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1

Forensic Scientists and Scholars Solve Mystery of "Unknown Child" Lost on the Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier this week, a team of scientists, historians, and genealogists announced that they had discovered the identity of the "Unknown Child," a young boy who was found in the water around the Titanic several days after it sank on April 5, 1912. Using three small teeth from the boy's grave in Halifax's Fairview Lawn Cemetery and a blood sample from a Finnish woman thought to be related to the boy, researcher Alan Parr (from Lakehead University) was able to determine that the boy was in fact Eino Viljami Panula, who was traveling with his mother and four brothers to America. While the discovery granted closure to one family and their descendants, there are still many persons who perished in the sinking of the Titanic who have never been positively identified.The first link leads to a complete news story on the recent discovery published by the BBC. The second link features material from an upcoming PBS television program on the question of using forensic science in answering questions associated with identifying persons on board the Titanic when it sank. The third link offers a nice overview of DNA testing written by Dr. Donald E. Riley. The fourth link leads to a detailed list of all the other Titanic victims buried at Halifax's Fairview and Mt. Olivet cemeteries. The fifth link is to the fabulous Encyclopedia Titanica, which is a massive compendium of all things Titanic, including passenger biographies, theories on why the ship sank, and research articles. The final link is to the RMS Titanic, Inc. homepage, which includes information about the Titanic's various research missions to recover materials and detritus from the Titanic's resting place at the bottom of the North Atlantic.

Grinnell, Max

2002-01-01

2

Solve Medical Mysteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

Miller, Leslie

2007-01-01

3

Draw-a-Scientist/Mystery Box Redux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sequence of activities presented here--Draw-a-Scientist and the Mystery Box Redux--were designed to help students better understand the nature of science (NOS) and engage them in the process of scientific inquiry. As a result, students begin to view themselves as scientists and realize that they already have the skills and thought processes necessary to be successful in the field.

Cavallo, Ann

2007-11-01

4

NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... 2013 NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus Discovery Is Decades in the Making Scientists ... the structure of a protein related to the Hepatitis B virus. Their findings, reported in Structure, could lead ...

5

Mucus balloons solve an ocean mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some tadpole-sized ocean animals live in houses made of almost the very same stuff that leaks out of your nose when you have a cold. As researchers have just discovered, these mucus houses help solve the mystery of how creatures at the bottom of the ocean get enough food.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-06-09

6

Use Clues to Solve an Ice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore the variables that affect the properties of ice and the places where different types of ice are found. Using evidence from informational text and multiple media resources, as well as their own observations, learners will match six different mystery ice types to the place where each would most likely be found. Recipes for creating six different simulated ice types are provided.

Zych, Ariel

2014-07-01

7

How Did They Form? Solving a Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about gathering information, applying scientific identification processes, and identifying unknown rocks. Learners will conduct an investigation, observe and record the physical characteristics of an unknown rock (meteorite), determine the mass of the unknown rock using math skills, determine the density of the rock, describe and classify a meteorite, apply observations and knowledge to the process of a scientific investigation, present evidence to verify classification decisions, and explore concepts of spatial relationships. Completion of all parts of the lesson is necessary to identify the unknown. Advanced preparation and procedural tips are included. This is lesson 13 of 19 in Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.

8

The mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a mystery solved?  

PubMed Central

The permeability transition (PT) denotes an increase of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability to solutes with molecular masses up to about 1500 Da. It is presumed to be mediated by opening of a channel, the permeability transition pore (PTP), whose molecular nature remains a mystery. Here I briefly review the history of the PTP, discuss existing models, and present our new results indicating that reconstituted dimers of the FOF1 ATP synthase form a channel with properties identical to those of the mitochondrial megachannel (MMC), the electrophysiological equivalent of the PTP. Open questions remain, but there is now promise that the PTP can be studied by genetic methods to solve the large number of outstanding problems.

Bernardi, Paolo

2013-01-01

9

The Deep Impact Microlens Explorer, Solving the Macho Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Impact Microlens Explorer is a new science extended mission for the Deep Impact spacecraft which will solve the mystery of the gravitational microlensing events seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and determine if any of the Milky Way's dark matter is Baryonic. The MACHO Project has detected more than 5 times as many microlensing events in the LMC as expected due to known stellar populations (Alcock et al 2000), and this suggests that about 20% of the Milky Way's dark matter may be in stellar mass objects - possibly very old white dwarfs. It has also been suggested that microlensing due to stars in the LMC itself could be responsible for the microlensing excess seen in the LMC (Sahu 1994). Ground-based data cannot determine the distances to the lensing object, but simultaneous observations by two telescopes separated by 1 AU can measure the microlens parallax effect and determine the distance to the lensing object. In August, 2005, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft will provide an opportunity to carry out this mission at extremely low cost. DI will be carrying a 30cm telescope at 0.9AU from the Earth and will have completed its prime mission. We are proposing the DIME mission extension to carry out the microlensing parallax observations that will resolve this dark matter mystery. DIME observations of the Galactic bulge will also measure the abundance of stellar mass black holes in the bulge. KHC's work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Cook, K. H.; DIME Collaboration

2003-12-01

10

Solving the background mystery in acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST) aims to solving inverse scattering problems by decomposing the backscattering echoes into a background part and a resonance part. The former contains scatterers shape information, and the latter contains the material composition information. RST assumes the existence of an intermediate background for general scatterer and surrounding combinations. However, despite the efforts taken in the

Changzheng Huang

2002-01-01

11

ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) astronomical project will not only enlarge our knowledge of the vast Universe beyond the imaginable. It will also help scientists learn more about the human body. Located 5000m above sea level, in the Chilean Atacama desert, ALMA is the highest site for ground-based astronomy. This property will be put to good use for academic institutions in Chile and in Europe in order to study the human response to extreme altitude conditions. During a ceremony held on 2 April in Antofagasta, the largest town close to ESO's Very Large Telescope, representatives from ALMA, ESO and the University of Antofagasta have officially launched a collaborative agreement that also involves the University of Chile and the University of Copenhagen (Denmark). The newly established cooperation aims at contributing to the promotion of teaching, scientific research, and the expansion of altitude physiology and medicine or other related areas considered appropriate. ESO PR Photo 20/07 ESO PR Photo 20/07 Working at 5000 metres "An increasing number of people are periodically exposed to brisk changes in altitude, and not only for astronomical research," said Jacques Lassalle, the ALMA Safety Manager. "Short stays at high altitude alternate with short stays at sea level but the corresponding shifts are very often established by agreement, and not based on scientific arguments. With this project, we aim at improving our knowledge and procedures in order to protect the long term health of the operators, engineers, and scientists as well as ALMA visitors of all ages and all physical conditions," he added. Around the world, a large number of people systematically commute between sea level and high altitude, for example when working in mountainous mines. This poses stringent conditions that may affect health, wellbeing and working performance. Some of the factors in question are the shift work regime, the perturbation of circadian rhythms, fatigue, family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), a

2007-04-01

12

Rosetta - a comet ride to solve planetary mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. By orbiting Comet Wirtanen and landing on it, Rosetta will collect essential information to understand the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules, that - delivered to Earth through impacts - perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, “volatile” light elements carried by comets may have also played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmopshere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions ever undertaken so far”, says Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, “No one before attempted a similar mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres”. Before reaching its target in 2011, Rosetta will circle the Sun almost four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Wirtanen, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; then the spacecraft will closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be like landing on a small, fast-moving cosmic bullet that still has - at present - an almost unknown 'geography'. An amazing 8-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a 3-tonne box-type spacecraft about 3 metres high, with two 14-metre long solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately 1 metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the Rosetta orbiter during the journey to Comet Wirtanen. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will be kept in hibernation during most of its 8-year trek towards Wirtanen. What makes Rosetta's cruise so long? To reach Comet Wirtanen, the spacecraft needs to go out in deep space as far from the Sun as Jupiter is. No launcher could possibly get Rosetta there directly. ESA's spacecraft will gather speed from gravitational ‘kicks’ provided by three planetary fly-bys: one of Mars in 2005 and two of Earth in 2005 and 2007. During the trip, Rosetta will also visit two asteroids, Otawara (in 2006) and Siwa (in 2008). During these encounters, scientists will switch on Rosetta's instruments for calibration and scientific studies. Long trips in deep space include many hazards, such as extreme changes in temperature. Rosetta will leave the benign environment of near-Earth space to the dark, frigid regions beyond the asteroid belt. To manage these thermal loads, experts have done very tough pre-launch tests to study Rosetta's endurance. For example, they have heated its external surfaces to more than 150°C, then quickly cooled it to -180°C in the next test. The spacecraft will be fully reactivated prior to the comet rendezvous manoeuvre in 2011. Then, Rosetta will orbit the comet - an object only 1.2 km wide - while it cruises through the inner Solar System at 135 000 kilometres per hour. At that time of the rendezvous - around 675 million km from the Sun - Wirtanen will hardly show any surface activity. It means that the carachteristic coma (the comet’s ‘atmosphere’) and the tail will not be formed yet, because of the large distance from the Sun. The comet's tail is in fact made of dust grains and frozen gases from the comet's surface that vapourise because of the Sun's heat. During 6-month, Rosetta will extensively map the comet surface, prior to selecting a landing site. In July 2012, the lander will self-eject from the spacecraft from a height of just one kilometre. Touchdown will take place at walking speed - less than 1 metre per second. Immediately after touchdown, the lander will fire a harpoon into the ground to avoid bouncing off the surface back in

2003-01-01

13

SNO: solving the mystery of the missing neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The end of an era came on 28 November 2006 when the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) finally stopped data-taking after eight exciting years of discoveries. During this time the Observatory saw evidence that neutrinos, produced in the fusion of hydrogen in the solar core, change flavour while passing through the Sun on their way to the Earth. This observation explained the longstanding puzzle as to why previous experiments had seen fewer solar neutrinos than predicted and confirmed that these elusive particles have mass. Solar neutrinos were first detected in Ray Davis's radiochemical experiment in 1967, for which discovery he shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. Surprisingly he found only about a third of the number predicted from models of the Sun's output. This deficit, the so-called Solar Neutrino Problem, was confirmed by Kamiokande-II while other experiments saw related deficits of solar neutrinos. A possible explanation for this deficit, suggested by Gribov and Pontecorvo in 1969, was that some of the electron-type neutrinos, which are produced in the Sun, had ''oscillated'' into neutrinos that could not be detected in the Davis detector. The oscillation mechanism requires that neutrinos have non-zero mass. The unique advantage, which was pointed out by the late Herb Chen in 1985, of using heavy water (D{sub 2}O) to detect the neutrinos from {sup 8}B decays in the solar fusion process is that it enables both the number of electron-type and of all types of neutrinos to be measured. A comparison of the flux of electron-type neutrinos to that of all flavours could then reveal whether flavour transformation is the cause of the solar neutrino deficit. In heavy water neutrinos of all types can break a deuteron apart into its constituent proton and neutron (neutral-current reaction), while only electron-type neutrinos can change the deuteron into two protons and release an electron (charged-current reaction). SNO was designed by scientists from Canada, the USA and the UK to attain a detection rate of about 10 solar neutrinos per day using 1000 tonnes of heavy water. Neutrino interactions were detected by 9,456 photomultiplier tubes surrounding the heavy water, which was contained in a 12-m diameter acrylic sphere. This sphere was surrounded by 7000 tonnes of ultra-pure water to shield against radioactivity. Figure 1 shows the layout of the SNO detector, which is located about 2 km underground in Inco's Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury in Canada, to all but eliminate cosmic rays from reaching the detector. The pattern of hit photomultiplier tubes following the creation of an electron by an electron-type neutrino is shown in Figure 2.

Jelley, Nick; Poon, Alan

2007-03-30

14

In a Flash, NASA Helps Solve 35-Year-Old Cosmic Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have solved the 35-year-old mystery of the origin of powerful, split-second flashes of light known as short gamma-ray bursts. These flashes, brighter than a billion galaxies, yet lasting only a few milliseconds, have been simply too fast to catch - until now. Through the unprecedented coordination of observations from several ground-based telescopes and NASA satellites, scientists determined the flashes arise from violent collisions in space. The clashes are either between a black hole and a neutron star or between two neutron stars. In either scenario, the impact creates a new black hole. In at least one burst, scientists saw tantalizing, first-time evidence of a black hole eating a neutron star. The neutron star was first stretched into a crescent, then swallowed by the black hole. Two recently detected bursts are featured in four papers in this week's Nature magazine. These observations could enable direct detection of exotic gravitational waves that have never before been seen. "Gamma-ray bursts in general are notoriously difficult to study, but the shortest ones have been next to impossible to pin down," said Dr. Neil Gehrels, principal investigator for the Swift satellite at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "All that has changed. We now have the tools in place to study these events," he said. Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Gamma-ray bursts, first detected in the 1960s, are the most powerful explosions known. They are random, fleeting and can occur from any region of the sky. Two years ago, scientists discovered longer bursts, lasting more than two seconds, arise from the explosion of very massive stars. About 30 percent of bursts are short and under two seconds. The Swift satellite detected a short burst on May 9, and NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) detected another on July 9. The May 9 event marked the first time scientists identified an afterglow for a short gamma-ray burst, something commonly seen after long bursts. "We had a hunch that short gamma-ray bursts came from a neutron star crashing into a black hole or another neutron star, but these new detections leave no doubt," said Dr. Derek Fox, assistant professor of Astronomy & Astrophysics at Penn State University, State College, Pa. Fox is lead author of one Nature report detailing a multi-wavelength observation. Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Fox's team discovered the X-ray afterglow of the July 9 burst with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A team led by Jens Hjorth, a professor at the University of Copenhagen identified the optical afterglow using the Danish 1.5-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Fox's team continued studying the afterglow with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes of the Carnegie Institution, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. "The July 9 burst was like the dog that didn't bark," said Dr. George Ricker, HETE principal investigator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and co-author of another Nature article. "Powerful telescopes detected no supernova as the gamma-ray burst faded, arguing against the explosion of a massive star. Also, the July 9 burst, and probably the May 9 burst, are located in the outskirts of their host galaxies, just where old merging binaries are expected," he added. Mergers create gravitational waves, ripples in space-time predicted by Einstein but never directly detected. The July 9 burst was about 2 billion light-years away. A big merger closer to the Earth could be detected by the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). If Swift detects a nearby short burst, scientists could go back and check the data with a precise time and location. "This is good news for LIGO," said Dr. Albert Lazzarini, Data & Computing group leader at the California Institut

2005-10-01

15

The Eclipsing Binary Di Herculis: One Mystery Solved, But Another Takes Its Place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 8th-mag eclipsing binary DI Herculis has perplexed scientists for the past few decades due to its anomalously slow apsidal motion rate. DI Her consists of two main-sequence stars (B5V, B6V), with P(orb) = 10.55 days, and eccentricity(e= 0.489). Since the apsidal motion is dominated by General Relativity, the system is one of the few tests available for verifying the theory. Combining the expected classical (1.93°/100 yr) and relativistic (2.34°/100 yr) effects, the predicted apsidal motion rate is 4.27°/100 yr. Our recent determination of the apsidal motion yields 1.33°+/-0.25 /100 yr, based on eclipse timings from 1936-2008. Recently, Albrecht et al (2009, Nature 461) have apparently solved the apsidal motion anomaly of DI Her, finding that the axes of both stars are significantly inclined from the normal to the orbital plane. This was determined from the radial velocity curves and observing the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect during primary and secondary eclipses. Having significantly misaligned axes of rotation produces a perturbation that greatly reduces the classical apsidal motion effect, thus explaining the observed small apsidal motion rate. Even though this discovery apparently solves the problem, it raises new questions as to how the axes are so tilted. Additionally, tilted axes are expected to contribute to other orbital effects, such as changes in orbital inclination, which have not yet observed from the apparent constancy in eclipse depths over time. We have also searched for evidence of small periodic oscillations in the eclipse timings and found no evidence of a light travel time effect arising from a possible tertiary component. Further, we find evidence that the projected rotation axes of the stars may be precessing, since it appears that the value of V(rot)sini has increased over the past 30 years. This research was supported by NSF/RUI Grants AST05-07536/42.

Zimmerman, Nicole; Guinan, E.; Maloney, F.

2010-01-01

16

Perfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.

Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

2012-04-01

17

Solving Wakulla Springs underwater mysteries. Using GPS to map Florida's underground caverns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Located in the Woodville Karst Plain stretching south from Tallahassee to the Gulf of Mexico, Florida's Wakulla Springs is one of the largest and deepest freshwater Springs in the world. It is also a gateway into one of the longest underwater cave system in the United States, a system that remained largely unexplored until recently. Soon, however, thanks to one of the world's most extreme scientific and exploration-related diving projects ever undertaken, visitors to Wakulla Springs State Park will be able to take a virtual tour through the Spring's huge underwater labyrinth. Using such cutting-edge technology as a 3D Digital Wall Mapper (DWM) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Wakulla 2 Expedition - with 151 volunteer cave divers, scientists and engineers from all over the world - created the world's first three-dimensional digital map of an underwater cave. Underwater caves are priceless treasures, helping supply fresh water to the region as well as acting as 'time capsules' to the past. Home to creatures found in few other places, areas such as Wakulla face threats of pollution and over-development. Wakulla 2 hopes their 3D interactive 'swim through' will help increase the understanding and preservation of these important areas.

Am, Ende, B.

2002-01-01

18

Young Stars in Orion May Solve Mystery of Our Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists may have to give the Sun a little more credit. Exotic isotopes present in the early Solar System--which scientists have long-assumed were sprinkled there by a powerful, nearby star explosion--may have instead been forged locally by our Sun during the colossal solar-flare tantrums of its baby years. The isotopes--special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26, calcium-41, and beryllium-10--can form in the X-ray solar flares of young stars in the Orion Nebula, which behave just like our Sun would have at such an early age. The finding, based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has broad implications for the formation of our own Solar System. Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, led a team of scientists on this Chandra observation and presents these results in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "The Chandra study of Orion gives us the first chance to study the flaring properties of stars resembling the Sun when our solar system was forming," said Feigelson. "We found a much higher rate of flares than expected, sufficient to explain the production of many unusual isotopes locked away in ancient meteorites. If the young stars in Orion can do it, then our Sun should have been able to do it too." Scientists who study how our Solar System formed from a collapsed cloud of dust and gas have been hard pressed to explain the presence of these extremely unusual chemical isotopes. The isotopes are short-lived and had to have been formed no earlier than the creation of the Solar System, some five billion years ago. Yet these elements cannot be produced by a star as massive as our Sun under normal circumstances. (Other elements, such as silver and gold, were created long before the creation of the solar system.) The perplexing presence of these isotopic anomalies, found in ancient meteoroids orbiting the Earth, led to the theory that a supernova explosion occurred very close to the Solar System's progenitor gas cloud, simultaneously triggering its collapse and seeding it with short-lived isotopes. Solar flares could produce such isotopes, but the flares would have to be hundreds of thousands of times more powerful and hundreds of times more frequent than those our Sun generates. Enter the stars in the Orion Nebula. This star-forming region has several dozen new stars nearly identical to our Sun, only much younger. Feigelson's team used Chandra to study the flaring in these analogs of the early Sun and found that nearly all exhibit extremely high levels of X-ray flaring--powerful and frequent enough to forge many of the kinds of isotopes found in the ancient meteorites from the early solar system. "This is a very exciting result for space X-ray astronomy," said Donald Clayton, Centennial Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University. "The Chandra Penn State team has shown that stellar-flare acceleration produces radioactive nuclei whether we want them or not. Now the science debate can concentrate on whether such irradiation made some or even all of the extinct radioactivities that were present when our solar system was formed, or whether some contamination of our birth molecular cloud by external material is also needed." "This is an excellent example of how apparently distant scientific fields, like X-ray astronomy and the origins of solar systems, can in fact be closely linked," said Feigelson. The Orion observation was made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Gordon Garmire, the Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State. The Penn State observation team includes Pat Broos, James Gaffney, Gordon Garmire, Leisa Townsley and Yohko Tsuboi. Collaborators also include Lynne Hillenbrand of CalTech and Steven Pravdo of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Background: Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have d

2001-09-01

19

Mystery Powder Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use their skills as scientists to identify a mystery white powder. This lesson is a hands-on, engaging way to build students' understanding of physical and chemical properties of several common compounds.

Hallettnjuguna, Rachel

2012-07-27

20

Geo Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students discover information about rocks, fossils, and minerals by solving geo mysteries. In the Mystery of the Floating Rock, they need to try to decide if a sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous rock floats. They are given information about each of the rocks, they can see animated pictures of how each forms, and they can view a volcano erupting. In the Mystery of the Broken Necklace, students need to figure out what kind of fossils are the beads of a necklace. They are given information about crinoid fossils and can see a piece of the ancient Border's Sea. By clicking on each of the fossils, students can see what lived there long ago. They will also learn about the three kinds of fossils and how they are prepared. The Mystery of the Golden Cube has students deciding if a cube is a rock, mineral, or fossil. Information is provided about the cube's shape, hardness, color and streak, density, cleavage and fracture. Students are given the opportunity to test the cube's streak, hardness and density and the cube is compared to a gold nugget. Facts are given for 10 different rocks. Included in this site is a geologic timeline, questions and answers about rocks and fossils, and additional links.

Indianapolis, The C.

2000-01-01

21

Geometry-Lithology-Origin: Solving the mystery of the Late Miocene mounded features below Lake Balaton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences of Eötvös University has carried out single- and multichannel water seismic surveys at the Lake Balaton since 1993. The dense grid of 2D profiles offers a high resolution image of the Late Miocene sedimentary strata (Tihany, Somló and Szák Formations) up to a thickness of 200 meters below the lake. These strata can be divided into smaller sedimentary units by numerous parasequence boundaries (Sztanó&Magyar, 2007). In one of these parasequence interesting, high amplitude mounded features have been observed that follow a seismic horizon over large area. It means that these features indicate a Late Miocene regional event. In terms of their shape these mounds are few tens of meters wide, several tens to a hundreds of meters long and few meters high. Their geometry and inner structure were mapped from 2D segments that were used for 3D reconstructions. The shape and stratigraphic position of these features have inspired Sacchi and Horvath (1999) to interpret them as the subsurface equivalent of the fresh-water siliceous-limestone mounds exposed on the Tihany Peninsula. They held these mounds as an evidence of dryland conditions in the time period of the formation of a Late Miocene erosional surface (PAN-2) that they regarded as a 3rd order sequence boundary. In addition to this so called "travertine" concept another explanation was also formulated as the mounds are the product of sedimentary failures e.g. slumps or water escape. To solve the problem an offshore drilling with a total depth of 19 meters was accomplished in October 2013 to sample one of these mounds and determine their origin. The well has not crossed any travertine body, instead alternating layers of clay-silt and very fine sand - without any convincing sign of fluid escape structures - were found in the core (typical lithology of the Tihany Formation). 3D structural analysis of the mounds revealed spherical organization composing bodies that are superposed on each other. The latter can be interpreted as series of small thrusts in a relatively thin mudstone layer. As coring has found silty material, without the presence of any fluid escape structures the most possible explanation for these features is sheet slumping mechanism that could be induced by seismicity. Although "travertine" concept has been rejected, these mounds should indicate a regionally important geological event that could strengthen correlation of erosional surfaces such us PAN-2 from outcrop to water seismic images. Such an event could be possible the start of the 8 Ma volcanism in the area. Work was financed by OTKA NK83400 research fund. References: Sacchi, M.; Horváth, F.; Magyari O. (1999). Role of unconformity-bounded units in the stratigraphy of the continental record: a case study from the Late Miocene of the western Pannonian basin, Hungary. In: Durand, B. Jolivet, L., Horváth F. & Séranne, M. (eds), The Mediterranean Basins: Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 156, 357-390. Sztanó, O. & Magyar I. (2007): Deltaic parasequences on gamma logs, ultra-high resolution seismic images and outcrops of Lake Pannon deposits. Joannea Geol. Palaont. 9: 105-108.

Visnovitz, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Surányi, Gergely

2014-05-01

22

Detective Scientist  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA has many detectives looking for clues to solve a mystery, like "science detective" Monsi Roman. She is making sure the water and air on board the International Space Station are safe for the a...

23

Mystery Person  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

O'Brien, Tom

2011-01-01

24

Mysteries of the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a resource about the Sun and its effects on the rest of the Solar System. Learners will watch movie clips and read a guidebook of information about space weather, solar variability, the heliosphere, Earthâs magnetosphere and upper atmosphere, as well as the solar mysteries that scientists are still studying.

25

Space Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These inquiry-driven interactive Web explorations involve five mysteries that take advantage of studentsâ curiosity to build critical thinking and analytical skills. The mysteries are: Solar Supernova, Alien Bandstand, Live! From 2-Alpha, Star Market and Galactic Doom. Each mystery has been constructed to teach at least one physical science standards -e.g. conservation of energy, motion, or forces-, and is accompanied by materials to be used by teachers.

2010-01-01

26

Mystery #16  

... (right panel). This mystery concerns two coral atoll ecosystems located in different parts of the globe. Use any reference ... following four statements accurately describes coral atoll ecosystems. Which one does not?   A.   Other living organisms besides ...

2013-04-22

27

Mystery Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

28

Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

Thomson, Norman

2000-01-01

29

Mystery Bug Theater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in introductory Computer Science courses often have difficulty with coding and problem solving which results in bugs. These bugs cause both student frustration and attrition of many of our CS majors. The Mystery Bug Theater website classifies several hundred bugs that students have brought to the Utah State University Tutor Lab so that students know that they are not isolated in experiencing bugs. The website also provides games and movies about common bugs.

30

Planetary Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they explore the "mind-boggling mysteries" of our solar system. The article opens with a quick review of what we know about our solar system and how we've gathered that information. Students then "explore the mystery" of each planet within our solar system, which is presented though fun facts, evidence, theories, and NASA missions. The article ends with a nine-question quiz that gives students a fun way to test what they've learned.

31

Mystery #21  

... detective! This mystery concerns a particular type of cloud, one example of which was imaged by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ... Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team. Text acknowledgment: ...

2013-04-22

32

Mystery Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners analyze the density of liquids in order to explore linear functions. Learners gather mass and volume data for two mystery liquids, oil and water, and then use the data to explore linear functions. Learners discuss the physical meaning of the slopes and y-intercepts of the various lines they create from scatterplots.

Pbs

2012-01-01

33

Mystery Tubes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners investigate a pre-constructed mystery tube to determine its interior mechanism. Working in small groups, learners pose explanations (hypotheses) for what they are observing and test their hypotheses. In a possible extension of this activity, learners build their own model to test their hypothesis. This lesson serves as a good introduction to the nature of scientific inquiry.

Paleontology, University O.

2010-01-01

34

Medical Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rice University presents Medical Mysteries (or MedMyst for short) "an Internet-based adventure...in which you are on a mission to discover the causes of diseases." Designed for middle and high school students, MedMyst offers an engaging, multimedia approach to learning about infectious diseases and the immune system, as well as pharmacology, chemistry, public health policy, and more. MedMyst also includes three downloadable mini-labs that expand on concepts covered in the multimedia adventure. The Web site also includes loads of useful links.

35

Biology Today. Ah, Sweet Mysteries of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mysteries of the biological past that paleontologists are trying to solve are discussed. Topics include first seeds, fossils and computers, packrat middens, charcoal clues, soft parts, Burgess shale, halkieriids, toe count, whales with feet, long necks, and changing functions. (KR)

Flannery, Maura C.

1991-01-01

36

The Mystery of the Golden Cube  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help Rex solve the mystery of the golden cube! You will need to decide if it is a rock, mineral, or a fossil. You will also need to examine the cubes shape, hardness, color, streak, density, cleavage, and fracture.

2000-01-01

37

Mystery Sums, Part Three  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This third Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad, as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately) allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value of ten letters, which are initially from 1-10, but this upper limit can be changed. Players encompass letters within a circle to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Scher, Daniel

2012-10-08

38

Mystery Sums, Part Two  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This second Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value from -10 to 10 of the letters, A, B, -B and C. Players drag any two letters across a divider to the right to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Scher, Daniel

2012-10-08

39

Tsunami Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast explores some ideas about the cause of a 1946 tsunami which swept from Alaska through the Pacific and killed more than 150 people. The tsunami was one of the worst of the 20th Century. Scientists today still cannot agree on just what caused it. They think it was an earthquake, an undersea landslide, or possibly both. The answer may change how scientists study tsunamis and how people prepare for them. The clip is 6 minutes and 38 seconds in length.

40

Mystery Aircraft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federation of American Scientists offers this unique perspective into classified government aircraft, "some of which actually exist, some of which certainly do not, and all of which are fascinating in a way." This site is divided into two main sections. The first provides insight into several aircraft that were initially shrouded in secrecy but have since been revealed to the public. Some examples include the SR-71, the B-2, and the Hyper-X. The second section is devoted to aircraft that may or may not be currently under development or in operation by the US government. The much popularized Aurora is in this section, as well as exotic propulsion aircraft.

41

Scientist to Scientist Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of its mission to enhance collaboration between scientists and engineers from the US and other countries, the International Directorate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) placed the newsletter Scientist to Scientist online. Past issues of the newsletter (back to April 1992) report on funding opportunities and other programs (such as conferences, workshops, etc.) that "promote scientific cooperation in East Central Europe and the NIS."

42

Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and…

Harrington, LaDawna

2011-01-01

43

Electric Mystery Boxes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities where students explore electrical mystery boxes to learn about electricity. The electrical devices utilized are a bulb, a battery, a wire, a diode, and an LED. Students first explore the materials and then try to infer arrangements of these devices in sealed boxes. Describes the construction of the mystery boxes and classroom…

Hartman, Dean

1992-01-01

44

The Mystery Begins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All teachers and media specialists are looking for the "hook" that will engage their students and make them want to learn--and according to the author, mystery stories are a perfect way to create that hook. Here, she presents a unit on mysteries, intended for collaboration between media specialists and language arts teachers. The unit uses…

Harrington, LaDawna

2008-01-01

45

A Coprolite Mystery: Who Dung It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discover the secrets contained in fossilized feces. Few topics in middle school classrooms capture students' enthusiasm and interest as do coprolites. These trace fossils offer classroom opportunities for integrated life and Earth sciences study, a stranger-than-fiction history of science, and an opportunity to solve mysteries. (Contains 8…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2011-01-01

46

Using Classic Mystery Stories in Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One third-year clinical clerkship in pediatrics has included Sherlock Holmes mysteries in its introductory curriculum, providing students with a model clinical problem-solving process and a list of issues on which they will need information. The nonclinical cases provide an effective and entertaining vehicle for learning clinical reasoning. (MSE)

Sheldon, Stephen H.; Noronha, Peter A.

1990-01-01

47

Space Mysteries: Making Science and Astronomy Learning Fun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do you get and keep a student's attention during class? Make learning fun! Using a game to teach students ensures that they have fun, enjoy the lesson and remember it. We have developed a series of interactive web and CD based games called "Space Mysteries" to teach students math, physics and astronomy. Using real NASA data, the students must find out Who (or What) dunit in an engaging astronomy mystery. The games include video interviews with famous scientists, actors playing roles who give clues to the solution, and even a few blind alleys and red herrings. The first three games are currently online in beta release at http://mystery.sonoma.edu.

Plait, P.; Tim, G.; Cominsky, L.

2001-12-01

48

BIOMEDICINE: A Cargo Receptor Mystery APParently Solved?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. It is still not clear what causes the deposition of sticky amyloid b peptides in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In a Perspective, Sangram Sisodia offers a provocative look at a new theory that postulates the involvement of defective axonal transport of cargo-laden membrane vesicles in the etiology of this neurodegenerative disease.

Sangram S. Sisodia (Center for Molecular Neurobiology;)

2002-02-01

49

Ideas in action: Solving a cavitation mystery  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation caused significant erosion from 1985 through 1990 on turbine runners at the 970-MW Murray 1 Power Station operated by Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Authority (SMHEA) in Australia. The problem was perplexing because no obvious cause could be found. Investigation eventually showed the problems stemmed form the runners sagging slightly from the correct height. Corrective measures, which included adjustment of runners and new control settings for the units, appear to have relieved the cavitation. The adjustments also reduced stress on the unit thrust-bearings, eliminating a future maintenance headache.

NONE

1995-12-31

50

Element Genesis - Solving the Mystery (Video Presentation)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our institute (RIKEN) produced a video on nucleosynthesis. Its new English version is presented. Y. M., I. Tanihata, Y. Yano, and R. Boyd are science editors for this. Time length of the video is 30 minutes. The primary characteristic of this video is that we have employed a number of 2-D and 3-Dimensional visualizations and animations based on an updated understanding of nuclear physics and astrophysics. One of the emphasized points is that microscopic physics (i.e., nuclear physics) and macroscopic physics (i.e., astrophysics) are strongly connected. It contains explanation on the chart of the nuclides, nuclear burning in the sun, big-bang nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis, ``beta-stability valley", the s-process, the r-process, production of an RI beam, etc., and professors D. Arnett, T. Kajino, K. Langanke, K. Sato, C. Sneden, I. Tanihata, and F.-K. Thielemann appear as interviewees. Our prime target is college freshmen. We hope that this video would be useful for education both in the fields of astrophysics and nuclear physics at universities and even at high schools. Our institute is accordingly developing a distribution system of this video and it will be available soon at the cost price (please visit our web site for details: http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/video). The Japanese version was awarded the prize of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan 2001.

Mochizuki, Yuko

2001-10-01

51

Groundwater: from mystery to management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater has been used for domestic and irrigation needs from time immemorial. Yet its nature and occurrence have always possessed a certain mystery because water below the land surface is invisible and relatively inaccessible. The influence of this mystery lingers in some tenets that govern groundwater law. With the birth of modern geology during the late nineteenth century, groundwater science became recognized in its own right. Over the past two centuries, groundwater has lost its shroud of mystery, and its scientific understanding has gradually grown hand-in-hand with its development for human use. Groundwater is a component of the hydrological cycle, vital for human sustenance. Its annual renewability from precipitation is limited, and its chemical quality is vulnerable to degradation by human action. In many parts of the world, groundwater extraction is known to greatly exceed its renewability. Consequently, its rational management to benefit present and future generations is a matter of deep concern for many nations. Groundwater management is a challenging venture, requiring an integration of scientific knowledge with communal will to adapt to constraints of a finite common resource. As scientists and policy makers grapple with the tasks of groundwater management, it is instructive to reflect on the evolution of groundwater knowledge from its initial phase of demystification at the beginning of the nineteenth century, through successive phases of technological conquest, scientific integration, discovery of unintended consequences and the present recognition of an imperative for judicious management. The following retrospective provides a broad context for unifying the technical contributions that make up this focus issue on groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability.

Narasimhan, T. N.

2009-07-01

52

Science Nation: Unraveling the Mysteries of Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To better understand tornadoes, scientists, with the help of the National Science Foundation, are embarking on a quest to unravel the mysteries of tornadoes. The project is called VORTEX2, but it could also be called the amazing chase. For five weeks in the spring of 2009, and again in spring 2010, 100 researchers and scientists from 16 universities will deploy about 40 vehicles armed with high tech equipment to measure and probe tornadoes and tornado development. The researchers will span across the Midwest in search of tornadoes--all to better understand how, when and why they form.

53

A Spectral Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use the spectrographs from the "Building a Fancy Spectrograph" activity to gather data about light sources. Using their data, they make comparisons between different light sources and make conjectures about the composition of a mystery light source.

Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP),

54

Mystery #4 Answer  

article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #4: Niger River and Timbuktu     View ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Niger River and Timbuktu covers an area measuring about 400 kilometers x 450 ...

2013-04-22

55

Scientists Shed Light on Link Between Depression, Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Shed Light on Link Between Depression, Dementia Researchers deem depression ... July 30 in the journal Neurology sheds more light on the mystery. Depression is a risk factor ...

56

Mystery Box Writing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing writing skills along with content by incorporating hands-on science experiences and related writing lessons provides students with a purpose for writing, which makes it more meaningful to students. The Mystery Box lesson discussed in this article is a fun science/writing activity which helps students to develop observation skills while also motivating students to write.

Straits, William

2005-11-01

57

Mystery #21 Answer  

... This mystery concerns a particular type of cloud, one example of which was imaged by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ... Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team. Text acknowledgment: ...

2013-04-22

58

Mysterious Earthly Encounters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of a storyline approach to integrated learning and provides a detailed example. The "Mysterious Encounters--Earth" program based on a detective storyline includes an intensive environmental experience at a local park and provides the springboard and framework to help teachers integrate environmental learning into classroom…

Warner, Alan; Taylor, George

1994-01-01

59

A Microbial Murder Mystery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a microbial mystery activity to test students' knowledge of human anatomy and their ability to identify microbes. Provides an opportunity for students to develop logical deductive reasoning. Includes national science education standards related to this activity, activity sheets with whole procedures, and Internet resources. (KHR)

Mitchell, Melissa A.; Mitchell, James K.

2002-01-01

60

Passport to Mystery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

Williams, Wilda

2010-01-01

61

The Mystery of Decimals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson reviews all four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing) with decimals. It is designed to easily provide differentiated instruction for the struggling students, as well as extensions for the high level students. The culmination of the lesson is a computer based assessment set in a mystery format which provides a fun change from a typical pencil and paper test.

2012-10-30

62

Mysteries of Catalhoyuk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Catalhoyuk (chat-al-hoy-ook), which means "forked mound," is a major Neolithic archaeological site in south-central Turkey considered to be one of the first "urban" centers, built between 8,000 and 10,0000 years ago. This engaging multimedia Website, developed by the Science Museum of Minnesota for a general audience, examines the big mysteries underlying Catalhoyuk, as seen through the eyes of an international team of archaeologists and other specialists. Visitors may sift through artifacts and recent findings from the excavations, learn about the people and processes behind the digs, take a virtual tour of the site, or investigate the mysteries surrounding human remains, food habits, murals, clay balls, and goddess figurines.

63

BOTANY: The Abominable Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A report by Sun et al. describes the first plausible fossil evidence of a Jurassic angiosperm (the type of plants that have flowers and fruits). This finding has important implications for one of evolutionary biology's most enduring puzzles: the origin of, and relationships within, the flowering plants--what Charles Darwin called the "abominable mystery."

William L. Crepet (Cornell University;L. H. Bailey Hortorium, Division of Biological Sciences)

1998-11-27

64

Mystery Fish of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This worksheet from the Midwest Regional Center for Nanotechnology Education (NANO-LINK) contains instructions for an experiment using a mystery fish. This fun experiment will introduce students to the applications of the Scientific Method. Each student will place the magic fish made of cellophane on his or her hand and watch it curl followed by hypothesizing why this occurs. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format.

2013-07-02

65

A Spectral Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about using light to identify the composition of an object. Learners will use a spectrograph to gather data about light sources. Using the data theyâve collected, students are able to make comparisons between different light sources and make conjectures about the composition of a mystery light source. The activity is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering program for middle-high school students, focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

66

Scientist Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For scientists desiring to become more involved in education, the COSEE Mid-Atlantic is dedicated to establishing meaningful and productive collaborations between scientists and educators. This web site is meant to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. The information is broken down by how much time the scientist is willing to dedicate to education and public outreach.

67

Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities  

SciTech Connect

One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All who live on Earth must recognize that they play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. People must solve this great atmospheric mystery if they are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

Not Available

1991-11-01

68

It's a mystery : Mystery shopping in New Zealand's public libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To explore and evaluate the evidence about the effectiveness of “mystery shopping” as a technique for service evaluation in the public library system of one country. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A critical summary and review of the literature in this field. Interviews with public librarians in New Zealand who have used mystery shopping. Findings – Demonstrates that there were three

Philip Calvert

2005-01-01

69

The Mysterious Hammerhead  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Of all the animals in the oceans, the hammerhead shark may be one of the strangest looking. The exact purpose of the wide, flat head is a mystery, but several theories abound. In this video, we travel to the shark-infested waters of the Galapagos in Ecuador and to a research station in Hawaii to learn about the unusual habits of these sinister-looking sharks. Jonathan swims in schools of hundreds of hammerheads, and yet the sharks ignore him. What are the sharks up to? Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

70

Mysteries of the Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Scientific American Frontiers website contains videos from the television episode Mysteries of the Deep, as well as related articles and student activities. The videos explore the technology that has opened up the farthest reaches of the ocean and made it possible to lift shipwrecks from the ocean floor. The videos total to approximately one hour in length. The articles explore evidence in support of the flood in the biblical story of Noah; what deep-ocean research has revealed about continental drift, plate tectonics, and the formation of the Earth; and how shipwrecks are lifted from the ocean floor.

71

Space Mysteries: Solar Supernova  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar Supernova is an interactive,computer-based activity that is part of the Space Mysteries series, developed by the Sonoma State University Education and Public Outreach Group. It presents a series of inquiries that allow students to discover how the colors, masses, and luminosities of stars are related. Students also investigate how these characteristics influence the life cycle of the stars. The concluding activity allows students to use the information learned in the previous activities to determine the eventual fate of our Sun.

72

The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches…

Heid, Christy; Biglan, Barbara; Ritson, Margaret

2008-01-01

73

Who Took Jerell's iPod? -- An Organic Compound Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn how to test for triglycerides, glucose, starch, and protein and then use these tests to solve a mystery. The activity reinforces students understanding of the biological functions and food sources of these different types of organic compounds.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

74

Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

Colyer, Christa

1999-01-01

75

Neutron Star Mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron stars provide a unique laboratory in which to explore the nuclear equation of state at high densities. Nevertheless, their interior structure and equation of state have remained a mystery. Recently, a number of advances have been made toward unraveling this mystery. The first direct optical images of a nearby neutron star have been obtained from HST. High quality data for X-ray emission from low-mass X-ray binaries, including observations of nearly coherent oscillations (NCO's) and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) now exist. The existence of a possible absorption feature as well as pulsar light curves and glitches, and studies of soft-gamma repeaters, have all led to significant new constraints on the mass-radius relation and maximum mass of neutron stars. We also discuss how models of supernova explosion dynamics and the associated r-process nucleosynthesis also constrain the nuclear equation of state, along with heavy-ion and monopole resonance data. Recent work on the search for the Friedman-Chandrasekhar-Schutz instability and the effects of internal magnetic fields are also discussed. The overall constraints on the neutron star equation of state are summarized.

Mathews, G. J.; Fragile, P. C.; Suh, I.; Wilson, J. R.

2003-04-01

76

UHECR Maps: mysteries and surprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise of nucleon UHECR above GZK astronomy made by protons (AUGER November 2007) is puzzled by three main mysteries: an unexpected nearby Virgo UHECR suppression (or absence), a rich crowded clustering frozen vertically along Cen A, a composition suggesting nuclei (not much directional) and not nucleons. The UHECR map, initially consistent with GZK volumes, to day seem to be not much correlated with expected Super Galactic Plane. Moreover slant depth data of UHECR from AUGER airshower shape do not favor the proton but points to a nuclei, while HIRES, on the contrary favors mostly nucleons. We tried (at least partially) to solve the contradictions assuming UHECR as light nuclei (mostly He4) spread by planar galactic fields, randomly at vertical axis. The He4 fragility and its mass and charge explains the Virgo absence (due to He4 opacity above few Mpc) and the Cen A spread clustering (a quarter of the whole sample). However more events and rare doublets and clustering elsewhere are waiting for an answer. Here we foresee hint of new UHECR component: galactic ones. Moreover a careful updated views of UHECR sky over different (Radio, IR, Optics, X, gamma, TeV) background (also Fermi gamma very last records) are also favoring forgotten revolutionary Z-shower model. Both Z-Shower, proton GZK and Lightest nuclei UHECR models have dramatic influence on expected UHE neutrino Astronomy: to be soon revealed by UHE ? neutrino induced air-showers in different ways.

Fargion, D.

2010-03-01

77

Magnetic Mystery Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This presentation highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines around "mystery planets" using orbiting "spacecraft" (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle/high school age audiences. However, we also show a scaled-down version that has been used with elementary school age audiences.

Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

2013-12-01

78

Magnetic Mystery Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

2014-07-01

79

Electricity: The Mysterious Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document examines the mysterious force of electricity. The reading will focus on the physical properties of electricity and discuss topics such as (1) The Atom of Carbon, (2) Static electricity, (3) Magnets are special, (4) Magnetic fields can produce electricity, (5) Batteries produce electricity, (6) Electricity travels in circuits, (7) Secondary energy source, (8) Making electricity, (9) Moving electricity from power plants to homes, (10) Fuels that make electricity, (11) Fossil fuel power plants, (12) Nuclear power plants, (13) Hydropower plants, (14) What's a Watt, and (15) Cost of electricity. The document also depicts illustrations of a bar magnet, turbine generator, transporting electricity, U.S. electricity production, peak demand, and energy efficiency. This resource is structured as an informational booklet to supplement your energy activities or to generate discussion questions.

2008-01-01

80

The Mysterious Bogpeople  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the seemingly spooky title of this site, visitors should not be afraid of entering and exploring around the contents of this very interactive site. Created through a collaborative partnership between organizations such as the Canadian Museum of Civilization and the Drents Museum, this site concerns itself with the artifacts and material world created by the so-called "bogpeople" of northwestern Europe who lived approximately 10,000 years ago. Visitors can explore their world through sections that include "Science", "Timeline", "Profile" and "Mediatheatre". The "Mediatheatre" section is a good place to start as visitors can view short film clips that cover the mysteries of the bog, fishing with a harpoon, and the fabled Ubbena wheel. Moving along, the "Timeline" area gives some nice chronological context to the events and transformations covered by the site, and the "Science" area includes some insights into what archaeologists do in the field.

2010-05-13

81

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

82

Medical Scientists  

MedlinePLUS

... little supervision, forming their own hypotheses and developing experiments, accordingly. They often lead teams of technicians, and ... prospective medical scientists the opportunity to develop their experiments and, sometimes, to supervise undergraduates. Ph.D. programs ...

83

Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery  

MedlinePLUS

... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery Preface Over the past ...

84

The Mystery Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for larger view

This high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the region containing the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station. Scientists examined this patch on the 13th and 15th martian days, or sols, of Spirit's journey. Using nearly all the science instruments located on the rover's instrument deployment device or 'arm,' scientists yielded some puzzling results including the detection of a mineral called olivine and the appearance that the soil is stronger and more cohesive than they expected. Like detectives searching for clues, the science team will continue to peruse the landscape for explanations of their findings.

Data taken from the camera's red, green and blue filters were combined to create this approximate true color picture, acquired on the 12th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey.

The yellow box (see inset above) in this high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit outlines the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station.

2004-01-01

85

Senior scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small task force of volunteer senior scientists and engineers was organized recently under the aegis of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) “to utilize its collective talents for the betterment of society and to provide opportunities for individual personal accomplishment and enrichment.” Among the projects under consideration are assisting the Washington, D.C., school system to improve its science and mathematics instruction and assessing the impact of technology on older persons.One of the task force's first projects is to develop a roster of retired scientists and engineers in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area to garner volunteer talent for future projects.

86

Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

Bennett, Katherine

2010-01-01

87

Exploring Meteorite Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers and scientists designed this book to engage students in inquiry science and to extend science with interdisciplinary connections. The study of meteorites provides a unifying theme that links almost every aspect of Earth and planetary science with mathematics, physics, chemistry and even biology. The effects of meteorite impacts have serious implications for social science. The activities in this book are designed for upper elementary to high school levels. Many of the lessons begin with a simple activity and build to more complex ones.

1997-08-01

88

Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some organizations like to promote the teaching of history through architecture, immigration patterns, or transportation innovations. This project encourages students to learn about history through "the enticement of solving historical cold crimes." It's a compelling and intriguing premise, and the project, initiated in 1997, builds on the ideas of document-centered inquiry and "active learning" pedagogical thinking. First-time visitors should view the video introduction to the project, and then use the "Quick Access" drop-down menu to look at the twelve different mysteries featured. A good one to start with is the "Where is Vinland?" project. Here visitors can learn about this Viking colony, learn about historical artifacts associated with the colony, and then review the contemporary and historical findings on the subject. Moving on, the "Teachers" section includes lesson plans, briefing sheets, and student-oriented briefing sheets for use in the classroom.

89

The Three Color Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to an engineering challenge in which they are given a job assignment to separate three types of apples. However, they are unable to see the color differences between the apples, and as a result, they must think as engineers to design devices that can be used to help them distinguish the apples from one another. Solving the challenge depends on an understanding of wave properties and the biology of sight. After being introduced to the challenge, students form ideas and brainstorm about what background knowledge is required to solve the challenge. A class discussion produces student ideas that can be grouped into broad subject categories: waves and wave properties, light and the electromagnetic spectrum, and the structure of the eye.

Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program, Center of Advancement of Engineering Fibers and Films,

90

A Conceptual Model for Mystery Shopping Motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the need for more research regarding mystery shopping evaluations by conducting a grounded theory analysis of the motivations of mystery shoppers, integrating quantitative survey data into the results. First, a detailed literature review provided researchers with a guideline for volunteer and employee motivations. Next, a qualitative study using information from interviews with current mystery shoppers was conducted

Pamela Allison; Denver Severt; Duncan Dickson

2010-01-01

91

Logic Mysteries. Grades 3-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The logical mysteries in this book are designed to develop critical thinking and deductive reasoning skills, motivate children to read carefully, and develop memory skills. The mystery solutions are explained at the end of the book. The first nine mysteries are intended for third grade students to work on with their teacher or parents. The second…

Molnar, Jane

92

Technological Clues to Ancient Mysteries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The components of archeological research, including the low and high tech tools employed in its pursuit, are described. Archeology appeals to students because of its sense of mystery and is rich in cross-curricular possibilities. Activities based on the Anasazi people (prehistoric people of southwest United States) are included. (KR)

Hutchinson, Barbara

1991-01-01

93

Exploring Meteorite Mysteries: Slide Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of slides is designed to accompany the teacher's guide 'Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.' The slides include images of recent and historic meteorites, impact sites and craters, collecting sites, and a sequence of slides on where meteorites come from and how they reach the Earth. They can be viewed online and are also available in a downloadable, printable format.

94

The Fellowship of the Mystery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author states that religion involves cosmic vision as well as ethical philosophy, and that religious ethics become impotent without this vision. Mystery, defined as the sense of wonder at the revelation of the nature of the cosmos, can be expressed only through art. (RW)

Hotchkiss, Wesley

1976-01-01

95

Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

Stark, Rebecca

96

Theorem of Mystery: Part 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the author was searching the web, he came across an article by Michael Keyton of IMSA (Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy) called "Theorems of mystery". The phrase is Keyton's own, and he defines such a theorem as "a result that has considerable structure with minimal hypotheses." The simplest of his 10 examples is one that many…

Lopez-Real, Francis

2008-01-01

97

'Mystery big cats' in the Peruvian Amazon: morphometrics solve a cryptozoological mystery  

PubMed Central

Two big cat skulls procured from hunters of Yanachaga National Park, Peru, were reported as those of cats informally dubbed the ‘striped tiger’ and ‘anomalous jaguar’. Observations suggested that both skulls were distinct from those of jaguars, associated descriptions of integument did not conform to this species, and it has been implied that both represent members of one or two novel species. We sought to resolve the identity of the skulls using morphometrics. DNA could not be retrieved since both had been boiled as part of the defleshing process. We took 36 cranial and 13 mandibular measurements and added them to a database incorporating nearly 300 specimens of over 30 felid species. Linear discriminant analysis resolved both specimens as part of Panthera onca with high probabilities for cranial and mandibular datasets. Furthermore, the specimens exhibit characters typical of jaguars. If the descriptions of their patterning and pigmentation are accurate, we assume that both individuals were aberrant.

Sakamoto, Manabu; Hocking, Peter; Sanchez, Gustavo

2014-01-01

98

Reduced coronary blood flow in cardiac tamponade: mystery solved.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old male presented with several week history of progressive shortness of breath, lower extremity edema, and distended jugular veins. Transthoracic echocardiography showed moderate pericardial effusion with thickened visceral pericardium and septal bounce but no chamber collapse. Right and left cardiac catheterization showed discordance of the right and left ventricular systolic pressures during respiration and severely reduced cardiac output. There was near equalization of diastolic pressures in all four chambers suggestive of effusive-constrictive pericarditis with cardiac tamponade physiology. Simultaneous coronary angiography showed remarkably reduced coronary Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow (TIMI grade 2 flow). Coronary blood flow was restored to normal after pericardial drainage on repeat coronary angiography. This is the first report of reduced coronary blood flow on coronary angiography in patients with effusive-constrictive pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. Our finding complements the work of previous investigators as we show that elevated intrapericardial pressures in cardiac tamponade can reduce coronary blood flow. This is likely related to extrinsic epicardial coronary vessel compression and reduced perfusion pressures, which can lead to myocardial ischemia and eventually cardiogenic shock. PMID:23220996

Abusaid, Ghassan H; Khalife, Wissam I

2012-12-01

99

Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the kidnapping of a child whose fingerprints were not found inside the crime vehicle. Discusses the investigation that followed and led to knowledge of the differences between the fingerprints of children and adults. (DDR)

Kimbrough, Doris R.; DeLorenzo, Ronald

1998-01-01

100

The Cessation of Eclipses in SS Lacertae: The Mystery Solved  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 14.4 day period eclipsing binary SS Lacertae in the open cluster NGC 7209 is unusual in that the eclipses stopped completely about the middle of this century, giving rise to considerable speculation as to the cause. Disruption of the binary through a collision with another member of the cluster and, more likely, gravitational perturbations from a third star in

Guillermo Torres; Robert P. Stefanik

2000-01-01

101

The Cessation of Eclipses in SS Lacertae: The Mystery Solved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 14.4 day period eclipsing binary SS Lacertae in the open cluster NGC 7209 is unusual in that the eclipses stopped completely about the middle of this century, giving rise to considerable speculation as to the cause. Disruption of the binary through a collision with another member of the cluster and, more likely, gravitational perturbations from a third star in the system have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. We present here the results of our intensive radial velocity monitoring of the object, which show clearly that there is indeed a third star in the system in a slightly eccentric orbit with a period of about 679 days. We also reanalyze the historical light curves of SS Lac to determine the properties of the system early in the century. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of changes in the inclination angle of the close pair. An analysis of available times of eclipse for SS Lac together with the new velocity information has also revealed apsidal motion in the system, ?=0.0137d cycle-1, corresponding to an apsidal period of about 1000 yr. We argue that the third star is probably responsible for this effect also. Some of the observations reported here were obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

Torres, Guillermo; Stefanik, Robert P.

2000-04-01

102

Latitude: How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First longitude, now latitude. From Latitude's title we cannot help thinking of Dava Sobel's recent bestseller, Longitude. I suppose it's unlikely to be such a moneymaker, but this delightful new book by Bill and Merri Sue Carter, a father and daughter team, is similar to Sobel's book. Both are physically small, with short chapters, which makes for a quick read. And both have a clear hero: John Harrison and his chronometers for longitude; and Seth Carlo Chandler Jr. and his almucantar for latitude. Both books eschew academic-style footnoting, although Latitude does list a few useful sources for each chapter and provides a comprehensive list of Chandler's astronomical publications. Chandler's name is known to most AGU members for its association with the 14-month wobble of the Earth's pole. He also discovered the slightly smaller annual wobble, and an argument can be made that he was the principal discoverer of polar motion, or latitude variation, in general.

Ray, Richard D.

103

Using Medicinal Chemistry To Solve an Old Medical Mystery  

PubMed Central

The logic behind the traditional medicinal chemistry technique of designing a synthetic enzyme substrate to mimic a natural one is used to uncover the identity of the unknown cause of two legacy industrial diseases by comparing the reported symptoms to two side effects of a modern synthetic.

2012-01-01

104

Lunar Regoliths: Solving Geochemical Mysteries Using Lunar Impact Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides an update of the on-going geochemical and geochronological results obtained from the study of lunar impact glasses extracted from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 regolith samples. Lunar impact glasses are droplets of melt produced by energetic cratering events that were quenched during ballistic flight and possess the unmodified refractory element ratios of the original fused target materials at the sites of impacts. They are quite abundant in the lunar regolith and their compositions can be used to not only constrain the impact history of the Moon but also to decipher how the lunar regolith has evolved over time. Previously, we showed that Clementine color image data of the regional provenance of the Apollo 14 site provided a context in which to interpret the geochemistry of Apollo 14 lunar impact glasses. The results suggest that the highlands in the Frau Mauro region of the Moon consist of a basaltic debris layer that overlies a more feldspathic terrain in some areas (Zellner et al. 2002). Thus, the mapping effort demonstrated the efficacy of using Clementine image data to place lunar sample information into a regional context. Apollo 16 impact glasses have also been studied, and orbital geochemical data indicate that the region is KREEP-poor and representative of typical highland basalt; a large fraction of glasses extracted from the Apollo 16 regolith sample studied possess this composition. Geochemical studies of some of the glasses, however, indicate a source region that is comprised of low-Mg high-K Frau Mauro materials. The 40Ar/39Ar ages from these four impact glasses show that the Moon experienced a significant impact at ~3730 Ma, somewhere in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 landing site (Delano et al. 2007). However, while evident in the lunar impact glass samples, this composition has not yet been revealed explicitly by orbital data. On-going analyses of the lunar impact glasses, interpreted in conjunction with their age, have identified other groups of glasses with similar ages that most likely formed in one impact event and also glasses with compositions that are quite atypical of the local (i.e., typical) regoliths from which they were extracted. Preliminary results will be presented here. Lunar orbital data may allow us to place these atypical glasses into a regional, and perhaps global, context.

Zellner, N.; Delano, J.; Swindle, T.

2010-12-01

105

Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

106

Halley's Legacy: The Selfless Genius Who Founded Geophysics, Led the Science Community to Solve the Problem of Finding Longitude at Sea, and Whose Work in Areas from Geomagnetism to Planetology Still Has Meaning For Today's Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2005 marks the 300th anniversary of Edmond Halley's publication of his infamous synopsis predicting the accurate return of the comet that would come to bear his name. On this occasion, it is time to remember him not only as the founder of geophysics but for his contributions to the world of science beyond his comet work. Halley's comet-transformed by the first triumph of the Newtonian revolution from a dire supernatural omen to a predictable element of the universe's clockwork-remains a recurring symbol of the scientific age of the Enlightenment. His comet is hurtling through space at some 20,000 miles per hour and won't be back until 2061. But it can remind us of past epochs and everlastingly of Halley's contributions to geophysics and the world of science writ large. For a start, Halley completed a series of little known sea voyages in his effort to solve one of his life-long quests: the problem of determining longitude at sea. On the basis of his earlier theories on magnetism, his approach entailed mapping the magnetic deviation across the test-bed of the Atlantic Ocean. In this paper, his findings from the voyages, which technically comprised the first science mission funded by a government and stand as the forerunner of all big science projects, will be reconsidered and put into the context of today's notions about terrestrial magnetism, including the geodynamo. To this day, scientists remain perplexed about exactly how core's dynamo regenerates its energy. When Halley was sailing his vessel, the Paramore, across the North Atlantic and making the first charts of geomagnetism, little did he ever imagine magnetism would underpin today's stunning advances in information technology and electromagnetic engineering. Magnetism also offers ways to study phase transitions, random disorder, and physics in low dimensions, which looks at particle interactions at ever higher energies in order to essentially study matter at smaller and smaller size scales. The presentation will also give an overview of his legacy to geophysics, which includes his contributions to meteorology, hydrology, ocean sciences, among other disciplines.

Wakefield, J.

2005-12-01

107

The Mysteries of Real Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation will consist of showing arc jet data mysterious to the modelers. It will show pictures from an arc jet test where a material (unidentified) exhibited a failure mode that nobody understands followed by thermocouple data from arc jet tests on another (unidentified) material of interest in which the T/Cs exhibit repeatable, consistent, fascinating yet frustrating response characteristics that have the modelers stumped. This all happens between RT and 200 F. Unless we figure out what the responsible phenomenology is and can model it, we can't size the TPS with any confidence.

Laub, Bernard

2012-01-01

108

Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

2011-01-01

109

Teaching U.S. History as Mystery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to engage students in grades 7 through 12 is to encourage them to investigate history as a puzzle, a set of dilemmas, a collection of conflicting viewpoints in short, a mysterious and provocative subject. In this book a collection of cases have been assembled both real mysteries and purposely constructed classroom problems with techniques…

Gerwin, David; Zevin, Jack

110

Improving Customer Service – The Mystery Shopper Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past some publicans have dabbled with the idea of the mystery drinker, but given the tough economic environment the industry face, the onus is now on publicans to understand their pub product and where it exceeds and fails. Mystery shopping can provide the answer.

James Peter Murphy

2010-01-01

111

Mystery shopping programmes and human resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mystery shopper programmes are defined as a tool for evaluating and improving customer service. The development and implementation of a mystery shopper programme is discussed as a sequence of related steps closely linked to human resource management and employee involvement. The process begins with setting the objectives of the programme and ends with rewarding behaviour and implementing change. Employee participation

Margaret Erstad

1998-01-01

112

Mystery customer research: cognitive processes affecting accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mystery customer research is a technique of quality assessment in the retail sector, where it is called mystery shopping, and also in the service sector. It is growing rapidly in popularity, but research in cognitive psychology suggests a number of potential threats to the reliability and validity of data collected through its use. In particular, various factors associated with the

Lisa J. Momson; Colman Carolyn; C. Preston

113

Problem Solving with Patents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-01-01

114

The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches of North Carolina. Based on the original case from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science at the University at Buffalo (Kosal 2003), the authors modified the case and developed inquiry-based activities for use in the middle school classroom.

Biglan, Barbara; Heid, Christy; Ritson, Margaret

2008-02-01

115

Mysterious Phenomena of the Human Psyche.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Mysterious psychic phenomena as a source of superstition; Sleep and dreams; Hypnosis and suggestion; Suggestion and autosuggestion in the waking state; Automatic movement; Is there a 'mental radio'; What can be said about 'extrasensory perceptio...

L. L. Vasilev

1967-01-01

116

Mystery Boxes: Helping Children Improve their Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

   This guest editorial describes ways teachers can use guessing games about an unknown item in a “mystery box” to help children\\u000a improve their abilities to listen to others, recall information, ask purposeful questions, classify items by class, make inferences,\\u000a synthesize information, and draw conclusions. The author presents information from a qualitative analysis of 90 preservice\\u000a teachers’ reflections on using mystery

Audrey C. Rule

2007-01-01

117

The MAD Scientist Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mad Scientist Network, provided by Washington University at St. Louis Medical School, is a Web based "ask a scientist" forum. You ask a question, and a scientist answers it. Answers are usually concise. The expert scientists include high school teachers, university faculty, and others. Both questions and answers are submitted via Web forms. A browsable and searchable question and answer archive is maintained. Scientists interested in joining the Mad Scientist Network will find information at the site. The Mad Scientist Network is part of the St. Louis Science Education Network. http://medinfo.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/ Scientists interested in participating: http://medicine.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/join/ List of "Mad Scientists": http://medicine.wustl.edu/cgi/cgiwrap.cgi/~ysp/mad/mad.scilist

1997-01-01

118

The mystery of language evolution  

PubMed Central

Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward.

Hauser, Marc D.; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C.; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J.; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C.

2014-01-01

119

Interpretive principles and the quantum mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much has been written in recent years about the strange features associated with the quantum-mechanical description of nature at the atomic level. Physics teachers should help their students to see that many of these mysterious features are direct results of interpretive principles added to the basic theory of quantum mechanics, and that therefore they may or may not reflect the best possible understanding we can achieve of how nature works at that level. This paper discusses three such principles and their connection to well-known quantum mysteries. The practical significance of distinguishing between quantum mechanics itself and these principles is that it remains possible that other explanatory ideas may be found which lead to less mysterious consequences.

Dotson, Allen C.

1998-11-01

120

Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

2002-01-01

121

The Love of an Unknown Soldier: A Story of Mystery, Myth and Masculinity in World War I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is focused on an anonymous book published in 1918 which purports to be the diary of a dead junior army officer from the Western Front in World War I. The article solves the mystery of the authorship of this book and in doing so discusses questions of masculinity at this time and its connections with contemporary ideologies of

Sue Bruley

2005-01-01

122

Problem Solving with Patents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-03-01

123

The effects of mystery on preference for residential façades  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature on landscape appraisal, mystery is defined as the promise of new information if one could travel deeper into the environment [(1989). Journal of Environmental Psychology, 9, 24–43]. Mystery is also a powerful predictor of perceived preference for the landscape. The present study examined how the effects of mystery enhance preference for housing façades as versus landscapes. In

Masatake Ikemi

2005-01-01

124

Why and how to mystery shop your reference desk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to document how two university libraries determined whether mystery shopping is an effective and statistically feasible instrument for evaluating customer service at public service desks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Mystery shopping exercises were conducted at both libraries during the 2008 spring and fall semesters. Trained mystery shoppers recorded staff behaviors and the answers given

Elizabeth Kocevar-Weidinger; Candice Benjes-Small; Eric Ackermann; Virginia R. Kinman

2010-01-01

125

MAD Scientist Network: Ask  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MAD Scientist Network is a collection of scientists from all over the country available to answer any of your science questions. Search the archive of over 25,000 questions, explore the MadSci Library for resources, demos and science fair project ideas, or read the FAQ that answers common questions, like why is the sky blue? Scientists will not answer homework questions, medical questions, or science fair project questions.

126

Just Like Real Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about the scientists' work with chimpanzees in Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa, students conducted an animal behavior inquiry of their own--with their pets! In doing so, students modeled real scientists as they practiced keeping records while learning how to make and read graphs. Their "Great Moments in Record Keeping" are shared here.

2009-01-01

127

THE FEASIBILITY OF IDENTIFYING MYSTERY OIL SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals ...

128

Exploring the mystery of service satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Extract] Customer satisfaction surveys and other feedback systems provide data and information on a range of service elements, however, they are limited in the insights they can provide into the total service experience, in particular the influence of staff attitudes, attributes and behaviours on overall satisfaction. Feedback from surveys does of course offer clues to guide further investigation. Mystery shopping

Felicity McGregor

2005-01-01

129

Who Dunnit? Language Activities for Mystery Movies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of English-language mystery movies is recommended to teach English-as-a-Second-Language listening and speech skills outside an English-language environment. A variety of issues are discussed, including the following: presenting the film in segments for more effectiveness; presenting students with activities that develop specific aspects of the…

Katchen, Johanna E.

130

Unraveling the Mystery of an Environmental Disease  

SciTech Connect

For many years, residents of farming villages along the Danube River basin suffered from a fatal kidney disease and an associated urinary tract cancer. The cause of the disease remained a mystery for more than 50 years. Recently, however, Arthur Grollman and his colleagues have determined that home-baked bread is implicated in the disease, known as Balkan endemic nephropathy.

Arthur Grollman

2008-05-15

131

Ten mysteries of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus: Ten mysteries of the Solar System: (1) Is there life on Titan? (2) How many asteroids are there? (3) What is the great wall of Iapetus? (4) How did Saturn's rings form? (5) Is there a tenth planet? (6) Are there giant volcanoes on Mercury? (7) Is Pluto a planet? (8) Why is Uranus so cold? (9) What triggers

David Hawksett; Alan Longstaff; Keith Cooper; Stuart Clark

2005-01-01

132

Chronic Kidney Disease Mystery in Central America  

MedlinePLUS

NLM Director’s Comments Transcript Chronic Kidney Disease Mystery in Central America: 06/02/2014 To use the sharing features on this ... information is available in 43 other languages. Your comments about this or any of our podcasts are ...

133

Putting a Little Mystery in Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posing mysteries is not just a gimmicky way to increase the entertainment value of a lesson; it taps into students' innate human desire to explore and learn about their environments. Instead of coming right out and providing students with the answers, teachers can build suspense, piquing students' natural curiosity. Teachers can guide students,…

Goodwin, Bryan; Ristvey, John

2011-01-01

134

Scientists Shaping the Discussion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

2011-12-01

135

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

136

Scientists as Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishes an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines, and contrasts this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. Assesses scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions of…

Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

2002-01-01

137

Collaborating with WISE Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through an interactive partnership, fifth-grade students collected data on plants and joined an active scientific community of working scientists. This Web-based Integrated Science Environment (WISE) project involved asking questions about plants, growing plants in the classroom, and discussing their data with scientists online. (Contains 5…

Williams, Michelle; Linn, Marcia C.

2003-01-01

138

Stories of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

Mascazine, John R.

2001-01-01

139

Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

1999-01-01

140

Method of precise earthquake prediction and prevention of mysterious air and sea accidents  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The disclosed earthquake vapor theory, statistically significant in practice, overcomes two difficulties: the dependency on cold weather to pinpoint an earthquake epicenter and the time window not being short enough for evacuation. Finding a vapor nozzle based on boiling temperature can solve the former. Isolating the nozzle to find the next peak of daily maximum after vapor eruption can solve the latter by narrowing the time window to 1-2 days. The embodiments may also be utilized to prevent mysterious air and sea accidents.

2011-11-29

141

Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass  

ScienceCinema

With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

Lincoln, Don

2014-06-03

142

Solving Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activities on this site will help you practice solving one, two, and multi-step equations. 1. Solving an equation is like keeping a scale balanced. If you do something to one side, you must do it to the other side. Practice building and then solving "balanced" equations. Try at least 3 problems before moving on to the next activity. Balance Scale 2. Practice ...

Hbinggeli

2010-10-08

143

Scientists and Information: II. Personal Factors in Information Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This continuation of a study that explored the information behavior of scientists focuses on a joint analysis of the Kirton Adaptation-Innovation Inventory (KAI) and the Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ), which were used to investigate the cognitive styles, problem-solving styles, creative styles, and learning styles of the scientists. (59…

Palmer, Judith

1991-01-01

144

Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists

Lindow, Megan

2008-01-01

145

Scientists 'Examine' Tofik Dadashev.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The First International Conference on Psychotronics, held in 1973 in Prague is reported. Four hundred scientists from fifteen countries took part in the conference. Invited to the conference were two USSR countrymen, artist Tofik Dadashev and journalist V...

V. Sergeev

1974-01-01

146

Scientist as Problem Solver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our exploration of the histories of scientific discoveries have made it eminently clear to us that scientists set themselves many different kinds of tasks. These include tasks of formulating significant scientific problems, of discovering interesting phen...

H. A. Simon

1989-01-01

147

COSEE Southeast: Scientist's Niche  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists can get help engaging in K-16 education efforts from this resource. It provides information and publications on how researchers can get involved in education, and contains a link to the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories (SAML).

148

Talk Like a Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in wh

Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

2010-04-01

149

Scientist in Residence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a secondary school visitation program by scientists in Australia. The program was designed to increase students' motivation related to science, especially physics. Discusses the effects of the program. (YP)

Thiel, David V.

1990-01-01

150

Scientists Discover Smallest Frog  

NSF Publications Database

... br/>Press Release 96-086Scientists Discover Smallest Frog December 18, 1996 This material is ... the smallest in the Northern Hemisphere, and is tied for the world record with the smallest frog in ...

151

Ask a Climate Scientist  

NASA Video Gallery

Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

152

Scientists as writers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre, strategies, target audiences, and expectations for their writing.

Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

2002-09-01

153

The yeast Golgi apparatus: insights and mysteries  

PubMed Central

The Golgi apparatus is known to modify and sort newly synthesized secretory proteins. However, fundamental mysteries remain about the structure, operation, and dynamics of this organelle. Important insights have emerged from studying the Golgi in yeasts. For example, yeasts have provided direct evidence for Golgi cisternal maturation, a mechanism that is likely to be broadly conserved. Here, we highlight features of the yeast Golgi as well as challenges that lie ahead.

Papanikou, Effrosyni; Glick, Benjamin S.

2009-01-01

154

Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story  

ScienceCinema

The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

Lawrence Krauss

2010-09-01

155

Chances Are: It's a Mystery to Me  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners extend their understanding of basic probability concepts as they learn to name all of the possible outcomes of an event as well as ways to express the likelihood of such an event occurring. Learners use large number cubes and oversized playing cards as they explore ways to express probability. Learners are then actively engaged in a probability experiment where they must collect, organize, display, and interpret data concerning thirty spins on a "mystery spinner."

Pbs

2012-01-01

156

Scientists Discover Sugar in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop

2000-06-01

157

The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future  

SciTech Connect

The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

158

Solving Quartics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented, which is different from the well-known Ferrari's method, to solve a general quartic equation. Formulae for the four roots of quartic are derived. A numerical example verifies the formulae obtained.

Kulkarni, R. G.

2007-01-01

159

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to a systematic procedure for solving problems through a demonstration and then the application of the method to an everyday activity. The unit project is introduced to provide relevance to subsequent lessons.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

160

Reconciling Scientists and Journalists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The very nature of scientists' and journalists' jobs can put them at cross-purposes. Scientists work for years on one research project, slowly accumulating data, and are hesitant to draw sweeping conclusions without multiple rounds of hypothesis-testing. Journalists, meanwhile, are often looking for "news"—a discovery that was just made ("scientists have just discovered that...") or that defies conventional wisdom and is therefore about to turn society's thinking on its head. The very criteria that the mediamakers often use to determine newsworthiness can automatically preclude some scientific progress from making the news. There are other built-in problems in the relationship between journalists and scientists, some of which we can try to change and others of which we can learn to work around. Drawing on my personal experience as a journalist who has written for a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and web sites, this talk will illustrate some of the inherent difficulties and offer some suggestions for how to move beyond them. It will provide a background on the way news decisions are made and how the journalist does her job, with an eye toward finding common ground and demonstrating how scientists can enjoy better relationships with journalists—relationships that can help educate the public on important scientific topics and avoid misrepresentation of scientific knowledge in the media.

Rosner, H.

2006-12-01

161

Goddard Visiting Scientist Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

2000-01-01

162

Associate Scientist Andres Berrio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from WGBH, looks at Andres Berrio and his current job as an associate scientist. This video examines what someone can do with experience and education in laboratory science, what skills are needed to succeed in this field, and what employees can do to shine to employers. This video is helpful for anyone interested in biotechnology or working as a laboratory associate scientist or assistant. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 2:53.

2010-10-11

163

Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries  

ScienceCinema

Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve

2014-05-30

164

Chipping Away at a Mysterious Iceball  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pluto, or "Planet X" as it was once known, remains a mystery to astronomers even on the 75th anniversary its discovery. It is a member of a whole class of planet-like objects orbiting billions of miles beyond Neptune called "icy dwarfs" in a region of the solar system called the Kuiper Belt. A spacecraft launched on January 19, 2006 called New Horizons is scheduled to reach Pluto by about 2015 to further unlock some of the secrets of this distant cold planet, Charon, and other objects that lie beyond the orbit of Neptune.

Johnson, Rebecca

2005-03-01

165

Goddard Visiting Scientist Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at th...

2000-01-01

166

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

2008-01-01

167

Naked Scientists Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Naked Scientists are "a media-savvy group of physicians and researchers from Cambridge University who use radio, live lectures, and the Internet to strip science down to its bare essentials, and promote it to the general public." They have a weekly radio program on BBC radio and this is available via a weekly podcast as well. Visitors to this site can learn more about the Naked Scientists as well as subscribe to their podcasts which include: Naked Scientists Podcast (and an enhanced version with images), Ask the Naked Scientists, and Question of the week. Subscriptions are available via iTunes, Yahoo, or Google or they can be downloaded as MP3 or MP4 from the site. Recent topics have included: Flu and Viruses; Combating Climate Change; and Memory and Learning. Anybody with a desire to learn about science in an accessible and entertaining way will find these podcasts useful. These podcasts could also be used in a classroom or for homework - as a way to integrate technology and fundamentals.

2008-02-14

168

Nurturing the Child Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

2011-01-01

169

ORIGINS OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REPORTED ARE FACTORS WHICH HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVE AT THE UNDERGRADUATE LEVEL IN INFLUENCING MEN TO ENTER CAREERS IN SCIENCE. THE RESEARCH IS ESSENTIALLY DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS. PART 1 ASSESSES STATISTICALLY THE SCIENTIST PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF 490 UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES BY DETERMINING WHAT PROPORTION OF THEIR GRADUATES ENTERED CAREERS IN…

KNAPP, R.H.; GOODRICH, H.B.

170

Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

Porter, Diana

2009-01-01

171

Women Scientists. American Profiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

Veglahn, Nancy, J.

172

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

2011-01-01

173

Scientists in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High school science is often the first time students are presented with the scientific method as a tool to assist discovery. I aim to help students ‘think like a scientist’, through my role as a graduate student NSF GK-12 fellow in the Ocean and Coastal Interdisciplinary Science (OACIS) program, where I am paired with a high school science teacher and their classes for the year. To help students gain a familiarity and understanding of how scientists approach research, I will (1) utilize technology, including youtube, powerpoint, and research modeling applications; (2) bring in experts from the University to demonstrate the diversity of the science community; (3) connect with the classroom research from meetings, journals and reports. The goal is to broaden the scope of how research science is conducted, but also to allow individual students to be involved in projects, from developing a hypothesis to presenting their data. A survey at the beginning of the academic year and a survey before the AGU Fall meeting will be compared to assess the influence of having a research scientist present. Results will include how students view of science and scientists has changed, feedback on how successfully technology has improved students’ comprehension, and ideas for making science approachable for diverse high school learners.

Lundin, J.

2009-12-01

174

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

175

Teaming Up with Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

2001-01-01

176

Scientists and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

When disasters, even natural ones, have a chemical or nuclear dimension, scientists play a major role in their management. Presents the results of research on Canadian disasters, and includes other cases of disasters that occurred around the world. Discusses the experts? role in decisions related to the response: how to identify a specific product, its impact on health, for example,

Hélène Denis

1995-01-01

177

Scientists as Correspondents: Exploratorium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the 2007-2009 International Polar Year (IPY), an educational outreach developed by the Exploratorium science museum of San Francisco builds on prior high latitude programs to: 1) create public awareness of IPY research; 2) increase public understanding of the scientific process; and, 3) stimulate a new relationship between scientists and outreach. Funded by the National Science Foundation, a

P. A. McGillivary; K. R. Fall; M. Miller; R. Higdon; M. Andrews; K. O'Donnell

2008-01-01

178

Reading as Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

Shanahan, Marie-Claire

2010-01-01

179

The Mystery in Science: A Neglected Tool for Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the many valuable tools available to science education, the mystery in science is the one that is most ignored, underused, or misunderstood. whenever it is used, it is only as mere entertainment or as an attention grabber. In this article, the author discusses how the mystery in science can improve student attitudes, generate a life-long…

Papacosta, Pangratios

2008-01-01

180

Demo for digital mysteries: designing for learning at the tabletop  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Digital Mysteries, a collaborative learning application for school children designed for tabletops. It is based on the mysteries paper-based learning technique. Our work is distinctive in that the design process, the design choices, and the implementation framework are all grounded in theories of both collaborative interaction and learning. Our hypothesis was that, if well utilized, the digital tabletop's

Ahmed Kharrufa; Patrick Olivier; David Leat

2010-01-01

181

Digital mysteries: designing for learning at the tabletop  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the iterative design, implementation, and validation of a collaborative learning application for school children designed for a digital tabletop. Digital mysteries, is based on the mysteries paper-based learning technique. Our work is distinctive in that the design process, the design choices, and the implementation framework are all grounded in theories of both collaborative interaction and learning. Our hypothesis

Ahmed Kharrufa; David Leat; Patrick Olivier

2010-01-01

182

Mystery Shopping: In-depth measurement of customer satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss the phenomenon Mystery Shopping in the field of customer satisfaction measurement techniques. By using the literature about Mystery Shopping definitions and restrictions of this instrument will be presented. Also, possible ways to present and use the gathered data will be shown. After the literature part of the paper some practical research will be presented. A Dutch

Martijn Hesselink; Ton van der Wiele

2003-01-01

183

Magical Mysteries. Texas Reading Club, 1984. A Librarian's Planning Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to encourage library use by Texas youth, the Texas Reading Club programs usually include a structured reading program and a variety of entertaining literature-related storyhours, puppet shows, films, and other attractive happenings. This handbook for the 1984 theme--"magical mysteries"--focuses on mysteries, magic, and adventure stories,…

Oliver, Jim

184

Solving the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the optimal allocation of the marketing budget within the marketing-mix decision variables so that sales (or profit) is maximized in a planning horizon. Since the influence of marketing mix variables upon sales are, in reality, nonlinear and interactive, a geometric programming algorithm is used that solves this problem. A procedure to estimate a functional of sales on

V. Balachandran; Dennis H. Gensch

1974-01-01

185

Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

Saia, S. M.

2013-12-01

186

Researchers Resolve Intermediate Mass Black Hole Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New research, funded by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Advanced Physical and Chemical Research, NASA and the University of Tokyo, solved the mystery of how a black hole, with the mass more than several hundreds times larger than that of our Sun, could be formed in the nearby starburst galaxy, M82. Recent observations of the Chandra X-ray observatory (Matsumoto et al., 2001 ApJ 547, L25) indicate the presence of an unusually bright source in the star cluster MGG11 in the starburst galaxy M82. The properties of the X-ray source are best explained by a black hole with a mass of about a thousand times the mass of the Sun, placing it intermediate between the relatively small (stellar mass) black holes in the Milky way Galaxy and the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of galaxies. For comparison, stellar-mass black holes are only a few times more massive than the Sun, whereas the black hole in the center of the Milky-way Galaxy is more than a few million times more massive than the Sun. An international team of researchers, using the world's fastest computer, the GRAPE-6 system in Japan, were engaged in a series of simulations of star clusters that resembled MGG11. They used the GRAPE-6 to perform simulations with two independently developed computer programs (Starlab and NBODY4 developed by Sverre Aarseth in Cambridge), both of which give the same qualitative result. The simulations ware initiated by high resolution observations of the star cluster MGG11 by McCrady et al (2003, ApJ 596, 240) using the Hubble Space Telescope and Keck, and by Harashima et al (2001) using the giant Subaru telescope. M82 Chandra X-ray image of the central region of the starburst galaxy M82. The GRAPE's detailed, star-by-star simulations represent the state of the art in cluster modeling. For the first time using the GRAPE, researchers perform simulations of the evolution of young and dense star clusters with up to 600000 stars; they calculate the orbital trajectory and the evolution of each star individually. Using this unique tool, the team found they could reproduce the observed characteristics of the star cluster MGG11. As a bonus, however, the star cluster produces a black hole with a mass between 800 and 3000 times the mass of the Sun. The black hole is produced within 4 million years which is in an early phase in the evolution of the star cluster. During this phase the stellar density in the center becomes so high that physical collisions between the stars become frequent. If the stellar densities exceed a million times the density in the neighborhood of the Sun, collision start to dominate the further evolution of the star cluster. In this over-dense cluster center, stars experience repeated collisions with each other, resulting in a collision runaway in which a single stars grows to enormous mass. After the central fuel of this star is exhausted, it collapses to a black hole of about 1000 times the mass of the Sun. New results of these detailed computer simulations, published in Nature show that the star cluster in which the X-ray source resides has characteristics such that a black hole of 800-3000 times the mass of the Sun can form within a very short time. The calculations therewith provide compelling evidence for the process which produces intermediate mass black holes and at the same time provide an explanation for the bright X-ray source observed in the cluster. The GRAPE team's members are Simon Portegies Zwart, from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands; Holger Baumgardt, from RIKEN in Tokyo; Piet Hut, of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J.; Jun Makino from Tokyo University; Steve McMillan, from Drexel University in Philadelphia. The GRAPE group's results appear in the April 15, 2004, issue of Nature. Relevant internet addresses: http://carol.wins.uva.nl/~spz/act/press/Nature2004/index.html http://www.astrogrape.org http://www.manybody.org http://www.manybody.org/manybody/starlab.html

2004-04-01

187

222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

Lively, R. S.; Krafthefer, B. C.

1995-01-01

188

Unraveling the mystery of the "Maoshan Bugle"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mystery of the "Maoshan Bugle," first classified in 1997, involves the surprising production of clearly audible bugle-like sounds in response to a launched firecracker blast in the square in front of the Southern Jiangsu Victory Monument in Jiangsu, China. In this paper, we analyze the origin of these sounds, attributing them to interference due to six groups of stairs leading to a monument in the square. Our analysis indicates that the stairs act as a reflection grating for the sounds produced by a firecracker blast. Based on Kirchhoff's diffraction formula, we calculate the spectra and the fundamental frequencies of the bugle-like echoes using the parameters of the actual structures. The calculated spectra fits well with the experimental results derived from the audio samples recorded on site.

Chen, Xu; Qin, Ming; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun

2014-02-01

189

The peroxisome: still a mysterious organelle  

PubMed Central

More than half a century of research on peroxisomes has revealed unique features of this ubiquitous subcellular organelle, which have often been in disagreement with existing dogmas in cell biology. About 50 peroxisomal enzymes have so far been identified, which contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as ?-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of ether phospholipids and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and render peroxisomes indispensable for human health and development. It became obvious that peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that rapidly assemble, multiply and degrade in response to metabolic needs. However, many aspects of peroxisome biology are still mysterious. This review addresses recent exciting discoveries on the biogenesis, formation and degradation of peroxisomes, on peroxisomal dynamics and division, as well as on the interaction and cross talk of peroxisomes with other subcellular compartments. Furthermore, recent advances on the role of peroxisomes in medicine and in the identification of novel peroxisomal proteins are discussed.

Fahimi, H. Dariush

2008-01-01

190

Talking Science, Modeling Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you want your students to share their investigation findings in a meaningful way? Or to communicate like real scientists do--beyond conducting investigations in the classroom? Fourth-grade students in the Upstate of South Carolina are doing just that as they log onto the Experimental Reflection Portal, or XRePort an online system that pairs students and teachers from different schools and allows them to "talk" about their common science investigations. In this way, students communicate their science knowledge and experience firsthand the benefits of the collaborative nature of science.

Baldwin, Anna O.; Peters, Chris; Edmondson, Elizabeth; Leonard, William H.

2006-07-01

191

The Dismal Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dismal Scientist, provided by Dismal Sciences, is a web site aimed at college students interested in the US economy. The site provides a "quick summary of major economic releases, along with an economist's perspective on its implications" and a summary table of the main indicators. It also contains regional data for all 50 states, Washington D.C., and 257 metro areas which can be ranked by different criteria. Other features include historical and forecast information for various geographical level variables and an economic data series dictionary.

1997-01-01

192

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. Charlotte's Web is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's book defines vocabulary words and incorporates scientific facts concerning arachnids. However, some of the spider information in the book is not accurate. Therefore, Charlotte's Web can also be used to teach students to become better informed readers.

Getz, Angela; Patrick, Patricia

2008-11-01

193

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

194

Eisenhower, Scientists, and Sputnik  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 4, 1957, the Russians launched a 184-pound satellite into Earth orbit. This event had a tremendous impact on Americans as it called into question the capability of U. S. science v*s-a-v*s that of the Russians. On October 15, President Dwight D. Eisenhower called "his scientists" to the Oval Office and a meeting took place that Hans Bethe has called an "unforgettable hour." At this meeting, I. I. Rabi, Chairman of the Science Advisory Committee, made several proposals to President Eisenhower that the President accepted immediately. We are still living with the legacy of the proposals that Eisenhower adopted that day.

Rigden, John S.

2006-12-01

195

The Scientist - Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientist magazine is written for life science professionals, but promises it to be "concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining." The magazine's online version has a great Multimedia section on its website that has "Videos," "Slideshows," and "Infographics." Visitors shouldn't miss the story titled "Bat Hunt" from the January 2012 issue, which profiles a mammologist working in the South Sudan. The photographs in included this story are excellent, and visitors will be amazed by the photo of the wide-eyed fruit bat cradling its baby. Back on the homepage, the Infographics section contains stories accompanied by colorful, easy-to-follow diagrams, and it is also well worth a look.

2012-01-20

196

The Effect of Mystery Shopper Reports on Age Verification for Tobacco Purchases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mystery shops involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been implemented in order to monitor retail stores' performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that mystery shop visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the effect of monthly and twice-monthly mystery shop reports on age verification. Mystery shoppers visited 45 Walgreens

Brad S. Krevor; William R. Ponicki; Joel W. Grube; William DeJong

2011-01-01

197

Helping early career research scientists ascend the professional ladder.  

PubMed

The Keystone Symposia Early Career Investigator Travel Award initiative is a unique successful research mentoring program tailored for 'end of the pipeline' life and biomedical scientists from academia and industry. Using targeted educational, mentoring, and networking activities, the program benefits early career scientists in solving a specific laboratory-based research question that is limiting their evolving research and could increase their ability to obtain new grants and improve their career progression. PMID:23889774

King, Laina

2013-08-01

198

Social Scientists still Poor Cousins  

Microsoft Academic Search

``It is viewed now as `natural' that the head of NSF be a natural scientist ; that the Office of Science and Technology in the White House will be dominated by natural scientists; that the scientific academies will include only a few social scientists, and so on. But now, as our prime business shifts, physics and chemistry must learn to

1971-01-01

199

Science Sampler: Hire a scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hire a scientist is an activity that asks students to review the qualifications of a scientist who has applied for a job at a research facility. During this review, students learn about the scientist's job skills, education, and work experience by conducting their own research on the Internet and at the library, through interviews conducted by email, and during conversations with visiting scientists. Once the research is completed, the student assumes the role of the scientist to complete a job application and answer some interview questions. This role-playing activity helps bring science to life.

Mesmer, Karen

2003-03-01

200

Mystery Material: Is it a solid or a liquid?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an investigation of a "mystery material" where students have to determine whether the substance is a solid or a liquid. This activity can be done as part of an earth science or chemistry lesson.

201

Life in Death Valley: The Mystery of the Racing Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PBS site provides information of the mysterious sliding rocks in Death Valley, reviews competing hypotheses, and features the work of a geologist using GPS in her investigation. The site includes a photo of a rock and its track.

2010-06-29

202

Ask a Scientist!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet offers many opportunities to find quality answers to a host of important questions, ranging from the fields of the humanities to those in the hard sciences. One important resource that offers answers to a number of thorny questions is the Ask a Scientist! website created and maintained by the Centers for Materials Research at Cornell University. The site had its debut on September 17, 1998, when Professor Neil Ashcroft answered the timely question, "What is Jupiter made of?". Visitors to the site can browse or search for previously answered questions, and of course, they are also welcome to submit their own questions for consideration. Visitors will definitely want to view the "Frequently Viewed Questions", which feature responses to such favorites queries as "How can you tell if a diamond is real or fake?" or "How is glass made?"

2005-11-03

203

Campus spies? Using mystery students to evaluate university performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis paper explores the appropriateness of using mystery customer programmes in higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK.PurposeThe main aim of the paper is to examine potential advantages and disadvantages of mystery customer programmes within HEIs, and to identify any issues that would need to be successfully resolved were they to be integrated into current quality assurance methods.Sources of evidenceThe

Alex Douglas; Jacqueline Douglas

2006-01-01

204

Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema

In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

205

Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

SciTech Connect

In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

2012-04-23

206

Problem Solving and Game-Based Learning: Effects of Middle Grade Students' Hypothesis Testing Strategies on Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Targeted as a highly desired skill for contemporary work and life, problem solving is central to game-based learning research. In this study, middle grade students achieved significant learning gains from gameplay interactions that required solving a science mystery based on microbiology content. Student trace data results indicated that effective…

Spires, Hiller A.; Rowe, Jonathan P.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

2011-01-01

207

The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined

Banmali Banerjee

2010-01-01

208

Unraveling the Mysterious Origin of GRB 070125  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a modest {2 WFC3 orbits} HST program to ascertain the origin of the mysterious gamma-ray burst GRB 070125. With a duration of 60 s and a high local {i.e. parsec scale} circum-burst density, GRB 070125 resembles a canonical {i.e. massive-star progenitor} long-duration event. However, we have strong evidence that GRB 070125 exploded in the halo of its host galaxy, far away from the bulk of massive star formation. The UV detection of a compact, star-forming cluster would confirm our original hypothesis that GRB 070125 exploded in a tidal tail formed by galaxy interactions {analogous to the Tadpole and Antenna galaxies} at z = 1.54. Alternatively, the absence of ongoing star formation and the presence of an old stellar population would require a novel explosion process unassociated with massive stars. While the former would open a new path to study star formation and galaxy interactions at high redshift, the latter would require a re-thinking of one of the fundamental tenets of GRB astronomy: the 1:1 mapping between duration and progenitor system.;

Cenko, Stephen

2008-07-01

209

Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

2004-01-01

210

Mystery shopping in health service evaluation.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Over the last 5 years, primary care telephone triage systems have been introduced in the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and most recently in New Zealand. Evaluation of the clinical safety of such systems poses a challenge for health planners and researchers. AIM: To evaluate the use of simulated patients in the assessment of aspects of clinical safety in a pilot New Zealand primary care telephone triage service. DESIGN OF STUDY: 'Mystery shopping', an evaluation strategy commonly used in market research, was adapted by using simulated patients for telephone triage service evaluation. SETTING: New Zealand. METHODS: Four scripted clinical scenarios were developed by academic general practitioners, validated in student teaching situations, and then used by simulated patients to make 101 telephone calls. The scenarios were designed to necessitate a referral to a medical practitioner for further investigation. The documentation kept by the callers was compared with the call records from the telephone triage company, and both were analysed for capture and handling of the clinical safety features of each scenario. In cases where the endpoint was not a medical assessment, possible reasons for this were explored. RESULTS: Records were retrieved for 85 telephone calls. Considerable triage variability was discovered. There were discrepancies between expected and actual triage outcomes with 51% of analysed calls resulting in a self-care recommendation. A number of reasons were identified both for the triage variability and the unpredicted outcomes. Audiotaping of consultations would have enhanced the credibility of the evaluation but it would have carried ethical constraints. CONCLUSION: Simulated patients can be used to evaluate the limitations of health services and to identify areas that could be addressed to improve patient safety. Evaluation of patient satisfaction with services is not sufficient alone to evaluate safety.

Moriarty, Helen; McLeod, Deborah; Dowell, Anthony

2003-01-01

211

Environmental Problems and the Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that any environmental problem can be traced at biosphere, technosphere, sociosphere, and noosphere level. Scientists have generally ignored the latter two spheres in making scientific discoveries. New social ethics need to be recognized that are based on progress, and scientists must consider how these ethics are influenced by their…

Batisse, Michel

1973-01-01

212

Frontier Scientists use Modern Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

O'connell, E. A.

2013-12-01

213

Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

2004-06-01

214

MALDI and Related Methods: A Solved Problem or Still a Mystery?  

PubMed Central

MALDI ionization mechanisms remain a topic of controversy. Some of the major modern models are compared, with emphasis on those of the author. Primary formation, secondary reaction, and loss mechanisms are considered.

Knochenmuss, Richard

2013-01-01

215

Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893 Torare River "chloromelanite" is an extremely close match texturally and mineralogically with the jadeitite jade gouge, including Nb-rich titanite—thus a match, but that (2) the axes are omphacitites that have a geologically similar origin (high pressure/low-temperature subduction channel) but do not share the jadeite+aegerine-rich pyroxene or Nb-Y rich accessory phases. This research clearly shows that natural history collections are important archives that contain samples of potentially important value for science and cultural research. Moreover, research like this that connects geology, archaeology, history and preserved collections can yield a story that makes science and collections tangible and interesting to a popular audience. References: Harlow et al. 2012, Eur. J. Mineral. 24, 391-399.

Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.

2012-12-01

216

Stereocontrol in Dinuclear Triple Lithium-Bridged Titanium(IV) Complexes: Solving Some Stereochemical Mysteries.  

PubMed

Compounds 1?a-f-H2 form "monomeric" triscatecholate titanium(IV) complexes [Ti(1?a-f)3 ](2-) , which in the presence of Li cations are in equilibrium with the triple lithium-bridged "dimers" [Li3 (Ti(1?a-f)3 )2 ](-) . The equilibrium strongly depends on the donor ability of the solvent. Usually, in solvents with high donor ability, the stereochemically labile monomer is preferred, whereas in nondonor solvents, the dimer is the major species. In the latter, the stereochemistry at the complex units is "locked". The configuration at the titanium(IV) triscatecholates is influenced by addition of chiral ammonium countercations. In this case, the induced stereochemical information at the monomer is transferred to the dimer. Alternatively, the configuration at the metal complexes can be controlled by enantiomerically pure ester side chains. Due to the different orientation of the ester groups in the monomer or dimer, opposite configurations of the triscatecholates were observed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy for [Ti(1?c-e)3 ](2-) or [Li3 (Ti(1?c-e)3 )2 ](-) . A surprising exception was found for the dimer [Li3 (Ti(1?f)3 )2 ](-) . Herein, the dimer is the dominating species in weak donor (methanol), as well as strong donor (DMSO), solvents. This is due to the bulkiness of the ester substituent destabilizing the monomer. Due to the size of the substituent in [Li3 (Ti(1?f)3 )2 ](-) the esters have to adopt an unusual conformation in the dimer resulting in a stereocontrol of the small methyl group. Following this, opposite stereocontrol mechanisms were observed for the central metal-complex units of [Li3 (Ti(1?c-e)3 )2 ](-) or [Li3 (Ti(1?f)3 )2 ](-) . PMID:24782405

Albrecht, Markus; Isaak, Elisabeth; Moha, Verena; Raabe, Gerhard; Fröhlich, Roland

2014-05-26

217

How Old is "Cinder Cone" - Solving a Mystery in Lassen Volcanic Park, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the controversy surrounding the age of Cinder Cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park. This report follows the beginning of the controversy in the 1870s through recent discoveries about when the volcano was formed. Early geologic studies are covered, as well as the recent findings through paleomagnetism, field and laboratory work and by reinterpreting data from previous studies.

Clynne, Michael; Champion, Duane; Trimble, Deborah; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

218

MicroRNAs may solve the mystery of chronic hepatitis B virus infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem that causes persistent liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. A large amount of people die annually from HBV infection. However, the pathogenesises of the HBV-related diseases are ill defined and the therapeutic strategies for the diseases are less than optimum. The recently discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression primarily at the post-transcriptional level by binding to mRNAs. miRNAs contribute to a variety of physiological and pathological processes. A number of miRNAs have been found to play a pivotal role in the host-virus interaction including host-HBV interaction. Numerous studies have indicated that HBV infection could change the cellular miRNA expression patterns and different stages of HBV associated disease have displayed distinctive miRNA profiles. Furthermore, the differential expressed miRNAs have been found involved in the progression of HBV-related diseases, for instance some miRNAs are involved in liver tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis. Studies have also shown that the circulating miRNA in serum or plasma might be a very useful biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of HBV-related diseases. In addition, miRNA-based therapy strategies have attracted increasing attention, indicating a promising future in the treatment of HBV-related diseases.

Wei, Ying-Feng; Cui, Guang-Ying; Ye, Ping; Chen, Jia-Ning; Diao, Hong-Yan

2013-01-01

219

Solving the mystery of human sleep schedules one mutation at a time  

PubMed Central

Sleep behavior remains one of the most enigmatic areas of life. The unanswered questions range from “why do we sleep?” to “how we can improve sleep in today's society?” Identification of mutations responsible for altered circadian regulation of human sleep lead to unique opportunities for probing these territories. In this review, we summarize causative circadian mutations found from familial genetic studies to date. We also describe how these mutations mechanistically affect circadian function and lead to altered sleep behaviors, including shifted or shortening of sleep patterns. In addition, we discuss how the investigation of mutations can not only expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the circadian clock and sleep duration, but also bridge the pathways between clock/sleep and other human physiological conditions and ailments such as metabolic regulation and migraine headaches.

Hallows, William C.; Ptacek, Louis J.; Fu, Ying-Hui

2014-01-01

220

Man's Best Friend? Using Animal Bones to Solve an Archaeological Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students learn how archaeology operates as an historical science by collecting and analyzing material evidence to make claims about the past. Assuming the role of zooarchaeologists, they evaluate a hypothetical case in which “Dr. Jasper Eraillure” shocks the world by claiming a canid skull he has found at a Neanderthal site is actually that of a domestic dog. Students analyze modern skulls from wild and domestic canids, and develop a set of criteria for determining whether the “unknown” canid skull belonged to a domestic dog. They further explore the reasons behind the divergence between wild and domestic dog populations and evaluate the potential impact of Dr. Eraillure’s assertions on our understanding of the past. The case was designed for an introductory course in archaeology, but could be adpated for use in an introductory biology course.

Scharf, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

221

Protoplanetary dust porosity and FU Orionis outbursts: Solving the mystery of Earth’s missing volatiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is known to be depleted in volatile lithophile elements in a fashion that defies easy explanation. We resolve this anomaly with a model that combines the porosity of collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks with heating from FU Orionis events that dramatically raise protoplanetary disk temperatures. The heating from an FU Orionis event alters the aerodynamical properties of the dust while evaporating the volatiles. This causes the dust to settle, abandoning those volatiles. The success of this model in explaining the elemental composition of the Earth is a strong argument in favor of highly porous collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks outside our Solar System. Further, it demonstrates how thermal (or condensation based) alterations of dust porosity, and hence aerodynamics, can be a strong factor in planet formation, leading to the onset of rapid gravitational instabilities in the dust disk and the subsequent collapse that forms planetesimals.

Hubbard, Alexander; Ebel, Denton S.

2014-07-01

222

Solving the Mystery of the Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fingerprints for identification purposes is one of the most widespread and best-understood tools of forensic science. Fingerprinting is such a common occurrence in detective novels, cinema, and television that we all know it is best to wear gloves when committing a crime. However, the fingerprints of the perpetrator are often not the only ones of importance in the collection of evidence. The fingerprints of the victim can be extremely important as well, and obtaining them when the victim is a child can be a tricky and frustrating endeavor.

Kimbrough, Doris R.; Delorenzo, Ronald

1998-10-01

223

Solving the Mysteries of Potential Eclipsing Binaries NSV 860 and V795 Cas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSV 860 was classified as an eclipsing binary in 1936 by Zinner but has been neglected since. V795 Cas has also been classified as an eclipsing binary system in the SIMBAD database, however no definitive studies have been done on either one in order to confirm this, so they both seemed objects worthy of further study. Consequently, we have obtained 18 spectra of NSV 860 and 14 spectra of V795 Cas in order to determine the true nature of these systems. Using IRAF software we removed the systematic artifacts and cosmic rays from the data and then proceeded to wavelength-calibrate the spectra. From here we analyzed the spectra in order to accurately and scientifically classify the star systems. We gratefully acknowledge NSF/RUI grant AST-05-07542 and the VURF grant given by Villanova University.

Rosche, Emily; Prsa, A.; Robertson, J.; Kirk, B.

2011-01-01

224

Oxyluciferin photoacidity: the missing element for solving the keto-enol mystery?  

PubMed

The oxyluciferin family of fluorophores has been receiving much attention from the research community and several systematic studies have been performed in order to gain more insight regarding their photophysical properties and photoprotolytic cycles. In this minireview, we summarize the knowledge obtained so far and define several possible lines for future research. More importantly, we analyze the impact of the discoveries on the firefly bioluminescence phenomenon made so far and explain how they re-open again the discussion regarding the identity (keto or enol species) of the bioluminophore. PMID:23843204

da Silva, Luís Pinto; Simkovitch, Ron; Huppert, Dan; da Silva, Joaquim C G Esteves

2013-10-21

225

Solving the Mystery of the Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fingerprints for identification purposes is one of the most widespread and best-understood tools of forensic science. Fingerprinting is such a common occurrence in detective novels, cinema, and television that we all know it is best to wear gloves when committing a crime. However, the fingerprints of the perpetrator are often not the only ones of importance in

Doris R. Kimbrough; Ronald Delorenzo

1998-01-01

226

Solving the Mystery of Mock Mummies: Using Scientific Inquiry Skills in an Integrated Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When the nature of science (NOS) is reinforced, middle school students will be able to appreciate scientific inquiry processes and communication, as outlined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). To this end, the authors developed a mumm

Reinhart, Damien S.; Gill-Robinson, Heather; Balgopal, Meena; Cornwall, Shaun

2009-11-01

227

Solving the Mystery of Mock Mummies: Using Scientific Inquiry Skills in an Integrated Lesson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the nature of science (NOS) is reinforced, middle school students will be able to appreciate scientific inquiry processes and communication, as outlined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). To this end, the authors developed a mummy-making and dissection activity to help sixth- and seventh-grade students learn more about…

Balgopal, Meena; Cornwall, Shaun; Gill-Robinson, Heather; Reinhart, Damien S.

2009-01-01

228

Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

Polland, Mark J.

229

Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What causes condensation? Does temperature affect how well a balloon will fly? How do tiny bugs get into oatmeal? Through 15 mystery stories, this book memorably illustrates science concepts for students and reinforces the value of learning science through inquiry. Each mystery presents opportunities for students to create questions, form hypotheses, test their ideas, and come up with explanations. Focused on concepts such as periodic motion, thermodynamics, temperature and energy, and sound, these mysteries draw students into the stories by grounding them in experiences students are familiar with, providing them with a foundation for classroom discussion and inquiry. The story format is used because it is one of the most effective ways to engage students' attention right from the start. Each chapter includes a list of science concepts explored, targeted strategies for using the stories with children in grades K-4 and with older students in grades 5-8, and a key matching story concepts with corresponding standards in the NSES.

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2008-04-01

230

Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.

Force, Crista Marie

231

Mystery of the magnetic field of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research of interaction of the solar wind with bodies of Solar System is one of methods, which allows us to make the conclusion about substance of the bodies and about its magnetization. The investigation of the solar wind interaction with Mars and Phobos has been carried out using the data of the Soviet expedition "Phobos - 2" and the kinetic approach to study the data. It is shown, that the size of the Martian obstacle to the solar wind is actually the size of Mars, as a physical body. The weak ionosphere and crystal magnetic anomalies at Mars result in inelastic dispersion of particles of the solar wind on the Martian obstacle, which give additional accumulation of the plasma and magnetic field in front of the Martian obstacle. The more the density of the solar wind, the more will the pileup of the plasma in front of Mars. Mars has not magnetospheres, neither own, nor induced to give the additional size for the obstacle like the Earth. The tail inherent in the interaction of magnetized bodies with the solar wind plasma, practically, is absent at Mars. The magnetic topology of the Martian wake is a result of the flow by the warm plasma of the solar wind around Mars. The Phobos interaction with the solar wind has been investigated. Dependence of the pileup of the solar wind plasma ahead of Phobos from the ion skin-depth has been found, which shows the existence of an effective obstacle of Phobos with the sizes about 150-170 km. Source with equivalent magnetic moment as order 1015A m2 in Phobos leads to the development of such obstacle for the solar wind flow around Phobos. Thus the received results: absence of the intrinsic global magnetic field of Mars, the magnetization of the Martian moon of Phobos and so the crystal magnetic anomalies revealed by the MGS satellite on surface of Mars give the primal magnetic mystery of Mars. If we will understand it we may probably approach to the problem of lifelessness of Mars. It is necessary to remind that evidence of biological origin has been revealed in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 with chains of magnetite crystals.

Mordovskaya, V.

232

The Computer Scientist: Computer Languages for the Amateur Scientist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews diverse types of computer programing languages and provides examples of representative programs from the most significant languages in use. Matches programing languages most suitable for various types of experimental applications for the amateur scientist. (JJK)

Barden, William, Jr.

1991-01-01

233

The Scientist: The News Journal for the Life Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided with the cooperation of the Institute for Science Information (ISI) and the University of Pennsylvania, The Scientist (last discussed in the September 15, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a free newsletter for life scientists. Each issue features a variety of science news stories, focusing on recent developments, as well as commentary, opinion, "Hot Papers," professional information, commercial products and services, and jobs. Users can browse and search back issues and also subscribe to a free email notification service.

234

Mystery Shopping in Lodging Properties as a Measurement of Service Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the prevalence of mystery shopping as a quality assurance practice in the U.S. lodging industry, it has not been recognized as a topic for empirical research. This study attempts to explore facts related to current mystery shopping practices in the industry and hotel senior manager's perceptions of the effectiveness of mystery shopping as a tool to monitor service quality.

Jeff Beck; Li Miao

2003-01-01

235

Monitoring and Improving Greek Banking Services Using Bayesian Networks: an Analysis of Mystery Shopping Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mystery shopping is a well known marketing technique used by companies and marketing analysts to measure quality of service, and gather information about products and services. In this article, we analyse data from mystery shopping surveys via Bayesian networks in order to examine and evaluate the quality of service offered by the loan departments of Greek banks. We use mystery

Claudia Tarantola; Paola Vicard; Ioannis Ntzoufras

2012-01-01

236

SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

237

Developing Nurse Scientist Course Login  

Cancer.gov

Privacy  |   Disclaimer  |   Help  |   Logout      Developing Nurse Scientist Course User Login / Registration Returning Users Email: Password: Having trouble logging in? New User Registration If you are entering the course for the first time, you must

238

Mystery Mud : Exploring Changes in States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Join a group of middle-school students on a visit to a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they experiment with mystery mud and learn about the relationships between magnetism, particle motion, and changes in the state of matter.

2007-12-12

239

How Kids Learn: Unraveling the Age-Old Mystery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles explore current research and theory regarding children's learning styles, covering: (1) four basic ways children approach learning and corresponding teaching methods; (2) "multiple intelligences" and new thought about the boundaries of innate ability; and (3) classroom teachers' perspectives and instincts about the mystery of…

Learning, 1988

1988-01-01

240

Mystery Mud: Exploring Changes in States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Join a group of middle-school students on a visit to a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they experiment with mystery mud and learn about the relationships between magnetism, particle motion, and changes in the state of matter.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2004-02-20

241

Mystery Powders: An Introduction to Physical and Chemical Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom guided inquiry lesson, students will complete a serious of tests using five different mystery powders. Student will develop hypotheses, make observations, and draw conclusions about what each powder is and the physical and chemical reactions that occur when heat, water, iodine, and vinegar are added to each substance.

Bulver, Leah

242

Exploring Mystery in Fifth Grade: A Journey of Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instructional framework that included the use of a touchstone text, literature circles, and independent reading and writing created a rich context for the study of mysteries in a fifth-grade classroom. Key points include a) the complexity of the touchstone text as a key factor in shaping the instructional goals in this genre study, and b) the…

Sharp, Claudia; Martinez, Miriam

2010-01-01

243

Mysteries of TGF-? Paradox in Benign and Malignant Cells  

PubMed Central

TGF-? regulates a wide range of biological functions including embryonic development, wound healing, organogenesis, immune modulation, and cancer progression. Interestingly, TGF-? is known to inhibit cell growth in benign cells but promote progression in cancer cells; this phenomenon is known as TGF-? paradox. To date, the mechanism of this paradox still remains a scientific mystery. In this review, we present our experience, along with the literature, in an attempt to answer this mystery. First, we observed that, on TGF-? engagement, there is a differential activation of Erk between benign and cancer cells. Since activated Erk is a major mediator in tumor progression and metastasis, a differentially activated Erk represents the answer to this mystery. Second, we identified a key player, PP2A-B56?, which is differentially recruited by the activated type I TGF-? receptor (TBRI) in benign and tumor cells, resulting in differential Erk activation. Finally, TGF-? stimulation leads to suppressed TBRs in tumor cells but not in benign cells. This differentially suppressed TBRs triggers differential recruitment of PP2A-B56? and, thus, differential activation of Erk. The above three events explain the mysteries of TGF-? paradox. Understanding the mechanism of TGF-? paradox will help us to predict indolent from aggressive cancers and develop novel anti-cancer strategies.

Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Nengwang; Lee, Chung

2014-01-01

244

Strategic insights from mystery shopping in B2B relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial services to large Scandinavian corporations. We account for and analyse the process of building

Jan Mattsson

2012-01-01

245

Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics--Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to…

Left, Harvey S.

2012-01-01

246

Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93  

NSF Publications Database

... Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Federal Scientists and ... 1989-93 Text Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93 Appendix Tables This document was last ...

247

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles  

NSF Publications Database

... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... 1999 Profiles Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles ...

248

The mystery of the perpetual motion clock of Geiser and Son  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the operation and mechanisms of a so called perpetual motion clock is given. At the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, the achievement of perpetual motion was one of the Neuchatel clockmakers' great interests. Some watchmakers presented scientists and the public with constructions which, at first sight, seemed to have solved the problem. In 1815 a really interesting clock mechanism invented by Jean Geiser and his son was presented in Neuchatel.

Piguet, Jean-Michel

249

Do scientists trace hot topics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

2013-07-01

250

Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower-energy X-ray background, showing that it arose in very faraway galaxies with extremely bright cores, called quasars or Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The Chandra team sampled a region of the sky about one-fifth the angular area of a full moon and resolved about 80 percent of the more-energetic X-ray background into discrete sources. Stretched across the entire sky, this would account for approximately 70 million sources, most of which would be identified with galaxies. Their analysis confirms that a significant fraction of the X-ray background cannot be due to diffuse radiation from hot, intergalactic gas. Combined X-ray and optical observations showed that nearly one third of the sources are galaxies whose cores are very bright in X rays yet emit virtually no optical light from the core. The observation suggests that these "veiled galactic nuclei" galaxies may number in the tens of millions over the whole sky. They almost certainly harbor a massive black hole at their core that produces X rays as the gas is pulled toward it at nearly the speed of light. Their bright X-ray cores place these galaxies in the AGN family. Because these numerous AGN are bright in X rays, but optically dim, the Chandra observation implies that optical surveys of AGN are very incomplete. A second new class of objects, comprising approximately one-third of the background, is assumed to be "ultra-faint galaxies." Mushotzky said that these sources may emit little or no optical light, either because the dust around the galaxy blocks the light totally or because the optical light is eventually absorbed by relatively cool gas during its long journey across the universe. In the latter scenario, Mushotzky said that these sources would have a redshift of 6 or higher, meaning that they are well over 14 billion light years away and thus the earliest, most distant objects ever identified. "This is a very exciting discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure and Evolution of the universe science theme. "Since it

2000-01-01

251

Solving with Seesaws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a simple seesaw to visualize solving a two- or three-step mathematics equation, while solving a basic structural engineering weight balance problem in the process. They solve two-step equations on a worksheet and attempt to solve the challenge of "balancing a beam" through hands-on problems. The use of sensor equipment for correct position monitoring aids students in balancing the structure, as well as balancing the equation as they solve it on paper.

Applying Mechatronics to Promote Science (AMPS) GK-12 Program,

252

Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

Schooler, Dean, Jr.

253

Career Advice for Life Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume represents selected articles from the acclaimed Women in Cell Biology column of the award-winning ASCB Newsletter, those ranked by WICB members as providing the most helpful career advice for life scientists. We trust that the compilation will...

E. Marincola

2002-01-01

254

Arctic scientists begin historic expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic marine geologists were a strong presence in the small city of Tromso, Norway, this summer. Scientific parties and crews for three icebreaker research vessels were joined by representatives of the scientific and executive committees of the Nansen Arctic Drilling (NAD) Program. As many of the world's leading Arctic scientists gathered, preparations were made for what some consider to be

Robin Smith

1991-01-01

255

NewScientist.com: Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NewScientist magazine archive features articles on a variety of science topics. The search engine accepts a keyword or title. Quick links to back issues are provided, and magazines can also be browsed by selecting one of ten predetermined subject categories.

256

Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention.  

PubMed

This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator-an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention-as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing criterion design, and the effectiveness of the intervention was assessed for an 8-week period. The frequency of disruptive behavior in all classrooms decreased. Teacher intervention acceptability data indicated seven of eight teachers found the intervention to be acceptable. Overall, data indicated the Mystery Motivator intervention was a powerful intervention for reducing disruptive behaviors in elementary classrooms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895318

Kowalewicz, Eva A; Coffee, Gina

2014-06-01

257

The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

Brau, James E. (University of Oregon) [University of Oregon

2010-11-23

258

Who took the "x" out of expectancy-value theory? A psychological mystery, a substantive-methodological synergy, and a cross-national generalization.  

PubMed

Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction. PMID:21750248

Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich

2011-08-01

259

Use of the Mystery Motivator for a High School Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of one interdependent group contingency intervention, the mystery motivator, as it affected three students identified as exhibiting problem behaviors, as well as the effects on nonidentified students in a ninth-grade high school biology class. An A\\/B\\/A\\/B single-case design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Results indicated a decrease in problem behaviors for

G. Thomas Schanding Jr; Heather E. Sterling-Turner

2010-01-01

260

The Mystery of the Falling Grades: Seizure Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Working with children with epilepsy is like reading a good mystery. When learning or emotional problems occur, the neuropsychologist\\u000a 's job is to help identify “whodunit.” The list of likely suspects from the epilepsy perspective include whatever is atypical\\u000a about the brain that is the basis of the seizures, seizures themselves, abnormal electrical discharges between seizures (also\\u000a known as sub-clinical

Lynn Bennett Blackburn

261

Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

Payne, Amy C.; Zenner, Greta; Sammel, Lauren M.; Hemling, Melissa A.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-11-01

262

Unraveling the mystery of music: music as an evolved group process.  

PubMed

As prominently highlighted by Charles Darwin, music is one of the most mysterious aspects of human nature. Despite its ubiquitous presence across cultures and throughout recorded history, the reason humans respond emotionally to music remains unknown. Although many scientists and philosophers have offered hypotheses, there is little direct empirical evidence for any perspective. Here we address this issue, providing data which support the idea that music evolved in service of group living. Using 7 studies, we demonstrate that people's emotional responses to music are intricately tied to the other core social phenomena that bind us together into groups. In sum, this work establishes human musicality as a special form of social cognition and provides the first direct support for the hypothesis that music evolved as a tool of social living. In addition, the findings provide a reason for the intense psychological pull of music in modern life, suggesting that the pleasure we derive from listening to music results from its innate connection to the basic social drives that create our interconnected world. PMID:23895270

Loersch, Chris; Arbuckle, Nathan L

2013-11-01

263

Materials Analysis: A Key to Unlocking the Mystery of the Columbia Tragedy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials analyses of key forensic evidence helped unlock the mystery of the loss of space shuttle Columbia that disintegrated February 1, 2003 while returning from a 16-day research mission. Following an intensive four-month recovery effort by federal, state, and local emergency management and law officials, Columbia debris was collected, catalogued, and reassembled at the Kennedy Space Center. Engineers and scientists from the Materials and Processes (M&P) team formed by NASA supported Columbia reconstruction efforts, provided factual data through analysis, and conducted experiments to validate the root cause of the accident. Fracture surfaces and thermal effects of selected airframe debris were assessed, and process flows for both nondestructive and destructive sampling and evaluation of debris were developed. The team also assessed left hand (LH) airframe components that were believed to be associated with a structural breach of Columbia. Analytical data collected by the M&P team showed that a significant thermal event occurred at the left wing leading edge in the proximity of LH reinforced carbon carbon (RCC) panels 8 and 9. The analysis also showed exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,649 C, which would severely degrade the support structure, tiles, and RCC panel materials. The integrated failure analysis of wing leading edge debris and deposits strongly supported the hypothesis that a breach occurred at LH RCC panel 8.

Mayeaux, Brian M.; Collins, Thomas E.; Piascik, Robert S.; Russel, Richard W.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Shah, Sandeep R.; McDanels, Steven J.

2004-01-01

264

Profiles of Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science 360 Knowledge Network works to bring visitors "the latest wonders of science, engineering, technology and math." Among other things, the Network encourages young people to get involved in STEM careers, and these profiles are an important part of that mission. This site includes a dozen profiles of various individuals, including a virtual reality scientist, a biogeoscientist, and a marine biologist. Each short film features these scientists in their working environments. Each video is done with a bit of good humor, which makes the whole thing quite enjoyable. First-time visitors to the site shouldn't miss the profile of Yael Maguire, an electrical engineer who clearly has a great deal of fun on the job. After watching the videos, visitors can also sign up to receive notices when new profiles are added to the site.

2012-09-07

265

Climate Kids: Renewable Energy Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this career-oriented interview, readers are introduced to a scientist who works primarily on wind energy. He explains the importance of wind farm placement planning. Images of architectural wind and a wind farm are included, along with a link to the Power Up game. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

266

Science Explorations: Writing With Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Writing with Scientists is a workshop that provides in-depth information about crafting a science report. In this workshop students are guided through a six step process for writing a scientific report. Excerpts from student reports are used as examples. Students are encouraged to have researched a topic prior to the workshop so that they are working on a specific report.

267

Political action committee for scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

Richman, Barbara T.

268

Science, the Scientists and Values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although individual scientists engage in research for diverse reasons, society only supports the enterprise because it benefits humankind. We cannot always predict how that will happen, or whether individual projects will have clear and direct benefits, but in the aggregate, there is widespread agreement that we are all better off because of the quality and diversity of the science that is done. However, what scientists do and how it benefits humankind is often unclear to the general public and can at times be misunderstood or misrepresented. Moreover, even when members of the public do understand what science is being done they do not always like what it is showing and feel relatively free to disregard or distort its findings. This happens most often when findings are either politically inconvenient or encroach upon issues of core human values. The origins of the universe can fit into that latter category. This array of factors contributes to the obligation of scientists to reach out to the public and share the results of their work and its implications. It also requires the scientific community to engage in genuine dialogue with the public and find common ground where possible.

Leshner, Alan

2012-02-01

269

Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

270

Solving One Step equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pre-Algebra Standard 3 Objective 2: Students will solve one step equations. The students will use addition and subtraction to solve the equations. When trying to solve a one step equation it is important to know how to undo an operation. You are to use inverse operations to solve each equation. * If the variable has a number added then you subtract that number from both sides of the equation. ...

Cefalo, Mr.

2008-09-29

271

Mathematics Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a studentâs mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

Taplin, Margaret

2011-01-01

272

Solving Systems of Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to solve systems of linear equations by graphing, substitution, and elimination. As we discovered in our Pet Sitters Unit, systems of equations are a useful way to model and solve real-world situations in business. They are also useful in science and social science applications. This online unit will help you become an expert at solving systems of linear equations. 1) ...

Ball, Mrs.

2012-09-13

273

Applied mathematical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented for the importance of focusing on (1) average ability students, (2) substantive mathematical content, (3) real problems, and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. It is suggested that effective instructional techniques for teaching applied mathematical problem solving resembles “mathematical laboratory” activities, done in small group problem solving settings.

Richard Lesh

1981-01-01

274

Building problem-solving environments with the Arches framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a

Nathan Debardeleben; Ron Sass; Daniel C. Stanzione Jr.; Walter B. Ligon III

2009-01-01

275

NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of observations is needed to help us understand the complex relationship that exists among the various components," Blair said. The explosion of a star is a catastrophic event. The blast rips the star apart and unleashes a roughly spherical shock wave that expands outward at more than 22 million mph like an interstellar tsunami. The shock wave spreads out into surrounding space, sweeping up any tenuous interstellar gas and dust into an expanding shell. The stellar ejecta from the explosion initially trail behind the shock wave. It eventually catches up with the inner edge of the shell and is heated to X-ray temperatures. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Hubble Optical Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps that form behind the shock wave. Sankrit and Blair compared their HST observations with those taken with ground-based telescopes to obtain a more accurate distance to the supernova remnant of about 13,000 light-years. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Spitzer Infrared Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. SST is sensitive enough to detect both the densest regions seen by HST and the entire expanding shock wave, a spherical cloud of material. Instruments on SST also reveal information about the chemical composition and physical environment of the expanding clouds of gas and dust ejected into space. This dust is similar to dust which was part of the cloud of dust and gas that formed the sun and planets in our solar system. Interview with Dr. William Blair Interview with Dr. William Blair The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas. The hottest gas, higher-energy X-rays, is located primarily in the regions directly behind the shock front. These regions also show up

2004-10-01

276

Scientists Map DNA of Deadly Fungus  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Map DNA of Deadly Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can be especially ... of scientists that spent 10 years decoding the DNA of one highly dangerous strain, called H99. The ...

277

Give Young Scientists a Break  

SciTech Connect

There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

Wiley, H. S.

2009-11-01

278

Teachers' Domain: Mystery Mud: Exploring Changes in States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 7-minute video examines a substance that can change states without undergoing a change in temperature. The video features an MIT professor of chemistry working with a group of middle school students to examine a "mystery" material. When brought near a strong magnet, the material changes state from liquid to solid. Accompanying computer simulations help kids visualize what is happening to the substance at the particle level. Teachers' Domain is a growing collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.

2011-06-24

279

The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a ommunity partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We gratefully acknowledge partial funding for the YES Program from a NASA EPO grant.

Boice, D. C.; Jahn, J.; Hummel, P.

2003-12-01

280

MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing routine mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own routines for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-linear equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.

Kantak, A. V.

1994-01-01

281

Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

Miclea, Mircea

2008-01-01

282

Even More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the odds of a meteor hitting your house? What are "warm" clothes anyway? Do you get "more" sunlight from Daylight Saving Time? Everyone loves a good mystery and these unfold in the 15 stories presented in Even More Everyday Science Mysteries, the

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-06-02

283

Even More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the odds of a meteor hitting your house? What are "warm" clothes anyway? Do you get "more" sunlight from Daylight Saving Time? Everyone loves a good mystery and these unfold in the 15 stories presented in Even More Everyday Science Mysteries

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-03-01

284

Using Mystery Shopping to Compare the Service Quality of Banks in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the service quality and performance of banks in Turkey. Specifically, by utilizing mystery (secret) shoppers as a benchmarking technique, the study compares the quality of services offered by different types of banks (state, private, and foreign banks) to identify the strong and weak service quality areas. Based on 351 evaluations by university students acting as mystery shoppers,

Musa Pinar; Zeliha Eser; Sandy Strasser

2009-01-01

285

Why Use Importance Performance Analysis in Mystery Shopping? A USA–Poland Comparative Answer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was designed to use the Importance Performance Analysis technique to augment traditional mystery shopping. The study compared actual experience data with what mystery shoppers had expected, in two different sample populations, (Poland and the United States). This paper is empirical and involves data from 200 restaurant visits in Poland and the United States. The sampling unit consists of

A. Scott Rood; Joanna Dziadkowiec

2010-01-01

286

The role of mystery shopping in the measurement of service performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a programme of research in the UK aimed at examining the role of mystery shopping in the measurement and management of service quality. The research focused on the views of the senior managers responsible for commissioning mystery shopping research and the directors of market research agencies responsible for the provision of such research. The research findings

Alan M. Wilson

1998-01-01

287

Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

2006-01-01

288

Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

Conklin, Tom, Ed.

289

78 FR 39435 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Magritte: The Mystery of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1938'' SUMMARY: Notice...Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998...of October 1, 1999, and Delegation of Authority...of August 28, 2000 (and, as appropriate, Delegation...Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1928,''...

2013-07-01

290

Space.com: Deep Impact Team Solves Blurry Photo Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Space.com describes how scientists from NASA's Deep Impact mission intend to fix the spacecraft's blurry vision problem by applying a mathematical process to the images after they have been transmitted to Earth. The author briefly descibes the process, called deconvolution, and discusses some challenges that the researchers will need to address. Readers can also learn more about the Deep Impact mission and its goal of learning about the makeup and nature of the mysterious nucleus of the comet Tempel 1. NASA's Deep Impact mission was designed to uncover a comet's innards by smashing a probe into Tempel 1. After being releases from the Flyby craft, the Impactor will position itself directly in front of the speeding comet for a head on collision. The impact is scheduled to occur at 1:52 a.m. EDT this July 4, 2005.

2005-11-02

291

Universities Earth System Scientists Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

Estes, John E.

1995-01-01

292

Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

293

Let's Get Real: Students Solving Authentic Corporate Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Let's Get Real, a competitive program in its 5th year, challenges teams of secondary students (in public, private, and home schools) to solve actual problems posed by corporate co- sponsors. Proposed solutions are presented at corporate headquarters and judged by corporate executives, scientists, and engineers. (MLH)

Holt, Dan G.; Willard-Holt, Colleen

2000-01-01

294

Satellite tagged walruses help scientists answer climate change questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thousands of walruses abandon ice for Alaska shorehttp://www.usatoday.com/weather/environment/2007-10-05-alaska-walrus_N.htmIn a Warming Bering Sea, Whither the Walrus?http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5357899Walruses Prefer Right to Left Flipperhttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/afp/20031027/walrus.htmlToothwalkers: Giants of the Arctic Icehttp://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/toothwalkers/The Walrus and The Carpenterhttp://www.jabberwocky.com/carroll/walrus.htmlThis past April, scientists attached satellite tags to eight walruses in West Greenland in an effort to learn more about the effects of climate change. There is a definite connection between walruses, ice and climate and scientists hope that by continuing to track walruses via satellite more can be discovered. While the scientists tagged eight walruses, a few tags failed almost immediately but a few were sending signals through the summer. This past month the last working satellite tag stopped signaling. In addition to learning more about the effects of climate change, scientists involved in the study hoped to uncover where walruses migrate. Walruses need thick ice and as temperatures rise in the spring and summer they head north to colder climates, but the exact location of their summer hideaway has long been a mystery. The information gleaned from this study could also impact walrus hunting quotas. Walrus hunting is still allowed in Greenland and Canada where they are hunted for their ivory and meat. Scientists hope to gain information about the connection between walrus populations as well as to better understand what is necessary to maintain a sustainable population. Despite the early loss of some tags and the difficulties in tracking walruses, the team was pleased with the results and hopes to run the tagging experiments over a number of years. Dr. Born, a member of the team, added "When you look around the world, there are not a whole lot of walrus researchers, and I think one reason is that walruses are just such a difficult animal to study." The first link will take users to an article from BBC News which talks about the last of the satellite tagged walruses and the research accompanying the project. The second link leads to a piece from the USA Today which discusses how climate change may be affecting Alaskan walruses. In the third link users will find Alaska Public Radio's Annie Feidt's fine piece on climate change in the Bering Sea and its effects on walruses. The fourth link is from Discovery News and discusses the recent science behind determining whether walruses (as well as other creatures) are primarily righties or lefties. Moving on to the fifth link, users will be taken to PBS.org's complementary website to their Nature program "Toothwalkers: Giants of the Arctic Ice". Here visitors can watch walrus videos, peruse a plethora of walrus photos and learn more about their habitat, survival and even walruses in captivity. Finally, users can click on the last link to read and enjoy Lewis Carroll's "The Walrus and the Carpenter".

2007-01-01

295

Modelling biological complexity: a physical scientist's perspective  

PubMed Central

We discuss the modern approaches of complexity and self-organization to understanding dynamical systems and how these concepts can inform current interest in systems biology. From the perspective of a physical scientist, it is especially interesting to examine how the differing weights given to philosophies of science in the physical and biological sciences impact the application of the study of complexity. We briefly describe how the dynamics of the heart and circadian rhythms, canonical examples of systems biology, are modelled by sets of nonlinear coupled differential equations, which have to be solved numerically. A major difficulty with this approach is that all the parameters within these equations are not usually known. Coupled models that include biomolecular detail could help solve this problem. Coupling models across large ranges of length- and time-scales is central to describing complex systems and therefore to biology. Such coupling may be performed in at least two different ways, which we refer to as hierarchical and hybrid multiscale modelling. While limited progress has been made in the former case, the latter is only beginning to be addressed systematically. These modelling methods are expected to bring numerous benefits to biology, for example, the properties of a system could be studied over a wider range of length- and time-scales, a key aim of systems biology. Multiscale models couple behaviour at the molecular biological level to that at the cellular level, thereby providing a route for calculating many unknown parameters as well as investigating the effects at, for example, the cellular level, of small changes at the biomolecular level, such as a genetic mutation or the presence of a drug. The modelling and simulation of biomolecular systems is itself very computationally intensive; we describe a recently developed hybrid continuum-molecular model, HybridMD, and its associated molecular insertion algorithm, which point the way towards the integration of molecular and more coarse-grained representations of matter. The scope of such integrative approaches to complex systems research is circumscribed by the computational resources available. Computational grids should provide a step jump in the scale of these resources; we describe the tools that RealityGrid, a major UK e-Science project, has developed together with our experience of deploying complex models on nascent grids. We also discuss the prospects for mathematical approaches to reducing the dimensionality of complex networks in the search for universal systems-level properties, illustrating our approach with a description of the origin of life according to the RNA world view.

Coveney, Peter V; Fowler, Philip W

2005-01-01

296

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

Gruy, H.J.

1998-03-01

297

Viscous flow interpretation of Comet Halley's mystery transition  

SciTech Connect

A study of the solar wind within comet Halley's ionosheath is presented. It is shown that the plasma changes seen across the intermediate (mystery) transition, located approximately half way between the bow shock and the cometopause along the Giotto trajectory, are similar to those occurring across an equivalent transition present within the Venus ionosheath. As in Venus, the observed plasma changes are consistent with those expected from the onset of friction phenomena between the shocked solar wind and the main body of ionospheric plasma. It is suggested that the intermediate transition in comet Halley's ionosheath represents the outer boundary of a thick viscous boundary layer that develops from the nose of the cometopause and extends along the flanks of the ionosheath. On the basis of this interpretation it is concluded that the subsolar position of the cometopause may have reached {approximately} 3.4 10{sup 5} km upstream from the nucleus at the time of the Giotto measurements.

Perez-de-Tejada, H. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico))

1989-08-01

298

The Complex World of Adolescent Literacy: Myths, Motivations, and Mysteries  

PubMed Central

In this article, Elizabeth Birr Moje, Melanie Overby, Nicole Tysvaer, and Karen Morris challenge some of the prevailing myths about adolescents and their choices related to reading. The reading practices of youth from one urban community are examined using mixed methods in an effort to define what, how often, and why adolescents choose to read. By focusing on what features of texts youth find motivating, the authors find that reading and writing frequently occur in a range of literacy contexts outside school. However, only reading novels on a regular basis outside of school is shown to have a positive relationship to academic achievement as measured by school grades. This article describes how adolescents read texts that are embedded in social networks, allowing them to build social capital. Conclusions are framed in terms of the mysteries that remain — namely, how to build on what motivates adolescents' literacy practices in order to both promote the building of their social selves and improve their academic outcomes.

Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Overby, Melanie; Tysvaer, Nicole; Morris, Karen

2009-01-01

299

Consciousness platform: the greatest mystery of all time.  

PubMed

This article is about the model for a very controversial edifice--the many-sided foundation for consciousness. What I refer to is, undoubtedly, the greatest mystery of all time--why do we have an awareness of our own existence? What is the evolutionary advantage of consciousness? Much of the material printed about consciousness has a religious flavor, with references to the human spirit and/or extrasensory perception, but I will have none of that here. In this study, consciousness is tied in with a platform, not a physical platform, of course, but a conceptual platform. This is because we are most comfortable imagining or visualizing an actual platform that has many connections to various parts of the brain, a sort of an old-fashioned telephone switchboard. PMID:20176523

Deutsch, Sid

2010-01-01

300

K2P Potassium Channels, Mysterious and Paradoxically Exciting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New evidence reveals that the common electrolyte disorder hypokalemia can induce K2P1 channels that are normally selective for K+ to break the rules and conduct Na+. This defiant behavior leads to paradoxical depolarization of many cells in the heart, increasing the risk for lethal arrhythmia. The new research resolves a mystery uncovered 50 years ago and bestows an array of new riddles. Here, I discuss how K2P1 might achieve this alchemy—through stable residence of the K+ selectivity filter in a Na+-conductive state between its open and C-inactive configurations—and predict that other K+ channels and environmental stimuli will be discovered to produce the same excitatory misconduct.

Steve A. N. Goldstein (University of Chicago;Department of Pediatrics and Institute for Molecular Pediatric Sciences REV)

2011-08-02

301

Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriersa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E ×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E ×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

Staebler, G. M.; Kinsey, J. E.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.

2014-05-01

302

K2P potassium channels, mysterious and paradoxically exciting.  

PubMed

New evidence reveals that the common electrolyte disorder hypokalemia can induce K2P1 channels that are normally selective for K+ to break the rules and conduct Na+. This defiant behavior leads to paradoxical depolarization of many cells in the heart, increasing the risk for lethal arrhythmia. The new research resolves a mystery uncovered 50 years ago and bestows an array of new riddles. Here, I discuss how K2P1 might achieve this alchemy--through stable residence of the K+ selectivity filter in a Na+-conductive state between its open and C-inactive configurations--and predict that other K+ channels and environmental stimuli will be discovered to produce the same excitatory misconduct. PMID:21868351

Goldstein, Steve A N

2011-08-01

303

The Secret Life of Scientists & Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

304

Problem Solving - Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...

Kajigga

2009-09-23

305

Solving Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage includes six examples of solving linear equations using balancing. Students learn to "keep the equation balanced by making the same changes to both sides of the equal sign." Six examples of this mathematical process are included, each one being slightly more challenging than the last. Equations include more than one operation, variables, multiple terms on the same side, parentheses and fractions. The process for solving each is explained step by step.

Murray, Michael

2012-01-01

306

Problem Solving Seminar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course includes elements from an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. The material will help students develop their mathematical and problem solving skills. A few topics that are covered include probability, generating mathematical functions and polynomials. Course materials include student assignments and solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Kedlaya, Kiran Sridhara, 1974-; Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-; Stanley, Richard

2010-12-22

307

Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers' perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers

Judith A. Morrison; Jeffrey C. Estes

2007-01-01

308

Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers' perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that…

Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

2007-01-01

309

Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training  

PubMed Central

This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers.

2007-01-01

310

Enigma of Runaway Stars Solved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova Propels Companion Star through Interstellar Space The following success story is a classical illustration of scientific progress through concerted interplay of observation and theory. It concerns a 35-year old mystery which has now been solved by means of exciting observations of a strange double star. An added touch is the successive involvement of astronomers connected to the European Southern Observatory. For many years, astronomers have been puzzled by the fact that, among the thousands of very young, hot and heavy stars which have been observed in the Milky Way, there are some that move with exceptionally high velocities. In some cases, motions well above 100 km/sec, or ten times more than normal for such stars, have been measured. How is this possible? Which mechanism is responsible for the large amounts of energy needed to move such heavy bodies at such high speeds? Could it be that these stars are accelerated during the powerful explosion of a companion star as a supernova? Such a scenario was proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw [1], but until now, observational proof has been lacking. Now, however, strong supporting evidence for this mechanism has become available from observations obtained at the ESO La Silla observatory. The mysterious runaway stars OB-runaway stars [2] are heavy stars that travel through interstellar space with an anomalously high velocity. They have been known for several decades, but it has always been a problem to explain their high velocities. Although most OB-runaway stars are located at distances of several thousands of lightyears, their high velocity results in a measurable change in position on sky photos taken several years apart. The velocity component in the direction of the Earth can be measured very accurately from a spectrogram. From a combination of such observations, it is possible to measure the space velocity of OB-runaways. Bow shocks reveal runaway stars It has also been found that some OB-runaways display bow shocks of compressed matter, which look very much like the bow wave around a boat crossing the ocean. They are of the same physical nature as a bow shock created by a jet-fighter in the air. The explanation is similar: when an OB-runaway star plows through the interstellar medium (a very thin mixture of gas and dust particles) with supersonic velocity [3], interstellar matter is swept up in a bow shock. Stars of low velocity do not create bow shocks. Thus, the detection of a bow shock around a particular OB star indicates that it must have a supersonic velocity, thereby securely identifying it as a runaway star, even if its velocity has not been measured directly. Runaway stars come from stellar groups When a star's direction of motion in space is known, it is possible to reconstruct its previous path and, even more interestingly, to find the place where the star originally came from. It turns out that the paths of many OB-runaways can be traced back to socalled OB-associations , that is groups of 10 to 100 OB-type stars which are located in the spiral arms of our galaxy. About fifty OB-associations are known in the Milky Way. In fact, the majority of all known OB stars are members of an OB-association. Therefore, it is not very surprising that OB-runaway stars should also originate from OB-associations. This is also how they got their name: at some moment, they apparently left the association in which they were formed. The ejection mechanism But why were the OB-runaway stars kicked out of the OB-association and how did they achieve such high speeds? One possibility is that some OB stars in an OB-association are ejected due to strong gravitational effects at the time of close encounters between the members of the group. Complicated computer simulations show that this is in principle possible. Nevertheless, since many years, most astronomers think that a more likely scenario is that of violent supernova explosions, first proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw. Stellar evolution theory predicts that all OB stars will end their life in a supernova explosion. The he

1997-01-01

311

Educating the Next Generation of Agricultural Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Committee on Evaluation of Trends in Agricultural Research at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Level was established to analyze issues related to the next generation of agricultural scientists. This report contains the findings, conclusions, and recommendations regarding the status and future needs of agricultural scientists. This report focuses…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agriculture.

312

Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

2010-08-01

313

Young Children's Conceptions of Science and Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores young children's images of science and scientists, their sources for scientific knowledge, and the nature of their science-related experiences. A cross-sectional design was used to study how students' ideas differ over the first three years of elementary school. A modified version of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and a…

Lee, Tiffany R.

2010-01-01

314

Educators' Views of Collaboration with Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated educators' views of collaboration with scientists, a baseline for COSEE Great Lakes efforts in facilitating dynamic collaborative relationships between Great Lakes researchers and educators. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how are educators in the Great Lakes region involved in collaboration with scientists,…

Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne

2007-01-01

315

Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

Pollio, David E.

2012-01-01

316

NASA Astrobiology Institute Scientist\\/Educator Bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has engaged in many educational programs and projects, and one major focus of the Office of Space Science's priorities in establishing education and public outreach (E\\/PO) programs has been the inclusion of scientists in those efforts. However, the construction of scientist\\/educator teams remains a major challenge in NASA education efforts. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) seeks to build bridges

K. L. Wilmoth

2003-01-01

317

Transformation of Scientists and Engineers Into Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical factors in the phenomenon of scientist's and engineer's transition from working as specialists to working as supervisors or managers were studied among 489 employees of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Institutes of Health to discover ways of avoiding or overcoming transition problems. Bench scientists

Bayton, James A.; Chapman, Richard L.

318

Survey Finds Scientists Staying With Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1972, 1974, and 1976, the National Science Foundation surveyed 50,000 scientists. Trends revealed were that most scientists seemed to be staying in the same fields, that the median age was increasing, and that industry continued to employ about 60 percent of the sample. (CP)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

1977-01-01

319

Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)

Condon, Marty

1991-01-01

320

Scientists Reverse Type 1 Diabetes in Mice  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Reverse Type 1 Diabetes in Mice Finding might lead one day to new ways to treat humans with ... June 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Diabetes Type 1 SATURDAY, June 14, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists who ...

321

Genetic Mystery of Behcet's Disease Unfolds Along the Ancient Silk Road  

MedlinePLUS

... mystery of Behcet's disease unfolds along the ancient Silk Road NIH researchers identify new gene variants associated with ... found predominantly in people with ancestors along the Silk Road. For nearly 2,000 years, traders used this ...

322

Analyzing Prospective Teachers' Images of Scientists Using Positive, Negative and Stereotypical Images of Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and purpose: This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the…

Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Wojnowski, David

2013-01-01

323

The "Mysterious Gap" Between Knowledge and Action: A Sociological Comment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the academic social scientist who aspires to or actually assumes the dual role of expert and activist, the applicability of scientific knowledge and action-oriented expertise becomes an extremely practical problem. When the "knowledgeable" activist fails, the theoretical gap between knowledge and action intensifies the problem, and the…

Sheinberg, Sheila; Nelson, Harold A.

324

Problem-Solving Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

1992-01-01

325

Solving Linear Inequalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Elizabeth Stapel at Purplemath, this module helps students understand how to solve linear inequalities with an introduction to the topic using both inequality notation and a graphic representation to express the inequality. This section also briefly covers set notation and interval notation. The next two pages of the site give elementary examples and advanced examples. The elementary examples are simple problems with solutions and an interactive widget on which students can try their knowledge. The advanced examples include real-world word problems in physics, finance, and chemistry that require students to identify and solve the linear inequality.

Stapel, Elizabeth

2000-04-14

326

Real Science, Real Learning: Bridging the Gap Between Scientists, Educators and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today as never before, America needs its citizens to be literate in science and technology. Not only must we only inspire a new generation of scientists and engineers and technologists, we must foster a society capable of meeting complex, 21st-century challenges. Unfortunately, the need for creative, flexible thinkers is growing at a time when our young students are lagging in science interest and performance. Over the past 17 years, the JASON Project has worked to link real science and scientists to the classroom. This link provide viable pipeline to creating the next generation scientists and researchers. Ultimately, JASON's mission is to improve the way science is taught by enabling students to learn directly from leading scientists. Through partnerships with agencies such as NOAA and NASA, JASON creates multimedia classroom products based on current scientific research. Broadcasts of science expeditions, hosted by leading researchers, are coupled with classroom materials that include interactive computer-based simulations, video- on-demand, inquiry-based experiments and activities, and print materials for students and teachers. A "gated" Web site hosts online resources and provides a secure platform to network with scientists and other classrooms in a nationwide community of learners. Each curriculum is organized around a specific theme for a comprehensive learning experience. It may be taught as a complete package, or individual components can be selected to teach specific, standards-based concepts. Such thematic units include: Disappearing Wetlands, Mysteries of Earth and Mars, and Monster Storms. All JASON curriculum units are grounded in "inquiry-based learning." The highly interactive curriculum will enable students to access current, real-world scientific research and employ the scientific method through reflection, investigation, identification of problems, sharing of data, and forming and testing hypotheses. JASON specializes in effectively applying technology in science education by designing animated interactive visualizations that promote student understanding of complex scientific concepts and systems (Rieber, 1990, 1996). JASON's experience in utilizing the power of simulation technology has been widely recognized for its effectiveness in exciting and engaging students in science learning by independent evaluations of JASON's multimedia science curriculum (Ba et al., 2001; Goldenberg et al., 2003). The data collected indicates that JASON's science products have had a positive impact on students' science learning, have positively influenced their perceptions of scientists and of becoming scientists, and have helped diverse students grasp a deeper understanding of complex scientific content, concepts and technologies.

Lewis, Y.

2006-05-01

327

The catalytic nature of science: Implications for scientific problem solving in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses key elements of scientific problem solving from a cognitive perspective in an effort to help scientists and engineers understand and manage their problem solving efforts more effectively. Toward this end, the Adaption–Innovation (A–I) theory of Kirton is reviewed and placed into the context of science in order to highlight its potential contributions and possible limitations. In particular,

Kathryn W. Jablokow

2005-01-01

328

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EJS and OSP examples to accompany the Solving Ordinary Differential Equations chapter in the Handbook of Dynamical Systems edited by Paul Fishwick. Dynamic models are described in the chapter with a âcomputer science slantâ toward the problems of model design, representation, and analysis. EJS and OSP implementations are distributed in two ready-to-run Launcher packages.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2009-08-07

329

Solving the problemof writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the difficulties whichsome students appear to encounter with written work and recommends the teaching of a problem-solving approach. Exploration of the skills necessary for writing, e.g. language skills and memory functions, highlights the structured format of cognitive processes. Most study skill packages emphasise the need for planning and organising work. It may be that students require more

Dorothy Ferguson

1995-01-01

330

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

331

Preparing for Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeking more effective mathematics instruction, this author decided to incorporate Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) into first-grade classroom lessons. Students in CGI mathematics classrooms are prompted to use their prior knowledge to solve new problems, establish cognitive structures to which new learning can be connected, and be driven by…

Holden, Becky

2007-01-01

332

Solving Energy Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

333

Attracting, Retaining, and Engaging Early Career Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Scientists Event, IUGG XXIV General Assembly; Perugia, Italy, 10 July 2007 This young scientists event was organized to engage younger scientists with the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and to provide a specific forum to express their views at the General Assembly. It comprised a panel discussion chaired by Kate Heal and with three young geosciences panelists (Masaki Hayashi, University of Calgary, Canada; Kalachand Sain, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India; and Simona Stefanescu, National Meteorological Administration, Bucharest). The group, which had identified several topics relevant to young geoscientists, presented their views in open discussion session. Thirty IUGG conference attendees were present.

Jones, Alan; Heal, Kate; Pringle, Daniel

2007-12-01

334

Gibberellic acid in plant: still a mystery unresolved.  

PubMed

Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound. GAs stimulate seed germination, trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, determines sex expression and grain development along with an interaction of different environmental factors viz., light, temperature and water. The major site of bioactive GA is stamens that influence male flower production and pedicel growth. However, this opens up the question of how female flowers regulate growth and development, since regulatory mechanisms/organs other than those in male flowers are mandatory. Although GAs are thought to act occasionally like paracrine signals do, it is still a mystery to understand the GA biosynthesis and its movement. It has not yet confirmed the appropriate site of bioactive GA in plants or which tissues targeted by bioactive GAs to initiate their action. Presently, it is a great challenge for scientific community to understand the appropriate mechanism of GA movement in plant's growth, floral development, sex expression, grain development and seed germination. The appropriate elucidation of GA transport mechanism is essential for the survival of plant species and successful crop production. PMID:23857350

Gupta, Ramwant; Chakrabarty, S K

2013-09-01

335

Mad City Mystery: Developing Scientific Argumentation Skills with a Place-based Augmented Reality Game on Handheld Computers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the knowledge economy has reshaped the world, schools lag behind in producing appropriate learning for this social change. Science education needs to prepare students for a future world in which multiple representations are the norm and adults are required to "think like scientists." Location-based augmented reality games offer an opportunity to create a "post-progressive" pedagogy in which students are not only immersed in authentic scientific inquiry, but also required to perform in adult scientific discourses. This cross-case comparison as a component of a design-based research study investigates three cases (roughly 28 students total) where an Augmented Reality curriculum, Mad City Mystery, was used to support learning in environmental science. We investigate whether augmented reality games on handhelds can be used to engage students in scientific thinking (particularly argumentation), how game structures affect students' thinking, the impact of role playing on learning, and the role of the physical environment in shaping learning. We argue that such games hold potential for engaging students in meaningful scientific argumentation. Through game play, players are required to develop narrative accounts of scientific phenomena, a process that requires them to develop and argue scientific explanations. We argue that specific game features scaffold this thinking process, creating supports for student thinking non-existent in most inquiry-based learning environments.

Squire, Kurt D.; Jan, Mingfong

2007-02-01

336

How Should Clinical Pharmaceutical Scientists Be Trained?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rationale for defining "clinical pharmaceutical scientist" is developed along with an outline of the aims and purposes of a training program for him. Postdoctoral (PharmD) fellowships are described as the most effective training method. (LBH)

Levy, Gerhard

1977-01-01

337

NASA Planetary Scientist Profile Emily Wilson  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA scientist Emily Wilson discusses her work developing miniaturized instruments that measure greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Her latest instrument, the mini-LHR, works in tandem with AERONET...

338

Climate Scientists Dig Deep Into Greenland's Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, under 6 minutes, explores Greenland Ice Core data that that reveal rapid climate changes that have happened in the past. The video includes scientists discussing their research results and views of Ice core sampling.

339

Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Draw-A-Scientist Test is an assessment tool devised to explore and measure children's stereotypical views of scientists. We administered this test to a group of 49 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in a teacher certification program. While this was originally intended as a purely pedagogical exercise, we were struck by the degree to which the drawings so produced resembled, in stereotypical content, those usually produced by children. This suggests that stereotypes of science and scientists formed during childhood, presumably via the influence of the media, remain largely unaffected by the subsequent passage through high school and college, despite the fact that numerous real-life figures of science teachers and scientists are presumably encountered throughout those formative years. We argue that this state of affairs has subtle and far reaching consequences, and is worthy of our collective attention.

Rahm, Jrène; Charbonneau, Paul

1997-08-01

340

Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Draw-A-Scientist Test is an assessment tool devised to explore and measure children's stereotypical views of scientists. We administered this test to a group of 49 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in a teacher certification program. While this was originally intended as a purely pedagogical exercise, we were struck by the degree to which the drawings so produced resembled, in stereotypical content, those usually produced by children. This suggests that stereotypes of science and scientists formed during childhood, presumably via the influence of the media, remain largely unaffected by the subsequent passage through high school and college, despite the fact that numerous real-life figures of science teachers and scientists are presumably encountered throughout those formative years. We argue that this state of affairs has subtle and far reaching consequences, and is worthy of our collective attention. é1997 American Association of Physics Teachers.

Rahm, Jrã¨ne; Charbonneau, P.

2005-10-24

341

Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists and engineers who foster information-sharing and respect between science and the public are essential for the public communication of and engagement with science. Although traditional scientific training typically does not prepare scientists and engineers to be effective communicators outside of academia, funding agencies are increasingly encouraging researchers to extend beyond peer-reviewed publishing and communicate their results directly to the greater public. Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers was developed by the AAAS Center for Public Engagement with Science and Technology, in partnership with the National Science Foundation, to provide science-communication tools for use by scientists and engineers. Communicating Science resources are available both online and via in-person workshops, to help researchers communicate more broadly with the public.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2008-05-30

342

In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann  

SciTech Connect

Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

Ron Zuckerman

2009-11-18

343

In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann  

ScienceCinema

Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

Ron Zuckerman

2010-01-08

344

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1997 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

... Tables Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1997 Profile Tables ... Table 26; it now includes the occupations of the second job. Three new tables have been added. Table ...

345

Business planning for scientists and engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspe...

J. C. Servo P. D. Hauler

1992-01-01

346

Peer and Supervisory Ratings of Research Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sample of 103 government research scientists was used to compare two performance evaluation systems currently used in a Federal agency for its research personnel. The two systems, supervisory ratings and peer ratings, were compared in terms of their res...

G. D. Kissler D. M. Nebeker

1979-01-01

347

The Social Responsibilities of Scientists and Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the important role of scientists in society as educators. Explains problems caused by not understanding the theory of evolution and discusses possible solutions. First published in 1966. (YDS)

Pauling, Linus

2000-01-01

348

Scientists of Ukrainian SSR Higher Educational Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document represents a first attempt to systematize and synthesize basic information on the teaching, scientific and sociopolitical activities of that large company of leading scientists working in the higher educational institutions of the Ukrainian S...

V. M. Popov V. I. Polurez

1970-01-01

349

A Scientist's Guide to Science Denial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why are so many scientifically uncontroversial topics, from evolution and the age of the earth to climate change and vaccines, so contentious in society? The American public respects science and scientists, yet seems remarkably unaware of - or resistant to accepting - what scientists have learned about the world around us. This resistance holds back science education and undermines public policy discussions. Scientists and science communicators often react to science denial as if it were a question of scientific knowledge, and respond by trying to correct false scientific claims. Many independent lines of evidence show that science denial is not primarily about science. People reject scientific claims which seem to conflict with their personal identity - often because they believe that accepting those claims would threaten some deeply-valued cultural, political, or religious affiliation. Only by identifying, addressing, and defusing the underlying political and cultural concerns can educators, scientists, and science communicators undo the harm done by science denial.

Rosenau, J.

2012-12-01

350

Scientists Snipped HIV Out of Human DNA  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Scientists Snipped HIV Out of Human DNA Molecular tool might lead to more definitive treatment, ... The virus inserts its genetic material into the DNA of human cells, where it remains throughout a ...

351

CGH Short Term Scientist Exchange Program (STSEP)  

Cancer.gov

STSEP promotes collaborative research between established U.S. and foreign scientists from low, middle, and upper-middle income countries (LMICs) by supporting, in part, exchange visits of cancer researchers between U.S. and foreign laboratories.

352

In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann  

ScienceCinema

Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

353

Science Sampler: Wanted--Citizen Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As middle school students and teachers become involved in citizen-scientist activities, their awareness of important environmental issues will be enhanced. Here the author shares her involvement in a partnership with the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont's All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) to turn her students into citizen scientists. The ATBI is an ongoing program to document, catalog, and count species of animals, plants, and fungi in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

Sega, Marsha

2008-03-01

354

How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are student perceptions of engineers and scientists similar and how are they different?" Approximately 1,600 middle school students from urban and suburban schools in the southeastern United States were asked to draw either an engineer or a scientist at work. Drawings included space for the students to explain what their person was doing in the picture. A checklist to code the drawings was developed and used by two raters. This paper discusses similarities and differences in middle school perceptions of scientists and engineers. Results reveal that the students involved in this study frequently perceive scientists as working indoors conducting experiments. A large fraction of the students have no perception of engineering. Others frequently perceive engineers as working outdoors in manual labor. The findings have implications for the development and implementation of engineering outreach efforts.

Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

2009-02-01

355

Problem Solving: Tips for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several suggestions for teaching problem-solving. They include: (1) using the "reduction" strategy (which permits students to solve problems involving a large number of cases or a very complex figure); (2) a problem for students in grades 4-8 to solve; and (3) ways of fostering a problem-solving climate. (JN)

Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

1985-01-01

356

Problem Solving Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this workshop was to address multiple aspects of research on problem solving environments (PSEs), including design\\u000a and implementation issues, exploitation of enabling technologies, applications, and education issues. A PSE is a complete,\\u000a integrated computing environment for composing, compiling, and running applications in a specific area. A PSE may also incorporate\\u000a many features of an expert system and

David Walker; Ken Hawick; Domenico Laforenza; Efstratios Gallopoulos

357

Mystery Plants Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This transfer activity tests student understanding of variation and inheritance. It starts with five flower boxes, as in ÂThe Virtual Greenhouse, and three types of seeds with variations in their roots. The flower boxes differ in the amount of water they receive, and students discover which seeds thrive in which environment. Students are then challenged to produce a crop of plants that can grow everywhere in a field by taking advantage of the small variation in root type from one generation to the next.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

358

Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers  

SciTech Connect

Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

2007-04-01

359

The GLOBE International Scientist Network: Connecting Scientists and Schools to Promote Earth System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLOBE Program has a rich history of connecting scientists and schools around the world on issues related to Earth System Science. Science teams developed the program's core science protocols, and these and other scientists use the data collected by GLOBE students, following these protocols, in their research projects. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with scientists, teachers, and students in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has recently initiated a focus on climate science, as well as unveiled a new technological infrastructure (website, database, online collaboration tools, etc.). These recent technological advances provide new opportunities to increase scientist participation in the program. To better facilitate scientist involvement in GLOBE, The GLOBE International Scientist Network (GISN) was developed. This network aims to connect scientists, teachers, and students around the world to promote Earth System Science. It provides a venue for scientists seeking to engage in education and outreach to connect with schools willing to collaborate, as well as to connect with one another. Via the GLOBE website, scientists in the GISN are provided a profile page to display their bio and interests, the ability to make online "friends" thereby connecting with other registered GLOBE community members (i.e. scientists, teachers), and the ability to participate in online discussions. All interested candidates' credentials are reviewed to ensure that they meet designated criteria to maintain the quality of individuals who work with GLOBE schools. The GLOBE Program Office staff scientists facilitate the network, by creating online accounts for approved new members and responding to inquiries. This presentation will provide an overview of the GISN, including how the network is maintained, the process for membership approval, and a few examples of how scientists in the network are working with GLOBE.

Tessendorf, S. A.; Andersen, T.; Mackaro, J.; Malmberg, J.; Randolph, J. G.; Wegner, K.

2012-12-01

360

Emanations and ``induced'' radioactivity: From mystery to (mis)use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon, Rn; atomic number Z=85; is a (gaseous) chemical element of which no stable but only radioactive isotopes exist. Three of them, namely actinon (219Rn), thoron (220Rn) and radon (222Rn) are the decay products of naturally occurring radioisotopes of radium:223Ra,224Ra and226Ra, respectively. The natural Rn isotopes were discovered within the period 1899-1902 and at that time referred to as emanations because they came out (emanated) of sources/materials containing actinium, thorium and radium, respectively. The (somewhat mysterious) emanations appeared to disintegrate into radioactive decay products which by depositing at solid surfaces gave rise to “induced” radioactivity i.e. radioactive substances with various half-lives. Following the discovery of the emanations the volume of the research involving them and their disintegration products grew steeply. The identity of a number of these radioactive products was soon established. Radium- emanation was soon used as a source of RaD (210Pb) to be applied as an “indicator” (radiotracer) for lead in a study on the solubility of lead sulphide and lead chromate. Moreover, radium and its emanation were introduced into the medical practice. Inhaling radon and drinking radon-containing water became an accepted medicinal use (or misuse?) of that gas. Shortly after the turn of the century, the healing (?) action of natural springs (spas) was attributed to their radium emanation i.e. radon. Bathing in radioactive spring water and drinking it became very popular. Even today, bathing in radon-containing water is still a common medical treatment in Jáchymov, Czech Republic.

Kolar, Z. I.

1999-01-01

361

Toward an understanding of middle school students' problem-solving strategies: Establishing a foundation for teacher inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade science teachers have made increasing use of a real-world, problem-based approach to science teaching. Without theories of how and why students use knowledge to solve such problems, teachers are constrained in their ability to diagnose students' difficulties in comprehending science concepts as well as students' problems in making connections among the concepts. In this study students from two middle schools were given a "hands-on" experience in solving a real-world forensics problem based on the Lawrence's Hall of Science's Mystery Festival, "The Case of the Missing Millionaire." Following the Mystery Festival, the students went to the computer lab to solve the computer-based transfer problems created with IMMEX problem-solving software. The software includes authoring capabilities and a tracking system that records students' use of knowledge and concepts to solve problems. Data from the computer-based pathways of 495 student pairs, video-records of pairs of students problem-solving, teachers' perception of processes in their classes, and my own observations of problem-solving in action yielded the following results: (1) Twice as many 7th and 8th graders as 6th graders were successful in solving "Roger Rabbit." (2) Approximately twice as many groups correctly solving the problem used an evidence-based approach compared to groups that missed the answer. Groups correctly answering the problem used the evidence-based method, a conjecture-based approach, and a mixed approach (integration of evidence and conjecture) with approximately the same frequencies. (3) Information selection strategies, from the first item a group selected to the last, as they attempted to solve the problem was classified in one of three categories: trial and error, menu-based, and logically linked. Trial and error and menu-based were the dominant strategies. (4) In a follow-up study, 7th and 8th graders attempted to solve "Roger Rabbit" without the hands-on experience of the Mystery Festival. These students comprised a comparison group whereas the original students were designated as the experimental group. The experimental groups were 1.5 times more likely to employ a logically linked strategy for selecting information. (5) Experimental groups that correctly solved the problem were more likely to use an evidence-based approach than were the comparison groups.

Scott, Gary

362

An overlooked source of physician-scientists.  

PubMed

A shortage of physician-scientists in the United States is an ongoing problem. Various recommendations have been made to address this issue; however, none of them have ameliorated the situation. Foreign medical school graduates with postdoctoral training in the United States are an overlooked and untapped resource for combating the dearth of physician-scientists. Evaluation of the scientific staff at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center revealed that 11% of all postdoctoral fellows were international medical graduates. Interestingly, a survey taken by these individuals revealed a lack of institutional and/or mentor support for career development and preparation for becoming physician-scientists. Foreign postdoctoral fellows with medical degrees are not even eligible for physician-scientist grants and awards since they are not US citizens. Although physicians educated in the United States usually matriculate from medical school with high educational debt that prevents most of them from entering into scientific careers, doctors trained outside the United States generally have minimal, if any, debt. Furthermore, many of them have a keen interest in remaining in the United States once they complete their postdoctoral training. Thus, foreign-trained medical professionals who have pursued scientific training in the United States can be one of the solutions for the current dearth of physician-scientists. PMID:18163964

Puljak, Livia

2007-12-01

363

Problem Solving Environment Based on Grid Services: NAREGI-PSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a problem solving environment (PSE) for grid computing called NAREGI-PSE in the NAREGI (National Research Grid Initiative) project, conducted by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of Japan. NAREGI-PSE is researched and developed to support the scientists' works for scientific computer simulations on distributed Grid computers. NAREGI-PSE tells users which computers are

Hiroyuki Kanazawa; Motohiro Yamada; Yutaka Miyahara; Yoshikazu Hayase; Shigeo Kawata; Hitohide Usami

2005-01-01

364

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Trade and Regulated Industries: 1994  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineers, and Technicians in Trade and Regulated Industries: 1994 Hypertext Format Scientists ... Regulated Industries: 1994 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians ...

365

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Profile  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 1995 Profile Hypertext Format Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States ... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication ...

366

Lifelines Episode 06: The Mystery of Serotonin and Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking the "collections" tab in the left hand column. We continue our coverage of Experimental Biology 2008 with an interview with Michigan State University Professor Stephanie W. Watts, who has been investigating whether serotonin plays a role in high blood pressure. The APS has awarded Dr. Watts the Henry Pickering Bowditch Memorial Award for early-career achievement. The award goes to a scientist younger than 42 years whose accomplishments are original and outstanding. It is the Society''s second-highest award.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office); Stephanie W Watts (Michigan State University)

2008-03-18

367

Developing Meaningful Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the Earth System Scientist Network, in which students and teachers participate in research projects with scientists. In these projects the scientists can take advantage of having an extended research team, and the students and teachers can contribute to a research project while developing skills in inquiry and expanding content knowledge in Earth system science. Several issues must be addressed in order to facilitate these partnerships: identifying the scientific research questions, the data that the students will analyze, the requirements for participating schools, and the tools and protocols that the students and teachers will use during their research. Other logistical issues must also be addressed, such as assuring that instruments and tools are available to the teachers and students, providing the background information and training they will need, providing additional research questions that can help spark students' interest, and recognizing students and teachers for their contributions.

Ledley, Tamara; Haddad, Nick; Lockwood, Jeff; Brooks, David

2003-01-01

368

Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The differential equations can be represented in R code or as compiled code. In the latter

Karline Soetaert; Thomas Petzoldt; R. Woodrow Setzer

2010-01-01

369

Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...

370

Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What causes condensation? Does temperature affect how well a balloon will fly? How do tiny bugs get into oatmeal? Through 15 mystery stories, this book memorably illustrates science concepts for students and reinforces the value of learning science through inquiry. Each mystery presents opportunities for students to create questions, form hypotheses, test their ideas, and come up with explanations. Focused on concepts such as periodic motion, thermodynamics, temperature and energy, and sound, these mysteries draw students into the stories by grounding them in experiences students are familiar with, providing them with a foundation for classroom discussion and inquiry. The story format is used because it is one of the most effective ways to engage students' attention right from the start. Each chapter includes a list of science concepts explored, targeted strategies for using the stories with children in grades K-4 and with older students in grades 5-8, and a key matching story concepts with corresponding standards in the NSES.

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

371

The Evolution of the Data Scientist.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When did the data scientist come into being? The National Science Board formally defined the term in 2005. Prior to that, the term was used sporadically, but typically to refer to statisticians or analysts. Nevertheless, the data scientist function has existed for a long time. Those who performed the function were called data managers or librarians or curators. Their role with digital data was critical but ill defined and poorly understood, especially by outsiders. Today, the tem data scientist is gaining currency and the discipline is gaining prominence, but it is a very dynamic field. And while it may be better defined, the term is still poorly understood. This lack of understanding can partly be attributed to the dynamic and evolutionary nature of the field. Domain scientists have developed new expectations for technology and services that enhance their ability to handle massive and complex data and present new challenges to data scientists. In response, data scientists are redefining and adapting their role to these rapidly changing demands of data-driven science and the fourth paradigm. In this paper, I explore the recent evolution of the field of data science as a socio-technical discipline. I discuss what has changed as well as what has remained the same and how some things that seem new may be a recasting of old problems. I take the view that data science is necessarily an evolutionary field that will need to continue to adapt in response to known and unknown challenges in order to ensure a healthy data ecosystem.

Parsons, M. A.

2011-12-01

372

How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

Kea, Howard

2011-01-01

373

Images of Science and Scientists: A Study of School Teachers' Views. I. Characteristics of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines trends in teachers' beliefs about scientists and the nature of science. Discusses teachers' questionnaire responses on the following qualities of scientists: minimum educational qualifications; creativity; temperament; stereotyped image; and personal beliefs about indigenous systems of medicine and astrology. (Contains 63 references.)…

Rampal, A.

1992-01-01

374

Pebble Puzzle Solved  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 In the quest to determine if a pebble was jamming the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, scientists and engineers examined this up-close, approximate true-color image of the tool. The picture was taken by the rover's panoramic camera, using filters centered at 601, 535, and 482 nanometers, at 12:47 local solar time on sol 200 (August 16, 2004).

Colored spots have been drawn on this image corresponding to regions where panoramic camera reflectance spectra were acquired (see chart in Figure 1). Those regions are: the grinding wheel heads (yellow); the rock abrasion tool magnets (green); the supposed pebble (red); a sunlit portion of the aluminum rock abrasion tool housing (purple); and a shadowed portion of the rock abrasion tool housing (brown). These spectra demonstrated that the composition of the supposed pebble was clearly different from that of the sunlit and shadowed portions of the rock abrasion tool, while similar to that of the dust-coated rock abrasion tool magnets and grinding heads. This led the team to conclude that the object disabling the rock abrasion tool was indeed a martian pebble.

2004-01-01

375

Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists and engineers who foster information-sharing and respect between science and the public are essential for the public communication of and engagement with science. Although traditional scientific training typically does not prepare scientists and engineers to be effective communicators outside of academia, funding agencies are increasingly encouraging researchers to extend beyond peer-reviewed publishing and communicate their results directly to the greater public.Includes links to webinars, how-to tips for media interviews, strategies for identifying public outreach opportunities, and more.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-07-07

376

BBC: Sci Files - Inspirational Welsh Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BBC website for secondary school students offers interviews and stories of successful Welsh scientists including Evans the Atom (Lyn Evans), Sir David the Weather (David Brunt), and Williams the Astronaut (Dafydd Rhys Williams). The website offers introductory synopses of the science topics. The Where Now links offer additional information and educational opportunities dealing with the scientist's specialty. Students can find out the starting points and qualifications they'll need for a host of science jobs including forensic science, geology, physics, and radiography. Visitors can assess their knowledge with the Test Your Boffin Factor quiz.

377

Media and the making of scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the unknown. Advocates of informal science learning initiatives suggest that media can be used as a tool for teaching science content. The potential of entertainment media to provide a sense of wonder is a powerful aspect of its potential to inspire the next generation of scientists.

O'Keeffe, Moira

378

Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Here's another chance to play geographical detective! This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. Use any reference materials you like and answer the following five questions: The large lagoon in the image is named for a particular type of bird. Name the bird. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. What did they call the river? A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. Which ONE of the following is most responsible for the formation of these cusps? Violent storm impacts on erosion and accretion Wind and tide-driven sediment transport and circulation Tectonic folding associated with nearby mountain ridges Bathymetric effects of dredging operations True or false: Changes in regional precipitation associated with large scale atmospheric circulation patterns have no effect on the salinity of the lagoon's water. Which one of these is NOT distributed within the area covered by this image? Ruppia maritima Chelonia mydas Tapirus bairdii Microcystis aeruginosa E-mail your answers, name (initials are acceptable if you prefer), and your hometown by Tuesday, February 19, 2002 to suggestions@mail-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. Answers will be published on the MISR web site in conjunction with the next weekly image release. The names and home towns of respondents who answer all questions correctly by the deadline will also be published in the order responses were received. The first 3 people on this list who are not affiliated with NASA, JPL, or MISR and who did not win a prize in the last quiz will be sent a print of the image. A new 'Where on Earth...?' mystery appears as the MISR 'image of the week' approximately once per month. A new image of the week is released every Wednesday at noon Pacific time on the MISR home page http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. The image also appears on the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center home page, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov, though usually with a several-hour delay. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

379

Problem Solving: A Classroom Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student problem solving, even with emotionally disturbed children, provides students and teachers with a way to deal with impulsive behavior. Outlines steps to respectful problem solving by introducing students to ways to reframe their thinking. (JPS)

Templeton, Rosalyn Anstine; Lorsbach, Anthony W.

1996-01-01

380

The Spreadsheet: Solving Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several examples of algebraic word problems and demonstrates how spreadsheets are used to solve the problems. Spreadsheet templates are included to illustrate how each problem is solved. (MBR)

Arad, Ofar S.

1987-01-01

381

Correlates of Creative Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of this research were to (a) identify individual differences related to unstructured problem-solving capability and (b) evaluate the effective- ness of a training course designed to enhance performance in solving unstructured problems. One gr...

S. R. Stewart D. C. Angle

1992-01-01

382

Solving Verbal Problems in Mathematics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video shows effective ways to promote verbal problem solving skills. Examples of teachers and pupils in action, using various problem solving techniques, are interspersed with examples of actual work which result from the use of multiple approaches. I...

1994-01-01

383

The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

Sugarman, Sally

384

Scientists and Educators Working Together: Everyone Teaches, Everyone Learns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary author has been working with three of the authors (Lebofsky, McCarthy, and Cañizo) for nearly 25 years and Schmitt and Higgins for 17 and 8 years, respectively. This collaboration can be summed up with the phrase: “everyone teaches, everyone learns.” What NASA calls E/PO and educators call STEM/STEAM, requires a team effort. Exploration of the Solar System and beyond is a team effort, from research programs to space missions. The same is true for science education. Research scientists with a long-term involvement in science education have come together with science educators, classroom teachers, and informal science educators to create a powerful STEM education team. Scientists provide the science content and act as role models. Science educators provide the pedagogy and are the bridge between the scientists and the teacher. Classroom teachers and informal science educators bring their real-life experiences working in classrooms and in informal settings and can demonstrate scientists’ approaches to problem solving and make curriculum more engaging. Together, we provide activities that are grade-level appropriate, inquiry-based, tied to the literacy, math, and science standards, and connected directly to up-to-date science content and ongoing research. Our programs have included astronomy camps for youth and adults, professional development for teachers, in-school and after-school programs, family science events, and programs in libraries, science centers, and museums. What lessons have we learned? We are all professionals and can learn from each other. By engaging kids and having them participate in activities and ask questions, we can empower them to be the presenters for others, even their families. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: Use models and engage the audience, do not just lecture. Connect the activity with ongoing science and get participants outside to look at the real sky: do a Moon journal, measure shadows, observe constellations, and look through a telescope—the sky is more than just string, balls, or a computer program.

Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Canizo, T. L.; Schmitt, W.; Higgins, M. L.

2013-10-01

385

Depression and Social Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means–Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit

Elisabeth M. Marx; J. Mark G. Williams; Gordon C. Claridge

1992-01-01

386

"Physics and Life" - Teachers Meet Scientists at Major EIROforum Event [  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 400 selected delegates from 22 European countries will take part in "Physics on Stage 3" , organised by the EIROforum [1] research organisations (CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF, ILL) at the ESA ESTEC site (Noordwijk, The Netherlands). It is the culmination of a year-long educational programme and is a central event during the EC-sponsored European Science and Technology Week (November 8-15, 2003). Following the vastly successful preceeding events in 2000 and 2002, the main theme this year is "Physics and Life", reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass more of the natural sciences within an interdisciplinary approach. As before, European teachers, scientists, curricula organisers and others connected to the national education systems in Europe will gather with the main goal of exploring solutions to stimulate the interest of young people in science, by means of exciting and innovative teaching methods and materials. The rich one-week programme has many components: spectacular and original performances by students and professional actors, intensive encounters at a central fair where each country will present the latest developments from its teaching community at their stands, workshops about a host of crucial themes related to the central mission of this programme, seminars where EIROforum scientists and experienced high school teachers get together to discuss new teaching opportunities based on the latest results from front-line research projects at Europe's leading science centres, as well as a publishers fair that will also serve as an international exchange for new educational materials. A mystery cultural event will surprise everyone with its originality. And last but not least, the annual European Science Teaching Awards - the highest distinction in this field - will be presented at the end of the meeting. "Physics on Stage" is a joint project organised by EIROforum, together with the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) . The project is funded in part by the European Commission and takes place under the auspices of the European Science and Technology Week 2003. It is directed by the EIROforum Working Group on Outreach that brings together key members of the seven organisations' respective outreach departments. The "Physics on Stage 3" festival will be opened on Monday, November 10, by His Royal Highness, Prince Johan Friso of the Netherlands. Among the distinguished guests will also be Her Excellency, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, as well as several Directors-General of the EIROforum organisations. This "Physics on Stage 3" festival is the most visible event within a year-long programme with the very active involvement of National Committees in two dozen European countries, each of which organised national events or competitions, during which the 400 delegates to the festival were selected for their outstanding projects to promote science teaching. Among the many entries, for example, two young physicists from Germany focus on the beauty of physical phenomena, producing fractals and demonstrating the "Theremin", the only musical instrument played without being touched. In another demonstration, a team from the UK explore the nature of sound and the theme of genetics through drama, music and physical theatre. In this third international festival of physics education, biological and biochemical themes will also play a major role. As usual, the colourful centrepiece of the week is the Fair. Every country has its own stand where delegates show their new, exciting and surprising projects, innovative software, elegant experiments, etc. In this highly inspiring atmosphere, the teachers exchange practical experience and insights, learning from each other and preparing themselves to bring back to their respective countries a rich harvest of new ideas and inspiration for better teaching of science. "Physics

2003-11-01

387

Solving a Historical Puzzle  

SciTech Connect

We report x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements of four closely related perovskite materials: SrTiO3, CaTiO3, CaZrO3, and SrZrO3. This data is used to address the conceptually important, early EXAFS experiment of Perel and Deslattes. That experiment attempted to distinguish between the then-competing short-range and long-range theories of EXAFS by cross-material comparison of the EXAFS for the metal ions in the four perovskites reported here. Their inconclusive result is surprising, given the modern understanding of EXAFS. Our new measurements show strong disagreements with the prior results at multiple edges. When analyzed in qualitative, conceptual framework of the original study, our new results are in strong agreement with the short-range order theory. This solves a historical puzzle in the early scientific development of x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Groves, M.; Stern, E. A.; Seidler, G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Balasubramanian, M. [Advance Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2007-02-02

388

Environmental problem solving  

SciTech Connect

Human influences create both environmental problems and barriers to effective policy aimed at addressing those problems. In effect, environmental managers manage people as much as they manage the environment. Therefore, they must gain an understanding of the psychological and sociopolitical dimensions of environmental problems that they are attempting to resolve. The author reappraises conventional analyses of environmental problems using lessons from the psychosocial disciplines. The author combines the disciplines of ecology, political sociology and psychology to produce a more adaptive approach to problem-solving that is specifically geared toward the environmental field. Numerous case studies demonstrate the practical application of theory in a way that is useful to technical and scientific professionals as well as to policymakers and planners.

Miller, A. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

1999-06-01

389

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

390

Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists.\\u000a Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices\\u000a were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development\\u000a experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers

Judith A. Morrison; Jeffrey C. Estes

2007-01-01

391

Dark Matter Mystery Deepens in Cosmic "Train Wreck"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have discovered a chaotic scene unlike any witnessed before in a cosmic "train wreck" between giant galaxy clusters. NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical telescopes revealed a dark matter core that was mostly devoid of galaxies, which may pose problems for current theories of dark matter behavior. "These results challenge our understanding of the way clusters merge," said Dr. Andisheh Mahdavi of the University of Victoria, British Columbia. "Or, they possibly make us even reexamine the nature of dark matter itself." There are three main components to galaxy clusters: individual galaxies composed of billions of stars, hot gas in between the galaxies, and dark matter, a mysterious substance that dominates the cluster mass and can be detected only through its gravitational effects. Illustration of Abell 520 System Illustration of Abell 520 System Optical telescopes can observe the starlight from the individual galaxies, and can infer the location of dark matter by its subtle light-bending effects on distant galaxies. X-ray telescopes like Chandra detect the multimillion-degree gas. A popular theory of dark matter predicts that dark matter and galaxies should stay together, even during a violent collision, as observed in the case of the so-called Bullet Cluster. However, when the Chandra data of the galaxy cluster system known as Abell 520 was mapped along with the optical data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, HI, a puzzling picture emerged. A dark matter core was found, which also contained hot gas but no bright galaxies. "It blew us away that it looks like the galaxies are removed from the densest core of dark matter," said Dr. Hendrik Hoekstra, also of University of Victoria. "This would be the first time we've seen such a thing and could be a huge test of our knowledge of how dark matter behaves." Animation of Galaxy Cluster Animation of Galaxy Cluster In addition to the dark matter core, a corresponding "light region" containing a group of galaxies with little or no dark matter was also detected. The dark matter appears to have separated from the galaxies. "The observation of this group of galaxies that is almost devoid of dark matter flies in the face of our current understanding of the cosmos," said Dr. Arif Babul, University of Victoria. "Our standard model is that a bound group of galaxies like this should have a lot of dark matter. What does it mean that this one doesn't?" In the Bullet Cluster, known as 1E 0657-56, the hot gas is slowed down during the collision but the galaxies and dark matter appear to continue on unimpeded. In Abell 520, it appears that the galaxies were unimpeded by the collision, as expected, while a significant amount of dark matter has remained in the middle of the cluster along with the hot gas. Mahdavi and his colleagues have two possible explanations for their findings, both of which are uncomfortable for prevailing theories. The first option is that the galaxies were separated from the dark matter through a complex set of gravitational "slingshots." This explanation is problematic because computer simulations have not been able to produce slingshots that are nearly powerful enough to cause such a separation. The second option is that dark matter is affected not only by gravity, but also by an as-yet-unknown interaction between dark matter particles. This exciting alternative would require new physics and could be difficult to reconcile with observations of other galaxies and galaxy clusters, such as the aforementioned Bullet Cluster. In order to confirm and fully untangle the evidence for the Abell 520 dark matter core, the researchers have secured time for new data from Chandra plus the Hubble Space Telescope. With the additional observations, the team hopes to resolve the mystery surrounding this system. These results are scheduled to appear in the October 20th issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team in

2007-08-01

392

New Observations Deepen Mystery Surrounding Water Masers in Elliptical Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have deepened the mystery surrounding water molecules in a galaxy 65 million light- years away. The water molecules are acting as natural masers -- amplifiers of microwave radio emissions -- and these cosmic masers within the galaxy NGC 1052 are raising difficult questions for astronomers trying to explain them. Results of the new observations, which pinpoint the location of water masers in NGC 1052, were announced today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Toronto, Ontario. The researchers are: Jim Braatz of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Mark Claussen and Phil Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, New Mexico, Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland, and Christian Henkel of the Max Planck Institute fur Radioastronomie in Bonn, Germany. Water masers have been detected in several other galaxies. However, most galaxies containing water "megamasers" such as those in NGC 1052 are spiral galaxies. NGC 1052 is one of only two elliptical galaxies in which water megamasers have been detected. Because ellipticals tend to have much less gas and dust than spirals, the existence of the water masers in NGC 1052 is surprising by itself, though that galaxy does have more gas and dust than the typical elliptical. Located in the constellation Cetus, NGC 1052 also has an active nucleus, believed to be powered by the gravitational energy of a supermassive black hole at its core. The new VLBA observations produced an additional mystery. In other galaxies with water megamasers, the masers are believed to lie within a disk of molecules orbiting the galaxy's central black hole. This is the case, for example, in the now-famous galaxy NGC 4258, where the movement of the orbiting disk can be traced by measuring both the Doppler shift of radio emission from the masers and by tracking the motion of individual maser "spots" as their orbital motion carries them across our line of sight. However, in NGC 1052, this does not appear to be the case. Instead of residing within a disk orbiting the possible black hole, the water masers in NGC 1052 may lie in a "jet" of material being ejected by the central engine of the active nucleus. The high-resolution VLBA observations allowed the team of researchers to locate the water masers with respect to the jet. If the masers were in a disk around a black hole, the masers would be expected to lie in a line perpendicular to the jet axis around the radio core. Two "clumps" of maser emission, each composed of several weaker features, were found instead to lie along the jet axis. "The fact that the masers don't lie transverse to the jet axis means that these masers possibly do not trace a molecular disk around a possible black hole, but could be coming from gas either in the jet material itself, or in some molecular gas just in front of the jet," said Claussen. The researchers don't yet know exactly which of the radio continuum brightness peaks represent the true core of the galaxy, but further analysis of existing data taken by other groups in conjunction with the new data will allow them to determine just where the central engine lies with respect to the jet and the water masers. The shape of the spectrum of the water masers in NGC 1052 also is different than that of the other water megamasers. Typical spectra of water masers in spiral galaxies are composed of many narrow, "spiky" features. The maser spectrum in NGC 1052 is broad and relatively smooth. Periodic monitoring of the maser emission in NGC 1052 using single-dish radio telescopes in Germany, Australia, and the United States has been performed over the past two years. In that time, the features of the maser spectrum have drifted toward longer wavelengths, presumably because of velocity changes that affected the Doppler shift of the radio waves. The overall velocity has changed by about 50 kilometers per second duri

393

"The Disinterested Scientist": Fact or Fiction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behavior of scientists who studied the moon rocks from the various Apollo missions was examined over a three year period. Methods of interviews ranging from discussion to written questionnaires were designed to explore issues connected with lunar missions and to focus on specific attitudes towards these issues. The central question emphasized…

Mitroff, Ian I.

1973-01-01

394

The Political Scientist as an Academic Humanist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses possibilities for political scientists to work with an adult non-campus public through grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Humanities are defined in terms of those academic disciplines concerned with the records, interpretation, and evaluation of human knowledge. The author describes his success with six…

Rader, Brian F.

395

Scientists Describe Molecular Characteristics of Lung Tumors  

Cancer.gov

Scientists report that they were able to distinguish between the patterns of gene expression for two common types of non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, in the current issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

396

Educational Mismatch and the Careers of Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research confirms that many employees work in jobs not well matched to their skills and education, resulting in lower pay and job satisfaction. While this literature typically uses cross-sectional data, we examine the evolution of mismatch and its consequences over a career, by using a panel data set of scientists in the USA. The results…

Bender, Keith A.; Heywood, John S.

2011-01-01

397

Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen…

Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

2013-01-01

398

Pollution Problems, Resource Policy, and the Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case history of a power plant proposal for Cayuga Lake, New York, illustrates problems of discussion-making on the use of natural resources. Discusses the motives of special interest groups, and the roles of citizens and scientists. Proposes principles of resoruce management. (EB)

Eipper, Alfred W.

1970-01-01

399

Scientists Report Advance in Understanding Steroid Receptors  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have long known that proteins called steroid receptors play a critical role in switching on hormone-responsive genes. What has been unclear is how these proteins orchestrate the process, a key issue in learning to control genes activated by steroid hormones such as androgen and estrogen.

400

The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

Crew, Robert E., Jr.

2011-01-01

401

Cautiously, Scientists Put Faith in Obama Promise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that academic researchers are optimistic that President Barack Obama's approach to science heralds a new era of support for their work. When Mr. Obama named his top science and technology advisers only weeks after being elected, many scientists celebrated. After eight years of an administration that many academics believed…

Field, Kelly

2009-01-01

402

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and Portable Document Format (.pdf). See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats. Links to additional reports in the Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication series page.

403

Writing for Non-Scientists about Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physicists should communicate their knowledge to the general public because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." This article discusses what I've learned about writing for non-scientists from working on my physics…

Hobson, Art

2011-01-01

404

Social Origins of American Scientists and Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is an investigation of the social origins of American scientists and scholars. Exhaustive data, gathered over a 40 year period, were reviewed and were gathered from sources reflecting geographical, baccalaureate, and social class variations. To a significant extent these variations were associated with the kind of a religious-ethnic group…

Hardy, Kenneth R.

1974-01-01

405

Scientist and Engineer Shortage: Myth or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With clockwork regularity, the real or perceived shortage of scientists and engineers in the US pops up as a topic of debate in academic and industry circles. Discussions of an imminent shortage have deep impact for education, career prospects, immigration, and "The American Dream." The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it poses a…

Post, Jan F.

2006-01-01

406

Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery  

PubMed Central

We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist.

2010-01-01

407

Plate Tectonics: The Scientist Behind the Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from A Science Odyssey profiles Alfred Wegener, the scientist who first proposed the theory of continental drift. Initially criticized, his theory was accepted after further evidence revealed the existence of tectonic plates and showed that these plates move.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

408

Scientists Involved in K-12 Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations (www.cosee.org) that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping-in pre-existing programs to contribute right away without having to re-invent the wheel is a good approach. Education and outreach sessions are expanding at professional, scientific meetings such as AGU, and provide an excellent start for those in search of new educational experiences. Contacting a regional COSEE is also a very effective way to get involved.

Robigou, V.

2004-12-01

409

National Conference on Student & Scientist Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education is turning an exciting corner with the development of a new class of projects called Student and Scientist Partnerships for authentic research. Examples include GLOBE, Hands-On Universe and EarthKAM. These projects engage students as learners and as participants in authentic research.Through such projects scientists acquire new research partners. At the same time, students experience real science, learning up-to-date science content and developing essential investigation skills. To better understand the nature and potential of these partnerships, an invitational conference was held in Washington, D.C.,from October 23-25, 1996. The conference, funded by the National Science Foundation and coordinated by TERC and the Concord Consortium, brought together 60 leaders in science and education who have research backgrounds, practical experience, or a high interest in Student, Scientists & Partnerships. The participants confirmed that this shift from the "student as recipient" to the "student as partner" model can be of real and substantive benefit for both the scientists and the students. The primary and most obvious benefits for the students are the excitement of doing authentic science, a new context for hands-on experiential learning, and the linkage of school learning with the "real world." For the scientists, the primary benefits are the help of student partners who enable the scientists to do research that might not otherwise be possible and the personal rewards of supporting education. Beyond these primary benefits, however, is a secondary and perhaps deeper level of benefits, resulting from the cross-fertilization between these two rich cultures. In each partnership, it helps to recognize and articulate what I call "the three authentics". Authentic Science-The science must be real science. It must contribute new knowledge. The research must be central to the scientists' work, and the student participation must contribute in a meaningful way to this research. Authentic Education-The learning experience for the students must build on "best practice" in education. Students should not simply be "data robots" for the scientists. Students should also do their own related investigations, so that they participate in effective inquiry-based learning, developing both content knowledge and skills of scientific investigation. The fact that they are contributing to the scientists' research is an exciting and compelling context for their learning, but it cannot be the only learning. Authentic Partnership-The partnership among the scientists, students and teachers must be a real partnership. Each partner must have a sincere and personal desire to participate in the partnership an enlightened self-interest. Each must also have a respect for the other's domain and a willingness to learn more about it. Neither partner can blindly relinquish its own core values. Each should, however, be prepared for new ideas and a few paradigm shifts, both in his or her perception of the other's domain and even in one's own field.

Barstow, D.

2001-05-01

410

The Case of the Missing Rumbleometer: A deep ocean mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) is a seafloor observatory off the coast of Oregon, which studies the relationships between submarine volcanic events and the chemistry and distribution of hydrothermal vents and the biologic communities that depend on them. The research activities at NeMO provide an extraordinary educational opportunity, both from the daily reports from expeditions at sea and from creative learning materials based on NeMO results. This curriculum is based on real events and real data: the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano and the rumbleometer instrument that was stuck in the new lava flow. The activities for the classroom are modeled on how scientists actually investigated this event. This curriculum is intended for middle and high school students in earth science and marine science classes and includes advice for presentation and additional background information that could be incorporated into the lessons. It is supported by the National Science Foundation, Oregon Sea Grant, and Oregon State University.

Chadwick, William; Crouse, Ronald

2001-06-01

411

Ulysses discovers the mysteries of the sun's south pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists at ESA's space research and technology centre in Noordwijk (the Netherlands) this morning gave a very positive account of the South polar pass phase, which started in June and will be completed in November. In particular they concluded that the south polar region displayed unexpected magnetic and dynamic characteristics; this probably means that the thinking on the magnetic structure of the Sun will have to be revised. The first thing that surprised the scientists was the low cosmic radiation activity above the south pole and the remarkable apparent absence of a south magnetic pole. Richard Marsden, ESA's project scientist, explained: "We expected the Sun to have a relatively simple magnetic field, such as the Earth's or that of a magnetised iron bar. We thought we were going to find a local increase in the field's intensity. But the probe did not detect any such thing and all the evidence so far suggests that the Sun has no south magnetic pole. Could it be that the Sun has no south magnetic pole? Or is one suddenly going to appear before Ulysses completes its pass? These are some of the questions exercising the minds of the team of scientists working on the project, who are keenly looking forward to comparing these results with those that will be coming through next year when the probe passes over the Sun's north geographic pole. It is however already manifestly clear that the structure of the solar magnetic field in the southern polar region is not as predicted by the models. In particular, the instruments on board Ulysses have detected a new type of very slowly varying electromagnetic waves, with oscillation periods of 10 to 20 hours. The experts' theory is that this is due to an unexpected phenomenon that conveys the solar magnetic field into space through the solar wind. It is still far too early to say what effect these new findings are going to have on our overall understanding of the Sun and the interplanetary wind it generates. A vast volume of data running into billions of bits, all of it of great scientific value, has been acquired during the first part of this polar pass. Detailed analysis is going to take many months. However, one thing about which there is no doubt is the complexity of the phenomena observed, which involve the combined effects of the solar wind, magnetic field, electromagnetic waves and fast-moving bursts of particles. Further insights will probably be gained when Ulysses passes over the Sun's north pole in 1995 and, if the mission is extended, when it makes two further polar passes in 2000-2001, during a period of intense magnetic activity. (*) Ulysses is a joint ESA/NASA mission. ESA developed the probe and is contributing an estimated ECU 170 million up to 1995 to its in-fl operation. European research laboratories provided half of the scie instruments. NASA provided the other half of the experiments flown a radio-isotopic power generator and the launch; it is also maintain day-to-day communications with the probe via its dedicated antennas.

1994-09-01

412

Getting to Yes: Supporting Scientists in Education and Public Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research scientists are busy people, with many demands on their time and few institutional rewards for engagement in education and public outreach (EPO). However, scientist involvement in education has been called for by funding agencies, education researchers and the scientific organizations. In support of this idea, educators consistently rate interaction with scientists as the most meaningful element of an outreach project. What factors help scientists become engaged in EPO, and why do scientists stay engaged? This presentation describes the research-based motivations and barriers for scientists to be engaged in EPO, presents strategies for overcoming barriers, and describes elements of EPO that encourage and support scientist engagement.

Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; Smith, L. K.

2011-12-01

413

From Science to Business: Preparing Female Scientists and Engineers for Successful Transitions into Entrepreneurship--Summary of a Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists, engineers, and medical professionals play a vital role in building the 21st- century science and technology enterprises that will create solutions and jobs critical to solving the large, complex, and interdisciplinary problems faced by society: problems in energy, sustainability, the environment, water, food, disease, and healthcare.…

Didion, Catherine Jay; Guenther, Rita S.; Gunderson, Victoria

2012-01-01

414

SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the next three months, more than 350 scientists from Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States will combine forces to measure ozone levels and changes in the upper Arctic atmosphere as part of SOLVE, the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. Although much of the SOLVE homepage targets the public, several sections will be of interest to researchers and educators. The section entitled Mission Description features illustrated information on ozone, including ozone effects, UV-ozone interactions, Polar Stratospheric Clouds, and chemical reactions, among other topics. Also of interest is the Theory Teams section, providing summaries and references for more than a dozen SOLVE research projects -- including Photochemistry of Arctic Ozone, Resolution Modeling of Synoptic and Gravity Waves, and Theoretical Studies of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Clouds and Aerosols, to name a few. A collection of links rounds out the site.

415

The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Etruscan culture developed in Central Italy (Etruria) in the first millennium BC and for centuries dominated part of the Italian Peninsula, including Rome. The history of the Etruscans is at the roots of Mediterranean culture and civilization, but their origin is still debated: local or Eastern provenance? To shed light on this mystery, bovine and human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs)

Marco Pellecchia; Riccardo Negrini; Licia Colli; Massimiliano Patrini; Elisabetta Milanesi; Alessandro Achilli; Giorgio Bertorelle; Luigi L. Cavalli-Sforza; Alberto Piazza; Antonio Torroni; Paolo Ajmone-Marsan

2007-01-01

416

Change and Mystery: The Grist of How's and Why's in Inquiry Indicator Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this activity, students mix mystery chemicals in a freezer bag to produce reactions that are unexpected. As a result, one chemical seems to disappear, the bag expands, and then the bag turns hot and cold. Participants then ask questions and design their own activities to answer their self-generated questions. The research cycle continues until…

Schlenker, Richard M.; Petrichenko, Oksana Y.

2006-01-01

417

The near-death experience: An ancient truth, a modern mystery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The near-death experience (NDE), as an experience of whole-ness, an adventure in consciousness, and a metaphoric encounter with light, links theoretical physics with the occult, the Primordial Tradition, and various religious belief systems. Light as image, vehicle, and first cause ties the NDE to mystical experience. Where science sees mystery, religion sees metaphoric truth; the NDE as spiritual quest and

Elizabeth W. Fenske

1990-01-01

418

The Mysterious Death: An HPLC Lab Experiment. An Undergraduate Forensic Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment based on the separation of four prescription drugs (disopyramide, lidocaine, procainamide, and quinidine) is presented. The experiment is set within the forensic science context of the discovery of a patient's mysterious death where a drug overdose is suspected. Each lab group…

Beussman, Douglas J.

2007-01-01

419

Characterization and identification of the Detroit River mystery oil spill (2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a case study of the Detroit River mystery oil spill (2002) is presented that demonstrates the utility of detailed and integrated oil fingerprinting in investigating unknown or suspected oil spills. The detailed diagnostic oil fingerprinting techniques include determination of hydrocarbon groups and semi-quantitative product screening, analysis of oil-characteristic biomarkers and the extended suite of parent and alkylated

Zhendi Wang; M Fingas; P Lambert; G Zeng; C Yang; B Hollebone

2004-01-01

420

More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where do rotten apples go after they fall off the tree? Does the temperature of the wood affect the heat of the fire? Can you make water boil faster? How large a mirror do you need to see your whole body? This second volume of 15 mystery stories examines

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-06-25

421

Gatekeepers, Gatecrashers, and Gateways in Group Work with Kids: A Mystery Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is framed as a group work mystery story and presents obstacles and opportunities for working with children and adolescents in groups. The reader is left guessing about how a student intern can overcome what she experiences as an unsympathetic supervisor who is thwarting her attempts to form an activity group composed of teenaged moms. The article interweaves group

Andrew Malekoff

2009-01-01

422

Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory  

PubMed Central

Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing.

Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

2010-01-01

423

THE MYSTERY OF THE DINOSAURS: THE EARTH'S ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MAY EXPLAIN THEIR GIANTISM AND EXTINCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why dinosaurs became so large and why they became extinct are two of the great mysteries of biology. However, no theory has yet succeeded in explaining the biotic transitions adequately. In a previous meta-analysis, we found that exposure to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) was associated with an increase in animal body weight. In the present paper, we

Tsutomu Nishimura; Kaneo Mohri; Masanori Fukushima

2009-01-01

424

The Mystery of Marijuana: Science and the U.S. War on Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mystery of why marijuana is so severely repressed by law enforcement should be especially humbling for public health researchers in the United States and for the field of science studies more broadly. It demonstrates the need for putting institutional power politics and the social construction of reality into the center of our analysis of drugs. It also drills home

Philippe Bourgois

2008-01-01

425

Retaining clinician-scientists: nature versus nurture.  

PubMed

In their IOVS article "Rejuvenating Clinician-Scientist Training" (published March 28, 2014), Balamurali Ambati and Judd Cahoon rightly point out the dearth of new clinician-scientists in ophthalmology. Within the context of their suggestions for increasing the number of successful clinician-scientists, they claim that the traditional MD-PhD training programs and K awards have failed to produce individuals who will carry on the important work of clinically relevant research that will improve patients' lives and sight. In this response we present data, including information on the career paths of graduates of the Washington University ophthalmology residency, that call into question the presumed failure of MD-PhD and K award programs and show that, in fact, graduates of these programs are more likely to succeed as clinician-scientists than are their peers who have not trained in such scientifically rigorous environments. We propose that, rather than a failure of early training programs, it may be obstacles that arise later in training and among junior faculty that prevent promising careers from reaching maturity. Funding, one rather large obstacle, takes the form of imbalanced start-up monies, less National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding awarded to young investigators, and study section composition that may work against those with clinically driven questions. We also explore the challenges faced in the culture surrounding residency and fellowship training. We agree with Ambati and Cahoon that there needs to be more innovation in the way training programs are structured, but we believe that the evidence supports supplementing the current model rather than scrapping it and starting over with unproven initiatives. The data on training programs supports the contention that those who have already made substantial investment and commitment to the clinician-scientist pathway through participation in MSTP or K training programs are the most likely to succeed on this career trajectory. To muffle the siren song of private practice and retain those best prepared for the clinician-scientist pathway requires additional investment as their careers mature through protected research time, mentorship, and advocacy. PMID:24867910

Culican, Susan M; Rupp, Jason D; Margolis, Todd P

2014-05-01

426

Mystery Sums, Part One â Deduce the Unknown Addends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value of four letters, which are initially from 1-10, but this upper limit can be changed. Players drag any two letters across a divider to the right to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Scher, Daniel

2012-10-08

427

National Ice Center Visiting Scientist Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term goal of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Visiting Scientist Program at the National Ice Center (NIC) is to recruit the highest quality visiting scientists in the ice research community for the broad purpose of strengthening the relationship between the operational and research communities in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research supports the scientific community by creating, conducting, and coordinating projects that strengthen education and research in the atmospheric, oceanic and earth sciences. UCAR accomplishes this mission by building partnerships that are national or global in scope. The goal of UCAR is to enable researchers and educators to take on issues and activities that require the combined and collaborative capabilities of a broadly engaged scientific community.

Austin, Meg

2002-01-01

428

Federation of American Scientists: WMD Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a non-profit organization founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists. The founders "were members of the Manhattan Project, creators of the atom bomb and deeply concerned about the implications of its use for the future of humankind." Although not as sleek a design as the main website for FAS, this website has a wealth of information on nuclear resources, with particular emphasis on the now common household term, WMD. From this website, visitors can read the Special Weapons Primer for an introduction to special weapons, research arms control agreements, review the "global guide to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, including information on delivery systems, doctrine, organizations and facilities," read up on Richard L. Garwin, the famous weapons designer, learn about the history and technology of space nuclear propulsion, or explore numerous other links.

429

Extraordinary Cosmic Laboratory Helps Unravel Mysteries of a Galaxy's Powerful Central "Engine"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extraordinary cosmic laboratory 21 million light-years away is providing radio astronomers their best opportunity yet to decipher the mysteries of the ultra-powerful "engines" at the hearts of many galaxies and quasars. An international research team using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescopes has peered deeply into the core of the galaxy NGC 4258, learning important new information about the mysterious region from which high-speed jets of subatomic particles are ejected. The scientists announced their findings today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Toronto, Ontario. The new research provides significant quantitative support for a theoretical model for the origin of such jets first proposed in 1979. NGC 4258 is the galaxy in which a warped disk of water molecules was discovered in 1994. That disk, observed in detail with the VLBA, was shown to be orbiting a central mass some 35 million times more massive than the Sun. That central mass, the astronomers believe, is a black hole. More recent studies of the disk and its surroundings have given astronomers their most detailed look yet at the heart of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), including the ability to pinpoint the exact center of the system, where the black hole resides. The 1994 observations provided the best evidence to date for the existence of a black hole at the heart of a galaxy. Black holes, so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational fields, have long been suspected as the driving force behind the energetic central engines of AGNs. The fortuitous existence of the molecular disk in NGC 4258 has helped astronomers use the ultrasharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA to probe with unprecedented clarity into the heart of that galaxy's central engine. The researchers are: James Herrnstein, James Moran, and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Philip Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM; Mikoto Miyoshi of Japan's Misusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory; and Naomasa Nakai and Makoto Inoue of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The work formed the basis of Herrnstein's Ph.D. dissertation at Harvard University. The extraordinary detail of the observations is made possible by the fact that the water molecules in the disk orbiting the black hole are amplifying microwave radio emissions in the same manner that a laser amplifies light. These natural amplifiers are called cosmic masers, and they produce bright targets for radio telescopes. Study of water masers at the center of NGC 4258 is what revealed the orbiting disk in 1994. Further studies of the water masers in NGC 4258 now have allowed the research team to deduce the exact location of the object orbited by the disk. In addition, new observations of the galaxy's center show radio emission the astronomers believe traces the inner parts of the high-speed jets. Combined, these new observations allow measurement of the distance between the black hole and the innermost observable portions of the jets. Such measurement is extremely important, because the standard theoretical model, proposed in 1979 by Roger Blandford of Caltech and Arieh Konigl of the University of Chicago, makes a clear prediction that all detected radio emission will be offset from the central engine generating the jets. The new radio observations of NGC 4258 are the first to show the exact location of the core of an AGN, and thus the first to allow measurement of the offset between the core and the detected emission closest to it. Significantly, the offset measured in NGC 4258 is fully consistent with the quantitative prediction made by the model of Blandford and Konigl. "There has been a lot of speculation about the relationship between radio jets and black holes over the years," said Herrnstein. "But this measurement precisely pins down the geometric relationship between them in this object." In addition to these measurements, the research

430

OceanLink: Ask A Marine Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site is dedicated to ocean education. You will find all kinds of interesting information about things like: the biggest sea animals, marine biology careers, answers to common ocean and animal questions, and more. Check the Answer Archive for answers to your marine science questions, and if you do not find your answer, ask one of their scientists. Site also includes ocean news, world records, and information on summer camps.

431

Mars' Seasonal Fans Measured by Citizen Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tens of thousands of citizens of planet earth have helped catalog fans in images taken in spring in the south polar region of Mars, via the web portal "Planet Four" at http://www.planetfour.org. This website is part of the Zooniverse collection of online citizen science projects. At the time of this submission (6 May 2013) the total number of citizen scientists that have participated was 70610.

Hansen, C. J.; Portyankina, G.; Aye, K. M.; Schwamb, M. E.; Lintott, C.; Smith, A.

2013-09-01

432

RISE (Resources for Involving Scientists in Education)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1989 by the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, RISE conducts workshops and publishes materials to help scientists and engineers play effective roles in improving science education, from kindergarten through high school. Site provides information to help potential volunteers determine how they can best make a positive contribution to their local schools and community. Background information and project examples are provided.

433

What Do Scientists Want: Money or Fame?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists carry out the tasks of education, research, and commercial activities (the so-called third task) at universities. Despite their importance, the roles, motivations, and perceptions of university inventors have been relatively\\u000a neglected topics of study. Most studies on university-industry relations have hitherto focused on a few selected elite universities,\\u000a technology transfer offices (TTOs), patent legislations, or technology transfer activities in

Prashanth Mahagaonkar

2008-01-01

434

Enabling Scientists Through Workflowand Quality of Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a strong desire within scientific communities to Grid-enable their experiments. This is fueled by the advantages\\u000a of having remote (collaborative) access to instruments, computational resources and storage. In order to make the scientists\\u000a experience as rewarding as possible two technologies need to be adopted into the Grid paradigm: those of workflow, to allow\\u000a the whole scientific process to

A. S. McGough; A. Akram; D. Colling; L. Guo; C. Kotsokalis; M. Krznaric; P. Kyberd; J. Martyniak

435

NASA Astrobiology Institute Scientist/Educator Bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has engaged in many educational programs and projects, and one major focus of the Office of Space Science's priorities in establishing education and public outreach (E/PO) programs has been the inclusion of scientists in those efforts. However, the construction of scientist/educator teams remains a major challenge in NASA education efforts. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) seeks to build bridges between these two professions in ways that are respectful of the expertise of each in bringing astrobiology content to K-12 classrooms. Several of the NAI's Lead Teams, collaborative interdisciplinary research groups pursuing core questions in astrobiology and providing education and training, include teachers and other experts in education to focus their E/PO efforts while also integrating the unique scientific expertise of their teams. This approach is not without its challenges and difficulties. Communication, accuracy, inclusion, funding, and the larger science education reform efforts are among them. There is tremendous work to be done in the arena of winning mutual respect and inclusion of both scientists and educators in providing NASA content to K-12 audiences. NAI is engaged in a series of attempts through the venues of both science and education conferences where such understanding may be built. This panel discussion represents one of these efforts.

Wilmoth, K. L.

2003-12-01

436

The scientist's education and a civic conscience.  

PubMed

A civic science curriculum is advocated. We discuss practical mechanisms for (and highlight the possible benefits of) addressing the relationship between scientific knowledge and civic responsibility coextensively with rigorous scientific content. As a strategy, we suggest an in-course treatment of well known (and relevant) historical and contemporary controversies among scientists over science policy or the use of sciences. The scientific content of the course is used to understand the controversy and to inform the debate while allowing students to see the role of scientists in shaping public perceptions of science and the value of scientific inquiry, discoveries and technology in society. The examples of the activism of Linus Pauling, Alfred Nobel and Joseph Rotblat as scientists and engaged citizens are cited. We discuss the role of science professors in informing the social conscience of students and consider ways in which a treatment of the function of science in society may find, coherently, a meaningful space in a science curriculum at the college level. Strategies for helping students to recognize early the crucial contributions that science can make in informing public policy and global governance are discussed. PMID:23096773

Donald, Kelling J; Kovac, Jeffrey

2013-09-01

437

Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…

Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

2008-01-01

438

Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

2012-12-01

439

Death of honeybees continues to baffle scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mysterious disorder puts S.D. bees at riskhttp://www.argusleader.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/NEWS/705150301/1001Queen Bees-In Hive or Castle, Duty Without Powerhttp://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/science/15angi.htmlAre mobile phones wiping out our bees?http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/wildlife/article2449968.eceYou've saved whales and dolphins-now save the beeshttp://www.nashuatelegraph.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/COLUMNISTS26/70515009/-1/opinionNature: Bee Anatomy [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/alienempire/multimedia/bee.htmlThe Beekeeping Portalhttp://www.beekeeping.org/Apiarists throughout the United States and the rest of the world have been asking one pressing question over the past several months: What is killing millions of honeybees? A number of theories have been proposed as of late, and the mysterious ailment known as colony collapse disorder is something that is puzzling both entomologists and those who derive their livelihood from honeybee-related activities. Bees have been leaving the hive and never returning, so researchers can't perform necropsies in many cases. While some people may just associate honeybees with their most popular product, namely honey, these tiny creatures are also responsible for pollinating over ninety different crops, including almonds, apples, cranberries, watermelon, and cucumbers. One potential explanation that has been advanced is that extensive radiation from mobile phones could be interfering with bees' navigation systems. An apiarist in South Dakota, Brad Folsand, remarked that "You always lose a few, maybe 10 percent or something like that. But there are guys who have lost 90 percent in some places." Apiculturists from the University of Illinois to the University of California, Davis are continuing to research this vexing situation, and it is hoped that they will be able to get the bottom of the situation in the near future. The first link will take users to a piece from this Tuesday's News-Herald about the difficult situation faced by beekeepers in northeast Ohio. Moving along, the second link leads to a similar story from the Sioux Falls Argus Leader. The third link will take users to a nice piece of science reporting from this Tuesday's New York Times about the world of the queen bee. The forth link leads to an article from the Independent which talks about the potential link between these recent honeybee deaths and mobile phones. The fifth link leads to a passionate editorial from the Nashua Telegraph's own Mike Morin about the importance of saving the honeybee population. The sixth link leads to a great interactive feature from the Nature program that provides details about the bee's anatomy, from the stinger all the way up to the antennae. Finally, the last link leads to the very exhaustive and interesting Virtual Beekeeping Gallery, which contains information on bee-keeping equipment, related associations, laboratories, and so on.

2007-01-01

440

Scientists feature their work in Arctic-focused short videos by FrontierScientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether they're guiding an unmanned aerial vehicle into a volcanic plume to sample aerosols, or documenting core drilling at a frozen lake in Siberia formed 3.6 million years ago by a massive meteorite impact, Arctic scientists are using video to enhance and expand their science and science outreach. FrontierScientists (FS), a forum for showcasing scientific work, produces and promotes radically different video blogs featuring Arctic scientists. Three- to seven- minute multimedia vlogs help deconstruct researcher's efforts and disseminate stories, communicating scientific discoveries to our increasingly connected world. The videos cover a wide range of current field work being performed in the Arctic. All videos are freely available to view or download from the FrontierScientists.com website, accessible via any internet browser or via the FrontierScientists app. FS' filming process fosters a close collaboration between the scientist and the media maker. Film creation helps scientists reach out to the public, communicate the relevance of their scientific findings, and craft a discussion. Videos keep audience tuned in; combining field footage, pictures, audio, and graphics with a verbal explanation helps illustrate ideas, allowing one video to reach people with different learning strategies. The scientists' stories are highlighted through social media platforms online. Vlogs grant scientists a voice, letting them illustrate their own work while ensuring accuracy. Each scientific topic on FS has its own project page where easy-to-navigate videos are featured prominently. Video sets focus on different aspects of a researcher's work or follow one of their projects into the field. We help the scientist slip the answers to their five most-asked questions into the casual script in layman's terms in order to free the viewers' minds to focus on new concepts. Videos are accompanied by written blogs intended to systematically demystify related facts so the scientists can focus on presenting what they're passionate about, not get bogged down by basic groundwork. Vlogs and short video bios showcase the enthusiasm and personality of the scientists, an important ingredient in crafting compelling videos. Featured scientists become better communicators, and learn to bring their research to life. When viewers see that genuine wonder, they can be motivated to ask questions and pursue more information about the topic, broadening community participation. The website interface opens the door to audience discussion. Digital media is a community builder, an inclusive tool that lets people continents-apart engage with compelling stories and then interact. Internet videos have become a means of supplementing face-to-face education; video reaches people, it's informal self-education from the comfort of one's own computer screen. FS uses videos and social media as part of an education outreach effort directed at lifelong learners. We feature not only scientists, but also teachers who've gone into the field to add to their own science knowledge, and to bring back new lessons for their students. Students who are exposed to FS videos see science in action in the professional world, which might inspire them in a STEM academic and career path, encouraging the next generation of researchers, as well as scientific and environmental literacy.

Nielsen, L.; O'Connell, E.

2013-12-01

441

Solar Mystery Nears Solution with Data from SOHO Spacecraft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recent images taken by instruments aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) show a transfer of magnetic energy from the Sun's surface to the corona. This "magnetic carpet" may solve the 55 year old riddle of why the corona is so much hotter than the surface. The SOI Investigation site is maintained by the Solar Oscillations Investigations group at Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysic Laboratory and Stanford University. The site contains links to the full text of the press release from November 5, 1997 by the Goddard Space Flight Center which controls the spacecraft. It also contains QuickTime movies and still images, and offers explanatory text. Background information, authors and contacts for further information on SOHO are available.

1997-01-01

442

Women Life Scientists: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increase student's exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach and problem-solving science activities, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. Each module contains a brief biography of a female science role model and hands-on, inquiry approach, and/or problem-solving life sciences activities with a multidisciplinary focus. Modules drop easily into middle and high school life sciences curricula. The book may be purchased from the American Physiological Society or the individual chapters may be downloaded for free from the Archive. To access all of the chapters, click the "All in This Collection" link to the left.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

2007-01-01

443

Learning Impasses in Problem Solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

Hodgson, J. P. E.

1992-01-01

444

Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

445

Problem Solving on a Monorail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)

Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others

1994-01-01

446

Models of group problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the group problem solving process was investigated with college Ss working on Maier's horse trading problem (1952). 3 theoretical models were posited to be utilized to interpret the results: an independent model (group response will not differ from those of Ss working alone), a rational model (when one group member solves the problem, the group will adopt

Edwin J. Thomas; Clinton F. Fink

1961-01-01

447

SOLV-DB: Solvents Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of SOLV-DB is to help you find a wide variety of data on solvents quickly and easily, including health and safety data, chemical and physical data, regulatory responsibilities, and environmental fate information. SOLV-DB is maintained by the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences and is considered a "one-stop source for solvents data."

2008-08-27

448

The Microcomputer and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four goals of teaching for problem solving and the characteristics of microcomputers that could be used to further these goals are examined. The combination of an enthusiastic teacher and the new technology is expected to open up new vistas of possibilities for problem solving in the curriculum of the 1980's. (MP)

Kantowski, Mary Grace

1983-01-01

449

Medical Math applications (Solving Equations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a formula to solve equations, for problems with a medical slant provided by Mesa Collegeâs Veterinary Program. This requires the use of subscript notation and the multiplication property of equality to solve. The equations are the simplest of linear equations however the application makes them more interesting.

2010-01-01

450

Problem Solving vis Soap Bubbles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a scientific phenomenon related to the concept of surface tension as an intriguing vehicle to direct attention to useful problem solving techniques. The need for a definite building process in attempts to solve mathematical problems is stressed. (EB)

Bader, William A.

1975-01-01

451

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

452

Technological Problem Solving: A Proposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of newer technology education materials reveals two recurring themes: one relates to curriculum content, familiarizing students with technology, and another to a technique of classroom instruction, i.e., problem solving. A problem-solving framework for technical education has the following components: (1) define the problem; (2)…

Waetjen, Walter B.

453

Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

Lacy, Grace

454

The Future Problem Solving Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

Crabbe, Anne B.

1989-01-01

455

A Method for Solving Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

Knoop, Robert

1987-01-01

456

Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers - data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance: Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data management principles. ?? 2011 Tenopir et al.

Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglass, K.; Aydinoglu, A. U.; Wu, L.; Read, E.; Manoff, M.; Frame, M.

2011-01-01

457

Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices and Perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers – data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data management principles.

Tenopir, Carol; Allard, Suzie; Douglass, Kimberly; Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Wu, Lei; Read, Eleanor; Manoff, Maribeth; Frame, Mike

2011-01-01

458

Scientists Develop New Profile for Lake Tahoe Earthquake Risk  

NSF Publications Database

... 05-066Scientists Develop New Profile for Lake Tahoe Earthquake Risk Suite of Instruments Helps ... lake's waters are a primary component of the area's serenity and beauty. For scientists, the lake's ...

459

Characteristics of Scientists and Engineers in the United States, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) is a comprehensive and integrated system of information about employment, education, and demographic characteristics of scientists and engineers in the United States. It is intended to provide ...

2011-01-01

460

CMED SCIENTIST DATABASE (INTERNET) HTTP://PELICAN.GMPO.GOV/GMNET  

EPA Science Inventory

The Consortium for Marine and Estuarine Disease Research (CMED) scientist database provides a directory of experts in the field. Data for each scientist includes name, address, email address, phone number, fax number, web page, professional environment, expertise and disciplinary...

461

Science and scientists for a nuclear-weapon-free world  

SciTech Connect

Soviet scientists persuated the USSR's political leadership to downplay work on missile defenses during the 1970s and 1980s. Current cooperative research by Soviet and US scientists is laying the foundation for the elimination, with verification, of offesnive weaponry.

Velikhov, E.P. (USSR Academy of Sciences (SU))

1989-11-01

462

Science 101: What writing represents what scientists actually do?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article addresses whether or not a report based on scientific method accurately represents what scientists do as well as what kind of writing scientists engage in that goes beyond the reporting of conclusions.

Robertson, William C.

2005-11-01

463

NIH Scientists Take Totally Tubular Journey through Brain Cells  

MedlinePLUS

... For Immediate Release: Friday, June 13, 2014 NIH scientists take totally tubular journey through brain cells Study ... normal and disease conditions. In a new study, scientists at the National Institutes of Health took a ...

464

Interview With Steve Platts, Lead Scientist, Cardiovascular Research  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly talks with Steven Platts, a lead scientist for cardiovascular research at the Johnson Space Center where scientists are studying the effects of long-duration...

465

Pragmatism: a practical philosophy for environmental scientists.  

PubMed

Challenges to the credibility of the scientific community make it particularly important for environmental scientists to understand the bases for the authority of their science. We argue that pragmatism provides a defensible and effective scientific philosophy. It provides a transparent basis for justifying belief and a set of practices and concepts for inference. It makes the scientific community the author of scientific truth, which has implications for the opening of science in the age of social media and the communication of consensus positions on important issues. We describe how pragmatism acknowledges the social aspect of science without losing the scientific tradition of critical thinking. PMID:23192972

Suter, Glenn W; Cormier, Susan M

2013-04-01

466

Argonne scientist Cristina Negri talks about phytoremediation  

ScienceCinema

Phytoremediation is the use of plants and trees to remove or neutralize contaminants in polluted soil or water. Argonne scientist M. Cristina Negri leads the phytotechnologies R&D activities at Argonne. Phytotechnologies encompass the treatment of environmental problems through the use of plants. She was the scientific lead in the deployment and monitoring of multi-acre field scale phytoremediation installations and for the development of a phyto- and bio-remediation researcha nd development project in Russia. Her interests also focus on input-efficient approaches to growing energy crops, water efficiency in growing biofuel crops, and on the advanced treatment and reuse of wastewater and other impaired water.

Negri, Cristina

2013-04-19

467

Federation of American Scientists: Intelligence Resource Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1945 by members of the Manhattan Project, the main commitment of the Federation of American Scientists is to end "the worldwide arms race." This section of its Web site has extensive information about US and international intelligence resources and the threat of terrorism, many of which are technology related. For example, chemical and biological weapons are discussed in several documents. There are also cryptographic and security systems highlighted, as well as overviews of classified aircraft. A wide assortment of news articles, government reports, and official documents are provided, including a recent report about "the acquisition of technology relating to weapons of mass destruction."

2002-01-01

468

Argonne scientist Cristina Negri talks about phytoremediation  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation is the use of plants and trees to remove or neutralize contaminants in polluted soil or water. Argonne scientist M. Cristina Negri leads the phytotechnologies R&D activities at Argonne. Phytotechnologies encompass the treatment of environmental problems through the use of plants. She was the scientific lead in the deployment and monitoring of multi-acre field scale phytoremediation installations and for the development of a phyto- and bio-remediation researcha nd development project in Russia. Her interests also focus on input-efficient approaches to growing energy crops, water efficiency in growing biofuel crops, and on the advanced treatment and reuse of wastewater and other impaired water.

Negri, Cristina

2012-01-01

469

Scientists implicated in atom test deception.  

PubMed

Described here are the circumstances leading to a recent court ruling that Atomic Energy Commission officials suppressed data indicating a link between two 1953 atomic bomb tests in Nevada and sheep deaths in neighboring Utah, and then pressured scientific investigators to concur with the AEC position. In a 1956 trial, a federal judge denied compensation to the sheep owners. Evidence of the deception came to light in 1979 and 1980 and, on 24 August 1982, the same judge ordered a new trial, ruling that several AEC attorneys and scientists had indeed misrepresented the facts. His ruling has been appealed by the Department of Justice. PMID:11643806

Smith, R Jeffrey

1982-11-01

470

Scientific migration of junior scientists to China.  

PubMed

As a junior investigator in biology who recently set up a laboratory in Shanghai, China, I frequently get asked why I chose to start a laboratory in China, how I feel running a laboratory there and what are the main challenges I face. People who asked me such questions are not only established researchers but also postdoctoral fellows and senior PhD students. Interestingly, most of these junior scientists are originally from China but trained in the West and now are ready to move back to their homeland. PMID:25001910

Chen, Ling-Ling

2014-01-01

471

How Do Scientists Determine Earthquake Probabilities?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This provides many links to articles, graphics, scientific papers and podcasts to help students understand how scientists determine probabilities for earthquake occurrences. Topics include the locations of faults and how much they need to move in order to release the strain that accumulates; the study of past earthquakes on each fault to predict the size of possible earthquakes that could occur in the future; and using information on how long it's been since the last earthquake to estimate the probability that an earthquake will occur in the next few years. Links to additional information are embedded in the text.

472

Sherlock Holmes as a Social Scientist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a way of teaching the scientific method through studying the adventures of Sherlock Holmes. Asserting that Sherlock Holmes used the scientific method to solve cases, the authors construct Holmes' method through excerpts from novels featuring his adventures. Discusses basic assumptions, paradigms, theory building, and testing. (SLM)

Ward, Veronica; Orbell, John

1988-01-01

473

Potentially harmful side-effects: medically unexplained symptoms, somatization, and the insufficient illness narrative for viewers of mystery diagnosis.  

PubMed

Illness narrative has often been found to play a positive role in both patients' and providers' efforts to find meaning in the illness experience. However, illness narrative can sometimes become counterproductive, even pathological, particularly in cases of medical mystery--cases wherein biopsychosocial factors blur the distinction between bodily dysfunction and somatizing behavior. In this article, the author draws attention to two examples of medical mystery, the clinical presentation of medically unexplained symptoms, and the popular reality television program Mystery Diagnosis, to demonstrate the potentially harmful effects of illness narrative. The medical mystery's complex narrative structure reflects and tends to reinforce providers' and patients' mistaken assumptions, anxieties, and conflicts in ways which obstruct, rather than facilitate, healing. PMID:23740408

Farkas, Carol-Ann

2013-09-01

474

What is a Scientist? - Main Idea and Details  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This main idea lesson is intended to expose students to the role and importance of scientists. Through informational text, students will learn what scientists do and why they are important. After learning about scientists, students will write a summary identifying the main idea and details from the text. Then, they will share their summaries with partners in the classroom. This lesson is intended to show students that they can also be scientists and make their own discoveries.

Burgess, Kelly

2012-08-25

475

Theoretical Studies of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Clouds and Aerosols in Support of SOLVE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We proposed a number of theoretical efforts to support NASA's SOLVE Mission which took place in Kiruna, Sweden in the winter of 1999-2000. We proposed to serve as one of the DC-8 project scientists, to work with various instrument teams to better understa...

O. B. Toon

2002-01-01

476

WBCSim: A Prototype Problem Solving Environment for Wood-Based Composites Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a computing environment named WBCSim that is intended to increase the productivity of wood scientists conducting research on wood-based composite materials. WBCSim integrates Fortran 77-based simulation codes with a graphical front end, an optimization tool, and a visualization tool. WBCSim serves as a prototype for the design, construction, and evaluation of larger scale problem solving (computing) environments.

Amit Goel; Constantinos Phanouriou; Frederick A. Kamke; Calvin J. Ribbens; Clifford A. Shaffer; Layne T. Watson

1999-01-01

477

Investigating Students' Private Perceptions of Scientists and Their Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews were conducted with Year 6 students (n=67) and Year 10 students (n=58) who were asked whether scientists can do anything about endangered species. Most students gave positive answers which were at variance with the stereotyped image of scientists. It was concluded that students have private perceptions of scientists and their work as…

Palmer, David H.

1997-01-01

478

Researchers Dispute Notion that America Lacks Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers who track the American labor market told Congress last week that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the United States has more than enough scientists and engineers and that federal agencies and universities should reform the way they train young scientists to better match the supply of scientists with the demand for researchers. At a…

Monastersky, Richard

2007-01-01

479

Wonderwise 4-H: Following in the Footsteps of Women Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wonderwise 4-H: Women in Science introduces youth to contemporary female scientists in their labs, out in the field, and with their families through nine interactive multimedia kits. Youth learn about the scientist's occupation and participate in hands-on science activities similar to the actual work of a female scientist role model. Using role models was effective in improving youths' attitudes about

Amy N. Spiegel; S. Kay Rockwell; Deanna Acklie; Saundra Wever Frerichs; Kathleen French; Judy Diamond

2004-01-01

480

What Are Scientists Really Like? The Acclaim Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Acclaim Project which aims to familiarize school children and the public with today's scientists. Focuses on scientists' activities in daily life and laboratories as well as participant scientists' comments. Explains how this project can be implemented at the elementary education level. (YDS)

Fenton, Sharon; Jordan, Julie

2001-01-01

481

Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design  

PubMed Central

Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users.

Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

2012-01-01

482

The Barriers to Academic Engagement with Enterprise: A Social Scientist’s Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper explores the barriers to academic engagement with enterprise from a social scientist’s perspective and in relation\\u000a to United Kingdom post- 1994 universities in particular, expanding key themes from previous literature to consider both progress\\u000a and the limiting factors which still face university managers in their attempts to implement their ‘change’ agendas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The current strategy of re-orienting and branding

Linda Reichenfeld

483

Computing for Scientists: Principles of Programming with Fortran 90 and C++  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computing for Scientists focuses on the principles involved in scientific programming. Topics of importance and interest to scientists are presented in a thoughtful and thought-provoking way, with coverage ranging from high-level object-oriented software to low-level machine-code operations. Taking a problem-solving approach, this book gives the reader an insight into the ways programs are implemented and what actually happens when they run. Throughout, the importance of good programming style is