides a secure platform to network with scientists and other classrooms in a nationwide community of learners. Each curriculum is organized around a specific theme for a comprehensive learning experience. It may be taught as a complete package, or individual components can be selected to teach specific, standards-based concepts. Such thematic units include: Disappearing Wetlands, Mysteries of Earth and Mars, and Monster Storms. All JASON curriculum units are grounded in "inquiry-based learning." The highly interactive curriculum will enable students to access current, real-world scientific research and employ the scientific method through reflection, investigation, identification of problems, sharing of data, and forming and testing hypotheses. JASON specializes in effectively applying technology in science education by designing animated interactive visualizations that promote student understanding of complex scientific concepts and systems (Rieber, 1990, 1996). JASON's experience in utilizing the power of simulation technology has been widely recognized for its effectiveness in exciting and engaging students in science learning by independent evaluations of JASON's multimedia science curriculum (Ba et al., 2001; Goldenberg et al., 2003). The data collected indicates that JASON's science products have had a positive impact on students' science learning, have positively influenced their perceptions of scientists and of becoming scientists, and have helped diverse students grasp a deeper understanding of complex scientific content, concepts and technologies.

  14. SOLVING THE MYSTERY OF YANKEETOWN GOES Back to CAHOKIA!! Excavation at the Emerald Mound Center, Lebanon Illinois

    E-print Network

    Scheiber, Laura L.

    at the Emerald Mound Center, Lebanon Illinois "Discovering Cahokia's Religion" Year Two-Columbian Emerald mound center in the uplands surrounding Cahokia in order to investigate Yankeetown Immigrants from Indiana and of religious pilgrimages made to the Emerald

  15. Walter sutton: physician, scientist, inventor.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gregory J; Hulston, Nancy J; Kovac, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Walter S. Sutton (1877-1916) was a physician, scientist, and inventor. Most of the work on Sutton has focused on his recognition that chromosomes carry genetic material and are the basis for Mendelian inheritance. Perhaps less well known is his work on rectal administration of ether. After Sutton's work on genetics, he completed his medical degree in 1907 and began a 2-year surgical fellowship at Roosevelt Hospital, New York City, NY, where he was introduced to the technique of rectal administration of ether. Sutton modified the work of others and documented 100 cases that were reported in his 1910 landmark paper "Anaesthesia by Colonic Absorption of Ether". Sutton had several deaths in his study, but he did not blame the rectal method. He felt that his use of rectal anesthesia was safe when administered appropriately and believed that it offered a distinct advantage over traditional pulmonary ether administration. His indications for its use included (1) head and neck surgery; (2) operations when ether absorption must be minimized due to heart, lung, or kidney problems; and (3) preoperative pulmonary complications. His contraindications included (1) cases involving alimentary tract or weakened colon; (2) laparotomies, except when the peritoneal cavity was not opened; (3) incompetent sphincter or anal fistula; (4) orthopnea; and (5) emergency cases. Sutton wrote the chapter on "Rectal Anesthesia" in one of the first comprehensive textbooks in anesthesia, James Tayloe Gwathmey's Anesthesia. Walter Sutton died of a ruptured appendix in 1916 at age 39. PMID:25748370

  16. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  17. Fibonacci series goes microscopic New Scientist

    E-print Network

    Zexian, Cao

    Fibonacci series goes microscopic New Scientist 13 August 2005 THE intricate spiral patterns seen of spirals in each pair of spiral sets were always adjacent members of the Fibonacci series, in which each of a Fibonacci pattern," he says. From issue 2512 of New Scientist magazine, 13 August 2005, page 19 #12;

  18. SHIPBOARD SCIENTISTS1 OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    SHIPBOARD SCIENTISTS1 HANDBOOK OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TECHNICAL NOTE 3 acknowledgement of this source. Technical Note 3 Third Printing 1990 Distribution Copies of this publication may A & M University, or Texas A & M Research Foundation. #12;SHIPBOARD SCIENTISTS1 HANDBOOK TABLE

  19. Educators' Views of Collaboration with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated educators' views of collaboration with scientists, a baseline for COSEE Great Lakes efforts in facilitating dynamic collaborative relationships between Great Lakes researchers and educators. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how are educators in the Great Lakes region involved in collaboration with scientists,…

  20. Collaborative Knowledge Management Supporting Mars Mission Scientists

    E-print Network

    Collaborative Knowledge Management Supporting Mars Mission Scientists Irene Tollinger NASA Ames and deployment of a collaborative software tool, designed for and presently in use on the Mars Exploration Rovers a collaborative workspace for collocated mission scientists for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) 2003 mission

  1. Young Children's Conceptions of Science and Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's images of science and scientists, their sources for scientific knowledge, and the nature of their science-related experiences. A cross-sectional design was used to study how students' ideas differ over the first three years of elementary school. A modified version of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and a…

  2. Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

  3. Community-Scientist Collaboration in Environmental Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCES M. LYNN

    2000-01-01

    Community participation in governmental environmental decision making is firmly institutionalized. In recent years, citizens have also demanded involvement in the scientific research undergirding policy. Environmental agencies have responded and have made collaboration with community groups an integral part of large-scale research funding. Community-scientist research partnerships are not new but heretofore have involved a few committed scientists. This article reviews the

  4. Analyzing Prospective Teachers' Images of Scientists Using Positive, Negative and Stereotypical Images of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Wojnowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the…

  5. Mystery Plants Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    This transfer activity tests student understanding of variation and inheritance. It starts with five flower boxes, as in ?The Virtual Greenhouse,? and three types of seeds with variations in their roots. The flower boxes differ in the amount of water they receive, and students discover which seeds thrive in which environment. Students are then challenged to produce a crop of plants that can grow everywhere in a field by taking advantage of the small variation in root type from one generation to the next.

  6. Lifelines Episode 06: The Mystery of Serotonin and Hypertension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2008-03-18

    This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking the "collections" tab in the left hand column. We continue our coverage of Experimental Biology 2008 with an interview with Michigan State University Professor Stephanie W. Watts, who has been investigating whether serotonin plays a role in high blood pressure. The APS has awarded Dr. Watts the Henry Pickering Bowditch Memorial Award for early-career achievement. The award goes to a scientist younger than 42 years whose accomplishments are original and outstanding. It is the Society''s second-highest award.

  7. Solving Symbolic Equations with PRESS 

    E-print Network

    Sterling, L.; Bundy, Alan; Byrd, L.; O'Keefe, R.; Silver, B.

    1982-01-01

    We outline a program, PRESS (PRolog Equation Solving System) for solving symbolic, transcendental, non-differential equations. The methods used for solving equations are described, together with the service facilities. The ...

  8. The Real Life of a Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, W. G.

    2011-12-01

    The choice to become a data scientist wasn't one I consciously made. I began as a student assistant working on a small data analysis package, and have evolved since then (with various diversions along the way) to become NCAR's primary global climate model data manager and global climate model data scientist. I've witnessed how data management in this area of the earth sciences has changed, from notes attached to cases for magnetic tapes containing esoteric binary data, to today's standards for data formats and metadata standards. I'll talk about how I became a data scientist and the experiences I've had in my career.

  9. My path to becoming a data scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, G.

    2013-12-01

    The choice to become a data scientist wasn't one I consciously made. I began as a student assistant working on a small data analysis package, and have evolved since then (with various diversions along the way) to become NCAR's primary global climate model data manager and global climate model data scientist. I've witnessed how data management in this area of the earth sciences has changed, from notes attached to cases for magnetic tapes containing esoteric binary data, to today's standards for data formats and metadata standards. I'll talk about how I became a data scientist and the experiences I've had in my career.

  10. On Being A Scientist, Third Edition - Video

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-09-21

    The scientific research enterprise is built on a foundation of trust. Scientists trust that the results reported by others are valid. Society trusts that the results of research reflect an honest attempt by scientists to describe the world accurately and without bias. But this trust will endure only if the scientific community devotes itself to exemplifying and transmitting the values associated with ethical scientific conduct. This video is based on third edition of On Being a Scientist and reflects developments since the publication of the original edition in 1989 and a second edition in 1995. It focuses on ethics and mentoring in research.

  11. Systematic Entomology (2008), 33, 548-551 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2008.00420.x What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150-year-old

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    -3113.2008.00420.x What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150-year-old mystery (Diptera: Calliphoridae) THOMAS PAPE1 encysted in the peritoneal wall of the stomach of edible frogs, is shown to be based on first instar larvae thought to be parasites embedded in the peritoneal side of the stomach wall of the edible frogs he

  12. Solving Problems through Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…

  13. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  14. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  15. Inquiry and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

  16. Problem Solving by Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brenda M. Capobianco

    2009-10-01

    In a unique school--university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem

  17. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  18. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…

  19. Solving Energy Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Office of Educational Partnerships,

    The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

  20. Solving the Hydrogen Atom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    After practicing with the particle-in-a-box problem, students solve the H atom symbolically using the derivatives feature in MathCad. The result is an expression for the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. Students will also prove that the radial part of the wavefunction is normalized and explore the concept of an orbital.

  1. PROBLEM SOLVING FOR ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    ? Self ­ Assessment Exercise: Each of the nine items presents two opposing statements: - If you feel of formulas involve learning how to apply basic concepts and principles. 2. When I am learning a new concept in When I am learning a new concept, a problem solving course, I do not I focus on learning

  2. Interactive insight problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

    2011-01-01

    Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In

  3. Solving Algebra Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Dale E.; Wilde, Jeffrey M.

    Algebra word problems were analyzed in terms of the information integration tasks that are required to solve the problems. These tasks were classified into three levels: value assignment, value derivation, and equation construction. Novices (35 first year algebra students) and experts (13 analytic geometry students) were compared on the proportion…

  4. Cooperative Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    solving framework and answer sheet you design during TA Orientation. The second tool is the Warm. How do I form cooperative groups? 27 III. What criteria do I use to assign students to groups? 31 IV of the group role sheets are available on the bookshelf in room 146, or you can make copies of the following

  5. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here's another chance to play geographical detective! This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. Use any reference materials you like and answer the following five questions: The large lagoon in the image is named for a particular type of bird. Name the bird. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. What did they call the river? A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. Which ONE of the following is most responsible for the formation of these cusps? Violent storm impacts on erosion and accretion Wind and tide-driven sediment transport and circulation Tectonic folding associated with nearby mountain ridges Bathymetric effects of dredging operations True or false: Changes in regional precipitation associated with large scale atmospheric circulation patterns have no effect on the salinity of the lagoon's water. Which one of these is NOT distributed within the area covered by this image? Ruppia maritima Chelonia mydas Tapirus bairdii Microcystis aeruginosa E-mail your answers, name (initials are acceptable if you prefer), and your hometown by Tuesday, February 19, 2002 to suggestions@mail-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. Answers will be published on the MISR web site in conjunction with the next weekly image release. The names and home towns of respondents who answer all questions correctly by the deadline will also be published in the order responses were received. The first 3 people on this list who are not affiliated with NASA, JPL, or MISR and who did not win a prize in the last quiz will be sent a print of the image. A new 'Where on Earth...?' mystery appears as the MISR 'image of the week' approximately once per month. A new image of the week is released every Wednesday at noon Pacific time on the MISR home page http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. The image also appears on the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center home page, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov, though usually with a several-hour delay. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  6. Toward an understanding of middle school students' problem-solving strategies: Establishing a foundation for teacher inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Gary

    During the past decade science teachers have made increasing use of a real-world, problem-based approach to science teaching. Without theories of how and why students use knowledge to solve such problems, teachers are constrained in their ability to diagnose students' difficulties in comprehending science concepts as well as students' problems in making connections among the concepts. In this study students from two middle schools were given a "hands-on" experience in solving a real-world forensics problem based on the Lawrence's Hall of Science's Mystery Festival, "The Case of the Missing Millionaire." Following the Mystery Festival, the students went to the computer lab to solve the computer-based transfer problems created with IMMEX problem-solving software. The software includes authoring capabilities and a tracking system that records students' use of knowledge and concepts to solve problems. Data from the computer-based pathways of 495 student pairs, video-records of pairs of students problem-solving, teachers' perception of processes in their classes, and my own observations of problem-solving in action yielded the following results: (1) Twice as many 7th and 8th graders as 6th graders were successful in solving "Roger Rabbit." (2) Approximately twice as many groups correctly solving the problem used an evidence-based approach compared to groups that missed the answer. Groups correctly answering the problem used the evidence-based method, a conjecture-based approach, and a mixed approach (integration of evidence and conjecture) with approximately the same frequencies. (3) Information selection strategies, from the first item a group selected to the last, as they attempted to solve the problem was classified in one of three categories: trial and error, menu-based, and logically linked. Trial and error and menu-based were the dominant strategies. (4) In a follow-up study, 7th and 8th graders attempted to solve "Roger Rabbit" without the hands-on experience of the Mystery Festival. These students comprised a comparison group whereas the original students were designated as the experimental group. The experimental groups were 1.5 times more likely to employ a logically linked strategy for selecting information. (5) Experimental groups that correctly solved the problem were more likely to use an evidence-based approach than were the comparison groups.

  7. Ask a Climate Scientist - Duration: 80 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

  8. Industry is Largest Employer of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Cites statistics of a National Science Foundation report on scientists and engineers in 1974. Reports that chemists are better educated, older, have a better chance of being employed, and do more work for industry, than other scientific personnel. (MLH)

  9. Climate Scientists Dig Deep Into Greenland's Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This short video, under 6 minutes, explores Greenland Ice Core data that that reveal rapid climate changes that have happened in the past. The video includes scientists discussing their research results and views of Ice core sampling.

  10. Scientists Bioengineer First Artificial Animal Limb

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_152909.html Scientists Bioengineer First Artificial Animal Limb Rat forelimb designed and grown in lab ... appropriate fibers of muscle cells. When transplanted into animals, blood circulated through the vascular system, and electrical ...

  11. Jeffrey J. McGuire Associate Scientist

    E-print Network

    McGuire, Jeff

    Jeffrey J. McGuire Associate Scientist Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Telephone: 5082893290 Woods and volcanoe related sites in the pacific northwest. McGuire ­ CV Page 1 of 4 #12;Fall 2003: 2007; MIT- WHOI

  12. USGS Scientists in Wadi Degla, Northern Egypt

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists looking at Eocene sandstones and limestones in Wadi Degla, northern Egypt. This area was studied to understand the Levant Basin Province, as both regions have similar rock formations....

  13. CGH Short Term Scientist Exchange Program (STSEP)

    Cancer.gov

    STSEP promotes collaborative research between established U.S. and foreign scientists from low, middle, and upper-middle income countries (LMICs) by supporting, in part, exchange visits of cancer researchers between U.S. and foreign laboratories.

  14. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    ScienceCinema

    Ron Zuckerman

    2010-01-08

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  15. SOVIET SCIENTIST ASSESSES FUTURE OF WORLD FISHERIES

    E-print Network

    pollution )fthe environment is to strike at the sources, ;l.greed scientists at an F AO conference in orne Pollution can be countered at the source in most cases by" applying restraint, by local action under

  16. On Being A Scientist, Third Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NAS (National Academy of Sciences)

    2009-04-24

    On Being a Scientist was designed to supplement the informal lessons in ethics provided by research supervisors and mentors. The book describes the ethical foundations of scientific practices and some of the personal and professional issues that researchers encounter in their work. It applies to all forms of research--whether in academic, industrial, or governmental settings-and to all scientific disciplines. This third edition of On Being a Scientist reflects developments since the publication of the original edition in 1989 and a second edition in 1995. A continuing feature of this edition is the inclusion of a number of hypothetical scenarios offering guidance in thinking about and discussing these scenarios. On Being a Scientist is aimed primarily at graduate students and beginning researchers, but its lessons apply to all scientists at all stages of their scientific careers.

  17. The Social Responsibilities of Scientists and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus

    2000-01-01

    Points out the important role of scientists in society as educators. Explains problems caused by not understanding the theory of evolution and discusses possible solutions. First published in 1966. (YDS)

  18. The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Sally

    In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

  19. Science Sampler: Wanted--Citizen Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marsha Sega

    2008-03-01

    As middle school students and teachers become involved in citizen-scientist activities, their awareness of important environmental issues will be enhanced. Here the author shares her involvement in a partnership with the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont's All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) to turn her students into citizen scientists. The ATBI is an ongoing program to document, catalog, and count species of animals, plants, and fungi in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  20. Audio Gallery: Scientists and Social Responsibility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online audio gallery is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Scientists and Social Responsibility, part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, is available in broadband and modem formats and with a printable PDF transcript. The audio discusses some of the social-responsibility issues that scientists are grappling with today.

  1. Solar Week Tuesday: Meet Today's Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a set of readings associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Female scientists with different perspectives about the Sun are highlighted in the online readings. This activity is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

  2. Climate Scientists Take To the Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    On 27 February 2013 amid hearings and talk of the looming across-the-board budget cuts known as sequestration, AGU partnered with 16 other scientific societies to bring 50 scientists studying different aspects of climate change to Washington, D. C., for the third annual Climate Science Congressional Visits Day on Capitol Hill. Representing a wide array of expertise, from meteorology to public health, paleoclimatology to agriculture, the scientists came to speak to members of Congress on the realities of climate change.

  3. National Conference on Student & Scientist Partnerships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Barstow

    2001-01-01

    Science education is turning an exciting corner with the development of a new class of projects called Student and Scientist Partnerships for authentic research. Examples include GLOBE, Hands-On Universe and EarthKAM. These projects engage students as learners and as participants in authentic research.Through such projects scientists acquire new research partners. At the same time, students experience real science, learning up-to-date

  4. Precise Heat Control: What Every Scientist Needs to Know About Pyrolytic Techniques to Solve Real Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devivar, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a material is greatly influenced by its thermal and chemical properties. Analytical pyrolysis, when coupled to a GC-MS system, is a powerful technique that can unlock the thermal and chemical properties of almost any substance and provide vital information. At NASA, we depend on precise thermal analysis instrumentation for understanding aerospace travel. Our analytical techniques allow us to test materials in the laboratory prior to an actual field test; whether the field test is miles up in the sky or miles underground, the properties of any involved material must be fully studied and understood in the laboratory.

  5. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Restifo, Linda L.; Phelan, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap. PMID:21708897

  6. Electric current solves mazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-07-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question: how can the electric current choose the right way and avoid dead ends?

  7. Solving Recurrences Andreas Klappenecker

    E-print Network

    Klappenecker, Andreas

    , a sequence solving the recurrence is given by (2,2x3,2x32 ,...)=(2x3k ) #12;Fibonacci Numbers The Fibonacci numbers satisfy the recurrence: f0 = 0 f1 = 1 fn = fn-1 + fn-2 for n 2 #12;Fibonacci Numbers The Fibonacci numbers satisfy the recurrence: f0 = 0 f1 = 1 f2 = f1 + f0 f3 = f2 + f1 f4 = f3 + f2 ... #12

  8. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  9. Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory

    PubMed Central

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

  10. The Mysterious Death: An HPLC Lab Experiment. An Undergraduate Forensic Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beussman, Douglas J.

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment based on the separation of four prescription drugs (disopyramide, lidocaine, procainamide, and quinidine) is presented. The experiment is set within the forensic science context of the discovery of a patient's mysterious death where a drug overdose is suspected. Each lab group…

  11. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  12. Communication--Problem or Mystery?: An Interpretation of the Philosophy of Gabriel Marcel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowell, Catherine R.

    One of the central issues in the philosophy of Gabriel Marcel is the distinction between "problem" and "mystery." The author claims that speech communication scholars find it necessary to objectify elements of communication in the framework of a problem in order to find answers in the form of systematic theories to explain the phenomenon in…

  13. Unraveling the mysteries of the non-thermal universe using -ray observations of Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Unraveling the mysteries of the non-thermal universe using -ray observations of Active Galactic / min; Crab-like source at 0o Energy resolution: ~15% Low systematic errors: Flux ~20%, Photon index hole at the center (~106 to 109 x solar mass) At least 5% of all galaxies are active galaxies Active

  14. The eighth mystery of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and the ‘Trojan horse’ mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stig R. Erlander

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors produce in acquired immune deficiency virus patients a decrease in both existing and new human immunodeficiency virus accompanied by an increase in CD4+ T cells. Yet these inhibitors are not capable of destroying existing human immunodeficiency virus. Thus human immunodeficiency virus cannot explain this ‘eighth’ mystery, nor can it explain the destruction of five times

  15. Mysteries of the Deep: What happens inside of MPI on Blue

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    Mysteries of the Deep: What happens inside of MPI on Blue Gene/Q and why it matters Jeff Hammond Leadership Computing Facility Argonne National Laboratory March 5, 2013 Jeff Hammond PAMI and MPI on BGQ #12;The view from the boat Jeff Hammond PAMI and MPI on BGQ #12;A reason to dive Jeff Hammond PAMI and MPI

  16. Did Kanner Actually Describe the First Account of Autism? The Mystery of 1938

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellowes, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Kanner opens his pioneering 1943 paper on autism by making a mysterious mention of the year 1938. Recent letters to the editor of this journal have disagreed over a particular interpretation--does 1938 refer to an early paper by Asperger, effectively meaning Kanner plagiarised Asperger? I argue 1938 refers to a paper by Louise Despert. This was…

  17. Unexplained Mysteries Home Blogs Rules Help Search Memberlist Calendar ( | )Welcome Guest Log In Register

    E-print Network

    Gosselin, Frédéric

    and asked her what emotion she thought the people were feeling. Researchers have done this many times before, such as happiness, sadness and anger.Originally, researchers thought this meant that different emotions. Patented formula. LegendaryTimes.com Did Aliens visit Earth in the Past? Explore the Ancient Mysteries here

  18. The Great Economic Mysteries Book: Guide to Teaching Economic Reasoning, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Western, Richard D.

    This teacher's guide is part of a 2-volume set presenting economic reasoning as it might be taught and practiced in secondary school classrooms. The book explains and illustrates a particular approach to reasoning and shows students how to use this approach to think about problems and to imagine solutions. Thirty-five mysteries (problems) are…

  19. Posted on Sat, Jun. 19, 2010 Oil plumes invade a dark, mysterious world at Gulf's

    E-print Network

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    of the Deepwater Horizon rig explosion. ``Unfortunately, there's really no place for this oil to go where it wonPosted on Sat, Jun. 19, 2010 Oil plumes invade a dark, mysterious world at Gulf's floor BY ANDRES surprisingly abundant in otherworldly forms of life, much of it fed by gases and oil that seep out of fissures

  20. More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Konicek-Moran

    2009-06-25

    Where do rotten apples go after they fall off the tree? Does the temperature of the wood affect the heat of the fire? Can you make water boil faster? How large a mirror do you need to see your whole body? This second volume of 15 mystery stories examines

  1. The First Amendment: The Finished Mystery Case and World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Introduces the censorship, and imprisonment of Jehovah's Witnesses who distributed, "The Finished Mystery," which contained antiwar statements deemed seditious during World War I. Asks students to examine a Justice Department document pertaining to the case. Helps students decide whether national security needs should override First Amendment…

  2. Ettore Majorana: The scientist and the man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, Erasmo

    2014-12-01

    Ettore Majorana was the brightest Italian theoretical physicist of the XX century (actually, Enrico Fermi regarded him as the brightest in the world of his time, and compared him to Galileo and Newton), even if to some people Majorana is often known mainly for his mysterious disappearance, in 1938, when he was 31. In this paper, we present a panoramic view of the main scientific articles published by him, as well as their significance. We also briefly outline his life, the biographical data being based on letters, documents, testimonies discovered or collected by the author during more than four decades, and contained since 1986 in Recami's book quoted in the text. Finally, extensive information and comments are added with regard to the scientific manuscripts left unpublished by Majorana. Two pictures complete the paper.

  3. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis of an informal education activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    2011-10-01

    "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13 [1]. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held at several Science Festival in Italy (Perugia, Genova, Fiorano, Bologna) obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives incharge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherdmoons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and water, represented by simple objects like apples, spinning tops and so on) to rebuild the rings. The kids can buy the ingredients from different planets: every planet has ingredients in quantities which are proportionate to the real physical properties of that celestial object. After collecting the ingredients, they must carry them to the "The Red Giant" and indicate their best recipe to Mr Schioppanelli. Depending on the recipe, rings can be too strict or too luminous or too fast rotating and so on. The winning group is the one which prepares the best recipe to cook the rings in the smallest amount of time. After introducing this specific (and mysterious) game, we analyze the advantage-disadvantage ratio of such an activity, which is as funny as dispersive [2]. The key expression of the whole activity is, of course, "informal education". But, as a best practice result, we organize also 1 or 2 very simple laboratories about the solar system before playing the game. One of these, called The Olmicomics, allows the pupils to understand the dimensions of the planets with respect to their distances, providing them the correct introduction to "The Lord of Rings". The pupils are simply requested to pone the planets in a correct scale on a map of the city where they live. Then we coherently calculate together dimension of the Solar System planets and the Sun, according to the scale they chose. The second activity provide the pupils hints about the physical properties of the planets, touching the points a)-d) listed above. We believe this two-faces strategy is a quite effective tool for an education suited to our target group. They really do things, touch things, use their own body as a meter to understand distances and physical properties as the gravitational force. In the meanwhile, they are also asked to think about what they are doing, to make calculation and to build a representation of the Solar System by numbers, turning it into a visual representation only after their calculation. And, finally, to play with all these conceipts.

  4. Scientists and Educators Working Together: Everyone Teaches, Everyone Learns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Canizo, T. L.; Schmitt, W.; Higgins, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The primary author has been working with three of the authors (Lebofsky, McCarthy, and Cañizo) for nearly 25 years and Schmitt and Higgins for 17 and 8 years, respectively. This collaboration can be summed up with the phrase: “everyone teaches, everyone learns.” What NASA calls E/PO and educators call STEM/STEAM, requires a team effort. Exploration of the Solar System and beyond is a team effort, from research programs to space missions. The same is true for science education. Research scientists with a long-term involvement in science education have come together with science educators, classroom teachers, and informal science educators to create a powerful STEM education team. Scientists provide the science content and act as role models. Science educators provide the pedagogy and are the bridge between the scientists and the teacher. Classroom teachers and informal science educators bring their real-life experiences working in classrooms and in informal settings and can demonstrate scientists’ approaches to problem solving and make curriculum more engaging. Together, we provide activities that are grade-level appropriate, inquiry-based, tied to the literacy, math, and science standards, and connected directly to up-to-date science content and ongoing research. Our programs have included astronomy camps for youth and adults, professional development for teachers, in-school and after-school programs, family science events, and programs in libraries, science centers, and museums. What lessons have we learned? We are all professionals and can learn from each other. By engaging kids and having them participate in activities and ask questions, we can empower them to be the presenters for others, even their families. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: Use models and engage the audience, do not just lecture. Connect the activity with ongoing science and get participants outside to look at the real sky: do a Moon journal, measure shadows, observe constellations, and look through a telescope—the sky is more than just string, balls, or a computer program.

  5. How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kea, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

  6. Favorite Demonstration: How Scientists Use Critical-Thinking Skills -- Isolating Both Total RNA and Protein Using the Same Small Organ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Angela R. Porta

    2006-05-01

    Undergraduate biology programs are currently undergoing reform to involve students in biomedical research. Engaging students in more active, hands-on experiments allows students to discover scientific principles for themselves, and to develop techniques of critical thinking and problem solving. This models the world of real scientific research, where scientists are confronted with specific problems each day, often dealing with experimental design.

  7. Developing Meaningful Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tamara Ledley

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Earth System Scientist Network, in which students and teachers participate in research projects with scientists. In these projects the scientists can take advantage of having an extended research team, and the students and teachers can contribute to a research project while developing skills in inquiry and expanding content knowledge in Earth system science. Several issues must be addressed in order to facilitate these partnerships: identifying the scientific research questions, the data that the students will analyze, the requirements for participating schools, and the tools and protocols that the students and teachers will use during their research. Other logistical issues must also be addressed, such as assuring that instruments and tools are available to the teachers and students, providing the background information and training they will need, providing additional research questions that can help spark students' interest, and recognizing students and teachers for their contributions.

  8. The GLOBE International Scientists Network: Connecting scientists, teachers and students from around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Tessendorf, S. A.; Mackaro, J.

    2011-12-01

    The GLOBE Program invites scientists in all areas of Earth System Science to work with students and teachers around the work on exploring local scientific problems. GLOBE has a rich history of connecting scientists with schools around the world around issues of environmental and relevance. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with students, teachers and scientists in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has initiated a focus on climate science during the next two years and we are especially interested in connecting scientists with teachers and students in geographic and disciplinary areas of interest to climate scientists. In addition, GLOBE is revitalizing the technology support for science and communications which will provide an easy mechanism for scientists to connect with GLOBE schools. GLOBE is based on spheres of the Earth system with five investigation areas: Atmosphere, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover / Biology, and Phenology. Classroom learning activities for each area help guide students in the classroom. Scientific protocols for data collection designed by scientists provide guidance for students to collect scientifically valid, high-quality data that can be used by professional scientists. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign aims to develop a framework for robust scientist participation in the program whereby scientists and GLOBE schools with mutual science interest can connect and develop collaborations. Scientist participation ranges from mentoring students on science investigations to working collaborative on local climate science research problems. Scientists interested in working with GLOBE are encouraged to participate in whatever level of engagement is appropriate to compliment their research program and professional goals. Scientists will become a part of the GLOBE International Scientist Network, which may provide entrée into other avenues of research and funding. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered in Boulder, is funded through cooperative agreements with NASA and NOAA with additional support from NSF and the U.S. Department of State. GLOBE is supported in countries around the world through bi-lateral agreements between U.S. Department of state and national governments.

  9. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION The Physician-Scientist Career Pipeline

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION The Physician-Scientist Career Pipeline in 2005 Build It, and They Will Come, the pipeline of physician- scientists has a serious problem, first de- scribed more than a generation ago.2-scientist career pipeline. Design We assessed recent trends in the physician-scientist career pipeline using data

  10. The Scientist: Magazine of the Life Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Scientist is an international news magazine, published in both print and online versions, that reports on and analyzes the issues and events that impact the world of life scientists. Its mission is to provide compelling coverage of the latest developments, including research, technology, and business. Its target audience is active researchers interested in maintaining a broad view of the life sciences. The web site features news articles and discussion of research, the profession, and technology. There are also links to blogs, video and multimedia resources, and links to supplemental articles and survey materials.

  11. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) began as a collaboration between students and faculty members at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1969, and is now an alliance of more than 250,000 citizens and scientists. There "Food and Agriculture" section of their website provides a trove of valuable information on sustainable food production and research. This section is divided into two main parts "Food & Agriculture Science and Impacts" and "Food & Agriculture Solutions". The Impacts section includes "Science in Agriculture", "Impacts of Industrial Agriculture", "Impacts of Genetic Engineering". Site visitors can also link to information about other UCS programs including Clean Vehicles, Global Warming, Clean Energy, and Scientific Integrity.

  12. Career Management for Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchardt, John K.

    2000-05-01

    This book will be an important resource for both new graduates and mid-career scientists, engineers, and technicians. Through taking stock of existing or desired skills and goals, it provides both general advice and concrete examples to help asses a current job situation or prospect, and to effectively pursue and attain new ones. Many examples of properly adapted resumes and interview techniques, as well as plenty of practical advice about adaptation to new workplace cultural paradigms, such as team-based management, make this book an invaluable reference for the professional scientist in today's volatile job market.

  13. Publications, peer review, and the young scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, R. L.

    As scientists and communicators, we all make our living through the expression of our ideas and the results of our scientific research. This expression takes many forms, but, most notably, published articles lie at the heart of our endeavors. I would like to present my opinions on some problems that I, as a young scientist, see in our profession.Several years ago, two wonderful letters appeared in Geology discussing the problems of honorary coauthorship [Zen, 1988, Means, 1988]. Honorary coauthorship is a by-product of the system set up to fund scientific research. More generally, the problem is the need to publish a great number of articles in order to survive.

  14. Media and the making of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Moira

    This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the unknown. Advocates of informal science learning initiatives suggest that media can be used as a tool for teaching science content. The potential of entertainment media to provide a sense of wonder is a powerful aspect of its potential to inspire the next generation of scientists.

  15. Modeling applied to problem solving

    E-print Network

    Pawl, Andrew

    We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and ...

  16. Getting to Yes: Supporting Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; Smith, L. K.

    2011-12-01

    Research scientists are busy people, with many demands on their time and few institutional rewards for engagement in education and public outreach (EPO). However, scientist involvement in education has been called for by funding agencies, education researchers and the scientific organizations. In support of this idea, educators consistently rate interaction with scientists as the most meaningful element of an outreach project. What factors help scientists become engaged in EPO, and why do scientists stay engaged? This presentation describes the research-based motivations and barriers for scientists to be engaged in EPO, presents strategies for overcoming barriers, and describes elements of EPO that encourage and support scientist engagement.

  17. SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the next three months, more than 350 scientists from Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States will combine forces to measure ozone levels and changes in the upper Arctic atmosphere as part of SOLVE, the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. Although much of the SOLVE homepage targets the public, several sections will be of interest to researchers and educators. The section entitled Mission Description features illustrated information on ozone, including ozone effects, UV-ozone interactions, Polar Stratospheric Clouds, and chemical reactions, among other topics. Also of interest is the Theory Teams section, providing summaries and references for more than a dozen SOLVE research projects -- including Photochemistry of Arctic Ozone, Resolution Modeling of Synoptic and Gravity Waves, and Theoretical Studies of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Clouds and Aerosols, to name a few. A collection of links rounds out the site.

  18. VLBA Tracks Ejected Material From Mysterious X-Ray Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    Images made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope show the mysterious X-ray nova in Scorpius as it ejected blobs of material at tremendous speeds over the period from August 18 to September 22, 1994. Some of these blobs appear to be moving faster than the speed of light -- an illusion created by both the great actual speed of the blobs and their direction of travel with relation to the Earth. This object was discovered by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and given the name GRO J1655-40 on July 27, 1994, and has been observed both with the Very Large Array (VLA) and the VLBA. The great resolving power of the VLBA, demonstrated by these images, has allowed astronomers to track individual blobs as they move away from the object's core. The VLBA and VLA are funded by the National Science Foundation. The VLBA observations were made by Robert Hjellming and Michael Rupen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. There are two renditions of these images -- a pseudocolor version and a black-and-white contour map with annotations. Both renditions are combinations of VLBA images made at different times. In these combinations, earlier images are higher and later images are lower. The vertical spacing of the images indicates the relative time spacing between the images. The radio core of the X-ray nova is the bright object at the center of each image. The B&W image contains the date of observation for each image. The vertical line indicates the core, while the sloping lines connect separate observations of individual blobs. The numbers in these lines indicate the motion across the sky (proper motion) of each blob, indicated in milliarcseconds (mas) per day. At the distance of this object, about 10,000 light- years, proper motion of about 50 milliarcseconds per day corresponds to the speed of light. The apparent speeds of the blobs range from less than half the speed of light to 130 percent of light speed. The blobs are not actually moving faster than light, but are moving at speeds approaching that of light, which travels at 186,000 miles per second. The great differences in speed among the blobs and the detailed structure seen in the VLBA images are tantalizing to astronomers. The VLBA images of GRO J1655-40 are the first ever seen at such great detail for a galactic relativistic jet. GRO J1655-40 is thought to be a double-star system with a superdense neutron star or black hole as one of the pair. Astronomers believe that, in systems like this, the central object (the neutron star or black hole) is pulling material from its more- normal companion star. This material, drawn by the strong gravitational attraction of the central object, forms a disk of material orbiting that object. Such disks, called accretion disks, give rise to a variety of phenomena, most of which are poorly understood. Heating of the material within the accretion disk is thought to be the cause of X-ray emission from the system. The accretion disk also is thought to generate jets of subatomic particles ejected at great speeds roughly along the polar axis of the rotating disk. In outbursts, heavier concentrations of particles are ejected and the interaction of these ejected particles with internal magnetic fields produces the strong radio emission detected by radio telescopes. GRO J1655-40 is the second such powerful object discovered within our own Milky Way Galaxy. The first, called GRS 1915+105, was discovered in 1994 by researchers using NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. GRO J1655-40 is closer to Earth that the other object and its behavior is much more complicated, making interpretation of the observations more difficult and scientifically more interesting. Jets of material moving at speeds nearly that of light, such as seen in GRO J1655-40, are seen in distant galaxies and in far- distant quasars. Those jets are believed to be produced by accretion disks surrounding black holes. The black holes in radio galaxies and quasars, however, are millions of times more massive than the sun, while the two objects within the Milk

  19. Solar Mystery Nears Solution with Data from SOHO Spacecraft

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Recent images taken by instruments aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) show a transfer of magnetic energy from the Sun's surface to the corona. This "magnetic carpet" may solve the 55 year old riddle of why the corona is so much hotter than the surface. The SOI Investigation site is maintained by the Solar Oscillations Investigations group at Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysic Laboratory and Stanford University. The site contains links to the full text of the press release from November 5, 1997 by the Goddard Space Flight Center which controls the spacecraft. It also contains QuickTime movies and still images, and offers explanatory text. Background information, authors and contacts for further information on SOHO are available.

  20. Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Alan

    Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…

  1. The Problem-Solving Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardige, Art

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…

  2. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving

  3. Principles for Teaching Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rob Foshay and Jamie Kirkley

    2003-01-01

    This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

  4. Geographic mobility of scientists: Sex differences and family constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberlee A. Shauman; Yu Xie

    1996-01-01

    Women scientists are much more likely than men scientists to be in two-career marriages. This study examines the argument\\u000a that the higher prevalence of two-career marriages among women scientists presents a significant impediment to their geographic\\u000a mobility. Three hypotheses are developed and tested. First. scientists in two-career families are less likely to migrate than\\u000a scientists in one-career families. Second, the

  5. Solving a Historical Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, M.; Stern, E. A.; Seidler, G.; Balasubramanian, M.

    2007-02-01

    We report x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements of four closely related perovskite materials: SrTiO3, CaTiO3, CaZrO3, and SrZrO3. This data is used to address the conceptually important, early EXAFS experiment of Perel and Deslattes. That experiment attempted to distinguish between the then-competing short-range and long-range theories of EXAFS by cross-material comparison of the EXAFS for the metal ions in the four perovskites reported here. Their inconclusive result is surprising, given the modern understanding of EXAFS. Our new measurements show strong disagreements with the prior results at multiple edges. When analyzed in qualitative, conceptual framework of the original study, our new results are in strong agreement with the short-range order theory. This solves a historical puzzle in the early scientific development of x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Scientists and Scientific Thinking: Understanding Scientific Thinking through an Investigation of Scientists Views about Superstitions and Religious Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Lay, Mark C.; Taylor, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literacy is explored in this paper which describes two studies that seek to understand a particular feature of the nature of science; namely scientists' habits of mind. The research investigated scientists' views of scientific evidence and how scientists judge evidence claims. The first study is concerned with scientists' views of what…

  7. please recycle. Without talented, passionate environmental scientists,

    E-print Network

    Reif, John H.

    and Conservation, and participates in University PhD programs in Ecology and in Environmental Policyplease recycle. Without talented, passionate environmental scientists, the future of our planet: a doctoral (PhD) program. At Duke University's Nicholas School of the Environment, we train the finest

  8. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen…

  9. Citizen Scientists: Investigating Science in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gail; Childers, Gina; Stevens, Vanessa; Whitley, Blake

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science programs are becoming increasingly popular among teachers, students, and families. The term "citizen scientist" has various definitions. It can refer to those who gather information for a particular science research study or to people who lobby for environmental protection for their communities. "Citizen science" has been called…

  10. SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS STATISTICAL DATA SYSTEM (SESTAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SESTAT is a comprehensive and integrated system of information about the employment, educational, and demographic characteristics of scientists and engineers (S&E) in the United States. In concept it covers those with a bachelor's degree or higher who either work in or are educat...

  11. Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Tunison Lab scientists Rich Chiavelli (left) and Emily Waldt (middle) hand a bucketful of young Atlantic salmon to Dan Bishop (right) of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for release into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of you...

  12. Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Tunison Lab scientist Emily Waldt (right) assists Dan Bishop of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in releasing Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being release...

  13. RESEARCH SCIENTIST POSITION DESCRIPTION MICHAEL G. RYAN

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    . Approaches include experimental manipulations, long-term studies, landscape sampling, synthesis of other, Colorado State University scientist, that studies the ecological impact of #12;2 mulching (chipping and mastication treatments). Funded by the Joint Fire Science Program. Focus Areas 1, 3, 4, 5. Landscape forest

  14. Developing the next generation of nurse scientists.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Patricia V; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate nursing research internship program in which students are engaged in research with a faculty mentor. Since 2002, more than 130 undergraduate nursing students have participated. Interns coauthored publications, presented papers and posters at conferences, and received awards. This highly successful program provides a model that can be easily replicated to foster the development of future nurse scientists. PMID:25581434

  15. Emergence and Computability Fabio Boschetti --Research Scientist

    E-print Network

    Boschetti, Fabio

    Emergence and Computability Fabio Boschetti -- Research Scientist Randall Gray -- Modeller CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research GPO Box 1538, Hobart Tasmania, 7000 Randall.Gray@csiro.au Fabio.Boschetti@csiro with the CSIRO Division of Marine and Atmospheric Research. He has been designing and implementing agent

  16. Research Scientist-Horticulture Position Overview

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Research Scientist-Horticulture Position Overview: Develops innovative programs and consumer. 3. Works with regional technical staff to develop and/or improve agronomic and horticultural.g., fitting agronomic and horticultural principles to the business environment, determining the best course

  17. "The Disinterested Scientist": Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitroff, Ian I.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of scientists who studied the moon rocks from the various Apollo missions was examined over a three year period. Methods of interviews ranging from discussion to written questionnaires were designed to explore issues connected with lunar missions and to focus on specific attitudes towards these issues. The central question emphasized…

  18. USGS scientists Measure Floodwaters at Morganza Spillway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists Todd Baumann and Errol Meche install a temporary streamgage to measure water levels above and below the the Morganza Spillway. USGS streamflow information is used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to help them make informed flood management decisions. One floodgate on the Morganza ...

  19. USGS scientists Measure Floodwaters at Morganza Spillway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Errol Meche installs a temporary streamgage to measure water levels above and below the the Morganza Spillway. USGS streamflow information is used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to help them make informed flood management decisions. One floodgate on the Morganza Spillway was open...

  20. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  1. Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives on Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W., Ed.; Goodyear, Rodney K., Ed.

    The focus of this book is on the way professionals use and make sense of test assessment data in their counseling. The book is oriented specifically toward those training to be psychologists or counselors, especially those interested in a scientist-practitioner orientation to clinical practice. Each of the chapters presents a perspective on test…

  2. The Physician-Scientist: An Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legato, Marianne, J.

    1983-01-01

    The number of physician-scientists in training decreased below the recommended level in 1976. Reasons young doctors are not attracted to research training and why these academic physicians are needed are discussed. The demise of the academic medical community will begin an ice age in American medicine. (SR)

  3. Back to Article page Sailing Scientist

    E-print Network

    Shapin, Steven

    and the odd couple is joined by a third, for here appears the name of the astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742Back to Article page Sailing Scientist Steven Shapin Edmond Halley: Charting the Heavens on the Principia's title-page, your best bet is understanding Edmond Halley. For it was Halley's life that linked

  4. A Scientist Views Communication With The Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariella, Raymond P.

    This document stresses the problems involved in communicating science to the public; some suggestions, however, are discussed that have proved successful in this task. Television is cited as a good medium to present the scientist as someone other than the usual stereotype. Advice is given on how to present science to the public via television. The…

  5. The VIVO Ontology: Enabling Networking of Scientists

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    technologies to model scientists and provides federated search to enhance the discovery of researchers been adopted nationally and internationally, and enables the national and international federated search for finding experts. 1 Introduction The exponential growth in complexity and scope of modern

  6. Cleantech to Market ScientiStS +

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    research into market opportunities, while developing the next generation of leaders in the process. c2M and Resources Group to perform market research on each invention. C2M considers the students' academicCleantech to Market StudentS + ScientiStS + ProfeSSionalS = innovation H A A S S C H O O L O F B U

  7. Becoming a Creative Scientist: Jean Piaget's development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burkhard Vollmers

    1996-01-01

    Jean Piaget has surpassed most of his scientific contemporaries in influence, significance and productivity. Two questions of pedagogical interest can be asked: How did the boy Jean Piaget, with his peculiar interest in philosophy, become such an outstanding scientist, and what was the role of his teachers in this respect? Piaget's way into science demonstrates that personal ability, drive and

  8. Plate Tectonics: The Scientist Behind the Theory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-17

    This video segment adapted from A Science Odyssey profiles Alfred Wegener, the scientist who first proposed the theory of continental drift. Initially criticized, his theory was accepted after further evidence revealed the existence of tectonic plates and showed that these plates move.

  9. Scientists Involved in K-12 Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations (www.cosee.org) that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping-in pre-existing programs to contribute right away without having to re-invent the wheel is a good approach. Education and outreach sessions are expanding at professional, scientific meetings such as AGU, and provide an excellent start for those in search of new educational experiences. Contacting a regional COSEE is also a very effective way to get involved.

  10. Secrets of the MIT mystery hunt : an exploration of the theory underlying the construction of a multi-puzzle contest

    E-print Network

    Gottlieb, Mark Louis, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    This is an exploration of the rules and guidelines that underlie the structure of a multi-puzzle contest (a competition consisting of one large puzzle made up of a number of smaller constituent puzzles). The MIT Mystery ...

  11. Potentially harmful side-effects: medically unexplained symptoms, somatization, and the insufficient illness narrative for viewers of mystery diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Carol-Ann

    2013-09-01

    Illness narrative has often been found to play a positive role in both patients' and providers' efforts to find meaning in the illness experience. However, illness narrative can sometimes become counterproductive, even pathological, particularly in cases of medical mystery--cases wherein biopsychosocial factors blur the distinction between bodily dysfunction and somatizing behavior. In this article, the author draws attention to two examples of medical mystery, the clinical presentation of medically unexplained symptoms, and the popular reality television program Mystery Diagnosis, to demonstrate the potentially harmful effects of illness narrative. The medical mystery's complex narrative structure reflects and tends to reinforce providers' and patients' mistaken assumptions, anxieties, and conflicts in ways which obstruct, rather than facilitate, healing. PMID:23740408

  12. Roaming in the Dark: Deciphering the Mystery of NO3 --> NO + O2 Photolysis 

    E-print Network

    Grubb, Michael Patrick

    2012-07-16

    : Deciphering the Mystery of NO3 ? NO + O2 Photolysis. (May 2012) Michael Patrick Grubb, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Simon W. North The focus of this dissertation is to decipher the previously unknown reaction dynamics... al. ... 75 xii 31 Evolution of key electronic orbitals in the NO3 exit channel derived from CASSCF calculations ................................................................................. 78 32 Lowest lying A ? X rotational branch...

  13. Determining the Effectiveness of Prompts for Self-Regulated Learning in Problem-Solving Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists have studied internal cognitive structures, processes, and systems for decades in order to understand how they function in human learning. In order to solve challenging tasks in problem situations, learners not only have to perform cognitive activities, e.g., activating existing cognitive structures or organizing new…

  14. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2012-01-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  15. More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Konicek-Moran

    2009-04-01

    Available March 2009 Where do rotten apples go after they fall off the tree? Does the temperature of the wood affect the heat of the fire? Can you make water boil faster? How large a mirror do you need to see your whole body? This second volume of 15 mystery stories examines more science concepts and reinforces the value of learning science through inquiry. Each mystery presents opportunities for students to create questions, form hypotheses, test their ideas, and come up with explanations. Focused on concepts such as weather and climate, thermodynamics, interdependency of living things, adaptation, life cycles, properties of matter, reflection and refraction, and chemical bonds, these mysteries draw students into the stories by grounding them in experiences students are familiar with, providing them with the foundation for classroom discussion and inquiry. "These stories are bound to reveal the wonderful ideas all students have, give them the confidence to explore their own thinking, and provide opportunities for them to 'do' science rather than have science 'done' to them." --Page Keeley, NSTA President 2008-09

  16. AGU climate scientists visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2012-02-01

    On 1 February 2012, AGU teamed with 11 other scientific societies to bring 29 scientists researching various aspects of climate change to Washington, D. C., for the second annual Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill. The participants represented a wide range of expertise, from meteorology to agriculture, paleoclimatology to statistics, but all spoke to the reality of climate change as demonstrated in their scientific research. With Congress debating environmental regulations and energy policy amid tight fiscal pressures, it is critical that lawmakers have access to the best climate science to help guide policy decisions. The scientists met with legislators and their staff to discuss the importance of climate science for their districts and the nation and offered their expertise as an ongoing resource to the legislators.

  17. Federation of American Scientists: WMD Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a non-profit organization founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists. The founders "were members of the Manhattan Project, creators of the atom bomb and deeply concerned about the implications of its use for the future of humankind." Although not as sleek a design as the main website for FAS, this website has a wealth of information on nuclear resources, with particular emphasis on the now common household term, WMD. From this website, visitors can read the Special Weapons Primer for an introduction to special weapons, research arms control agreements, review the "global guide to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, including information on delivery systems, doctrine, organizations and facilities," read up on Richard L. Garwin, the famous weapons designer, learn about the history and technology of space nuclear propulsion, or explore numerous other links.

  18. National Ice Center Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Meg

    2002-01-01

    The long-term goal of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Visiting Scientist Program at the National Ice Center (NIC) is to recruit the highest quality visiting scientists in the ice research community for the broad purpose of strengthening the relationship between the operational and research communities in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research supports the scientific community by creating, conducting, and coordinating projects that strengthen education and research in the atmospheric, oceanic and earth sciences. UCAR accomplishes this mission by building partnerships that are national or global in scope. The goal of UCAR is to enable researchers and educators to take on issues and activities that require the combined and collaborative capabilities of a broadly engaged scientific community.

  19. Antimicrobial stewardship: the role of scientists?

    PubMed

    Bowater, Laura

    2015-07-01

    We continue to be warned about the risk of antibiotic resistance. This campaign has targeted medicine and agriculture, asking these industries to pay attention to the risks of widespread resistance and to cut the use of antibiotics wherever possible. However, there has been little to no mention of the widespread use of antibiotics in the scientific research community. As scientists we use antibiotics and antibiotic resistance as fundamental tools for our research; almost all conventional plasmids use an antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable marker, offering us an easy method of screening. With molecular biology and genetics at the heart of many research disciplines, these tools are ubiquitous. Scientists have a responsibility to monitor and reduce our use of antibiotics. With the growth and fast advancement of synthetic biology, it is timely for us to consider other options and to teach the next generation of researchers by example how to truly value antibiotics by using them more responsibly. PMID:25795773

  20. OceanLink: Ask A Marine Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Site is dedicated to ocean education. You will find all kinds of interesting information about things like: the biggest sea animals, marine biology careers, answers to common ocean and animal questions, and more. Check the Answer Archive for answers to your marine science questions, and if you do not find your answer, ask one of their scientists. Site also includes ocean news, world records, and information on summer camps.

  1. The scientist's education and a civic conscience.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kelling J; Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    A civic science curriculum is advocated. We discuss practical mechanisms for (and highlight the possible benefits of) addressing the relationship between scientific knowledge and civic responsibility coextensively with rigorous scientific content. As a strategy, we suggest an in-course treatment of well known (and relevant) historical and contemporary controversies among scientists over science policy or the use of sciences. The scientific content of the course is used to understand the controversy and to inform the debate while allowing students to see the role of scientists in shaping public perceptions of science and the value of scientific inquiry, discoveries and technology in society. The examples of the activism of Linus Pauling, Alfred Nobel and Joseph Rotblat as scientists and engaged citizens are cited. We discuss the role of science professors in informing the social conscience of students and consider ways in which a treatment of the function of science in society may find, coherently, a meaningful space in a science curriculum at the college level. Strategies for helping students to recognize early the crucial contributions that science can make in informing public policy and global governance are discussed. PMID:23096773

  2. Rice scientists lay biotech network foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-29

    To help agricultural researchers in poorly funded Asian laboratories improve food crops, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is proposing a biotechnology network that would disseminate instruments, plant genetic materials, chemicals, and scientific information free of charge. The network will focus primarily on Asian researchers trained at the Philippines-based IRRI who are trying to breed high-yield, disease-resistant rice strains and thereby pump up the world's rice production by about 10 million metric tons a year. The total crop in 1990 was about 520 million tons. Not all biological substances are legal to import and export, and this may impede distributing some plant genetic material to network scientists. However, at present it is legal to ship molecular DNA markers that are essential for tagging important genes in lab studies. As a test balloon for the network, markers are being distributed to scientists in national agricultural research programs in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. IRRI is seeking $5.5 million in funding, enough to run the network for 5 years. If the network becomes a reality, Asian rice scientists may pluck out of the mail something far more valuable than DNA markers or even sweepstakes notices: genetically engineered plants, which might be allowed across national boundaries in 2 or 3 years.

  3. Big Data: An Opportunity for Collaboration with Computer Scientists on Data-Driven Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.

    2014-12-01

    Big data technologies are evolving rapidly, driven by the need to manage ever increasing amounts of historical data; process relentless streams of human and machine-generated data; and integrate data of heterogeneous structure from extremely heterogeneous sources of information. Big data is inherently an application-driven problem. Developing the right technologies requires an understanding of the applications domain. Though, an intriguing aspect of this phenomenon is that the availability of the data itself enables new applications not previously conceived of! In this talk, we will discuss how the big data phenomenon creates an imperative for collaboration among domain scientists (in this case, geoscientists) and computer scientists. Domain scientists provide the application requirements as well as insights about the data involved, while computer scientists help assess whether problems can be solved with currently available technologies or require adaptaion of existing technologies and/or development of new technologies. The synergy can create vibrant collaborations potentially leading to new science insights as well as development of new data technologies and systems. The area of interface between geosciences and computer science, also referred to as geoinformatics is, we believe, a fertile area for interdisciplinary research.

  4. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by participating in Expedition Earth and Beyond, will also have the opportunity to virtually share their research. These virtual team presentations will allow these emerging scientists to celebrate their own exploration, and in doing so, contribute to the excitement of the Year of the Solar System. As the public joins NASA in the celebration of YSS, students across the nation will not only be excited by the science and discoveries being made, but will prime themselves with experience to perhaps someday become the new leaders in science, discovery, and NASA.

  5. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This is related to what is sometimes referred to as "false balance" in media reporting and may partly explain the divergence between public and scientific opinion regarding climate change.

  6. Science 101: What writing represents what scientists actually do?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

    2005-11-01

    This article addresses whether or not a report based on scientific method accurately represents what scientists do as well as what kind of writing scientists engage in that goes beyond the reporting of conclusions.

  7. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

  8. Creating Expert Problem Solving Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Eccles; Paul T. Groth

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how human-technology interaction in modern ambient technology environments can be best informed by conceptualizing of such environments as problem solving systems. Typically, such systems comprise multiple human and technological agents that meet the demands imposed by problem constraints through dynamic collaboration. A key assertion is that the design of expert problem solving systems can benefit from an

  9. Adolescent problem-solving thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome J Platt

    1974-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that adolescent psychiatric patients would be deficient with respect to normal controls in their interpersonal problem-solving skills by comparing 33 patients and 53 high school student controls on 7 tasks reflecting different aspects of problem solving. With IQ covaried out, controls obtained significantly higher scores on the tasks evaluating optional thinking, social means-ends thinking, and role taking,

  10. Learning Impasses in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. P. E.

    1992-01-01

    Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

  11. A Personal Problem Solving Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Petersen, Chris H.

    Few studies have explicitly attended to the personal problem-solving process within the counseling literature, perhaps due in part to the dearth of relevant assessment instruments. To examine the dimensions underlying the applied problem-solving process, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from four samples of college…

  12. Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Grace

    The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

  13. The Future Problem Solving Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

  14. Multiple Ways to Solve Proportions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercole, Leslie K.; Frantz, Marny; Ashline, George

    2011-01-01

    When solving problems involving proportions, students may intuitively draw on strategies that connect to their understanding of fractions, decimals, and percents. These two statements--"Instruction in solving proportions should include methods that have a strong intuitive basis" and "Teachers should begin instruction with more intuitive…

  15. Algorithms and Problem Solving Introduction

    E-print Network

    Razak, Saquib

    Unit 16 1 Algorithms and Problem Solving · Introduction · What is an Algorithm? · Algorithm Properties · Example · Exercises #12;Unit 16 2 What is an Algorithm? What is an Algorithm? · An algorithm. · The algorithm must be general, that is, it should solve the problem for all possible input sets to the problem

  16. 27/05/2009 12:35Molly mating mystery :The Scientist [10th April 2009] Page 1 of 3http://www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/55611/

    E-print Network

    Rankin, Daniel

    ) is an asexually reproducing species in which females produce only female clones via parthenogenesis. To initiate's new rare disease push Magneto-ants pump iron Tumors spur depression Obama names new CDC chief Extreme

  17. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18... Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No scientist shall perform a laboratory analysis on any product in which he is...

  18. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18... Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No scientist shall perform a laboratory analysis on any product in which he is...

  19. Turkish Elementary and Secondary Students' Views about Science and Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Behiye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine elementary and secondary students' views concerning science and scientists. Data gathered from Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and essays written by students were used to analyze their views. The study involved 359 students in grades 5 through 11. The results indicate that student's perceived scientists as to be…

  20. How Are Scientists Portrayed in Children's Science Biographies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; Ford, Danielle J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the images of science and scientists in science biographies written for children. We examined 12 biographies of historic and contemporary scientists written for primary/middle school children in relation to three dimensions: characteristics of scientists, nature and process of scientific knowledge, and social…

  1. Attitudes of agricultural scientists in Indonesia towards genetically modified foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judhiastuty Februhartanty; Tri Nisa Widyastuti; Dwi Nastiti Iswarawanti

    Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a cross sectional study. A total of 400 scientists (involved in

  2. Death of honeybees continues to baffle scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    Mysterious disorder puts S.D. bees at riskhttp://www.argusleader.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/NEWS/705150301/1001Queen Bees-In Hive or Castle, Duty Without Powerhttp://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/science/15angi.htmlAre mobile phones wiping out our bees?http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/wildlife/article2449968.eceYou've saved whales and dolphins-now save the beeshttp://www.nashuatelegraph.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/COLUMNISTS26/70515009/-1/opinionNature: Bee Anatomy [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/alienempire/multimedia/bee.htmlThe Beekeeping Portalhttp://www.beekeeping.org/Apiarists throughout the United States and the rest of the world have been asking one pressing question over the past several months: What is killing millions of honeybees? A number of theories have been proposed as of late, and the mysterious ailment known as colony collapse disorder is something that is puzzling both entomologists and those who derive their livelihood from honeybee-related activities. Bees have been leaving the hive and never returning, so researchers can't perform necropsies in many cases. While some people may just associate honeybees with their most popular product, namely honey, these tiny creatures are also responsible for pollinating over ninety different crops, including almonds, apples, cranberries, watermelon, and cucumbers. One potential explanation that has been advanced is that extensive radiation from mobile phones could be interfering with bees' navigation systems. An apiarist in South Dakota, Brad Folsand, remarked that "You always lose a few, maybe 10 percent or something like that. But there are guys who have lost 90 percent in some places." Apiculturists from the University of Illinois to the University of California, Davis are continuing to research this vexing situation, and it is hoped that they will be able to get the bottom of the situation in the near future. The first link will take users to a piece from this Tuesday's News-Herald about the difficult situation faced by beekeepers in northeast Ohio. Moving along, the second link leads to a similar story from the Sioux Falls Argus Leader. The third link will take users to a nice piece of science reporting from this Tuesday's New York Times about the world of the queen bee. The forth link leads to an article from the Independent which talks about the potential link between these recent honeybee deaths and mobile phones. The fifth link leads to a passionate editorial from the Nashua Telegraph's own Mike Morin about the importance of saving the honeybee population. The sixth link leads to a great interactive feature from the Nature program that provides details about the bee's anatomy, from the stinger all the way up to the antennae. Finally, the last link leads to the very exhaustive and interesting Virtual Beekeeping Gallery, which contains information on bee-keeping equipment, related associations, laboratories, and so on.

  3. Making Waves--When Scientists Work with Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, L.; van Cooten, S.

    2004-12-01

    Scientists and educators working with the South East Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEACOOS) have teamed together to develop a poster and website to introduce teachers and precollege students to ocean waves. This poster and website present examples of ocean wave data collected by moored buoys and offer explanations and graphical examples of the complex terminology scientists use to describe ocean waves and sea swells. A key component of this outreach effort is the ocean wave data collected by the moored buoys of the National Weather Service (NWS) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and affiliated SEACOOS partners. This data is displayed on the NDBC web site (www.ndbc.noaa.gov) after passing through a series of quality control checks. The NDBC web site displays information detailing wave height, direction, period, and steepness with additional data collected on sea swell height and period. This data is then displayed on the NDBC website on a real-time basis or users can request archived data for specific time periods and create graphs to illustrate the information. The NDBC and SEACOOS (www.seacoos.org) websites offer an expansive information source free of charge to the public. Teachers can create exciting and interactive learning activities for their students to investigate real-time wave characteristics in extreme weather events, such as hurricanes and nor'easters. However, there is an education and orientation process, which has to take place as understanding the terminology, data, and its wide range of potential applications is not intuitive to novices. To illustrate this point, the meaning of significant wave height is not readily accessible in a majority of general textbooks offering explanations of ocean waves. The technological operations, data algorithms, and deployment methods used to assemble wave information from ocean sensors on buoys, coastal platforms, and coastal radars are typical unknown to most teachers. By exposing teachers and students to in-depth explanations and examples via outreach posters and web exercises, many obstacles can be removed to bring this information into the classroom. This presentation will explore how the topic of waves was chosen, how the team developed, the pitfalls of technical jargon, the evolution of communication, and the eventual design of products. We will highlight how the accurate and interactive scientific application of the data to solving problems can provide relevant examples for student inquiry and how these student experiences in ocean sciences can increase the number of students following this as a career track. Although this is the first effort in developing SEACOOS educational outreach materials, the continuing interaction between scientists and educators through the SEACOOS partnership have allowed new SEACOOS educator-scientist teams to emerge which are setting the stage for a series of collaborations on related ocean science subjects.

  4. Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    IAVCEI Subcommittee for Crisis Protocols; Newhall, Chris; Aramaki, Shigeo; Barberi, Franco; Blong, Russell; Calvache, Marta; Cheminee, Jean-Louis; Punongbayan, Raymundo; Siebe, Claus; Simkin, Tom; Sparks, Stephen; Tjetjep, Wimpy

    1999-01-01

    Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing investment is still busy with public safety work. Some problems arise within existing scientific teams; others are brought on by visiting scientists. Friction can also arise between volcanologists and public officials. Two general measures may avert or reduce friction: (a) National volcanologic surveys and other scientific groups that advise civil authorities in times of volcanic crisis should prepare, in advance of crises, a written plan that details crisis team policies, procedures, leadership and other roles of team members, and other matters pertinent to crisis conduct. A copy of this plan should be given to all current and prospective team members. (b) Each participant in a crisis team should examine his or her own actions and contribution to the crisis effort. A personal checklist is provided to aid this examination. Questions fall generally in two categories: Are my presence and actions for the public good? Are my words and actions collegial, i.e., courteous, respectful, and fair? Numerous specific solutions to common crisis problems are also offered. Among these suggestions are: (a) choose scientific team leaders primarily for their leadership skills; (b) speak publicly with a single scientific voice, especially when forecasts, warnings, or scientific disagreements are involved; (c) if you are a would-be visitor, inquire from the primary scientific team whether your help would be welcomed, and, in general, proceed only if the reply is genuinely positive; (d) in publications, personnel evaluations, and funding, reward rather than discourage teamwork. Models are available from the fields of particle physics and human genetics, among others.

  5. Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglass, K.; Aydinoglu, A.U.; Wu, L.; Read, E.; Manoff, M.; Frame, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers - data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance: Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data management principles. ?? 2011 Tenopir et al.

  6. Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Tenopir, Carol; Allard, Suzie; Douglass, Kimberly; Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Wu, Lei; Read, Eleanor; Manoff, Maribeth; Frame, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers – data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data management principles. PMID:21738610

  7. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    E-print Network

    Raddick, M Jordan; Gay, Pamela L; Lintott, Chris J; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11,000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science project. Results show that volunteers' primary motivation is a desire to contribute to scientific research. We encourage other citizen science projects to study the motivations of their volunteers, to see whether and how these results may be generalized to inform the field of citizen science.

  8. How Do Scientists Determine Earthquake Probabilities?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This provides many links to articles, graphics, scientific papers and podcasts to help students understand how scientists determine probabilities for earthquake occurrences. Topics include the locations of faults and how much they need to move in order to release the strain that accumulates; the study of past earthquakes on each fault to predict the size of possible earthquakes that could occur in the future; and using information on how long it's been since the last earthquake to estimate the probability that an earthquake will occur in the next few years. Links to additional information are embedded in the text.

  9. Scientists in the Classroom Activities at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald; Albala, Joanna; Farnsworth, Richard; Meyer, William

    2013-10-01

    LLNL fusion and plasma education activities are broadening into the ``Scientists in the Classroom'' collaboration between LLNL's Science Education Program (http://education.llnl.gov) and California's San Joaquin County Office of Education (SJCOE). Initial activities involved Grades 6-12 teachers attending the SCJOE 2013 summer workshop addressing the physical sciences content within the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as described at http://www.nextgenscience.org/. The NGSS Science and Engineering Practices in Physics workshop (June 22-26, 2013) that took place at the University of the Pacific included participation by the first author using video conferencing facilities recently added to the Edward Teller Education Center adjacent to LLNL. ETEC (http://etec.llnl.gov/) is a partnership between LLNL and the UC Davis School of Education to provide professional development for STEM teachers. Current and future activities using fusion science and plasma physics to enhance science education associated with ``Scientists in the Classroom'' and NGSS will be presented. LLNL fusion and plasma education activities are broadening into the ``Scientists in the Classroom'' collaboration between LLNL's Science Education Program (http://education.llnl.gov) and California's San Joaquin County Office of Education (SJCOE). Initial activities involved Grades 6-12 teachers attending the SCJOE 2013 summer workshop addressing the physical sciences content within the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as described at http://www.nextgenscience.org/. The NGSS Science and Engineering Practices in Physics workshop (June 22-26, 2013) that took place at the University of the Pacific included participation by the first author using video conferencing facilities recently added to the Edward Teller Education Center adjacent to LLNL. ETEC (http://etec.llnl.gov/) is a partnership between LLNL and the UC Davis School of Education to provide professional development for STEM teachers. Current and future activities using fusion science and plasma physics to enhance science education associated with ``Scientists in the Classroom'' and NGSS will be presented. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-639990.

  10. Plate Tectonics: The Scientist Behind the Theory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The scientific community does not always embrace every new idea that comes along. Alfred Wegener, the scientist who first proposed the theory of continental drift, learned that the hard way. This video segment shows how Wegner developed his theory by using multiple lines of evidence, and chronicles the less-than-enthusiastic reponse of the geologic community in the early twentieth century. It also points out the great weakness in Wegner's theory, the lack of a driving mechanism for the movements of the continents. The segment is three minutes fifty-five seconds in length.

  11. Argonne scientist Cristina Negri talks about phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants and trees to remove or neutralize contaminants in polluted soil or water. Argonne scientist M. Cristina Negri leads the phytotechnologies R&D activities at Argonne. Phytotechnologies encompass the treatment of environmental problems through the use of plants. She was the scientific lead in the deployment and monitoring of multi-acre field scale phytoremediation installations and for the development of a phyto- and bio-remediation researcha nd development project in Russia. Her interests also focus on input-efficient approaches to growing energy crops, water efficiency in growing biofuel crops, and on the advanced treatment and reuse of wastewater and other impaired water.

  12. Airborne scientists begin Ohio acid rain study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    Atmospheric scientists spent June flying through storm clouds over Ohio to collect rain and air samples to better understand rain chemistry, the conditions that cause acid rain and methods for controlling it. The authors will be collecting samples in the Columbus, Ohio area because many of the materials suspected of causing acid rain, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen peroxide, can be found in this vicinity. The study is part of the US Department of the Energy's Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation program (PRECP).

  13. Earth and space scientists Visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Riordan, Catherine

    AGU's Office of Public Affairs organizes frequent opportunities for members to meet with Congress. Recently AGU members participated in two events: an annual Congressional Visits Day and the Coalition for National Science Funding congressional reception.Over 200 scientists and engineers met with key legislators and their staffs on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. as part of the 10th annual Science, Engineering, and Technology Congressional Visits Day (CVD) held on 10-11 May. In their meetings, participants advocated this year's CVD theme: Federally funded research secures our nation's future.

  14. Dealing with the Data Scientist Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Hart; Troy Hiltbrand

    2014-06-01

    Few areas in the economy have generated as much attention as big data and advanced analytics in recent years due to its potential of revolutionizing the way that business function in the coming years. One of the major challenges that organizations face in implementing analytics that have the potential of providing them a competitive advantage in the market is that of finding the elusive data scientist needed to execute on big data strategy. This article addresses what some business are doing to bridge that gap between vision and reality.

  15. Scientists conduct largest coastal experiment on record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, Julie

    Duck, N.C.—Something out of the ordinary has been happening near this quiet, resort town on the Outer Banks. More than 100 coastal scientists, students, and technicians have descended on the Army Corps of Engineer's Waterways Experiment Station primarily to study movement of sediment in the surf zone. In fact, a large percentage of the U.S. near-shore research community has flooded the Duck area to execute the largest coastal experiment ever undertaken. The researchers have brought with them more than 80 computers and an array of exotic gadgets to carry out “DUCK94,” an unprecedented project that has been three years in the making.

  16. Herbert A. Simon as a Cyborg Scientist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther-Mirjam Sent

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses how Herbert Simon's initial interest in decision making became transformed into a focus on understanding human problem solving in response to the concrete conditions of the Cold War and the practical goals of the military.In particular, it suggests a connection between the seachange in Simon's interest and his shift in patronage.As a result, Simon is portrayed as

  17. illustration only Scientists Propose Paradigm Shift In

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    of Technology, the University of Arizona, and the U.S. Geological Survey has unveiled a proposal to make core," akin to the approach used by field geologists to solve a complicated geological puzzle. SPACE MEDIA allowing unconstrained science- driven missions to uncover transient events (for example, evidence

  18. A data model for environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapeljushnik, O.; Beran, B.; Valentine, D.; van Ingen, C.; Zaslavsky, I.; Whitenack, T.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental science encompasses a wide range of disciplines from water chemistry to microbiology, ecology and atmospheric sciences. Studies often require working across disciplines which differ in their ways of describing and storing data such that it is not possible to devise a monolithic one-size-fits-all data solution. Based on our experiences with Consortium of the Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science Inc. (CUAHSI) Observations Data Model, Berkeley Water Center FLUXNET carbon-climate work and by examining standards like EPA's Water Quality Exchange (WQX), we have developed a flexible data model that allows extensions without need to altering the schema such that scientists can define custom metadata elements to describe their data including observations, analysis methods as well as sensors and geographical features. The data model supports various types of observations including fixed point and moving sensors, bottled samples, rasters from remote sensors and models, and categorical descriptions (e.g. taxonomy) by employing user-defined-types when necessary. It leverages ADO .NET Entity Framework to provide the semantic data models for differing disciplines, while maintaining a common schema below the entity layer. This abstraction layer simplifies data retrieval and manipulation by hiding the logic and complexity of the relational schema from users thus allows programmers and scientists to deal directly with objects such as observations, sensors, watersheds, river reaches, channel cross-sections, laboratory analysis methods and samples as opposed to table joins, columns and rows.

  19. SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2006-04-01

    In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

  20. National Ice Center Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Meg

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the work done by Dr. Kim Partington were to manage NASA's polar research program, including its strategic direction, research funding and interagency and international collaborations. The objectives of the UCAR Visiting Scientist Program at the National Ice Center (NIC) are to: (1) Manage a visiting scientist program for the NIC Science Center in support of the mission of the NIC; (2) Provide a pool of researchers who will share expertise with the NIC and the science community; (3) Facilitate communications between the research and operational communities for the purpose of identifying work ready for validation and transition to an operational environment; and (4) Act as a focus for interagency cooperation. The NIC mission is to provide worldwide operational sea ice analyses and forecasts for the armed forces of the US and allied nations, the Departments of Commerce and Transportation, and other US Government and international agencies, and the civil sector. The NIC produces these analyses and forecasts of Arctic, Antarctic, Great Lakes, and Chesapeake Bay ice conditions to support customers with global, regional, and tactical scale interests. The NIC regularly deploys Naval Ice Center NAVICECEN Ice Reconnaissance personnel to the Arctic and Antarctica in order to perform aerial ice observation and analysis in support of NIC customers. NIC ice data are a key part of the US contribution to international global climate and ocean observing systems.

  1. Microgravity sciences application visiting scientist program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Contract NAS8-38785, Microgravity Experimental and Theoretical Research, is a project involving a large number of individual research programs related to: determination of the structure of human serum albumin and other biomedically important proteins; analysis of thermodynamic properties of various proteins and models of protein nucleation; development of experimental techniques for the growth of protein crystals in space; study of the physics of electrical double layers in the mechanics of liquid interfaces; computational analysis of vapor crystal growth processes in microgravity; analysis of the influence of magnetic fields in damping residual flows in directional solidification processes; crystal growth and characterization of II-VI semiconductor alloys; and production of thin films for nonlinear optics. It is not intended that the programs will be necessarily limited to this set at any one time. The visiting scientists accomplishing these programs shall serve on-site at MSFC to take advantage of existing laboratory facilities and the daily opportunities for technical communications with various senior scientists.

  2. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of lunar scientists. This panel judges the presentations and selects one team to present their research at the annual NLSI Forum. In addition to research, teams interact with lunar scientists during monthly webcasts in which scientists present information on lunar science and careers. Working with school guidance counselors, the CLSE staff assists interested students in making connections with lunar science faculty across the country. Evaluation data from the pilot program revealed that the program influenced some students to consider a career in science or helped to strengthen their current desire to pursue a career in science. The most common feedback from both teachers and mentors was that they would like more direction from CLSE staff. In light of these findings, a few questions arise when looking ahead. How do we meet the needs of our participants without compromising the program’s open inquiry philosophy? Are our expectations simply not clear? How do we keep students excited once the program ends? Is it feasible, as a community, to support them from the moment the program ends until they enter college? Finally, do we have a responsibility as a community to work together to connect students with university faculty?

  3. Solving Trade Discount Word Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Coonce, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

  4. Did Kanner Actually Describe the First Account of Autism? The Mystery of 1938.

    PubMed

    Fellowes, Sam

    2015-07-01

    Kanner opens his pioneering 1943 paper on autism by making a mysterious mention of the year 1938. Recent letters to the editor of this journal have disagreed over a particular interpretation-does 1938 refer to an early paper by Asperger, effectively meaning Kanner plagiarised Asperger? I argue 1938 refers to a paper by Louise Despert. This was not plagiarism but a case of building on Despert's ideas. Additionally, I suggest his motives for not mentioning her by name were not dishonourable. PMID:25652602

  5. SCIP: solving constraint integer programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Achterberg

    2009-01-01

    Constraint integer programming (CIP) is a novel paradigm which integrates constraint programming (CP), mixed integer programming (MIP), and satisfiability (SAT) modeling and solving techniques. In this paper we discuss the software framework and solver SCIP (Solving Constraint\\u000a Integer Programs), which is free for academic and non-commercial use and can be downloaded in source code. This paper gives\\u000a an overview of

  6. Polar Stratospheric Clouds from SOLVE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    George Fekete

    2000-05-30

    Polar stratospheric clouds form at extremely low temperatures in the upper atmosphere. Should the temperature rise, clouds wont form. In this visualization, sequential temperature readings taken in the research area for SOLVE (Stratospheric Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment) are plotted against a threshold temperature for PSC formation. These are clouds essentially made of nitric acid. Note how the area covered by the clouds increases as winter progresses. The red point on the map indicates the location of Kiruna, Sweden, the SOLVE staging area.

  7. Engaging Scientists in NASA Education and Public Outreach: Tools for Scientist Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Meinke, B. K.; Hsu, B.; Shupla, C.; Grier, J. A.; E/PO Community, SMD

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its education and public outreach (E/PO) community through a coordinated effort to enhance the coherence and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We present tools and resources to support astronomers’ engagement in E/PO efforts. Among the tools designed specifically for scientists are a series of one-page E/PO-engagement Tips and Tricks guides, a sampler of electromagnetic-spectrum-related activities, and NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker). Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org), and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share teaching resources for the undergraduate Earth and space sciences classroom. Learn more about the opportunities to become involved in E/PO and to share your science with students, educators, and the general public at http://smdepo.org.

  8. Developing School-Scientist Partnerships: Lessons for Scientists from Forests-of-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falloon, Garry; Trewern, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The concept of partnerships between schools and practicing scientists came to prominence in the United States in the mid 1980s. The call by government for greater private sector involvement in education to raise standards in science achievement saw a variety of programmes developed, ranging from short-term sponsorships through to longer-term,…

  9. Kimberly D. Tanner Evaluation of Scientist-Teacher Partnerships: Benefits to Scientists

    E-print Network

    -assessments of student attitudes toward science. Although a broad set of data evaluating scientist-teacher partnerships Participants Kimberly D. Tanner, Ph.D. NSF Postdoctoral Fellow in Science Education (PFSMETE) Science & Health Education Partnership University of California, San Francisco As presented at the National Association

  10. Supporting Scientific Analysis within Collaborative Problem Solving Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Velvin R.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Collaborative problem solving environments for scientists should contain the analysis tools the scientists require in addition to the remote collaboration tools used for general communication. Unfortunately, most scientific analysis tools have been designed for a "stand-alone mode" and cannot be easily modified to work well in a collaborative environment. This paper addresses the questions, "What features are desired in a scientific analysis tool contained within a collaborative environment?", "What are the tool design criteria needed to provide these features?", and "What support is required from the architecture to support these design criteria?." First, the features of scientific analysis tools that are important for effective analysis in collaborative environments are listed. Next, several design criteria for developing analysis tools that will provide these features are presented. Then requirements for the architecture to support these design criteria are listed. Sonic proposed architectures for collaborative problem solving environments are reviewed and their capabilities to support the specified design criteria are discussed. A deficiency in the most popular architecture for remote application sharing, the ITU T. 120 architecture, prevents it from supporting highly interactive, dynamic, high resolution graphics. To illustrate that the specified design criteria can provide a highly effective analysis tool within a collaborative problem solving environment, a scientific analysis tool that contains the specified design criteria has been integrated into a collaborative environment and tested for effectiveness. The tests were conducted in collaborations between remote sites in the US and between remote sites on different continents. The tests showed that the tool (a tool for the visual analysis of computer simulations of physics) was highly effective for both synchronous and asynchronous collaborative analyses. The important features provided by the tool (and made possible by the specified design criteria) are: 1. The tool provides highly interactive, dynamic, high resolution, 3D graphics. 2. All remote scientists can view the same dynamic, high resolution, 3D scenes of the analysis as the analysis is being conducted. 3. The responsiveness of the tool is nearly identical to the responsiveness of the tool in a stand-alone mode. 4. The scientists can transfer control of the analysis between themselves. 5. Any analysis session or segment of an analysis session, whether done individually or collaboratively, can be recorded and posted on the Web for other scientists or students to download and play in either a collaborative or individual mode. 6. The scientist or student who downloaded the session can, individually or collaboratively, modify or extend the session with his/her own "what if" analysis of the data and post his/her version of the analysis back onto the Web. 7. The peak network bandwidth used in the collaborative sessions is only 1K bit/second even though the scientists at all sites are viewing high resolution (1280 x 1024 pixels), dynamic, 3D scenes of the analysis. The links between the specified design criteria and these performance features are presented.

  11. The strength of the strongest ties in collaborative problem solving.

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

  12. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  13. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

  14. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned veterans in the field, is a unique experience for many of the teachers. Here we present lessons learned throughout the lifetime of the program, including successes and improvements made, and present our vision for the future of HOW.

  15. Join the NASA Science Mission Directorate Scientist Speaker's Bureau!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  16. New Scientists's Guide to the Quantum World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lindley, David, 1956-.

    1998-01-01

    New Scientist: Planet Science (described in the March 22, 1996 Scout Report) provides an online version of the book, Quantum World, written by renowned physicist David Lindley. Quantum theory challenges classical physics, and is based on the premise that "what happens to any individual photon is genuinely and inescapably unpredictable." Though concepts are well explained, the material contained in Quantum World is complex. Each section of the book starts with a question, for example, "Will we ever be able to teleport people to faraway places?" and "In the real world cats can't be both living and dead. So what is it that forces them to choose?" Quantum World provides an interesting approach to explaining the physics behind how "nature behaves."

  17. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  18. MediaResource: Linking Journalists and Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Given the importance of communicating complex scientific ideas, theories, and advances to a sometimes indifferent public, the services provided the Media Resource Service will be quite useful to journalists. Since 1980, the non-profit Media Resource Service is not only a valuable data bank, it is also a database of 30,000 scientists, engineers, physicians, and policy-makers who have agreed to provide information on short notice to print and broadcast journalists. This service is provided by Sigma Xi, an interdisciplinary, non-profit honor society, that represents all of science and engineering. Utilizing this website, journalists can submit their requests for assistance, along with perusing the Science in the News area which culls together the top science news stories on a weekly basis. Equally helpful is the SciStacks area, which contains links to other resources in biology, chemistry, earth sciences, engineering, and other related fields that will be of assistance to journalists.

  19. Business planning for scientists and engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

  20. Nicholson Medal Lecture: Scientists and Totalitarian Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    1997-04-01

    In order to call for support for his policy in China from the scientific community outside of China, Li Peng, China's premier today and at the time of Tiananmen massacre in 1989, published an editorial of ``Science" magazine (July 5, 1996) titled ``Why China needs science ... and partners." This editorial brought a serious problem, which is originally faced by scientists in a totalitarian society, upon the scientific community in free societies outside. It is well known that the current attitude of the Chinese government toward science is what it was during the years of Mao and the Soviet Union: science is limited to provide instruments useful to the rulers, but any degree of freedom, such as to challenge ideas, required by science to change the totalitarian regime itself, is suppressed. Thus, the problem facing us is: how to help your colleagues and promote science in a totalitarian society, without becoming a partner of the injustices of that regime.

  1. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Food and Environment program was developed by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) to help "create a food system that encourages innovative and environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-quality, safe, and affordable food, while ensuring that citizens have a voice in how their food is grown." The Food and Environment website provides information about three UCS focus areas: Antibiotic Resistance, Biotechnology, and Sustainable Agriculture. The site also links to action alerts, downloadable reports, news, and special features like the UCS Pharm Crop Database, a source for information on USDA-approved pharmaceutical and industrial crop production by state. Site visitors can also link to information about other UCS programs including Clean Vehicles, Global Environment, Clean Energy, and Global Security.

  2. Strategic career planning for physician-scientists.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Motomu

    2015-05-01

    Building a successful professional career in the physician-scientist realm is rewarding but challenging, especially in the dynamic and competitive environment of today's modern society. This educational review aims to provide readers with five important career development lessons drawn from the business and social science literatures. Lessons 1-3 describe career strategy, with a focus on promoting one's strengths while minimizing fixing one's weaknesses (Lesson 1); effective time management in the pursuit of long-term goals (Lesson 2); and the intellectual flexibility to abandon/modify previously made decisions while embracing emerging opportunities (Lesson 3). Lesson 4 explains how to maximize the alternative benefits of English-language fluency (i.e., functions such as signaling and cognition-enhancing capabilities). Finally, Lesson 5 discusses how to enjoy happiness and stay motivated in a harsh, zero-sum game society. PMID:25691402

  3. Climate Change: On Scientists and Advocacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    Last year, I asked a crowd of a few hundred geoscientists from around the world what positions related to climate science and policy they would be comfortable publicly advocating. I presented a list of recommendations that included increased research funding, greater resources for education, and specific emission reduction technologies. In almost every case, a majority of the audience felt comfortable arguing for them. The only clear exceptions were related to geo-engineering research and nuclear power. I had queried the researchers because the relationship between science and advocacy is marked by many assumptions and little clarity. This despite the fact that the basic question of how scientists can be responsible advocates on issues related to their expertise has been discussed for decades most notably in the case of climate change by the late Stephen Schneider.

  4. The Effect of Mystery Shopper Reports on Age Verification for Tobacco Purchases

    PubMed Central

    KREVOR, BRAD S.; PONICKI, WILLIAM R.; GRUBE, JOEL W.; DeJONG, WILLIAM

    2011-01-01

    Mystery shops (MS) involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been employed to monitor retail stores’ performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that MS visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the impact of monthly and twice-monthly MS reports on age verification. Forty-five Walgreens stores were each visited 20 times by mystery shoppers. The stores were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Control group stores received no feedback, whereas two treatment groups received feedback communications every visit (twice monthly) or every second visit (monthly) after baseline. Logit regression models tested whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Post-baseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, but only the stores receiving monthly communications had a significantly greater improvement than control group stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all three groups, with delayed improvement among control group stores. Communication between managers regarding the MS program may account for the delayed age-verification improvements observed in the control group stores. Encouraging inter-store communication might extend the benefits of MS programs beyond those stores that receive this intervention. PMID:21541874

  5. Characterizing Mystery Cell Lines: Student-driven Research Projects in an Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Michele L.

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based projects promote discovery and retention of key concepts, increase student engagement, and stimulate interest in research. Described here are a series of lab exercises within an undergraduate upper level neuroscience course that train students to design, execute and analyze their own hypothesis-driven research project. Prior to developing their own projects, students learn several research techniques including aseptic cell culture, cell line maintenance, immunocytochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. Working in groups, students choose how to use these techniques to characterize and identify a “mystery” cell line. Each lab group is given a unique cell line with either a neural, astrocyte, or Schwann cell origin. Working together, students plan and execute experiments to determine the cellular origin and other unique characteristics of their mystery cell line. Students generate testable hypotheses, design interpretable experiments, generate and analyze data, and report their findings in both oral and written formats. Students receive instructor and peer feedback throughout the entire project. In summary, these labs train students the process of scientific research. This series of lab exercises received very strong positive feedback from the students. Reflections on student feedback and plans for future improvements are discussed. PMID:23504583

  6. Engaging Scientists in Educator Professional Development Workshops: Lessons Learned from E/PO Professionals, and Tips for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists are often asked to speak at workshops for educators, because Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) professionals and other facilitators who organize and lead professional development workshops really like to include them. Scientists are an incredibly valuable asset to workshops - when they come prepared. We will present tips for E/PO professionals who would like to include scientists in their next workshop, and tips for scientists who have been asked or would like to give presentations at educator workshops, in order to make sure the science presentations are as valuable and enjoyable to both the scientist and the audience as possible. These recommendations come from lessons learned by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) E/PO team after years of including scientists and engineers in the highly successful teacher professional development program, the Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs). Talks by scientists and engineers are consistently reported as a highlight of the workshops in participant surveys. We will present tips along with examples and relevant evaluation data from the LWEs, which we will use as a case study for how scientists can be effectively integrated into educator workshops. Noah Petro, an Associate Project Scientist for LRO, discusses the formation and evolution of the Moon with middle school science teachers participating in LRO's Lunar Workshops for Educators. John Keller, LRO's Project Scientist, discusses the latest science results from LRO with LWE teachers.

  7. Mystery #14

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... These data were processed at the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. Terra circles the Earth in the same orbit as Landsat 7, ... landfall of a devastating typhoon. 12.   Bonus question: MISR captured this image of the island and its surroundings on either ...

  8. Mystery #19

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... places.   D.   both of these places. 6.   Bonus question:  A sinuous river curves toward the large water body in the ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  9. Medieval Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This entertaining site created by the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lille, and the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute turns one of the primary tasks of museum curators and archivists--establishing the provenance of the works in their collections--into a game. Using a group of late 15th century Dutch paintings with an uncertain history that depict the Virgin Mary and Christ Child, the game attempts to answer four questions: What are the origins of the paintings? How do the paintings relate to each other? What did the paintings mean in the 15th century? Who was the Master of the Embroidered Foliage? (the paintings were attributed to the Master of the Embroidered Foliage in 1926 by a German art historian, Max Friedländer) The research presented at the site reveals that probably all the paintings were not created by the same artists, as hypothesized in 1926, but still leaves tantalizing questions unanswered.

  10. Mystery #6

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... for the formation of these cusps?   A.   Violent storm impacts on erosion and accretion   B.   Wind and tide-driven ... patterns have no effect on the salinity of the lagoon's water. 5.   Which one of these is NOT distributed within the area covered ...

  11. Mystery #22

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... rivers. 2.   The following four statements concern the art and prehistory from a particular jurisdictional region (in this case, a ... pre and proto-historic artworks preserved by the state-owned art museum.   C.   A distinctive folk art painting style from that state ...

  12. Medical Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    This activity (on pages 15-23) combines interactive role-playing and graphing to introduce learners to the health affects of pollen. In the first part, learners role-play a detective on a medical case and the main character in the case. Learners formulate a hypothesis about a patient's illness. In the second part, learners graph evidence based on pollen counts and create a "final report" about what caused the patient's health problem. This activity smoothly combines health education, environmental science, and math.

  13. Mystery #20

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... floods of 2001.   C.   The "lake" was created by dam construction and is, in fact, a reservoir boasting the largest holding ... of any on the continent.   D.   A side effect of the dam is that the floodplain downstream no longer receives yearly inundation by ...

  14. Mystery #26

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... to a country within the image. You may use any reference materials you like to answer the quiz. From the statements below, please ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  15. Mystery #3

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... (nadir) camera on August 20, 2001. Use any reference materials you like and answer the following four questions: 1.   Which ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  16. Mystery Math

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steve Gagnon

    2012-01-01

    This interactive JaveScript game, based on digital root, provides an opportunity for students to practice basic operations with whole numbers. After having the computer guess the user's secret number, the applet offers an explanation of how the trick works and how to play it on others.

  17. Medical Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This website consists of 5 game modules. Each module is designed to teach students about different types of pathogens, their transmission, and how to stop them. The games are set in a fun, colorful world that has recently suffered an epidemic. Teaching materials are included.

  18. Mystery Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    M. Brooke Robertshaw

    2008-08-19

    You will follow the directions of your teacher as you move through these different maps. First look at this map: Map 1: Water In your group, look at the information on this map. What do you see that might influence where to build your city? On your blank map, mark an X, in Purple and put the number 1 beside your X where you think ...

  19. Mystery #15

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... a named geographic region. This region is defined by its political boundaries within a larger country, and may be a state, a province, a ... Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space ...

  20. Mystery #13

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ...   A.   Parts of the river demarcate international political boundaries.   B.   The total number of fish species supported ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  1. Mystery Number

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    Combine logic and numbers in this game for all ages. Players start with a 10x10 grid of the numbers 1 to 100. One person chooses a secret number and announces the range in which it falls. Other players ask yes or no questions to identify the number. They cross out the numbers on the board that are no longer possibilities. The player who identifies the secret number wins. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

  2. Mystery Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Morgan

    In this activity, students will discover that minerals have specific characteristics that help to identify them. They will learn that minerals are formed by inorganic processes, are crystalline solids with an internal orderly arrangement of atoms, have specific chemical compositions, and have specific physical and chemical characteristics. They will also learn that minerals are commonly identified by the physical properties they possess, such as hardness, color, crystal shape, specific gravity, and streak. In addition, they will discover some other useful properties such as reaction with hydrochloric acid or a characteristic taste. They should also understand that color is not always a useful property for identifying minerals because it can vary. The students will also develop listening and observational skills and learn the uses of a few common minerals.

  3. Motivational Mysteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wygoda, Linda J.; Cain, Arlene Vidaurri

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities that allow students to work cooperatively to analyze and study evidence from crime scenes and archaeological digs. The activities demonstrate to students the interdependence of a variety of disciplines in the real world. (ZWH)

  4. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists Promotes Professional Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Allen; Fugmann, Gerlis; Kruse, Frigga

    2014-06-01

    As a partner organization of AGU, the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS; http://www.apecs.is) fully supports the views expressed in Wendy Gordon's Forum article "Developing Scientists' `Soft' Skills" (Eos, 95(6), 55, doi:10.1002/2014EO060003). Her recognition that beyond research skills, people skills and professional training are crucial to the success of any early-career scientist is encouraging.

  5. NUCLEAR ESPIONAGE: Report Details Spying on Touring Scientists.

    PubMed

    Malakoff, D

    2000-06-30

    A congressional report released this week details dozens of sometimes clumsy attempts by foreign agents to obtain nuclear secrets from U.S. nuclear scientists traveling abroad, ranging from offering scientists prostitutes to prying off the backs of their laptop computers. The report highlights the need to better prepare traveling researchers to safeguard secrets and resist such temptations, say the two lawmakers who requested the report and officials at the Department of Energy, which employs the scientists. PMID:17769833

  6. Associate ISS Program Scientist Talks With Students - Duration: 24 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Associate ISS Program Scientist Pete Hasbrook participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Clark Creek S...

  7. Recipe for an Eclectic Life as Research Scientist and Mom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Recipe for an Eclectic Life as Research Scientist and Mom Fresh ingredients: curiosity, conviction, who knows what else Spices: equal parts ambition, humility, risk Staples: Boundless energy! This recipe requires a lot of prep time. It makes a great first meal but also "keeps on giving" as leftovers for many meals. It can be set aside and rekindled at various stages but requires frequent touch-ups to stay fresh. This recipe is especially great for large gatherings, eclectic palettes, and it includes a mix of cultural opportunities (AGU council member for example!). First, shop for a graduate department as you might for a farmers' market that has a good feel and good mix of "customers" (grad students) who share your attitude and interests. Then seek out professors and later, career mentors, who not only have great methods and recipes but whose lifestyles seem like good examples. I like my mentors and advisees alike to be approachable, supportive, and dedicated to both problem solving and whole-life choices. For the cooking part of the recipe, you'll certainly need a great partner who is hungry for science and appreciative of those pairings between new discoveries and long-awaited accomplishments. My own husband is a geologist. My professors were in their "late career" stages (one had retired 25 years before; another retired within a year of my degree) and this seemed to foster a philosophical perspective rather than a competitive one. Advice? The keys to my child-rearing recipe were efficiency and concentration: I try to organize and sequence and to save the multi-tasking for cleanups and paperwork. Don't take yourself too seriously: we all think of ourselves as frauds and know-nothings; we all are stretched between worry and guilt when it comes to child rearing. Don't give up: who is to say whether your quest for science isn't as fundamental to your goodness as your maternal drive?

  8. Geoscience communication in Namibia: YES Network Namibia spreading the message to young scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhopjeni, Kombada

    2015-04-01

    The Young Earth Scientists (YES) Network is an international association for early-career geoscientists under the age of 35 years that was formed as a result of the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE) in 2007. YES Network aims to establish an interdisciplinary global network of early-career geoscientists to solve societal issues/challenges using geosciences, promote scientific research and interdisciplinary networking, and support professional development of early-career geoscientists. The Network has several National Chapters including one in Namibia. YES Network Namibia (YNN) was formed in 2009, at the closing ceremony of IYPE in Portugal and YNN was consolidated in 2013 with the current set-up. YNN supports the activities and goals of the main YES Network at national level providing a platform for young Namibian scientists with a passion to network, information on geoscience opportunities and promoting earth sciences. Currently most of the members are geoscientists from the Geological Survey of Namibia (GSN) and University of Namibia. In 2015, YNN plans to carry out two workshops on career guidance, establish a mentorship program involving alumni and experienced industry experts, and increase involvement in outreach activities, mainly targeting high school pupils. Network members will participate in a range of educational activities such as school career and science fairs communicating geoscience to the general public, learners and students. The community outreach programmes are carried out to increase awareness of the role geosciences play in society. In addition, YNN will continue to promote interactive collaboration between the University of Namibia, Geological Survey of Namibia (GSN) and Geological Society of Namibia. Despite the numerous potential opportunities YNN offers young scientists in Namibia and its presence on all major social media platforms, the Network faces several challenges. One notable challenge the Network faces is indifference among early-career geoscientists in the industry and university students to geoscience activities outside the confines of academia and the industry such as networking and outreach activities. This is compounded by the Network's perceived lack of relevance and appeal among young Namibian scientists. To become more 'popular' YNN needs to solve the issue of indifference among early-career geoscientists in the industry and University students by listening to their needs and actively engaging them in the process. Good communication skills are essential and YNN has to reformulate the way it reaches out to its audiences by developing more active ways to communicate geosciences. With this in mind, YNN plans to implement best practice methods to engage more young scientists in YNN and provide support and guidance on geoscience opportunities.

  9. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

  10. Maximizing the potential of scientists in Japan: promoting equal participation for women scientists through leadership development.

    PubMed

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Motohashi, Reiko; Ohtsubo, Hisako

    2013-07-01

    In order to examine the current status of gender equality in academic societies in Japan, we inquired about the number of women involved in leadership activities at society conferences and annual meetings, as these activities are critical in shaping scientific careers. Our findings show a clear bias against female scientists, and a need to raise consciousness and awareness in order to move closer to equality for future generations. PMID:23758164

  11. NASA Solve - Duration: 2 minutes, 13 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Solve lists opportunities available to the general public to contribute to solving tough problems related to NASA’s mission through challenges, prize competitions, and crowdsourcing activities...

  12. Communicating uncertainty to agricultural scientists and professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Alice; Glendining, Margaret; Perryman, Sarah; Whitmore, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Models of agricultural systems often aim to predict the impacts of weather and soil nutrients on crop yields and the environment. These models are used to inform scientists, policy makers and farmers on the likely effects of management. For example, a farmer might be interested in the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on his yield, whilst policy makers might be concerned with the possible polluting effects of fertilizer. There are of course uncertainties related to any model predictions and these must be communicated effectively if the end user is to draw proper conclusions and so make sound decisions. We searched the literature and found several methods for expressing the uncertainty in the predictions produced by models. We tested six of these in a formal trial. The methods we considered were: calibrated phrases, such as 'very uncertain' and 'likely', similar to those used by the IPCC; probabilities that the true value of the uncertain quantity lay within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. We held a series of three workshops at which the participants were invited to assess the six different methods of communicating the uncertainty. In total 64 individuals took part in our study. These individuals were either scientists, policy makers or those who worked in the agricultural industry. The test material comprised four sets of results from models. These results were displayed using each of the six methods described above. The participants were asked to evaluate the methods by filling in a questionnaire. The questions were intended to test how straightforward the content was to interpret and whether each method displayed sufficient information. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when individuals were asked to interpret results from the models. Box plots were most favoured by those who had a stronger mathematical background. We propose a combination of methods should be used to convey uncertainty in emissions and that this combination should be tailored to the professional group.

  13. Scientists Needed! The Year of the Solar System: Opportunities for Scientist Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.

    2011-12-01

    Spanning a Martian Year - 23 months from October 2010 through August 2012 - the Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebrates the amazing discoveries of numerous new and ongoing NASA missions and research efforts as they explore our near and distant neighbors and probe the outer edges of our solar system. The science revealed by these endeavors is dramatically revising our understanding of the formation and evolution of our solar system. YSS offers opportunities for planetary scientists to become involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) in meaningful ways. By getting involved in YSS E/PO activities, scientists can help to raise awareness of, build excitement in, and make connections with educators, students and the public about current planetary science research and exploration. Each month during YSS a different compelling aspect of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life - is explored. The monthly topics, tied to the big questions of planetary science, include online resources that can be used by scientists to engage their audiences: hands-on learning activities, demonstrations, connections to solar system and mission events, ideas for partnering with other organizations, and other programming ideas. Resources for past, present, and future YSS monthly topics can be found at: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. Scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS through an avenue that best fits their available time and interests. Possible paths include: contacting the YSS organizational team to provide content for or to review the monthly topics; integrating current planetary research discoveries into your introductory college science classes; starting a science club; prompting an interview with the local media, creating a podcast about your science, sharing YSS with educators or program coordinators at your local schools, museums, libraries, astronomical clubs and societies, retirement homes, or rotary club; volunteering to present your science in one of these venues for a YSS event; co-hosting a YSS event for an audience with educators or other local partners; or hosting a YSS event at your own institution. YSS offers rich and diverse ways for scientists to actively engage with the public about planetary science; we invite you to get involved!

  14. ACCESSING KNOWLEDGE FOR PROBLEM SOLVING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna MAMONA-DOWNS

    This paper studies the modes of thought that occur during the act of solving problems in mathematics. It examines the two main instantiations of mathematical knowledge, the conceptual and the structural, and their role in the afore said act. It claims that awareness of mathematical structure is the lever that educes mathematical knowledge existing in the mind in response to

  15. Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)

    E-print Network

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical emissions or decreasing car use. An air pollution model is never exact in its attempt to simulate

  16. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  17. Teaching Problem Solving in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byo, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Musicians practice to build endurance, flexibility, and dexterity. They practice to maintain good performance, to sight-read better, to memorize, and simply, to enjoy music making. There are other motivations for practice, but one, more than others, is a catalyst for consequential change in musical development--practicing to solve performance…

  18. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

  19. Looking Back in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Jinfa; Brook, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Often after students solve a problem they believe they have accomplished their mission and stop further exploration. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways to encourage students to "look back" so as to maximise their learning opportunities. According to Polya, by "looking back" at a completed solution, by reconsidering and re-examining the…

  20. Functional Knowledge in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; Berger, Daniel

    An experiment compared solving of operational and diagnostic problems after different instruction about a fictitious device. Solution of both kinds of problems was facilitated by instruction (1) that focused on functional relations among components of the device or (2) that focused on states of the individual components. For operational problems,…