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1

Solve Medical Mysteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

Miller, Leslie

2007-01-01

2

Solve Medical Mysteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

Miller, Leslie

2007-01-01

3

Scientists solve mystery of superinsulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008 a team of physicists from Argonne National Laboratory, in Illinois, and other institutions stumbled upon an odd phenomenon. They called it superinsulation, because in many ways it was the opposite of superconductivity.

Saswato Das

2010-01-01

4

Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of distance. "Our measurements showed that the pulsar is about 950 light-years from Earth, essentially the same distance as the supernova remnant," said Steve Thorsett, of the University of California, Santa Cruz. "That means that the two almost certainly were created by the same supernova blast," he added. With that problem solved. the astronomers then turned to studying the pulsar's neutron star itself. Using a variety of data from different telescopes and armed with the new distance measurement, they determined that the neutron star is between 16 and 25 miles in diameter. In such a small size, it packs a mass roughly equal to that of the Sun. The next result of learning the pulsar's actual distance was to provide a possible answer to a longstanding question about cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are subatomic particles or atomic nuclei accelerated to nearly the speed of light. Shock waves in supernova remnants are thought to be responsible for accelerating many of these particles. Scientists can measure the energy of cosmic rays, and had noted an excess of such rays in a specific energy range. Some researchers had suggested that the excess could come from a single supernova remnant about 1000 light-years away whose supernova explosion was about 100,000 years ago. The principal difficulty with this suggestion was that there was no accepted candidate for such a source. "Our measurement now puts PSR B0656+14 and the Monogem Ring at exactly the right place and at exactly the right age to be the source of this excess of cosmic rays," Brisken said. With the ability of the VLBA, one of the telescopes of the NRAO, to make extremely precise position measurements, the astronomers expect to improve the accuracy of their distance determination even more. "This pulsar is becoming a fascinating laboratory for studying astrophysics and nuclear physics," Thorsett said. In addition to Brisken and Thorsett, the team of astronomers includes Aaron Golden of the National University of Ireland, Robert Benjamin of the University of Wiscons

2003-08-01

5

Mucus balloons solve an ocean mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some tadpole-sized ocean animals live in houses made of almost the very same stuff that leaks out of your nose when you have a cold. As researchers have just discovered, these mucus houses help solve the mystery of how creatures at the bottom of the ocean get enough food.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-06-09

6

Mystery of Cometary X-Rays Solved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 14, 2000 NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imaged Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) and detected X-rays from oxygen and nitrogen ions. The details of the X-ray emission, as recorded on Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, show that they are produced by collisions of ions racing away from the Sun with gas in the comet. "This observation solves one mystery. It proves how comets produce X-rays," said Dr. Carey Lisse of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) leader of a team of scientists from STScI, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Max Planck Institute in Germany, Johns Hopkins University, the University of California, Berkeley, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "With an instrument like Chandra, we can now study the chemistry of the solar wind, and observe the X-ray glow from the atmospheres of comets as well as planets such as Venus. It may even be possible to observe other, nearby solar systems." Comets, which resemble "dirty snow balls" a few miles in diameter, were thought to be too cold for such energetic emission, so the detection of X-rays by the ROSAT observatory from comet Hyakutake in 1996 was a surprise. Several explanations were suggested, but the source of cometary X-ray emission remained a puzzle until the Chandra observation of Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). Chandra's imaging spectrometer revealed a strong X-ray signal from oxygen and nitrogen ions, clinching the case for the production of X-rays due to the exchange of electrons in collisions between nitrogen and oxygen ions in the solar wind and electrically neutral elements (predominantly hydrogen) in the comets atmosphere. The Chandra observation was taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on July 14, 2000 for a total of 2 ½ hours. The comet will be re-observed with Chandra during the weeks of July 29 - Aug 13. Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) was discovered in September 1999 by the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project, which is operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory to search for Earth-approaching objects. In addition to Dr. Lisse, the science team involved with the Chandra observations includes: Drs. Damian Christian (CSC/STScI), Konrad Dennerl (MPE), Frank Marshall, Robert Petre, and Steven Snowden (NASA/GSFC), Harold Weaver (JHU), Brett Stroozas (CEA), and Scott Wolk (CfA) ) The ACIS instrument was built for NASA by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and Pennsylvania State University, University Park. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov

2000-07-01

7

Mysterious "Twofaced" Star Explained, Scientists Say  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There's a simple reason why a curious neutron star in the M15 globular star cluster has shown two faces over the years, beaming an X-ray portrait as perplexing as Mona Lisa's smile. The reason: That's not one star system, but two. Scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., capitalized on the exquisite resolution afforded by the Chandra X-ray Observatory to find a second neutron-star binary source just a hair west of the first binary source. The sources had blended together in all earlier observations. The broader implication of the Chandra discovery is that these types of binaries (a neutron star orbiting another star) can be quite common in star clusters, as was theorized but never observed. Drs. Nicholas White and Lorella Angelini of Goddard's Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics present their findings today in Washington, D.C., at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "We had long assumed there should be more of these neutron star binary systems, and now we are finally finding them," says White. "Past observations of M15, seemingly contradictory, also now make sense in retrospect. The first neutron star is coy, completely hiding behind the swirl of gas that is falling on to it. The second neutron star is prone to outbursts in X-ray light that reveal the star's surface." Previously, and inexplicably, astronomers had never seen more than one of these neutron star binaries, called low-mass X-ray binaries, in any given globular cluster, a tight spherical region crowded with stars. M15, a beautiful display containing over a million stars, is one of the largest globular clusters, located in the constellation Pegasus some 34,000 light years from Earth. Astronomers discovered one neutron star system in M15, called 4U2127, with the Einstein X-ray satellite in 1984. Characteristic of a low-mass X-ray binary, 4U2127 contains a city-sized neutron star orbiting a "living" hydrogen-burning star slightly smaller than our Sun, named AC211. Escaped gas from AC211 falls onto the neutron star, attracted by its strong center of gravity. The transfer of gas, called an accretion disk, glows hot in X rays. The data revealed that the neutron star itself was not directly visible in X-ray light because it was hidden behind the accretion disk. This neat picture was put into doubt when the Japanese Ginga X-ray satellite saw luminous X-ray bursts from the region in 1990. The length of the burst and other light characteristics implied that the surface of the neutron star was directly visible, a complete contradiction to earlier observations. Using Chandra's HETGS instrument, White and Angelini observed the region for nearly six hours on August 24, 2000. Chandra is capable of 0.5 arcsecond imaging resolution, several times sharper than Einstein. White and Angelini discovered that what was thought to be one X-ray source is really two sources separated by 2.7 arcseconds. (The distance across Mars, from our vantage point on Earth, forms an angle of about 5 arcseconds. So imagine a gap smaller than that pinpoint of light from Mars.) The new X-ray source, which they dubbed M15-X2, is likely a neutron star orbiting a faint blue star, Angelini said. Globular clusters, with their myriad stars, should contain several low-mass X-ray binary systems. The fact that there was never more than one seen in any globular cluster, including the massive M15, led some theorists to speculate that these binaries are short-lived. Or, perhaps neutron stars -- created from burned-out, collapsed stars during supernova explosions -- are ejected from globular clusters with a thunderous kick as the neutron stars forms. The Chandra observation has eliminated the need for such elaborate scenarios. M15 has at least two low-mass X-ray binary systems, and perhaps multiple systems in other cluster will be discovered given advancements in X-ray resolution. Indeed, M15 also has many radio pulsars, which may be the remnants of low-mass X-ray binary systems. Angelini joins NASA Goddard through the Unive

2001-09-01

8

Trust in virtual teams: solved or still a mystery?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust was one of the most prominent topics of early research in virtual teams, highlighted by the emergence of the theory of swift trust. As researchers continue to study this topic, it is important to understand what problems have been solved as well as what aspects of trust in virtual teams remain a mystery. We address this goal by presenting

Alanah Mitchell; Ilze Zigurs

2009-01-01

9

Internet Investigations: Solving Mysteries on the Information Superhighway.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how a group of gifted primary-school children in New Zealand explored the Internet in a workshop project organized around solving the mystery of what happened to the Titanic. Insets include the student "contract," a listing of Web sites, and the evaluation instrument. (DB)|

Riley, Tracy; Brown, Mark

1998-01-01

10

Solving the mystery of the Colorado Brown Stain.  

PubMed

The life and work of Dr. Frederick S. McKay in solving the mystery of the Colorado Brown Stain changed the objectives of restorative and preventive dentistry. McKay was an intellectually diversified man whose personal interests ranged from economics to opera. Professionally his strong commitment to research led to dedicate thirty years of his life to the search for the mysterious agent that caused the Colorado Brown Stain which mottled but also produced caries-free teeth. His discovery of fluoride in drinking water and its effect on enamel was a critical breakthrough in understanding the etiology and prevention of dental caries. This discovery is the foundation for water fluoridation which is the single most effective public health measure to inhibit tooth decay. PMID:9468893

Peterson, J

1997-07-01

11

The mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a mystery solved?  

PubMed Central

The permeability transition (PT) denotes an increase of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability to solutes with molecular masses up to about 1500 Da. It is presumed to be mediated by opening of a channel, the permeability transition pore (PTP), whose molecular nature remains a mystery. Here I briefly review the history of the PTP, discuss existing models, and present our new results indicating that reconstituted dimers of the FOF1 ATP synthase form a channel with properties identical to those of the mitochondrial megachannel (MMC), the electrophysiological equivalent of the PTP. Open questions remain, but there is now promise that the PTP can be studied by genetic methods to solve the large number of outstanding problems.

Bernardi, Paolo

2013-01-01

12

Citizen Sky, Solving the Mystery of epsilon Aurigae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants then move on to monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse (already underway) of epsilon Aurigae. This object undergoes eclipses only every 27.1 years and each eclipse lasts nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. Training will be provided in observing techniques as well as basic data analysis of photometric and visual datasets (light curve and period analysis). The project also involves two public workshops, one on observing (already held in August of 2009) and one on data analysis and scientific paper writing (to be held in 2010.) This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Kloppenborg, B.; Henden, A.

2010-01-01

13

Solving The Mystery: A Schutzian Analysis of Sherlock Holmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s serial adventures of Sherlock Holmes comprise the best representatives of the subgenre of mystery\\u000a writing called the ‘detective story.’ The word, ‘mystery,’ invites an inherent ambiguity and tension as it refers to the profound,\\u000a the inexplicable, or the secretive. ‘Mystery’ carries both secular and non-secular references. The finite Being of humankind\\u000a in its existential situatedness is

Gary Backhaus; Evelyn S. Lang

14

Frankincense and Myrrh: Solving a Mystery with Historical Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Illustrates how teachers can use holidays to construct lessons that are academically substantial, interesting, and meaningful. Model lessons are organized around asking exploratory questions and the ensuing process scholars use to unravel an academic mystery. Designed for use in elementary or middle school during Christmas season. (KO)|

White, Jane J.; Bennett, Sari J.

1988-01-01

15

Do scientists get fundamental research ideas by solving practical problems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the problem-solving nature of scientific activity and maintain that contributions made in the form of improved methodologies, new technologies, and instruments for research are, and will increasingly become, central in experimental sciences and in fields traditionally the realm of pure intellectual speculation. The contribution of scientists to the development of new technologies and techniques for research purposes largely

Chiara Franzoni

2009-01-01

16

Rosetta - a comet ride to solve planetary mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. By orbiting Comet Wirtanen and landing on it, Rosetta will collect essential information to understand the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules, that - delivered to Earth through impacts - perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, “volatile” light elements carried by comets may have also played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmopshere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions ever undertaken so far”, says Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, “No one before attempted a similar mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres”. Before reaching its target in 2011, Rosetta will circle the Sun almost four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Wirtanen, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; then the spacecraft will closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be like landing on a small, fast-moving cosmic bullet that still has - at present - an almost unknown 'geography'. An amazing 8-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a 3-tonne box-type spacecraft about 3 metres high, with two 14-metre long solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately 1 metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the Rosetta orbiter during the journey to Comet Wirtanen. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will be kept in hibernation during most of its 8-year trek towards Wirtanen. What makes Rosetta's cruise so long? To reach Comet Wirtanen, the spacecraft needs to go out in deep space as far from the Sun as Jupiter is. No launcher could possibly get Rosetta there directly. ESA's spacecraft will gather speed from gravitational ‘kicks’ provided by three planetary fly-bys: one of Mars in 2005 and two of Earth in 2005 and 2007. During the trip, Rosetta will also visit two asteroids, Otawara (in 2006) and Siwa (in 2008). During these encounters, scientists will switch on Rosetta's instruments for calibration and scientific studies. Long trips in deep space include many hazards, such as extreme changes in temperature. Rosetta will leave the benign environment of near-Earth space to the dark, frigid regions beyond the asteroid belt. To manage these thermal loads, experts have done very tough pre-launch tests to study Rosetta's endurance. For example, they have heated its external surfaces to more than 150°C, then quickly cooled it to -180°C in the next test. The spacecraft will be fully reactivated prior to the comet rendezvous manoeuvre in 2011. Then, Rosetta will orbit the comet - an object only 1.2 km wide - while it cruises through the inner Solar System at 135 000 kilometres per hour. At that time of the rendezvous - around 675 million km from the Sun - Wirtanen will hardly show any surface activity. It means that the carachteristic coma (the comet’s ‘atmosphere’) and the tail will not be formed yet, because of the large distance from the Sun. The comet's tail is in fact made of dust grains and frozen gases from the comet's surface that vapourise because of the Sun's heat. During 6-month, Rosetta will extensively map the comet surface, prior to selecting a landing site. In July 2012, the lander will self-eject from the spacecraft from a height of just one kilometre. Touchdown will take place at walking speed - less than 1 metre per second. Immediately after touchdown, the lander will fire a harpoon into the ground to avoid bouncing off the surface back in

2003-01-01

17

SNO: solving the mystery of the missing neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The end of an era came on 28 November 2006 when the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) finally stopped data-taking after eight exciting years of discoveries. During this time the Observatory saw evidence that neutrinos, produced in the fusion of hydrogen in the solar core, change flavour while passing through the Sun on their way to the Earth. This observation explained the longstanding puzzle as to why previous experiments had seen fewer solar neutrinos than predicted and confirmed that these elusive particles have mass. Solar neutrinos were first detected in Ray Davis's radiochemical experiment in 1967, for which discovery he shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. Surprisingly he found only about a third of the number predicted from models of the Sun's output. This deficit, the so-called Solar Neutrino Problem, was confirmed by Kamiokande-II while other experiments saw related deficits of solar neutrinos. A possible explanation for this deficit, suggested by Gribov and Pontecorvo in 1969, was that some of the electron-type neutrinos, which are produced in the Sun, had ''oscillated'' into neutrinos that could not be detected in the Davis detector. The oscillation mechanism requires that neutrinos have non-zero mass. The unique advantage, which was pointed out by the late Herb Chen in 1985, of using heavy water (D{sub 2}O) to detect the neutrinos from {sup 8}B decays in the solar fusion process is that it enables both the number of electron-type and of all types of neutrinos to be measured. A comparison of the flux of electron-type neutrinos to that of all flavours could then reveal whether flavour transformation is the cause of the solar neutrino deficit. In heavy water neutrinos of all types can break a deuteron apart into its constituent proton and neutron (neutral-current reaction), while only electron-type neutrinos can change the deuteron into two protons and release an electron (charged-current reaction). SNO was designed by scientists from Canada, the USA and the UK to attain a detection rate of about 10 solar neutrinos per day using 1000 tonnes of heavy water. Neutrino interactions were detected by 9,456 photomultiplier tubes surrounding the heavy water, which was contained in a 12-m diameter acrylic sphere. This sphere was surrounded by 7000 tonnes of ultra-pure water to shield against radioactivity. Figure 1 shows the layout of the SNO detector, which is located about 2 km underground in Inco's Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury in Canada, to all but eliminate cosmic rays from reaching the detector. The pattern of hit photomultiplier tubes following the creation of an electron by an electron-type neutrino is shown in Figure 2.

Jelley, Nick; Poon, Alan

2007-03-30

18

The Pioneer Anomaly: A Deep Space Mystery  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Pioneer 10 and 11 head toward the farthest reaches of our solar system, something strange is happening-they are mysteriously slowing down. Scientists do not yet know why the spacecraft aren't acting as expected; however, The Planetary Society has stepped in to help fund the effort to analyze roughly 25 years of data in hopes of solving the mystery. Society

Bill Nye

2005-01-01

19

Why is Coco Orange: Coco and His Friends Solve this Mystery as They Learn About Air Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coco has a problem. Hes a chameleon, but he cant change colors, and his asthma is acting up. Read how Coco and his friends at Lizard Lick Elementary solve this mystery as they learn about air quality and how to stay healthy when the air quality is bad. Th...

2010-01-01

20

Confidence in Scientists and Engineers to Solve Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust in scientists has emerged as a key variable used to explain attitudes toward global warming and other environmental issues. Previous studies have shown that the more trust one has in scientists, the more likely one is to be concerned about global warming, to believe that steps should be taken to limit it, and to take action oneself. A closely

Eric Smith; Holly Klick

21

The Pioneer Anomaly: A Deep Space Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Pioneer 10 and 11 head toward the farthest reaches of our solar system, something strange is happening-they are mysteriously slowing down. Scientists do not yet know why the spacecraft aren't acting as expected; however, The Planetary Society has stepped in to help fund the effort to analyze roughly 25 years of data in hopes of solving the mystery. Society Vice President Bill Nye clearly explains this complicated problem in terms that everyone can understand.

Nye, Bill

2005-09-01

22

The Reading Detective Club: Solving the Mysteries of Reading. A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that readers are a lot like detectives, this two-part book (a professional book for teachers and a fun "nonworkbook" for students) introduces students and teachers to "mystery cases" that are actually reading strategy lessons for third through eighth graders and their teachers. The teacher section offers a comprehensive overview of the…

Goodman, Debra

23

VLBA "Movie" Gives Scientists New Insights On Workings of Mysterious Microquasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have made a 42-day movie showing unprecedented detail of the inner workings of a strange star system that has puzzled scientists for more than two decades. Their work is providing new insights that are changing scientists' understanding of the enigmatic stellar pairs known as microquasars. SS 433 Frame from SS 433 Movie: End to end is some 200 billion miles. CREDIT: Mioduszewski et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Image Files Single Frame Overall Jet View (above image) VLBA Movie (animated gif, 2.3 MB) Animated graphic of SS 433 System (18MB) (Created using software by Robert Hynes, U.Texas) Annotated brightening graphic Unannotated brightening Frame 1 Unannotated brightening Frame 2 "This once-a-day series of exquisitely-detailed images is the best look anyone has ever had at a microquasar, and already has made us change our thinking about how these things work," said Amy Mioduszewski, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of radio telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Caribbean, to follow daily changes in a binary-star system called SS 433, some 15,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Aquila. Mioduszewski worked with Michael Rupen, Greg Taylor and Craig Walker, all of NRAO. They reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. SS 433 consists of a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole is drawing material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense, central object prior to being pulled onto that object. This disk propels jets of subatomic particles outward from its poles. In SS 433, the particles in the jets move at 26 percent of the speed of light; in other microquasars, the jet material moves at 90-95 percent of light speed. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to move in a circle every 164 days. By imaging SS 433 daily, the astronomers were able to trace individual ejections of material in these jets as they moved outward from the center. In addition, they could track the jets' precession, the movement caused by the disk's wobble. In other microquasars, blobs of material shot from the core become fainter, as seen with radio telescopes, as they move outward. However, in SS 433, blobs routinely brighten at specific distances from the core. From earlier studies, researchers had concluded that such brightening always occurs at one specific distance. The VLBA movie shows, instead, that there are multiple brightening regions and not all blobs brighten at all the regions. "We think the ejected material brightens because it's slamming into something," Rupen said. "However, whatever it's hitting has to be replenished somehow so that the brightening can occur again when the jet sweeps through that area the next time," he added. "It also appears that it isn't always replenished, because the brightening doesn't always happen," Mioduszewski pointed out. The VLBA movie revealed vital new information about another part of SS 433 -- material moving outward from the core, but not part of the superfast jets. This material moves outward in a direction not quite perpendicular to the direction of the jets. Discovered with the VLBA in 2000, this material had been seen only in one-time snapshots before, but the movie shows the steady evolution of its movement for the first time. That motion was the key to a possible answer to two riddles -- the source of the slower-moving material itself and the source of whatever the jet blobs are hitting when they brighten. "What seems most plausible to us is that the accretion disk is putting out a broad wind," Rupen explained. That broad wind from the disk hits a denser wind coming from the "normal" companion star to generate the radio waves seen coming from the nonjet region. The same

2004-01-01

24

The Eclipsing Binary Di Herculis: One Mystery Solved, But Another Takes Its Place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 8th-mag eclipsing binary DI Herculis has perplexed scientists for the past few decades due to its anomalously slow apsidal motion rate. DI Her consists of two main-sequence stars (B5V, B6V), with P(orb) = 10.55 days, and eccentricity(e= 0.489). Since the apsidal motion is dominated by General Relativity, the system is one of the few tests available for verifying the theory. Combining the expected classical (1.93°/100 yr) and relativistic (2.34°/100 yr) effects, the predicted apsidal motion rate is 4.27°/100 yr. Our recent determination of the apsidal motion yields 1.33°+/-0.25 /100 yr, based on eclipse timings from 1936-2008. Recently, Albrecht et al (2009, Nature 461) have apparently solved the apsidal motion anomaly of DI Her, finding that the axes of both stars are significantly inclined from the normal to the orbital plane. This was determined from the radial velocity curves and observing the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect during primary and secondary eclipses. Having significantly misaligned axes of rotation produces a perturbation that greatly reduces the classical apsidal motion effect, thus explaining the observed small apsidal motion rate. Even though this discovery apparently solves the problem, it raises new questions as to how the axes are so tilted. Additionally, tilted axes are expected to contribute to other orbital effects, such as changes in orbital inclination, which have not yet observed from the apparent constancy in eclipse depths over time. We have also searched for evidence of small periodic oscillations in the eclipse timings and found no evidence of a light travel time effect arising from a possible tertiary component. Further, we find evidence that the projected rotation axes of the stars may be precessing, since it appears that the value of V(rot)sini has increased over the past 30 years. This research was supported by NSF/RUI Grants AST05-07536/42.

Zimmerman, Nicole; Guinan, E.; Maloney, F.

2010-01-01

25

211-YEAR-OLD MYSTERY SOLVED: CREATOR OF THE WORD “ASTEROID” REVEALED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1802, William Herschel famously declared that the newly discovered celestial objects Ceres and Pallas were asteroids, not planets. The term asteroid was rejected by nearly every astronomer in the early nineteenth century, but is now the most widely-used word to describe the small planetary bodies of the solar system. Even so, its origin has remained a mystery. By default, its creation has always been attributed to Herschel himself, but he lacked the knowledge of Greek and Latin to coin a new word to describe Ceres and Pallas. Herschel instead turned to a network of colleagues for advice. A study of contemporary manuscript evidence has now identified the name of the scholar who created the word asteroid.

Cunningham, Clifford J.

2013-10-01

26

Solving Wakulla Springs underwater mysteries. Using GPS to map Florida's underground caverns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Located in the Woodville Karst Plain stretching south from Tallahassee to the Gulf of Mexico, Florida's Wakulla Springs is one of the largest and deepest freshwater Springs in the world. It is also a gateway into one of the longest underwater cave system in the United States, a system that remained largely unexplored until recently. Soon, however, thanks to one of the world's most extreme scientific and exploration-related diving projects ever undertaken, visitors to Wakulla Springs State Park will be able to take a virtual tour through the Spring's huge underwater labyrinth. Using such cutting-edge technology as a 3D Digital Wall Mapper (DWM) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Wakulla 2 Expedition - with 151 volunteer cave divers, scientists and engineers from all over the world - created the world's first three-dimensional digital map of an underwater cave. Underwater caves are priceless treasures, helping supply fresh water to the region as well as acting as 'time capsules' to the past. Home to creatures found in few other places, areas such as Wakulla face threats of pollution and over-development. Wakulla 2 hopes their 3D interactive 'swim through' will help increase the understanding and preservation of these important areas.

Am, Ende, B.

2002-01-01

27

Solving Olin Wilson's Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilson showed that G8-M1 dwarfs have a range of 0.30 mag in P-V color whereas the color range for earlier stars is 0.12 mag. He attributed the increased range for the later stars to differing hydrogen-to-metal ratios in the temperature region where most of the electrons come from the metals. I explored those stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and photometry and with MK types. His effect can be explained without resorting to abundance differences, which are not confirmed elsewhere, by poorer spectral classification from unwidened spectra for the fainter stars and the use of maximum color ranges, rather than dispersions. I also considered, with negative results, the possibility that the Ca II H and K emission lines or chromospheric activity could cause the large ranges in colors. Different amounts of chromospheric activity do not affect the colors significantly.

Abt, Helmut A.

2002-05-01

28

The Relationship Between Displaying and Perceiving Nonverbal Cues of Affect: A Meta-Analysis to Solve an Old Mystery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors address the decades-old mystery of the association between individual differences in the expression and perception of nonverbal cues of affect. Prior theories predicted positive, negative, and zero correlations in performance—given empirical results ranging from r = ?.80 to r = +.64. A meta-analysis of 40 effects showed a positive correlation for nonverbal behaviors elicited as intentional communication displays

Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Noah Eisenkraft

2010-01-01

29

Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

Thomson, Norman

2000-01-01

30

Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)|

Thomson, Norman

2000-01-01

31

Fuel Mystery Dis-Solved!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the simulated use of solid rocket fuel by using an antacid tablet. Students observe the effect that surface area and temperature has on chemical reactions. Also, students compare the reaction time using two different reactants: water and vinegar. Finally, students report their results using a bar graph.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

32

The Hot Tub Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study sets up a mystery and asks students to solve it using science: why was the couple found dead in their hot tub? The material asks students to connect seemingly unrelated factors, such as blood pressure, hot water and alcohol. The material would be most appropriate for lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

House, Herbert

2011-01-06

33

Mystery Bug Theater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in introductory Computer Science courses often have difficulty with coding and problem solving which results in bugs. These bugs cause both student frustration and attrition of many of our CS majors. The Mystery Bug Theater website classifies several hundred bugs that students have brought to the Utah State University Tutor Lab so that students know that they are not isolated in experiencing bugs. The website also provides games and movies about common bugs.

34

Planetary Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they explore the "mind-boggling mysteries" of our solar system. The article opens with a quick review of what we know about our solar system and how we've gathered that information. Students then "explore the mystery" of each planet within our solar system, which is presented though fun facts, evidence, theories, and NASA missions. The article ends with a nine-question quiz that gives students a fun way to test what they've learned.

35

The Mixed-Up Microbe Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series challenges kids to help solve the Case of the Dragon That Caused Diarrhea. The online activity begins with an overview of "The Facts" behind this challenge given to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with suggestions for "How to Solve a Microbe Mystery." Before starting the online challenge, kids are taken to a page that explains their "mission" and how to play. A series of six tabs contains details about Cindy's steps towards solving the mystery; using the guidance from "How To Solve a Microbe Mystery," students are asked to correctly order her steps.

36

Mystery Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners analyze the density of liquids in order to explore linear functions. Learners gather mass and volume data for two mystery liquids, oil and water, and then use the data to explore linear functions. Learners discuss the physical meaning of the slopes and y-intercepts of the various lines they create from scatterplots.

Pbs

2012-01-01

37

Mystery Tubes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners investigate a pre-constructed mystery tube to determine its interior mechanism. Working in small groups, learners pose explanations (hypotheses) for what they are observing and test their hypotheses. In a possible extension of this activity, learners build their own model to test their hypothesis. This lesson serves as a good introduction to the nature of scientific inquiry.

Paleontology, University O.

2010-01-01

38

Mystery Powders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 2 of the PDF, learners conduct chemical tests on certain powders used in cooking. After completing the tests, learners try to figure out the identity of a mystery powder. Learners record their observations on a chart. Note: you will need an adult helper for this activity.

Society, American C.

2000-01-01

39

Medical Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rice University presents Medical Mysteries (or MedMyst for short) "an Internet-based adventure...in which you are on a mission to discover the causes of diseases." Designed for middle and high school students, MedMyst offers an engaging, multimedia approach to learning about infectious diseases and the immune system, as well as pharmacology, chemistry, public health policy, and more. MedMyst also includes three downloadable mini-labs that expand on concepts covered in the multimedia adventure. The Web site also includes loads of useful links.

40

The Mystery of the Golden Cube  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help Rex solve the mystery of the golden cube! You will need to decide if it is a rock, mineral, or a fossil. You will also need to examine the cubes shape, hardness, color, streak, density, cleavage, and fracture.

2000-01-01

41

Biology Today. Ah, Sweet Mysteries of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mysteries of the biological past that paleontologists are trying to solve are discussed. Topics include first seeds, fossils and computers, packrat middens, charcoal clues, soft parts, Burgess shale, halkieriids, toe count, whales with feet, long necks, and changing functions. (KR)|

Flannery, Maura C.

1991-01-01

42

Mystery Boxes: Uncertainty and Collaboration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches students that scientific knowledge is fundamentally uncertain. Students manipulate sealed mystery boxes and attempt to determine the inner structure of the boxes which contain a moving ball and a fixed barrier or two. The nature and sources of uncertainty inherent in the process of problem-solving are experienced. The uncertainty of the conclusions is reduced by student collaboration.

Beard, Jean

43

Mystery Sums 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This third Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad, as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately) allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value of ten letters, which are initially from 1-10, but this upper limit can be changed. Players encompass letters within a circle to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Scher, Daniel

2012-10-08

44

Mystery Boxes for Grades 3-5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners manipulate opaque, sealed boxes and attempt to determine their interior structures. Each box contains a moving ball and one or more fixed barriers. Use this activity to introduce students to the scientific process--scientists make observations and collect evidence, scientists interpret evidence, scientists must work together to gain consensus about interpretations. This activity has been adapted for grades 3-5 from the ENSI lesson, Mystery Boxes: Uncertainty & Collaboration.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

45

Mystery clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mystery clouds,’ recently observed to cover the earth's northern hemisphere, have caused speculation as to their origin. Apparently, they could be fallout from a nuclear explosion or from a meteor impact. A more likely probability is that the clouds are layers of fine particulates, probably a sulfuric acid water mist, released from volcanic eruptions. M.P. McCormick of the Langley Research Center, speaking in regard to its possible volcanic origin, stated ‘It had to be one that had little local damage but moved material high enough to get into the stratosphere, where it [could] travel around the world. Historically, information on the height of volcanic eruptions has proven unreliable due to, among other things, the difficulty of accurately observing them at night or through cloud cover.’

Bell, Peter M.

46

Mystery and Horror: English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This quinmester course guide focuses upon a course that explores various kinds of mysteries, including the detective story, the Gothic mystery, and stories of the supernatural. Discussion of specific criteria for evaluating the mystery story is emphasized. By capitalizing on the wide appeal of the mystery, it is hoped that students who seldom…

Lewis, Billie R.; Troilo, Vivian

47

Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and…

Harrington, LaDawna

2011-01-01

48

Carlos' Tragic and Mysterious Illness  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Carlos' Tragic and Mysterious Illness. Carlos' Tragic and Mysterious Illness (Fotonovela) (PDF - 1.2MB). ... Carlos' Tragic and Mysterious Illness. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

49

A Coprolite Mystery: Who Dung It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discover the secrets contained in fossilized feces. Few topics in middle school classrooms capture students' enthusiasm and interest as do coprolites. These trace fossils offer classroom opportunities for integrated life and Earth sciences study, a stranger-than-fiction history of science, and an opportunity to solve mysteries. (Contains 8…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2011-01-01

50

Curious Scientific Investigators Solve Museum Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Children's Museum of Indianapolis has developed the Curious Scientific Investigators (CSI) program, which mixes the best the Museum has to offer with classroom instruction. Therefore, CSI's vision is to support learning by all members of a classroom community, stimulate a lifelong interest in science, and demonstrate the museum as a place of investigation. The program targets three areas of emphasis: (a) guiding students in active and extended scientific inquiry, (b) developing teacher skills in integration of science knowledge, and (c) helping teachers implement inquiry strategies. The program combines the strong informal learning orientation of the museum with these elements of the NSES standards into a cohesive program that incorporates professional development, small-group inquiry experiences, student-centered learning, and content-rich experiences. These learning opportunities are grounded in the inquiry-based environment of the museum that promotes interaction and collaboration.

Wood, Elizabeth; Deeds, Jean; Schilten, Michele; Crosslin, Rick

2008-01-01

51

Enigmatic star EZ Pegasi - a mystery solved  

SciTech Connect

EZ Peg, a ninth-magnitude G star that has been classified by various authors as an irregular variable, a U Gem system, and a contact binary, is shown to have all the spectroscopic and photometric characteristics of an active-chromosphere RS CVn binary. It is suggested that the reported outburst of 1943, when the spectrum appeared to be that of a B star, never occurred. The strong Ca II H and K reversals, viewed with low spectral resolution, caused the photospheric Ca II absorption to appear abnormally weak, mimicking a much earlier spectral type. 20 references.

Howell, S.B.; Bopp, B.W.

1985-01-01

52

Ideas in action: Solving a cavitation mystery  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation caused significant erosion from 1985 through 1990 on turbine runners at the 970-MW Murray 1 Power Station operated by Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Authority (SMHEA) in Australia. The problem was perplexing because no obvious cause could be found. Investigation eventually showed the problems stemmed form the runners sagging slightly from the correct height. Corrective measures, which included adjustment of runners and new control settings for the units, appear to have relieved the cavitation. The adjustments also reduced stress on the unit thrust-bearings, eliminating a future maintenance headache.

NONE

1995-12-31

53

The Paluxy River Footprint Mystery--Solved.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document points out that creationists claim that humans and dinosaurs lived together in Texas just before Noah's flood by citing alleged human footprints found side-by-side with those of dinosaurs in the Cretaceous limestone of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. An investigation was conducted to determine if this claim were true.…

Cole, John R., Ed.; Godfrey, Laurie R., Ed.

1985-01-01

54

Solving the Mystery of Plant Names.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Details how the study of wildflower names provides clues to their history, use, or appearance and ties in with other disciplines such as religion, linguistics, medicine, and history. Cites seven references. (NEC)|

Mardiney, Robert

1986-01-01

55

Lake Baikal deepwater renewal mystery solved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deepwater renewal by intrusions and turbulent diffusion in Lake Baikal is very effective despite the enormous depth of up to 1642 m and the permanently stable stratification below ~300 m depth. Temperature time series recorded at the bottom of a mooring installed since March 2000 in the South Basin of the lake indicate recurrent freshwater intrusions with volumes of 50 to 100 km3, about one order of magnitude larger than previously observed intrusions. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the advective deep water renewal. Here we present for the first time direct observations which prove that they are caused by coastal downwelling and subsequent thermobaric instability along the steep lake shores. Understanding these mechanisms is an important prerequisite for studying biogeochemical cycles, for predicting the effects of climate change on this unique ecosystem and for evaluating the local climate history from the extraordinary sedimentary record of Lake Baikal.

Schmid, Martin; Budnev, Nikolay M.; Granin, Nick G.; Sturm, Michael; Schurter, Michael; Wüest, Alfred

2008-05-01

56

Groundwater: from mystery to management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater has been used for domestic and irrigation needs from time immemorial. Yet its nature and occurrence have always possessed a certain mystery because water below the land surface is invisible and relatively inaccessible. The influence of this mystery lingers in some tenets that govern groundwater law. With the birth of modern geology during the late nineteenth century, groundwater science became recognized in its own right. Over the past two centuries, groundwater has lost its shroud of mystery, and its scientific understanding has gradually grown hand-in-hand with its development for human use. Groundwater is a component of the hydrological cycle, vital for human sustenance. Its annual renewability from precipitation is limited, and its chemical quality is vulnerable to degradation by human action. In many parts of the world, groundwater extraction is known to greatly exceed its renewability. Consequently, its rational management to benefit present and future generations is a matter of deep concern for many nations. Groundwater management is a challenging venture, requiring an integration of scientific knowledge with communal will to adapt to constraints of a finite common resource. As scientists and policy makers grapple with the tasks of groundwater management, it is instructive to reflect on the evolution of groundwater knowledge from its initial phase of demystification at the beginning of the nineteenth century, through successive phases of technological conquest, scientific integration, discovery of unintended consequences and the present recognition of an imperative for judicious management. The following retrospective provides a broad context for unifying the technical contributions that make up this focus issue on groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability.

Narasimhan, T. N.

2009-07-01

57

Science Nation: Unraveling the Mysteries of Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To better understand tornadoes, scientists, with the help of the National Science Foundation, are embarking on a quest to unravel the mysteries of tornadoes. The project is called VORTEX2, but it could also be called the amazing chase. For five weeks in the spring of 2009, and again in spring 2010, 100 researchers and scientists from 16 universities will deploy about 40 vehicles armed with high tech equipment to measure and probe tornadoes and tornado development. The researchers will span across the Midwest in search of tornadoes--all to better understand how, when and why they form.

58

A Spectral Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use the spectrographs from the "Building a Fancy Spectrograph" activity to gather data about light sources. Using their data, they make comparisons between different light sources and make conjectures about the composition of a mystery light source.

Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP),

59

Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a quartet of space observatories, University of Maryland astronomers may have cracked a 45-year mystery surrounding two ghostly spiral arms in the galaxy M106. The Maryland team, led by Yuxuan Yang, took advantage of the unique capabilities of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, and data obtained almost a decade ago with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. NGC X-ray Image NGC 4258 X-ray Image M106 (also known as NGC 4258) is a stately spiral galaxy 23.5 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. In visible-light images, two prominent arms emanate from the bright nucleus and spiral outward. These arms are dominated by young, bright stars, which light up the gas within the arms. "But in radio and X-ray images, two additional spiral arms dominate the picture, appearing as ghostly apparitions between the main arms," says team member Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland. These so-called "anomalous arms" consist mostly of gas. "The nature of these anomalous arms is a long-standing puzzle in astronomy," says Yang. "They have been a mystery since they were first discovered in the early 1960s." By analyzing data from XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and Chandra, Yang, Bo Li, Wilson, and Christopher Reynolds, all at the University of Maryland at College Park, have confirmed earlier suspicions that the ghostly arms represent regions of gas that are being violently heated by shock waves. Previously, some astronomers had suggested that the anomalous arms are jets of particles being ejected by a supermassive black hole in M106's nucleus. But radio observations by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico, later identified another pair of jets originating in the core. "It is highly unlikely that an active galactic nucleus could have more than one pair of jets," says Yang. In 2001, Wilson, Yang, and Gerald Cecil, of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, noted that the two jets are tipped 30 degrees with respect to the galaxy disk. But if one could vertically project the jets onto the disk, they would line up almost perfectly with the anomalous arms. Figuring that this alignment was not strictly a matter of chance, Wilson, Yang, and Cecil proposed that the jets heat the gas in their line of travel, forming an expanding cocoon. Because the jets lie close to M106's disk, the cocoon heats gas in the disk and generates shock waves, heating the gas to millions of degrees and causing it to radiate brightly in X-rays and other wavelengths. Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 To test this idea, Yang and his colleagues looked at archival spectral observations from XMM-Newton. With XMM-Newton's superb sensitivity, the team could measure the gas temperature in the anomalous arms and also see how strongly X-rays from the gas are absorbed en route by intervening material. "One of the predictions of this scenario is that the anomalous arms will gradually be pushed out of the galactic disk plane by jet-heated gas," says Yang. The XMM-Newton spectra show that X-rays are more strongly absorbed in the direction of the northwest arm than in the southeast arm. The results strongly suggest that the southeast arm is partly on the near side of M106's disk, and the northwest arm is partly on the far side. The scientists noted that these observations show clear consistency with their scenario. Confirmation of this interpretation has recently come from archival observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, whose infrared view shows clear signs that X-ray emission from the northwest arm is being absorbed by warm gas and dust in the galaxy's disk. Moreover, Chandra's superior imaging resolution gives clear indications of gas shocked by interactions with the two jets. Besides addressing the mystery of the anomalous arms, these observations allowed the team to estimate the energy in the jet

2007-04-01

60

Three Modes of Hydrogeophysical Investigation: Puzzles, Mysteries, and Conundrums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an article in the New Yorker in 2007, Malcolm Gladwell discussed the distinction that national security expert Gregory Treverton has made between puzzles and mysteries. Specifically, puzzles are problems that we understand and that will eventually be solved when we amass enough information. (Think crossword puzzles.) Mysteries are problems for which we have the necessary information, but it is often overwhelmed by irrelevant or misleading input. To solve a mystery, we require improved analysis. (Think find-a-word.) Gladwell goes on to explain that, in the national security realm, the Cold War was a puzzle while the current national security condition is a mystery. I will discuss the past, current, and future trajectories of hydrogeophysics in terms of puzzles and mysteries. I will also add a third class of problem: conundrums - those for which we lack sufficient information about their structure to know how to solve them. A conundrum is a mystery with an unexpected twist. I hope to make the case that the future growth of hydrogeophysics lies in our ability to address this more challenging and more interesting class of problem.

Ferre, P. A.

2011-12-01

61

Building Collections. Mystery and Adventure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mystery and Adventure travel the same path. Within every mystery is an adventure, be it a struggle for survival, network of suspense, or matching of wits. A mystery is a secret jigsaw puzzle. Its popularity lies in the author's skillful engagement of the reader in putting together the pieces by using such elements as clues, foreshadowing, and…

Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

2005-01-01

62

The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy

S. S. Hecker; E. F. Hammel

1998-01-01

63

Increasing the Relevance: A Who Done It Mystery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes the approach she used to teach American government to high school seniors. Beginning with a court procedure unit, the central strategy she used for this unit was a murder mystery that peaked the students' curiosity and encouraged them to think like scientists and lawyers. The court procedure lesson uses a…

Peterson, Nancy

2009-01-01

64

Mysteries of the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mysteries of the Sun is a unique NASA resource on the web, in print, and with companion videos, introducing Heliophysics - the study of the Sun's influence throughout the solar system and, in particular, its connection to the Earth and Earth's extended space environment. Topics include space weather, solar variability, the heliosphere, Earth's magnetosphere, and the Earth's upper atmosphere.

2011-01-01

65

Mystery of the  

Microsoft Academic Search

That mystery already exists more that 80 years. Many of great theoreticans - founders of modern physics - Sommerfeld, Ed- dington, Born, Pauli, Dirac, Weyl, Heisenberg, Feynman, etc. deeply feel its true price, provocative, defiant character in connection with the fundamental basis of the theoretical phisics. Is the Fine Structure Constant (FSC) the really fundamental constant or may be it

Albert M. Chechelnitsky

2000-01-01

66

Passport to Mystery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

Williams, Wilda

2010-01-01

67

Mysteries of Catalhoyuk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Catalhoyuk (chat-al-hoy-ook), which means "forked mound," is a major Neolithic archaeological site in south-central Turkey considered to be one of the first "urban" centers, built between 8,000 and 10,0000 years ago. This engaging multimedia Website, developed by the Science Museum of Minnesota for a general audience, examines the big mysteries underlying Catalhoyuk, as seen through the eyes of an international team of archaeologists and other specialists. Visitors may sift through artifacts and recent findings from the excavations, learn about the people and processes behind the digs, take a virtual tour of the site, or investigate the mysteries surrounding human remains, food habits, murals, clay balls, and goddess figurines.

68

Mystery Fish of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This worksheet from the Midwest Regional Center for Nanotechnology Education (NANO-LINK) contains instructions for an experiment using a mystery fish. This fun experiment will introduce students to the applications of the Scientific Method. Each student will place the magic fish made of cellophane on his or her hand and watch it curl followed by hypothesizing why this occurs. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format.

2013-07-02

69

Mystery of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

That mystery already exists more that 80 years. Many of great theoreticans -\\u000afounders of modern physics - Sommerfeld, Ed- dington, Born, Pauli, Dirac, Weyl,\\u000aHeisenberg, Feynman, etc. deeply feel its true price, provocative, defiant\\u000acharacter in connection with the fundamental basis of the theoretical phisics.\\u000aIs the Fine Structure Constant (FSC) the really fundamental constant or may be\\u000ait

Albert M. Chechelnitsky

2000-01-01

70

Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities  

SciTech Connect

One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All who live on Earth must recognize that they play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. People must solve this great atmospheric mystery if they are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

Not Available

1991-11-01

71

Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

1991-11-01

72

New VLA Images Unlocking Galactic Mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have produced a scientific gold mine of detailed, high-quality images of nearby galaxies that is yielding important new insights into many aspects of galaxies, including their complex structures, how they form stars, the motions of gas in the galaxies, the relationship of "normal" matter to unseen "dark matter," and many others. An international team of scientists used more than 500 hours of observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to produce detailed sets of images of 34 galaxies at distances from 6 to 50 million light-years from Earth. Their project, called The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey, or THINGS, required two years to produce nearly one TeraByte of data. HI ("H-one") is an astronomical term for atomic hydrogen gas. The astronomers presented their initial findings to the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) meeting in Austin, Texas. "Studying the radio waves emitted by atomic hydrogen gas in galaxies is an extremely powerful way to learn what's going on in nearby galaxies. The THINGS survey uses that tool to provide sets of images of the highest quality and sensitivity for a substantial sample of galaxies of different types," said Fabian Walter, of the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. IC2574M74 Dwarf galaxy IC2574, left, and spiral galaxy M74, in THINGS images. Credit: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click images for high-resolution files (33 KB & 25 KB) Spiral Galaxies in THINGS Most of the galaxies studied in the THINGS survey also have been observed at other wavelengths, including Spitzer space telescope infrared images and GALEX ultraviolet images. This combination provides an unprecedented resource for unravelling the mystery of how a galaxy's gaseous material influences its overall evolution. Analysis of THINGS data already has yielded numerous scientific payoffs. For example, one study has shed new light on astronomers' understanding of the gas-density threshold required to start the process of star formation. "Using the data from THINGS in combination with observations from NASA's space telescopes has allowed us to investigate how the processes leading to star formation differ in big spiral galaxies like our own and much smaller, dwarf galaxies," said Adam Leroy and Frank Bigiel of the Max-Planck Insitute for Astronomy at the Austin AAS meeting. Because atomic hydrogen emits radio waves at a specific frequency, astronomers can measure motions of the gas by noting the Doppler shift in frequency caused by those motions. "Because the THINGS images are highly detailed, we have been able to measure both the rotational motion of the galaxies and non-circular random motions within the galaxies," noted Erwin de Blok of the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Galaxy Dynamics in THINGS The motion measurements are providing new information about the mysterious, unseen "dark matter" in the galaxies. "The non-circular motions revealed by the THINGS observations, turn out to be too small to solve a long-standing problem in cosmology, namely the inability of state-of-the-art computer simulations to describe the distribution of dark matter in disk galaxies. It was thought that random motions could explain that inability, but our data show otherwise," de Blok explained. The THINGS images revealed what Elias Brinks of the University of Hertfordshire, UK, called a "stunning complexity of structures in the tenuous interstellar medium of the galaxies." These structures include large shells and "bubbles," presumably caused by multiple supernova explosions of massive stars. Analyzing the detail of these complex structures will help astronomers better understand the differences in star formation processes in the varied types of galaxies. Even such a simple question such as how big are the disks of gas in spiral galaxies had largely eluded astronomers previously. "The quality and sensitivity of the THINGS images has allowed us to see the actua

2008-01-01

73

Scientist Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For scientists desiring to become more involved in education, the COSEE Mid-Atlantic is dedicated to establishing meaningful and productive collaborations between scientists and educators. This web site is meant to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. The information is broken down by how much time the scientist is willing to dedicate to education and public outreach.

74

The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches…

Heid, Christy; Biglan, Barbara; Ritson, Margaret

2008-01-01

75

It's a mystery : Mystery shopping in New Zealand's public libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To explore and evaluate the evidence about the effectiveness of “mystery shopping” as a technique for service evaluation in the public library system of one country. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A critical summary and review of the literature in this field. Interviews with public librarians in New Zealand who have used mystery shopping. Findings – Demonstrates that there were three

Philip Calvert

2005-01-01

76

Glueballs: Advances, problems, mysteries  

SciTech Connect

Identifying glueballs is intimately intertwined with the study of meson spectroscopy. Recent expreimental results agree remarkably well with OCD inspired predictions for the masses of the 0/sup /minus/+/, 1/sup +/minus//, 1/sup + +/ mesons. For the 0/sup /minus/+/ and 1/sup + +/ systems, these agreements lead to the possibility of identifying additional states as candidates for exotica. Major mysteries are: what is the theta(1720), and why are the 2/sup + +/ g/sub T/ states not seen in J//psi/ /r arrow/ ..gamma../phi//phi/, in view of the fact that the OZI-violating mechanism should be a good way to produce glueballs.

Meshkov, S.

1989-04-25

77

Mysteries of the Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Scientific American Frontiers website contains videos from the television episode Mysteries of the Deep, as well as related articles and student activities. The videos explore the technology that has opened up the farthest reaches of the ocean and made it possible to lift shipwrecks from the ocean floor. The videos total to approximately one hour in length. The articles explore evidence in support of the flood in the biblical story of Noah; what deep-ocean research has revealed about continental drift, plate tectonics, and the formation of the Earth; and how shipwrecks are lifted from the ocean floor.

78

Murder mystery for student practice of pulmonary physiology calculations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A paper and pencil exercise where students use many of the equations of pulmonary physiology to solve a murder mystery. These are instructor and student word document versions of the published Advan. Physiol. Edu. 261: 3S-6S, 1991 that may be used in the classroom.

PhD Michael B Maron (Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine Physiology and Pharmacology); PhD Frank Bosso (Youngstown State University Human Performance and Exercise Science)

2008-02-26

79

Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

Colyer, Christa

1999-01-01

80

Groundwater: from mystery to management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater has been used for domestic and irrigation needs from time immemorial. Yet its nature and occurrence have always possessed a certain mystery because water below the land surface is invisible and relatively inaccessible. The influence of this mystery lingers in some tenets that govern groundwater law. With the birth of modern geology during the late nineteenth century, groundwater science

T N Narasimhan

2009-01-01

81

UHECR Maps: mysteries and surprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise of nucleon UHECR above GZK astronomy made by protons (AUGER November 2007) is puzzled by three main mysteries: an unexpected nearby Virgo UHECR suppression (or absence), a rich crowded clustering frozen vertically along Cen A, a composition suggesting nuclei (not much directional) and not nucleons. The UHECR map, initially consistent with GZK volumes, to day seem to be not much correlated with expected Super Galactic Plane. Moreover slant depth data of UHECR from AUGER airshower shape do not favor the proton but points to a nuclei, while HIRES, on the contrary favors mostly nucleons. We tried (at least partially) to solve the contradictions assuming UHECR as light nuclei (mostly He4) spread by planar galactic fields, randomly at vertical axis. The He4 fragility and its mass and charge explains the Virgo absence (due to He4 opacity above few Mpc) and the Cen A spread clustering (a quarter of the whole sample). However more events and rare doublets and clustering elsewhere are waiting for an answer. Here we foresee hint of new UHECR component: galactic ones. Moreover a careful updated views of UHECR sky over different (Radio, IR, Optics, X, gamma, TeV) background (also Fermi gamma very last records) are also favoring forgotten revolutionary Z-shower model. Both Z-Shower, proton GZK and Lightest nuclei UHECR models have dramatic influence on expected UHE neutrino Astronomy: to be soon revealed by UHE ? neutrino induced air-showers in different ways.

Fargion, D.

2010-03-01

82

Scientist as Problem Solver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis of this paper is that the scientist is a problem solver. If this thesis is true, then we can dispense with a separate theory of scientific discovery -- the processes of discovery are just applications of the processes of problem solving. Howeve...

H. A. Simon

1987-01-01

83

Electricity: The Mysterious Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document examines the mysterious force of electricity. The reading will focus on the physical properties of electricity and discuss topics such as (1) The Atom of Carbon, (2) Static electricity, (3) Magnets are special, (4) Magnetic fields can produce electricity, (5) Batteries produce electricity, (6) Electricity travels in circuits, (7) Secondary energy source, (8) Making electricity, (9) Moving electricity from power plants to homes, (10) Fuels that make electricity, (11) Fossil fuel power plants, (12) Nuclear power plants, (13) Hydropower plants, (14) What's a Watt, and (15) Cost of electricity. The document also depicts illustrations of a bar magnet, turbine generator, transporting electricity, U.S. electricity production, peak demand, and energy efficiency. This resource is structured as an informational booklet to supplement your energy activities or to generate discussion questions.

2008-01-01

84

The mystery of reincarnation.  

PubMed

One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

2013-01-01

85

Oriental mystery: ginseng  

SciTech Connect

As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the natural killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.

Yun, T.K.; Cho, H.O.; Yun, Y.S.

1985-01-01

86

Visualization in Problem Solving Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes two problem solving environments that integrate visualization and computational tools into a high level user interface. The objective of a problem solving environment is to provide scientists with a complete, usable, and integrated set of high level facilities for solving problems in a specific domain. Integrating visualization tools with computation tools encourages scientists to think in terms

Amit Goel

87

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

88

Citizen Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest

Bennett, Katherine

2010-09-01

89

Exploring Meteorite Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers and scientists designed this book to engage students in inquiry science and to extend science with interdisciplinary connections. The study of meteorites provides a unifying theme that links almost every aspect of Earth and planetary science with mathematics, physics, chemistry and even biology. The effects of meteorite impacts have serious implications for social science. The activities in this book are designed for upper elementary to high school levels. Many of the lessons begin with a simple activity and build to more complex ones.

1997-08-01

90

Playing Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

Campbell, Ashley

2012-01-01

91

Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

Bennett, Katherine

2010-01-01

92

Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

Bennett, Katherine

2010-01-01

93

Playing Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

Campbell, Ashley

2012-01-01

94

Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some organizations like to promote the teaching of history through architecture, immigration patterns, or transportation innovations. This project encourages students to learn about history through "the enticement of solving historical cold crimes." It's a compelling and intriguing premise, and the project, initiated in 1997, builds on the ideas of document-centered inquiry and "active learning" pedagogical thinking. First-time visitors should view the video introduction to the project, and then use the "Quick Access" drop-down menu to look at the twelve different mysteries featured. A good one to start with is the "Where is Vinland?" project. Here visitors can learn about this Viking colony, learn about historical artifacts associated with the colony, and then review the contemporary and historical findings on the subject. Moving on, the "Teachers" section includes lesson plans, briefing sheets, and student-oriented briefing sheets for use in the classroom.

95

The Three Color Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to an engineering challenge in which they are given a job assignment to separate three types of apples. However, they are unable to see the color differences between the apples, and as a result, they must think as engineers to design devices that can be used to help them distinguish the apples from one another. Solving the challenge depends on an understanding of wave properties and the biology of sight. After being introduced to the challenge, students form ideas and brainstorm about what background knowledge is required to solve the challenge. A class discussion produces student ideas that can be grouped into broad subject categories: waves and wave properties, light and the electromagnetic spectrum, and the structure of the eye.

Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program, Center of Advancement of Engineering Fibers and Films,

96

A Conceptual Model for Mystery Shopping Motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the need for more research regarding mystery shopping evaluations by conducting a grounded theory analysis of the motivations of mystery shoppers, integrating quantitative survey data into the results. First, a detailed literature review provided researchers with a guideline for volunteer and employee motivations. Next, a qualitative study using information from interviews with current mystery shoppers was conducted

Pamela Allison; Denver Severt; Duncan Dickson

2010-01-01

97

Exploring Meteorite Mysteries: Slide Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of slides is designed to accompany the teacher's guide 'Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.' The slides include images of recent and historic meteorites, impact sites and craters, collecting sites, and a sequence of slides on where meteorites come from and how they reach the Earth. They can be viewed online and are also available in a downloadable, printable format.

98

Technological Clues to Ancient Mysteries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The components of archeological research, including the low and high tech tools employed in its pursuit, are described. Archeology appeals to students because of its sense of mystery and is rich in cross-curricular possibilities. Activities based on the Anasazi people (prehistoric people of southwest United States) are included. (KR)|

Hutchinson, Barbara

1991-01-01

99

Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

Stark, Rebecca

100

Surfing Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Australian Broadcasting Corporation website, Ruben Meerman, the surfing scientist, offers a large number of entertaining experiments to excite students about science. At the science tricks link, users can discover how to balance nine nails on the head of a 10th, make a balloon shish kebab, make a super-strength straw, and much more. After each trick, the website offers information on how and why it worked. Everyone will have fun with the primary science lesson plans, demonstrations, and challenging conundrums. The activities are easy to do and use materials that are readily available.

101

Intraneural ganglion cyst: a 200-year-old mystery solved.  

PubMed

We describe the first reported case of an intraneural ganglion cyst, an ulnar ("cubital") intraneural cyst, which, on literature review, dated to 1810. For over 80 years, its original brief description by Beauchêne was wrongly attributed to Duchenne, effectively making the reference and specimen inaccessible to scrutiny. Fortunately, the intact cyst had been safely housed in the Musée Dupuytren, Paris, France, thus permitting its examination. Although originally described as a "serous" cyst, our present understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar nerve and of peripheral nerve pathology allowed us to reinterpret it as a mucin-filled, elbow-level, ulnar intraneural ganglion cyst. In addition to its description as a fusiform cystic enlargement of the nerve, we documented similar enlargement of a lumen-bearing branch, the articular branch at the level of the elbow. Based on our assessment of the specimen and with a modern perspective, we concluded that the origin of the cyst was from the postero-medial aspect of the elbow joint and that its fluid content, having dissected through a capsular defect, followed the path of the articular branch into the parent ulnar nerve. The purpose of this report is to clarify historical misconceptions regarding the pathogenesis of this controversial entity. PMID:18792130

Spinner, Robert J; Vincent, Jean-François; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Scheithauer, Bernd W

2008-10-01

102

NASA's GRAIL Mission Solves Mystery of Moon's Surface Gravity  

NASA Website

NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has uncovered the origin of massive invisible regions that make the moon's gravity uneven, a phenomenon that affects the operations of lunar-orbiting spacecraft.

103

Extreme Events: Magic, Mysteries, and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme events (henceforth Xevents) occur in natural, technical and societal environments. They may be natural or anthropogenic in origin, or they can arise simply from "chance". They often entail loss of life and/or materials. They usually occur "by surprise" and therefore often only become the focus of scientific attention after their onset. Knowledge of Xevents is often rather fragmentary, and recorded experience is limited. Indeed, scientists do not really understand what causes extreme events, how they develop, and when and where they occur. In addition, we are rarely able to cope with their consequences, due to lack of anticipation and preparedness. All this has motivated us, the editors of this volume, to bring together specialists from a variety of fields of expertise, all of whom have a common background in mathematics and physics. We asked them to write their views about Xevents. The result is the present book of essays that will (hopefully) enable the reader to unlock the mysteries surrounding Xevents.

Jentsch, Volker; Kantz, Holger; Albeverio, Sergio

104

Halley's Legacy: The Selfless Genius Who Founded Geophysics, Led the Science Community to Solve the Problem of Finding Longitude at Sea, and Whose Work in Areas from Geomagnetism to Planetology Still Has Meaning For Today's Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2005 marks the 300th anniversary of Edmond Halley's publication of his infamous synopsis predicting the accurate return of the comet that would come to bear his name. On this occasion, it is time to remember him not only as the founder of geophysics but for his contributions to the world of science beyond his comet work. Halley's comet-transformed by the first triumph of the Newtonian revolution from a dire supernatural omen to a predictable element of the universe's clockwork-remains a recurring symbol of the scientific age of the Enlightenment. His comet is hurtling through space at some 20,000 miles per hour and won't be back until 2061. But it can remind us of past epochs and everlastingly of Halley's contributions to geophysics and the world of science writ large. For a start, Halley completed a series of little known sea voyages in his effort to solve one of his life-long quests: the problem of determining longitude at sea. On the basis of his earlier theories on magnetism, his approach entailed mapping the magnetic deviation across the test-bed of the Atlantic Ocean. In this paper, his findings from the voyages, which technically comprised the first science mission funded by a government and stand as the forerunner of all big science projects, will be reconsidered and put into the context of today's notions about terrestrial magnetism, including the geodynamo. To this day, scientists remain perplexed about exactly how core's dynamo regenerates its energy. When Halley was sailing his vessel, the Paramore, across the North Atlantic and making the first charts of geomagnetism, little did he ever imagine magnetism would underpin today's stunning advances in information technology and electromagnetic engineering. Magnetism also offers ways to study phase transitions, random disorder, and physics in low dimensions, which looks at particle interactions at ever higher energies in order to essentially study matter at smaller and smaller size scales. The presentation will also give an overview of his legacy to geophysics, which includes his contributions to meteorology, hydrology, ocean sciences, among other disciplines.

Wakefield, J.

2005-12-01

105

High-altitude flashes mystify scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

San Francisco—Until a few years ago, the only place mysterious flashes high above thunderstorm clouds received much respect was in the pages of the Handbook of Unusual Natural Phenomena. Although over the course of the past century there were various anecdotal accounts scattered in the scientific literature, most scientists didn't take reports of upward-shooting lightning seriously.Nowadays, all that has changed, however. In the very hard-core atmospheric research arena, the luminous discharges are taking center stage. And scientists no longer think that the elusive flashes are rare or isolated events. In fact, in the past couple of years, scientists from four institutions have put more than 1000 sightings of the so-called “sprites” in the files.

Wakefield, Julie

106

Teaching U.S. History as Mystery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One way to engage students in grades 7 through 12 is to encourage them to investigate history as a puzzle, a set of dilemmas, a collection of conflicting viewpoints in short, a mysterious and provocative subject. In this book a collection of cases have been assembled both real mysteries and purposely constructed classroom problems with techniques…

Gerwin, David; Zevin, Jack

107

Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

2011-01-01

108

What Scientists Say: Scientists' Views of Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on scientists' views of scientific models and their use in authentic practice. Participants were 24 scientists, averaging 25 years research experience, representing four discipline areas. Views of scientific models were assessed through an open-ended questionnaire ("VNOS-Sci") and interviews. The scientists described models…

Schwartz, Renee S.; Lederman, Norman G.

2005-01-01

109

Problem Solving with Patents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-01-01

110

Four Interesting Mysteries with Seemingly Conflicting Explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four mysteries with seemingly contradictory solutions are presented to make chemistry courses more interesting and relevant to students' lives: (1) Why might women become intoxicated more easily than men? (2) Why might alcohol consumption enhance cigarettes' carcinogenic effects? (3) Why might the use of Vaseline Intensive Care Hand Lotion as a lubricant increase the number of unwanted pregnancies and promote the spread of HIV? (4) Why does oil-based Vaseline Intensive Care Hand Lotion rinse off in water? Although the solutions to these mysteries appear to contradict one another, the contradictions are reconciled by considering a fifth mystery: Why does red wine go with red meat and white wine go with fish?

Delorenzo, Ron

2000-04-01

111

Adult Age Differences in Reading and Rereading Processes Associated with Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated age differences in reading and rereading processes associated with problem solving and explored the extent to which prior information affects rereading processes. Participants' reading times were recorded as they read short mysteries, twice, at their own pace on a computer, with the goal of providing the solution to the mystery.…

Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Gagne, Danielle D.

2008-01-01

112

Adult Age Differences in Reading and Rereading Processes Associated with Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated age differences in reading and rereading processes associated with problem solving and explored the extent to which prior information affects rereading processes. Participants' reading times were recorded as they read short mysteries, twice, at their own pace on a computer, with the goal of providing the solution to the mystery. We…

Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Gagne, Danielle D.

2008-01-01

113

The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches of North Carolina. Based on the original case from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science at the University at Buffalo (Kosal 2003), the authors modified the case and developed inquiry-based activities for use in the middle school classroom.

Biglan, Barbara; Heid, Christy; Ritson, Margaret

2008-02-01

114

From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constru

Frissell, Virginia

2010-02-01

115

Mystery Boxes: Helping Children Improve their Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

   This guest editorial describes ways teachers can use guessing games about an unknown item in a “mystery box” to help children\\u000a improve their abilities to listen to others, recall information, ask purposeful questions, classify items by class, make inferences,\\u000a synthesize information, and draw conclusions. The author presents information from a qualitative analysis of 90 preservice\\u000a teachers’ reflections on using mystery

Audrey C. Rule

2007-01-01

116

Inspiring Future Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they compared their own methods of learning with those of scientists past and present. The results? The students discovered that anyone can be a scientist! Researching "how scientists learn" proved to be incredibly motivating to students and truly inspired them to consider science careers. This article describes their investigations during the six-day unit.

Betteley, Pat; Jr., Richard E.

2009-04-01

117

Inspiring Future Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

2009-01-01

118

Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Problem solving and thinking are inseparably linked together. We propose that a theory of thinking has to consider and incorporate\\u000a the notion of problem solving. In this chapter, we review the most important accounts of problem solving and hope to convince\\u000a the reader that problem solving may provide an ideal framework for developing a theory of thinking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We start with

Michael Öllinger; Vinod Goel

119

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

120

NOVA: Mystery of the Megavolcano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As if the possibility of a regular volcanic eruption wasn't disturbing enough to some readers, it turns out that there is another class of volcano whose destructive power is much more frightening. Known to scientists as a supervolcano, this type of volcano produces at least 240 cubic miles of magma in a single eruption. A recent documentary produced by NOVA looks into the possibility of a recrudescence of such an ancient supervolcano, and attempts to offer a balanced and introspective portrait of these phenomena. Visitors can learn about historic eruptions of this magnitude on the site, and also consider an interactive slide show that provides information about Toba, a supervolcano that flourished on the island of Sumatra 75,000 years ago. Additionally, the site includes a number of tools for educators and a question and answer session with Dr. Drew Shindell, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies.

2006-01-01

121

Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is developed to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom through the study of historical mysteries. What better place to snoop around and dig through mysterious graves than in history class? This book takes ten mysterious events in history from ancient Egypt to the 21st century for…

Pahl, Ronald Hans

2005-01-01

122

Commentary: Physician–Scientist's Frustrations Fester  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing problem of major proportions had been confronting biomedical scientists for many decades. Until solved, this long-neglected problem, the abject failure of the American health care system, presents a gigantic obstacle to the application of the discoveries flowing from neuropsychopharmacological research into deliverable medications utilized by medical practitioners. Although it is recognized that such advances could benefit all of

Floyd E Bloom; Emeritus FE Bloom

2009-01-01

123

From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constructivist approach, students can explore and construct their learning as they continue to use…

Frissell, Virginia

2010-01-01

124

A SUMMARY CRITIQUE THE MYTHOLOGICAL JESUS MYSTERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

If The Jesus Mysteries had been written 100 years ago, authors Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy might have some excuse for the arguments they present. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, knowledge of the culture of the Hellenistic and Jewish world was not as complete as it is today, and many scholars believed that the New Testament was

Peter Gandy

2003-01-01

125

Unraveling the Mystery of an Environmental Disease  

ScienceCinema

For many years, residents of farming villages along the Danube River basin suffered from a fatal kidney disease and an associated urinary tract cancer. The cause of the disease remained a mystery for more than 50 years. Recently, however, Arthur Grollman and his colleagues have determined that home-baked bread is implicated in the disease, known as Balkan endemic nephropathy.

126

Just Like Real Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about the scientists' work with chimpanzees in Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa, students conducted an animal behavior inquiry of their own--with their pets! In doing so, students modeled real scientists as they practiced keeping records while learning how to make and read graphs. Their "Great Moments in Record Keeping" are shared here.

2009-01-01

127

Scientists in Action!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists in Action provides news about natural scientists and what they do, including: how scientists must react to rockfalls and earthquakes; spy plane modification by NASA to gather data to help forecast brush fires and spot toxic waste; frog malformation and population decrease; the 'Geologists in the Parks' program, which involves new earth scientists in helping National Park staff understand and manage resources; recovery by micropaleontologists of a K-T core from the bottom of the ocean; mapping the Grand Canyon; managing the treasures of Yellowstone; fossil preparators combining art and science skills; and bringing panthers back to the Florida Everglades.

128

Mysterious Magnetar Yielding Secrets to VLA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A giant flash of energy from a supermagnetic neutron star thousands of light-years from Earth may shed a whole new light on scientists' understanding of such mysterious "magnetars" and of gamma-ray bursts. In the nearly two months since the blast, the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) has produced a wealth of surprising information about the event, and "the show goes on," with continuing observations. This graphic illustrates the VLA measurements of the exanding fireball from the December 27, 2004, outburst from the magnetar SGR 1806-20. Each color indicates the observed size of the fireball at a different time. The sequence covers roughly three weeks of VLA observing. The outline of the fireball in each case is not an actual image, but rather a "best-fit" model of the shape that best matches the data from the VLA. Click on image for larger version. CREDIT: G.B. Taylor, NRAO/AUI/NSF The blast from an object named SGR 1806-20 came on December 27, 2004, and was first detected by orbiting gamma-ray and X-ray telescopes. It was the brightest outburst ever seen coming from an object beyond our own Solar System, and its energy overpowered most orbiting telescopes. The burst of gamma rays and X-rays even disturbed the Earth's ionosphere, causing a sudden disruption in some radio communications. While the intensely bright gamma ray burst faded away in a matter of minutes, the explosion's "afterglow" has been tracked by the VLA and other radio telescopes for weeks, providing most of the data needed by astronomers trying to figure out the physics of the blast. A magnetar is a superdense neutron star with a magnetic field thousands of trillions of times more intense than that of the Earth. Scientists believe that SGR 1806-20's giant burst of energy was somehow triggered by a "starquake" in the neutron star's crust that caused a catastrophic disruption in the magnetar's magnetic field. The magnetic disruption generated the huge burst of gamma rays and "boiled off" particles from the star's surface into a rapidly-expanding fireball that continues to emit radio waves for weeks or months. The VLA first observed SGR 1806-20 on January 3, and has been joined by other radio telescopes in Australia, the Netherlands, and India. Scientific papers prepared for publication based on the first month's radio observations report a number of key discoveries about the object. Scientists using the VLA have found: * The fireball of radio-emitting material is expanding at roughly one-third the speed of light. * The expanding fireball is elongated, and may change its shape quickly. * Alignment of the radio waves (polarization) confirms that the fireball is not spherical. * The flare emitted an amount of energy that represents a significant fraction of the total energy stored in the magnetar's magnetic field. Of the dozen or so magnetars known to astronomers, only one other has been seen to experience a giant outburst. In 1998, SGR 1900+14 put out a blast similar in many respects to SGR 1806-20's, but much weaker. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) astronomer Dale Frail observed the 1998 outburst and has been watching SGR 1806-20 for a decade. Both magnetars are part of the small group of objects called soft gamma-ray repeaters, because they repeatedly experience much weaker outbursts of gamma rays. In early January, he was hosting a visiting college student while processing the first VLA data from SGR 1806-20's giant outburst. "I literally could not believe what I was looking at," Frail said. "Immediately I could see that this flare was 100 times stronger than the 1998 flare, and 10,000 times brighter than anything this object had done before." "I couldn't stay in my chair, and this student got to see a real, live astronomer acting like an excited little kid," Frail said. The excitement isn't over, either. "The show goes on and we continue to observe this thing and continue to get surprises," said Greg Taylor, an astronomer for

2005-02-01

129

Scientists Shaping the Discussion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

2011-12-01

130

Collaborating with WISE Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through an interactive partnership, fifth-grade students collected data on plants and joined an active scientific community of working scientists. This Web-based Integrated Science Environment (WISE) project involved asking questions about plants, growing plants in the classroom, and discussing their data with scientists online.

Linn, Marcia C.; Williams, Michelle

2003-09-01

131

Misquoted Scientists Respond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

Cole, John R.

1981-01-01

132

Scientists as People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development of students' images of scientists from high school through college in Israel, and indicates the presence of significant discrepancies between the images held by college students and by scientists themselves as measured by the Test On Understanding Science (TOUS) form W. (CC)|

Jungwirth, E.

1973-01-01

133

Eastern Europe. Adriatic nations team up to explore spreading marine mystery.  

PubMed

Scientists hope that unlocking the mystery of a slimy biomass that sometimes despoils the sparkling blue-green waters of the Adriatic Sea will push open the door to greater international scientific collaboration in the troubled region. The biomass's once-rare appearances have become increasingly frequent in the last decade, making it perhaps the most visible sign of environmental stress in the northern Adriatic. But its growing notoriety may have a silver lining: a major international program to study pollution and other environmental trends in the Adriatic. PMID:11184191

Koenig, R

2000-10-27

134

GeoSleuth Murder Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activity begins by asking students to look at a drawing of a crime scene. The crime scene is specifically drawn so that illustrates several key geologic principals, but to the untrained eye it appears as a murder that took place inside an office. After quietly looking at the image for a few minutes alone, they share with a partner what they think happened. As a class, we record a list of "Observations," making sure to use the opportunity to highlight the difference between observation and interpretation. After we complete the list of observations, students then offer their interpretations about the sequence of events. Without using any new vocabulary, the teacher makes sure to highlight the geologic principles of original horizontality, superposition, cross cutting relations, and uniformitarianism in the students' interpretations. After students share enough competing theories, the professor shows slides of geologic examples that have things in common with parts of the crime scene and points out the similar processes. The activity eventually ends without a clear answer about "whodunnit." This open ending leaves students frustrated, but it really gets across the point that we can never know the exact answer to some problems, we can only come up with viable theories. Students continue to ask for months about what "really" happened, but I never tell them :-) Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Dalessio, Matthew

135

Scientist - Educator Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science is the quest for knowledge about the natural world, and scientists are often characterized as driven by curiosity and the desire to discover, traits they share with children exploring the world through youthful eyes. In contrast, formal science education at the pre-college and college levels frequently distills the joy of scientific research and discovery into a body on known facts, laws, and disciplinary studies, loosing the excitement of doing science. When scientists partner with teachers and other educators, there is an opportunity for engaging students and the public with scientists and their research projects. Further, scientists provide expertise to create up-to-date and accurate materials for use in classrooms, science centers, and youth groups. Scientists also see engagement with teachers, students, and the public through science centers as a means of growing the next generation of scientists to continue the work. Often this process is facilitated by science education professionals who work at the interface between the worlds of scientific research and formal and informal education. The partnership between the research scientist and the science education professional can result in improved science education for a broad community of teachers, students and the public.

Devore, E.

2003-12-01

136

[Samuel Hahnemann's mysterious Q-potencies].  

PubMed

This paper deals with the so-called "mysterious" Q-potencies, the dilution of a substance according to particular augmentation methods, dating back to Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homoeopathy. Hahnemann's method consists of a step by step dilution of substances. Until 1837 he only used the C-potency (dilution on the basis 1:00); beginning in 1837-8, he experimented with the Q-potency, or quinquagenimillesimal scale. (Potency on this scale is denoted by 0/1, 0/2, 0/5, 0/10, etc. and generically referred to as 'LM potencies'.) The new method was only documented decades after Hahnemann's death, but without explicit references to his techniques of notation. This is the reason why the Q-potency is still a mystery in Hahnemann's casebooks. This article examines the hidden references to the notations referring to the Q-potency and presents preliminary results. PMID:12360989

Kunkle, L

2001-01-01

137

The mysterious eruption of V838 Mon  

Microsoft Academic Search

V838 Mon is marking one of the most mysterious stellar outbursts on record. The spectral energy distribution of the progenitor resembles an under-luminous F main sequence star (at V=15.6 mag), that erupted into a cool supergiant following a complex and multi-maxima lightcurve (peaking at V=6.7 mag). The outburst spectrum show BaII, LiI and lines of several s-elements, with wide P-Cyg

U. Munari; A. Henden; S. Kiyota; D. Laney; F. Marang; T. Zwitter; R. L. M. Corradi; S. Desidera; P. M. Marrese; E. Giro; F. Boschi; M. B. Schwartz

2002-01-01

138

The mystery of John Wilkes Booth's dentist.  

PubMed

For many years there has been much speculation over the identity of the dentist of President Abraham Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth. Some have considered Dr. William Merrill (1833-1918), a rather prominent Washington, D.C. dentist, as the man who restored two of Booth's teeth with gold a few days before the assassination. Who was the mysterious Dr. Merrill and what evidence do we have that he ever treated Booth? PMID:10726569

Hyson, J M; Kauffman, M W

1999-11-01

139

The yeast Golgi apparatus: insights and mysteries  

PubMed Central

The Golgi apparatus is known to modify and sort newly synthesized secretory proteins. However, fundamental mysteries remain about the structure, operation, and dynamics of this organelle. Important insights have emerged from studying the Golgi in yeasts. For example, yeasts have provided direct evidence for Golgi cisternal maturation, a mechanism that is likely to be broadly conserved. Here, we highlight features of the yeast Golgi as well as challenges that lie ahead.

Papanikou, Effrosyni; Glick, Benjamin S.

2009-01-01

140

Solving Quartics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented, which is different from the well-known Ferrari's method, to solve a general quartic equation. Formulae for the four roots of quartic are derived. A numerical example verifies the formulae obtained.

Kulkarni, R. G.

2007-01-01

141

COSEE Southeast: Scientist's Niche  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists can get help engaging in K-16 education efforts from this resource. It provides information and publications on how researchers can get involved in education, and contains a link to the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories (SAML).

142

Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, Science to the Rescue (Markle 1

Porter, Diana

2009-10-01

143

Scientists and Human Rights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

Makdisi, Yousef

2012-02-01

144

Talk Like a Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in wh

Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

2010-04-01

145

The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future  

SciTech Connect

The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

146

Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

Verschuur, Gerrit L.

1996-04-01

147

Scientists Discover Sugar in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop

2000-06-01

148

Scientist of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first grade teacher in an urban school, eager to bring authentic science into the classroom, provides an opportunity for her students to experience science adventures and explorations, while also getting parents involved. She implemented a program called Scientist of the Day which allows students to experience simple hands-on science experiments, and to involve their parents both in and out of the classroom. The idea is for every child to have a turn being "Scientist of the Day".

Salinas, Maria

2005-10-01

149

Associate Scientist Andres Berrio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from WGBH, looks at Andres Berrio and his current job as an associate scientist. This video examines what someone can do with experience and education in laboratory science, what skills are needed to succeed in this field, and what employees can do to shine to employers. This video is helpful for anyone interested in biotechnology or working as a laboratory associate scientist or assistant. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 2:53.

2010-10-11

150

The Case of the Mysterious Renters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students to identify ways in which water is used, determine how much water families use each day, recognize the importance of conserving water, and determine ways in which water can be conserved. The activity revolves around a simulated mystery in which the number of renters living in an apartment is determined by water usage. It is designed to lead students to recognize their own ability to make a difference in conserving and protecting our water resources and to make a life-long commitment to water stewardship.

151

Mystery Box: Making Observations and Collecting Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can use it to learn to differentiate between qualitative and quantitative observations and to practice data collection. In this activity, the learner works with a partner and describes and records the items in their mystery box. Low vision learners can practice using their vision to collect data by putting their objects in an open tub, while sighted learners can be encouraged to use their tactile senses by putting their objects in a closed box with access only for their hands to enter.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

152

Marine Mystery: A Watery Who-dunnit!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the causes of coral reef destruction by assuming various character roles in this marine murder-mystery. As they determine who killed Seymour Coral, students learn the basics of DNA testing. Suspects include global warming, sedimentation, and other threats facing coral reefs today. This activity is designed for 15 students, but can be modified for 12ÃÂ24 students. A narrated PowerPoint that provides background information on coral reefs can be shared in advance in a separate lesson. The total class time for the PowerPoint, skit, and pre- and post-surveys is about 100 minutes.

2012-01-01

153

The Mystery Tour; Exploring the Designed Environment with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Mystery Tour is a multi-sensory approach to the man-made environment. It is designed to acquaint children with historical significance of buildings and architecture and thus prepare them to participate in decisions concerning historical preservation. Developed through a grant from the national Endowment for the Arts, the Mystery Tour guides…

Balaban, Richard C.; St. Clair, Alison Igo

154

Magical Mysteries. Texas Reading Club, 1984. A Librarian's Planning Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to encourage library use by Texas youth, the Texas Reading Club programs usually include a structured reading program and a variety of entertaining literature-related storyhours, puppet shows, films, and other attractive happenings. This handbook for the 1984 theme--"magical mysteries"--focuses on mysteries, magic, and adventure stories,…

Oliver, Jim

155

Make a Mystery Circuit with a Bar Light Fixture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers have been building mystery circuits or so-called "black box circuits" to use as a demonstration with their students for years. This paper presents an easy way to make simple mystery circuits using inexpensive light fixtures (see Fig. 1) available at almost any home improvement store. In a black box circuit, only the lightbulbs are…

Lietz, Martha

2007-01-01

156

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

157

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

2008-01-01

158

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

2008-01-01

159

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had…

Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

2011-01-01

160

Scientists on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.

161

Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

162

Scientists and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

When disasters, even natural ones, have a chemical or nuclear dimension, scientists play a major role in their management. Presents the results of research on Canadian disasters, and includes other cases of disasters that occurred around the world. Discusses the experts? role in decisions related to the response: how to identify a specific product, its impact on health, for example,

Hélène Denis

1995-01-01

163

Teaming Up with Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

2001-01-01

164

Mysterious zero in AdS5×S5 supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that all the states in AdS5×S5 supergravity have zero eigenvalue for all Casimir eigenvalues of its symmetry group SU(2,2|4). To compute this zero in supergravity we refine the oscillator methods for studying the lowest weight unitary representations of SU(N,M|R+S). We solve the reduction problem when one multiplies an arbitrary number of super-doubletons. This enters in the computation of the Casimir eigenvalues of the lowest weight representations. We apply the results to SU(2,2|4) that classifies the Kaluza-Klein towers of ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity compactified on AdS5×S5. We show that the vanishing of the SU(2,2|4) Casimir eigenvalues for all the states is indeed a group-theoretical fact in AdS5×S5 supergravity. By the AdS-CFT correspondence, it is also a fact for gauge invariant states of super-Yang-Mills theory with four supersymmetries in four dimensions. This nontrivial and mysterious zero is very interesting because it is predicted as a straightforward consequence of the fundamental local Sp(2) symmetry in 2T-physics. Via the 2T-physics explanation of this zero we find a global indication that these special supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theories hide a twelve-dimensional structure with (10,2) signature.

Bars, Itzhak

2002-11-01

165

The Great Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

Meadows, Jack

1989-11-01

166

Ask a Marine Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to ocean education. You will find all kinds of interesting information about things like: the biggest sea animals, marine biology careers, answers to common ocean and animal questions, and more. Check the Answer Archive for answers to your marine science questions, and if you do not find your answer, ask one of their scientists. This site also includes ocean news, world records, and information on summer camps.

2010-07-09

167

Postmodernism for animal scientists.  

PubMed

Many scientists regard the term "postmodernism" as controversial. Because postmodern theorists question whether science can be objective, some scientists view postmodernism as anti-scientific. In this paper, we argue that traditional accounts of science developed during the modern era (16th, 17th, and 18th centuries) are still influential in animal science, but are no longer plausible. In particular, the view that science automatically leads to human betterment seems to be disingenuous. A postmodern view that portrays science as a political activity seems more plausible, and offers a means to better understand contentious policy issues that involve science. Although most animal scientists accept the view that theory selection, experimental designs, and technology development require value-laden judgments, most fail to recognize that such values may be politically motivated and embrace prevailing political structures. Postmodernists such as Michel Foucault argue that through the generation of knowledge, scientific disciplines create a discourse that serves to maintain a particular social structure that has political implications. Viewed in this way, it becomes clear how various interest groups can be critical of certain scientific programs. For example, groups that oppose research dealing with cloning, genetically modified organisms, and intensive livestock production may not be as much opposed to science as they are to the political interests served by this science. In other words, such groups view these research agendas as promoting policies that place them at risk. Such a postmodern account of science, may help animal scientists better understand the nature of contentious issues, and provide a basis for reforming the animal science discipline in ways that make it more responsive to the diverse interests of a pluralistic society. PMID:14677854

Schillo, K K; Thompson, P B

2003-12-01

168

222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

Lively, R. S.; Krafthefer, B. C.

1995-01-01

169

The peroxisome: still a mysterious organelle  

PubMed Central

More than half a century of research on peroxisomes has revealed unique features of this ubiquitous subcellular organelle, which have often been in disagreement with existing dogmas in cell biology. About 50 peroxisomal enzymes have so far been identified, which contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as ?-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of ether phospholipids and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and render peroxisomes indispensable for human health and development. It became obvious that peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that rapidly assemble, multiply and degrade in response to metabolic needs. However, many aspects of peroxisome biology are still mysterious. This review addresses recent exciting discoveries on the biogenesis, formation and degradation of peroxisomes, on peroxisomal dynamics and division, as well as on the interaction and cross talk of peroxisomes with other subcellular compartments. Furthermore, recent advances on the role of peroxisomes in medicine and in the identification of novel peroxisomal proteins are discussed.

Fahimi, H. Dariush

2008-01-01

170

Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

2008-11-01

171

Training the translational scientist.  

PubMed

A Clinical and Translational Science Awards Industry Forum titled "Promoting Efficient and Effective Collaborations Among Academia, Government, and Industry" was held in February 2010. A session at this forum was organized to address the training and skills needed to develop a biomedical scientific workforce that interfaces academia, government agencies, and industry to support the process of translating science into applicable means to improve health. By examining the requisite competencies and training resources for scientists in each of these sectors, opportunities for collaboration and adoption of new educational strategies were identified that could help to address barriers to translational research education and career development. PMID:21178132

Jackson, Rebecca D; Gabriel, Sherine; Pariser, Anne; Feig, Peter

2010-12-22

172

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

173

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. Charlotte's Web is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's book defines vocabulary words and incorporates scientific facts concerning arachnids. However, some of the spider information in the book is not accurate. Therefore, Charlotte's Web can also be used to teach students to become better informed readers.

Getz, Angela; Patrick, Patricia

2008-11-01

174

Eisenhower, Scientists, and Sputnik  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 4, 1957, the Russians launched a 184-pound satellite into Earth orbit. This event had a tremendous impact on Americans as it called into question the capability of U. S. science v*s-a-v*s that of the Russians. On October 15, President Dwight D. Eisenhower called "his scientists" to the Oval Office and a meeting took place that Hans Bethe has called an "unforgettable hour." At this meeting, I. I. Rabi, Chairman of the Science Advisory Committee, made several proposals to President Eisenhower that the President accepted immediately. We are still living with the legacy of the proposals that Eisenhower adopted that day.

Rigden, John S.

2006-12-01

175

Eisenhower, Scientists, and Sputnik  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 4, 1957, the Russians launched a 184-pound satellite into Earth orbit. This event had a tremendous impact on Americans as it called into question the capability of U. S. science v'is-a-v'is that of the Russians. President Dwight D. Eisenhower called ``his scientists'' to the Oval Office and a meeting took place that Hans Bethe has called an ``unforgettable hour.'' I. I. Rabi, Chairman of the Science Advisory Committee made several proposals to President Eisenhower which the President accepted immediately. Today, 50-years later, we are still living with the legacy of Sputnik.

Rigden, John S.

2007-04-01

176

The Scientist - Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientist magazine is written for life science professionals, but promises it to be "concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining." The magazine's online version has a great Multimedia section on its website that has "Videos," "Slideshows," and "Infographics." Visitors shouldn't miss the story titled "Bat Hunt" from the January 2012 issue, which profiles a mammologist working in the South Sudan. The photographs in included this story are excellent, and visitors will be amazed by the photo of the wide-eyed fruit bat cradling its baby. Back on the homepage, the Infographics section contains stories accompanied by colorful, easy-to-follow diagrams, and it is also well worth a look.

2012-01-20

177

Another Kind of Scientist Activism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

Marino, Lori

2009-01-01

178

Scientists need political literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

Simarski, Lynn Teo

179

CHIPPING AWAY AT THE MYSTERY OF DRUG RESPONSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Chipping away at the mystery of drug responses John C. Rockett Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 2771...

180

Life in Death Valley: The Mystery of the Racing Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PBS site provides information of the mysterious sliding rocks in Death Valley, reviews competing hypotheses, and features the work of a geologist using GPS in her investigation. The site includes a photo of a rock and its track.

2010-06-29

181

Mystery Material: Is it a solid or a liquid?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an investigation of a "mystery material" where students have to determine whether the substance is a solid or a liquid. This activity can be done as part of an earth science or chemistry lesson.

182

Ask a Scientist!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet offers many opportunities to find quality answers to a host of important questions, ranging from the fields of the humanities to those in the hard sciences. One important resource that offers answers to a number of thorny questions is the Ask a Scientist! website created and maintained by the Centers for Materials Research at Cornell University. The site had its debut on September 17, 1998, when Professor Neil Ashcroft answered the timely question, "What is Jupiter made of?". Visitors to the site can browse or search for previously answered questions, and of course, they are also welcome to submit their own questions for consideration. Visitors will definitely want to view the "Frequently Viewed Questions", which feature responses to such favorites queries as "How can you tell if a diamond is real or fake?" or "How is glass made?"

183

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

184

The Society for Amateur Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society for Amateur Scientists created this website to present its goal "to create unique collaborations between world-class professionals and citizen scientists and to remove the roadblocks that prevent ordinary people from participating in extraordinary science." The website features The Citizen Scientist, a weekly publication presenting news and projects from amateur scientists. Students can learn about the educational program, LABRats. Photographers can submit interesting images to the Society' Gallery. With so many tools and resources, everyone interested in science should visit this website.

185

The Secret Life of Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

186

Nutritional scientist or biochemist?  

PubMed

When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

Suttie, J W

2011-08-21

187

Advocacy is scientists' responsibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In reading S. Fred Singer's comments in Forum (Eos, May 21, 1991) on the earlier letter by Kaula and Anderson on AGU's proper role in society (Eos, April 9, 1991), I find myself entirely in agreement with his admonition that AGU positions, in this case specifically on global warming, must add “a certain amount of political sophistication.” But while I cannot disagree with the view that geophysicists should confine their advice to matters in which they have expertise, I also wonder if any of us deserves criticism when, noting the difficulty political leaders have in connecting causes with effects, we yield occasionally to the temptation to stray beyond mere facts and spell out potentially unfavorable connections. Early linking of complex but subtly related phenomena is one of the areas in which we have some credibility, is it not?Even as scientists we are, after all, compelled to share destinies with the other passengers crammed into the stairwells of the national vehicle, a bus tailgating an oil tanker careening right and left at high speed down the global highway, driven by a crew of politicians drunk on paleozoic distillate and trained in the Alfred E. Newman College of Navigation, where the principal graduation requirement is an intense desire to sit in front and steer.

Greenstadt, Gene

188

Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety

Richard K. Coll; Neil Taylor

2004-01-01

189

Deciphering the mystery of thalidomide teratogenicity.  

PubMed

Thalidomide was originally developed in 1954 as a sedative that was commonly used to ameliorate morning sickness. However, thalidomide exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy caused multiple birth defects (e.g. phocomelia and amelia), affecting ? 10,000 children worldwide in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Thalidomide is now recognized as a clinically effective, albeit strictly restricted, drug for the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma. Investigators have studied thalidomide teratogenicity for half a century, proposing over 30 hypotheses to account for its actions. Among these, the anti-angiogenesis and oxidative stress models have gained widespread support. Nonetheless, the precise molecular mechanisms and direct targets of thalidomide have not heretofore been elucidated. We developed ferrite-glycidyl methacrylate beads that enable magnetic separation and efficient purification of ligand-binding molecules; the beads were recently employed to identify cereblon as a primary target of thalidomide. Cereblon forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with DDB1, Cul4A, and Roc1, which is important for the expression of fibroblast growth factor 8, an essential regulator of limb development. Expression of a drug binding-deficient mutant of cereblon suppressed thalidomide-induced effects in zebrafish and chicks. This suggests that thalidomide downregulates fibroblast growth factor 8 expression and induces limb malformation by binding to wild-type cereblon, inhibiting the function of the associated E3 ubiquitin ligase. The present review summarizes the teratogenicity of thalidomide, including existing models for its mode of action, and discusses the identification of cereblon as a key molecule for deciphering the longstanding mystery of thalidomide teratogenicity. PMID:22348778

Ito, Takumi; Handa, Hiroshi

2012-03-01

190

Mystery of the Toxic Flea Dip: An Interactive Approach to Teaching Aerobic Cellular Respiration  

PubMed Central

We designed an interrupted case study to teach aerobic cellular respiration to major and nonmajor biology students. The case is based loosely on a real-life incident of rotenone poisoning. It places students in the role of a coroner who must determine the cause of death of the victim. The case is presented to the students in four parts. Each part is followed by discussion questions that the students answer in small groups prior to a classwide discussion. Successive parts of the case provide additional clues to the mystery and help the students focus on the physiological processes involved in aerobic respiration. Students learn the information required to solve the mystery by reading the course textbook prior to class, listening to short lectures interspersed throughout the case, and discussing the case in small groups. The case ends with small group discussions in which the students are given the names and specific molecular targets of other poisons of aerobic respiration and asked to determine which process (i.e., glycolysis, citric acid cycle, or the electron transport chain) the toxin disrupts.

Baines, A. T.; McVey, M.; Rybarczyk, B.; Thompson, J. T.; Wilkins, H. R.

2004-01-01

191

Dimensional Calculator for Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching students how to convert units is straight-forward. Getting them to appreciate the power of including units in their calculations and analyses is far more difficult. Too many students fail to see dimensions as an integral part of an analysis but instead view it as an annoyance -- an added burden to be dealt with in addition to solving the program usually done using a separate unit conversion program. There are hundreds of online calculators and unit converters but this is the only site that integrates both. It automatically handles all unit conversion as part of its calculations. You just enter your input using any units - metric English or mixed and then enter your formula. The site knows about many geoscience specific units such as Darcys. The calculator tells you if your formula and/or input are dimensionally inconsistent greatly reducing mistakes and making it easier for students to begin to understand the advantages of including units in their calculations.

Engine, Dimension

192

Oxyluciferin photoacidity: the missing element for solving the keto-enol mystery?  

PubMed

The oxyluciferin family of fluorophores has been receiving much attention from the research community and several systematic studies have been performed in order to gain more insight regarding their photophysical properties and photoprotolytic cycles. In this minireview, we summarize the knowledge obtained so far and define several possible lines for future research. More importantly, we analyze the impact of the discoveries on the firefly bioluminescence phenomenon made so far and explain how they re-open again the discussion regarding the identity (keto or enol species) of the bioluminophore. PMID:23843204

Pinto da Silva, Luís; Simkovitch, Ron; Huppert, Dan; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

2013-07-10

193

How Old is "Cinder Cone" - Solving a Mystery in Lassen Volcanic Park, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the controversy surrounding the age of Cinder Cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park. This report follows the beginning of the controversy in the 1870s through recent discoveries about when the volcano was formed. Early geologic studies are covered, as well as the recent findings through paleomagnetism, field and laboratory work and by reinterpreting data from previous studies.

Clynne, Michael; Champion, Duane; Trimble, Deborah; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

194

Suzaku Solved a Mystery of the Galactic Center X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The K? line features of FeXXV (6.7keV) and FeXXVI (6.97keV) favor collisional excitation origin for the Galactic Center X-rays. The ionization and electron temperatures determined from the line flux ratios of K? and K? in highly ionized Fe and Ni indicate that the Galactic Center diffuse X-rays are due to a high temperature plasma in ionization equilibrium. The 6.7keV line map exhibits a local excess, which could be a new young SNR. Similarly, the 2.45keV line (SXV) map exhibits many sub-structures, which could be either new SNRs or super bubbles. The 6.4keV line also exhibits many clumps. Sgr B2 shows a time variability in 10 years, which provides strong evidence that Sgr B2 is an X-ray reflection nebula irradiated by strong X-rays from the past (300 years ago) active Sgr A*

Koyama, Katsujihi

2007-09-01

195

Solving a Five Decade-Old Mystery: Why is there Carbon Dating?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dating is due to the fact that the half-life of 14C is unusually long, namely, 5730 years, after which it decays in to 14N. A priori one would not expect the beta decay of 14C to extend over archaeological times, because the quantum numbers of the initial and final states satisfy the selection rules for an allowed Gamow-Teller transition.

Ruprecht Machleidt

2008-01-01

196

Solving the Mystery of the Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fingerprints for identification purposes is one of the most widespread and best-understood tools of forensic science. Fingerprinting is such a common occurrence in detective novels, cinema, and television that we all know it is best to wear gloves when committing a crime. However, the fingerprints of the perpetrator are often not the only ones of importance in the collection of evidence. The fingerprints of the victim can be extremely important as well, and obtaining them when the victim is a child can be a tricky and frustrating endeavor.

Kimbrough, Doris R.; Delorenzo, Ronald

1998-10-01

197

Solving the Mystery of the Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fingerprints for identification purposes is one of the most widespread and best-understood tools of forensic science. Fingerprinting is such a common occurrence in detective novels, cinema, and television that we all know it is best to wear gloves when committing a crime. However, the fingerprints of the perpetrator are often not the only ones of importance in

Doris R. Kimbrough; Ronald Delorenzo

1998-01-01

198

Solving the Mystery of Insanity Law: Zealous Representation of Mentally Ill Servicemembers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zealous representation of mentally ill servicemembers requires trial defense counsel to be familiar with a complex body of substantive and procedural law. Within this body of law, evidence of the accused's mental illness may be relevant in five specific a...

J. A. Ball

2005-01-01

199

Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

Michael D. Coble; Odile M. Loreille; Mark J. Wadhams; Suni M. Edson; Kerry Maynard; Carna E. Meyer; Harald Niederstätter; Cordula Berger; Burkhard Berger; Anthony B. Falsetti; Peter Gill; Walther Parson; Louis N. Finelli; Michael Hofreiter

2009-01-01

200

Why scientists should do history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists often say that only a practicing scientist can understand certain things vital to the workings of science, things that often escape historians. Scientists, more often than not, believe that the sense required to understand how science is done can be gained only by doing it. They suggest that history written by historians, especially internal history, which is based on critical examination of the scientific ideas themselves, will be wanting.The historian, on the other hand, through the methods and techniques of history, social studies and philosophy— tools not often possessed by scientists—can show scientists how their discipline has come to be, how it is bedded in society, and how it derives its esteem and support for being.

Glen, William

201

Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

2004-06-01

202

Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.

Force, Crista Marie

203

Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What causes condensation? Does temperature affect how well a balloon will fly? How do tiny bugs get into oatmeal? Through 15 mystery stories, this book memorably illustrates science concepts for students and reinforces the value of learning science through inquiry. Each mystery presents opportunities for students to create questions, form hypotheses, test their ideas, and come up with explanations. Focused on concepts such as periodic motion, thermodynamics, temperature and energy, and sound, these mysteries draw students into the stories by grounding them in experiences students are familiar with, providing them with a foundation for classroom discussion and inquiry. The story format is used because it is one of the most effective ways to engage students' attention right from the start. Each chapter includes a list of science concepts explored, targeted strategies for using the stories with children in grades K-4 and with older students in grades 5-8, and a key matching story concepts with corresponding standards in the NSES.

2008-04-01

204

Mystery of the magnetic field of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research of interaction of the solar wind with bodies of Solar System is one of methods, which allows us to make the conclusion about substance of the bodies and about its magnetization. The investigation of the solar wind interaction with Mars and Phobos has been carried out using the data of the Soviet expedition "Phobos - 2" and the kinetic approach to study the data. It is shown, that the size of the Martian obstacle to the solar wind is actually the size of Mars, as a physical body. The weak ionosphere and crystal magnetic anomalies at Mars result in inelastic dispersion of particles of the solar wind on the Martian obstacle, which give additional accumulation of the plasma and magnetic field in front of the Martian obstacle. The more the density of the solar wind, the more will the pileup of the plasma in front of Mars. Mars has not magnetospheres, neither own, nor induced to give the additional size for the obstacle like the Earth. The tail inherent in the interaction of magnetized bodies with the solar wind plasma, practically, is absent at Mars. The magnetic topology of the Martian wake is a result of the flow by the warm plasma of the solar wind around Mars. The Phobos interaction with the solar wind has been investigated. Dependence of the pileup of the solar wind plasma ahead of Phobos from the ion skin-depth has been found, which shows the existence of an effective obstacle of Phobos with the sizes about 150-170 km. Source with equivalent magnetic moment as order 1015A m2 in Phobos leads to the development of such obstacle for the solar wind flow around Phobos. Thus the received results: absence of the intrinsic global magnetic field of Mars, the magnetization of the Martian moon of Phobos and so the crystal magnetic anomalies revealed by the MGS satellite on surface of Mars give the primal magnetic mystery of Mars. If we will understand it we may probably approach to the problem of lifelessness of Mars. It is necessary to remind that evidence of biological origin has been revealed in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 with chains of magnetite crystals.

Mordovskaya, V.

205

78 FR 39435 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Magritte: The Mystery of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determinations: ``Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1938'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following...in the exhibition ``Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1928,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

2013-07-01

206

Yet More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available March 2011. In the fourth book of this award-winning series, author Richard Konicek-Moran explores 15 new mysteries children and adults encounter in their daily lives. Relating the mysteries to experiences familiar to elementary an

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2011-03-01

207

Practice solving equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can practice solving equations on several sites. Use one of the sites below to solve 10 or more equations. Record the solution for at least 2 'difficult' problems. 1) interactive algebra: solving equations 2) interactive: solving pre-set equations 3) solving linear equations: nlvm ...

Johnson, Mrs.

2010-06-05

208

The mystery of Morgellons disease: infection or delusion?  

PubMed

Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder that was first described more than 300 years ago. The disease is characterized by fiber-like strands extruding from the skin in conjunction with various dermatologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this respect, Morgellons disease resembles and may be confused with delusional parasitosis. The association with Lyme disease and the apparent response to antibacterial therapy suggest that Morgellons disease may be linked to an undefined infectious process. Further clinical and molecular research is needed to unlock the mystery of Morgellons disease. PMID:16489838

Savely, Virginia R; Leitao, Mary M; Stricker, Raphael B

2006-01-01

209

Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA Image of SS 433: Red-and-Blue Line Shows Path of Constant-Speed Jets. Note Poor Match of Path to Image. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF SS 433 Same Image, With Colored Beads Representing Particle Ejections at Different Speeds. Particle Path Now Matches. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click Here for Page of Full-Sized Graphics The new VLA image shows two full turns of the jets' corkscrew on both sides of the core. Analyzing the image showed that if material came from the core at a constant speed, the jet paths would not accurately match the details of the image. "By simulating ejections at varying speeds, we were able to produce an exact match to the observed structure," Blundell explained. The scientists first did their match to one of the jets. "We then were stunned to see that the varying speeds that matched the structure of one jet also exactly reproduced the other jet's path," Blundell said. Matching the speeds in the two jets reproduced the observed structure even allowing for the fact that, because one jet is moving more nearly away from us than the other, it takes light longer to reach us from it, she added. The astrophysicists speculate that the changes in ejection speed may be caused by changes in the rate at which material is transferred from the companion star onto the accretion disk. The detailed new VLA image also allowed the astrophysicists to determine that SS 433 is nearly 18,000 light-years distant from Earth. Earlier estimates had the object, in the constellation Aquila, as near as 10,000 light-years. An accurate distance, the scientists said, now allows them to better determine the age of the shell of debris blown out by the supernova explosion that created the dense, compact object in the microquasar. Knowing the distance accurately also allows them to measure the actual brightness of the microquasar's components, and this, they said, improves their understanding of the physical processes at work in the system. The breakthrough image was made us

2004-10-01

210

Do Scientists Really Reject God?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that the title of the recent Larson and Witham article in the journal Nature, "Leading Scientists Still Reject God", is premature and without reliable data upon which to base it. (Author/CCM)|

Scott, Eugenie C.

1998-01-01

211

SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

212

Scientists Rewrite Germ's Genetic Code  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Rewrite Germ's Genetic Code Aim is to redesign natural biological systems for ... researchers say. "This is the first time the genetic code has been fundamentally changed," study co-author Farren ...

213

Stratospheric sulfate from El Chichon and the Mystery Volcano  

SciTech Connect

Stratospheric sulfate was collected by high-altitude aircraft and balloons to assess the impacts of El Chichon and an unidentified volcano on the stratosphere. The Mystery Volcano placed about 0.85 Tg of sulfate in the northern hemisphere stratosphere. El Chicon injected about 7.6 Tg sulfate into the global stratosphere.

Mroz, E.J.; Mason, A.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

1983-09-01

214

The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

2006-01-01

215

Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics--Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to…

Left, Harvey S.

2012-01-01

216

Anodyne Aesthetics in Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a sustained exploration of Ann Radcliffe's engagement with art and aesthetics in her most lengthy novel, The Mysteries of Udolpho. While critics often address how Radcliffe draws upon the eighteenth-century aesthetic categories of the sublime and the picturesque, such considerations often cast her efforts as simply transcriptions of the pictorial works of landscape painters, or translations of

Mira Radanovic

2006-01-01

217

Mystery Powders: An Introduction to Physical and Chemical Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom guided inquiry lesson, students will complete a serious of tests using five different mystery powders. Student will develop hypotheses, make observations, and draw conclusions about what each powder is and the physical and chemical reactions that occur when heat, water, iodine, and vinegar are added to each substance.

Bulver, Leah

218

The Mystery of Jesus' Teaching about “The Son of Man”  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries a mystery has surrounded the meaning of Jesus' term “The Son of Man” in his ministry, and today it is often called “The Son of Man Problem.” Studying “Son of Man” in all of its biblical references, and apocryphal usages, together with insights from the Dead Sea Scrolls, I propose a solution that the idiom means “Priest” or

Edward A. Beckstrom

2012-01-01

219

Use of the Mystery Motivator for a High School Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effect of one interdependent group contingency intervention, the mystery motivator, as it affected three students identified as exhibiting problem behaviors, as well as the effects on nonidentified students in a ninth-grade high school biology class. An A/B/A/B single-case design was used to evaluate the effects of the…

Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

2010-01-01

220

Strategic insights from mystery shopping in B2B relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial services to large Scandinavian corporations. We account for and analyse the process of building

Jan Mattsson

2012-01-01

221

Mysterious Anti-Gravity and Dark-Essence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need of anti-gravity and dark-essence in cosmology is the greatest scientific mystery in the 21st century. This paper presents a personal view of several relevant issues, including the long-standing cosmological constant problem, the newly emerging dark radiation issue, and the basic stability issue of the general-relativity limit in modified gravity.

Gu, Je-An

2013-01-01

222

Illuminating the mysterious and changing third mission of higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mysterious and changing third mission of higher education is the subject of this study. It begins by tracing this mission from its beginnings as extension, outreach, and service to the present-day emphases on partnerships and economic development. A nomenclature was gathered from the literature and refined into a four-category framework for organizing third mission activities. Strategic plans of 19

Carolyn Dianne Roper

2004-01-01

223

The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students…

Savran, Michelle

2012-01-01

224

Use of the Mystery Motivator for a High School Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of one interdependent group contingency intervention, the mystery motivator, as it affected three students identified as exhibiting problem behaviors, as well as the effects on nonidentified students in a ninth-grade high school biology class. An A/B/A/B single-case design was used to evaluate the effects of the…

Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

2010-01-01

225

Commentary: physician-scientist's frustrations fester.  

PubMed

A growing problem of major proportions had been confronting biomedical scientists for many decades. Until solved, this long-neglected problem, the abject failure of the American health care system, presents a gigantic obstacle to the application of the discoveries flowing from neuropsychopharmacological research into deliverable medications utilized by medical practitioners. Although it is recognized that such advances could benefit all of society, both in the United States and globally, progress toward this important goal has not happened. As I noted 5 years ago, 'Unless steps are taken soon to undertake a comprehensive restoration of our system, the profound advances in bio-medical research so rapidly accruing today may never be effectively transformed into meaningful advances in health care for society.' I remain perplexed and frustrated by the reluctance of scientific research societies such as our ACNP to engage their energies and intellect into this most serious issue. PMID:19079067

Bloom, Floyd E

2009-01-01

226

An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative skills and content knowledge in the geosciences. The importance of fully developing each of these aspects of the ESSN research projects and how they can differ between projects will be discussed.

Ledley, T. S.

2001-05-01

227

Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower-energy X-ray background, showing that it arose in very faraway galaxies with extremely bright cores, called quasars or Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The Chandra team sampled a region of the sky about one-fifth the angular area of a full moon and resolved about 80 percent of the more-energetic X-ray background into discrete sources. Stretched across the entire sky, this would account for approximately 70 million sources, most of which would be identified with galaxies. Their analysis confirms that a significant fraction of the X-ray background cannot be due to diffuse radiation from hot, intergalactic gas. Combined X-ray and optical observations showed that nearly one third of the sources are galaxies whose cores are very bright in X rays yet emit virtually no optical light from the core. The observation suggests that these "veiled galactic nuclei" galaxies may number in the tens of millions over the whole sky. They almost certainly harbor a massive black hole at their core that produces X rays as the gas is pulled toward it at nearly the speed of light. Their bright X-ray cores place these galaxies in the AGN family. Because these numerous AGN are bright in X rays, but optically dim, the Chandra observation implies that optical surveys of AGN are very incomplete. A second new class of objects, comprising approximately one-third of the background, is assumed to be "ultra-faint galaxies." Mushotzky said that these sources may emit little or no optical light, either because the dust around the galaxy blocks the light totally or because the optical light is eventually absorbed by relatively cool gas during its long journey across the universe. In the latter scenario, Mushotzky said that these sources would have a redshift of 6 or higher, meaning that they are well over 14 billion light years away and thus the earliest, most distant objects ever identified. "This is a very exciting discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure and Evolution of the universe science theme. "Since it

2000-01-01

228

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile Tables Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext ... 2001 Profile Tables Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile ...

229

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles  

NSF Publications Database

... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... Profiles Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1999 Profiles This ...

230

Nanomedicine : Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of ?real? scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

Payne, Amy C.; Zenner, Greta; Sammel, Lauren M.; Hemling, Melissa A.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-01-01

231

Brightness Variations of Sun-like Stars: The Mystery Deepens - Astronomers facing Socratic "ignorance"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive study made with ESO's Very Large Telescope deepens a long-standing mystery in the study of stars similar to the Sun. Unusual year-long variations in the brightness of about one third of all Sun-like stars during the latter stages of their lives still remain unexplained. Over the past few decades, astronomers have offered many possible explanations, but the new, painstaking observations contradict them all and only deepen the mystery. The search for a suitable interpretation is on. "Astronomers are left in the dark, and for once, we do not enjoy it," says Christine Nicholls from Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia, lead author of a paper reporting the study. "We have obtained the most comprehensive set of observations to date for this class of Sun-like stars, and they clearly show that all the possible explanations for their unusual behaviour just fail." The mystery investigated by the team dates back to the 1930s and affects about a third of Sun-like stars in our Milky Way and other galaxies. All stars with masses similar to our Sun become, towards the end of their lives, red, cool and extremely large, just before retiring as white dwarfs. Also known as red giants, these elderly stars exhibit very strong periodic variations in their luminosity over timescales up to a couple of years. "Such variations are thought to be caused by what we call 'stellar pulsations'," says Nicholls. "Roughly speaking, the giant star swells and shrinks, becoming brighter and dimmer in a regular pattern. However, one third of these stars show an unexplained additional periodic variation, on even longer timescales - up to five years." In order to find out the origin of this secondary feature, the astronomers monitored 58 stars in our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud, over two and a half years. They acquired spectra using the high resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope and combined them with images from other telescopes [1], achieving an impressive collection of the properties of these variable stars. Outstanding sets of data like the one collected by Nicholls and her colleagues often offer guidance on how to solve a cosmic puzzle by narrowing down the plethora of possible explanations proposed by the theoreticians. In this case, however, the observations are incompatible with all the previously conceived models and re-open an issue that has been thoroughly debated. Thanks to this study, astronomers are now aware of their own "ignorance" - a genuine driver of the knowledge-seeking process, as the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates is said to have taught. "The newly gathered data show that pulsations are an extremely unlikely explanation for the additional variation," says team leader Peter Wood. "Another possible mechanism for producing luminosity variations in a star is to have the star itself move in a binary system. However, our observations are strongly incompatible with this hypothesis too." The team found from further analysis that whatever the cause of these unexplained variations is, it also causes the giant stars to eject mass either in clumps or as an expanding disc. "A Sherlock Holmes is needed to solve this very frustrating mystery," concludes Nicholls. Notes [1] Precise brightness measurements were made by the MACHO and OGLE collaborations, running on telescopes in Australia and Chile, respectively. The OGLE observations were made at the same time as the VLT observations. More information This research was presented in two papers: one appeared in the November issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ("Long Secondary Periods in Variable Red Giants", by C. P. Nicholls et al.), and the other has just been published in the Astrophysical Journal ("Evidence for mass ejection associated with long secondary periods in red giants", by P. R. Wood and C. P. Nicholls). The team is composed of Christine P. Nicholls and Peter R. Wood (Research School of Astronomy and Ast

2009-12-01

232

Do scientists trace hot topics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

2013-07-01

233

Radiation scientists and homeland security.  

PubMed

Radiation scientists represent an important resource in homeland defense. Security analysts worry that a crude but deadly radiological bomb might be fashioned from stolen nuclear material and a few sticks of dynamite. Such a device could kill dozens, hundreds, and possibly thousands and could contaminate a square mile or more. Emergency workers may call upon radiation scientists to aid the injured. Educational materials are available on the ACR, ASTRO, and RRS websites, linked to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to provide radiation workers material that they can use to help emergency room and civil defense personnel after a terrorist attack. Radiation scientists are urged to obtain these materials and contact their local hospital and public health authorities to volunteer their services and expertise. PMID:11966328

Rose, Christopher M

2002-05-01

234

Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews…

Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

2004-01-01

235

The Scientist's Expert Assistant Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) is a prototype effort for the Next Generation Space Telescope that uses a combination of artificial intelligence and user interface techniques to explore ways to substantially reduce the time and effort involved in proposal preparation for both scientists and the telescope operations staff. The Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been working with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) to explore SEA alternatives. At ADASS '99 we were demonstrating the latest version of the SEA software. This article summarizes the new features and lessons learned in the SEA project over the last year.

Grosvenor, S. R.; Burkhardt, C.; Koratkar, A.; Fishman, M.; Wolf, K. R.; Jones, J. E.; Ruley, L.

236

Cold Spring Harbor scientists determine mechanism of one of the most powerful tumor-suppressor proteins, Chd5  

Cancer.gov

A team of cancer researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) has solved the mystery of how one of the most powerful of the body’s natural tumor-suppressing proteins, called Chd5, exerts its beneficial effects. The findings, published online in the journal Cell Reports, are important because Chd5 engages processes fundamental to cancer prevention. Conversely, when Chd5 is mutated or missing, an important door is opened to cancer initiation.

237

Who took the "x" out of expectancy-value theory? A psychological mystery, a substantive-methodological synergy, and a cross-national generalization.  

PubMed

Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction. PMID:21750248

Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich

2011-07-12

238

Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics -- Part I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to reduce that mystery. In Part I, the focus is on building an understanding of fundamental ideas of thermodynamics, including its connection with mechanics, and how entropy is defined and calculated. A central thread is that energy tends to spread within and between macroscopic objects, and this spreading is a surrogate for entropy increase. Specific questions are posed and answered, building on foundations laid in prior articles.1-8 Parts II-V elaborate considerably on the ideas introduced here. A question-answer format is used throughout, with major results enumerated in Key Points 1.1-1.5.

Left, Harvey S.

2012-01-01

239

Deep Water Radiocarbon Budgets for the Deglacial Mystery Interval  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new radiocarbon measurements from the western equatorial Pacific, at 2.82 km water depth, which document the deep ocean radiocarbon budget for the last deglacial period, with particular emphasis on the mystery interval (17.5 to 14.5 kyr cal ago). Our results reveal that the radiocarbon offset between bottom waters and the surface ocean at this site was not significantly

S. Barker; W. S. Broecker; E. H. Clark

2006-01-01

240

Mastery, Mystery, and Misery: The Ideologies of Web Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A presentation on Jakob Nielson\\'s Alertbox from August 30, 2004. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20040830.html Jakob Nielson uses the titles mastery, mystery, and misery to describe three seperate approaches to web design. Mastery Mastery describes the ideology of empowering the user. The web designer does everything possible to give the user complete control over the website. For example, search engines are designed to put the ...

Meeker, Mr.

2008-10-23

241

Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

Schooler, Dean, Jr.

242

The Scientists in Schools Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists in Schools is a project funded by the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations and managed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Education Section. This paper describes how the project is working to establish and maintain sustained and ongoing partnerships between…

Howitt, Christine; Rennie, Leonie; Heard, Marian; Yuncken, Liz

2009-01-01

243

Career Advice for Life Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume represents selected articles from the acclaimed Women in Cell Biology column of the award-winning ASCB Newsletter, those ranked by WICB members as providing the most helpful career advice for life scientists. We trust that the compilation will...

E. Marincola

2002-01-01

244

SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY  

EPA Science Inventory

To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

245

Scientists at Work. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes activities related to the development, field testing, evaluation, and marketing of the "Scientists at Work" program which combines computer assisted instruction with database tools to aid cognitively impaired middle and early high school children in learning and applying thinking skills to science. The brief report reviews…

Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., Falls Church, VA.

246

Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

247

An Experiment Management Component for the WBCSim Problem Solving Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiment management component developed for the WBCSim problem solving environment. WBCSim is a web-based simulation system used to increase the productivity of wood scientists conducting research on wood-based composite and mate- rial manufacturing processes. This experiment management component integrates a web-based graphical front end, server scripts, and a database management system to allow scientists to easily

Jiang Shu; Layne T. Watson; Naren Ramakrishnan; Frederick A. Kamke; Balazs G. Zombori

248

Solving Literal Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to solve equations and formulas for a specific variable Core Standard: A.CED.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. 1. Watch the following short videos NROC Video: Solving for a specific variable View the ...

Ball, Mrs.

2012-09-14

249

Solving Systems of Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to solve systems of linear equations by graphing, substitution, and elimination. As we discovered in our Pet Sitters Unit, systems of equations are a useful way to model and solve real-world situations in business. They are also useful in science and social science applications. This online unit will help you become an expert at solving systems of linear equations. 1) ...

Ball, Mrs.

2012-09-13

250

Materials analysis: A key to unlocking the mystery of the Columbia tragedy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials analyses of key forensic evidence helped unlock the mystery of the loss of space shuttle Columbia that disintegrated February 1, 2003 while returning from a 16-day research mission. Following an intensive four-month recovery effort by federal, state, and local emergency management and law officials, Columbia debris was collected, catalogued, and reassembled at the Kennedy Space Center. Engineers and scientists from the Materials and Processes (M&P) team formed by NASA supported Columbia reconstruction efforts, provided factual data through analysis, and conducted experiments to validate the root cause of the accident. Fracture surfaces and thermal effects of selected airframe debris were assessed, and process flows for both nondestructive and destructive sampling and evaluation of debris were developed. The team also assessed left hand (LH) airframe components that were believed to be associated with a structural breach of Columbia. Analytical data collected by the M&P team showed that a significant thermal event occurred at the left wing leading edge in the proximity of LH reinforced carbon carbon (RCC) panels 8 and 9. The analysis also showed exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,649°C, which would severely degrade the support structure, tiles, and RCC panel materials. The integrated failure analysis of wing leading edge debris and deposits strongly supported the hypothesis that a breach occurred at LH RCC panel 8.

Mayeaux, Brian M.; Collins, Thomas E.; Jerman, Gregory A.; McDanels, Steven J.; Piascik, Robert S.; Russell, Richard W.; Shah, Sandeep R.

2004-02-01

251

The Ozone Hole -- a Mystery Reborn?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1985, Farman et al. discovered the near complete disappearance of the stratospheric ozone layer over Antarctica in spring. This 'Ozone Hole' took the atmospheric research community by surprise as it could not be explained by the known catalytic cycles removing ozone in the stratosphere. McElroy et al. (1986) and Molina and Molina (1987) seemed to have solved the enigma by proposing two new catalytic cycles -- the ClO-BrO-cycle and the ClO dimer cycle -- that could rapidly destroy ozone at cold temperatures and high zenith angles. Subsequent work describing the kinetics of these cycles as well as stratospheric observations of chlorine and bromine compounds supported their theory and led to atmospheric chemistry models reproducing observed ozone loss reasonably well. Today, more than 20 years after the discovery of the ozone hole and the ratification of the Montreal Protocol, a new laboratory study (Pope et al., 2007) -- suggesting much smaller absorption cross sections and hence photolysis rates of the ClO dimer -- seriously calls into question our understanding of how ozone is destroyed in the spring polar stratosphere. With the new cross sections, both the dimer cycle and the ClO-BrO-cycle run much slower, and observations of neither chlorine compounds nor ozone loss are reproduced by model simulations (von Hobe et al., 2007): the known catalytic cycles cannot cause an ozone hole. Obviously, this also calls into question our ability to predict future polar ozone depletion. In search for an explanation, we discuss possible shortcomings of the Pope et al. experiment that could lead to an underestimation of the dimer absorption and examine various new chemical processes for their likelihood to influence chlorine partitioning and cause significant ozone loss in the atmosphere and at the same time go undetected in laboratory based kinetic studies. A strategy is presented for designing the tests needed to unambiguously confirm or rule out proposed solutions to the dilemma. Farman, J.C. et al., Nature 315, 207, 1985. McElroy, M.B. et al., Nature 321, 759, 1986. Molina, L.T. and Molina, M.J., J. Phys. Chem. 91, 433, 1987. Pope, F.D.et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 4322, 2007. von Hobe, M. et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3055, 2007.

von Hobe, M.; Grooß, J.; Müller, R.; Stroh, F.

2007-12-01

252

Profiles of Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science 360 Knowledge Network works to bring visitors "the latest wonders of science, engineering, technology and math." Among other things, the Network encourages young people to get involved in STEM careers, and these profiles are an important part of that mission. This site includes a dozen profiles of various individuals, including a virtual reality scientist, a biogeoscientist, and a marine biologist. Each short film features these scientists in their working environments. Each video is done with a bit of good humor, which makes the whole thing quite enjoyable. First-time visitors to the site shouldn't miss the profile of Yael Maguire, an electrical engineer who clearly has a great deal of fun on the job. After watching the videos, visitors can also sign up to receive notices when new profiles are added to the site.

2012-09-07

253

Scientists Sift Through Urban Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City soil gets tramped on, dumped on, and pushed around, but some soil scientists are carefully examining what is underfoot in urban areas. During a 3 May session on urban soils at the European Geosciences Union's General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, scientists discussed various aspects of city dirt. In a presentation about the large amount of rubble from buildings that were bombed during World War II, Beate Mekiffer with the Soil Protection Group at the Berlin Institute of Technology, Germany, noted that the sulfate concentration in Berlin's upper aquifer has increased continuously for decades. Many areas in Berlin now exceed a 240-milligram-per-liter “precaution value” for sulfate in drinking water, according to Mekiffer.

Showstack, Randy

2010-05-01

254

Research Integrity of Individual Scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

Haklak, Rockbill

255

Planetary Scientist Profile: Lynn Carter  

NASA Video Gallery

The dry, ancient surfaces of the moon, Venus, and Mars look nothing like the dynamic planet we live on, but the same forces that shape our world have also driven the evolution of our closest neighbors. As part of NASA’s Planetary Geodynamics Laboratory, scientist Lynn Carter discusses her passion for volcanoes, impact cratering, and tectonic activity throughout the solar system. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center > Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-10-16

256

Science Explorations: Writing With Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Writing with Scientists is a workshop that provides in-depth information about crafting a science report. In this workshop students are guided through a six step process for writing a scientific report. Excerpts from student reports are used as examples. Students are encouraged to have researched a topic prior to the workshop so that they are working on a specific report.

257

The five mysteries of the mind, and their consequences.  

PubMed

While Western man has recognized for almost 2500 years that mind derives exclusively from brain, clothing this fact with explanatory detail still proves elusive. First, is consciousness per se, created by processes demonstrably limited to certain, but still unspecified, neuronal arrangements and activities. Then there is perception, its ineffable qualia, and the fact that it arises from neuronal activity widely dispersed in space and time within networks of vast complexity. Voluntary control is equally dispersed as to neuronal participation, and nescient as to origin. An often overlooked mystery is the unity of mind and behavior that prevails despite the potential for bihemispheric duplication of processes and experience. Finally, there is memory, which while credibly within grasp of understanding as a synaptic alteration maintained via activation of the nuclear genome, still wholly defies comprehension when viewed as commanded recall of myriad, randomly selectable details of the past, a largely effortless and 'instantaneous' flood of memories. For two centuries science has endeavored to demonstrate how these mysteries proceed from physics and chemistry, as indeed they do; but viewed from this direction alone, mind is but the babbling of a robot, chained ineluctably to crude causality. In a bold and revolutionary stroke, Roger Sperry has conceived a more credible paradigm, that the totality of neuronal action, as a richly intercommunicating system, gives rise to effects transcendent to the individual physicochemical elements that compose it. A major achievement of this position is that it is immediately consonant with everyday human experience and belief. While neither Sperry's vision. nor the reduction of the mysteries to a dance of ions can yet be proven, the vast advantage of Sperry's thesis is that it again imbues human thought and action with responsibility, and opens morality to the light of science, while the long wait for certainty unfolds. PMID:9845053

Doty, R W

1998-10-01

258

Scientists are still keeping the faith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the suggestion eighty years ago that four in ten scientists did not believe in God or an afterlife was astounding to contemporaries, the fact that so many scientists believe in God today is equally surprising.

Edward J. Larson

1997-01-01

259

Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93  

NSF Publications Database

... and Engineers: 1989-93 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93 ... Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93 Appendix Tables This document was last modified on May ...

260

How scientists commercialise new knowledge via entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore how university-based scientists overcome the barriers to appropriating the returns from new knowledge\\u000a via entrepreneurship; and we examine how a university-based technology transfer office (TTO), with an incubation facility,\\u000a can assist scientists in the commercialisation process. We identify how scientists overcome three barriers to commercialisation.\\u000a First, we find that scientists take account of traditional academic

Colm O’Gorman; Orla Byrne; Dipti Pandya

2008-01-01

261

Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

2007-04-01

262

Resources for Scientists Teaching Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Cornell University, this site offers a number of resources and tips for scientists who teach. Collected from undergraduate courses in evolution, ecology, and animal behavior, but applicable to a range of science courses, the materials include writing assignment ideas, peer review guidelines, discussion tips, hints on using the Web, reading lists, exam questions, and sample syllabi, among others. The site also contains some annotated links for teaching, biology, writing, and TAs. A nice, straightforward collection of useful resources, many of which may be of use to teachers in any discipline.

263

ALMA European Project Scientist Appointed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ALMA European Project Scientist is Dr. Leonardo Testi. He took up the appointment in May 2007. Leonardo Testi received his Ph.D. from the University of Florence in 1997. Subsequently he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory of Caltech. In 1998 he joined staff of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, and later on of INAF, for which he also served on the Science Council. Leonardo has been chair of the European ALMA Science Advisory committee and a member of the ALMA Science Advisory committee, so he well knows the details of the project as well as the science that can be carried out with ALMA.

Wilson, T.

2007-06-01

264

New Scientist: Commercial Space Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from New Scientist highlights the most recent actions that are bringing us closer to commercial space flight -- the granting of the first licence to a private company. The one-year license authorizes the launching of people up to 100 kilometers. Apparently, the company is competing with other companies to win a prize being offered by the X Prize Foundation, which will be awarded to "the first private group to send three people to the sub-orbital height of 100 kilometers twice in two weeks." The president of X Prize, Peter Diamandis, is quoted as saying he expects a winner by October 2004. So stay tuned!

265

Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

Miclea, Mircea

2008-01-01

266

Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he takes a…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

267

Developing the Talents of Teacher/Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Going on an expedition enables teachers to become better scientists and researchers and, thus, better classroom instructors. Teachers have the opportunities to go on exotic field trips around the world as amateur research assistants, do hands on research in their own backyards, or vicariously experience another scientist?s work via the Internet. A…

Robinson, George

2004-01-01

268

Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he takes a…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

269

Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

270

Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

Veal, William

1999-01-01

271

Grading Cooperative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses aspects of cooperative problem solving that include the selection of appropriate problems and the grading of group and individual papers using an analytical scoring scale. Offers six tips for grading cooperative problem solving. An appendix provides solutions to cited problems, potential follow-up questions, and an annotated…

Kroll, Diana Lambdin; And Others

1992-01-01

272

Heterogeneous Constraint Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most CLP languages designed in the past few years feature at least some combination of constraint solving capabilities. These combinations can take multiple forms since they achieve either the mixing of different domains or the use of different algorithms over the same domain. These solvers are also very different in nature. Some of them perform complete constraint solving while others

Frédéric Benhamou

1996-01-01

273

Effective Family Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children with definite- and indefinite-solution tasks. Incentive and task independence were manipulated. It was found that definitions of effective problem solving based on directly observed measures of group interaction were more valid than definitions based on…

Blechman, Elaine A.; McEnroe, Michael J.

1985-01-01

274

Building problem solving environments with the arches framework  

SciTech Connect

The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV

2009-01-01

275

Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

Abate, T.

1995-12-01

276

Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

Conklin, Tom, Ed.

277

The Mystery spot Illusion and Its Relation to Other Visual Illusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations at The Mystery Spot, a roadside attraction near Santa Cruz, California, suggest intriguing visual illusions based on tilt-induced effects. Specifically, a tilted spatial background at The Mystery Spot induced misperceptions of the orientation of the cardinal axes (i.e., true horizontal and vertical), which then led to illusions in the perceived height of two individuals. This illusion was assessed at

Arthur P. Shimamura; William Prinzmetal

1999-01-01

278

Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

2006-01-01

279

Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features…

Grimnes, Karin A.

1996-01-01

280

Let's Get Real: Students Solving Authentic Corporate Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Let's Get Real, a competitive program in its 5th year, challenges teams of secondary students (in public, private, and home schools) to solve actual problems posed by corporate co- sponsors. Proposed solutions are presented at corporate headquarters and judged by corporate executives, scientists, and engineers. (MLH)

Holt, Dan G.; Willard-Holt, Colleen

2000-01-01

281

Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism.  

PubMed

For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that, depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4%-72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of the laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As long as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of the transition frequencies, but not whether the demagnetization can happen or not. PMID:21386402

Si, M S; Zhang, G P

2010-02-02

282

The feasibility of identifying mystery oil spills. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals activities, ship's samples of all crude oil shipments received during 15 day intervals in Portland (Maine) Harbor were collected. Selected samples from those collected during a test interval were subjected to artificial spills in 500 gallon tanks exposed to outdoor, sea-side ambient conditions experienced in Portland, Maine. Subsamples of each artificial spill were taken during the 15 day test interval to determine the effect of weathering. Attempts were made to match weathered unknowns to collections of known oil containing the 'mystery' oil. Several passive tagging techniques were used such as the comparison of high resolution and low resolution gas chromatography, vanadium-nickel ratios, sulfur nitrogen ratios, and infrared spectra. Successes, failures, and limitations of the passive tagging methods are discussed.

Hunt, G.S.; Mayo, D.W.; Horton, D.B.

1981-04-01

283

Mystery in a Jellabah: Cultural Worlds in Borges’s Hist Oria Universal De L A Infamia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When we speak of the aesthetics of mystery, do we allow that mystery may differ from one culture to another? Is mystery the\\u000a same experience to someone Chinese, for instance, as it is to someone English? This is one question about the phenomenology\\u000a of mystery that this essay considers in the context of five short pieces by Jorge Luis Borges,

Timothy Weiss

284

Solving the Solar Neutrino Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with Ray Davis' pioneering Chlorine measurement in the mid-1960s, and continuing up through the recent Superkamiokande ^8B measurement, all solar neutrino experiments have observed far fewer neutrinos than predicted by theory. The mystery that has remained unsolved is the reason for this discrepancy. Do we really understand energy generation in the sun? Can the solar model calculations and the

John F. Wilkerson

2002-01-01

285

Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions about Scientist and What Factors Affecting the Image of the Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze image of scientist from drawn picture of scientists using The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) by 5th grade students and to analyze where this image comes from students minds in changing Turkish educational perspective. Two hundred eighty seven…

Turkmen, Hakan

2008-01-01

286

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 5th edition - Volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly 30 years, Paul Tipler's Physics for Scientists and Engineers has set the standard in the introductory calculus-based physics course for clarity, accuracy, and precision. In this fifth edition, Paul has recruited Gene Mosca to bring his years of teaching experience to bear on the text, to scrutinize every explanation and example from the perspective of the freshman student. The result is a teaching tool that retains its precision and rigor, but offers struggling students the support they need to solve problems strategically and to gain real understanding of physical concepts.

Tipler, Paul A.; Mosca, Gene P.

287

Scientists Turn Healthy Cells Cancerous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biologists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research recently announced in the journal Nature that they have been able to genetically alter a healthy human cell to create a cancerous one. The discovery is being hailed as an important step forward towards the development of anti-cancer drugs. Previously, scientists have been able to turn normal cells cancerous by using chemicals and e-rays, but this is the first time it has been accomplished through genetic manipulation. This holds promise for a relatively new approach to treating cancer, one that attempts to remove the underlying genetic flaws that cause cancer instead of attacking both healthy and cancerous cells with present-day chemotherapy treatments. The sites listed provide information about this important new development in cancer research.

De Nie, Michael W.

288

Problem Solving and Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, ``knowledge chunks'' are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-07-01

289

Solving Generalized Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A complete, unified description is given of the design, implementation and use of a family of very fast and efficient large scale minimum-cost (primal simplex) network programs. The class of capacitated generalized transshipment problems solved includes t...

G. G. Brown R. D. McBride

1982-01-01

290

Solving the Pentagon Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes one possible approach to solving the following problem: given a pentagon ABCDE in which triangles ABC, BCD, CDE, DEA, and EAB all have area=1, is the area of the pentagon determined? (AIM)|

Greer, Brian

1996-01-01

291

Problem Solving Seminar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course includes elements from an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. The material will help students develop their mathematical and problem solving skills. A few topics that are covered include probability, generating mathematical functions and polynomials. Course materials include student assignments and solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-; Kedlaya, Kiran Sridhara, 1974-; Stanley, Richard

2010-12-22

292

Solving Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage includes six examples of solving linear equations using balancing. Students learn to "keep the equation balanced by making the same changes to both sides of the equal sign." Six examples of this mathematical process are included, each one being slightly more challenging than the last. Equations include more than one operation, variables, multiple terms on the same side, parentheses and fractions. The process for solving each is explained step by step.

Murray, Michael

2012-01-01

293

Scientists Toast the Discovery of Vinyl Alcohol in Interstellar Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, have discovered the complex organic molecule vinyl alcohol in an interstellar cloud of dust and gas near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The discovery of this long-sought compound could reveal tantalizing clues to the mysterious origin of complex organic molecules in space. Vinyl Alcohol and its fellow isomers "The discovery of vinyl alcohol is significant," said Barry Turner, a scientist at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Va., "because it gives us an important tool for understanding the formation of complex organic compounds in interstellar space. It may also help us better understand how life might arise elsewhere in the Cosmos." Vinyl alcohol is an important intermediary in many organic chemistry reactions on Earth, and the last of the three stable members of the C2H4O group of isomers (molecules with the same atoms, but in different arrangements) to be discovered in interstellar space. Turner and his colleague A. J. Apponi of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory in Tucson detected the vinyl alcohol in Sagittarius B -- a massive molecular cloud located some 26,000 light-years from Earth near the center of our Galaxy. The astronomers were able to detect the specific radio signature of vinyl alcohol during the observational period of May and June of 2001. Their results have been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Of the approximately 125 molecules detected in interstellar space, scientists believe that most are formed by gas-phase chemistry, in which smaller molecules (and occasionally atoms) manage to "lock horns" when they collide in space. This process, though efficient at creating simple molecules, cannot explain how vinyl alcohol and other complex chemicals are formed in detectable amounts. For many years now, scientists have been searching for the right mechanism to explain how the building blocks for vinyl alcohol and other chemicals are able to form the necessary chemical bonds to make larger molecules - those containing as many as six or more atoms. "It has been an ongoing quest to understand exactly how these more complex molecules form and become distributed throughout the interstellar medium," said Turner. Since the 1970s, scientists have speculated that molecules could form on the microscopic dust grains in interstellar clouds. These dust grains are thought to trap the fast-moving molecules. The surface of these grains would then act as a catalyst, similar to a car's catalytic converter, and enable the chemical reactions that form vinyl alcohol and the other complex molecules. The problem with this theory, however, is that the newly formed molecules would remain trapped on the dust grains at the low temperature characteristic of most of interstellar space, and the energy necessary to "knock them off" would also be strong enough to break the chemical bonds that formed them. "This last process has not been well understood," explained Turner. "The current theory explains well how molecules like vinyl alcohol could form, but it doesn't address how these new molecules are liberated from the grains where they are born." To better understand how this might be accomplished, the scientists considered the volatile and highly energetic region of space where these molecules were detected. Turner and others speculate that since this cloud lies near an area of young, energetic star formation, the energy from these stars could evaporate the icy surface layers of the grains. This would liberate the molecules from their chilly nurseries, depositing them into interstellar space where they can be detected by sensitive radio antennas on Earth. Astronomers are able to detect the faint radio signals that these molecules emit as they jump between quantum energy states in the act of rotating or vibrating. Turner cautions, however, that even though this discovery has shed new light on how certain h

2001-10-01

294

Satellite tagged walruses help scientists answer climate change questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thousands of walruses abandon ice for Alaska shorehttp://www.usatoday.com/weather/environment/2007-10-05-alaska-walrus_N.htmIn a Warming Bering Sea, Whither the Walrus?http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5357899Walruses Prefer Right to Left Flipperhttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/afp/20031027/walrus.htmlToothwalkers: Giants of the Arctic Icehttp://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/toothwalkers/The Walrus and The Carpenterhttp://www.jabberwocky.com/carroll/walrus.htmlThis past April, scientists attached satellite tags to eight walruses in West Greenland in an effort to learn more about the effects of climate change. There is a definite connection between walruses, ice and climate and scientists hope that by continuing to track walruses via satellite more can be discovered. While the scientists tagged eight walruses, a few tags failed almost immediately but a few were sending signals through the summer. This past month the last working satellite tag stopped signaling. In addition to learning more about the effects of climate change, scientists involved in the study hoped to uncover where walruses migrate. Walruses need thick ice and as temperatures rise in the spring and summer they head north to colder climates, but the exact location of their summer hideaway has long been a mystery. The information gleaned from this study could also impact walrus hunting quotas. Walrus hunting is still allowed in Greenland and Canada where they are hunted for their ivory and meat. Scientists hope to gain information about the connection between walrus populations as well as to better understand what is necessary to maintain a sustainable population. Despite the early loss of some tags and the difficulties in tracking walruses, the team was pleased with the results and hopes to run the tagging experiments over a number of years. Dr. Born, a member of the team, added "When you look around the world, there are not a whole lot of walrus researchers, and I think one reason is that walruses are just such a difficult animal to study." The first link will take users to an article from BBC News which talks about the last of the satellite tagged walruses and the research accompanying the project. The second link leads to a piece from the USA Today which discusses how climate change may be affecting Alaskan walruses. In the third link users will find Alaska Public Radio's Annie Feidt's fine piece on climate change in the Bering Sea and its effects on walruses. The fourth link is from Discovery News and discusses the recent science behind determining whether walruses (as well as other creatures) are primarily righties or lefties. Moving on to the fifth link, users will be taken to PBS.org's complementary website to their Nature program "Toothwalkers: Giants of the Arctic Ice". Here visitors can watch walrus videos, peruse a plethora of walrus photos and learn more about their habitat, survival and even walruses in captivity. Finally, users can click on the last link to read and enjoy Lewis Carroll's "The Walrus and the Carpenter".

2007-01-01

295

Homocystinuria, a possible solution of the Akhenaten's mystery.  

PubMed

Pharaoh Amenophis IV (Amenhotep IV), also known as Akhenaten, is the most mysterious person in Egyptian history and he still remains the object of academic argues. This revolutionary king introduced a new concept in Egyptian religion and arts. It is still unexplained if images of him and his family were just an artistic outbreak from old Egyptian canon or an excellent paleopathological study. Several pathologic conditions were proposed to explain his appearance but neither is completely acceptable. We propose a different disease that he could have suffered of homocystinuria--lack of cysthationine-synthase. Our conclusion is that in comparison with up to date most convincing theory, that he was suffering of Marfan syndrome, our theory equally well explains his physical appearance but is better in explaining affecting and unaffecting of his relatives. This is the only theory about Akhenaten's disease that could be checked in the near future. PMID:20402329

Cavka, Mislav; Kelava, Tomislav; Cavka, Vlatka; Busi?, Zeljko; Oluji?, Boris; Brkljaci?, Boris

2010-03-01

296

Murder with Southern Hospitality: An Exhibition of Mississippi Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those people who still think of Mississippi as solely being the land of such authors as Faulkner and his ilk, this fine online exhibit offered by the University of Mississippi Libraries may expand their knowledge of Southern writers. The exhibit prominently features the book covers of mystery novels written by a host of Mississippians, including such authors as Newton Gayle, Nevada Barr, and Colonel William C. Falkner. Here they may peruse the cover art of such novels as "The White Rose of Memphis" and Elmore Leonard's "Tishomingo Blues". For those who wish to locate authors by their location, an interactive map of Mississippi makes this process rather simple. The site is rounded out by a complete bibliography, which includes links to each work's cover art.

297

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

Gruy, H.J.

1998-03-01

298

Young mysterious Type IIn supernovae unveiled through XMM spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) are a heterogeneous class of supernovae (SNe). Neither their evolutionary status nor the origin of the tremendous mass loss from their progenitors are known. Many SNe IIn show characteristics of other types of SNe, such as IIn/Ia (SNe 2002ic,2005gj), IIn/Ibc (SN 2001em) and IIn/IIL (SN 1998S), known as ``hybrid'' SNe. This adds to the mystery of this peculiar class of SNe and calls for multiwavelength efforts, which can constrain the progenitor systems and lead to a wealth of information about the surrounding medium, ejecta density and structure of the SNe. Having already obtained VLA time to observe SNe IIn in radio bands, we propose to do XMM Spectroscopy of VLA and/or Swift detected SNe IIn to unravel the very nature of the their environment.

Chandra, Poonam

2007-10-01

299

The Complex World of Adolescent Literacy: Myths, Motivations, and Mysteries  

PubMed Central

In this article, Elizabeth Birr Moje, Melanie Overby, Nicole Tysvaer, and Karen Morris challenge some of the prevailing myths about adolescents and their choices related to reading. The reading practices of youth from one urban community are examined using mixed methods in an effort to define what, how often, and why adolescents choose to read. By focusing on what features of texts youth find motivating, the authors find that reading and writing frequently occur in a range of literacy contexts outside school. However, only reading novels on a regular basis outside of school is shown to have a positive relationship to academic achievement as measured by school grades. This article describes how adolescents read texts that are embedded in social networks, allowing them to build social capital. Conclusions are framed in terms of the mysteries that remain — namely, how to build on what motivates adolescents' literacy practices in order to both promote the building of their social selves and improve their academic outcomes.

Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Overby, Melanie; Tysvaer, Nicole; Morris, Karen

2009-01-01

300

Uncovering the Mystery of Gliding Motility in the Myxobacteria  

PubMed Central

Bacterial gliding motility is the smooth movement of cells on solid surfaces unaided by flagella or pili. Many diverse groups of bacteria exhibit gliding, but the mechanism of gliding motility has remained a mystery since it was first observed more than a century ago. Recent studies on the motility of Myxococcus xanthus, a soil myxobacterium, suggest a likely mechanism for gliding in this organism. About forty M. xanthus genes were shown to be involved in gliding motility, and some of their protein products were labeled and localized within cells. These studies suggest that gliding motility in M. xanthus involves large multiprotein structural complexes, regulatory proteins, and cytoskeletal filaments. In this review, we summarize recent experiments that provide the basis for this emerging view of M. xanthus motility. We also discuss alternative models for gliding.

Nan, Beiyan; Zusman, David R.

2012-01-01

301

Viscous flow interpretation of Comet Halley's mystery transition  

SciTech Connect

A study of the solar wind within comet Halley's ionosheath is presented. It is shown that the plasma changes seen across the intermediate (mystery) transition, located approximately half way between the bow shock and the cometopause along the Giotto trajectory, are similar to those occurring across an equivalent transition present within the Venus ionosheath. As in Venus, the observed plasma changes are consistent with those expected from the onset of friction phenomena between the shocked solar wind and the main body of ionospheric plasma. It is suggested that the intermediate transition in comet Halley's ionosheath represents the outer boundary of a thick viscous boundary layer that develops from the nose of the cometopause and extends along the flanks of the ionosheath. On the basis of this interpretation it is concluded that the subsolar position of the cometopause may have reached {approximately} 3.4 10{sup 5} km upstream from the nucleus at the time of the Giotto measurements.

Perez-de-Tejada, H. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico))

1989-08-01

302

K2P potassium channels, mysterious and paradoxically exciting.  

PubMed

New evidence reveals that the common electrolyte disorder hypokalemia can induce K2P1 channels that are normally selective for K+ to break the rules and conduct Na+. This defiant behavior leads to paradoxical depolarization of many cells in the heart, increasing the risk for lethal arrhythmia. The new research resolves a mystery uncovered 50 years ago and bestows an array of new riddles. Here, I discuss how K2P1 might achieve this alchemy--through stable residence of the K+ selectivity filter in a Na+-conductive state between its open and C-inactive configurations--and predict that other K+ channels and environmental stimuli will be discovered to produce the same excitatory misconduct. PMID:21868351

Goldstein, Steve A N

2011-07-26

303

The talent process of successful academic women scientists at elite research universities in New York state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of science in our society continues to increase, as the needs of the global culture and the problems of the world's growing populations affect resources internationally (DeLisi, 2008; Fischman, 2007; Park, 2008). The need for qualified and experienced scientists to solve complex problems is important to the future of the United States. Models of success for women in

Lisa M. Kaenzig

2009-01-01

304

How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although\\u000a the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been\\u000a systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question “How are student perceptions of engineers\\u000a and scientists similar and how are they

Bethany Fralick; Jennifer Kearn; Stephen Thompson; Jed Lyons

2009-01-01

305

Effective family problem solving.  

PubMed

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children, with 2 definite-solution tasks--tower building (TWB) and 20 questions (TQ), and 1 indefinite-solution task--plan-something-together (PST). Incentive (for cooperation or competition) and task independence (members worked solo or jointly) were manipulated during TWB and TQ, yielding 4 counterbalanced conditions per task per family. On TQ, solo performance exceeded joint performance; on TWB, competition impaired joint performance. Families effective at problem solving in all conditions of both definite-solution tasks tried more problem-solving strategies during TWB and deliberated longer and reached more satisfactory agreements during PST. Family problem-solving effectiveness was moderately predicted by 2 parents' participation in the study. Parental education, parental occupational prestige, and membership in the family of an academically and socially competent child were weaker predictors. The results indicate that definitions of effective family problem solving that are based on directly observed measures of group interaction are more valid than definitions that rely primarily on family characteristics. PMID:3987417

Blechman, E A; McEnroe, M J

1985-04-01

306

Place of science in environmental problem solving  

SciTech Connect

Most important environmental problems are complex. Moreover, solutions to them must be sought in governmental arenas, where science, if it is used at all, typically serves political ends rather than being pursued on its own merits. Policy action often cannot wait for adequate scientific information. Indeed, sufficient information to permit rigorous predictions of the consequences of most policy and management decisions will never be available. For these and other reasons, scientists are often reluctant to enter the policy arena. However, it is abundantly clear that there is considerable scope for expanding the role of science and scientists in environmental problem solving. Substantial improvements in dealing with environmental problems can be obtained by combining better use of existing information with well-focused efforts to treat projects as experiments - to learn about the effects of human-caused perturbations on the functioning of ecological systems. A number of recent publications have treated the kinds of approaches to environmental problem solving that should help to make information available to decision makers and encourage its use.

Orians, G.H.

1986-11-01

307

Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists.  

PubMed

The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists. PMID:23803301

Via, Allegra; Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K

2013-06-25

308

Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists  

PubMed Central

The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists.

Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D.; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L.; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyronen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K.

2013-01-01

309

The interface between the phonetic scientist and forensic investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many scientists find the interface with criminal/civil investigations and the resulting litigation quite challenging. The great variety found among such cases and their (sometimes) shockingly grim aspects, can be most daunting. Moreover, the aid these scientists can expect when attempting to learn their responsibilities (while good) tends to focus only on the roles they will play in the courts. The reality is that they also must serve in a second domain that of investigator/consultant to law enforcement personnel and attorneys. Since training, structure and guidelines are lacking in this area, the relevant problems must be addressed (and solved) directly by the scientist. To do so, he/she must (1) learn about the parallels between laboratory investigations and forensic investigations and organize links, (2) compensate for the differences between them, (3) organize scientific personnel for collaborations in support of the needs of the practitioners, (4) adapt laboratory procedures for forensic application, (5) establish criteria for these applications and (6) develop and articulate what can and cannot be expected of these procedures. Brief case reviews will be presented to illustrate each of these issues.

Hollien, Harry

2003-10-01

310

Genetics inquiry: Strategies and knowledge geneticists use in solving transmission genetics problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists are increasingly challenged to solve problems that require conceptualizing and understanding dynamic complex natural systems. Computer simulations have become an integral tool in helping solve complex problems because they can be effectively used to model dynamic systems. Today's reform standards advocate that science teachers and students be involved in scientific inquiry that is consistent with the practice of science.

Norman Thomson; James Stewart

2003-01-01

311

The catalytic nature of science: Implications for scientific problem solving in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses key elements of scientific problem solving from a cognitive perspective in an effort to help scientists and engineers understand and manage their problem solving efforts more effectively. Toward this end, the Adaption–Innovation (A–I) theory of Kirton is reviewed and placed into the context of science in order to highlight its potential contributions and possible limitations. In particular,

Kathryn W. Jablokow

2005-01-01

312

Scientist, researchers, and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The role of the hidden participants in agenda-setting for environmental issues is discussed. These personnel involve academics, researchers, career bureaucrats, congressional staffers, consultants, and administration appointees below the top level. Scientists have been publicly involved in the acid rain issue from the beginning, using the media to dramatize the possible catastrophic consequences of acid rain. Presently, the scientific community is not in consensus about the solutions to the problem. Since the initial enactment of the National Acid Precipitation Act in 1980, not a single acid rain law has been passed, although many bills have been proposed. Spokesman for the coal and utility industries and Reagan administration personnel have used the scientific disagreements to delay abatement actions and refute claims that acid rain is a severe problem. Another result of the confusion is a distrust and even disdain for academic work. One possible solution to the stalemate is an accurate form for resolving scientific disputes that have a strong political component and that the forum should have a mechanism for converging on accurate science. 19 refs.

Alm, L.R. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA))

1989-01-01

313

Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training  

PubMed Central

This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers.

2007-01-01

314

Solving Linear Inequalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Elizabeth Stapel at Purplemath, this module helps students understand how to solve linear inequalities with an introduction to the topic using both inequality notation and a graphic representation to express the inequality. This section also briefly covers set notation and interval notation. The next two pages of the site give elementary examples and advanced examples. The elementary examples are simple problems with solutions and an interactive widget on which students can try their knowledge. The advanced examples include real-world word problems in physics, finance, and chemistry that require students to identify and solve the linear inequality.

Stapel, Elizabeth

2000-04-14

315

Persistence in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

2012-01-01

316

Jets Spout Far Closer to Black Hole Than Thought, Scientists Say  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, taking advantage of multiple unique views of black hole particle jets over the course of a year with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, have assembled a "picture" of the region that has revealed several key discoveries. They have found that the jets may be originating five times closer to the black hole than previously thought; they see in better detail how these jets change with time and distance from the black hole; and they could use this information as a new technique to measure black hole mass. Presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, the observation will ultimately help solve the mystery of the great cosmic contradiction, in which black holes, notorious for pulling matter in, somehow manage to also shoot matter away in particle jets moving close to the speed of light. The observation is of a familiar source named SS 433 -- a binary star system within our Galaxy in the constellation Aquila, the Eagle, about 16,000 light years away. The black hole and its companion are about two-thirds closer to each other than the planet Mercury is to the Sun. The jets shoot off at 175 million miles per hour, 26 percent of light speed. "The high-speed jets in nearby SS 433 may be caused by the same mechanisms as the powerful outflows in the most distant and much more massive black holes, such as quasars," said Laura Lopez, an undergraduate student at MIT and lead author on a paper about the result. "SS 433 provides a nice local laboratory to study the formation of and conditions in relativistic jets." Dr. Herman Marshall, Ms. Lopez's research supervisor, led the investigation. Matter from the companion star pours into the black hole via a swirling accretion disk, much like water down a drain. Black hole particles jets are thought to be produced as some of the matter encounters strong magnetic fields close to the black hole. SS 433 is angled in such a way that one jet is shooting away from us while the other is aimed slightly towards us. The black hole's companion star enters the picture here as it periodically eclipses parts of the jets. Scientists use the eclipse, called an occultation, as a tool to block one part of the jet so that they can study other parts more easily. Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, the MIT group measured many characteristics of the jets, forming the best view of a jet's structure ever obtained. No image was created, as in other Chandra observations. Rather, the scientists pieced together the scene through spectroscopy, the fingerprint of chemical elements that reveals temperature and velocity of matter in the jets. They determined the length of the X-ray-emitting portion of the jet (over one million miles, about five times the distance from the Earth to the Moon); the temperature range (dropping from about 100 million degrees Celsius to 10 million degrees farther out); the chemical abundances (iron, silicon, and more); and the jet opening angle. In a previous observation they measured the jet's density. With this information, the team could determine that the jet base was five times closer to the black hole than previously observed, with a base diameter of about 1,280 miles. Also, from a bit of geometry along with information on the size of the binary system from optical observations by a team led by Douglas Gies of Georgia State University, the MIT group determined that the size of the companion star that blocked the view of the receding jet is about nine times the size of the Sun. From that, they estimated that the black hole is 16 solar masses. (For many years scientists have speculated whether SS 433 contains a black hole or a neutron star. Today's announcement of a 16-solar-mass object confirms that it is indeed a black hole, too massive to be a neutron star.) "The uniqueness of SS 433 cannot be overstated," said Marshall. "SS 433 provides an excellent opportunity to study the origin, evolution, and long-term beha

2004-01-01

317

Bridging the Gap Between Scientists and Classrooms: Scientist Engagement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program bridges the gap between scientists and classrooms. Scientists work with students as mentors, participate in student presentations, and interact with students through distance learning events.

Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

2012-03-01

318

Solid Gold Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is designed to strengthen critical thinking and problem-solving skills by allowing students to assume the roles of 1992 Winter Olympic Games planners who make preparations for the event. A reproducible data sheet serves as a resource. Hands-on activities and a critical television viewing activity are included. (IAH)

Fagella, Kathy

1992-01-01

319

Inquiry and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

Thorson, Annette, Ed.

1999-01-01

320

Solving the Hydrogen Atom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After practicing with the particle-in-a-box problem, students solve the H atom symbolically using the derivatives feature in MathCad. The result is an expression for the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. Students will also prove that the radial part of the wavefunction is normalized and explore the concept of an orbital.

321

[Problem Solving Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

322

Problem Solving in Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

323

Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

2011-12-01

324

The Dentist Scientist Award program and prosthodontics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dentist Scientist Award (DSA) program was started by the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) in 1984 to prepare dentists for careers as clinical research scientists who would be highly skilled investigators and potential leaders in the full scope of oral health research. The DSA program provides support for dentists to undertake 5 years of intensive preparation in a

James A Lipton

1996-01-01

325

Young Children's Conceptions of Science and Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores young children's images of science and scientists, their sources for scientific knowledge, and the nature of their science-related experiences. A cross-sectional design was used to study how students' ideas differ over the first three years of elementary school. A modified version of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and a…

Lee, Tiffany R.

2010-01-01

326

Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

Pollio, David E.

2012-01-01

327

Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing

Chris Newhall; Shigeo Aramaki; Franco Barberi; Russell Blong; Marta Calvache; Jean-Louis Cheminee; Raymundo Punongbayan; Claus Siebe; Tom Simkin; Stephen Sparks; Barry Tjetjep

1999-01-01

328

Participation of Scientists in Education and Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a very wide spectrum of education and communications efforts in which scientists and engineers can participate, in fact there are too many opportunities. How do scientists and engineers identify the ones that are most suited to them and their science\\/technology, and for which the most education value will result? This is not an easy question to answer. Fortunately,

B. W. Meeson

2004-01-01

329

Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)|

Condon, Marty

1991-01-01

330

Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

Pollio, David E.

2012-01-01

331

Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

Seltzer, Richard J.

1985-01-01

332

Secularization and Religious Change among Elite Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sociologists of religion have often connected secularization to science, but have rarely examined the role of religion in the lives of scientists or how the sciences have changed religiously over time. Here we address this shortcoming by comparing religiosity between two samples of elite academic natural and social scientists, one in 1969 and…

Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Park, Jerry Z.; Veliz, Phil Todd

2008-01-01

333

Elementary School Children's Perceptions of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study looked at the potential of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) as a quick, reliable method of assessing elementary school children's images of scientists. Two schools were chosen from very different environments in Western Australia. Results indicated that the DAST is potentially useful to assess global images. (MP)|

Schibeci, Renato A.; Sorensen, Irene

1983-01-01

334

The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis S. Sandrelli INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy (stefano.sandrelli@brera.inaf.it \\/ Fax: 02 72001600 \\/ Phone: +39 02 72320337) \\

S. Sandrelli

2006-01-01

335

VLBA Scientists Study Birth of Sunlike Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three teams of scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to learn tantalizing new details about how Sun-like stars are formed. Young stars, still growing by drawing in nearby gas, also spew some of that material back into their surroundings, like impatient infants that eat too quickly. The VLBA observations are giving astronomers new insights on both processes -- the accretion of material by the new stars and the outflows of material from them. "For the first time, we're actually seeing what happens right down next to the star in these young systems," said Mark Claussen, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Claussen and other researchers announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. Material attracted by a young star's gravitational pull forms a flat, orbiting disk, called an accretion disk, in which the material circles closer and closer to the star until finally drawn into it. At the same time, material is ejected in "jets" speeding from the poles of the accretion disk. "The VLBA is showing us the first images of the region close to the star where the material in these jets is accelerated and formed into the `beams' of the jet," Claussen said. "We don't understand the details of these processes well," Claussen said. "These VLBA research projects are beginning to help unravel the mysteries of how stars like the Sun form." The teams are observing clumps of water vapor that naturally amplify radio emissions to see details smaller than the orbit of Mercury in young stellar systems as well as track gas motions. The clumps of gas are called masers, and amplify radio emission in much the same way that a laser amplifies light emission. "These images are just fantastic," said Al Wootten of NRAO in Charlottesville, VA. The maser clumps or "spots," emitting radio waves at a specific wavelength, can be tracked as they move over time. In addition, by measuring the Doppler shift in the wavelength of these emissions, astronomers can determine the speed at which the gas is moving. In an object known as S106FIR, 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus, a team of Japanese and U.S. VLBA observers led by Ray Furuya, a graduate student from Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory, has tracked the motion of material outward in the jet. This object, embedded in a dense cloud of molecular gas, the material from which the star is forming, shows maser spots moving in two directions as the jets emerge from both poles of the accretion disk. "The water masers are the only way we can detect the outflow from this young star," Furuya said. The VLBA observations can discern details as small as half the distance from the Earth to the Sun. "We can see outflow on scales the size of our Solar System. We think this object is one of the youngest protostars known," Furuya said. In another object, dubbed IRAS 16293-2422, in the constellation Ophiuchus, astronomers believe the water masers clearly show the outflowing jets of a young star and may be tracing the accretion disk as well. The young star is one of a pair of stars in a binary system some 500 light-years distant. The water-vapor masers are seen around only one of the pair, however. "In this system, we see outflow in the jet and also an elliptical ring of masers that may be part of the accretion disk," said Wootten, leader of the team observing this object. "The VLBA is showing us details as small as the size of Mercury's orbit around the Sun, a great help in understanding the physics going on there," Wootten said. A team composed largely of astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, also used the VLBA to study water masers in a young stellar object 2,500 light-years away in Cepheus. This team sees maser spots moving in opposite directions away from the young star on scales of ten times the diameter of the solar system, pr

1999-06-01

336

Teaching through Trade Books: Mysteries of the Past  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paleontologists, scientists who study the history of life on Earth, work in a dynamic area of science. Think of putting together a jigsaw puzzle with most of the pieces missing--that's what creating the fossil record is like. Each time a new piece is disco

Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen; Davis, Katie

2010-09-01

337

How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries  

ScienceCinema

Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

338

Predicting scientists' participation in public life.  

PubMed

This research provides secondary data analysis of two large-scale scientist surveys. These include a 2009 survey of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) members and a 2006 survey of university scientists by the United Kingdom's Royal Society. Multivariate models are applied to better understand the motivations, beliefs, and conditions that promote scientists' involvement in communication with the public and the news media. In terms of demographics, scientists who have reached mid-career status are more likely than their peers to engage in outreach, though even after controlling for career stage, chemists are less likely than other scientists to do so. In terms of perceptions and motivations, a deficit model view that a lack of public knowledge is harmful, a personal commitment to the public good, and feelings of personal efficacy and professional obligation are among the strongest predictors of seeing outreach as important and in participating in engagement activities. PMID:23825262

Besley, John C; Oh, Sang Hwa; Nisbet, Matthew

2012-10-17

339

The Virtual Scientist: Connecting University Scientists to the K-12 Classroom through Videoconferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vanderbilt University Center for Science Outreach (CSO) connects university scientists to the K-12 community to enhance and improve science education. The Virtual Scientist program utilizes interactive videoconference (IVC) to facilitate this connection, providing 40-50 sessions per academic year to a national audience. Scientists, defined as…

McCombs, Glenn B.; Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Shepherd, Virginia L.

2007-01-01

340

Hypothesis Testing through Field Investigation of Mystery Mounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field exercise, students examine the mystery mounds and patterned ground on the top of Umptanum Ridge in central Washington. Groups of 3-4 students design and conduct a field investigation and write a single joint report. Each group formulates a testable hypothesis that addresses one of the proposed processes involved in forming or subsequently shaping the mounds. The groups design an experiment to test their hypothesis, collect the necessary field observations and measurements during a regular afternoon field lab period and write a scientific report that includes an introduction, statement of hypothesis, background information, methods, data, analysis and interpretations, discussion of uncertainties, conclusions, and references. One week later, reports are turned in and students form "jigsaw" discussion groups composed of one student from each field research group. Each student briefly summarizes their group's research hypothesis and results to the jigsaw group. The jigsaw groups then each develop a revised hypothesis based on these combined results and present that to the entire class. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills Addresses student misconceptions

Ely, Lisa

341

On Being A Scientist, Third Edition - Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The scientific research enterprise is built on a foundation of trust. Scientists trust that the results reported by others are valid. Society trusts that the results of research reflect an honest attempt by scientists to describe the world accurately and without bias. But this trust will endure only if the scientific community devotes itself to exemplifying and transmitting the values associated with ethical scientific conduct. This video is based on third edition of On Being a Scientist and reflects developments since the publication of the original edition in 1989 and a second edition in 1995. It focuses on ethics and mentoring in research.

2009-09-21

342

Attracting, Retaining, and Engaging Early Career Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Scientists Event, IUGG XXIV General Assembly; Perugia, Italy, 10 July 2007 This young scientists event was organized to engage younger scientists with the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and to provide a specific forum to express their views at the General Assembly. It comprised a panel discussion chaired by Kate Heal and with three young geosciences panelists (Masaki Hayashi, University of Calgary, Canada; Kalachand Sain, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India; and Simona Stefanescu, National Meteorological Administration, Bucharest). The group, which had identified several topics relevant to young geoscientists, presented their views in open discussion session. Thirty IUGG conference attendees were present.

Jones, Alan; Heal, Kate; Pringle, Daniel

2007-12-01

343

The Death of Baby Pierre A Genetic Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This directed case study on a genetic disorder was developed for an exam on genetics for a general biology course.  The case is based on an article by scientist and author Jared Diamond titled “Founding Fathers and Mothers” that appeared in Natural History magazine in June 1988.  In the article, Diamond illustrates the significance of the “founder effect” in small isolated populations like the one described in this case.

Herreid, Clyde F.

1999-01-01

344

Giant Squid: One Gigantic Mystery (ScienceWorld)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 6-10, this article from Science World magazine has an interview with AMNH paleontologist Neal Landman, in which he discusses the giant squid and what scientists have been able to learn by studying only dead specimens. There are Web links that offer further opportunities for learning about the giant squid.

345

Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

Embry, Lynn

346

Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

Embry, Lynn

347

In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann  

ScienceCinema

Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

348

West Coast Earthquakes Ongoing, Scientists Discover  

NSF Publications Database

... Jim Whitcomb (703) 292-8553 jwhitcom@nsf.gov West Coast Earthquakes Ongoing, Scientists Discover ... earthquake going on right now on the West Coast, yet no one feels it. The temblor, a so-called slow ...

349

Peer and Supervisory Ratings of Research Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sample of 103 government research scientists was used to compare two performance evaluation systems currently used in a Federal agency for its research personnel. The two systems, supervisory ratings and peer ratings, were compared in terms of their res...

G. D. Kissler D. M. Nebeker

1979-01-01

350

The poultry scientist: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

This paper is adapted from the World's Poultry Science Association Lecture presented July 22, 2008, at the Poultry Science Association meeting. It contains the author's views of the past, present, and future roles of poultry scientists. PMID:19439620

Siegel, P B

2009-06-01

351

Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Draw-A-Scientist Test is an assessment tool devised to explore and measure children's stereotypical views of scientists. We administered this test to a group of 49 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in a teacher certification program. While this was originally intended as a purely pedagogical exercise, we were struck by the degree to which the drawings so produced resembled, in stereotypical content, those usually produced by children. This suggests that stereotypes of science and scientists formed during childhood, presumably via the influence of the media, remain largely unaffected by the subsequent passage through high school and college, despite the fact that numerous real-life figures of science teachers and scientists are presumably encountered throughout those formative years. We argue that this state of affairs has subtle and far reaching consequences, and is worthy of our collective attention.

Rahm, Jrène; Charbonneau, Paul

1997-08-01

352

Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Draw-A-Scientist Test is an assessment tool devised to explore and measure children's stereotypical views of scientists. We administered this test to a group of 49 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in a teacher certification program. While this was originally intended as a purely pedagogical exercise, we were struck by the degree to which the drawings so produced resembled, in stereotypical content, those usually produced by children. This suggests that stereotypes of science and scientists formed during childhood, presumably via the influence of the media, remain largely unaffected by the subsequent passage through high school and college, despite the fact that numerous real-life figures of science teachers and scientists are presumably encountered throughout those formative years. We argue that this state of affairs has subtle and far reaching consequences, and is worthy of our collective attention. é1997 American Association of Physics Teachers.

Rahm, Jrã¨ne; Charbonneau, P.

2005-10-24

353

Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists and engineers who foster information-sharing and respect between science and the public are essential for the public communication of and engagement with science. Although traditional scientific training typically does not prepare scientists and engineers to be effective communicators outside of academia, funding agencies are increasingly encouraging researchers to extend beyond peer-reviewed publishing and communicate their results directly to the greater public. Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers was developed by the AAAS Center for Public Engagement with Science and Technology, in partnership with the National Science Foundation, to provide science-communication tools for use by scientists and engineers. Communicating Science resources are available both online and via in-person workshops, to help researchers communicate more broadly with the public.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2008-05-30

354

Climate Scientists Dig Deep Into Greenland's Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, under 6 minutes, explores Greenland Ice Core data that that reveal rapid climate changes that have happened in the past. The video includes scientists discussing their research results and views of Ice core sampling.

355

Black History Month - Profile of a Scientist  

NASA Website

February is Black History Month, and to mark the occasion, we recently sat down with John Johnson, scientist at NASA's Exoplanet Science Institute at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

356

Scientists Gain Genetic Insight into Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Scientists Gain Genetic Insight Into Alzheimer's Disease Study of mice builds on landmark findings ... Preidt Friday, September 27, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Disease Genes and Gene Therapy FRIDAY, Sept. 27 ( ...

357

Profile of Military Scientists and Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The profile is based upon a survey of the scientists and engineers in field research, development, test and evaluation activities of the Department of Defense--primarily laboratories, test centers and ranges. The report summarizes the characteristics of t...

E. M. Glass

1969-01-01

358

Education and Outreach: Advice to Young Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carl Sagan set an example to all scientists when he encouraged us to reach out to the public and share the excitement of discovery and exploration. The prejudice that ensued did not deter Sagan and, with the passing of years, more and more scientists have followed his example. Although at present scientists at all ranks are encouraged by their institutions to do outreach, the balancing of a successful scientific career with teaching and outreach is often not an easy one. Young scientists, in particular, may worry about how their outreach efforts are viewed in the community and how they will find the time and energy for these efforts. This talk will offer suggestions on how to balance an active science research program with outreach activities, the many different ways to engage in education and public outreach, and how the rewards are truly priceless.

Lopes, R. M. C.

2005-08-01

359

Mystery Plants Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This transfer activity tests student understanding of variation and inheritance. It starts with five flower boxes, as in ÂThe Virtual Greenhouse, and three types of seeds with variations in their roots. The flower boxes differ in the amount of water they receive, and students discover which seeds thrive in which environment. Students are then challenged to produce a crop of plants that can grow everywhere in a field by taking advantage of the small variation in root type from one generation to the next.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

360

Contributions by Citizen Scientists to Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Abstract only) The AAVSO's experience in utilizing the skills, equipment, and enthusiasm of amateur astronomers towards its research is not unique in astronomy. Citizen Scientists have contributed to our understanding of asteroids, exo-planets, solar system weather, light echoes, and galactic streaming, as well as inventing new equipment and software. This talk will highlight some of the recent advances by Citizen Scientists, and suggest some areas where they can contribute in the future.

Henden, A. A.

2012-06-01

361

Audio Gallery: Scientists and Social Responsibility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online audio gallery is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Scientists and Social Responsibility, part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, is available in broadband and modem formats and with a printable PDF transcript. The audio discusses some of the social-responsibility issues that scientists are grappling with today.

362

Exploring Native American Students’ Perceptions of Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students’ perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9–12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students

Timothy A Laubach; Geary Don Crofford; Edmund A Marek

2012-01-01

363

SOLV-DB  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The nonprofit National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) offers an online solvent database called SOLV-DB. Users can choose to browse by eight categories: solvent name, chemical abstracts, sax number, chemical number, chemical formula, property category, matching range, and solvent synonym. Once presented, queries provide a list of physical properties such as specific gravity and boiling point, as well as links to regulatory data, environmental fate data, and health and safety data. The main page contains a how-to link that gives additional user information for this already well-designed and user-friendly resource.

364

Problem Solving through Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit that focuses on problem solving through real life situations that involveaviation. In spite of a variety of shapes and sizes all airplanes fly in the same way, and the problems of the aviation industry are basically the same. Some of the problems in this unit deal with the tests that have already been in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Agency, and the Department of Defense in order to ensure safety, convenience, and efficiency in aviation.

Bryant, Joyce

2007-04-10

365

How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are student perceptions of engineers and scientists similar and how are they different?" Approximately 1,600 middle school students from urban and suburban schools in the southeastern United States were asked to draw either an engineer or a scientist at work. Drawings included space for the students to explain what their person was doing in the picture. A checklist to code the drawings was developed and used by two raters. This paper discusses similarities and differences in middle school perceptions of scientists and engineers. Results reveal that the students involved in this study frequently perceive scientists as working indoors conducting experiments. A large fraction of the students have no perception of engineering. Others frequently perceive engineers as working outdoors in manual labor. The findings have implications for the development and implementation of engineering outreach efforts.

Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

2009-02-01

366

Can scientists and policy makers work together?  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses a fundamental question in evidence based policy making—can scientists and policy makers work together? It first provides a scenario outlining the different mentalities and imperatives of scientists and policy makers, and then discusses various issues and solutions relating to whether and how scientists and policy makers can work together. Scientists and policy makers have different goals, attitudes toward information, languages, perception of time, and career paths. Important issues affecting their working together include lack of mutual trust and respect, different views on the production and use of evidence, different accountabilities, and whether there should be a link between science and policy. The suggested solutions include providing new incentives to encourage scientists and policy makers to work together, using knowledge brokers (translational scientists), making organisational changes, defining research in a broader sense, re-defining the starting point for knowledge transfer, expanding the accountability horizon, and finally, acknowledging the complexity of policy making. It is hoped that further discussion and debate on the partnership idea, the need for incentives, recognising the incompatibility problems, the role of civil society, and other related themes will lead to new opportunities for further advancing evidence based policy and practice.

Choi, B.; Pang, T.; Lin, V.; Puska, P.; Sherman, G.; Goddard, M.; Ackland, M.; Sainsbury, P.; Stachenko, S.; Morrison, H.; Clottey, C.

2005-01-01

367

7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture ...Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No scientist shall perform a laboratory analysis on any...

2009-01-01

368

7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture ...Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No scientist shall perform a laboratory analysis on any...

2010-01-01

369

The Mystery of Linear Programming Explained: Second Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes explains to Watson and the reader how to use Solver, an application of Excel used to solve mathematical programming problems. Holmes walks his audience through modeling the problem in Excel, using Solver to get the optimal solution, a description of variables, a discussion of shadow prices and right-hand sensitivity analysis, and an explanation of

Jack Yurkiewicz

1999-01-01

370

Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

371

The Problem-Solving Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…

Bardige, Art

1983-01-01

372

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

373

Solving Quasars (Part 1)  

ScienceCinema

Quasars are a frustratingly unsolved problem in astrophysics. For 40 years quasars and AGN have presented an ever-proliferating list of diverse and confusing phenomenology from optical to X-ray wavelengths. The result has been that despite being the most powerful objects in the universe, quasars have been increasingly sidelined in astrophysics. This is unfortunate, as quasars pose major physics, as well as astrophysics puzzles, and should be important in cosmology. The problem, I believe, is not that we do not know enough physics, but rather that we do not have the right geometry. I have proposed a simple geometric and kinematic model that allows all of the quasar diversity to be understood as part of a single structure, the 'Quasar Atmosphere'. This structure suggests a natural physical interpretation, that builds on our understanding of stars (the only fully solved problem in astrophysics), and offers the prospect that we can use quasars for cosmology at last.

374

Keystone Center's 1992 Scientist to Scientist Colloquium Held at Keystone, Colorado on 15-20 August 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Scientist to Scientist Colloquium was created by The Keystone Center and a planning committee of distinguished scientists. The goals was, and still is, to bring together leading researchers and other members of the scientific community to share with e...

1992-01-01

375

Student Scientist Partnerships and Data Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Student Scientist Partnership introduces students to hands-on, minds-on science and provides them an opportunity to participate in a program that is real and important, and also introduces the student to the rigor of science through the focus on data quality. The student has the opportunity to experience and learn the Scientific Method, not just memorize it, to stimulate creative thinking, inquiry based learning, and many other key components of the educational objectives. The scientist should provide skill appropriate scientific inquiry tools that the student uses to help them improve the quality of their data and to understand the science concept being addressed. By making the measurements suggested, and establishing the quality of their data, the student begins the journey of understanding scientific research. The scientist not only uses the student-generated data in their on-going research activities, but also provides higher level information products back to the student. Ultimately, it must be clearly remembered that there are two important but quite different objectives for both the student and the scientist. For the student, the primary objective is the generation of the knowledge of science, while, for the research scientist, the primary objective is the generation of scientific knowledge.

Lawless, James G.; Rock, Barrett N.

1998-03-01

376

Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What causes condensation? Does temperature affect how well a balloon will fly? How do tiny bugs get into oatmeal? Through 15 mystery stories, this book memorably illustrates science concepts for students and reinforces the value of learning science through inquiry. Each mystery presents opportunities for students to create questions, form hypotheses, test their ideas, and come up with explanations. Focused on concepts such as periodic motion, thermodynamics, temperature and energy, and sound, these mysteries draw students into the stories by grounding them in experiences students are familiar with, providing them with a foundation for classroom discussion and inquiry. The story format is used because it is one of the most effective ways to engage students' attention right from the start. Each chapter includes a list of science concepts explored, targeted strategies for using the stories with children in grades K-4 and with older students in grades 5-8, and a key matching story concepts with corresponding standards in the NSES.

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

377

Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

2005-09-01

378

Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

2009-11-30

379

Scientists warn DOE of dwindling funding  

SciTech Connect

Fusion scientists have raised their voices to let the Department of Energy know that they are concerned about the DOE`s commitment to fusion research. In a letter dated February 28, 1994, 37 scientists from 21 institutions noted that {open_quotes}US funding for fusion has steadily decreased: It is now roughly half its level of 1980. This peculiar and painful circumstance has forced the program to contract drastically, losing skilled technical personnel, even as it faces its most exciting opportunities.{close_quotes} The letter was addressed to Martha Krebs, the DOE`s director of the Office of Energy Research, and N. Anne Davies, associated director for fusion energy. The scientists wanted to make two points. The first was that fusion energy research, only midway between concept and commercialization, deserves major reinvestment. The second was that basic scientific knowledge in the area of fusion, not just applied engineering, must remain a priority.

NONE

1994-06-01

380

Developing Meaningful Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the Earth System Scientist Network, in which students and teachers participate in research projects with scientists. In these projects the scientists can take advantage of having an extended research team, and the students and teachers can contribute to a research project while developing skills in inquiry and expanding content knowledge in Earth system science. Several issues must be addressed in order to facilitate these partnerships: identifying the scientific research questions, the data that the students will analyze, the requirements for participating schools, and the tools and protocols that the students and teachers will use during their research. Other logistical issues must also be addressed, such as assuring that instruments and tools are available to the teachers and students, providing the background information and training they will need, providing additional research questions that can help spark students interest, and recognizing students and teachers for their contributions.

2003-01-01

381

Legal education for scientists at Fall Meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.

Uhlenbrock, Kristan

2012-10-01

382

The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

Sugarman, Sally

383

Motivation of scientists in a government research institute : Scientists' perceptions and the role of management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to explore the perceptions of scientists regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivate them and the role of management in enhancing and maintaining motivation with the purpose of identifying practical recommendations for managers to improve the productivity of scientists. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 18 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with randomly selected (stratified sampling)

Divya Jindal-Snape; Jonathan B. Snape

2006-01-01

384

Images of Science and Scientists: A Study of School Teachers' Views. I. Characteristics of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines trends in teachers' beliefs about scientists and the nature of science. Discusses teachers' questionnaire responses on the following qualities of scientists: minimum educational qualifications; creativity; temperament; stereotyped image; and personal beliefs about indigenous systems of medicine and astrology. (Contains 63 references.)…

Rampal, A.

1992-01-01

385

Guidelines from a Scientist to a Scientist when Working with Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insight on how scientists should approach working with teachers in their classroom. Guidelines for before the visit, working with the teacher, working with the students, and then how to approach student/teacher feedback. An excellent resource for bridging the gap between scientists and educators.

386

Scientists and Educators Working Together: Everyone Teaches, Everyone Learns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary author has been working with three of the authors (Lebofsky, McCarthy, and Cañizo) for nearly 25 years and Schmitt and Higgins for 17 and 8 years, respectively. This collaboration can be summed up with the phrase: “everyone teaches, everyone learns.” What NASA calls E/PO and educators call STEM/STEAM, requires a team effort. Exploration of the Solar System and beyond is a team effort, from research programs to space missions. The same is true for science education. Research scientists with a long-term involvement in science education have come together with science educators, classroom teachers, and informal science educators to create a powerful STEM education team. Scientists provide the science content and act as role models. Science educators provide the pedagogy and are the bridge between the scientists and the teacher. Classroom teachers and informal science educators bring their real-life experiences working in classrooms and in informal settings and can demonstrate scientists’ approaches to problem solving and make curriculum more engaging. Together, we provide activities that are grade-level appropriate, inquiry-based, tied to the literacy, math, and science standards, and connected directly to up-to-date science content and ongoing research. Our programs have included astronomy camps for youth and adults, professional development for teachers, in-school and after-school programs, family science events, and programs in libraries, science centers, and museums. What lessons have we learned? We are all professionals and can learn from each other. By engaging kids and having them participate in activities and ask questions, we can empower them to be the presenters for others, even their families. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: Use models and engage the audience, do not just lecture. Connect the activity with ongoing science and get participants outside to look at the real sky: do a Moon journal, measure shadows, observe constellations, and look through a telescope—the sky is more than just string, balls, or a computer program.

Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Canizo, T. L.; Schmitt, W.; Higgins, M. L.

2013-10-01

387

The GLOBE International Scientists Network: Connecting scientists, teachers and students from around the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLOBE Program invites scientists in all areas of Earth System Science to work with students and teachers around the work on exploring local scientific problems. GLOBE has a rich history of connecting scientists with schools around the world around issues of environmental and relevance. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with students, teachers and scientists in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has initiated a focus on climate science during the next two years and we are especially interested in connecting scientists with teachers and students in geographic and disciplinary areas of interest to climate scientists. In addition, GLOBE is revitalizing the technology support for science and communications which will provide an easy mechanism for scientists to connect with GLOBE schools. GLOBE is based on spheres of the Earth system with five investigation areas: Atmosphere, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover / Biology, and Phenology. Classroom learning activities for each area help guide students in the classroom. Scientific protocols for data collection designed by scientists provide guidance for students to collect scientifically valid, high-quality data that can be used by professional scientists. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign aims to develop a framework for robust scientist participation in the program whereby scientists and GLOBE schools with mutual science interest can connect and develop collaborations. Scientist participation ranges from mentoring students on science investigations to working collaborative on local climate science research problems. Scientists interested in working with GLOBE are encouraged to participate in whatever level of engagement is appropriate to compliment their research program and professional goals. Scientists will become a part of the GLOBE International Scientist Network, which may provide entrée into other avenues of research and funding. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered in Boulder, is funded through cooperative agreements with NASA and NOAA with additional support from NSF and the U.S. Department of State. GLOBE is supported in countries around the world through bi-lateral agreements between U.S. Department of state and national governments.

Charlevoix, D. J.; Tessendorf, S. A.; Mackaro, J.

2011-12-01

388

Career Management for Scientists and Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book will be an important resource for both new graduates and mid-career scientists, engineers, and technicians. Through taking stock of existing or desired skills and goals, it provides both general advice and concrete examples to help asses a current job situation or prospect, and to effectively pursue and attain new ones. Many examples of properly adapted resumes and interview techniques, as well as plenty of practical advice about adaptation to new workplace cultural paradigms, such as team-based management, make this book an invaluable reference for the professional scientist in today's volatile job market.

Borchardt, John K.

2000-05-01

389

Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.

Wiener, Richard

2009-10-01

390

BBC: Sci Files - Inspirational Welsh Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BBC website for secondary school students offers interviews and stories of successful Welsh scientists including Evans the Atom (Lyn Evans), Sir David the Weather (David Brunt), and Williams the Astronaut (Dafydd Rhys Williams). The website offers introductory synopses of the science topics. The Where Now links offer additional information and educational opportunities dealing with the scientist's specialty. Students can find out the starting points and qualifications they'll need for a host of science jobs including forensic science, geology, physics, and radiography. Visitors can assess their knowledge with the Test Your Boffin Factor quiz.

391

[Alf Brodal--the great brain scientist].  

PubMed

The use of scientific methods in the investigation of the central nervous system began at the beginning of the twentieth century, as gifted scientists like Gustav Adolf Guldberg (1854-1908), Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930), and Georg Herman Monrad-Krohn (1884-1964) took up their research work. Dr Monrad-Krohn's renowned textbook, the so-called "Blue Bible", appeared in 1914 and enhanced the reputation of Norwegian science among specialists internationally. More than any other Norwegian scientist, Professor Alf Brodal (1910-88) brought brain research to new heights. This article presents a portrait of him in relation to his area of research. PMID:11826787

Holck, P

2001-11-30

392

Media and the making of scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the unknown. Advocates of informal science learning initiatives suggest that media can be used as a tool for teaching science content. The potential of entertainment media to provide a sense of wonder is a powerful aspect of its potential to inspire the next generation of scientists.

O'Keeffe, Moira

393

"Physics and Life" - Teachers Meet Scientists at Major EIROforum Event [  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 400 selected delegates from 22 European countries will take part in "Physics on Stage 3" , organised by the EIROforum [1] research organisations (CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF, ILL) at the ESA ESTEC site (Noordwijk, The Netherlands). It is the culmination of a year-long educational programme and is a central event during the EC-sponsored European Science and Technology Week (November 8-15, 2003). Following the vastly successful preceeding events in 2000 and 2002, the main theme this year is "Physics and Life", reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass more of the natural sciences within an interdisciplinary approach. As before, European teachers, scientists, curricula organisers and others connected to the national education systems in Europe will gather with the main goal of exploring solutions to stimulate the interest of young people in science, by means of exciting and innovative teaching methods and materials. The rich one-week programme has many components: spectacular and original performances by students and professional actors, intensive encounters at a central fair where each country will present the latest developments from its teaching community at their stands, workshops about a host of crucial themes related to the central mission of this programme, seminars where EIROforum scientists and experienced high school teachers get together to discuss new teaching opportunities based on the latest results from front-line research projects at Europe's leading science centres, as well as a publishers fair that will also serve as an international exchange for new educational materials. A mystery cultural event will surprise everyone with its originality. And last but not least, the annual European Science Teaching Awards - the highest distinction in this field - will be presented at the end of the meeting. "Physics on Stage" is a joint project organised by EIROforum, together with the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) . The project is funded in part by the European Commission and takes place under the auspices of the European Science and Technology Week 2003. It is directed by the EIROforum Working Group on Outreach that brings together key members of the seven organisations' respective outreach departments. The "Physics on Stage 3" festival will be opened on Monday, November 10, by His Royal Highness, Prince Johan Friso of the Netherlands. Among the distinguished guests will also be Her Excellency, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, as well as several Directors-General of the EIROforum organisations. This "Physics on Stage 3" festival is the most visible event within a year-long programme with the very active involvement of National Committees in two dozen European countries, each of which organised national events or competitions, during which the 400 delegates to the festival were selected for their outstanding projects to promote science teaching. Among the many entries, for example, two young physicists from Germany focus on the beauty of physical phenomena, producing fractals and demonstrating the "Theremin", the only musical instrument played without being touched. In another demonstration, a team from the UK explore the nature of sound and the theme of genetics through drama, music and physical theatre. In this third international festival of physics education, biological and biochemical themes will also play a major role. As usual, the colourful centrepiece of the week is the Fair. Every country has its own stand where delegates show their new, exciting and surprising projects, innovative software, elegant experiments, etc. In this highly inspiring atmosphere, the teachers exchange practical experience and insights, learning from each other and preparing themselves to bring back to their respective countries a rich harvest of new ideas and inspiration for better teaching of science. "Physics

2003-11-01

394

Ulysses discovers the mysteries of the sun's south pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists at ESA's space research and technology centre in Noordwijk (the Netherlands) this morning gave a very positive account of the South polar pass phase, which started in June and will be completed in November. In particular they concluded that the south polar region displayed unexpected magnetic and dynamic characteristics; this probably means that the thinking on the magnetic structure of the Sun will have to be revised. The first thing that surprised the scientists was the low cosmic radiation activity above the south pole and the remarkable apparent absence of a south magnetic pole. Richard Marsden, ESA's project scientist, explained: "We expected the Sun to have a relatively simple magnetic field, such as the Earth's or that of a magnetised iron bar. We thought we were going to find a local increase in the field's intensity. But the probe did not detect any such thing and all the evidence so far suggests that the Sun has no south magnetic pole. Could it be that the Sun has no south magnetic pole? Or is one suddenly going to appear before Ulysses completes its pass? These are some of the questions exercising the minds of the team of scientists working on the project, who are keenly looking forward to comparing these results with those that will be coming through next year when the probe passes over the Sun's north geographic pole. It is however already manifestly clear that the structure of the solar magnetic field in the southern polar region is not as predicted by the models. In particular, the instruments on board Ulysses have detected a new type of very slowly varying electromagnetic waves, with oscillation periods of 10 to 20 hours. The experts' theory is that this is due to an unexpected phenomenon that conveys the solar magnetic field into space through the solar wind. It is still far too early to say what effect these new findings are going to have on our overall understanding of the Sun and the interplanetary wind it generates. A vast volume of data running into billions of bits, all of it of great scientific value, has been acquired during the first part of this polar pass. Detailed analysis is going to take many months. However, one thing about which there is no doubt is the complexity of the phenomena observed, which involve the combined effects of the solar wind, magnetic field, electromagnetic waves and fast-moving bursts of particles. Further insights will probably be gained when Ulysses passes over the Sun's north pole in 1995 and, if the mission is extended, when it makes two further polar passes in 2000-2001, during a period of intense magnetic activity. (*) Ulysses is a joint ESA/NASA mission. ESA developed the probe and is contributing an estimated ECU 170 million up to 1995 to its in-fl operation. European research laboratories provided half of the scie instruments. NASA provided the other half of the experiments flown a radio-isotopic power generator and the launch; it is also maintain day-to-day communications with the probe via its dedicated antennas.

1994-09-01

395

From Science to Business: Preparing Female Scientists and Engineers for Successful Transitions into Entrepreneurship--Summary of a Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists, engineers, and medical professionals play a vital role in building the 21st- century science and technology enterprises that will create solutions and jobs critical to solving the large, complex, and interdisciplinary problems faced by society: problems in energy, sustainability, the environment, water, food, disease, and healthcare.…

Didion, Catherine Jay; Guenther, Rita S.; Gunderson, Victoria

2012-01-01

396

Anaxagoras and the scientist\\/laity interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon that caused Anaxagoras to develop his model that explained the phases and eclipses of the Moon was a meteorite fall. The model was a turning point for science in explaining more than one phenomenon with a single model. It precipitated the growth of Greek astronomy and the first heliocentric theory. Anaxagoras was also the first scientist to get

N. J. Woolf

1995-01-01

397

Anaxagoras and the Scientist\\/Laity Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon that caused Anaxagoras to develop his model that explained the phases and eclipses of the Moon was a meteorite fall. The model was a turning point for science in explaining more than one phenomenon with a single model. It precipitated the growth of Greek astronomy and the first heliocentric theory. Anaxagoras was also the first scientist to get

N. J. Woolf

1995-01-01

398

U.S. Ethnic Scientists and Entrepreneurs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Immigrants are exceptionally important for U.S. technology development, accounting for almost half of the country's Ph.D. workforce in science and engineering. Most notably, the contribution of Chinese and Indian scientists and entrepreneurs in U.S. high-technology sectors increased dramatically in the 1990s. These ethnic scientific communities…

Kerr, William R.

2007-01-01

399

New education and outreach opportunities for scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientist works late to finish up yet another proposal for research funding. Time is short—the proposal is due in only a week. The research description is well in hand, compelling and at the forefront of the field. But the scientist is less confident of what to propose for a “broader impacts” component that will actually be meaningful. What does it mean to have a broader impact? What can be proposed that will make a difference but will not divert too much time from conducting research, searching for funding, or writing papers? For many scientists, particularly those who rely on soft money for research funding, the above scenario is a familiar story. These days, research solicitations from funding agencies consistently require that in addition to proposing innovative and cutting-edge research, scientists must also include elements in their proposals that provide meaningful broader impacts to their research programs—in essence, they must show how their research will benefit society and spread knowledge.

Johnson, Roberta

2011-08-01

400

Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives on Test Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this book is on the way professionals use and make sense of test assessment data in their counseling. The book is oriented specifically toward those training to be psychologists or counselors, especially those interested in a scientist-practitioner orientation to clinical practice. Each of the chapters presents a perspective on test…

Lichtenberg, James W., Ed.; Goodyear, Rodney K., Ed.

401

SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS: A COMPLEMENTARY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are children's acceptance of science learning and their attitudes toward practitioners shaped in the classroom by means of the priorities of the attentions of the teacher or by the demands for attention by males in co-educational environments? If they are significantly affected by the educational environment, would the attitudes of children toward science and scientists be altered if the children

Edward L. Shaw; Ann K. Nauman

402

Writing for Non-Scientists about Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physicists should communicate their knowledge to the general public because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." This article discusses what I've learned about writing for non-scientists from working on my physics…

Hobson, Art

2011-01-01

403

Modern Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recommends a change in the way mathematics is taught to engineers and scientists. Espouses a shift away from traditional methods to an approach that makes significant use of algebra packages. Suggests that teaching the language comprised of the notation and grammar of mathematics would be of more use and more accessible than focusing entirely on…

Ward, J. P.

2003-01-01

404

Shame, scientist! Degradation rituals in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reputations are crucially important to scientists, so it is valuable to examine processes by which reputations come under attack. One potent method is a degradation ritual, an event or process that stigmatises the target and often results in feelings of shame and humiliation. Anthropologists and other scholars from a range of disciplines have examined degradation rituals and ceremonies, but their

Sandrine Thérèse; Brian Martin

2010-01-01

405

The Physician-Scientist: An Endangered Species.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number of physician-scientists in training decreased below the recommended level in 1976. Reasons young doctors are not attracted to research training and why these academic physicians are needed are discussed. The demise of the academic medical community will begin an ice age in American medicine. (SR)|

Legato, Marianne, J.

1983-01-01

406

Scientists Involved in K-12 Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it

V. Robigou

2004-01-01

407

Breadth-first CS 1 for scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an introductory CS course designed to provide future scientists with a one-semester overview of the discipline. The course takes a breadth-first approach that leverages its students' interest and experience in science, mathematics, and engineering. In contrast to many other styles of CS 1, this course does not presume that its students will study more computer science, but

Zachary Dodds; Christine Alvarado; Geoff Kuenning; Ran Libeskind-hadas

2007-01-01

408

Set-Theoretic Preliminaries for Computer Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basics of set theory are usually copied, directly or indirectly, by computer scientists from introductions to mathematical texts. Often mathematicians are content with special cases when the general case is of no mathematical interest. But sometimes what is of no mathematical interest is of great practical interest in computer science. For example, non-binary relations in mathematics tend to have

Maarten H. Van Emden

2006-01-01

409

Cautiously, Scientists Put Faith in Obama Promise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports that academic researchers are optimistic that President Barack Obama's approach to science heralds a new era of support for their work. When Mr. Obama named his top science and technology advisers only weeks after being elected, many scientists celebrated. After eight years of an administration that many academics believed…

Field, Kelly

2009-01-01

410

The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

Crew, Robert E., Jr.

2011-01-01

411

Citizen Scientists: Investigating Science in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Citizen science programs are becoming increasingly popular among teachers, students, and families. The term "citizen scientist" has various definitions. It can refer to those who gather information for a particular science research study or to people who lobby for environmental protection for their communities. "Citizen science" has been called…

Jones, Gail; Childers, Gina; Stevens, Vanessa; Whitley, Blake

2012-01-01

412

Agricultural scientists cut alcohol fuel costs  

SciTech Connect

The cost of making alcohol from corn has been cut 15 cents by U.S. Dept. of Agriculture scientists, lowering the price to $1.64 per gallon. Reuse of distillery water resulted in recovery of protein by products that can be used as swine and poultry feeds, and as human food.

Not Available

1981-09-21

413

Will the Political Scientist Fill the Void?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political science has not demonstrated the abil ity to develop new concepts and to receive new ideas that the physical sciences have. The moment in history has arrived at which it is necessary for the survival of human civilization for political scientists to seek and to find a new and relevant approach to the situations which have taken the nations

Paul W. Walter

1961-01-01

414

Scientists Report Advance in Understanding Steroid Receptors  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have long known that proteins called steroid receptors play a critical role in switching on hormone-responsive genes. What has been unclear is how these proteins orchestrate the process, a key issue in learning to control genes activated by steroid hormones such as androgen and estrogen.

415

Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives on Test Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of this book is on the way professionals use and make sense of test assessment data in their counseling. The book is oriented specifically toward those training to be psychologists or counselors, especially those interested in a scientist-practitioner orientation to clinical practice. Each of the chapters presents a perspective on test…

Lichtenberg, James W., Ed.; Goodyear, Rodney K., Ed.

416

Getting to Yes: Supporting Scientists in Education and Public Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research scientists are busy people, with many demands on their time and few institutional rewards for engagement in education and public outreach (EPO). However, scientist involvement in education has been called for by funding agencies, education researchers and the scientific organizations. In support of this idea, educators consistently rate interaction with scientists as the most meaningful element of an outreach project. What factors help scientists become engaged in EPO, and why do scientists stay engaged? This presentation describes the research-based motivations and barriers for scientists to be engaged in EPO, presents strategies for overcoming barriers, and describes elements of EPO that encourage and support scientist engagement.

Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; Smith, L. K.

2011-12-01

417

Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

2009-01-01

418

Problem Solving about Problem Solving: Framing a Research Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to provide teachers with support for the improvement of computer-based problem solving, this paper considers the following research questions--and provides answers--about how to teach students problem solving and how to design training courses for teachers: (1) What are the teachers' and researchers' assumptions about the relation…

Marshall, Gail

419

The Mysterious Death: An HPLC Lab Experiment. An Undergraduate Forensic Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment based on the separation of four prescription drugs (disopyramide, lidocaine, procainamide, and quinidine) is presented. The experiment is set within the forensic science context of the discovery of a patient's mysterious death where a drug overdose is suspected. Each lab group…

Beussman, Douglas J.

2007-01-01

420

Identifying the Source of Mystery Waterborne Oil Spills—A Case for Quantitative Chemical Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil spills of unknown origin, so-called “mystery” spills, occur routinely in rivers, open water, and navigable coastal waterways. The natural resources damage (NRD) liability associated with even a small volume of oil released into the environment warrants that a thorough chemical characterization of the spilled oil be conducted by agencies and potentially responsible parties (PRPs). Chemical fingerprinting methods have played

Scott A. Stout; Gregory S. Douglas; Allen D. Uhler; Kevin J. McCarthy; Stephen D. Emsbo-Mattingly

2005-01-01

421

More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where do rotten apples go after they fall off the tree? Does the temperature of the wood affect the heat of the fire? Can you make water boil faster? How large a mirror do you need to see your whole body? This second volume of 15 mystery stories examines

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-06-25

422

An Unsuitable Job for a Librarian? Collection Development of Mystery and Detective Fiction in Academic Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mystery and detective fiction, once considered inappropriate for an academic library collection, has gained increasing respect in recent years. This paper traces the development of the genre, highlighting its parallels wih the development of the novel form. It also examines the changing critical opinion of the genre, explores the increasing rejection of the categorization of these works, provides evidence of

Gina R. Overcash

1993-01-01

423

Change and Mystery: The Grist of How's and Why's in Inquiry Indicator Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this activity, students mix mystery chemicals in a freezer bag to produce reactions that are unexpected. As a result, one chemical seems to disappear, the bag expands, and then the bag turns hot and cold. Participants then ask questions and design their own activities to answer their self-generated questions. The research cycle continues until…

Schlenker, Richard M.; Petrichenko, Oksana Y.

2006-01-01

424

From the Big Bang to the End of the Universe: The Mysteries of Deep Space Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS presents a timeline of the universe from the Big Bang to the future. This interactive website offers concise introductions to many of the key developments of the universe including the formation of elements, the earliest life forms, the evolution of life, and the dark era. The Mysteries of Deep Space series also offers lessons for educators and a trivia challenge.

2007-12-11

425

The near-death experience: An ancient truth, a modern mystery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The near-death experience (NDE), as an experience of whole-ness, an adventure in consciousness, and a metaphoric encounter with light, links theoretical physics with the occult, the Primordial Tradition, and various religious belief systems. Light as image, vehicle, and first cause ties the NDE to mystical experience. Where science sees mystery, religion sees metaphoric truth; the NDE as spiritual quest and

Elizabeth W. Fenske

1990-01-01

426

The Mystery of Marijuana: Science and the U.S. War on Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mystery of why marijuana is so severely repressed by law enforcement should be especially humbling for public health researchers in the United States and for the field of science studies more broadly. It demonstrates the need for putting institutional power politics and the social construction of reality into the center of our analysis of drugs. It also drills home

Philippe Bourgois

2008-01-01

427

Biochemical Society Award Lecture The mystery of intracellular developmental programmes and timers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a revolution in understanding animal develop- ment in the last 25 years or so, but there is at least one area of development that has been relatively neglected and therefore remains largely mysterious. This is the intracellular programmes and timers that run in developing precursor cells and change the cells over time. The molecular mechanisms underlying these

M. Raff

428

Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

2012-01-01

429

The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis of an informal education activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13 [1]. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held at several Science Festival in Italy (Perugia, Genova, Fiorano, Bologna) obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives incharge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherdmoons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and water, represented by simple objects like apples, spinning tops and so on) to rebuild the rings. The kids can buy the ingredients from different planets: every planet has ingredients in quantities which are proportionate to the real physical properties of that celestial object. After collecting the ingredients, they must carry them to the "The Red Giant" and indicate their best recipe to Mr Schioppanelli. Depending on the recipe, rings can be too strict or too luminous or too fast rotating and so on. The winning group is the one which prepares the best recipe to cook the rings in the smallest amount of time. After introducing this specific (and mysterious) game, we analyze the advantage-disadvantage ratio of such an activity, which is as funny as dispersive [2]. The key expression of the whole activity is, of course, "informal education". But, as a best practice result, we organize also 1 or 2 very simple laboratories about the solar system before playing the game. One of these, called The Olmicomics, allows the pupils to understand the dimensions of the planets with respect to their distances, providing them the correct introduction to "The Lord of Rings". The pupils are simply requested to pone the planets in a correct scale on a map of the city where they live. Then we coherently calculate together dimension of the Solar System planets and the Sun, according to the scale they chose. The second activity provide the pupils hints about the physical properties of the planets, touching the points a)-d) listed above. We believe this two-faces strategy is a quite effective tool for an education suited to our target group. They really do things, touch things, use their own body as a meter to understand distances and physical properties as the gravitational force. In the meanwhile, they are also asked to think about what they are doing, to make calculation and to build a representation of the Solar System by numbers, turning it into a visual representation only after their calculation. And, finally, to play with all these conceipts.

Sandrelli, S.

2011-10-01

430

Genetics inquiry: Strategies and knowledge geneticists use in solving transmission genetics problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists are increasingly challenged to solve problems that require conceptualizing and understanding dynamic complex natural systems. Computer simulations have become an integral tool in helping solve complex problems because they can be effectively used to model dynamic systems. Today's reform standards advocate that science teachers and students be involved in scientific inquiry that is consistent with the practice of science. The goal of this research is to determine methods of inquiry geneticists' use in solving dynamic complex computer-generated transmission genetics problems, specifically, their strategies and conceptual knowledge. Six geneticists representing three areas of genetics (transmission, molecular, and population) solved four problem types. Using their solution protocols, and through interviews, a hierarchical framework and pathway for solving the problems were developed. For science education researchers, teachers, and students, it is hoped the geneticists' insights and the framework developed can provide a guide for inquiry-based problem solving that extends beyond genetics.

Thomson, Norman; Stewart, James

2003-03-01

431

Student-as-Scientist and Scientist-as-Student: Changing Models for Learning from Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through a review of the literature, looks at instructional and curricular issues related to the student-as-scientist model and the critical nature of the teacher's role in expanding school science activities to include this model. (SM)|

Cohen, Michael R.; Harper, Edwin T.

1991-01-01

432

SAT-solving in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satisfiability solving, the problem of deciding whether the variables of a propositional formula can be assigned in such a way that the formula evaluates to true, is one of the classic problems in computer science. It is of theoretical interest because it is the canonical NP-complete problem. It is of practical interest because modern SAT-solvers can be used to solve

Koen Claessen; Niklas Een; Mary Sheeran; N. Sorensson

2008-01-01

433

Mathematical Problem Solving by Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed

Laura R. Novick; Keith J. Holyoak

1991-01-01

434

Models of group problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the group problem solving process was investigated with college Ss working on Maier's horse trading problem (1952). 3 theoretical models were posited to be utilized to interpret the results: an independent model (group response will not differ from those of Ss working alone), a rational model (when one group member solves the problem, the group will adopt

Edwin J. Thomas; Clinton F. Fink

1961-01-01

435

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

436

SOLV-DB: Solvents Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of SOLV-DB is to help you find a wide variety of data on solvents quickly and easily, including health and safety data, chemical and physical data, regulatory responsibilities, and environmental fate information. SOLV-DB is maintained by the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences and is considered a "one-stop source for solvents data."

2008-08-27

437

Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in…

Lacy, Grace

438

Context Effects on Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context effects on problem solving demonstrated so far in the literature are the result of systematic manipulation of some supposedly irrelevant to the solution elements of the problem description. Little attention has been paid to the role of casual entities in the environment which are not part of the problem description, but which might influence the problem solving process. The

Boicho Kokinov; Marina Yoveva

1996-01-01

439

Solving projective complete intersection faster  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method for solving square polynomial systems with no zero at infinity. We analyze its complexity, which indicates substantial improvements, compared with the previously known methods for solving such systems. We describe a framework for symbolic and numeric computations, developed in C++, in which we have implemented this algorithm. We mention the techniques that

Bernard Mourrain; Philippe Trebuchet

2000-01-01

440

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)|

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

441

Resolving a zoological mystery: the kouprey is a real species.  

PubMed

The kouprey is a rare and enigmatic forest ox discovered by scientists in Cambodia only in 1937. Numerous morphological hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the kouprey: that it is a species closely related to banteng and gaur, two other wild oxen of southeast Asia; a morphologically divergent species placed in a separate genus, named Novibos; a wild species linked to aurochs and domestic cattle; a vicariant population of banteng; a feral cattle; or a hybrid of banteng with either zebu cattle, gaur or water buffalo. In a recent paper, which gained a lot of media coverage, Galbreath et al. analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences and concluded that the kouprey never existed as a wild, natural species, and that it was a feral hybrid between banteng and zebu cattle. Here we analyse eight DNA markers-three mitochondrial regions and five nuclear fragments-representing an alignment of 4582 nucleotides for the holotype of the kouprey and all related species. Our results demonstrate that the kouprey is a real and naturally occurring species, and show that Cambodian populations of banteng acquired a mitochondrial genome of kouprey by natural introgressive hybridization during the Pleistocene epoch. PMID:17848372

Hassanin, Alexandre; Ropiquet, Anne

2007-11-22

442

Diplomat tells climate scientists to speak out  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former Canadian Ambassador to the United Nations Stephen Lewis challenged scientists at a climate change conference to “move from dispassionate observation to passionate advocacy” and make their views on the threat posed by greenhouse warming known to fellow citizens and political leaders.Lewis, who chaired a multinational conference on climate change last June in Toronto, delivered a principal address December 7 in Washington, D.C., to the Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change. The conference was sponsored by the Climate Institute, an international environmental organization composed of scientists and policymakers. After retiring from the Canadian government last summer, Lewis became a special assistant on Africa to the U.N. Secretary-General, Javier Perez de Cuellar.

Maggs, William Ward

443

Federation of American Scientists: WMD Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a non-profit organization founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists. The founders "were members of the Manhattan Project, creators of the atom bomb and deeply concerned about the implications of its use for the future of humankind." Although not as sleek a design as the main website for FAS, this website has a wealth of information on nuclear resources, with particular emphasis on the now common household term, WMD. From this website, visitors can read the Special Weapons Primer for an introduction to special weapons, research arms control agreements, review the "global guide to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, including information on delivery systems, doctrine, organizations and facilities," read up on Richard L. Garwin, the famous weapons designer, learn about the history and technology of space nuclear propulsion, or explore numerous other links.

444

Reflections on physical chemistry: Science and scientists.  

PubMed

This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. PMID:16599803

Jortner, Joshua

2006-01-01

445

The flip side: scientists who rock.  

PubMed

Many scientists play music. I'm one. I'm the rhythm guitar player, song writer, and singer in The Amygdaloids. We play original music about mind and brain and mental disorders. The songs are inspired by research that I do, as well as general ideas in the brain and cognitive sciences, and the philosophy of mind. For me, playing music is not a distraction to other life obligations. It makes me better at everything else I do. PMID:21665517

Ledoux, Joseph

2011-06-12

446

OceanLink: Ask A Marine Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site is dedicated to ocean education. You will find all kinds of interesting information about things like: the biggest sea animals, marine biology careers, answers to common ocean and animal questions, and more. Check the Answer Archive for answers to your marine science questions, and if you do not find your answer, ask one of their scientists. Site also includes ocean news, world records, and information on summer camps.

447

Station Program Scientist Talks With Students  

NASA Video Gallery

From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Dr. Tara Ruttley, ISS Program Scientist, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Clark Creek STEM Academy in Acworth, Ga. The DLN connects students and teachers with NASA experts and education specialists using online communication technologies like video/web conferencing and webcasting. Register for free, interactive events listed in the catalog or watch the webcasts.

Gerald T Wright

2013-01-09

448

Solar Mystery Nears Solution with Data from SOHO Spacecraft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recent images taken by instruments aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) show a transfer of magnetic energy from the Sun's surface to the corona. This "magnetic carpet" may solve the 55 year old riddle of why the corona is so much hotter than the surface. The SOI Investigation site is maintained by the Solar Oscillations Investigations group at Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysic Laboratory and Stanford University. The site contains links to the full text of the press release from November 5, 1997 by the Goddard Space Flight Center which controls the spacecraft. It also contains QuickTime movies and still images, and offers explanatory text. Background information, authors and contacts for further information on SOHO are available.

1997-01-01

449

WBCSim: A Prototype Problem Solving Environment for Wood-Based Composites Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a computing environment named WBCSim that is intended to increase the productivity of wood scientists conducting research on wood-based composite materials. WBCSim integrates Fortran 77-based simulation codes with a graphical front end, an optimization tool, and a visualization tool. WBCSim serves as a prototype for the design, construction, and evaluation of larger scale problem solving (computing) environments.

Amit Goel; Constantinos Phanouriou; Frederick A. Kamke; Calvin J. Ribbens; Clifford A. Shaffer; Layne T. Watson

1999-01-01

450

Determining the Effectiveness of Prompts for Self-Regulated Learning in Problem-Solving Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive scientists have studied internal cognitive structures, processes, and systems for decades in order to understand how they function in human learning. In order to solve challenging tasks in problem situations, learners not only have to perform cognitive activities, e.g., activating existing cognitive structures or organizing new…

Ifenthaler, Dirk

2012-01-01

451

VLBA Tracks Ejected Material From Mysterious X-Ray Nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope show the mysterious X-ray nova in Scorpius as it ejected blobs of material at tremendous speeds over the period from August 18 to September 22, 1994. Some of these blobs appear to be moving faster than the speed of light -- an illusion created by both the great actual speed of the blobs and their direction of travel with relation to the Earth. This object was discovered by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and given the name GRO J1655-40 on July 27, 1994, and has been observed both with the Very Large Array (VLA) and the VLBA. The great resolving power of the VLBA, demonstrated by these images, has allowed astronomers to track individual blobs as they move away from the object's core. The VLBA and VLA are funded by the National Science Foundation. The VLBA observations were made by Robert Hjellming and Michael Rupen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. There are two renditions of these images -- a pseudocolor version and a black-and-white contour map with annotations. Both renditions are combinations of VLBA images made at different times. In these combinations, earlier images are higher and later images are lower. The vertical spacing of the images indicates the relative time spacing between the images. The radio core of the X-ray nova is the bright object at the center of each image. The B&W image contains the date of observation for each image. The vertical line indicates the core, while the sloping lines connect separate observations of individual blobs. The numbers in these lines indicate the motion across the sky (proper motion) of each blob, indicated in milliarcseconds (mas) per day. At the distance of this object, about 10,000 light- years, proper motion of about 50 milliarcseconds per day corresponds to the speed of light. The apparent speeds of the blobs range from less than half the speed of light to 130 percent of light speed. The blobs are not actually moving faster than light, but are moving at speeds approaching that of light, which travels at 186,000 miles per second. The great differences in speed among the blobs and the detailed structure seen in the VLBA images are tantalizing to astronomers. The VLBA images of GRO J1655-40 are the first ever seen at such great detail for a galactic relativistic jet. GRO J1655-40 is thought to be a double-star system with a superdense neutron star or black hole as one of the pair. Astronomers believe that, in systems like this, the central object (the neutron star or black hole) is pulling material from its more- normal companion star. This material, drawn by the strong gravitational attraction of the central object, forms a disk of material orbiting that object. Such disks, called accretion disks, give rise to a variety of phenomena, most of which are poorly understood. Heating of the material within the accretion disk is thought to be the cause of X-ray emission from the system. The accretion disk also is thought to generate jets of subatomic particles ejected at great speeds roughly along the polar axis of the rotating disk. In outbursts, heavier concentrations of particles are ejected and the interaction of these ejected particles with internal magnetic fields produces the strong radio emission detected by radio telescopes. GRO J1655-40 is the second such powerful object discovered within our own Milky Way Galaxy. The first, called GRS 1915+105, was discovered in 1994 by researchers using NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. GRO J1655-40 is closer to Earth that the other object and its behavior is much more complicated, making interpretation of the observations more difficult and scientifically more interesting. Jets of material moving at speeds nearly that of light, such as seen in GRO J1655-40, are seen in distant galaxies and in far- distant quasars. Those jets are believed to be produced by accretion disks surrounding black holes. The black holes in radio galaxies and quasars, however, are millions of times more massive than the sun, while the two objects within the Milk

1995-01-01

452

Partnering With Scientists To Increase the Visibility and Use of Published Global Climate Change Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific journal articles are notoriously difficult for non-scientists or scientists outside a specialty to comprehend. Yet in societally relevant fields such as global climate change, there is an urgent need to make the published results of scientific research more accessible and useable to a broad audience. NOAA's World Data for Paleoclimatology attempts to meet this need using the Internet to distribute raw data and information products from scientific publications. The Data Center creates "What's New" pages highlighting data from recent publications, along with descriptions and ancillary information such as photographs. The Data Center also authors a "Climate TimeLine", online slide sets and photo gallery, and "Paleo Perspectives" web pages that describe the broader significance of scientific research, and how the data are used to improve our understanding of global warming, drought, and climate change. With the goal to inform and engage, the Climate Time Line provides interactive activities, and information that can be integrated into the classroom. The approach benefits a diverse audience by demystifying climate science and making it more accessible, and benefits scientists by increasing the visibility and use of scientists' published data. The success of the approach can be seen in web site user statistics and comments, and numerous awards for providing valuable information via the Internet. To solve the challenge of simplifying complex scientific problems while maintaining the accuracy and integrity of the scientific information, the World Data Center works closely with scientists who contribute the data. Underlying the effort are the hundreds of scientists who have contributed their data to the World Data Center, and reviewed and edited the online extensions of their research.

Schmidt, L. J.; Scott, M.; Geiger-Wooten, N.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Anderson, D. M.; Eakin, C. M.

2003-12-01

453

The Virtual Scientist: connecting university scientists to the K-12 classroom through videoconferencing.  

PubMed

The Vanderbilt University Center for Science Outreach (CSO) connects university scientists to the K-12 community to enhance and improve science education. The Virtual Scientist program utilizes interactive videoconference (IVC) to facilitate this connection, providing 40-50 sessions per academic year to a national audience. Scientists, defined as research faculty members, clinicians, postdoctoral fellows, graduate and medical students, and professional staff, participate through conventional volunteer recruitment and program announcements as well as outreach partnership efforts with other Vanderbilt centers. These experts present 30- to 45-min long, grade-appropriate content sessions from the CSO IVC studio or their own laboratory. Teachers register for sessions via an on-line application process. After the session, teachers, students, and experts are requested to complete an anonymous on-line evaluation that addresses both technical- and content-associated issues. Results from 2003 to the present indicated a favorable assessment for a promising program. Results showed that 69% of students (n = 335) and 88% of teachers (n = 111) felt that IVC improved access to scientists, whereas 97% of students (n = 382) and teachers (n = 126) and 100% of scientists (n = 23) indicated that they would participate in future videoconferences. Students and teachers considered that the Virtual Scientist program was effective [76% (n = 381) and 89% (n = 127), respectively]. In addition, experts supported IVC as effective in teaching [87% (n = 23)]. Because of the favorable responses from experts, teachers, and students, the CSO will continue to implement IVC as a tool to foster interactions of scientists with K-12 classrooms. PMID:17327585

McCombs, Glenn B; Ufnar, Jennifer A; Shepherd, Virginia L

2007-03-01

454

Death of honeybees continues to baffle scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mysterious disorder puts S.D. bees at riskhttp://www.argusleader.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/NEWS/705150301/1001Queen Bees-In Hive or Castle, Duty Without Powerhttp://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/science/15angi.htmlAre mobile phones wiping out our bees?http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/wildlife/article2449968.eceYou've saved whales and dolphins-now save the beeshttp://www.nashuatelegraph.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/COLUMNISTS26/70515009/-1/opinionNature: Bee Anatomy [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/alienempire/multimedia/bee.htmlThe Beekeeping Portalhttp://www.beekeeping.org/Apiarists throughout the United States and the rest of the world have been asking one pressing question over the past several months: What is killing millions of honeybees? A number of theories have been proposed as of late, and the mysterious ailment known as colony collapse disorder is something that is puzzling both entomologists and those who derive their livelihood from honeybee-related activities. Bees have been leaving the hive and never returning, so researchers can't perform necropsies in many cases. While some people may just associate honeybees with their most popular product, namely honey, these tiny creatures are also responsible for pollinating over ninety different crops, including almonds, apples, cranberries, watermelon, and cucumbers. One potential explanation that has been advanced is that extensive radiation from mobile phones could be interfering with bees' navigation systems. An apiarist in South Dakota, Brad Folsand, remarked that "You always lose a few, maybe 10 percent or something like that. But there are guys who have lost 90 percent in some places." Apiculturists from the University of Illinois to the University of California, Davis are continuing to research this vexing situation, and it is hoped that they will be able to get the bottom of the situation in the near future. The first link will take users to a piece from this Tuesday's News-Herald about the difficult situation faced by beekeepers in northeast Ohio. Moving along, the second link leads to a similar story from the Sioux Falls Argus Leader. The third link will take users to a nice piece of science reporting from this Tuesday's New York Times about the world of the queen bee. The forth link leads to an article from the Independent which talks about the potential link between these recent honeybee deaths and mobile phones. The fifth link leads to a passionate editorial from the Nashua Telegraph's own Mike Morin about the importance of saving the honeybee population. The sixth link leads to a great interactive feature from the Nature program that provides details about the bee's anatomy, from the stinger all the way up to the antennae. Finally, the last link leads to the very exhaustive and interesting Virtual Beekeeping Gallery, which contains information on bee-keeping equipment, related associations, laboratories, and so on.

2007-01-01

455

Women Life Scientists: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increase student's exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach and problem-solving science activities, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. Each module contains a brief biography of a female science role model and hands-on, inquiry approach, and/or problem-solving life sciences activities with a multidisciplinary focus. Modules drop easily into middle and high school life sciences curricula. The book may be purchased from the American Physiological Society or the individual chapters may be downloaded for free from the Archive. To access all of the chapters, click the "All in This Collection" link to the left.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

2007-01-01

456

Problem Solving in Teaching Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter from the dissertation "Education About and Through Technology: In Search of More Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches to Technology Education" explores the importance and nature of problem solving in technology.

Esa-Matti Jarvinen (University of Oulu)

2012-01-16

457

Research on Problem Solving: Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a very detailed and comprehensive review of the extensive literature in education and cognitive science on the use of physics problems as a context for examining cognitive processes and approaches to problem solving.

Maloney, David

2006-06-19

458

Solving Trade Discount Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

Nunenkamp, David; Coonce, Carol

2008-01-01

459

CMED SCIENTIST DATABASE (INTERNET) HTTP://PELICAN.GMPO.GOV/GMNET  

EPA Science Inventory

The Consortium for Marine and Estuarine Disease Research (CMED) scientist database provides a directory of experts in the field. Data for each scientist includes name, address, email address, phone number, fax number, web page, professional environment, expertise and disciplinary...

460

SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

461

Science 101: What writing represents what scientists actually do?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article addresses whether or not a report based on scientific method accurately represents what scientists do as well as what kind of writing scientists engage in that goes beyond the reporting of conclusions.

Robertson, William C.

2005-11-01

462

Potentially harmful side-effects: medically unexplained symptoms, somatization, and the insufficient illness narrative for viewers of mystery diagnosis.  

PubMed

Illness narrative has often been found to play a positive role in both patients' and providers' efforts to find meaning in the illness experience. However, illness narrative can sometimes become counterproductive, even pathological, particularly in cases of medical mystery-cases wherein biopsychosocial factors blur the distinction between bodily dysfunction and somatizing behavior. In this article, the author draws attention to two examples of medical mystery, the clinical presentation of medically unexplained symptoms, and the popular reality television program Mystery Diagnosis, to demonstrate the potentially harmful effects of illness narrative. The medical mystery's complex narrative structure reflects and tends to reinforce providers' and patients' mistaken assumptions, anxieties, and conflicts in ways which obstruct, rather than facilitate, healing. PMID:23740408

Farkas, Carol-Ann

2013-09-01

463

Mars Express scientists find a different Mars underneath the surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations by MARSIS, the first subsurface sounding radar used to explore a planet, strongly suggest that ancient impact craters lie buried beneath the smooth, low plains of Mars' northern hemisphere. The technique uses echoes of radio waves that have penetrated below the surface. MARSIS found evidence that these buried impact craters - ranging from about 130 to 470 kilometres in diameter - are present under much of the northern lowlands. The findings appear in the 14 December 2006 issue of the journal Nature. With MARSIS "it's almost like having X-ray vision," said Thomas R. Watters of the National Air and Space Museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, and lead author of the results. "Besides finding previously unknown impact basins, we've also confirmed that some subtle, roughly circular, topographic depressions in the lowlands are related to impact features." Studies of how Mars evolved help in understanding early Earth. Some signs of the forces at work a few thousand million years ago are harder to detect on Earth because many of them have been obliterated by tectonic activity and erosion. The new findings bring planetary scientists closer to understanding one of the most enduring mysteries about the geological evolution and history of Mars. In contrast to Earth, Mars shows a striking difference between its northern and southern hemispheres. Almost the entire southern hemisphere has rough, heavily cratered highlands, while most of the northern hemisphere is smoother and lower in elevation. Since the impacts that cause craters can happen anywhere on a planet, the areas with fewer craters are generally interpreted as younger surfaces where geological processes have erased the impact scars. The surface of Mars' northern plains is young and smooth, covered by vast amounts of volcanic lava and sediment. However, the new MARSIS data indicate that the underlying crust is extremely old. “The number of buried impact craters larger than 200 kilometres in diameter that we have found with MARSIS,” said Jeffrey Plaut, MARSIS co-Principal Investigator, from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California, “tells us that the underlying crust in the northern lowlands must be very ancient, dating to the Early Noachian epoch (lasting from the planet's birth to about 4 thousand million years ago).” The Early Noachian was an era in which impact cratering was very intense across the Solar System. The results suggest that the crust of the northern lowlands is as old as the oldest exposed southern highlands, also dated to the Noachian epoch, and that the dichotomy between northern and southern hemispheres probably formed very early in the history of Mars. “These results are truly interesting and unprecedented,” added Giovanni Picardi. “MARSIS can contribute to understanding of the geology of Mars through analysis of the surface and subsurface morphology. In addition, from detailed analysis of the instrument’s data, we can obtain valuable information about the composition of the materials.” Note to editors The findings appear in the 14 December 2006 issue of the journal Nature, in the letter headed: “MARSIS radar sounder evidence of buried basins in the northern lowlands of Mars”, by T.R. Watters (National Air and Space Museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, USA), C.J. Leuschen (Center for Remote Sensing of Ice-sheets, Univ. of Kansas, USA), J.J. Plaut, A. Safaenili and A.B. Ivanov (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CA, USA), G. Picardi (Infocom Dept., Univ. of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Italy), S.M. Clifford (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Texas, USA), W.M. Farrell (NASA/GSFC, Maryland, USA), R.J. Phillips (Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington Univ., Missouri, USA), and E.R. Stofan (Proxemy Research, Maryland, USA). The MARSIS instrument was developed in the framework of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It was developed by Alenia Spazio under ASI management and the scientific supervision of the University of Rome

2006-12-01

464

Register allocation by puzzle solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that register allocation can be viewed as solving a collection of puzzles. We model the register file as a puzzle board and the program variables as puzzle pieces; pre-coloring and register aliasing fit in naturally. For architectures such as PowerPC, x86, and StrongARM, we can solve the puzzles in polynomial time, and we have augmented the puzzle solver

Fernando Magno Quintão Pereira; Jens Palsberg

2008-01-01

465

Register allocation by puzzle solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that register allocation can be viewed as solving a collec- tion of puzzles. We model the register file as a puzzle board and the program variables as puzzle pieces; pre-coloring and register aliasing fit in naturally. For architectures such as PowerPC, x86, and StrongARM, we can solve the puzzles in polynomial time, and we have augmented the puzzle

Fernando Magno Quintão Pereira; Jens Palsberg

2008-01-01

466

Polar Stratospheric Clouds from SOLVE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Polar stratospheric clouds form at extremely low temperatures in the upper atmosphere. Should the temperature rise, clouds wont form. In this visualization, sequential temperature readings taken in the research area for SOLVE (Stratospheric Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment) are plotted against a threshold temperature for PSC formation. These are clouds essentially made of nitric acid. Note how the area covered by the clouds increases as winter progresses. The red point on the map indicates the location of Kiruna, Sweden, the SOLVE staging area.

Fekete, George; Newman, Paul

2000-05-30

467

Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing investment is still busy with public safety work. Some problems arise within existing scientific teams; others are brought on by visiting scientists. Friction can also arise between volcanologists and public officials. Two general measures may avert or reduce friction: (a) National volcanologic surveys and other scientific groups that advise civil authorities in times of volcanic crisis should prepare, in advance of crises, a written plan that details crisis team policies, procedures, leadership and other roles of team members, and other matters pertinent to crisis conduct. A copy of this plan should be given to all current and prospective team members. (b) Each participant in a crisis team should examine his or her own actions and contribution to the crisis effort. A personal checklist is provided to aid this examination. Questions fall generally in two categories: Are my presence and actions for the public good? Are my words and actions collegial, i.e., courteous, respectful, and fair? Numerous specific solutions to common crisis problems are also offered. Among these suggestions are: (a) choose scientific team leaders primarily for their leadership skills; (b) speak publicly with a single scientific voice, especially when forecasts, warnings, or scientific disagreements are involved; (c) if you are a would-be visitor, inquire from the primary scientific team whether your help would be welcomed, and, in general, proceed only if the reply is genuinely positive; (d) in publications, personnel evaluations, and funding, reward rather than discourage teamwork. Models are available from the fields of particle physics and human genetics, among others.

IAVCEI Subcommittee for Crisis Protocols; Newhall, Chris; Aramaki, Shigeo; Barberi, Franco; Blong, Russell; Calvache, Marta; Cheminee, Jean-Louis; Punongbayan, Raymundo; Siebe, Claus; Simkin, Tom; Sparks, Stephen; Tjetjep, Barry; Newhall, Chris

468

Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices and Perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers – data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data management principles.

Tenopir, Carol; Allard, Suzie; Douglass, Kimberly; Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Wu, Lei; Read, Eleanor; Manoff, Maribeth; Frame, Mike

2011-01-01

469

Airborne scientists begin Ohio acid rain study  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric scientists spent June flying through storm clouds over Ohio to collect rain and air samples to better understand rain chemistry, the conditions that cause acid rain and methods for controlling it. The authors will be collecting samples in the Columbus, Ohio area because many of the materials suspected of causing acid rain, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen peroxide, can be found in this vicinity. The study is part of the US Department of the Energy's Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation program (PRECP).

Not Available

1987-08-01

470

Non-natives: 141 scientists object  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementary information to:\\u000aNon-natives: 141 scientists object\\u000aFull list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038\\/475036a.\\u000aDaniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee,\\u000aUSA.\\u000adsimberloff@utk.edu\\u000aJake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland.\\u000aFred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA.\\u000aJames Aronson CEFE\\/CNRS, Montpellier, France.\\u000aPedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie,

Daniel Simberloff; W. H. Van der Putten

2011-01-01

471

Scientists Interacting With University Science Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists with limited time to devote to educating the public about their work will get the greatest multiplier effect for their investment of time by successfully interacting with university science educators. These university professors are the smallest and least publicized group of professionals in the chain of people working to create science literate citizens. They connect to all aspects of formal and informal education, influencing everything from what and how youngsters and adults learn science to legislative rulings. They commonly teach methods of teaching science to undergraduates aspiring to teach in K-12 settings and experienced teachers. They serve as agents for change to improve science education inside schools and at the state level K-16, including what science content courses are acceptable for teacher licensure. University science educators are most often housed in a College of Education or Department of Education. Significant differences in culture exist in the world in which marine scientists function and that in which university science educators function, even when they are in the same university. Subsequently, communication and building relationships between the groups is often difficult. Barriers stem from not understanding each other's roles and responsibilities; and different reward systems, assumptions about teaching and learning, use of language, approaches to research, etc. This presentation will provide suggestions to mitigate the barriers and enable scientists to leverage the multiplier effect saving much time and energy while ensuring the authenticity of their message is maintained. Likelihood that a scientist's message will retain its authenticity stems from criteria for a university science education position. These professors have undergraduate degrees in a natural science (e.g., biology, chemistry, physics, geology), and usually a master's degree in one of the sciences, a combination of natural sciences, or a master's including about eighteen hours in a natural science. Their doctorates in science education include in-depth understanding of how people construct basic science concepts and ways to mitigate conceptions not consistent with current science. They have learned ways to transform scientific information to various audiences enabling learners to construct meaningful understanding of science phenomena, the nature of science, and its historical and philosophical underpinnings. Lessons learned from current and past innovations will be presented.

Spector, B. S.

2004-12-01

472

Support for Synchrotron Access by Environmental Scientists  

SciTech Connect

To support ERSP-funded scientists in all aspects of synchrotron-based research at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This support comes in one or more of the following forms: (1) writing proposals to the APS General User (GU) program, (2) providing time at MRCAT/EnviroCAT beamlines via the membership of the Molecular Environmental Science (MES) Group in MRCAT/EnviroCAT, (3) assistance in experimental design and sample preparation, (4) support at the beamline during the synchrotron experiment, (5) analysis and interpretation of the synchrotron data, and (6) integration of synchrotron experimental results into manuscripts.

Daly, Michael; Madden, Andrew; Palumbo, Anthony; Qafoku, N.

2006-06-01

473

Scientists find mutation driving pediatric brain tumors  

Cancer.gov

A type of low-grade but sometimes lethal brain tumor in children has been found in many cases to contain an unusual mutation that may help to classify, diagnose and guide the treatment of the tumors, report scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. The researchers led a study of pediatric low-grade gliomas, samples of which were collected through an international consortium organized by brain tumor specialists at Dana-Farber/Children’s Hospital Cancer Center. Their findings are being published online by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) the week of April 29.

474

Scientists conduct largest coastal experiment on record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duck, N.C.—Something out of the ordinary has been happening near this quiet, resort town on the Outer Banks. More than 100 coastal scientists, students, and technicians have descended on the Army Corps of Engineer's Waterways Experiment Station primarily to study movement of sediment in the surf zone. In fact, a large percentage of the U.S. near-shore research community has flooded the Duck area to execute the largest coastal experiment ever undertaken. The researchers have brought with them more than 80 computers and an array of exotic gadgets to carry out “DUCK94,” an unprecedented project that has been three years in the making.

Wakefield, Julie

475

Federation of American Scientists: Intelligence Resource Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1945 by members of the Manhattan Project, the main commitment of the Federation of American Scientists is to end "the worldwide arms race." This section of its Web site has extensive information about US and international intelligence resources and the threat of terrorism, many of which are technology related. For example, chemical and biological weapons are discussed in several documents. There are also cryptographic and security systems highlighted, as well as overviews of classified aircraft. A wide assortment of news articles, government reports, and official documents are provided, including a recent report about "the acquisition of technology relating to weapons of mass destruction."

2002-01-01

476

Herbert A. Simon as a Cyborg Scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how Herbert Simon's initial interest in decision making became transformed into a focus on understanding human problem solving in response to the concrete conditions of the Cold War and the practical goals of the military.In particular, it suggests a connection between the seachange in Simon's interest and his shift in patronage.As a result, Simon is portrayed as

Esther-Mirjam Sent

2000-01-01

477

Unlocking the Mysteries: Science on the Edge of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Discovery Program wants students to design their own mission to explore the Solar System. Based on the award-winning video, Unlocking the Mysteries, this activity takes students along on NASA's Discovery missions and encourages them to think about the mysteries they want to explore. Through in-depth research and experimentation, students become experts about a single mission and present their findings to the class. Students learn the different skills and abilities needed to design a mission and achieve its goals as they work together to develop detailed proposals for the next generation of robotic space missions. This education module contains a teachers guide, supporting materials, and a list of Internet resources, which includes 10 additional activities, one from each Discovery mission.

2011-01-13

478

Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.  

PubMed

Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

2002-01-30

479

Young children's perceptions of science and the scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Draw?a?Scientist?Test was done by 1143 children between the ages of 4 + and 11 + years. Attributes of the scientists and the backgrounds were recorded for each year group and compared one with another and with the drawings of a control group. There was evidence of a stereotypical image of the scientist as early as six years of age.

Douglas P. Newton; Lynn D. Newton

1992-01-01

480

Reaching Out to the Next Generation of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for research scientists to come out of their labs and establish links with communities and the need for scientists of color who can better gain access to the communities most often affected by problems such as environmental hazards. Describes ways to encourage this reaching out and breaking of stereotypes about scientists among…

Claudio, Luz

2001-01-01

481

Editor's Note: Scientists at Work in Earth Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working with outside resources almost always strengthens our classrooms. Whether it is taking a trip to a university lab or inviting scientists in, excitement builds as students experience the world of scientists. Whether partnering with scientists or not, we hope this issue helps you get your students motivated about science--hands-on or out in the field.

Ohana, Chris

2009-04-01

482

Researchers Dispute Notion that America Lacks Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers who track the American labor market told Congress last week that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the United States has more than enough scientists and engineers and that federal agencies and universities should reform the way they train young scientists to better match the supply of scientists with the demand for researchers. At a…

Monastersky, Richard

2007-01-01

483

Pathfinder: an online collaboration environment for citizen scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over a century, citizen scientists have volunteered to collect huge quantities of data for professional scientists to analyze. We designed Pathfinder, an online environment that challenges this traditional division of labor by providing tools for citizen scientists to collaboratively discuss and analyze the data they collect. We evaluated Pathfinder in a sustainability and commuting context using a mixed methods

Kurt Luther; Scott Counts; Kristin B. Stecher; Aaron Hoff; Paul Johns

2009-01-01

484

Making Waves--When Scientists Work with Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists and educators working with the South East Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEACOOS) have teamed together to develop a poster and website to introduce teachers and precollege students to ocean waves. This poster and website present examples of ocean wave data collected by moored buoys and offer explanations and graphical examples of the complex terminology scientists use to describe ocean waves and sea swells. A key component of this outreach effort is the ocean wave data collected by the moored buoys of the National Weather Service (NWS) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and affiliated SEACOOS partners. This data is displayed on the NDBC web site (www.ndbc.noaa.gov) after passing through a series of quality control checks. The NDBC web site displays information detailing wave height, direction, period, and steepness with additional data collected on sea swell height and period. This data is then displayed on the NDBC website on a real-time basis or users can request archived data for specific time periods and create graphs to illustrate the information. The NDBC and SEACOOS (www.seacoos.org) websites offer an expansive information source free of charge to the public. Teachers can create exciting and interactive learning activities for their students to investigate real-time wave characteristics in extreme weather events, such as hurricanes and nor'easters. However, there is an education and orientation process, which has to take place as understanding the terminology, data, and its wide range of potential applications is not intuitive to novices. To illustrate this point, the meaning of significant wave height is not readily accessible in a majority of general textbooks offering explanations of ocean waves. The technological operations, data algorithms, and deployment methods used to assemble wave information from ocean sensors on buoys, coastal platforms, and coastal radars are typical unknown to most teachers. By exposing teachers and students to in-depth explanations and examples via outreach posters and web exercises, many obstacles can be removed to bring this information into the classroom. This presentation will explore how the topic of waves was chosen, how the team developed, the pitfalls of technical jargon, the evolution of communication, and the eventual design of products. We will highlight how the accurate and interactive scientific application of the data to solving problems can provide relevant examples for student inquiry and how these student experiences in ocean sciences can increase the number of students following this as a career track. Although this is the first effort in developing SEACOOS educational outreach materials, the continuing interaction between scientists and educators through the SEACOOS partnership have allowed new SEACOOS educator-scientist teams to emerge which are setting the stage for a series of collaborations on related ocean science subjects.

Spence, L.; van Cooten, S.

2004-12-01

485

Perceived Fairness of the Mystery Customer Method: Comparing Two Employee Evaluation Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores differences in the perceptions of fairness between two employee evaluation methods: one based on data\\u000a collected using the mystery customer method and the other based on supervisor judgment. Fifty eight female sales clerks filled\\u000a out a questionnaire which assessed their perceptions with respect to the fairness of the two evaluation methods and their\\u000a job satisfaction. Given apparent

Yael Brender-Ilan; Tamar Shultz

2005-01-01

486

Climate Change in Cariaco Basin During the Late Glacial ``Mystery Interval''  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinctive gray clay layer was deposited in Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, between approximately 17.5 and 14.5ka. Its deposition coincides with a poorly-understood period of abrupt climate change during the late glacial termed the ``Mystery Interval'' for the variety of unusual climatic conditions occurring globally during this time. The so-called ``gray layer'' in Cariaco Basin is an unexplained depositional anomaly seen

L. N. Yurco; L. C. Peterson

2009-01-01

487

A Great Basin-wide dry episode during the first half of the Mystery Interval?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of the Big Dry event from 14.9 to 13.8 14Ckyrs in the Lake Estancia New Mexico record suggests that the deglacial Mystery Interval (14.5–12.4 14Ckyrs) has two distinct hydrologic parts in the western USA. During the first, Great Basin Lake Estancia shrank in size and during the second, Great Basin Lake Lahontan reached its largest size. It is

Wallace S. Broecker; David McGee; Kenneth D. Adams; Hai Cheng