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1

Mystery of Easter Island For centuries, scientists have tried to solve the mystery of  

E-print Network

the colossal, multi-ton stone statues of Easter Island traveled up to 11 miles from the quarry where most were documented in a NOVA-National Geo- graphic television special titled Mystery of Easter Island on the banner, have long been closely associated with learning and enlightenment in the Hawaiian culture

Olsen, Stephen L.

2

Solve Medical Mysteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

Miller, Leslie

2007-01-01

3

Solve Medical Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's CSI episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards. This free teaching tool incorporates online games with classroom activities for middle school students. The virtual experiments engage students in analyzing data, interpreting charts and graphs, and drawing conclusions.

Miller, Leslie

2007-11-01

4

Mucus balloons solve an ocean mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some tadpole-sized ocean animals live in houses made of almost the very same stuff that leaks out of your nose when you have a cold. As researchers have just discovered, these mucus houses help solve the mystery of how creatures at the bottom of the ocean get enough food.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-06-09

5

NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus Discovery Is Decades in the Making Scientists from ... of a protein related to the Hepatitis B virus. Their findings, reported in Structure, could lead to ...

6

Lake Baikal deepwater renewal mystery solved Martin Schmid,1  

E-print Network

Lake Baikal deepwater renewal mystery solved Martin Schmid,1 Nikolay M. Budnev,2 Nick G. Granin,3 in Lake Baikal is very effective despite the enormous depth of up to 1642 m and the permanently stable stratification below $300 m depth. Temperature time series recorded at the bottom of a mooring installed since

Wehrli, Bernhard

7

Internet Investigations: Solving Mysteries on the Information Superhighway.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a group of gifted primary-school children in New Zealand explored the Internet in a workshop project organized around solving the mystery of what happened to the Titanic. Insets include the student "contract," a listing of Web sites, and the evaluation instrument. (DB)

Riley, Tracy; Brown, Mark

1998-01-01

8

The mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a mystery solved?  

PubMed Central

The permeability transition (PT) denotes an increase of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability to solutes with molecular masses up to about 1500 Da. It is presumed to be mediated by opening of a channel, the permeability transition pore (PTP), whose molecular nature remains a mystery. Here I briefly review the history of the PTP, discuss existing models, and present our new results indicating that reconstituted dimers of the FOF1 ATP synthase form a channel with properties identical to those of the mitochondrial megachannel (MMC), the electrophysiological equivalent of the PTP. Open questions remain, but there is now promise that the PTP can be studied by genetic methods to solve the large number of outstanding problems. PMID:23675351

Bernardi, Paolo

2013-01-01

9

The Deep Impact Microlens Explorer, Solving the Macho Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Impact Microlens Explorer is a new science extended mission for the Deep Impact spacecraft which will solve the mystery of the gravitational microlensing events seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and determine if any of the Milky Way's dark matter is Baryonic. The MACHO Project has detected more than 5 times as many microlensing events in the LMC as expected due to known stellar populations (Alcock et al 2000), and this suggests that about 20% of the Milky Way's dark matter may be in stellar mass objects - possibly very old white dwarfs. It has also been suggested that microlensing due to stars in the LMC itself could be responsible for the microlensing excess seen in the LMC (Sahu 1994). Ground-based data cannot determine the distances to the lensing object, but simultaneous observations by two telescopes separated by 1 AU can measure the microlens parallax effect and determine the distance to the lensing object. In August, 2005, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft will provide an opportunity to carry out this mission at extremely low cost. DI will be carrying a 30cm telescope at 0.9AU from the Earth and will have completed its prime mission. We are proposing the DIME mission extension to carry out the microlensing parallax observations that will resolve this dark matter mystery. DIME observations of the Galactic bulge will also measure the abundance of stellar mass black holes in the bulge. KHC's work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Cook, K. H.; DIME Collaboration

2003-12-01

10

Baby Stars in Orion Solve Solar System Mystery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What do X-rays, meteoroids, infant stars in the Orion Nebula, and our solar system have in common? Perhaps much more than anyone thought. Eric Feigelson of Penn State University stumbled onto a connection one day while his thoughts were far from the solar system, turned toward the vibrant neighborhood of young stars, hot gas, and caliginous dust of the Orion Nebula. This nebula, 1500 light-years away, is visible to the naked eye in the constellation Orion, a gem to behold with a good pair of binoculars or a telescope under dark skies. In Orion, Feigelson inadvertently found a possible solution to a long-standing mystery about our own solar system: the presence of exotic isotopes locked away in meteoroids. Scientists have assumed that these short-lived isotopes - special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26 and calcium-41 - were transported here by a nearby supernova. Only tenuous evidence for such an explosion exists, but what else could have made the isotopes? The isotopes are about as old as the solar system, and the Sun couldn t possibly have been powerful enough to create them. Well, maybe we need to give the Sun a little more credit. Feigelson found that very young, midsized stars in the Orion Nebula - in the same stellar class as our Sun except they are only a million years old - produce powerful flares visible in X-rays. His team spotted these X-ray flares with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. These baby-tantrum flares are indeed energetic enough to forge heavy isotopes, Feigelson says. If the infant stars in Orion can do it now, then our Sun could have done the same when the solar system was forming about 4.5 billion years ago, when the Sun itself was only a few million years old.

Wanjek, Christopher

2003-01-01

11

Frankincense and Myrrh: Solving a Mystery with Historical Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how teachers can use holidays to construct lessons that are academically substantial, interesting, and meaningful. Model lessons are organized around asking exploratory questions and the ensuing process scholars use to unravel an academic mystery. Designed for use in elementary or middle school during Christmas season. (KO)

White, Jane J.; Bennett, Sari J.

1988-01-01

12

Rosetta - a comet ride to solve planetary mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. By orbiting Comet Wirtanen and landing on it, Rosetta will collect essential information to understand the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules, that - delivered to Earth through impacts - perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, “volatile” light elements carried by comets may have also played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmopshere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions ever undertaken so far”, says Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, “No one before attempted a similar mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres”. Before reaching its target in 2011, Rosetta will circle the Sun almost four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Wirtanen, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; then the spacecraft will closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be like landing on a small, fast-moving cosmic bullet that still has - at present - an almost unknown 'geography'. An amazing 8-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a 3-tonne box-type spacecraft about 3 metres high, with two 14-metre long solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately 1 metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the Rosetta orbiter during the journey to Comet Wirtanen. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will be kept in hibernation during most of its 8-year trek towards Wirtanen. What makes Rosetta's cruise so long? To reach Comet Wirtanen, the spacecraft needs to go out in deep space as far from the Sun as Jupiter is. No launcher could possibly get Rosetta there directly. ESA's spacecraft will gather speed from gravitational ‘kicks’ provided by three planetary fly-bys: one of Mars in 2005 and two of Earth in 2005 and 2007. During the trip, Rosetta will also visit two asteroids, Otawara (in 2006) and Siwa (in 2008). During these encounters, scientists will switch on Rosetta's instruments for calibration and scientific studies. Long trips in deep space include many hazards, such as extreme changes in temperature. Rosetta will leave the benign environment of near-Earth space to the dark, frigid regions beyond the asteroid belt. To manage these thermal loads, experts have done very tough pre-launch tests to study Rosetta's endurance. For example, they have heated its external surfaces to more than 150°C, then quickly cooled it to -180°C in the next test. The spacecraft will be fully reactivated prior to the comet rendezvous manoeuvre in 2011. Then, Rosetta will orbit the comet - an object only 1.2 km wide - while it cruises through the inner Solar System at 135 000 kilometres per hour. At that time of the rendezvous - around 675 million km from the Sun - Wirtanen will hardly show any surface activity. It means that the carachteristic coma (the comet’s ‘atmosphere’) and the tail will not be formed yet, because of the large distance from the Sun. The comet's tail is in fact made of dust grains and frozen gases from the comet's surface that vapourise because of the Sun's heat. During 6-month, Rosetta will extensively map the comet surface, prior to selecting a landing site. In July 2012, the lander will self-eject from the spacecraft from a height of just one kilometre. Touchdown will take place at walking speed - less than 1 metre per second. Immediately after touchdown, the lander will fire a harpoon into the ground to avoid bouncing off the surface back in

2003-01-01

13

SNO: solving the mystery of the missing neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The end of an era came on 28 November 2006 when the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) finally stopped data-taking after eight exciting years of discoveries. During this time the Observatory saw evidence that neutrinos, produced in the fusion of hydrogen in the solar core, change flavour while passing through the Sun on their way to the Earth. This observation explained the longstanding puzzle as to why previous experiments had seen fewer solar neutrinos than predicted and confirmed that these elusive particles have mass. Solar neutrinos were first detected in Ray Davis's radiochemical experiment in 1967, for which discovery he shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. Surprisingly he found only about a third of the number predicted from models of the Sun's output. This deficit, the so-called Solar Neutrino Problem, was confirmed by Kamiokande-II while other experiments saw related deficits of solar neutrinos. A possible explanation for this deficit, suggested by Gribov and Pontecorvo in 1969, was that some of the electron-type neutrinos, which are produced in the Sun, had ''oscillated'' into neutrinos that could not be detected in the Davis detector. The oscillation mechanism requires that neutrinos have non-zero mass. The unique advantage, which was pointed out by the late Herb Chen in 1985, of using heavy water (D{sub 2}O) to detect the neutrinos from {sup 8}B decays in the solar fusion process is that it enables both the number of electron-type and of all types of neutrinos to be measured. A comparison of the flux of electron-type neutrinos to that of all flavours could then reveal whether flavour transformation is the cause of the solar neutrino deficit. In heavy water neutrinos of all types can break a deuteron apart into its constituent proton and neutron (neutral-current reaction), while only electron-type neutrinos can change the deuteron into two protons and release an electron (charged-current reaction). SNO was designed by scientists from Canada, the USA and the UK to attain a detection rate of about 10 solar neutrinos per day using 1000 tonnes of heavy water. Neutrino interactions were detected by 9,456 photomultiplier tubes surrounding the heavy water, which was contained in a 12-m diameter acrylic sphere. This sphere was surrounded by 7000 tonnes of ultra-pure water to shield against radioactivity. Figure 1 shows the layout of the SNO detector, which is located about 2 km underground in Inco's Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury in Canada, to all but eliminate cosmic rays from reaching the detector. The pattern of hit photomultiplier tubes following the creation of an electron by an electron-type neutrino is shown in Figure 2.

Jelley, Nick; Poon, Alan

2007-03-30

14

SOLVING THE MYSTERY OF YANKEETOWN GOES Back to CAHOKIA!! Excavation at the Emerald Mound Center, Lebanon Illinois  

E-print Network

SOLVING THE MYSTERY OF YANKEETOWN GOES Back to CAHOKIA!! Excavation field school students excavated the remains of ceremonial and public architecture will learn: survey, site, feature and profile mapping, and feature excavation

Scheiber, Laura L.

15

In a Flash, NASA Helps Solve 35-Year-Old Cosmic Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have solved the 35-year-old mystery of the origin of powerful, split-second flashes of light known as short gamma-ray bursts. These flashes, brighter than a billion galaxies, yet lasting only a few milliseconds, have been simply too fast to catch - until now. Through the unprecedented coordination of observations from several ground-based telescopes and NASA satellites, scientists determined the flashes arise from violent collisions in space. The clashes are either between a black hole and a neutron star or between two neutron stars. In either scenario, the impact creates a new black hole. In at least one burst, scientists saw tantalizing, first-time evidence of a black hole eating a neutron star. The neutron star was first stretched into a crescent, then swallowed by the black hole. Two recently detected bursts are featured in four papers in this week's Nature magazine. These observations could enable direct detection of exotic gravitational waves that have never before been seen. "Gamma-ray bursts in general are notoriously difficult to study, but the shortest ones have been next to impossible to pin down," said Dr. Neil Gehrels, principal investigator for the Swift satellite at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "All that has changed. We now have the tools in place to study these events," he said. Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Gamma-ray bursts, first detected in the 1960s, are the most powerful explosions known. They are random, fleeting and can occur from any region of the sky. Two years ago, scientists discovered longer bursts, lasting more than two seconds, arise from the explosion of very massive stars. About 30 percent of bursts are short and under two seconds. The Swift satellite detected a short burst on May 9, and NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) detected another on July 9. The May 9 event marked the first time scientists identified an afterglow for a short gamma-ray burst, something commonly seen after long bursts. "We had a hunch that short gamma-ray bursts came from a neutron star crashing into a black hole or another neutron star, but these new detections leave no doubt," said Dr. Derek Fox, assistant professor of Astronomy & Astrophysics at Penn State University, State College, Pa. Fox is lead author of one Nature report detailing a multi-wavelength observation. Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Fox's team discovered the X-ray afterglow of the July 9 burst with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A team led by Jens Hjorth, a professor at the University of Copenhagen identified the optical afterglow using the Danish 1.5-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Fox's team continued studying the afterglow with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes of the Carnegie Institution, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. "The July 9 burst was like the dog that didn't bark," said Dr. George Ricker, HETE principal investigator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and co-author of another Nature article. "Powerful telescopes detected no supernova as the gamma-ray burst faded, arguing against the explosion of a massive star. Also, the July 9 burst, and probably the May 9 burst, are located in the outskirts of their host galaxies, just where old merging binaries are expected," he added. Mergers create gravitational waves, ripples in space-time predicted by Einstein but never directly detected. The July 9 burst was about 2 billion light-years away. A big merger closer to the Earth could be detected by the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). If Swift detects a nearby short burst, scientists could go back and check the data with a precise time and location. "This is good news for LIGO," said Dr. Albert Lazzarini, Data & Computing group leader at the California Institut

2005-10-01

16

Mystery #23  

... meters deep, which was drilled for the purpose of harnessing geothermal energy. 4.   Three of the following four statements about the ... for an extraterrestrial environment during scientific simulation studies.   Mystery Solved     ...

2013-04-22

17

VLBA "Movie" Gives Scientists New Insights On Workings of Mysterious Microquasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have made a 42-day movie showing unprecedented detail of the inner workings of a strange star system that has puzzled scientists for more than two decades. Their work is providing new insights that are changing scientists' understanding of the enigmatic stellar pairs known as microquasars. SS 433 Frame from SS 433 Movie: End to end is some 200 billion miles. CREDIT: Mioduszewski et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Image Files Single Frame Overall Jet View (above image) VLBA Movie (animated gif, 2.3 MB) Animated graphic of SS 433 System (18MB) (Created using software by Robert Hynes, U.Texas) Annotated brightening graphic Unannotated brightening Frame 1 Unannotated brightening Frame 2 "This once-a-day series of exquisitely-detailed images is the best look anyone has ever had at a microquasar, and already has made us change our thinking about how these things work," said Amy Mioduszewski, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of radio telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Caribbean, to follow daily changes in a binary-star system called SS 433, some 15,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Aquila. Mioduszewski worked with Michael Rupen, Greg Taylor and Craig Walker, all of NRAO. They reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. SS 433 consists of a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole is drawing material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense, central object prior to being pulled onto that object. This disk propels jets of subatomic particles outward from its poles. In SS 433, the particles in the jets move at 26 percent of the speed of light; in other microquasars, the jet material moves at 90-95 percent of light speed. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to move in a circle every 164 days. By imaging SS 433 daily, the astronomers were able to trace individual ejections of material in these jets as they moved outward from the center. In addition, they could track the jets' precession, the movement caused by the disk's wobble. In other microquasars, blobs of material shot from the core become fainter, as seen with radio telescopes, as they move outward. However, in SS 433, blobs routinely brighten at specific distances from the core. From earlier studies, researchers had concluded that such brightening always occurs at one specific distance. The VLBA movie shows, instead, that there are multiple brightening regions and not all blobs brighten at all the regions. "We think the ejected material brightens because it's slamming into something," Rupen said. "However, whatever it's hitting has to be replenished somehow so that the brightening can occur again when the jet sweeps through that area the next time," he added. "It also appears that it isn't always replenished, because the brightening doesn't always happen," Mioduszewski pointed out. The VLBA movie revealed vital new information about another part of SS 433 -- material moving outward from the core, but not part of the superfast jets. This material moves outward in a direction not quite perpendicular to the direction of the jets. Discovered with the VLBA in 2000, this material had been seen only in one-time snapshots before, but the movie shows the steady evolution of its movement for the first time. That motion was the key to a possible answer to two riddles -- the source of the slower-moving material itself and the source of whatever the jet blobs are hitting when they brighten. "What seems most plausible to us is that the accretion disk is putting out a broad wind," Rupen explained. That broad wind from the disk hits a denser wind coming from the "normal" companion star to generate the radio waves seen coming from the nonjet region. The same

2004-01-01

18

Perchance to dream: solving the mystery of sleep through genetic analysis.  

PubMed

Sleep has been identified in all mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates that have been critically evaluated. In addition, sleep-like states have also been identified and described in several invertebrates. Despite this prevalence throughout the animal kingdom, the function of sleep remains a mystery. The completion of several genome sequencing projects has led to the expectation that fundamental aspects of sleep can be elucidated through genetic dissection. Indeed, studies in both the mouse and fly have begun to reveal tantalizing suggestions about the underlying principles that regulate sleep homeostasis. In this article we will review recent studies that have used genetic techniques to evaluate sleep in the fruit fly and the mouse. PMID:12486704

Shaw, Paul J; Franken, Paul

2003-01-01

19

Mystery solved: the identification of the two missing Romanov children using DNA analysis.  

PubMed

One of the greatest mysteries for most of the twentieth century was the fate of the Romanov family, the last Russian monarchy. Following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, he and his wife, Alexandra, and their five children were eventually exiled to the city of Yekaterinburg. The family, along with four loyal members of their staff, was held captive by members of the Ural Soviet. According to historical reports, in the early morning hours of July 17, 1918 the entire family along with four loyal members of their staff was executed by a firing squad. After a failed attempt to dispose of the remains in an abandoned mine shaft, the bodies were transported to an open field only a few kilometers from the mine shaft. Nine members of the group were buried in one mass grave while two of the children were buried in a separate grave. With the official discovery of the larger mass grave in 1991, and subsequent DNA testing to confirm the identities of the Tsar, the Tsarina, and three of their daughters--doubt persisted that these remains were in fact those of the Romanov family. In the summer of 2007, a group of amateur archeologists discovered a collection of remains from the second grave approximately 70 meters from the larger grave. We report forensic DNA testing on the remains discovered in 2007 using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), autosomal STR, and Y-STR testing. Combined with additional DNA testing of material from the 1991 grave, we have virtually irrefutable evidence that the two individuals recovered from the 2007 grave are the two missing children of the Romanov family: the Tsarevich Alexei and one of his sisters. PMID:19277206

Coble, Michael D; Loreille, Odile M; Wadhams, Mark J; Edson, Suni M; Maynard, Kerry; Meyer, Carna E; Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Cordula; Berger, Burkhard; Falsetti, Anthony B; Gill, Peter; Parson, Walther; Finelli, Louis N

2009-01-01

20

Reanalysis of the Benešov bolide and recovery of polymict breccia meteorites - old mystery solved after 20 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main motivation for this work was to explain and solve the old mystery connected with the detailed instrumental observation of the Benešov superbolide on 7 May 1991 over the central part of the Czech Republic. Detailed analyses of this undoubted meteorite fall were published in several papers, and this is one of the best documented bolides (at least of the superbolide category) ever observed. However, despite high-quality data, favorable trajectory, relatively large terminal mass, and especially great efforts and many attempts, no meteorite was found in the weeks and years after the fall. Here we solve and explain this old mystery. In spring 2011, just before the twentieth anniversary of this extraordinary case, we remeasured all available all-sky records and reanalyzed the data. We used slightly different methods and new approaches, which we gradually developed to analyze several recent instrumentally observed meteorite falls (Morávka, Neuschwanstein, Jesenice, Bunburra Rockhole, Mason Gully, and Košice). We assembled a new consistent picture of the Benešov event, which resulted in a slightly revised impact location and suggested a new strategy that might lead to a recovery of Benešov meteorites after 20 years. The reality completely confirmed all our assumptions and surpassed our expectations. We found four small highly weathered fragments irregular in form and completely without fusion crust with a total mass of 11.63 g (1.54 g (H5), 7.72 g (with achondritic clast), 1.99 g, 0.38 g (all LL3.5)). They were recovered exactly in the predicted impact area for corresponding masses, namely within 40 m from the highest probability line. Although all fragments are very small and their weathering grade is high (W3 for all pieces), their interior was preserved enough for reliable analysis (except for the smallest one). The meteorite is classified as a polymict breccia containing three recognized lithologies with different texture, chemical, and mineralogical composition. This result is pioneering in many aspects. We proved that in some special cases it is still possible to predict and find meteorites a long time after the fall. The most important result, however, is the heterogeneity of the recovered meteorites. This case clearly shows that larger meteoroids can be compositionally very complicated bodies. We discovered that the Benešov meteoroid consisted of at least three different types of material - LL3.5, H5, and primitive achondrite. This case also implies that it is very useful to study as many fragments as possible from one fall because there can be significant differences among them.

Spurný, Pavel; Haloda, Jakub; Borovi?ka, Ji?í; Shrbený, Lukáš; Halodová, Patricie

2014-10-01

21

The 'royal disease'--haemophilia A or B? A haematological mystery is finally solved.  

PubMed

? 'History can change blood. And blood can change the course of history'. Haemophilia is an illustration of this, as this congenital hereditary coagulation disorder, passed through the majority of royal European families at the beginning of the 20th century by Queen Victoria of England and Empress of the Indies, had indisputable political consequences, which led to one of the most defining moments of contemporary history: the Bolshevik Revolution. Today, none of Queen Victoria's living descendents carry haemophilia. Because of this, the characterization of haemophilia (deficit of either factor VIII or XI) and the identification of the causal mutation are rendered impossible. In 1991, a tomb containing the remains of Czar Nicolas II's entire family was discovered. A second tomb was discovered in 2007, allowing Russian and American scientists to fill in this gap in medical history. Following a scientific approach combining current genetic experimentation tools and the development of biological information technology, researchers were able to identify each body, allowing them to obtain precious genetic material from the young Czar Alexis, who was stricken by the disease, which revealed a causal substitution in the splice acceptor site of exon 4 in the F9 gene. This mutation that is responsible for haemophilia B had traumatized European royal families throughout the 20th century! PMID:20557352

Lannoy, N; Hermans, C

2010-11-01

22

Young Stars in Orion May Solve Mystery of Our Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists may have to give the Sun a little more credit. Exotic isotopes present in the early Solar System--which scientists have long-assumed were sprinkled there by a powerful, nearby star explosion--may have instead been forged locally by our Sun during the colossal solar-flare tantrums of its baby years. The isotopes--special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26, calcium-41, and beryllium-10--can form in the X-ray solar flares of young stars in the Orion Nebula, which behave just like our Sun would have at such an early age. The finding, based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has broad implications for the formation of our own Solar System. Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, led a team of scientists on this Chandra observation and presents these results in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "The Chandra study of Orion gives us the first chance to study the flaring properties of stars resembling the Sun when our solar system was forming," said Feigelson. "We found a much higher rate of flares than expected, sufficient to explain the production of many unusual isotopes locked away in ancient meteorites. If the young stars in Orion can do it, then our Sun should have been able to do it too." Scientists who study how our Solar System formed from a collapsed cloud of dust and gas have been hard pressed to explain the presence of these extremely unusual chemical isotopes. The isotopes are short-lived and had to have been formed no earlier than the creation of the Solar System, some five billion years ago. Yet these elements cannot be produced by a star as massive as our Sun under normal circumstances. (Other elements, such as silver and gold, were created long before the creation of the solar system.) The perplexing presence of these isotopic anomalies, found in ancient meteoroids orbiting the Earth, led to the theory that a supernova explosion occurred very close to the Solar System's progenitor gas cloud, simultaneously triggering its collapse and seeding it with short-lived isotopes. Solar flares could produce such isotopes, but the flares would have to be hundreds of thousands of times more powerful and hundreds of times more frequent than those our Sun generates. Enter the stars in the Orion Nebula. This star-forming region has several dozen new stars nearly identical to our Sun, only much younger. Feigelson's team used Chandra to study the flaring in these analogs of the early Sun and found that nearly all exhibit extremely high levels of X-ray flaring--powerful and frequent enough to forge many of the kinds of isotopes found in the ancient meteorites from the early solar system. "This is a very exciting result for space X-ray astronomy," said Donald Clayton, Centennial Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University. "The Chandra Penn State team has shown that stellar-flare acceleration produces radioactive nuclei whether we want them or not. Now the science debate can concentrate on whether such irradiation made some or even all of the extinct radioactivities that were present when our solar system was formed, or whether some contamination of our birth molecular cloud by external material is also needed." "This is an excellent example of how apparently distant scientific fields, like X-ray astronomy and the origins of solar systems, can in fact be closely linked," said Feigelson. The Orion observation was made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Gordon Garmire, the Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State. The Penn State observation team includes Pat Broos, James Gaffney, Gordon Garmire, Leisa Townsley and Yohko Tsuboi. Collaborators also include Lynne Hillenbrand of CalTech and Steven Pravdo of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Background: Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have d

2001-09-01

23

Geo Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students discover information about rocks, fossils, and minerals by solving geo mysteries. In the Mystery of the Floating Rock, they need to try to decide if a sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous rock floats. They are given information about each of the rocks, they can see animated pictures of how each forms, and they can view a volcano erupting. In the Mystery of the Broken Necklace, students need to figure out what kind of fossils are the beads of a necklace. They are given information about crinoid fossils and can see a piece of the ancient Border's Sea. By clicking on each of the fossils, students can see what lived there long ago. They will also learn about the three kinds of fossils and how they are prepared. The Mystery of the Golden Cube has students deciding if a cube is a rock, mineral, or fossil. Information is provided about the cube's shape, hardness, color and streak, density, cleavage and fracture. Students are given the opportunity to test the cube's streak, hardness and density and the cube is compared to a gold nugget. Facts are given for 10 different rocks. Included in this site is a geologic timeline, questions and answers about rocks and fossils, and additional links.

Indianapolis, The C.

2000-01-01

24

Geometry-Lithology-Origin: Solving the mystery of the Late Miocene mounded features below Lake Balaton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences of Eötvös University has carried out single- and multichannel water seismic surveys at the Lake Balaton since 1993. The dense grid of 2D profiles offers a high resolution image of the Late Miocene sedimentary strata (Tihany, Somló and Szák Formations) up to a thickness of 200 meters below the lake. These strata can be divided into smaller sedimentary units by numerous parasequence boundaries (Sztanó&Magyar, 2007). In one of these parasequence interesting, high amplitude mounded features have been observed that follow a seismic horizon over large area. It means that these features indicate a Late Miocene regional event. In terms of their shape these mounds are few tens of meters wide, several tens to a hundreds of meters long and few meters high. Their geometry and inner structure were mapped from 2D segments that were used for 3D reconstructions. The shape and stratigraphic position of these features have inspired Sacchi and Horvath (1999) to interpret them as the subsurface equivalent of the fresh-water siliceous-limestone mounds exposed on the Tihany Peninsula. They held these mounds as an evidence of dryland conditions in the time period of the formation of a Late Miocene erosional surface (PAN-2) that they regarded as a 3rd order sequence boundary. In addition to this so called "travertine" concept another explanation was also formulated as the mounds are the product of sedimentary failures e.g. slumps or water escape. To solve the problem an offshore drilling with a total depth of 19 meters was accomplished in October 2013 to sample one of these mounds and determine their origin. The well has not crossed any travertine body, instead alternating layers of clay-silt and very fine sand - without any convincing sign of fluid escape structures - were found in the core (typical lithology of the Tihany Formation). 3D structural analysis of the mounds revealed spherical organization composing bodies that are superposed on each other. The latter can be interpreted as series of small thrusts in a relatively thin mudstone layer. As coring has found silty material, without the presence of any fluid escape structures the most possible explanation for these features is sheet slumping mechanism that could be induced by seismicity. Although "travertine" concept has been rejected, these mounds should indicate a regionally important geological event that could strengthen correlation of erosional surfaces such us PAN-2 from outcrop to water seismic images. Such an event could be possible the start of the 8 Ma volcanism in the area. Work was financed by OTKA NK83400 research fund. References: Sacchi, M.; Horváth, F.; Magyari O. (1999). Role of unconformity-bounded units in the stratigraphy of the continental record: a case study from the Late Miocene of the western Pannonian basin, Hungary. In: Durand, B. Jolivet, L., Horváth F. & Séranne, M. (eds), The Mediterranean Basins: Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 156, 357-390. Sztanó, O. & Magyar I. (2007): Deltaic parasequences on gamma logs, ultra-high resolution seismic images and outcrops of Lake Pannon deposits. Joannea Geol. Palaont. 9: 105-108.

Visnovitz, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Surányi, Gergely

2014-05-01

25

Perfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.

Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

2012-04-01

26

Scientists at NASA are working to solve a problem with driving robotic rovers on the planet Mars and an Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Scientists at NASA are working to solve a problem with driving robotic rovers on the planet Mars new technology that would make self-directed driving for rovers possible on the surface of Mars into a robot so that it can drive itself on Mars. With our technology, the robot can recognize rocks in its

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

27

The relationship between displaying and perceiving nonverbal cues of affect: a meta-analysis to solve an old mystery.  

PubMed

The authors address the decades-old mystery of the association between individual differences in the expression and perception of nonverbal cues of affect. Prior theories predicted positive, negative, and zero correlations in performance-given empirical results ranging from r = -.80 to r = +.64. A meta-analysis of 40 effects showed a positive correlation for nonverbal behaviors elicited as intentional communication displays but zero for spontaneous, naturalistic, or a combination of display types. There was greater variation in the results of studies having round robin designs and analyzed with statistics that do not account for the interdependence of data. The authors discuss implications for theorists to distinguish emotional skills in terms of what people are capable of doing versus what people actually do. PMID:20085402

Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Eisenkraft, Noah

2010-02-01

28

Mystery Person  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

O'Brien, Tom

2011-01-01

29

Century-old mystery of Puccinia striiformis life history solved with the identification of Berberis as an alternate host.  

PubMed

The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been identified. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P. striiformis. Analyses using real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence confirmed the rust fungus as P. striiformis. Pycnia and aecia were produced on B. chinensis, B. holstii, B. koreana, and B. vulgaris after inoculation using germinating telia of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici. Wheat inoculated with aeciospores from B. chinensis resulted in uredinia, which demonstrated that Berberis spp. also serve as alternate hosts for the wheat stripe rust pathogen. The elucidation of the complete life history for P. striiformis f. sp. tritici will provide a powerful tool to rapidly advance our knowledge of the genetics of this rust fungus, and will lead to the development of improved strategies for a better control of stripe rust. PMID:20373963

Jin, Yue; Szabo, Les J; Carson, Martin

2010-05-01

30

Mysterious Beginnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduce students to humankind's mysterious beginnings with a captivating sense of mystery. Low lighting and simple percussion music will add to the mood. Allow students time to leave behind the sunshine of this modern era and crawl through the narrow tunnel of their imaginations into an immense, dark, underground cave. This is, in fact, was what…

Pinkcombe, Josie; Ellyn, Tracy

2009-01-01

31

Mystery Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

32

Fuel Mystery Dis-Solved!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the simulated use of solid rocket fuel by using an antacid tablet. Students observe the effect that surface area and temperature has on chemical reactions. Also, students compare the reaction time using two different reactants: water and vinegar. Finally, students report their results using a bar graph.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

33

The Hot Tub Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study sets up a mystery and asks students to solve it using science: why was the couple found dead in their hot tub? The material asks students to connect seemingly unrelated factors, such as blood pressure, hot water and alcohol. The material would be most appropriate for lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

House, Herbert

2011-01-06

34

Planetary Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they explore the "mind-boggling mysteries" of our solar system. The article opens with a quick review of what we know about our solar system and how we've gathered that information. Students then "explore the mystery" of each planet within our solar system, which is presented though fun facts, evidence, theories, and NASA missions. The article ends with a nine-question quiz that gives students a fun way to test what they've learned.

35

SPITZER'S STARLIGHT A mysterious infrared glow, spread across the entire night sky, has caught the attention of scientists using NASA's Spitzer  

E-print Network

the attention of scientists using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Their recent exploration of the phenomenon, in part, from galaxy images obtained by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. 4 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE

36

The Mixed-Up Microbe Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series challenges kids to help solve the Case of the Dragon That Caused Diarrhea. The online activity begins with an overview of "The Facts" behind this challenge given to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with suggestions for "How to Solve a Microbe Mystery." Before starting the online challenge, kids are taken to a page that explains their "mission" and how to play. A series of six tabs contains details about Cindy's steps towards solving the mystery; using the guidance from "How To Solve a Microbe Mystery," students are asked to correctly order her steps.

37

The Mystery of the Golden Cube  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help Rex solve the mystery of the golden cube! You will need to decide if it is a rock, mineral, or a fossil. You will also need to examine the cubes shape, hardness, color, streak, density, cleavage, and fracture.

2000-01-01

38

Mystery Boxes: Uncertainty and Collaboration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches students that scientific knowledge is fundamentally uncertain. Students manipulate sealed mystery boxes and attempt to determine the inner structure of the boxes which contain a moving ball and a fixed barrier or two. The nature and sources of uncertainty inherent in the process of problem-solving are experienced. The uncertainty of the conclusions is reduced by student collaboration.

Beard, Jean

39

Mystery Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the states of matter. Learners will participate in a demonstration to reintroduce them to three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The demonstration also introduces them to a fourth state of matter, plasma, through investigation of the properties of volume and shape as they relate to common solids, liquids, and gases, and to the mystery matter later identified at the end as plasma. The demonstration also covers plasma's connection to the Sun and connections to science related to the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, spacecraft. This activity complements other IBEX informal education materials. The demonstration requires use of a small plasma ball and, ideally, a slightly darkened room so that the plasma ball can be more easily seen. An instructional video explaining how to facilitate this activity is available: http://bit.ly/125ZW5k.

40

Swinging arms as we walk 'helps preserve energy' The mystery of why we swing our arms as we walk may have been solved, after scientists  

E-print Network

://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/swine-flu-information/) The Ashes (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/cricket/international/theashes/) 8/2/2009 Swinging arms as we-join-The-Daily-Telegraphs-campaign.html) Fantasy Football (http://fantasyfootball.telegraph.co.uk/) James Cracknell (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/columnists/jamescracknell/) News UK News World News Obituaries Travel Health Jobs Sport The Ashes Football Fantasy Football Culture

Collins, Steven H.

41

Mystery Boxes for Grades 3-5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners manipulate opaque, sealed boxes and attempt to determine their interior structures. Each box contains a moving ball and one or more fixed barriers. Use this activity to introduce students to the scientific process--scientists make observations and collect evidence, scientists interpret evidence, scientists must work together to gain consensus about interpretations. This activity has been adapted for grades 3-5 from the ENSI lesson, Mystery Boxes: Uncertainty & Collaboration.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

42

Tsunami Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast explores some ideas about the cause of a 1946 tsunami which swept from Alaska through the Pacific and killed more than 150 people. The tsunami was one of the worst of the 20th Century. Scientists today still cannot agree on just what caused it. They think it was an earthquake, an undersea landslide, or possibly both. The answer may change how scientists study tsunamis and how people prepare for them. The clip is 6 minutes and 38 seconds in length.

43

hat happens when scientists from three UC campuses and a variety of disciplines collaborate on solving complex biological problems?  

E-print Network

on solving complex biological problems? Novel ideas emerge for treating even the most intractable diseases the California economy. "The strength of QB3 lies in uniting people from very different scientific backgrounds--combined with the power of business--hold huge potential to benefit society." Another donor, who wishes to remain

Soloveichik, David

44

Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and…

Harrington, LaDawna

2011-01-01

45

Who Dun It? Mysteries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers brief descriptions of 23 mysteries that will appeal to adolescent readers. Notes that further lists of excellent titles in the category of juvenile and young adult mystery are available on the Edgar Allen Poe website at http://www.mysterywriters.org/awards.html. (SR)

Zanarini, Anna

2001-01-01

46

The Mystery Begins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All teachers and media specialists are looking for the "hook" that will engage their students and make them want to learn--and according to the author, mystery stories are a perfect way to create that hook. Here, she presents a unit on mysteries, intended for collaboration between media specialists and language arts teachers. The unit uses…

Harrington, LaDawna

2008-01-01

47

Element Genesis - Solving the Mystery (Video Presentation)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our institute (RIKEN) produced a video on nucleosynthesis. Its new English version is presented. Y. M., I. Tanihata, Y. Yano, and R. Boyd are science editors for this. Time length of the video is 30 minutes. The primary characteristic of this video is that we have employed a number of 2-D and 3-Dimensional visualizations and animations based on an updated understanding of nuclear physics and astrophysics. One of the emphasized points is that microscopic physics (i.e., nuclear physics) and macroscopic physics (i.e., astrophysics) are strongly connected. It contains explanation on the chart of the nuclides, nuclear burning in the sun, big-bang nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis, ``beta-stability valley", the s-process, the r-process, production of an RI beam, etc., and professors D. Arnett, T. Kajino, K. Langanke, K. Sato, C. Sneden, I. Tanihata, and F.-K. Thielemann appear as interviewees. Our prime target is college freshmen. We hope that this video would be useful for education both in the fields of astrophysics and nuclear physics at universities and even at high schools. Our institute is accordingly developing a distribution system of this video and it will be available soon at the cost price (please visit our web site for details: http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/video). The Japanese version was awarded the prize of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan 2001.

Mochizuki, Yuko

2001-10-01

48

Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a quartet of space observatories, University of Maryland astronomers may have cracked a 45-year mystery surrounding two ghostly spiral arms in the galaxy M106. The Maryland team, led by Yuxuan Yang, took advantage of the unique capabilities of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, and data obtained almost a decade ago with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. NGC X-ray Image NGC 4258 X-ray Image M106 (also known as NGC 4258) is a stately spiral galaxy 23.5 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. In visible-light images, two prominent arms emanate from the bright nucleus and spiral outward. These arms are dominated by young, bright stars, which light up the gas within the arms. "But in radio and X-ray images, two additional spiral arms dominate the picture, appearing as ghostly apparitions between the main arms," says team member Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland. These so-called "anomalous arms" consist mostly of gas. "The nature of these anomalous arms is a long-standing puzzle in astronomy," says Yang. "They have been a mystery since they were first discovered in the early 1960s." By analyzing data from XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and Chandra, Yang, Bo Li, Wilson, and Christopher Reynolds, all at the University of Maryland at College Park, have confirmed earlier suspicions that the ghostly arms represent regions of gas that are being violently heated by shock waves. Previously, some astronomers had suggested that the anomalous arms are jets of particles being ejected by a supermassive black hole in M106's nucleus. But radio observations by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico, later identified another pair of jets originating in the core. "It is highly unlikely that an active galactic nucleus could have more than one pair of jets," says Yang. In 2001, Wilson, Yang, and Gerald Cecil, of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, noted that the two jets are tipped 30 degrees with respect to the galaxy disk. But if one could vertically project the jets onto the disk, they would line up almost perfectly with the anomalous arms. Figuring that this alignment was not strictly a matter of chance, Wilson, Yang, and Cecil proposed that the jets heat the gas in their line of travel, forming an expanding cocoon. Because the jets lie close to M106's disk, the cocoon heats gas in the disk and generates shock waves, heating the gas to millions of degrees and causing it to radiate brightly in X-rays and other wavelengths. Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 To test this idea, Yang and his colleagues looked at archival spectral observations from XMM-Newton. With XMM-Newton's superb sensitivity, the team could measure the gas temperature in the anomalous arms and also see how strongly X-rays from the gas are absorbed en route by intervening material. "One of the predictions of this scenario is that the anomalous arms will gradually be pushed out of the galactic disk plane by jet-heated gas," says Yang. The XMM-Newton spectra show that X-rays are more strongly absorbed in the direction of the northwest arm than in the southeast arm. The results strongly suggest that the southeast arm is partly on the near side of M106's disk, and the northwest arm is partly on the far side. The scientists noted that these observations show clear consistency with their scenario. Confirmation of this interpretation has recently come from archival observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, whose infrared view shows clear signs that X-ray emission from the northwest arm is being absorbed by warm gas and dust in the galaxy's disk. Moreover, Chandra's superior imaging resolution gives clear indications of gas shocked by interactions with the two jets. Besides addressing the mystery of the anomalous arms, these observations allowed the team to estimate the energy in the jet

2007-04-01

49

Three Modes of Hydrogeophysical Investigation: Puzzles, Mysteries, and Conundrums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an article in the New Yorker in 2007, Malcolm Gladwell discussed the distinction that national security expert Gregory Treverton has made between puzzles and mysteries. Specifically, puzzles are problems that we understand and that will eventually be solved when we amass enough information. (Think crossword puzzles.) Mysteries are problems for which we have the necessary information, but it is often overwhelmed by irrelevant or misleading input. To solve a mystery, we require improved analysis. (Think find-a-word.) Gladwell goes on to explain that, in the national security realm, the Cold War was a puzzle while the current national security condition is a mystery. I will discuss the past, current, and future trajectories of hydrogeophysics in terms of puzzles and mysteries. I will also add a third class of problem: conundrums - those for which we lack sufficient information about their structure to know how to solve them. A conundrum is a mystery with an unexpected twist. I hope to make the case that the future growth of hydrogeophysics lies in our ability to address this more challenging and more interesting class of problem.

Ferre, P. A.

2011-12-01

50

A Microbial Murder Mystery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a microbial mystery activity to test students' knowledge of human anatomy and their ability to identify microbes. Provides an opportunity for students to develop logical deductive reasoning. Includes national science education standards related to this activity, activity sheets with whole procedures, and Internet resources. (KHR)

Mitchell, Melissa A.; Mitchell, James K.

2002-01-01

51

Mystery Box Marvels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

2012-01-01

52

Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions  

ScienceCinema

The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

Lincoln, Don

2014-08-07

53

The Mystery Constellation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is intended to extend the astronomy curriculum so that students may learn more about constellations. Beginning early in the school year, students are introduced to mystery constellations every month and work on identifying them through the school year. They will also map the constellations they have learned at the culmination of the unit.

1998-01-01

54

Mystery of the  

Microsoft Academic Search

That mystery already exists more that 80 years. Many of great theoreticans - founders of modern physics - Sommerfeld, Ed- dington, Born, Pauli, Dirac, Weyl, Heisenberg, Feynman, etc. deeply feel its true price, provocative, defiant character in connection with the fundamental basis of the theoretical phisics. Is the Fine Structure Constant (FSC) the really fundamental constant or may be it

Albert M. Chechelnitsky

2000-01-01

55

Mysteries of the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mysteries of the Sun is a unique NASA resource on the web, in print, and with companion videos, introducing Heliophysics - the study of the Sun's influence throughout the solar system and, in particular, its connection to the Earth and Earth's extended space environment. Topics include space weather, solar variability, the heliosphere, Earth's magnetosphere, and the Earth's upper atmosphere.

2011-01-01

56

Increasing the Relevance: A Who Done It Mystery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the approach she used to teach American government to high school seniors. Beginning with a court procedure unit, the central strategy she used for this unit was a murder mystery that peaked the students' curiosity and encouraged them to think like scientists and lawyers. The court procedure lesson uses a…

Peterson, Nancy

2009-01-01

57

ToxMystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ToxMystery is an interactive learning site for 7-10 year old kids. It provides a game-like experience while introducing potential environmental health hazards sometimes found in the home.Toxie the cat helps find the hazards hidden in each room, and offers hints when needed. The objective is to find all the hazards. When all the hazards in the house have been discovered, Toxie delivers an animated celebration, and players can print a personalized certificate.ToxMystery's Parent Resources page provides more detailed information about everyday environmental hazards that can be harmful to one's health. A For Teachers page contains more than ten downloadable activity pages that can be used in elementary school classrooms.

Specialized Information Services Division (National Library of Medicine;)

2007-02-28

58

Mysteries of Catalhoyuk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Catalhoyuk (chat-al-hoy-ook), which means "forked mound," is a major Neolithic archaeological site in south-central Turkey considered to be one of the first "urban" centers, built between 8,000 and 10,0000 years ago. This engaging multimedia Website, developed by the Science Museum of Minnesota for a general audience, examines the big mysteries underlying Catalhoyuk, as seen through the eyes of an international team of archaeologists and other specialists. Visitors may sift through artifacts and recent findings from the excavations, learn about the people and processes behind the digs, take a virtual tour of the site, or investigate the mysteries surrounding human remains, food habits, murals, clay balls, and goddess figurines.

59

Mystery of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

That mystery already exists more that 80 years. Many of great theoreticans -\\u000afounders of modern physics - Sommerfeld, Ed- dington, Born, Pauli, Dirac, Weyl,\\u000aHeisenberg, Feynman, etc. deeply feel its true price, provocative, defiant\\u000acharacter in connection with the fundamental basis of the theoretical phisics.\\u000aIs the Fine Structure Constant (FSC) the really fundamental constant or may be\\u000ait

Albert M. Chechelnitsky

2000-01-01

60

A Spectral Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about using light to identify the composition of an object. Learners will use a spectrograph to gather data about light sources. Using the data theyâve collected, students are able to make comparisons between different light sources and make conjectures about the composition of a mystery light source. The activity is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering program for middle-high school students, focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

61

BOTANY: The Abominable Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A report by Sun et al. describes the first plausible fossil evidence of a Jurassic angiosperm (the type of plants that have flowers and fruits). This finding has important implications for one of evolutionary biology's most enduring puzzles: the origin of, and relationships within, the flowering plants--what Charles Darwin called the "abominable mystery."

William L. Crepet (Cornell University;L. H. Bailey Hortorium, Division of Biological Sciences)

1998-11-27

62

It's a mystery : Mystery shopping in New Zealand's public libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To explore and evaluate the evidence about the effectiveness of “mystery shopping” as a technique for service evaluation in the public library system of one country. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A critical summary and review of the literature in this field. Interviews with public librarians in New Zealand who have used mystery shopping. Findings – Demonstrates that there were three

Philip Calvert

2005-01-01

63

Mysteries of the Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Scientific American Frontiers website contains videos from the television episode Mysteries of the Deep, as well as related articles and student activities. The videos explore the technology that has opened up the farthest reaches of the ocean and made it possible to lift shipwrecks from the ocean floor. The videos total to approximately one hour in length. The articles explore evidence in support of the flood in the biblical story of Noah; what deep-ocean research has revealed about continental drift, plate tectonics, and the formation of the Earth; and how shipwrecks are lifted from the ocean floor.

64

The Mysterious Dark Energy  

E-print Network

The concept of an all pervading Aether is age old, and contrary to popular belief, it survived the twentieth century too though with different nuances. Using this concept of a background Quantum Vacuum, the author in 1997 proposed a cosmological model with some resemblance to the Dirac cosmology, which correctly predicted a dark energy driven accelerating universer with a small cosmological constant, as was subsequently confirmed by observation in 1998. Moreover the so called Large Number coincidences including the mysterious Weinberg formula are deduced in this theory, rather than being ad hoc. We examine the concept of Aether in this context and indicate how this dark energy may be harnessed.

Burra G. Sidharth

2004-11-24

65

Who Took Jerell's iPod? -- An Organic Compound Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn how to test for triglycerides, glucose, starch, and protein and then use these tests to solve a mystery. The activity reinforces students understanding of the biological functions and food sources of these different types of organic compounds.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

66

History Mystery: A Documents-Based Lesson on Women's Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson used with fourth and fifth graders focusing on women's rights in the 1880s in which students solve a mystery through historical research. States the lesson prepares elementary students to investigate historical questions by examining primary sources. (CMK)

Libresco, Andrea S.

2000-01-01

67

Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

Colyer, Christa

1999-01-01

68

The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches…

Heid, Christy; Biglan, Barbara; Ritson, Margaret

2008-01-01

69

Electricity: The Mysterious Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document examines the mysterious force of electricity. The reading will focus on the physical properties of electricity and discuss topics such as (1) The Atom of Carbon, (2) Static electricity, (3) Magnets are special, (4) Magnetic fields can produce electricity, (5) Batteries produce electricity, (6) Electricity travels in circuits, (7) Secondary energy source, (8) Making electricity, (9) Moving electricity from power plants to homes, (10) Fuels that make electricity, (11) Fossil fuel power plants, (12) Nuclear power plants, (13) Hydropower plants, (14) What's a Watt, and (15) Cost of electricity. The document also depicts illustrations of a bar magnet, turbine generator, transporting electricity, U.S. electricity production, peak demand, and energy efficiency. This resource is structured as an informational booklet to supplement your energy activities or to generate discussion questions.

2008-01-01

70

The Mysterious Bogpeople  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the seemingly spooky title of this site, visitors should not be afraid of entering and exploring around the contents of this very interactive site. Created through a collaborative partnership between organizations such as the Canadian Museum of Civilization and the Drents Museum, this site concerns itself with the artifacts and material world created by the so-called "bogpeople" of northwestern Europe who lived approximately 10,000 years ago. Visitors can explore their world through sections that include "Science", "Timeline", "Profile" and "Mediatheatre". The "Mediatheatre" section is a good place to start as visitors can view short film clips that cover the mysteries of the bog, fishing with a harpoon, and the fabled Ubbena wheel. Moving along, the "Timeline" area gives some nice chronological context to the events and transformations covered by the site, and the "Science" area includes some insights into what archaeologists do in the field.

2010-05-13

71

Magnetic Mystery Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

2014-07-01

72

Scientist Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For scientists desiring to become more involved in education, the COSEE Mid-Atlantic is dedicated to establishing meaningful and productive collaborations between scientists and educators. This web site is meant to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. The information is broken down by how much time the scientist is willing to dedicate to education and public outreach.

73

Exquisite Corpses : an architectural mystery  

E-print Network

In 1937, writing about the parallels between mystery fiction and urban dwelling, Walter Benjamin wrote, ""in times of terror, when everyone is something of a conspirator, everybody will be in the position of having to play ...

Canizares, Galo

2014-01-01

74

The Mystery Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for larger view

This high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the region containing the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station. Scientists examined this patch on the 13th and 15th martian days, or sols, of Spirit's journey. Using nearly all the science instruments located on the rover's instrument deployment device or 'arm,' scientists yielded some puzzling results including the detection of a mineral called olivine and the appearance that the soil is stronger and more cohesive than they expected. Like detectives searching for clues, the science team will continue to peruse the landscape for explanations of their findings.

Data taken from the camera's red, green and blue filters were combined to create this approximate true color picture, acquired on the 12th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey.

The yellow box (see inset above) in this high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit outlines the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station.

2004-01-01

75

NAVIGATING THE BRAIN'S MYSTERIES  

E-print Network

NEER I NG & SCIENCE FALL 2013 #12;After acknowledging the attendees as "some of the smartest people. Ultimately, scientists could use this knowledge to pick apart how we think, learn, and remember as well very tiny things," Koonin says. "So I connected Gilles and Michael up and provided a bit of seed money

76

Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia  

SciTech Connect

A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

Balos, Sebastian [Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia (Serbia ); Benscoter, Arlan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Pense, Alan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)], E-mail: awp0@lehigh.edu

2009-04-15

77

Mummy Tales and Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thanks to technology, history, and deductive reasoning, experts are able to access important scientific and cultural information about mummies. In turn, this information usually reveals much about the culture, religion, and daily lives of the members of a civilization. But how do scientists find out a mummy's sex, age, diet, social standing, cause of death, or original appearance? Utah State Core: Standard 1 - Students will gain an understanding of early civilizations and their contributions to the foundations of human culture. Objective 3 - Examine the major characteristics of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the ...

Myers, Mr.

2010-06-04

78

An Antipodal Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery of the platypus had the scientific world in an uproar and kept it tantalized for decades. Here was the strangest animal ever seen. How was one to classify it? It had fur. So, was it a mammal? But then what to make of its duck-like bill? And how did it produce and suckle its young? Based on the book by Ann Moyal titled Platypus: The Extraordinary Story of How a Curious Creature Baffled the World, the case focuses on classification and evolution and models the scientific process, with scientists arguing, debating, collecting more information, and revising their opinions as more data become available.

Herreid, Clyde F.

2005-01-01

79

Big Mysteries: Dark Energy  

ScienceCinema

Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

Lincoln, Don

2014-08-07

80

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

81

The Three Color Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to an engineering challenge in which they are given a job assignment to separate three types of apples. However, they are unable to see the color differences between the apples, and as a result, they must think as engineers to design devices that can be used to help them distinguish the apples from one another. Solving the challenge depends on an understanding of wave properties and the biology of sight. After being introduced to the challenge, students form ideas and brainstorm about what background knowledge is required to solve the challenge. A class discussion produces student ideas that can be grouped into broad subject categories: waves and wave properties, light and the electromagnetic spectrum, and the structure of the eye.

Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program, Center of Advancement of Engineering Fibers and Films,

82

How To Write a Mystery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on examples from the best and most popular works in mystery writing--from Raymond Chandler and Mickey Spillane to Scott Turow and Thomas Harris--this book introduces the fledgling writer to his or her most indispensable "partners in crime": character, plot, and procedure; the secrets to creating heroes and villains; the art of scripting…

Beinhart, Larry

83

A Mysterious Advertisement BRIAN RANDELL  

E-print Network

A Mysterious Advertisement BRIAN RANDELL Editor's Note. Brian Randell submitted the following notes on July 9, 1981, in response to seeing the text of the advertisement mentioned by Garry J. Tee in this issue) contain one very curious item in Babbage's handwriting, namely the text of an advertisement

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

84

The Fellowship of the Mystery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author states that religion involves cosmic vision as well as ethical philosophy, and that religious ethics become impotent without this vision. Mystery, defined as the sense of wonder at the revelation of the nature of the cosmos, can be expressed only through art. (RW)

Hotchkiss, Wesley

1976-01-01

85

Geological mysteries on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

1997-01-01

86

Senior scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small task force of volunteer senior scientists and engineers was organized recently under the aegis of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) “to utilize its collective talents for the betterment of society and to provide opportunities for individual personal accomplishment and enrichment.” Among the projects under consideration are assisting the Washington, D.C., school system to improve its science and mathematics instruction and assessing the impact of technology on older persons.One of the task force's first projects is to develop a roster of retired scientists and engineers in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area to garner volunteer talent for future projects.

87

Playing Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

Campbell, Ashley

2012-01-01

88

9/22/09 7:56 AMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there -Science Fair -USATODAY.com Page 1 of 3http://blogs.usatoday.com/sciencefair/2009/08/mystery-solved-dark-energy-isnt-there.html  

E-print Network

9/22/09 7:56 AMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there - Science Fair - USATODAY.com Page 1 of 3 popular | Subscribe Tech Shopping Buy a Car Job Search Real Estate E-mail me Get Science Fair Categories · Physical sciences · Psychology and sociology · Quien es mas macho · Science · Science fairs and education

Temple, Blake

89

9/18/09 2:02 PMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there -Science Fair -USATODAY.com Page 1 of 3http://blogs.usatoday.com/sciencefair/2009/08/mystery-solved-dark-energy-isnt-there.html  

E-print Network

9/18/09 2:02 PMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there - Science Fair - USATODAY.com Page 1 of 3 popular | Subscribe Tech Shopping Buy a Car Job Search Real Estate E-mail me Get Science Fair Categories · Physical sciences · Psychology and sociology · Quien es mas macho · Science · Science fairs and education

Temple, Blake

90

A Mysterious Disease Is Infecting Northeast Clam Beds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Oceanus article examines Quahog Parasite Unknown, a mysterious new threat to the shellfish aquaculture business. Code-named QPX, the parasite is an obscure, single-celled relative of slime mold that has both animal and fungal characteristics. QPX secretes a thick layer of mucus to ward off the clam's immune response and was responsible for killing nine out of every ten clams in some plots when it first hit the Massachusetts coast in 1993. The article follows the efforts of Woods Hole scientists Roxanna Smolowitz and Rebecca Gast as they learn more about QPX and search for ways to prevent the disease. It also features links to related websites.

Powell, Hugh

2009-08-04

91

'Mystery big cats' in the Peruvian Amazon: morphometrics solve a cryptozoological mystery.  

PubMed

Two big cat skulls procured from hunters of Yanachaga National Park, Peru, were reported as those of cats informally dubbed the 'striped tiger' and 'anomalous jaguar'. Observations suggested that both skulls were distinct from those of jaguars, associated descriptions of integument did not conform to this species, and it has been implied that both represent members of one or two novel species. We sought to resolve the identity of the skulls using morphometrics. DNA could not be retrieved since both had been boiled as part of the defleshing process. We took 36 cranial and 13 mandibular measurements and added them to a database incorporating nearly 300 specimens of over 30 felid species. Linear discriminant analysis resolved both specimens as part of Panthera onca with high probabilities for cranial and mandibular datasets. Furthermore, the specimens exhibit characters typical of jaguars. If the descriptions of their patterning and pigmentation are accurate, we assume that both individuals were aberrant. PMID:24688867

Naish, Darren; Sakamoto, Manabu; Hocking, Peter; Sanchez, Gustavo

2014-01-01

92

Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the kidnapping of a child whose fingerprints were not found inside the crime vehicle. Discusses the investigation that followed and led to knowledge of the differences between the fingerprints of children and adults. (DDR)

Kimbrough, Doris R.; DeLorenzo, Ronald

1998-01-01

93

Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

94

Surfing Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Australian Broadcasting Corporation website, Ruben Meerman, the surfing scientist, offers a large number of entertaining experiments to excite students about science. At the science tricks link, users can discover how to balance nine nails on the head of a 10th, make a balloon shish kebab, make a super-strength straw, and much more. After each trick, the website offers information on how and why it worked. Everyone will have fun with the primary science lesson plans, demonstrations, and challenging conundrums. The activities are easy to do and use materials that are readily available.

95

Is Teleportation a (quantum) mystery?  

E-print Network

Since its discovery quantum teleportation has often been seen as a manifestation, indeed the epitome, of the very paradoxical and mysterious nature of quantum theory itself. It is commonly regarded as genuinely quantum and essentially paradoxical. Although a common approach to teleportation amongst physicists nowadays is a somewhat operational one, some researchers are making an effort to deflate the above views. On the one hand, it was recently argued that the paradox of information transfer taking place in teleportation is dissolved (Timpson, 2006) by appealing the very notion of information. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that some classical versions of teleportation retain its important features, which hitherto were considered genuinely quantum (Cohen, 2003; Collins&Popescu, 2002; Hardy, 1999; Mor, 2006; Spekkens, 2007). I will present a special version of a quantum teleportation protocol which is in a sense split into classical and quantum steps. This description provides us with a unified picture of teleportation in both domains. It will be explicitly shown how classical teleportation is embedded in the quantum protocol. Moreover, the classical step can be successfully accomplished even if the state shared by the parties is completely disentangled [this is consistent with the result obtained in (Wang, 2005)]. Yet, all the (apparent) paradoxical features usually associated with quantum teleportation are clearly present in this step. In particular, this demonstrates that entanglement cannot be ultimately responsible and not necessary for the (paradoxical?) information transfer. Thus, even if one considers teleportation as mysterious, all its mysteries are shifted from quantum domain into purely classical one.

Berry Groisman

2008-06-10

96

Teaching physics mysteries versus pseudoscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interpretation of quantum mechanics (and the encounter with consciousness) is contentious and has been called ``physics' skeleton in the closet.'' The reluctance of physicists to share this enigma with students and with the larger public has left the discussion open to the wild claims of purveyors of pseudoscience. The movie ``What the Bleep'' is a recent example. Bringing the enigma into the open is the best way to combat pseudoscience and share the true, deep mysteries that physics has uncovered. I will discuss my own experience and that of colleagues with ways of presenting this material to physics majors, non-majors, and the public.

Kuttner, Fred

2007-04-01

97

Halley's Legacy: The Selfless Genius Who Founded Geophysics, Led the Science Community to Solve the Problem of Finding Longitude at Sea, and Whose Work in Areas from Geomagnetism to Planetology Still Has Meaning For Today's Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2005 marks the 300th anniversary of Edmond Halley's publication of his infamous synopsis predicting the accurate return of the comet that would come to bear his name. On this occasion, it is time to remember him not only as the founder of geophysics but for his contributions to the world of science beyond his comet work. Halley's comet-transformed by the first triumph of the Newtonian revolution from a dire supernatural omen to a predictable element of the universe's clockwork-remains a recurring symbol of the scientific age of the Enlightenment. His comet is hurtling through space at some 20,000 miles per hour and won't be back until 2061. But it can remind us of past epochs and everlastingly of Halley's contributions to geophysics and the world of science writ large. For a start, Halley completed a series of little known sea voyages in his effort to solve one of his life-long quests: the problem of determining longitude at sea. On the basis of his earlier theories on magnetism, his approach entailed mapping the magnetic deviation across the test-bed of the Atlantic Ocean. In this paper, his findings from the voyages, which technically comprised the first science mission funded by a government and stand as the forerunner of all big science projects, will be reconsidered and put into the context of today's notions about terrestrial magnetism, including the geodynamo. To this day, scientists remain perplexed about exactly how core's dynamo regenerates its energy. When Halley was sailing his vessel, the Paramore, across the North Atlantic and making the first charts of geomagnetism, little did he ever imagine magnetism would underpin today's stunning advances in information technology and electromagnetic engineering. Magnetism also offers ways to study phase transitions, random disorder, and physics in low dimensions, which looks at particle interactions at ever higher energies in order to essentially study matter at smaller and smaller size scales. The presentation will also give an overview of his legacy to geophysics, which includes his contributions to meteorology, hydrology, ocean sciences, among other disciplines.

Wakefield, J.

2005-12-01

98

Mathematics is a mysterious and challenging subject. Why would you major in it?  

E-print Network

- tage in non-mathematical careers. A study by The Chronicle of Higher Education shows mathematics majors at careers that involve abstract reasoning and creative problem solving. A mathematics degree certifiesMathematics is a mysterious and challenging subject. Why would you major in it? The fact that you

Hammack, Richard

99

Solving problems with technology  

E-print Network

Science? What makes a good computer scientist? #12;Why Computer Science? To Change the World! Empower People to be their own business and sell world-wide! Empower People to spread their own convictionsSolving problems with technology: Computer Science! by: Saiph and Veronika #12;What is Computer

California at Santa Barbara, University of

100

Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery  

E-print Network

1 Citation: Levine, Stuart. (2012) Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery [Kindle Edition]. Amazon Digital Services, Amazon.com. Published version: http://www.amazon.com/Killing-Okaraygua-Inspector-Irronogaray- ebook...

Levine, Stuart

2012-09-05

101

Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell  

MedlinePLUS

... Hearing Disorders Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... a teenager that took away her sense of smell. Photo courtesy of Malone University Imagine, if you ...

102

From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constru

Frissell, Virginia

2010-02-01

103

The mystery of language evolution  

PubMed Central

Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

Hauser, Marc D.; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C.; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J.; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C.

2014-01-01

104

The mystery of language evolution.  

PubMed

Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

Hauser, Marc D; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C

2014-01-01

105

6/26/12 Scientists rethink old ideas about the moon -The Boston Globe 1/2www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2012/06/24/scientists_rethink_old_ideas_about_the_moon/?...  

E-print Network

6/26/12 Scientists rethink old ideas about the moon - The Boston Globe 1/2www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2012/06/24/scientists_rethink_old_ideas_about_the_moon/?... A giant leap in interest in the moon By Carolyn Y. Johnson Globe Staff June 24, 2012 As scientific mysteries go, the moon has long seemed a closed

Weiss, Benjamin P.

106

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

107

Pump thrombosis—A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma  

PubMed Central

This manuscript reviews the state of the art regarding the subject of pump thrombosis (PT). The historical context of PT and the clinical data are described, the etiologic factors are elucidated, preventive strategies are explored, diagnostic modalities are reviewed, and management principles are defined. There clearly remains much work to be done towards solving this riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma, but promising foundations are being established.

2014-01-01

108

NOVA: Mystery of the Megavolcano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As if the possibility of a regular volcanic eruption wasn't disturbing enough to some readers, it turns out that there is another class of volcano whose destructive power is much more frightening. Known to scientists as a supervolcano, this type of volcano produces at least 240 cubic miles of magma in a single eruption. A recent documentary produced by NOVA looks into the possibility of a recrudescence of such an ancient supervolcano, and attempts to offer a balanced and introspective portrait of these phenomena. Visitors can learn about historic eruptions of this magnitude on the site, and also consider an interactive slide show that provides information about Toba, a supervolcano that flourished on the island of Sumatra 75,000 years ago. Additionally, the site includes a number of tools for educators and a question and answer session with Dr. Drew Shindell, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies.

2006-01-01

109

Inspiring Future Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they compared their own methods of learning with those of scientists past and present. The results? The students discovered that anyone can be a scientist! Researching "how scientists learn" proved to be incredibly motivating to students and truly inspired them to consider science careers. This article describes their investigations during the six-day unit.

Betteley, Pat; Jr., Richard E.

2009-04-01

110

NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries  

ScienceCinema

Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

2014-08-12

111

Unraveling the Mystery of an Environmental Disease  

SciTech Connect

For many years, residents of farming villages along the Danube River basin suffered from a fatal kidney disease and an associated urinary tract cancer. The cause of the disease remained a mystery for more than 50 years. Recently, however, Arthur Grollman and his colleagues have determined that home-baked bread is implicated in the disease, known as Balkan endemic nephropathy.

Arthur Grollman

2008-05-15

112

THE FEASIBILITY OF IDENTIFYING MYSTERY OIL SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals ...

113

Putting a Little Mystery in Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posing mysteries is not just a gimmicky way to increase the entertainment value of a lesson; it taps into students' innate human desire to explore and learn about their environments. Instead of coming right out and providing students with the answers, teachers can build suspense, piquing students' natural curiosity. Teachers can guide students,…

Goodwin, Bryan; Ristvey, John

2011-01-01

114

Taking the "Mystery" Out of Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers have developed "tried and true" lessons that they look forward to teaching-- mystery powders is one that these authors like. Originally part of the Elementary Science Study curricula in the 1960s, there are now many different versions of this well-known activity in which students examine physical and chemical properties of…

Lee, Eun Ju; Cite, Suleyman; Hanuscin, Deborah

2014-01-01

115

From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constructivist approach, students can explore and construct their learning as they continue to use…

Frissell, Virginia

2010-01-01

116

Who killed Gopher? An extensible murder mystery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyone knew there had to be an easier way to use the Internet than the Unix shell experience, mind you, but original editions of the Gopher and HyperText Transfer Protocols were painfully trivial hacks that did nothing FTP didn't already handle. So here begins our mysterious tale: why either protocol ever rose to prominence in the first place; and how

R. Khare

1999-01-01

117

The Magic and Mysteries of Water  

E-print Network

The Magic and Mysteries of Water Speaker: Prof. Geri Richmond University of Oregon Water is ubiquitous in our lives. Covering more than two thirds of this planet, water surfaces provide a unique role in controlling our climate. In our bodies, water is the `canal of life', transporting and passing

Richmond, Geraldine L.

118

The Responsibility of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several kinds of responsibilities scientists have, including moral/ethical responsibilities related to research methodology. Areas addressed include use of science in war, approaches to decision-making, scientists and smoking, importance of education related to social responsibility. (JN)

Williams, W. F.

1983-01-01

119

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of videos is designed to showcase classrooms in which the NCTM Process Standards are evident. Scroll to video #48, Problem Solving, and select the "VoD" box to view this half-hour video. It includes 13 classroom excerpts from lessons that illustrate students investigating and learning mathematics through problem solving. Teachers share their approaches and observations.

Boston, Wgbh

1997-01-01

120

Mysterious Lava Mineral on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This graph or spectrum captured by the Moessbauer spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the presence of three different iron-bearing minerals in the soil at the rover's landing site. One of these minerals has been identified as olivine, a shiny green rock commonly found in lava on Earth. The other two have yet to be pinned down. Scientists were puzzled by the discovery of olivine because it implies the soil consists at least partially of ground up rocks that have not been weathered or chemically altered. The black line in this graph represents the original data; the three colored regions denote individual minerals and add up to equal the black line.

The Moessbauer spectrometer uses two pieces of radioactive cobalt-57, each about the size of pencil erasers, to determine with a high degree of accuracy the composition and abundance of iron-bearing minerals in martian rocks and soil. It is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.'

2004-01-01

121

11/30/2006 02:40 PMUnderwater Times | Scientists Make, Mate Robot Tadpoles to Prove Propulsion Theory Page 1 of 3http://www.underwatertimes.com/news.php?article_id=79185432601  

E-print Network

://www.underwatertimes.com/news.php?article_id=79185432601 Name:* City, Country:* Scientists Stumped: Underwater Photographer Captures Picture of Mysterious' of Atlantis Stirs Debate; Scholars Gather to Debate Merits of Sardinia Theory Environmentalists Warn of Shark

Long Jr., John H.

122

Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass  

ScienceCinema

With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

Lincoln, Don

2014-06-03

123

GeoSleuth Murder Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activity begins by asking students to look at a drawing of a crime scene. The crime scene is specifically drawn so that illustrates several key geologic principals, but to the untrained eye it appears as a murder that took place inside an office. After quietly looking at the image for a few minutes alone, they share with a partner what they think happened. As a class, we record a list of "Observations," making sure to use the opportunity to highlight the difference between observation and interpretation. After we complete the list of observations, students then offer their interpretations about the sequence of events. Without using any new vocabulary, the teacher makes sure to highlight the geologic principles of original horizontality, superposition, cross cutting relations, and uniformitarianism in the students' interpretations. After students share enough competing theories, the professor shows slides of geologic examples that have things in common with parts of the crime scene and points out the similar processes. The activity eventually ends without a clear answer about "whodunnit." This open ending leaves students frustrated, but it really gets across the point that we can never know the exact answer to some problems, we can only come up with viable theories. Students continue to ask for months about what "really" happened, but I never tell them :-) Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Dalessio, Matthew

124

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to a systematic procedure for solving problems through a demonstration and then the application of the method to an everyday activity. The unit project is introduced to provide relevance to subsequent lessons.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

125

A WORLD OF SCIENCE AND MYSTERY  

E-print Network

them in exceptional detail. The photos also take the reader into the roosts of bats, from caves Press by phone at 1-800-621-2736 or by fax at 1-800-621-8476. BatsA World of Science and Mystery M. Brock Fenton And nAncy SiMMonS There are more than 1,300 species of bats--or almost a quar- ter

Mateo, Jill M.

126

Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story  

SciTech Connect

The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

Lawrence Krauss

2007-05-30

127

Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story  

ScienceCinema

The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

Lawrence Krauss

2010-09-01

128

Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

2014-01-01

129

MAD Scientist Network: Ask  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MAD Scientist Network is a collection of scientists from all over the country available to answer any of your science questions. Search the archive of over 25,000 questions, explore the MadSci Library for resources, demos and science fair project ideas, or read the FAQ that answers common questions, like why is the sky blue? Scientists will not answer homework questions, medical questions, or science fair project questions.

130

The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future  

SciTech Connect

The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

131

Volunteer senior scientists wanted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Association for the Advancement of Science plans to establish a nationwide program to involve older scientists as volunteers in public education, business, and government.The Senior Scientists and Engineers (SSE) program was originated by AAAS in response to projected shortages of experienced scientists in many fields, and to draw on the large and rapidly growing population of post-retirement professional scientists. SSE began in 1988 as a pilot program in the Washington D.C. area run in conjunction with the American Association of Retired Persons.

132

Scientists Shaping the Discussion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

2011-12-01

133

Quantum Computing Computer Scientists  

E-print Network

Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists Noson S. Yanofsky and Mirco A. Mannucci #12;© May 2007 Noson S. Yanofsky Mirco A. Mannucci #12;Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists Noson S. Yanofsky of Vector Spaces 3 The Leap From Classical to Quantum 3.1 Classical Deterministic Systems 3.2 Classical

Yanofsky, Noson S.

134

Stories of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

Mascazine, John R.

2001-01-01

135

Growing Seeds and Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do young children develop their ideas about science and scientists' work in their first year of school? How do we teach them to believe they are real scientists? In this article, the authors--a university science educator, a kindergarten teacher, and a

Culp, Alicia M.; Smith, Deborah C.; Cowan, Jessica L.

2009-09-01

136

Scientists in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigeria and Kenya have pressed the development of scientific capacities within their nations. The challenges to which the first generation of scientists responded are being displaced by the need to consolidate advancements and justify investment in science and higher education. Thus, scientists are or will be scrutinized in this context.…

Eisemon, Thomas Owen

1980-01-01

137

The Case of the Mysterious Renters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students to identify ways in which water is used, determine how much water families use each day, recognize the importance of conserving water, and determine ways in which water can be conserved. The activity revolves around a simulated mystery in which the number of renters living in an apartment is determined by water usage. It is designed to lead students to recognize their own ability to make a difference in conserving and protecting our water resources and to make a life-long commitment to water stewardship.

138

Mystery Box: Making Observations and Collecting Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can use it to learn to differentiate between qualitative and quantitative observations and to practice data collection. In this activity, the learner works with a partner and describes and records the items in their mystery box. Low vision learners can practice using their vision to collect data by putting their objects in an open tub, while sighted learners can be encouraged to use their tactile senses by putting their objects in a closed box with access only for their hands to enter.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

139

Marine Mystery: A Watery Who-dunnit!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the causes of coral reef destruction by assuming various character roles in this marine murder-mystery. As they determine who killed Seymour Coral, students learn the basics of DNA testing. Suspects include global warming, sedimentation, and other threats facing coral reefs today. This activity is designed for 15 students, but can be modified for 12ÃÂ24 students. A narrated PowerPoint that provides background information on coral reefs can be shared in advance in a separate lesson. The total class time for the PowerPoint, skit, and pre- and post-surveys is about 100 minutes.

2012-01-01

140

Is human aging still mysterious enough to be left only to scientists?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thefeasibilityofreversinghumanagingwithinamatterof decades has traditionally been dismissed by all profes- sional biogerontologists, on the grounds that not only is aging still poorly understood, but also many of those aspects that we do understand are not reversible by any current or foreseeable therapeutic regimen. This broad consensus has recently been challenged by the publica- tion, by five respected experimentalists in diverse

John W. Baynes; David Berd; Christopher B. Heward; Graham Pawelec; Gregory Stock

2002-01-01

141

Ask-A-Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ask-A-Scientist is a Windows to the Universe feature that provides answers to users' submitted science questions. Users can check out the most recent questions answered on the first page of the Ask-A-Scientist section of Windows to the Universe, search the Ask-A-Scientist Archives to peruse questions on topics such as Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the Solar System, the Universe, physics, and biology, and send their own science questions to the Windows to the Universe scientists. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

142

Spotlight on Scientists Videos  

Cancer.gov

NCI scientists, from postdoctoral fellows to principal investigators, discuss various topics including their personal backgrounds, how they came to be in the field of cancer research, their current projects, and a look to the future of medical oncology.

143

Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, Science to the Rescue (Markle 1

Porter, Diana

2009-10-01

144

COSEE Southeast: Scientist's Niche  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists can get help engaging in K-16 education efforts from this resource. It provides information and publications on how researchers can get involved in education, and contains a link to the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories (SAML).

145

Ask a Climate Scientist  

NASA Video Gallery

Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

146

Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

2008-11-01

147

222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.

1995-01-01

148

Goddard Visiting Scientist Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

2000-01-01

149

The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined

Banmali Banerjee

2010-01-01

150

2222NDNDNDND JAPANESE-RUSSIANJAPANESE-RUSSIANJAPANESE-RUSSIANJAPANESE-RUSSIAN YOUNG SCIENTISTS CONFERENCEYOUNG SCIENTISTS CONFERENCEYOUNG SCIENTISTS CONFERENCEYOUNG SCIENTISTS CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

2222NDNDNDND JAPANESE-RUSSIANJAPANESE-RUSSIANJAPANESE-RUSSIANJAPANESE-RUSSIAN YOUNG SCIENTISTS. The "1st Russian-Japanese Young Scientists Conference on Nano-technologies and Nano-materials" was held of the 2nd Japanese-Russian Young Scientists Conference on Nano-Materials andYoung Scientists Conference

Maruyama, Shigeo

151

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

2011-01-01

152

Jalal Rastegary Research Scientist  

E-print Network

), Reviewer for Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science Review (BRJASR) #12;Jalal Rastegary Research Scientist Collage of Engineering Institute for Energy and the Environment Obispo, CA 1987 M.S. Agriculture, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 2007 Ph

Johnson, Eric E.

153

Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

Gordon, Wendy

2014-02-01

154

Becoming a Spider Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

2008-01-01

155

Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control invasive plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potenti

Villano, Christine P.; Spellman, Katie V.

2011-01-01

156

Scientists and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

When disasters, even natural ones, have a chemical or nuclear dimension, scientists play a major role in their management. Presents the results of research on Canadian disasters, and includes other cases of disasters that occurred around the world. Discusses the experts? role in decisions related to the response: how to identify a specific product, its impact on health, for example,

Hélène Denis

1995-01-01

157

Scientists on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.

158

Scientists in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

High school science is often the first time students are presented with the scientific method as a tool to assist discovery. I aim to help students `think like a scientist', through my role as a graduate student NSF GK-12 fellow in the Ocean and Coastal Interdisciplinary Science (OACIS) program, where I am paired with a high school science teacher and

J. Lundin

2009-01-01

159

Curriculum Vitae Physical Scientist  

E-print Network

Abbott (COAS). 2009-2011 Student Services, U.S. Geological Sur- vey, Corvallis, Oregon Regional climate un- der climate change. in prep Hostetler, S.W., Alder, J.R. and Allan, A.M., 2011, DynamicallyJay Alder Curriculum Vitae Physical Scientist U.S. Geological Survey College of Earth, Ocean

160

Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter

2010-01-01

161

Teaming Up with Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

2001-01-01

162

Becoming a computer scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that women are significantly underrepresented in scientific fields in the United States, and computer science is no exception. As of 1987- 1988, women constituted slightly more than half of the U.S. population and 45% of employed workers in the U.S., but they made up only 30% of employed computer scientists. Moreover, they constituted only 10% of

Amy Pearl; Martha E. Pollack; Eve A. Riskin; Elizabeth Wolf; Becky Thomas; Alice Wu

1990-01-01

163

Jeffrey Sachs Scientists &  

E-print Network

lofty. It is lofty. But a poverty of ambition isn't going to prevent the deaths of 30,000 children daily & Entertainers Builders & Titans Heroes & Icons Introduction Essay FROM THE ARCHIVE Scientists & Thinkers from might be able to change the world we inhabit. The title of his new book, The End of Poverty, sounds

Khatiwala, Samar

164

Scientists in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High school science is often the first time students are presented with the scientific method as a tool to assist discovery. I aim to help students ‘think like a scientist’, through my role as a graduate student NSF GK-12 fellow in the Ocean and Coastal Interdisciplinary Science (OACIS) program, where I am paired with a high school science teacher and their classes for the year. To help students gain a familiarity and understanding of how scientists approach research, I will (1) utilize technology, including youtube, powerpoint, and research modeling applications; (2) bring in experts from the University to demonstrate the diversity of the science community; (3) connect with the classroom research from meetings, journals and reports. The goal is to broaden the scope of how research science is conducted, but also to allow individual students to be involved in projects, from developing a hypothesis to presenting their data. A survey at the beginning of the academic year and a survey before the AGU Fall meeting will be compared to assess the influence of having a research scientist present. Results will include how students view of science and scientists has changed, feedback on how successfully technology has improved students’ comprehension, and ideas for making science approachable for diverse high school learners.

Lundin, J.

2009-12-01

165

Mystery Material: Is it a solid or a liquid?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an investigation of a "mystery material" where students have to determine whether the substance is a solid or a liquid. This activity can be done as part of an earth science or chemistry lesson.

166

Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

167

The mystery of missing heritability: Genetic interactions create phantom heritability  

E-print Network

Human genetics has been haunted by the mystery of “missing heritability” of common traits. Although studies have discovered >1,200 variants associated with common diseases and traits, these variants typically appear to ...

Sunyaev, Shamil R.

168

Investigating Nature's Mysteries for Drug Development  

Cancer.gov

More than half of the drugs approved to treat cancer come from a natural product or a natural product prototype. Scientists in NCI-Frederick's Natural Products Branch are exploring ways to harness chemicals produced by marine invertebrates, other animals, plants, and microbes for cancer drug discovery.

169

Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

SciTech Connect

In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

2012-04-23

170

Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema

In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

2014-05-06

171

[The critical scientists' voice].  

PubMed

The intricate debate over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves powerful economic interests, as well as ethical, legal, emotional and scientific aspects, some of which are dealt with in this paper.(It is possible to identify two main groups of scientists across the GMOs divide: the triumphalist and the critical group.) Scientists in the triumphalist group state that GMOs and their derivatives are safe for the environment and do not offer health hazards any more than similar, non-genetically modified, products. This view is disputed by the critical scientists, who are prompted by the scarcity of studies on the environmental impacts and toxicity of GMOs, and who point out flaws in tests performed by the same companies which hold the patents. They are also critical of the current state of the process of gene transference, lacking accuracy, a fact which, coupled with the scant knowledge available about 97% of the genome functions, may produce unforseeable effects with risks for the environment and public health yet to be assessed. Examples of such effects are: the transference of alien genes [??] to other species, the emergence of toxins, the creation of new viruses, the impacts on beneficial insects and on biodiversity in general. PMID:16683329

Lewgoy, F

2000-01-01

172

Helping early career research scientists ascend the professional ladder.  

PubMed

The Keystone Symposia Early Career Investigator Travel Award initiative is a unique successful research mentoring program tailored for 'end of the pipeline' life and biomedical scientists from academia and industry. Using targeted educational, mentoring, and networking activities, the program benefits early career scientists in solving a specific laboratory-based research question that is limiting their evolving research and could increase their ability to obtain new grants and improve their career progression. PMID:23889774

King, Laina

2013-08-01

173

The mysterious HI deficiency of NGC 3175  

E-print Network

Australia Telescope Compact Array HI observations reveal the existence of 5.8x10^8 M_sun of HI gas in the central 7 kpc of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 3175. The detected HI and CO gas can explain why star formation, as traced by other emission processes, is going on in the inner part of its disk. On the other hand, the entire outer disk, beyond 3.5 kpc radius, shows no HI emission, has a very red colour and exhibits neither radio continuum nor H-alpha emission. This indicates that the outer part of NGC 3175 is quiescent, i.e. not forming stars at a measurable rate. Its HI deficiency and the small extent of the HI layer, which is confined to the boundaries of the optically visible disk, make NGC 3175 a peculiar spiral galaxy. No intergalactic HI gas in the NGC 3175 group was detected in our interferometric observations. Earlier Parkes telescope single dish HI observations put an upper limit on the amount of diffuse gas that might have been missed by the interferometer at 2x10^8 M_sun. On DSS plates no galaxy in the NGC 3175 group of galaxies (Garcia 1993) is close enough to it and none exhibits disturbances that could indicate a close interaction which might have led to the stripping of large parts of its HI gas. Thus, despite an extensive multi-wavelength investigation, the reason for the unusual absence of HI and star formation activity in the outer disk of NGC 3175 remains an intriguing mystery.

Michael Dahlem; Matthias Ehle; Stuart Ryder

2001-03-06

174

Mystery shopping in health service evaluation.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Over the last 5 years, primary care telephone triage systems have been introduced in the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and most recently in New Zealand. Evaluation of the clinical safety of such systems poses a challenge for health planners and researchers. AIM: To evaluate the use of simulated patients in the assessment of aspects of clinical safety in a pilot New Zealand primary care telephone triage service. DESIGN OF STUDY: 'Mystery shopping', an evaluation strategy commonly used in market research, was adapted by using simulated patients for telephone triage service evaluation. SETTING: New Zealand. METHODS: Four scripted clinical scenarios were developed by academic general practitioners, validated in student teaching situations, and then used by simulated patients to make 101 telephone calls. The scenarios were designed to necessitate a referral to a medical practitioner for further investigation. The documentation kept by the callers was compared with the call records from the telephone triage company, and both were analysed for capture and handling of the clinical safety features of each scenario. In cases where the endpoint was not a medical assessment, possible reasons for this were explored. RESULTS: Records were retrieved for 85 telephone calls. Considerable triage variability was discovered. There were discrepancies between expected and actual triage outcomes with 51% of analysed calls resulting in a self-care recommendation. A number of reasons were identified both for the triage variability and the unpredicted outcomes. Audiotaping of consultations would have enhanced the credibility of the evaluation but it would have carried ethical constraints. CONCLUSION: Simulated patients can be used to evaluate the limitations of health services and to identify areas that could be addressed to improve patient safety. Evaluation of patient satisfaction with services is not sufficient alone to evaluate safety. PMID:14960218

Moriarty, Helen; McLeod, Deborah; Dowell, Anthony

2003-01-01

175

Deciphering the mystery of thalidomide teratogenicity.  

PubMed

Thalidomide was originally developed in 1954 as a sedative that was commonly used to ameliorate morning sickness. However, thalidomide exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy caused multiple birth defects (e.g. phocomelia and amelia), affecting ? 10,000 children worldwide in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Thalidomide is now recognized as a clinically effective, albeit strictly restricted, drug for the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma. Investigators have studied thalidomide teratogenicity for half a century, proposing over 30 hypotheses to account for its actions. Among these, the anti-angiogenesis and oxidative stress models have gained widespread support. Nonetheless, the precise molecular mechanisms and direct targets of thalidomide have not heretofore been elucidated. We developed ferrite-glycidyl methacrylate beads that enable magnetic separation and efficient purification of ligand-binding molecules; the beads were recently employed to identify cereblon as a primary target of thalidomide. Cereblon forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with DDB1, Cul4A, and Roc1, which is important for the expression of fibroblast growth factor 8, an essential regulator of limb development. Expression of a drug binding-deficient mutant of cereblon suppressed thalidomide-induced effects in zebrafish and chicks. This suggests that thalidomide downregulates fibroblast growth factor 8 expression and induces limb malformation by binding to wild-type cereblon, inhibiting the function of the associated E3 ubiquitin ligase. The present review summarizes the teratogenicity of thalidomide, including existing models for its mode of action, and discusses the identification of cereblon as a key molecule for deciphering the longstanding mystery of thalidomide teratogenicity. PMID:22348778

Ito, Takumi; Handa, Hiroshi

2012-03-01

176

Third Dredge-up in Low Mass Stars: Solving the LMC Carbon Star Mystery  

E-print Network

A long standing problem with asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star models has been their inability to produce the low-luminosity carbon stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Dredge-up must begin earlier and extend deeper. We find this for the first time in our models of LMC metallicity. Such features are not found in our models of SMC metallicity. The fully implicit and simultaneous stellar evolution code STARS has been used to calculate the evolution of AGB stars with metallicities of Z=0.008 and Z=0.004, corresponding to the observed metallicities of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, respecitively. Third dredge-up occurs in stars of 1Msol and above and carbon stars were found for models between 1Msol and 3Msol. We use the detailed models as input physics for a population synthesis code and generate carbon star luminosity functions. We now find that we are able to reproduce the carbon star luminosity function of the LMC without any manipulation of our models. The SMC carbon star luminosity function still cannot be produced from our detailed models unless the minimum core mass for third dredge-up is reduced by 0.06Msol.

Richard J. Stancliffe; Robert G. Izzard; Christopher A. Tout

2004-10-08

177

Man's Best Friend? Using Animal Bones to Solve an Archaeological Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students learn how archaeology operates as an historical science by collecting and analyzing material evidence to make claims about the past. Assuming the role of zooarchaeologists, they evaluate a hypothetical case in which “Dr. Jasper Eraillure” shocks the world by claiming a canid skull he has found at a Neanderthal site is actually that of a domestic dog. Students analyze modern skulls from wild and domestic canids, and develop a set of criteria for determining whether the “unknown” canid skull belonged to a domestic dog. They further explore the reasons behind the divergence between wild and domestic dog populations and evaluate the potential impact of Dr. Eraillure’s assertions on our understanding of the past. The case was designed for an introductory course in archaeology, but could be adpated for use in an introductory biology course.

Scharf, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

178

Echoes of an Explosive Past: Solving the Mystery of the First Superluminal Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical nova GK Persei rivaled the brightness of Vega at the peak of its outburst in 1901. Early observations showed it to possess optical nebulosities apparently expanding at super-light velocities, later explained as ``light echoes.'' Indeed, it was the first astronomical source in which such motion was observed. Subsequently, the expanding nova remnant has turned out to be the longest lived and most energetic among the classical novae and appears more like a supernova remnant (SNR) in miniature but evolving on human timescales. Here we report the results of multifrequency observations and archival research that confirm the presence of an ancient planetary nebula (PN), with an apparent hourglass morphology, ejected by the nova in a previous phase of evolution and into which the nova ejecta are now running. The 1901 nova outburst is therefore the first of ultimately very many that this system will undergo. Furthermore, from measurements of the proper motion of the central binary we can now understand the asymmetries observed both in the outer (ancient planetary) and inner (1901 nova ejecta) nebulae and their relationship to the longest lived of the light echoes first observed around 100 years ago. GK Persei may therefore be an important key to our understanding of interacting binary, PN, and SNR evolution.

Bode, M. F.; O'Brien, T. J.; Simpson, M.

2004-01-01

179

Of mice and men: solving the molecular mysteries of Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the manipulation of mouse embryos provide opportunities for the disciplines of neuroscience and molecular genetics to join forces and tackle some previously intractable questions in this area of research. Even Huntington's disease has started to yield clues to its complex pathophysiology as a result of the recent application of transgenic technologies. This short review, while necessarily providing some background clinical information on Huntington's disease, will focus on how modifications of the mouse genome have contributed, and are continuing to contribute, to our understanding of the complex disease process. Such new insights may well turn the hope of developing the first effective treatment for this devastating disease into reality. PMID:10923992

SHELBOURNE, P. F.

2000-01-01

180

How Old is "Cinder Cone" - Solving a Mystery in Lassen Volcanic Park, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the controversy surrounding the age of Cinder Cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park. This report follows the beginning of the controversy in the 1870s through recent discoveries about when the volcano was formed. Early geologic studies are covered, as well as the recent findings through paleomagnetism, field and laboratory work and by reinterpreting data from previous studies.

Clynne, Michael; Champion, Duane; Trimble, Deborah; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

181

Protoplanetary dust porosity and FU Orionis Outbursts: Solving the mystery of Earth's missing volatiles  

E-print Network

The Earth is known to be depleted in volatile lithophile elements in a fashion that defies easy explanation. We resolve this anomaly with a model that combines the porosity of collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks with heating from FU Orionis events that dramatically raise protoplanetary disk temperatures. The heating from an FU Orionis event alters the aerodynamical properties of the dust while evaporating the volatiles. This causes the dust to settle, abandoning those volatiles. The success of this model in explaining the elemental composition of the Earth is a strong argument in favor of highly porous collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks outside our Solar System. Further, it demonstrates how thermal (or condensation based) alterations of dust porosity, and hence aerodynamics, can be a strong factor in planet formation, leading to the onset of rapid gravitational instabilities in the dust disk and the subsequent collapse that forms planetesimals.

Hubbard, Alexander

2014-01-01

182

Protoplanetary dust porosity and FU Orionis outbursts: Solving the mystery of Earth’s missing volatiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is known to be depleted in volatile lithophile elements in a fashion that defies easy explanation. We resolve this anomaly with a model that combines the porosity of collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks with heating from FU Orionis events that dramatically raise protoplanetary disk temperatures. The heating from an FU Orionis event alters the aerodynamical properties of the dust while evaporating the volatiles. This causes the dust to settle, abandoning those volatiles. The success of this model in explaining the elemental composition of the Earth is a strong argument in favor of highly porous collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks outside our Solar System. Further, it demonstrates how thermal (or condensation based) alterations of dust porosity, and hence aerodynamics, can be a strong factor in planet formation, leading to the onset of rapid gravitational instabilities in the dust disk and the subsequent collapse that forms planetesimals.

Hubbard, Alexander; Ebel, Denton S.

2014-07-01

183

Epoetin-associated pure red cell aplasia in patients with chronic kidney disease: solving the mystery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial increase in the incidence of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) associated with recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) treatment occurred in 1998. The upsurge of antibody-mediated PRCA was almost exclusively associated with chronic kidney disease patients who received subcutaneous epoetin therapy and the formulation of epoetin-a distributed outside the USA (EPREX\\/ERYPO). A systematic programme of technical, immunological and epide- miological

Katia Boven; John Knight; Fred Bader; J erome Rossert; Kai-Uwe Eckardt; Nicole Casadevall

184

Solving the mystery of human sleep schedules one mutation at a time  

PubMed Central

Sleep behavior remains one of the most enigmatic areas of life. The unanswered questions range from “why do we sleep?” to “how we can improve sleep in today's society?” Identification of mutations responsible for altered circadian regulation of human sleep lead to unique opportunities for probing these territories. In this review, we summarize causative circadian mutations found from familial genetic studies to date. We also describe how these mutations mechanistically affect circadian function and lead to altered sleep behaviors, including shifted or shortening of sleep patterns. In addition, we discuss how the investigation of mutations can not only expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the circadian clock and sleep duration, but also bridge the pathways between clock/sleep and other human physiological conditions and ailments such as metabolic regulation and migraine headaches. PMID:24001255

Hallows, William C.; Ptacek, Louis J.; Fu, Ying-Hui

2014-01-01

185

Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

Polland, Mark J.

186

Exploring scientists' working timetable: Do scientists often work overtime?  

E-print Network

A novel method is proposed to monitor and record scientists' working timetable. We record the downloads information of scientific papers real-timely from Springer round the clock, and try to explore scientists' working habits. As our observation demonstrates, many scientists are still engaged in their research after working hours every day. Many of them work far into the night, even till next morning. In addition, research work also intrudes into their weekends. Different working time patterns are revealed. In the US, overnight work is more prevalent among scientists, while Chinese scientists mostly have busy weekends with their scientific research.

Wang, Xianwen; Peng, Lian; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Chuanli; Zhang, Chunbo; Wang, Xianbing; 10.1016/j.joi.2012.07.003

2012-01-01

187

Career Explorations: Solar Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about science careers. Learners will answer questions prior to and after viewing an online video about careers for solar scientists and astronomers. This activity requires access to the Internet and, ideally, a method of projecting the video onto a screen and for playing the audio. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 2-4 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

188

Eisenhower, Scientists, and Sputnik  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 4, 1957, the Russians launched a 184-pound satellite into Earth orbit. This event had a tremendous impact on Americans as it called into question the capability of U. S. science v'is-a-v'is that of the Russians. President Dwight D. Eisenhower called ``his scientists'' to the Oval Office and a meeting took place that Hans Bethe has called an ``unforgettable hour.'' I. I. Rabi, Chairman of the Science Advisory Committee made several proposals to President Eisenhower which the President accepted immediately. Today, 50-years later, we are still living with the legacy of Sputnik.

Rigden, John S.

2007-04-01

189

The Scientist - Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientist magazine is written for life science professionals, but promises it to be "concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining." The magazine's online version has a great Multimedia section on its website that has "Videos," "Slideshows," and "Infographics." Visitors shouldn't miss the story titled "Bat Hunt" from the January 2012 issue, which profiles a mammologist working in the South Sudan. The photographs in included this story are excellent, and visitors will be amazed by the photo of the wide-eyed fruit bat cradling its baby. Back on the homepage, the Infographics section contains stories accompanied by colorful, easy-to-follow diagrams, and it is also well worth a look.

2012-01-20

190

Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

191

The Dismal Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dismal Scientist, provided by Dismal Sciences, is a web site aimed at college students interested in the US economy. The site provides a "quick summary of major economic releases, along with an economist's perspective on its implications" and a summary table of the main indicators. It also contains regional data for all 50 states, Washington D.C., and 257 metro areas which can be ranked by different criteria. Other features include historical and forecast information for various geographical level variables and an economic data series dictionary.

1997-01-01

192

Students as Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through two lessons and their associated activities, students do the work of scientists by designing their own experiments to answer questions they generate. Through a simple activity involving surface tension, students learn what a hypothesis isâand isn'tâand why generating a hypothesis is an important aspect of the scientific method. In the second activity, with bubble gum to capture their interest, students learn to design and conduct controlled experiments to answer their own questions about the amounts of sugar (or artificial sweetener) in bubble or chewing gum.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

193

Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program  

SciTech Connect

The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

Sharlin, H.I.

1992-09-01

194

Another Kind of Scientist Activism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

Marino, Lori

2009-01-01

195

Developmental Potential among Creative Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world of creative scientists is dramatically different in the 21st century than it was during previous centuries. Whether biologists, chemists, physicists, engineers, mathematicians, or computer scientists, the livelihood of research scientists is dependent on their abilities of creative expression. The view of a solitary researcher who…

Culross, Rita R.

2008-01-01

196

THE SCIRUN PROBLEM SOLVING ENVIRONMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL STEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

. SCIRun allows a scientist or engineer to interactively steer a computation, changing parameters, a scientist or engineer can rapidly investigate the solution space for iterative computational design problemsTHE SCIRUN PROBLEM SOLVING ENVIRONMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL STEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEM by Steven Gregory

Parker, Steven G.

197

THE SCIRUN PROBLEM SOLVING ENVIRONMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL STEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

software system. SCIRun allows a scientist or engineer to interactively steer a computation, changing such an environment, a scientist or engineer can rapidly investigate the solution space for iterative computationalTHE SCIRUN PROBLEM SOLVING ENVIRONMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL STEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEM by Steven Gregory

Parker, Steven G.

198

Meissl Memorial Senior Scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in 1976, the Committee on Geodesy of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council has administered a Senior Scientist Program supported by the National Geodetic Survey of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Under this program, awardees have spent up to a year in residence at the National Geodetic Survey, conducting research in geodesy and related fields. Through the summer of 1984, 15 prominent scientists have participated, producing more than 20 papers published in a NOAA publications series or in professional journals.The second awardee was Peter Meissl, Professor of Geodesy at the Technical University of Graz, Austria, who spent 8 months during 1977 at the National Geodetic Survey. His work, “A Priori Prediction of Roundoff Error Accumulation in the Solution of a Super-Large Geodetic Normal Equation System,” was released as a NOAA professional paper, published hardbound as an acknowledgment of the permanence of the achievement. His contribution was so outstanding that he was invited to return for the summer of 1982. But, tragically, in May 1982 he was killed in a mountain-climbing accident near Graz.

199

The Mysterious Martian Mountains of Mitchel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image covers an 800 by 300 km (500 by 190 mi) area located deep within the boundary of the seasonal south polar frost cap of Mars. Centered at 70oS, 320oW, this view--taken in early spring when sunlight has just begun to shine on the region for the first time in many months--includes a bright region (diagonal from center-left to lower right) known for nearly two centuries as the 'Mountains of Mitchel.' This feature was named for Ormsby McKnight Mitchel (1809-1862), an astronomer at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, who discovered it while observing Mars through a telescope in 1846. Mitchel noticed that this area is typically 'left behind' as a bright peninsula when the rest of the polarcap recedes past this area later in the spring.

Mitchel deduced that this area might be mountainous because it seemed analogous to the snow that is left on Earth's mountain ranges in late spring and into summer. Snow can remain on high peaks because the air temperature decreases with elevation (or altitude). MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations of this region show the bright 'Mountains of Mitchel' to be a somewhat elevated region of rough, heavily cratered southern highlands. However, the 'Mountains of Mitchel' do not appear to be mountains-there are other areas nearby at similar elevation that do not retain frost well into southern spring. Part of the Mountains of Mitchel feature includes a prominent, south-facing scarp (at center-left) that would tend to retain frost longer in the spring because it is somewhat protected from sunlight (which comes from the north). The persistence of frost on the Mountains of Mitchel remains mysterious, but new observations from the MGS MOC are helping to unravel the story. Thus far, it seems that the frost here--for whatever reason--tends to be brighter than frost in most other places within the polar cap. This brighter frost reflects sunlight and thus sublimes more slowly than adjacent, darker frost surfaces.

This color picture was compiled from MOC red and blue wide angle images. North is up and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The surface does not appear to be white--as might be expected for frost--because of dust both on the surface and in the atmosphere, as well dark sand that was being exposed from beneath the retreating frost at the time that the picture was taken.

1999-01-01

200

78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum,'' imported from abroad...display of the exhibit objects at The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD, from on or...

2013-07-26

201

Ask a Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is able to attract many of the top scientists from around the world. It makes sense that they would also draw upon this collective acumen to help young people learn about what they do. Visitors can submit their own questions for these professionals or look at questions that have already been answered. First-time visitors can start with the Top Ten Questions to get started on their journey. There are actually sixty questions answered here, as there are six sections, including Animals, General Biology, Evolution, and Genetics. The questions answered here are a diverse lot, ranging from "Why is there no mammal with green fur?" to "Why is memory affected by age?" The answers are lucid, well-written, and quite thorough. The generally curious will not be disappointed by this site.

2012-01-01

202

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

203

The mystery of Morgellons disease: infection or delusion?  

PubMed

Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder that was first described more than 300 years ago. The disease is characterized by fiber-like strands extruding from the skin in conjunction with various dermatologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this respect, Morgellons disease resembles and may be confused with delusional parasitosis. The association with Lyme disease and the apparent response to antibacterial therapy suggest that Morgellons disease may be linked to an undefined infectious process. Further clinical and molecular research is needed to unlock the mystery of Morgellons disease. PMID:16489838

Savely, Virginia R; Leitao, Mary M; Stricker, Raphael B

2006-01-01

204

Mystery Motivator: a Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention.  

PubMed

This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator-an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention-as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing criterion design, and the effectiveness of the intervention was assessed for an 8-week period. The frequency of disruptive behavior in all classrooms decreased. Teacher intervention acceptability data indicated seven of eight teachers found the intervention to be acceptable. Overall, data indicated the Mystery Motivator intervention was a powerful intervention for reducing disruptive behaviors in elementary classrooms. PMID:23895318

Kowalewicz, Eva A; Coffee, Gina

2014-06-01

205

The Murder Mystery Method for Determining Whether a Vector Field is Conservative  

E-print Network

The Murder Mystery Method for Determining Whether a Vector Field is Conservative Tevian Dray;method, which we call the murder mystery method, in our own classes for many years; students love it this to students as a murder mystery. A crime has been committed by the unknown murderer f ; your job is to find

206

Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA Image of SS 433: Red-and-Blue Line Shows Path of Constant-Speed Jets. Note Poor Match of Path to Image. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF SS 433 Same Image, With Colored Beads Representing Particle Ejections at Different Speeds. Particle Path Now Matches. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click Here for Page of Full-Sized Graphics The new VLA image shows two full turns of the jets' corkscrew on both sides of the core. Analyzing the image showed that if material came from the core at a constant speed, the jet paths would not accurately match the details of the image. "By simulating ejections at varying speeds, we were able to produce an exact match to the observed structure," Blundell explained. The scientists first did their match to one of the jets. "We then were stunned to see that the varying speeds that matched the structure of one jet also exactly reproduced the other jet's path," Blundell said. Matching the speeds in the two jets reproduced the observed structure even allowing for the fact that, because one jet is moving more nearly away from us than the other, it takes light longer to reach us from it, she added. The astrophysicists speculate that the changes in ejection speed may be caused by changes in the rate at which material is transferred from the companion star onto the accretion disk. The detailed new VLA image also allowed the astrophysicists to determine that SS 433 is nearly 18,000 light-years distant from Earth. Earlier estimates had the object, in the constellation Aquila, as near as 10,000 light-years. An accurate distance, the scientists said, now allows them to better determine the age of the shell of debris blown out by the supernova explosion that created the dense, compact object in the microquasar. Knowing the distance accurately also allows them to measure the actual brightness of the microquasar's components, and this, they said, improves their understanding of the physical processes at work in the system. The breakthrough image was made us

2004-10-01

207

Mystery Associated With Energetic Particle Injections During Substorms  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the long standing mysteries associated with substorms is how the information of field variation started in the mid-tail propagates into the inner magnetosphere. Furthermore, it is striking that the energetic particles injected earthward at a speed of 24 km\\/s (inside geostationary orbit) can still remain dispersionless (the fluxes of particles of different energies are enhanced at the same

X. Li; T. E. Sarris; D. N. Baker; M. A. Temerin; G. D. Reeves

2002-01-01

208

Stratospheric sulfate from El Chichon and the Mystery Volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratospheric sulfate was collected by high-altitude aircraft and balloons to assess the impacts of El Chichon and an unidentified volcano on the stratosphere. The Mystery Volcano placed about 0.85 Tg of sulfate in the northern hemisphere stratosphere. El Chicon injected about 7.6 Tg sulfate into the global stratosphere.

E. J. Mroz; A. S. Mason; W. A. Sedlacek

1983-01-01

209

Stratospheric sulfate from El Chichon and the Mystery Volcano  

SciTech Connect

Stratospheric sulfate was collected by high-altitude aircraft and balloons to assess the impacts of El Chichon and an unidentified volcano on the stratosphere. The Mystery Volcano placed about 0.85 Tg of sulfate in the northern hemisphere stratosphere. El Chicon injected about 7.6 Tg sulfate into the global stratosphere.

Mroz, E.J.; Mason, A.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

1983-09-01

210

Martian Mysteries Is there any life on Mars right now?  

E-print Network

Slide 1 Martian Mysteries � Is there any life on Mars right now? � Was there ever life on Mars? � Can humans live on Mars? � How would YOU find the answers? NOTES: Ask the students what kind of questions they have about Mars, telling them that you hope to get to all of their questions

Maxwell, Bruce D.

211

THE STATE. COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA A look at the mystery  

E-print Network

touched off a gold rush in South Carofina that has lasted, in fits and starts, right up to the present day in gold production. In the early days of the South Carolina gold rush, most of the gold was foundTHE STATE. COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA A look at the mystery of Carolina gold I n 1827, a plantation

Lovley, Derek

212

Mystery Mud: Exploring Changes in States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Join a group of middle-school students on a visit to a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they experiment with mystery mud and learn about the relationships between magnetism, particle motion, and changes in the state of matter.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2004-02-20

213

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identifying a mysterious aquatic fern gametophyte  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identifying a mysterious aquatic fern gametophyte Fay-Wei Li � Benito C. Tan � because of its ribbon-like thallus. How- ever, its antheridia are remarkably fern-like in morphology. To corroborate the hypothesis that Su¨�wassertang is a fern gametophyte and to determine its closest relative, we

214

Mysteries of the lightest nuclear systems R. Lazauskas,  

E-print Network

made in describing the structure of stable nuclei: two very powerful methods have been developed GreenNF,..), however nuclear binding energies being strongly correlated does not permit to form a fullMysteries of the lightest nuclear systems R. Lazauskas, CEA DAM/DIF/DPTA/SPN, B.P. 12, Bruy

Boyer, Edmond

215

The Passion of the Christ: A Modern Mystery Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a review article the author reflects upon the recent film by Mel Gibson in the tradition of the medieval mystery play. As the biblical story of human origins begins in a garden, so too does this story of the birth of a new creation brought into being by the suffering of Jesus. With an understanding and acceptance of Jesus'

Ronald Madden

2004-01-01

216

Unsolved Mystery Visual Trails: Do the Doors of Perception Open  

E-print Network

Unsolved Mystery Visual Trails: Do the Doors of Perception Open Periodically? Julien Dubois1 motion perception of unknown origin: the subject perceives a series of discrete stationary images potentially reveal how our brains update conscious visual perception in time. What Do Visual Trails Look Like

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

WILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World  

E-print Network

ancient objects from the Near East, Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, and Mesoamerica. Through close observationWILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World Grades 6-12 encounterart #12 experience with your classroom lessons. Tour Overview Artifacts can tell us about life in the ancient world

Aalberts, Daniel P.

218

The Secret Life of Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

2010-06-21

219

The Society for Amateur Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society for Amateur Scientists created this website to present its goal "to create unique collaborations between world-class professionals and citizen scientists and to remove the roadblocks that prevent ordinary people from participating in extraordinary science." The website features The Citizen Scientist, a weekly publication presenting news and projects from amateur scientists. Students can learn about the educational program, LABRats. Photographers can submit interesting images to the Society' Gallery. With so many tools and resources, everyone interested in science should visit this website.

220

Advocacy is scientists' responsibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In reading S. Fred Singer's comments in Forum (Eos, May 21, 1991) on the earlier letter by Kaula and Anderson on AGU's proper role in society (Eos, April 9, 1991), I find myself entirely in agreement with his admonition that AGU positions, in this case specifically on global warming, must add “a certain amount of political sophistication.” But while I cannot disagree with the view that geophysicists should confine their advice to matters in which they have expertise, I also wonder if any of us deserves criticism when, noting the difficulty political leaders have in connecting causes with effects, we yield occasionally to the temptation to stray beyond mere facts and spell out potentially unfavorable connections. Early linking of complex but subtly related phenomena is one of the areas in which we have some credibility, is it not?Even as scientists we are, after all, compelled to share destinies with the other passengers crammed into the stairwells of the national vehicle, a bus tailgating an oil tanker careening right and left at high speed down the global highway, driven by a crew of politicians drunk on paleozoic distillate and trained in the Alfred E. Newman College of Navigation, where the principal graduation requirement is an intense desire to sit in front and steer.

Greenstadt, Gene

221

Solving games Dependence of applicable solving procedures  

E-print Network

a significant influence on the solvability of games. This contrasts with current views that suggestSolving games Dependence of applicable solving procedures M.J.H. Heule1 and L.J.M. Rothkrantz2 1 and Computer Sciences Delft University of Technology marijn@heule.nl l.j.m.rothkrantz@tudelft.nl Abstract. We

Kuzmanov, Georgi

222

Weird Stellar Pair Puzzles Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have discovered a speedy spinning pulsar in an elongated orbit around an apparent Sun-like star, a combination never seen before, and one that has them puzzled about how the strange system developed. Orbital Comparison Comparing Orbits of Pulsar and Its Companion to our Solar System. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for full caption information and available graphics. "Our ideas about how the fastest-spinning pulsars are produced do not predict either the kind of orbit or the type of companion star this one has," said David Champion of the Australia Telescope National Facility. "We have to come up with some new scenarios to explain this weird pair," he added. Astronomers first detected the pulsar, called J1903+0327, as part of a long-term survey using the National Science Foundation's Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. They made the discovery in 2006 doing data analysis at McGill University, where Champion worked at the time. They followed up the discovery with detailed studies using the Arecibo telescope, the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, the Westerbork radio telescope in the Netherlands, and the Gemini North optical telescope in Hawaii. The pulsar, a city-sized superdense stellar corpse left over after a massive star exploded as a supernova, is spinning on its axis 465 times every second. Nearly 21,000 light-years from Earth, it is in a highly-elongated orbit that takes it around its companion star once every 95 days. An infrared image made with the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii shows a Sun-like star at the pulsar's position. If this is an orbital companion to the pulsar, it is unlike any companions of other rapidly rotating pulsars. The pulsar, a neutron star, also is unusually massive for its type. "This combination of properties is unprecedented. Not only does it require us to figure out how this system was produced, but the large mass may help us understand how matter behaves at extremely high densities," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Pulsars are neutron stars whose strong magnetic fields channel lighthouse-like beams of light and radio waves that whirl around as the star spins. Typical pulsars spin a few times a second, but some, like PSR J1903+0327, are much faster, rotating hundreds of times a second. They are called millisecond pulsars. Astronomers think most millisecond pulsars are sped up by material falling onto them from a companion star. This requires the pulsar to be in a tight orbit around its companion that becomes more and more circular with time. The orbits of some millisecond pulsars are the most perfect circles in the Universe, so the elongated orbit of the new pulsar is a mystery. "What we have found is a millisecond pulsar that is in the wrong kind of orbit around what appears to be the wrong kind of star," Champion said. "Now we have to figure out how this strange system was produced." The scientists are considering three possibilities. The first, that the pulsar simply was born spinning quickly, seems unlikely to them. Another possibility, they say, is that the pulsar was formed in a tight group of stars known as a globular cluster, where it had a companion that spun it up. Later, a close encounter with another star in the cluster stripped it of its companion and flung it out of the cluster. For several reasons, including the fact that they don't see a nearby cluster from which it could have come, they don't like that explanation either. A third scenario says the pulsar may be part of a triple, not a double, star system. In this case, the pulsar's 95-day orbit is around a neutron star or white dwarf, not the Sun-like star seen in the infrared image. The Sun-like star would then be in a more-distant orbit around the pulsar and its close companion. "We've found about 50 pulsars in binary systems. We may now have found our first pulsar in a stellar triple system," Ransom said. The international research team is busy trying to get their

2008-05-01

223

Students and Scientists Take a "Lichen" To Air Quality Assessment in Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a cooperative project in which students in a number of areas in Ireland collect environmental data for use by scientists working to solve real-life problems. Reports on the follow-up survey to the study. (DDR)

Murphy, Anthony P.

1998-01-01

224

Nuclear scientists as assassination targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five scientists and engineers connected with Iran’s nuclear program have been killed or injured in recent confirmed or possible assassination attempts. It is unclear who is responsible, but the attacks raise unique policy questions about motives, effectiveness, repercussions, and legal and moral standards. Past assassination plots—including a US plan to kidnap or kill a German atomic scientist in World War

William Tobey

2012-01-01

225

Will scientists cast their votes?  

PubMed

With science and technology high on the agenda of the new US administration, scientists should welcome the opportunity to influence policy. However, few academic scientists seem to be noticing proposals posted for public comment on the Federal Register that concern the application of science to society. PMID:19450505

Maxmen, Amy

2009-05-15

226

Donald F. Hornig, scientist who  

E-print Network

Donald F. Hornig, scientist who helped develop the atomic bomb, dies at 92 By Matt Schudel, was designed to produce an atomic bomb. Dr. Hornig led a team that developed a device called the "X unit, Published: January 23 Donald F. Hornig, who as a young scientist once "babysat" the world's first atomic

Colorado at Boulder, University of

227

Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.

Force, Crista Marie

228

The Effects of Using Diagramming as a Representational Technique on High School Students' Achievement in Solving Math Word Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to…

Banerjee, Banmali

2010-01-01

229

Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower-energy X-ray background, showing that it arose in very faraway galaxies with extremely bright cores, called quasars or Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The Chandra team sampled a region of the sky about one-fifth the angular area of a full moon and resolved about 80 percent of the more-energetic X-ray background into discrete sources. Stretched across the entire sky, this would account for approximately 70 million sources, most of which would be identified with galaxies. Their analysis confirms that a significant fraction of the X-ray background cannot be due to diffuse radiation from hot, intergalactic gas. Combined X-ray and optical observations showed that nearly one third of the sources are galaxies whose cores are very bright in X rays yet emit virtually no optical light from the core. The observation suggests that these "veiled galactic nuclei" galaxies may number in the tens of millions over the whole sky. They almost certainly harbor a massive black hole at their core that produces X rays as the gas is pulled toward it at nearly the speed of light. Their bright X-ray cores place these galaxies in the AGN family. Because these numerous AGN are bright in X rays, but optically dim, the Chandra observation implies that optical surveys of AGN are very incomplete. A second new class of objects, comprising approximately one-third of the background, is assumed to be "ultra-faint galaxies." Mushotzky said that these sources may emit little or no optical light, either because the dust around the galaxy blocks the light totally or because the optical light is eventually absorbed by relatively cool gas during its long journey across the universe. In the latter scenario, Mushotzky said that these sources would have a redshift of 6 or higher, meaning that they are well over 14 billion light years away and thus the earliest, most distant objects ever identified. "This is a very exciting discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure and Evolution of the universe science theme. "Since it

2000-01-01

230

Brightness Variations of Sun-like Stars: The Mystery Deepens - Astronomers facing Socratic "ignorance"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive study made with ESO's Very Large Telescope deepens a long-standing mystery in the study of stars similar to the Sun. Unusual year-long variations in the brightness of about one third of all Sun-like stars during the latter stages of their lives still remain unexplained. Over the past few decades, astronomers have offered many possible explanations, but the new, painstaking observations contradict them all and only deepen the mystery. The search for a suitable interpretation is on. "Astronomers are left in the dark, and for once, we do not enjoy it," says Christine Nicholls from Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia, lead author of a paper reporting the study. "We have obtained the most comprehensive set of observations to date for this class of Sun-like stars, and they clearly show that all the possible explanations for their unusual behaviour just fail." The mystery investigated by the team dates back to the 1930s and affects about a third of Sun-like stars in our Milky Way and other galaxies. All stars with masses similar to our Sun become, towards the end of their lives, red, cool and extremely large, just before retiring as white dwarfs. Also known as red giants, these elderly stars exhibit very strong periodic variations in their luminosity over timescales up to a couple of years. "Such variations are thought to be caused by what we call 'stellar pulsations'," says Nicholls. "Roughly speaking, the giant star swells and shrinks, becoming brighter and dimmer in a regular pattern. However, one third of these stars show an unexplained additional periodic variation, on even longer timescales - up to five years." In order to find out the origin of this secondary feature, the astronomers monitored 58 stars in our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud, over two and a half years. They acquired spectra using the high resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope and combined them with images from other telescopes [1], achieving an impressive collection of the properties of these variable stars. Outstanding sets of data like the one collected by Nicholls and her colleagues often offer guidance on how to solve a cosmic puzzle by narrowing down the plethora of possible explanations proposed by the theoreticians. In this case, however, the observations are incompatible with all the previously conceived models and re-open an issue that has been thoroughly debated. Thanks to this study, astronomers are now aware of their own "ignorance" - a genuine driver of the knowledge-seeking process, as the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates is said to have taught. "The newly gathered data show that pulsations are an extremely unlikely explanation for the additional variation," says team leader Peter Wood. "Another possible mechanism for producing luminosity variations in a star is to have the star itself move in a binary system. However, our observations are strongly incompatible with this hypothesis too." The team found from further analysis that whatever the cause of these unexplained variations is, it also causes the giant stars to eject mass either in clumps or as an expanding disc. "A Sherlock Holmes is needed to solve this very frustrating mystery," concludes Nicholls. Notes [1] Precise brightness measurements were made by the MACHO and OGLE collaborations, running on telescopes in Australia and Chile, respectively. The OGLE observations were made at the same time as the VLT observations. More information This research was presented in two papers: one appeared in the November issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ("Long Secondary Periods in Variable Red Giants", by C. P. Nicholls et al.), and the other has just been published in the Astrophysical Journal ("Evidence for mass ejection associated with long secondary periods in red giants", by P. R. Wood and C. P. Nicholls). The team is composed of Christine P. Nicholls and Peter R. Wood (Research School of Astronomy and Ast

2009-12-01

231

The Computer Scientist: Computer Languages for the Amateur Scientist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews diverse types of computer programing languages and provides examples of representative programs from the most significant languages in use. Matches programing languages most suitable for various types of experimental applications for the amateur scientist. (JJK)

Barden, William, Jr.

1991-01-01

232

The Scientist: The News Journal for the Life Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided with the cooperation of the Institute for Science Information (ISI) and the University of Pennsylvania, The Scientist (last discussed in the September 15, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a free newsletter for life scientists. Each issue features a variety of science news stories, focusing on recent developments, as well as commentary, opinion, "Hot Papers," professional information, commercial products and services, and jobs. Users can browse and search back issues and also subscribe to a free email notification service.

233

Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

234

The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators  

ScienceCinema

The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

Brau, James E [University of Oregon

2014-06-25

235

Solving Systems of Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to solve systems of linear equations by graphing, substitution, and elimination. As we discovered in our Pet Sitters Unit, systems of equations are a useful way to model and solve real-world situations in business. They are also useful in science and social science applications. This online unit will help you become an expert at solving systems of linear equations. 1) ...

Ball, Mrs.

2012-09-13

236

Mathematics Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a studentâs mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

Taplin, Margaret

2011-01-01

237

Mastery, Mystery, and Misery: The Ideologies of Web Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A presentation on Jakob Nielson\\'s Alertbox from August 30, 2004. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20040830.html Jakob Nielson uses the titles mastery, mystery, and misery to describe three seperate approaches to web design. Mastery Mastery describes the ideology of empowering the user. The web designer does everything possible to give the user complete control over the website. For example, search engines are designed to put the ...

Meeker, Mr.

2008-10-23

238

Looking out for future scientists  

PubMed Central

Proposals to reduce the number of students who do PhDs are misguided, writes Eve Marder, because they would exclude young scientists with qualities that do not show up in exam results and interviews. PMID:25291257

2014-01-01

239

Bruce R. Ward Fisheries Scientist  

E-print Network

fish tagging and electronic enumeration, fish culture and stocking evaluations, hatchery) committees and workshops, fish-forestry interactions, aquaculture forums, national climate change working, and a recognized level of cooperation with local, national, and international fisheries scientists. This work has

240

SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

241

Looking out for future scientists.  

PubMed

Proposals to reduce the number of students who do PhDs are misguided, writes Eve Marder, because they would exclude young scientists with qualities that do not show up in exam results and interviews. PMID:25291257

Marder, Eve

2014-01-01

242

Developing Nurse Scientist Course Login  

Cancer.gov

Privacy  |   Disclaimer  |   Help  |   Logout      Developing Nurse Scientist Course User Login / Registration Returning Users Email: Password: Having trouble logging in? New User Registration If you are entering the course for the first time, you must

243

Physics for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion website to the book "Physics for Scientists and Engineers" by Serway, Beichner, and Jewett is intended mainly for student use. It includes items such as background reviews, tutorials, solutions, and supplemental readings.

Serway, Raymond A.; Beichner, Robert J.; Jewett, John W.

2003-12-05

244

Ames Scientists Develop MSL Instrument  

NASA Video Gallery

David Blake, a research scientist at NASA Ames, led the development of CheMin, one of ten scientific instruments onboard Curiosity, the Mars Scientific Laboratory. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction tool...

245

The Unsolved Mysteries of Atmospheric Chemistry for High School Students and Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The grant "CAREER: New Molecular Markers of Asian Air Emissions - Anthropogenic Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds" (ATM-0239823) was funded by NSF from 2003-2008. The CAREER proposal described the integration of research and outreach education activities in the field of atmospheric chemistry, specifically atmospheric measurements and atmospheric transport. The primary objective of the research was to identify anthropogenic semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) that could be used as molecular markers for Asian air emissions and trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. The outreach education activity was integrated with the research by developing curriculum to introduce underrepresented minority high school students, and their teachers, to atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric measurements through Oregon State University's National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences funded Hydroville Curriculum Project (http://www.hydroville.org/iaq_resources). A curriculum was developed to allow students to assume the role of "Air Quality Scientist" and measure air temperature, air flow, relative humidity, CO, CO2, O3, and volatile organic compounds in out-door and in-door air. The students gained an understanding of atmospheric transport and compared measured concentrations to recommended guidelines. In addition, the outreach education activities included the development of the "Unsolved Mysteries of Human Health" website (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu/), including a specific module on the research conducted under the CAREER grant (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu /Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry-Overview). The PI of the CAREER proposal, Dr. Staci Massey Simonich, is now a full professor at Oregon State University. To date, she has published over 50 peer-review journal articles, as well as mentored 9 undergraduate students, 20 graduate students, 3 post-doctoral scholars, and 3 international visiting scientists in her laboratory.

Simonich, S. L.

2011-12-01

246

What would surgeons like from materials scientists?  

PubMed

Surgery involves the repair, resection, replacement, or improvement of body parts and functions and in numerous ways, surgery should be considered human engineering. There are many areas in which surgical materials could be improved, but surgeons are generally unaware of materials available for use, while materials scientists do not know what surgeons require. This article will review some of the areas where surgeons and materials scientists have interacted in the past and will discuss some of the most pressing problems which remain to be solved. These include better implant materials for hernia repair, breast reconstruction, the treatment of diabetes, vascular stenting and reconstruction, and electrical pacing devices. The combination of tissue engineering and nanomaterials has great potential for application to nearly every aspect of surgery. Tissue engineering will allow cells or artificial organs to be grown for specific uses while nanotechnology will help to ensure maximal biocompatibility. Biosensors will be combined with improved electrodes and pacing devices to control impaired neurological functions. PMID:23533092

Grundfest-Broniatowski, Sharon

2013-01-01

247

Unraveling the mystery of music: music as an evolved group process.  

PubMed

As prominently highlighted by Charles Darwin, music is one of the most mysterious aspects of human nature. Despite its ubiquitous presence across cultures and throughout recorded history, the reason humans respond emotionally to music remains unknown. Although many scientists and philosophers have offered hypotheses, there is little direct empirical evidence for any perspective. Here we address this issue, providing data which support the idea that music evolved in service of group living. Using 7 studies, we demonstrate that people's emotional responses to music are intricately tied to the other core social phenomena that bind us together into groups. In sum, this work establishes human musicality as a special form of social cognition and provides the first direct support for the hypothesis that music evolved as a tool of social living. In addition, the findings provide a reason for the intense psychological pull of music in modern life, suggesting that the pleasure we derive from listening to music results from its innate connection to the basic social drives that create our interconnected world. PMID:23895270

Loersch, Chris; Arbuckle, Nathan L

2013-11-01

248

The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis S. Sandrelli INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy (stefano.sandrelli@brera.inaf.it / Fax: 02 72001600 / Phone: +39 02 72320337) "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held both at the Perugia (2004) and the Genova Science Festival (2005), obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives in-charge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherd-moons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and water, represented by simple objects like apples, spinning tops and so on) to re-build the rings. The kids can buy the ingredients from different planets: every planet has ingredients in quantities which are proportionate to the real physical properties of that celestial object. After collecting the ingredients, they must carry them to the "The Red Giant" and indicate their best recipe to Mr Schioppanelli. Depending on the recipe, rings can be too strict or too luminous or too fast rotating and so on. The winning group is the one which prepares the best recipe to cook the rings in the smallest amount of time. After presentig this specific (and mysterious) case, we analyse the advantage- disadvantage ratio of such an activity, beeing as funny as dispersive.

Sandrelli, S.

249

Do scientists trace hot topics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

2013-07-01

250

Do scientists trace hot topics?  

PubMed Central

Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects. PMID:23856680

Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

2013-01-01

251

Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

2013-01-01

252

PROBLEM SOLVING FOR ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

formulas which is not sufficient for difficult problems The Formula-Memorizing Approach: High school 1. I feel that problem-solving courses I feel that problem-solving courses involve memorizing lots is between 0 ­ 18, you favour the formula-memorizing approach If your score is between 19 ­ 36, you favour

253

Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

254

Creative problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving, as commonly taught in schools, is an analytical or procedural approach. This approach almost exclusively employs left-brain thinking modes, is competitive, and relies on individual effort. However, creative problem solving is a framework that encourages whole-brain, iterative thinking in the most effective sequence; it is cooperative in nature and is most productive when done as a team effort

E. Lumsdaine; M. Lumsdaine

1994-01-01

255

Solving problems in genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change experienced by students in the process of problem-solving is discussed: the analysis of the problem, the formulation of hypothesis, the design of a solution, the putting into practice of that strategy and the analysis of results. As genetics is one of the few biology topics best addressed through problem-solving, and problem-solving traditionally has been treated in Spain as that of closed problems, it is important that we have shown that working with genuine problematic situations allows students to successfully solve closed problems without prior training.

Martínez Aznar, Mercedes; Ibáñez Orcajo, Teresa

2005-01-01

256

NewScientist.com: Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NewScientist magazine archive features articles on a variety of science topics. The search engine accepts a keyword or title. Quick links to back issues are provided, and magazines can also be browsed by selecting one of ten predetermined subject categories.

257

Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

Schooler, Dean, Jr.

258

NOAA scientists study Antarctic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are participating in the 19701971 U.S. Antarctic Research Program. They will conduct experiments and research on various aspects of the antarctic environment over the next year. Four units of NOAA are represented on the white continentthe National Ocean Survey, the National Weather Service, the Environmental Research Laboratories, and the NOAA Office

Anonymous

1971-01-01

259

Deborah K. Smith Senior Scientist  

E-print Network

Deborah K. Smith Senior Scientist Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Publications: Jordan, T. H., H. W. Menard, and D.K. Smith, Density and size distribution of seamounts in the eastern Pacific inferred from wide-beam sounding data, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10508-10518, 1983. Kim, I. I., D. K. Smith, H

Smith, Deborah K.

260

Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

Conklin, Tom, Ed.

261

Mystics in Antiquity !!"The design of the Mysteries is to lead  

E-print Network

close") !! Telein = to accomplish, celebrate, initiate !! Teletê = festival, ritual, initiation;!! Initiation per se !! Agrarian aspect !! Sexual aspects !! Sacred myths !! Overcoming death #12;!! Mystery death as individualism spreads in 7th­6th cent. BCE !! Mysteries apparent by 600 BCE !! Clan & family

MacLennan, Bruce

262

Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

2006-01-01

263

Even More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the odds of a meteor hitting your house? What are "warm" clothes anyway? Do you get "more" sunlight from Daylight Saving Time? Everyone loves a good mystery and these unfold in the 15 stories presented in Even More Everyday Science Mysteries

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-03-01

264

Even More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the odds of a meteor hitting your house? What are "warm" clothes anyway? Do you get "more" sunlight from Daylight Saving Time? Everyone loves a good mystery and these unfold in the 15 stories presented in Even More Everyday Science Mysteries, the

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-06-02

265

Space.com: Deep Impact Team Solves Blurry Photo Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Space.com describes how scientists from NASAâÂÂs Deep Impact mission intend to fix the spacecraftâÂÂs blurry vision problem by applying a mathematical process to the images after they have been transmitted to Earth. The author briefly descibes the process, called deconvolution, and discusses some challenges that the researchers will need to address. Readers can also learn more about the Deep Impact mission and its goal of learning about the makeup and nature of the mysterious nucleus of the comet Tempel 1. NASAâÂÂs Deep Impact mission was designed to uncover a cometâÂÂs innards by smashing a probe into Tempel 1. After being releases from the Flyby craft, the Impactor will position itself directly in front of the speeding comet for a head on collision. The impact is scheduled to occur at 1:52 a.m. EDT this July 4, 2005.

266

The feasibility of identifying mystery oil spills. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals activities, ship's samples of all crude oil shipments received during 15 day intervals in Portland (Maine) Harbor were collected. Selected samples from those collected during a test interval were subjected to artificial spills in 500 gallon tanks exposed to outdoor, sea-side ambient conditions experienced in Portland, Maine. Subsamples of each artificial spill were taken during the 15 day test interval to determine the effect of weathering. Attempts were made to match weathered unknowns to collections of known oil containing the 'mystery' oil. Several passive tagging techniques were used such as the comparison of high resolution and low resolution gas chromatography, vanadium-nickel ratios, sulfur nitrogen ratios, and infrared spectra. Successes, failures, and limitations of the passive tagging methods are discussed.

Hunt, G.S.; Mayo, D.W.; Horton, D.B.

1981-04-01

267

Building problem solving environments with the arches framework  

SciTech Connect

The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV

2009-01-01

268

Solving Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage includes six examples of solving linear equations using balancing. Students learn to "keep the equation balanced by making the same changes to both sides of the equal sign." Six examples of this mathematical process are included, each one being slightly more challenging than the last. Equations include more than one operation, variables, multiple terms on the same side, parentheses and fractions. The process for solving each is explained step by step.

Murray, Michael

2012-01-01

269

Problem Solving - Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...

Kajigga

2009-09-23

270

Creative Problem Solving Groups at the Edge of Chaos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transcripts from three problem-solving discussions involving eight or fewer social scientists were analyzed by nonlinear regression to determine whether the groups' productivity was chaotic over time. It was shown that the productivity was chaotic, correlated with the number of active discussion threads, and dependent on the discussion…

Guastello, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

271

Computational steering in the problem solving environment WBCSim  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper describes a practical approach to implement computational steering for problem solving environments (PSEs) by using WBCSim as an example. WBCSim is a Web based simulation system designed to increase the productivity of wood scientists conducting research on wood-based composites manufacturing processes. WBCSim serves as a prototypical example for the design, construction, and evaluation of small-scale PSEs.

Jiang Shu; Layne T. Watson; Naren Ramakrishnan; Frederick A. Kamke; Shubhangi Deshpande

2011-01-01

272

The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

Oreskes, N.

2013-12-01

273

Science Explorations: Writing With Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Writing with Scientists is a workshop that provides in-depth information about crafting a science report. In this workshop students are guided through a six step process for writing a scientific report. Excerpts from student reports are used as examples. Students are encouraged to have researched a topic prior to the workshop so that they are working on a specific report.

274

ITER project to solve global energy problems 15/11/2005 18:29  

E-print Network

Velikhov, full-time member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, president of the well-known Kurchatov R and temperatures. Scientists spent decades trying to solve this problem and to ignite thermonuclear plasma the Nobel Prize, were the only scientists capable of discussing this subject. In 1934, Tamm published

275

Enigma of Runaway Stars Solved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova Propels Companion Star through Interstellar Space The following success story is a classical illustration of scientific progress through concerted interplay of observation and theory. It concerns a 35-year old mystery which has now been solved by means of exciting observations of a strange double star. An added touch is the successive involvement of astronomers connected to the European Southern Observatory. For many years, astronomers have been puzzled by the fact that, among the thousands of very young, hot and heavy stars which have been observed in the Milky Way, there are some that move with exceptionally high velocities. In some cases, motions well above 100 km/sec, or ten times more than normal for such stars, have been measured. How is this possible? Which mechanism is responsible for the large amounts of energy needed to move such heavy bodies at such high speeds? Could it be that these stars are accelerated during the powerful explosion of a companion star as a supernova? Such a scenario was proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw [1], but until now, observational proof has been lacking. Now, however, strong supporting evidence for this mechanism has become available from observations obtained at the ESO La Silla observatory. The mysterious runaway stars OB-runaway stars [2] are heavy stars that travel through interstellar space with an anomalously high velocity. They have been known for several decades, but it has always been a problem to explain their high velocities. Although most OB-runaway stars are located at distances of several thousands of lightyears, their high velocity results in a measurable change in position on sky photos taken several years apart. The velocity component in the direction of the Earth can be measured very accurately from a spectrogram. From a combination of such observations, it is possible to measure the space velocity of OB-runaways. Bow shocks reveal runaway stars It has also been found that some OB-runaways display bow shocks of compressed matter, which look very much like the bow wave around a boat crossing the ocean. They are of the same physical nature as a bow shock created by a jet-fighter in the air. The explanation is similar: when an OB-runaway star plows through the interstellar medium (a very thin mixture of gas and dust particles) with supersonic velocity [3], interstellar matter is swept up in a bow shock. Stars of low velocity do not create bow shocks. Thus, the detection of a bow shock around a particular OB star indicates that it must have a supersonic velocity, thereby securely identifying it as a runaway star, even if its velocity has not been measured directly. Runaway stars come from stellar groups When a star's direction of motion in space is known, it is possible to reconstruct its previous path and, even more interestingly, to find the place where the star originally came from. It turns out that the paths of many OB-runaways can be traced back to socalled OB-associations , that is groups of 10 to 100 OB-type stars which are located in the spiral arms of our galaxy. About fifty OB-associations are known in the Milky Way. In fact, the majority of all known OB stars are members of an OB-association. Therefore, it is not very surprising that OB-runaway stars should also originate from OB-associations. This is also how they got their name: at some moment, they apparently left the association in which they were formed. The ejection mechanism But why were the OB-runaway stars kicked out of the OB-association and how did they achieve such high speeds? One possibility is that some OB stars in an OB-association are ejected due to strong gravitational effects at the time of close encounters between the members of the group. Complicated computer simulations show that this is in principle possible. Nevertheless, since many years, most astronomers think that a more likely scenario is that of violent supernova explosions, first proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw. Stellar evolution theory predicts that all OB stars will end their life in a supernova explosion. The he

1997-01-01

276

3/9/12 Astrophile: The rock that sprayed 'fairy dust' on moon -space -09 March 2012 -New Scientist 1/3www.newscientist.com/article/dn21574-astrophile-the-rock-that-sprayed-fairy-dust-on-moon.html?full  

E-print Network

3/9/12 Astrophile: The rock that sprayed 'fairy dust' on moon - space - 09 March 2012 - New Scientist 1/3www.newscientist.com/article/dn21574-astrophile-the-rock-that-sprayed-fairy-dust-on-moon.html?full Magnetic mysteries of the moon (Image: Science/AAAS) A ophile is our weekl column on curious cosmic objects

Weiss, Benjamin P.

277

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

Gruy, H.J.

1998-03-01

278

Murder with Southern Hospitality: An Exhibition of Mississippi Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those people who still think of Mississippi as solely being the land of such authors as Faulkner and his ilk, this fine online exhibit offered by the University of Mississippi Libraries may expand their knowledge of Southern writers. The exhibit prominently features the book covers of mystery novels written by a host of Mississippians, including such authors as Newton Gayle, Nevada Barr, and Colonel William C. Falkner. Here they may peruse the cover art of such novels as "The White Rose of Memphis" and Elmore Leonard's "Tishomingo Blues". For those who wish to locate authors by their location, an interactive map of Mississippi makes this process rather simple. The site is rounded out by a complete bibliography, which includes links to each work's cover art.

279

Solving a problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to a three-stage process for problem solving. The three stages are identify the problem, test the solutions, and evaluate the results. A student tip sheet explains each stage and enables students to work through the processes in a step-by-step manner while seeing how the information is tied together. A graphic organizer provides students with an opportunity to evaluate the problem-solving solutions they have developed. A brief outline of the problem-solving process gives students a handy summary to use while investigating problems. The downloadable activity sheets are in pdf files. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

280

Young Engineers and Scientists: a Mentorship Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and local high schools in San Antonio Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world research experiences in physical sciences and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics computers and the Internet careers science ethics and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year students publicly present and display their work acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college several have worked for SwRI and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors.

Boice, Daniel C.; Wuest, Martin; Marilyn, Koch B.

281

The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a ommunity partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We gratefully acknowledge partial funding for the YES Program from a NASA EPO grant.

Boice, D. C.; Jahn, J.; Hummel, P.

2003-12-01

282

Teacher Scientist Partnerships PPARC `town' meeting  

E-print Network

· Classroom management · Language · National Curriculum · Support · One · RA, PhD, Post-Doc, PL · Voluntary having the scientist in the classroom · Scientifically literate society - scientists can help make

283

Why scientists need humanists in their laboratories  

E-print Network

Why scientists need humanists in their laboratories Reflection on the relationship between science becomes a catalyst for start-ups. Embedding humanists and social scientists into laboratories is one way

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

284

Problem-Solving Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

1992-01-01

285

Persistence in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

2012-01-01

286

Computer networks: prospects for scientists.  

PubMed

Computer networks are an integral part of the rapid expansion of computing. Their emergence depends both on evolving communication technologies, such as packet-switching and satellites, and on diverse experiments and innovations in the software tools that exploit communications. The tools provide computer users with facilities such as electronic mail, access to remote computers, and electronic bulletin boards. Scientists can both adapt and extend tools to meet the communication needs of their work, and several networks are developing to serve particular scientific communities. PMID:17747849

Newell, A; Sproull, R F

1982-02-12

287

Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

Abate, T.

1995-12-01

288

SURGICAL SCIENTIST PROGRAM Department of Surgery  

E-print Network

SURGICAL SCIENTIST PROGRAM Department of Surgery McGill University The purpose of the Surgical Scientist Program of the Department of Surgery is to develop surgical scientists who will be the future leaders in academic surgery both at McGill and in other university Departments of Surgery. Application

Shoubridge, Eric

289

Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he takes a…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01

290

Young children's perceptionsof scientists: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSince the 1950s, there has been a growing body of research dealing with perceptions children have of scientists. Typically, research studies in this area have utilized children's drawings in an effort to discern what those perceptions are. Studies assessing perceptions children have of scientists have shown that children have stereotypical images of scientists. Although there is no direct evidence to

Mehmet Buldu

2006-01-01

291

Inquiry and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…

Thorson, Annette, Ed.

1999-01-01

292

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

293

Solving Energy Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

294

Cooperative Problem Solving  

E-print Network

to assign students to groups is because 25 years of past research in cooperative group learning (includingCooperative Problem Solving Page I. How do I form cooperative groups? 7 II. What criteria do I use IV. How do I coach students during group work? 25 #12;#12;Page 7 I. How Do I Form Cooperative Groups

Minnesota, University of

295

What Is Problem Solving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many important human activities involve accomplishing goals without a script. There is no formula for true problem-solving. Heuristic, cognitive "rules of thumb" are the problem-solver's best guide. Learners should understand heuristic tools such as means-end analysis, working backwards, successive approximation, and external representation. Since…

Martinez, Michael E.

1998-01-01

296

Electric Current Solves Mazes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

Ayrinhac, Simon

2014-01-01

297

Hot Evolved Companions to Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars: Solving the Mystery of KOI-81  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Kepler Science Team recently announced the discovery of twotransiting binaries that have "planets" hotter than their host stars.These systems probably represent the first known examples of white dwarfsformed through mass loss and transfer among intermediate mass, closebinary stars. Here we propose to obtain COS FUV spectroscopy of one ofthese systems, KOI-81, in order to detect the hot companion in a part of the spectrum where it is relatively bright. The spectral flux and Doppler shift measurements will yield the temperatures, masses, radii, and compositions of both components. These observations will provide our first opportunity to explore this previously hidden stage of close binary evolution.

Gies, Douglas

2010-09-01

298

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 5th edition - Volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly 30 years, Paul Tipler's Physics for Scientists and Engineers has set the standard in the introductory calculus-based physics course for clarity, accuracy, and precision. In this fifth edition, Paul has recruited Gene Mosca to bring his years of teaching experience to bear on the text, to scrutinize every explanation and example from the perspective of the freshman student. The result is a teaching tool that retains its precision and rigor, but offers struggling students the support they need to solve problems strategically and to gain real understanding of physical concepts.

Tipler, Paul A.; Mosca, Gene P.

299

How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries  

SciTech Connect

Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

Baden, Michael (MD, New York Police) [MD, New York Police

2006-05-17

300

The effect of mystery shopper reports on age verification for tobacco purchases.  

PubMed

Mystery shops involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been implemented in order to monitor retail stores' performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that mystery shop visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the effect of monthly and twice-monthly mystery shop reports on age verification. Mystery shoppers visited 45 Walgreens stores 20 times. The stores were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions. Control group stores received no feedback, whereas 2 treatment groups received feedback communications on every visit (twice monthly) or on every second visit (monthly) after baseline. Logit regression models tested whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Postbaseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, but only the stores receiving monthly communications had a significantly greater improvement compared with the control group stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all 3 groups, with delayed improvement among control group stores. Communication between managers regarding the mystery shop program may account for the delayed age-verification improvements observed in the control group stores. Encouraging interstore communication might extend the benefits of mystery shop programs beyond those stores that receive this intervention. PMID:21541874

Krevor, Brad S; Ponicki, William R; Grube, Joel W; DeJong, William

2011-09-01

301

Satellite tagged walruses help scientists answer climate change questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thousands of walruses abandon ice for Alaska shorehttp://www.usatoday.com/weather/environment/2007-10-05-alaska-walrus_N.htmIn a Warming Bering Sea, Whither the Walrus?http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5357899Walruses Prefer Right to Left Flipperhttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/afp/20031027/walrus.htmlToothwalkers: Giants of the Arctic Icehttp://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/toothwalkers/The Walrus and The Carpenterhttp://www.jabberwocky.com/carroll/walrus.htmlThis past April, scientists attached satellite tags to eight walruses in West Greenland in an effort to learn more about the effects of climate change. There is a definite connection between walruses, ice and climate and scientists hope that by continuing to track walruses via satellite more can be discovered. While the scientists tagged eight walruses, a few tags failed almost immediately but a few were sending signals through the summer. This past month the last working satellite tag stopped signaling. In addition to learning more about the effects of climate change, scientists involved in the study hoped to uncover where walruses migrate. Walruses need thick ice and as temperatures rise in the spring and summer they head north to colder climates, but the exact location of their summer hideaway has long been a mystery. The information gleaned from this study could also impact walrus hunting quotas. Walrus hunting is still allowed in Greenland and Canada where they are hunted for their ivory and meat. Scientists hope to gain information about the connection between walrus populations as well as to better understand what is necessary to maintain a sustainable population. Despite the early loss of some tags and the difficulties in tracking walruses, the team was pleased with the results and hopes to run the tagging experiments over a number of years. Dr. Born, a member of the team, added "When you look around the world, there are not a whole lot of walrus researchers, and I think one reason is that walruses are just such a difficult animal to study." The first link will take users to an article from BBC News which talks about the last of the satellite tagged walruses and the research accompanying the project. The second link leads to a piece from the USA Today which discusses how climate change may be affecting Alaskan walruses. In the third link users will find Alaska Public Radio's Annie Feidt's fine piece on climate change in the Bering Sea and its effects on walruses. The fourth link is from Discovery News and discusses the recent science behind determining whether walruses (as well as other creatures) are primarily righties or lefties. Moving on to the fifth link, users will be taken to PBS.org's complementary website to their Nature program "Toothwalkers: Giants of the Arctic Ice". Here visitors can watch walrus videos, peruse a plethora of walrus photos and learn more about their habitat, survival and even walruses in captivity. Finally, users can click on the last link to read and enjoy Lewis Carroll's "The Walrus and the Carpenter".

2007-01-01

302

Modelling biological complexity: a physical scientist's perspective.  

PubMed

We discuss the modern approaches of complexity and self-organization to understanding dynamical systems and how these concepts can inform current interest in systems biology. From the perspective of a physical scientist, it is especially interesting to examine how the differing weights given to philosophies of science in the physical and biological sciences impact the application of the study of complexity. We briefly describe how the dynamics of the heart and circadian rhythms, canonical examples of systems biology, are modelled by sets of nonlinear coupled differential equations, which have to be solved numerically. A major difficulty with this approach is that all the parameters within these equations are not usually known. Coupled models that include biomolecular detail could help solve this problem. Coupling models across large ranges of length- and time-scales is central to describing complex systems and therefore to biology. Such coupling may be performed in at least two different ways, which we refer to as hierarchical and hybrid multiscale modelling. While limited progress has been made in the former case, the latter is only beginning to be addressed systematically. These modelling methods are expected to bring numerous benefits to biology, for example, the properties of a system could be studied over a wider range of length- and time-scales, a key aim of systems biology. Multiscale models couple behaviour at the molecular biological level to that at the cellular level, thereby providing a route for calculating many unknown parameters as well as investigating the effects at, for example, the cellular level, of small changes at the biomolecular level, such as a genetic mutation or the presence of a drug. The modelling and simulation of biomolecular systems is itself very computationally intensive; we describe a recently developed hybrid continuum-molecular model, HybridMD, and its associated molecular insertion algorithm, which point the way towards the integration of molecular and more coarse-grained representations of matter. The scope of such integrative approaches to complex systems research is circumscribed by the computational resources available. Computational grids should provide a step jump in the scale of these resources; we describe the tools that RealityGrid, a major UK e-Science project, has developed together with our experience of deploying complex models on nascent grids. We also discuss the prospects for mathematical approaches to reducing the dimensionality of complex networks in the search for universal systems-level properties, illustrating our approach with a description of the origin of life according to the RNA world view. PMID:16849185

Coveney, Peter V; Fowler, Philip W

2005-09-22

303

The Complex World of Adolescent Literacy: Myths, Motivations, and Mysteries  

PubMed Central

In this article, Elizabeth Birr Moje, Melanie Overby, Nicole Tysvaer, and Karen Morris challenge some of the prevailing myths about adolescents and their choices related to reading. The reading practices of youth from one urban community are examined using mixed methods in an effort to define what, how often, and why adolescents choose to read. By focusing on what features of texts youth find motivating, the authors find that reading and writing frequently occur in a range of literacy contexts outside school. However, only reading novels on a regular basis outside of school is shown to have a positive relationship to academic achievement as measured by school grades. This article describes how adolescents read texts that are embedded in social networks, allowing them to build social capital. Conclusions are framed in terms of the mysteries that remain — namely, how to build on what motivates adolescents' literacy practices in order to both promote the building of their social selves and improve their academic outcomes. PMID:19756223

Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Overby, Melanie; Tysvaer, Nicole; Morris, Karen

2009-01-01

304

Gibberellic acid in plant: still a mystery unresolved.  

PubMed

Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound. GAs stimulate seed germination, trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, determines sex expression and grain development along with an interaction of different environmental factors viz., light, temperature and water. The major site of bioactive GA is stamens that influence male flower production and pedicel growth. However, this opens up the question of how female flowers regulate growth and development, since regulatory mechanisms/organs other than those in male flowers are mandatory. Although GAs are thought to act occasionally like paracrine signals do, it is still a mystery to understand the GA biosynthesis and its movement. It has not yet confirmed the appropriate site of bioactive GA in plants or which tissues targeted by bioactive GAs to initiate their action. Presently, it is a great challenge for scientific community to understand the appropriate mechanism of GA movement in plant's growth, floral development, sex expression, grain development and seed germination. The appropriate elucidation of GA transport mechanism is essential for the survival of plant species and successful crop production. PMID:23857350

Gupta, Ramwant; Chakrabarty, S K

2013-09-01

305

Mystery of Permanently Shadowed Regions: Moon and Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the Lunar and Mercury’s polar regions show quite different evidences of the water ice presence. Only a few lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs) have enhanced hydrogen concentration at regolith according LEND LRO data. Data of instruments on-board the LRO spacecraft and different space and Earth-based radar observations provide signs of possible presence of water ice thin layer on the surface at several lunar PSRs. But the vast majority of lunar PSRs are not showing any evidences for hydrogen presence. Thus the set of multi-instrument observations of the lunar polar regions does not showing a clear picture of hydrogen or water ice distribution. In case of Mercury, practically all multi-instrument observations show evidences for water ice presence at majority of PSRs. We plan to discuss the mystery of PSRs: why PSRs of the hot Mercury show clear evidences for water ice presence but the vast majority of PSRs of colder Moon does not provide any strong evidences for hydrogen presence?

Sanin, Anton; Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor

306

Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.  

PubMed

Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

Rutkin, H Darrel

2010-06-01

307

Mad City Mystery: Developing Scientific Argumentation Skills with a Place-based Augmented Reality Game on Handheld Computers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the knowledge economy has reshaped the world, schools lag behind in producing appropriate learning for this social change. Science education needs to prepare students for a future world in which multiple representations are the norm and adults are required to "think like scientists." Location-based augmented reality games offer an opportunity to create a "post-progressive" pedagogy in which students are not only immersed in authentic scientific inquiry, but also required to perform in adult scientific discourses. This cross-case comparison as a component of a design-based research study investigates three cases (roughly 28 students total) where an Augmented Reality curriculum, Mad City Mystery, was used to support learning in environmental science. We investigate whether augmented reality games on handhelds can be used to engage students in scientific thinking (particularly argumentation), how game structures affect students' thinking, the impact of role playing on learning, and the role of the physical environment in shaping learning. We argue that such games hold potential for engaging students in meaningful scientific argumentation. Through game play, players are required to develop narrative accounts of scientific phenomena, a process that requires them to develop and argue scientific explanations. We argue that specific game features scaffold this thinking process, creating supports for student thinking non-existent in most inquiry-based learning environments.

Squire, Kurt D.; Jan, Mingfong

2007-02-01

308

Solving crimes with hypnosis.  

PubMed

Following a brief review of the literature on hypnosis and memory, this paper overviews the procedures that are used in conducting forensic hypnosis interviews. Ten forensic hypnosis cases are then described. These real world cases are in stark contrast to research done in an artificial laboratory setting where the information to be recalled lacks personal relevance and was not associated with emotionally arousing situations. These cases illustrate how forensic hypnosis can result in obtaining important additional investigative leads which lead to the solving of crimes. PMID:21598840

Wester, William C; Hammond, D Corydon

2011-04-01

309

Hot Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams follow the steps of the engineering design process to meet the challenge of getting their entire class from one location on the playground to the sidewalk without touching the ground between. The class develops a well thought-out plan while following the steps of the engineering design process. Then, they test their solution by going outside and trying it out. Through the post-activity assessment, they compare their problem-solving experience to real life engineering challenges, such as creating new forms of transportation or new product invention.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

310

Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists  

PubMed Central

The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists. PMID:23803301

Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D.; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L.; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyronen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K.

2013-01-01

311

Toward an understanding of middle school students' problem-solving strategies: Establishing a foundation for teacher inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade science teachers have made increasing use of a real-world, problem-based approach to science teaching. Without theories of how and why students use knowledge to solve such problems, teachers are constrained in their ability to diagnose students' difficulties in comprehending science concepts as well as students' problems in making connections among the concepts. In this study students from two middle schools were given a "hands-on" experience in solving a real-world forensics problem based on the Lawrence's Hall of Science's Mystery Festival, "The Case of the Missing Millionaire." Following the Mystery Festival, the students went to the computer lab to solve the computer-based transfer problems created with IMMEX problem-solving software. The software includes authoring capabilities and a tracking system that records students' use of knowledge and concepts to solve problems. Data from the computer-based pathways of 495 student pairs, video-records of pairs of students problem-solving, teachers' perception of processes in their classes, and my own observations of problem-solving in action yielded the following results: (1) Twice as many 7th and 8th graders as 6th graders were successful in solving "Roger Rabbit." (2) Approximately twice as many groups correctly solving the problem used an evidence-based approach compared to groups that missed the answer. Groups correctly answering the problem used the evidence-based method, a conjecture-based approach, and a mixed approach (integration of evidence and conjecture) with approximately the same frequencies. (3) Information selection strategies, from the first item a group selected to the last, as they attempted to solve the problem was classified in one of three categories: trial and error, menu-based, and logically linked. Trial and error and menu-based were the dominant strategies. (4) In a follow-up study, 7th and 8th graders attempted to solve "Roger Rabbit" without the hands-on experience of the Mystery Festival. These students comprised a comparison group whereas the original students were designated as the experimental group. The experimental groups were 1.5 times more likely to employ a logically linked strategy for selecting information. (5) Experimental groups that correctly solved the problem were more likely to use an evidence-based approach than were the comparison groups.

Scott, Gary

312

Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

Embry, Lynn

313

Chief Scientist Labs Computational Astrophysics Laboratory  

E-print Network

Chief Scientist Labs Computational Astrophysics Laboratory Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Science Laboratory Biofunctional Synthetic Chemistry Laboratory RNA Biology Laboratory Astrophysical Big

Fukai, Tomoki

314

The Secret Life of Scientists & Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

315

West Coast Earthquakes Ongoing, Scientists Discover  

NSF Publications Database

... the first scientists to use GPS (global positioning system) technology to study earthquakes. An ... instrumentation," Miller says. "Until we had GPS geodesy, we regarded earthquake deformation in two ...

316

Australian scientists develop male contraceptive.  

PubMed

The Australian Information Service in Canberra reports that Australian scientists have formulated a contraceptive pill to temporarily stop spermatogenesis in man, thus producing infertility. The research was done by a team consisting of Dr. Henry Burger, director of the Medical Reserach Center at Prince Henry's Hospital in Melbourne, Dr. Bryan Hudson, Principal Research Fellow at the Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Medicine at the Univeristy of Melbourne, and Dr. David de Kretser, senior lecturer in Monash University's Department of Medicine at Prince Henry's Hospital. The contraceptive pill consists of progestagen (d-norgestrel) with androgen (methyltestosterone), a combination that suppresses the production of the sperm but conserves libido and potency. The testing program has yet to be undertaken in human volunteers. There will be three phases to the drug trial: pretreatment, during which the health of the volunteers and the safety of the drug will be established; the treatment phase, lasting six months, during which the volunteers will be given daily oral dose of the drugs; and the recovery phase, lasting at least three months, during which the restoration of normal spermatogenesis will be observed. PMID:12333267

1974-05-20

317

The Death of Baby Pierre A Genetic Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This directed case study on a genetic disorder was developed for an exam on genetics for a general biology course.  The case is based on an article by scientist and author Jared Diamond titled “Founding Fathers and Mothers” that appeared in Natural History magazine in June 1988.  In the article, Diamond illustrates the significance of the “founder effect” in small isolated populations like the one described in this case.

Herreid, Clyde F.

1999-01-01

318

The soul of the scientist  

SciTech Connect

The author addresses the essense of scientific personnel as the animating and vital principle in people credited with the facilities of thought, action and emotion. Science pervades our lives and civilization. The author provides a view of the nature of science as a way of thinking and of solving problems. Science is presented as a highly organized, integrated, dynamic structure with diverse branches and widely disparate components that often combine for producing remarkable and unexpected benefits. Medical science is used to illustrate the humane goals of science. Modern medical issues and the Nation`s concern for reform in our health management systems are used to show the need for priorities and furthering the scientific education of the nation. 3 refs.

DeBakey, M.E. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

319

Precise Heat Control: What Every Scientist Needs to Know About Pyrolytic Techniques to Solve Real Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a material is greatly influenced by its thermal and chemical properties. Analytical pyrolysis, when coupled to a GC-MS system, is a powerful technique that can unlock the thermal and chemical properties of almost any substance and provide vital information. At NASA, we depend on precise thermal analysis instrumentation for understanding aerospace travel. Our analytical techniques allow us to test materials in the laboratory prior to an actual field test; whether the field test is miles up in the sky or miles underground, the properties of any involved material must be fully studied and understood in the laboratory.

Devivar, Rodrigo

2014-01-01

320

VLBA Scientists Study Birth of Sunlike Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three teams of scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to learn tantalizing new details about how Sun-like stars are formed. Young stars, still growing by drawing in nearby gas, also spew some of that material back into their surroundings, like impatient infants that eat too quickly. The VLBA observations are giving astronomers new insights on both processes -- the accretion of material by the new stars and the outflows of material from them. "For the first time, we're actually seeing what happens right down next to the star in these young systems," said Mark Claussen, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Claussen and other researchers announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. Material attracted by a young star's gravitational pull forms a flat, orbiting disk, called an accretion disk, in which the material circles closer and closer to the star until finally drawn into it. At the same time, material is ejected in "jets" speeding from the poles of the accretion disk. "The VLBA is showing us the first images of the region close to the star where the material in these jets is accelerated and formed into the `beams' of the jet," Claussen said. "We don't understand the details of these processes well," Claussen said. "These VLBA research projects are beginning to help unravel the mysteries of how stars like the Sun form." The teams are observing clumps of water vapor that naturally amplify radio emissions to see details smaller than the orbit of Mercury in young stellar systems as well as track gas motions. The clumps of gas are called masers, and amplify radio emission in much the same way that a laser amplifies light emission. "These images are just fantastic," said Al Wootten of NRAO in Charlottesville, VA. The maser clumps or "spots," emitting radio waves at a specific wavelength, can be tracked as they move over time. In addition, by measuring the Doppler shift in the wavelength of these emissions, astronomers can determine the speed at which the gas is moving. In an object known as S106FIR, 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus, a team of Japanese and U.S. VLBA observers led by Ray Furuya, a graduate student from Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory, has tracked the motion of material outward in the jet. This object, embedded in a dense cloud of molecular gas, the material from which the star is forming, shows maser spots moving in two directions as the jets emerge from both poles of the accretion disk. "The water masers are the only way we can detect the outflow from this young star," Furuya said. The VLBA observations can discern details as small as half the distance from the Earth to the Sun. "We can see outflow on scales the size of our Solar System. We think this object is one of the youngest protostars known," Furuya said. In another object, dubbed IRAS 16293-2422, in the constellation Ophiuchus, astronomers believe the water masers clearly show the outflowing jets of a young star and may be tracing the accretion disk as well. The young star is one of a pair of stars in a binary system some 500 light-years distant. The water-vapor masers are seen around only one of the pair, however. "In this system, we see outflow in the jet and also an elliptical ring of masers that may be part of the accretion disk," said Wootten, leader of the team observing this object. "The VLBA is showing us details as small as the size of Mercury's orbit around the Sun, a great help in understanding the physics going on there," Wootten said. A team composed largely of astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, also used the VLBA to study water masers in a young stellar object 2,500 light-years away in Cepheus. This team sees maser spots moving in opposite directions away from the young star on scales of ten times the diameter of the solar system, pr

1999-06-01

321

Emanations and ``induced'' radioactivity: From mystery to (mis)use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon, Rn; atomic number Z=85; is a (gaseous) chemical element of which no stable but only radioactive isotopes exist. Three of them, namely actinon (219Rn), thoron (220Rn) and radon (222Rn) are the decay products of naturally occurring radioisotopes of radium:223Ra,224Ra and226Ra, respectively. The natural Rn isotopes were discovered within the period 1899-1902 and at that time referred to as emanations because they came out (emanated) of sources/materials containing actinium, thorium and radium, respectively. The (somewhat mysterious) emanations appeared to disintegrate into radioactive decay products which by depositing at solid surfaces gave rise to “induced” radioactivity i.e. radioactive substances with various half-lives. Following the discovery of the emanations the volume of the research involving them and their disintegration products grew steeply. The identity of a number of these radioactive products was soon established. Radium- emanation was soon used as a source of RaD (210Pb) to be applied as an “indicator” (radiotracer) for lead in a study on the solubility of lead sulphide and lead chromate. Moreover, radium and its emanation were introduced into the medical practice. Inhaling radon and drinking radon-containing water became an accepted medicinal use (or misuse?) of that gas. Shortly after the turn of the century, the healing (?) action of natural springs (spas) was attributed to their radium emanation i.e. radon. Bathing in radioactive spring water and drinking it became very popular. Even today, bathing in radon-containing water is still a common medical treatment in Jáchymov, Czech Republic.

Kolar, Z. I.

1999-01-01

322

The Mysterious Excitation of Nightside Upper-Band Chorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetospheric whistler-mode chorus is generally, but not always, excited in two distinct frequency bands with a pronounced gap near one half the electron gyro-frequency. Both upper (f > fce/2) and lower band (f < fce/2) chorus are enhanced on the nightside following the injection of 100 eV- 10 keV plasma sheet electrons into the inner magnetosphere. These important magnetospheric waves play a fundamentally important role in both scattering loss leading to diffuse auroral precipitation and to stochastic local acceleration of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt. According to linear theory, a cyclotron resonant electron pitch-angle anisotropy Ares > 1/(fce/f-1) is required for wave excitation. Indeed, THEMIS observations of the ambient electron distribution (>10 keV) at times when lower band chorus is present show adequate anisotropy for rapid (>100 db/RE) convective amplification of lower band chorus. But the injected lower energy plasma sheet electrons, which are able to resonate with upper band chorus (< few keV), show insufficient anisotropy even when strong upper band waves are present. Consequently, we conclude that the upper band waves on the nightside cannot be a consequence of linear instability. Instead, the waves appear to be a result of non-linear rising tones that originate in the lower band and rise rapidly to frequencies above fce/2 in the inner magnetosphere (L< 6). The origin of the observed gap in spectral intensity near fce/2 remains a mystery, but could be related to pronounced Landau resonant damping of slightly oblique waves.

Thorne, R. M.; Chen, L.; Li, W.

2012-12-01

323

Modeling applied to problem solving  

E-print Network

We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and ...

Pawl, Andrew

324

Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation…

Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

2012-01-01

325

Mathematics for Computer Scientists Venanzio Capretta  

E-print Network

Mathematics for Computer Scientists G51MCS Venanzio Capretta www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~vxc/g51mcs/g51mcs.html venanzio.capretta@nottingham.ac.uk Computer Science Building, A07 Venanzio Capretta Mathematics Mathematics for Computer Scientists #12;What this module is about What are the topics of this module? Formal

Capretta, Venanzio

326

8, 73737389, 2008 Scientists' CO2  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 7373­7389, 2008 Scientists' CO2 emissions A. Stohl Title Page Abstract Introduction Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 7373 #12;ACPD 8, 7373­7389, 2008 Scientists' CO2 substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this pa- per, the CO2 emissions of the employees working

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

327

Collaborative Knowledge Management Supporting Mars Mission Scientists  

E-print Network

Collaborative Knowledge Management Supporting Mars Mission Scientists Irene Tollinger NASA Ames a collaborative workspace for collocated mission scientists for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) 2003 mission. The purpose of the MER mission is to further Mars exploration through the deployment of twin robotic rovers

328

Kristian Birkeland, The First Space Scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the 20th century Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), a Norwegian scientist of insatiable curiosity, addressed questions that had vexed European scientists for centuries. Why do the northern lights appear overhead when the Earth's magnetic field is disturbed? How are magnetic storms connected to disturbances on the Sun? To answer these questions Birkeland interpreted his advance laboratory simulations and

A. Egeland; W. J. Burke

2005-01-01

329

please recycle. Without talented, passionate environmental scientists,  

E-print Network

is academic. The bright, passionate young scientists who feel called to environmental research and careers in academia as PhDs are critical for a sustainable future. These are the men and women who will forge new of these young scientists. Our accomplished faculty members share their passion, commitment and spirit of inquiry

Reif, John H.

330

Educating the Next Generation of Agricultural Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Committee on Evaluation of Trends in Agricultural Research at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Level was established to analyze issues related to the next generation of agricultural scientists. This report contains the findings, conclusions, and recommendations regarding the status and future needs of agricultural scientists. This report focuses…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agriculture.

331

How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are…

Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

2009-01-01

332

Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

Pollio, David E.

2012-01-01

333

Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

2010-08-01

334

Robotics and Vision Scientist Evolution Robotics  

E-print Network

Robotics and Vision Scientist Evolution Robotics 1055 E. Colorado Bl., #410 Pasadena, California 91106 (626) 993-3300 09 May 2011 Evolution Robotics Employment Opportunity Profile · Title: Robotics and Vision Scientist · Reports to: VP of Research and Development The Company: Evolution Robotics, Inc

Plotkin, Joshua B.

335

Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving

Lin, Shih-Yin

2012-01-01

336

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

337

Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

338

Analyzing Prospective Teachers' Images of Scientists Using Positive, Negative and Stereotypical Images of Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and purpose: This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the…

Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Wojnowski, David

2013-01-01

339

Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

2005-09-01

340

Lifelines Episode 06: The Mystery of Serotonin and Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking the "collections" tab in the left hand column. We continue our coverage of Experimental Biology 2008 with an interview with Michigan State University Professor Stephanie W. Watts, who has been investigating whether serotonin plays a role in high blood pressure. The APS has awarded Dr. Watts the Henry Pickering Bowditch Memorial Award for early-career achievement. The award goes to a scientist younger than 42 years whose accomplishments are original and outstanding. It is the Society''s second-highest award.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office); Stephanie W Watts (Michigan State University)

2008-03-18

341

Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Here's another chance to play geographical detective! This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. Use any reference materials you like and answer the following five questions: The large lagoon in the image is named for a particular type of bird. Name the bird. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. What did they call the river? A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. Which ONE of the following is most responsible for the formation of these cusps? Violent storm impacts on erosion and accretion Wind and tide-driven sediment transport and circulation Tectonic folding associated with nearby mountain ridges Bathymetric effects of dredging operations True or false: Changes in regional precipitation associated with large scale atmospheric circulation patterns have no effect on the salinity of the lagoon's water. Which one of these is NOT distributed within the area covered by this image? Ruppia maritima Chelonia mydas Tapirus bairdii Microcystis aeruginosa E-mail your answers, name (initials are acceptable if you prefer), and your hometown by Tuesday, February 19, 2002 to suggestions@mail-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. Answers will be published on the MISR web site in conjunction with the next weekly image release. The names and home towns of respondents who answer all questions correctly by the deadline will also be published in the order responses were received. The first 3 people on this list who are not affiliated with NASA, JPL, or MISR and who did not win a prize in the last quiz will be sent a print of the image. A new 'Where on Earth...?' mystery appears as the MISR 'image of the week' approximately once per month. A new image of the week is released every Wednesday at noon Pacific time on the MISR home page http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. The image also appears on the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center home page, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov, though usually with a several-hour delay. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

342

The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

Sugarman, Sally

343

On Being A Scientist, Third Edition - Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The scientific research enterprise is built on a foundation of trust. Scientists trust that the results reported by others are valid. Society trusts that the results of research reflect an honest attempt by scientists to describe the world accurately and without bias. But this trust will endure only if the scientific community devotes itself to exemplifying and transmitting the values associated with ethical scientific conduct. This video is based on third edition of On Being a Scientist and reflects developments since the publication of the original edition in 1989 and a second edition in 1995. It focuses on ethics and mentoring in research.

2009-09-21

344

My path to becoming a data scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice to become a data scientist wasn't one I consciously made. I began as a student assistant working on a small data analysis package, and have evolved since then (with various diversions along the way) to become NCAR's primary global climate model data manager and global climate model data scientist. I've witnessed how data management in this area of the earth sciences has changed, from notes attached to cases for magnetic tapes containing esoteric binary data, to today's standards for data formats and metadata standards. I'll talk about how I became a data scientist and the experiences I've had in my career.

Strand, G.

2013-12-01

345

North Carolina Museum of Art: Mystery of the Poison-Dart Frog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the North Carolina Museum of Art, this nicely designed website invites visitors to take a virtual journey to Costa Rica to uncover the Mystery of the Poison-Dart Frog. Prior to beginning the mystery adventure, site visitors are encouraged to research several animals, works of animal art, and the geography of Costa Rica. The science information provided by this site is not extensive, but it is presented in a fun, interactive format. The website is offered in Spanish and English and includes a list of related links. In addition, the site provides Competency Goals for teachers in North Carolina, and will be adding a Classroom Connection section in the future.

346

Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers  

SciTech Connect

Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

2007-04-01

347

SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the next three months, more than 350 scientists from Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States will combine forces to measure ozone levels and changes in the upper Arctic atmosphere as part of SOLVE, the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. Although much of the SOLVE homepage targets the public, several sections will be of interest to researchers and educators. The section entitled Mission Description features illustrated information on ozone, including ozone effects, UV-ozone interactions, Polar Stratospheric Clouds, and chemical reactions, among other topics. Also of interest is the Theory Teams section, providing summaries and references for more than a dozen SOLVE research projects -- including Photochemistry of Arctic Ozone, Resolution Modeling of Synoptic and Gravity Waves, and Theoretical Studies of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Clouds and Aerosols, to name a few. A collection of links rounds out the site.

348

In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann  

SciTech Connect

Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

Ron Zuckerman

2009-11-18

349

Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Draw-A-Scientist Test is an assessment tool devised to explore and measure children's stereotypical views of scientists. We administered this test to a group of 49 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in a teacher certification program. While this was originally intended as a purely pedagogical exercise, we were struck by the degree to which the drawings so produced resembled, in stereotypical content, those usually produced by children. This suggests that stereotypes of science and scientists formed during childhood, presumably via the influence of the media, remain largely unaffected by the subsequent passage through high school and college, despite the fact that numerous real-life figures of science teachers and scientists are presumably encountered throughout those formative years. We argue that this state of affairs has subtle and far reaching consequences, and is worthy of our collective attention.

Rahm, Jrène; Charbonneau, Paul

1997-08-01

350

Plant Diversity has "Luxury" Effect, Say Scientists  

NSF Publications Database

... hgholz@nsf.gov Plant Diversity has "Luxury" Effect, Say Scientists Biodiversity in urban/suburban ... becomes greater as the elevation of the site increases, but in the city resource abundance (wealth ...

351

Research Role of American Indian Social Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines American Indian communities' attitudes toward social science research and Anglo social science researchers. Discusses the positive role that Indian social scientists can play in improving the quantity and quality of research conducted in Indian communities. (Author/GC)

Brown, Anthony D.

1980-01-01

352

The Social Responsibilities of Scientists and Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the important role of scientists in society as educators. Explains problems caused by not understanding the theory of evolution and discusses possible solutions. First published in 1966. (YDS)

Pauling, Linus

2000-01-01

353

The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

Emens McAdam, Janice

1990-03-01

354

A Scientist's Guide to Science Denial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why are so many scientifically uncontroversial topics, from evolution and the age of the earth to climate change and vaccines, so contentious in society? The American public respects science and scientists, yet seems remarkably unaware of - or resistant to accepting - what scientists have learned about the world around us. This resistance holds back science education and undermines public policy discussions. Scientists and science communicators often react to science denial as if it were a question of scientific knowledge, and respond by trying to correct false scientific claims. Many independent lines of evidence show that science denial is not primarily about science. People reject scientific claims which seem to conflict with their personal identity - often because they believe that accepting those claims would threaten some deeply-valued cultural, political, or religious affiliation. Only by identifying, addressing, and defusing the underlying political and cultural concerns can educators, scientists, and science communicators undo the harm done by science denial.

Rosenau, J.

2012-12-01

355

Chief Scientist Labs Computational Astrophysics Laboratory  

E-print Network

Chief Scientist Labs Computational Astrophysics Laboratory Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Labs Computational Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory Metamaterials Laboratory Surface and Interface Physics Laboratory Molecular Genetics Laboratory Structural Biology Laboratory Initiative Research Units

Fukai, Tomoki

356

In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann  

ScienceCinema

Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

Ron Zuckerman

2010-01-08

357

Natural Scientists have asked Complex numbers  

E-print Network

Diagrams Predator-Prey Systems Discrete time models etc...... Drop in sessionsDrop in sessions #12;Sports Scientists have asked about Biomechanics Angular Momentum u,v,s,a,t equations Simultaneous equations

Burton, Geoffrey R.

358

Johannes Brouwer Data Scientist the Emergence of a New Profession  

E-print Network

scientist will most likely explore and examine data from multiple disparate sources. The data scientistJohannes Brouwer Data Scientist ­ the Emergence of a New Profession #12;Agenda · Trends · Big data and the Data Scientist · What is a Data Scientist · Conclusion #12;Did You Know http

Franssen, Michael

359

Ulysses discovers the mysteries of the sun's south pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists at ESA's space research and technology centre in Noordwijk (the Netherlands) this morning gave a very positive account of the South polar pass phase, which started in June and will be completed in November. In particular they concluded that the south polar region displayed unexpected magnetic and dynamic characteristics; this probably means that the thinking on the magnetic structure of the Sun will have to be revised. The first thing that surprised the scientists was the low cosmic radiation activity above the south pole and the remarkable apparent absence of a south magnetic pole. Richard Marsden, ESA's project scientist, explained: "We expected the Sun to have a relatively simple magnetic field, such as the Earth's or that of a magnetised iron bar. We thought we were going to find a local increase in the field's intensity. But the probe did not detect any such thing and all the evidence so far suggests that the Sun has no south magnetic pole. Could it be that the Sun has no south magnetic pole? Or is one suddenly going to appear before Ulysses completes its pass? These are some of the questions exercising the minds of the team of scientists working on the project, who are keenly looking forward to comparing these results with those that will be coming through next year when the probe passes over the Sun's north geographic pole. It is however already manifestly clear that the structure of the solar magnetic field in the southern polar region is not as predicted by the models. In particular, the instruments on board Ulysses have detected a new type of very slowly varying electromagnetic waves, with oscillation periods of 10 to 20 hours. The experts' theory is that this is due to an unexpected phenomenon that conveys the solar magnetic field into space through the solar wind. It is still far too early to say what effect these new findings are going to have on our overall understanding of the Sun and the interplanetary wind it generates. A vast volume of data running into billions of bits, all of it of great scientific value, has been acquired during the first part of this polar pass. Detailed analysis is going to take many months. However, one thing about which there is no doubt is the complexity of the phenomena observed, which involve the combined effects of the solar wind, magnetic field, electromagnetic waves and fast-moving bursts of particles. Further insights will probably be gained when Ulysses passes over the Sun's north pole in 1995 and, if the mission is extended, when it makes two further polar passes in 2000-2001, during a period of intense magnetic activity. (*) Ulysses is a joint ESA/NASA mission. ESA developed the probe and is contributing an estimated ECU 170 million up to 1995 to its in-fl operation. European research laboratories provided half of the scie instruments. NASA provided the other half of the experiments flown a radio-isotopic power generator and the launch; it is also maintain day-to-day communications with the probe via its dedicated antennas.

1994-09-01

360

The Case of the Missing Rumbleometer: A deep ocean mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Millennium Observatory (NeMO) is a seafloor observatory off the coast of Oregon, which studies the relationships between submarine volcanic events and the chemistry and distribution of hydrothermal vents and the biologic communities that depend on them. The research activities at NeMO provide an extraordinary educational opportunity, both from the daily reports from expeditions at sea and from creative learning materials based on NeMO results. This curriculum is based on real events and real data: the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano and the rumbleometer instrument that was stuck in the new lava flow. The activities for the classroom are modeled on how scientists actually investigated this event. This curriculum is intended for middle and high school students in earth science and marine science classes and includes advice for presentation and additional background information that could be incorporated into the lessons. It is supported by the National Science Foundation, Oregon Sea Grant, and Oregon State University.

Chadwick, William; Crouse, Ronald

2001-06-01

361

Looking for Clues to the Mystery of Life on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the vast central hall in Chambord Castle, the largest of the great chateaux on France's River Loire, an ornate double-helical staircase rises to a roof terrace. It was an appropriate setting for a banquet of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life (ISSOL), which held its triennial meeting last month in nearby Orleans. Without double-helical DNA and RNA molecules, life would not exist. At the meeting, nearly 300 scientists, including three Nobel laureates, grappled with the riddle of how these molecules first appeared and how they evolved into self-reproducing cells-questions that have gained new urgency with the hint that life in some form also may have evolved on Mars (see pages 864 and 924).

Balter, Michael

1996-08-01

362

Solar Week Wednesday: Meet Today's Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of readings associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Female scientists with different perspectives about the Sun are highlighted in the online readings. This activity is scheduled to occur during Wednesday of Solar Week.

363

Exploring Native American Students’ Perceptions of Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students’ perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9–12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students

Timothy A Laubach; Geary Don Crofford; Edmund A Marek

2012-01-01

364

Why we disagree about climate change Climate change will not be `solved' by science, nor will it be `solved' by the evangelical  

E-print Network

Why we disagree about climate change Climate change will not be `solved' by science, nor's international climate change summit in Montreal. Climate scientists worked overtime during 2005 to deliver new. Climate change is now far more than a discovery of the natural sciences and can no longer be defined

Hulme, Mike

365

Research and Teaching: Fostering Collaborative Problem Solving and 21st Century Skills Using the DEEPER Scaffolding Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative problem solving is an essential component of any 21st century science career. Scientists are hired, retained, and promoted for solving problems in dynamic and interdisciplinary teams. They discuss issues, explain and justify their opinions, debate, elaborate, and reflect on their collective knowledge. At the same time, both…

Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Jahanzad, Farzaneh; Greenwood, Carmen

2014-01-01

366

Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

2009-01-01

367

Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…

Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

2008-01-01

368

Can scientists and policy makers work together?  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses a fundamental question in evidence based policy making—can scientists and policy makers work together? It first provides a scenario outlining the different mentalities and imperatives of scientists and policy makers, and then discusses various issues and solutions relating to whether and how scientists and policy makers can work together. Scientists and policy makers have different goals, attitudes toward information, languages, perception of time, and career paths. Important issues affecting their working together include lack of mutual trust and respect, different views on the production and use of evidence, different accountabilities, and whether there should be a link between science and policy. The suggested solutions include providing new incentives to encourage scientists and policy makers to work together, using knowledge brokers (translational scientists), making organisational changes, defining research in a broader sense, re-defining the starting point for knowledge transfer, expanding the accountability horizon, and finally, acknowledging the complexity of policy making. It is hoped that further discussion and debate on the partnership idea, the need for incentives, recognising the incompatibility problems, the role of civil society, and other related themes will lead to new opportunities for further advancing evidence based policy and practice. PMID:16020638

Choi, B.; Pang, T.; Lin, V.; Puska, P.; Sherman, G.; Goddard, M.; Ackland, M.; Sainsbury, P.; Stachenko, S.; Morrison, H.; Clottey, C.

2005-01-01

369

Keeping Alive the Wonder: Primitive Mysteries, New York 1931 to London 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through discussion of a historical project to recreate Primitive Mysteries at Laban in London, the 1931 dance work is examined and placed in its context in Graham's career. Possible sources of inspiration derived from Catholic and New Mexican Pueblo culture are discussed, as is the relationship of the work to American modernism in art and dance. Through the use of

Anne Daye

2010-01-01

370

The First Amendment: The Finished Mystery Case and World War I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the censorship, and imprisonment of Jehovah's Witnesses who distributed, "The Finished Mystery," which contained antiwar statements deemed seditious during World War I. Asks students to examine a Justice Department document pertaining to the case. Helps students decide whether national security needs should override First Amendment…

Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

1990-01-01

371

The Mysterious Death: An HPLC Lab Experiment. An Undergraduate Forensic Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment based on the separation of four prescription drugs (disopyramide, lidocaine, procainamide, and quinidine) is presented. The experiment is set within the forensic science context of the discovery of a patient's mysterious death where a drug overdose is suspected. Each lab group…

Beussman, Douglas J.

2007-01-01

372

Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

2012-01-01

373

Out of the Mouths of Babes: Unlocking the Mysteries of Language and Voice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes three studies that have revolutionized child psychology by teaching us that children are biologically programmed to learn language; children's language development is orderly and pragmatic, but grammatically mysterious; and children's linguistic self-expression reveals some disturbing ways in which they have been socialized. Presents…

Thurber, Christopher A.

2003-01-01

374

Totally tubular: the mystery behind function and origin of the brain ventricular system  

E-print Network

Totally tubular: the mystery behind function and origin of the brain ventricular system Laura Anne School, 240 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA, USA A unique feature of the vertebrate brain is the ventricular by neu- roepithelium. While CSF is critical for both adult brain function and embryonic brain development

Lowery, Laura Anne

375

Physica A 386 (2007) 729743 The puzzling unsolved mysteries of liquid water  

E-print Network

Physica A 386 (2007) 729­743 The puzzling unsolved mysteries of liquid water: Some recent progress Abstract Water is perhaps the most ubiquitous, and the most essential, of any molecule on earth. Indeed be like without water. Despite decades of research, however, water's puzzling properties

Stanley, H. Eugene

376

Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect pest  

E-print Network

GilleN #12;What are compost teas? · Watery extracts (teas) made from placingUnraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect compost teas? · Teas are microbial and nutrient rich · Can be brewed on farm

377

Case Study: The Mystery of the Seven Deaths--A Case Study in Cellular Respiration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cellular respiration, the central component of cellular metabolism, can be a difficult concept for many students to fully understand. In this interrupted, problem-based case study, students explore the purpose of cellular respiration as they play the role of medical examiner, analyzing autopsy evidence to determine the mysterious cause of death…

Gazdik, Michaela

2014-01-01

378

Communication--Problem or Mystery?: An Interpretation of the Philosophy of Gabriel Marcel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the central issues in the philosophy of Gabriel Marcel is the distinction between "problem" and "mystery." The author claims that speech communication scholars find it necessary to objectify elements of communication in the framework of a problem in order to find answers in the form of systematic theories to explain the phenomenon in…

Cowell, Catherine R.

379

The Mystery of Marijuana: Science and the U.S. War on Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mystery of why marijuana is so severely repressed by law enforcement should be especially humbling for public health researchers in the United States and for the field of science studies more broadly. It demonstrates the need for putting institutional power politics and the social construction of reality into the center of our analysis of drugs. It also drills home

Philippe Bourgois

2008-01-01

380

Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

Christensen, Damaris

1999-01-01

381

Mystery of Vacuum Energy or Rise and Fall of Cosmological Constant  

E-print Network

Two sides of cosmological constant problem are discussed: a mysterious compensation of all contributions to vacuum energy with the accuracy of 100-50 orders of magnitude and a surprising equality of a constant vacuum energy density to the present-day value of time dependent cosmological energy density.

A. D. Dolgov

2002-03-26

382

Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time  

E-print Network

Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time Frank N. Keutsch of small (dimer through hexamer) water clusters. These data, in conjunction with new theoretical advances and solid phases of water, including an accurate universal force field. The quest to achieve an accurate

Cohen, Ronald C.

383

Mysteries of the Deep: What happens inside of MPI on Blue  

E-print Network

Mysteries of the Deep: What happens inside of MPI on Blue Gene/Q and why it matters Jeff Hammond on BGQ #12;But not too deep Jeff Hammond PAMI and MPI on BGQ #12;Blue Gene/P Communication architecture Jeff Hammond PAMI and MPI on BGQ #12;Blue Gene/Q Communication architecture Jeff Hammond PAMI and MPI

Kemner, Ken

384

Solving projective complete intersection faster  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method for solving square polynomial systems with no zero at infinity. We analyze its complexity, which indicates substantial improvements, compared with the previously known methods for solving such systems. We describe a framework for symbolic and numeric computations, developed in C++, in which we have implemented this algorithm. We mention the techniques that

Bernard Mourrain; Philippe Trebuchet

2000-01-01

385

SAT-solving in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satisfiability solving, the problem of deciding whether the variables of a propositional formula can be assigned in such a way that the formula evaluates to true, is one of the classic problems in computer science. It is of theoretical interest because it is the canonical NP-complete problem. It is of practical interest because modern SAT-solvers can be used to solve

Koen Claessen; Niklas Een; Mary Sheeran; N. Sorensson

2008-01-01

386

Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in

DiVincenzo

2007-01-01

387

Learning Impasses in Problem Solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

Hodgson, J. P. E.

1992-01-01

388

Solving Substitution Ciphers Sam Hasinoff  

E-print Network

Solving Substitution Ciphers Sam Hasinoff Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto Doyle's short story "The Adventure of the Dancing Men" (1903), the pro- tagonist Sherlock Holmes solves character. Figure 1: Dancing men ciphertext from "The Adventure of the Dancing Men" (1903). Thus, each

Toronto, University of

389

Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

Lacy, Grace

390

Decomposition patterns in problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops a theory of biases in decision making. Discovering a strategy for solving a game is a complex problem that may be solved by decomposition; a player decomposing a problem into many simple sub-problems may easily identify the optimal solution to each sub-problem: however it is shown that even though all partial solutions are optimal, the solution to

Massimo Egidi

2003-01-01

391

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

392

Medical Math applications (Solving Equations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a formula to solve equations, for problems with a medical slant provided by Mesa Collegeâs Veterinary Program. This requires the use of subscript notation and the multiplication property of equality to solve. The equations are the simplest of linear equations however the application makes them more interesting.

2010-01-01

393

The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis of an informal education activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13 [1]. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held at several Science Festival in Italy (Perugia, Genova, Fiorano, Bologna) obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives incharge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherdmoons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and water, represented by simple objects like apples, spinning tops and so on) to rebuild the rings. The kids can buy the ingredients from different planets: every planet has ingredients in quantities which are proportionate to the real physical properties of that celestial object. After collecting the ingredients, they must carry them to the "The Red Giant" and indicate their best recipe to Mr Schioppanelli. Depending on the recipe, rings can be too strict or too luminous or too fast rotating and so on. The winning group is the one which prepares the best recipe to cook the rings in the smallest amount of time. After introducing this specific (and mysterious) game, we analyze the advantage-disadvantage ratio of such an activity, which is as funny as dispersive [2]. The key expression of the whole activity is, of course, "informal education". But, as a best practice result, we organize also 1 or 2 very simple laboratories about the solar system before playing the game. One of these, called The Olmicomics, allows the pupils to understand the dimensions of the planets with respect to their distances, providing them the correct introduction to "The Lord of Rings". The pupils are simply requested to pone the planets in a correct scale on a map of the city where they live. Then we coherently calculate together dimension of the Solar System planets and the Sun, according to the scale they chose. The second activity provide the pupils hints about the physical properties of the planets, touching the points a)-d) listed above. We believe this two-faces strategy is a quite effective tool for an education suited to our target group. They really do things, touch things, use their own body as a meter to understand distances and physical properties as the gravitational force. In the meanwhile, they are also asked to think about what they are doing, to make calculation and to build a representation of the Solar System by numbers, turning it into a visual representation only after their calculation. And, finally, to play with all these conceipts.

Sandrelli, S.

2011-10-01

394

Extraordinary Cosmic Laboratory Helps Unravel Mysteries of a Galaxy's Powerful Central "Engine"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extraordinary cosmic laboratory 21 million light-years away is providing radio astronomers their best opportunity yet to decipher the mysteries of the ultra-powerful "engines" at the hearts of many galaxies and quasars. An international research team using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescopes has peered deeply into the core of the galaxy NGC 4258, learning important new information about the mysterious region from which high-speed jets of subatomic particles are ejected. The scientists announced their findings today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Toronto, Ontario. The new research provides significant quantitative support for a theoretical model for the origin of such jets first proposed in 1979. NGC 4258 is the galaxy in which a warped disk of water molecules was discovered in 1994. That disk, observed in detail with the VLBA, was shown to be orbiting a central mass some 35 million times more massive than the Sun. That central mass, the astronomers believe, is a black hole. More recent studies of the disk and its surroundings have given astronomers their most detailed look yet at the heart of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), including the ability to pinpoint the exact center of the system, where the black hole resides. The 1994 observations provided the best evidence to date for the existence of a black hole at the heart of a galaxy. Black holes, so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational fields, have long been suspected as the driving force behind the energetic central engines of AGNs. The fortuitous existence of the molecular disk in NGC 4258 has helped astronomers use the ultrasharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA to probe with unprecedented clarity into the heart of that galaxy's central engine. The researchers are: James Herrnstein, James Moran, and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Philip Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM; Mikoto Miyoshi of Japan's Misusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory; and Naomasa Nakai and Makoto Inoue of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The work formed the basis of Herrnstein's Ph.D. dissertation at Harvard University. The extraordinary detail of the observations is made possible by the fact that the water molecules in the disk orbiting the black hole are amplifying microwave radio emissions in the same manner that a laser amplifies light. These natural amplifiers are called cosmic masers, and they produce bright targets for radio telescopes. Study of water masers at the center of NGC 4258 is what revealed the orbiting disk in 1994. Further studies of the water masers in NGC 4258 now have allowed the research team to deduce the exact location of the object orbited by the disk. In addition, new observations of the galaxy's center show radio emission the astronomers believe traces the inner parts of the high-speed jets. Combined, these new observations allow measurement of the distance between the black hole and the innermost observable portions of the jets. Such measurement is extremely important, because the standard theoretical model, proposed in 1979 by Roger Blandford of Caltech and Arieh Konigl of the University of Chicago, makes a clear prediction that all detected radio emission will be offset from the central engine generating the jets. The new radio observations of NGC 4258 are the first to show the exact location of the core of an AGN, and thus the first to allow measurement of the offset between the core and the detected emission closest to it. Significantly, the offset measured in NGC 4258 is fully consistent with the quantitative prediction made by the model of Blandford and Konigl. "There has been a lot of speculation about the relationship between radio jets and black holes over the years," said Herrnstein. "But this measurement precisely pins down the geometric relationship between them in this object." In addition to these measurements, the research

395

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Profile  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 1995 Profile Hypertext Format Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States ... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication ...

396

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers  

NSF Publications Database

... Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers Hypertext Format Gender ... Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers Portable Document Format (.pdf ...

397

Scientists and Educators Working Together: Everyone Teaches, Everyone Learns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary author has been working with three of the authors (Lebofsky, McCarthy, and Cañizo) for nearly 25 years and Schmitt and Higgins for 17 and 8 years, respectively. This collaboration can be summed up with the phrase: “everyone teaches, everyone learns.” What NASA calls E/PO and educators call STEM/STEAM, requires a team effort. Exploration of the Solar System and beyond is a team effort, from research programs to space missions. The same is true for science education. Research scientists with a long-term involvement in science education have come together with science educators, classroom teachers, and informal science educators to create a powerful STEM education team. Scientists provide the science content and act as role models. Science educators provide the pedagogy and are the bridge between the scientists and the teacher. Classroom teachers and informal science educators bring their real-life experiences working in classrooms and in informal settings and can demonstrate scientists’ approaches to problem solving and make curriculum more engaging. Together, we provide activities that are grade-level appropriate, inquiry-based, tied to the literacy, math, and science standards, and connected directly to up-to-date science content and ongoing research. Our programs have included astronomy camps for youth and adults, professional development for teachers, in-school and after-school programs, family science events, and programs in libraries, science centers, and museums. What lessons have we learned? We are all professionals and can learn from each other. By engaging kids and having them participate in activities and ask questions, we can empower them to be the presenters for others, even their families. The activities highlighted on our poster represent programs and collaborations that date back more than two decades: Use models and engage the audience, do not just lecture. Connect the activity with ongoing science and get participants outside to look at the real sky: do a Moon journal, measure shadows, observe constellations, and look through a telescope—the sky is more than just string, balls, or a computer program.

Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; McCarthy, D. W.; Canizo, T. L.; Schmitt, W.; Higgins, M. L.

2013-10-01

398

Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?  

PubMed

Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. PMID:23890623

Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

2013-09-10

399

Images of Science and Scientists: A Study of School Teachers' Views. I. Characteristics of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines trends in teachers' beliefs about scientists and the nature of science. Discusses teachers' questionnaire responses on the following qualities of scientists: minimum educational qualifications; creativity; temperament; stereotyped image; and personal beliefs about indigenous systems of medicine and astrology. (Contains 63 references.)…

Rampal, A.

1992-01-01

400

On Becoming a Scientist ONE NORMALLY BECOMES A SCIENTIST THROUGH A SERIES OF APPRENTICESHIPS, PURSUING  

E-print Network

, PURSUING research in laboratories directed by established scientists. My own scientific mentors were and function as a scientist. Both from them, and by making my own mistakes,* I learned how to identify much of one's scientific future is shaped by early experiences, it is critical that beginning

Movileanu, Liviu

401

How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

Kea, Howard

2011-01-01

402

The Evolution of the Data Scientist.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When did the data scientist come into being? The National Science Board formally defined the term in 2005. Prior to that, the term was used sporadically, but typically to refer to statisticians or analysts. Nevertheless, the data scientist function has existed for a long time. Those who performed the function were called data managers or librarians or curators. Their role with digital data was critical but ill defined and poorly understood, especially by outsiders. Today, the tem data scientist is gaining currency and the discipline is gaining prominence, but it is a very dynamic field. And while it may be better defined, the term is still poorly understood. This lack of understanding can partly be attributed to the dynamic and evolutionary nature of the field. Domain scientists have developed new expectations for technology and services that enhance their ability to handle massive and complex data and present new challenges to data scientists. In response, data scientists are redefining and adapting their role to these rapidly changing demands of data-driven science and the fourth paradigm. In this paper, I explore the recent evolution of the field of data science as a socio-technical discipline. I discuss what has changed as well as what has remained the same and how some things that seem new may be a recasting of old problems. I take the view that data science is necessarily an evolutionary field that will need to continue to adapt in response to known and unknown challenges in order to ensure a healthy data ecosystem.

Parsons, M. A.

2011-12-01

403

"Physics and Life" - Teachers Meet Scientists at Major EIROforum Event [  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 400 selected delegates from 22 European countries will take part in "Physics on Stage 3" , organised by the EIROforum [1] research organisations (CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF, ILL) at the ESA ESTEC site (Noordwijk, The Netherlands). It is the culmination of a year-long educational programme and is a central event during the EC-sponsored European Science and Technology Week (November 8-15, 2003). Following the vastly successful preceeding events in 2000 and 2002, the main theme this year is "Physics and Life", reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass more of the natural sciences within an interdisciplinary approach. As before, European teachers, scientists, curricula organisers and others connected to the national education systems in Europe will gather with the main goal of exploring solutions to stimulate the interest of young people in science, by means of exciting and innovative teaching methods and materials. The rich one-week programme has many components: spectacular and original performances by students and professional actors, intensive encounters at a central fair where each country will present the latest developments from its teaching community at their stands, workshops about a host of crucial themes related to the central mission of this programme, seminars where EIROforum scientists and experienced high school teachers get together to discuss new teaching opportunities based on the latest results from front-line research projects at Europe's leading science centres, as well as a publishers fair that will also serve as an international exchange for new educational materials. A mystery cultural event will surprise everyone with its originality. And last but not least, the annual European Science Teaching Awards - the highest distinction in this field - will be presented at the end of the meeting. "Physics on Stage" is a joint project organised by EIROforum, together with the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) . The project is funded in part by the European Commission and takes place under the auspices of the European Science and Technology Week 2003. It is directed by the EIROforum Working Group on Outreach that brings together key members of the seven organisations' respective outreach departments. The "Physics on Stage 3" festival will be opened on Monday, November 10, by His Royal Highness, Prince Johan Friso of the Netherlands. Among the distinguished guests will also be Her Excellency, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, as well as several Directors-General of the EIROforum organisations. This "Physics on Stage 3" festival is the most visible event within a year-long programme with the very active involvement of National Committees in two dozen European countries, each of which organised national events or competitions, during which the 400 delegates to the festival were selected for their outstanding projects to promote science teaching. Among the many entries, for example, two young physicists from Germany focus on the beauty of physical phenomena, producing fractals and demonstrating the "Theremin", the only musical instrument played without being touched. In another demonstration, a team from the UK explore the nature of sound and the theme of genetics through drama, music and physical theatre. In this third international festival of physics education, biological and biochemical themes will also play a major role. As usual, the colourful centrepiece of the week is the Fair. Every country has its own stand where delegates show their new, exciting and surprising projects, innovative software, elegant experiments, etc. In this highly inspiring atmosphere, the teachers exchange practical experience and insights, learning from each other and preparing themselves to bring back to their respective countries a rich harvest of new ideas and inspiration for better teaching of science. "Physics

2003-11-01

404

The GLOBE International Scientists Network: Connecting scientists, teachers and students from around the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLOBE Program invites scientists in all areas of Earth System Science to work with students and teachers around the work on exploring local scientific problems. GLOBE has a rich history of connecting scientists with schools around the world around issues of environmental and relevance. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with students, teachers and scientists in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has initiated a focus on climate science during the next two years and we are especially interested in connecting scientists with teachers and students in geographic and disciplinary areas of interest to climate scientists. In addition, GLOBE is revitalizing the technology support for science and communications which will provide an easy mechanism for scientists to connect with GLOBE schools. GLOBE is based on spheres of the Earth system with five investigation areas: Atmosphere, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover / Biology, and Phenology. Classroom learning activities for each area help guide students in the classroom. Scientific protocols for data collection designed by scientists provide guidance for students to collect scientifically valid, high-quality data that can be used by professional scientists. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign aims to develop a framework for robust scientist participation in the program whereby scientists and GLOBE schools with mutual science interest can connect and develop collaborations. Scientist participation ranges from mentoring students on science investigations to working collaborative on local climate science research problems. Scientists interested in working with GLOBE are encouraged to participate in whatever level of engagement is appropriate to compliment their research program and professional goals. Scientists will become a part of the GLOBE International Scientist Network, which may provide entrée into other avenues of research and funding. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered in Boulder, is funded through cooperative agreements with NASA and NOAA with additional support from NSF and the U.S. Department of State. GLOBE is supported in countries around the world through bi-lateral agreements between U.S. Department of state and national governments.

Charlevoix, D. J.; Tessendorf, S. A.; Mackaro, J.

2011-12-01

405

Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists and engineers who foster information-sharing and respect between science and the public are essential for the public communication of and engagement with science. Although traditional scientific training typically does not prepare scientists and engineers to be effective communicators outside of academia, funding agencies are increasingly encouraging researchers to extend beyond peer-reviewed publishing and communicate their results directly to the greater public.Includes links to webinars, how-to tips for media interviews, strategies for identifying public outreach opportunities, and more.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-07-07

406

AGU Hosts Networking Event for Female Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Fall Meeting this year I had the pleasure of cohosting a new event, a Networking Reception for Early Career Female Scientists and Students, with Jane Lubchenco, under secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator, and Marcia McNutt, director of the U.S. Geological Survey. AGU recognizes the importance of having a diverse pool of new researchers who can enrich Earth and space sciences with their skills and innovation. That's why one of our four strategic goals is to help build the global talent pool and provide early-career scientists with networking opportunities like this one.

McEntee, Chris

2013-01-01

407

Why scientists should cooperate with journalists.  

PubMed

Despite a widespread impression that the public is woefully ignorant of science and cares little for the subject, U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) surveys show the majority are very interested and understand that they are not well informed about science. The data are consistent with the author's view that the popularity of pseudoscience does not indicate a rejection of science. If this is so, opportunities for scientists to communicate with the public promise a more rewarding result than is commonly believed among scientists. In fact, the increasing visibility of science in the mass media correlates with a slow, steady improvement in public understanding of science in recent years. PMID:11228777

Rensberger, B

2000-10-01

408

Media and the making of scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the unknown. Advocates of informal science learning initiatives suggest that media can be used as a tool for teaching science content. The potential of entertainment media to provide a sense of wonder is a powerful aspect of its potential to inspire the next generation of scientists.

O'Keeffe, Moira

409

The Scientist: Magazine of the Life Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientist is an international news magazine, published in both print and online versions, that reports on and analyzes the issues and events that impact the world of life scientists. Its mission is to provide compelling coverage of the latest developments, including research, technology, and business. Its target audience is active researchers interested in maintaining a broad view of the life sciences. The web site features news articles and discussion of research, the profession, and technology. There are also links to blogs, video and multimedia resources, and links to supplemental articles and survey materials.

410

BBC: Sci Files - Inspirational Welsh Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BBC website for secondary school students offers interviews and stories of successful Welsh scientists including Evans the Atom (Lyn Evans), Sir David the Weather (David Brunt), and Williams the Astronaut (Dafydd Rhys Williams). The website offers introductory synopses of the science topics. The Where Now links offer additional information and educational opportunities dealing with the scientist's specialty. Students can find out the starting points and qualifications they'll need for a host of science jobs including forensic science, geology, physics, and radiography. Visitors can assess their knowledge with the Test Your Boffin Factor quiz.

411

This book is intended for a wide readership including engineers, ap plied mathematicians, computer scientists, and graduate students who  

E-print Network

Preface This book is intended for a wide readership including engineers, ap� plied mathematicians, computer scientists, and graduate students who seek a comprehensive view of the main results on the Lyapunov matrix equation. The book presents different techniques for solving and ana� lyzing the algebraic

Gajic, Zoran

412

Favorite Demonstration: How Scientists Use Critical-Thinking Skills -- Isolating Both Total RNA and Protein Using the Same Small Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Undergraduate biology programs are currently undergoing reform to involve students in biomedical research. Engaging students in more active, hands-on experiments allows students to discover scientific principles for themselves, and to develop techniques of critical thinking and problem solving. This models the world of real scientific research, where scientists are confronted with specific problems each day, often dealing with experimental design.

Porta, Angela R.; Dhawan, Puneet

2006-05-01

413

Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2013-01-01

414

SPRING 2011 + Solving climate change  

E-print Network

SPRING 2011 + Solving climate change one continent at a time + Supporting former child soldiers in Uganda Education improves global stability Studying abroad changes lives #12;CEHD.UMN.EDU 1 from the dean

Blanchette, Robert A.

415

Problem Solving and Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving and decision making in multicultural work teams are the last of the skill areas to be covered in this book.\\u000a This topic will be discussed from the cultural, individual, and organizational levels of multicultural team development, building\\u000a on the frameworks that have been presented in previous chapters. Many theorists consider problem solving and decision making\\u000a as synonymous-all decisions

Linda Drake Gobbo; Walt Disney

416

SCIP: solving constraint integer programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint integer programming (CIP) is a novel paradigm which integrates constraint programming (CP), mixed integer programming (MIP), and satisfiability (SAT) modeling and solving techniques. In this paper we discuss the software framework and solver SCIP (Solving Constraint\\u000a Integer Programs), which is free for academic and non-commercial use and can be downloaded in source code. This paper gives\\u000a an overview of

Tobias Achterberg

2009-01-01

417

Polar Stratospheric Clouds from SOLVE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Polar stratospheric clouds form at extremely low temperatures in the upper atmosphere. Should the temperature rise, clouds wont form. In this visualization, sequential temperature readings taken in the research area for SOLVE (Stratospheric Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment) are plotted against a threshold temperature for PSC formation. These are clouds essentially made of nitric acid. Note how the area covered by the clouds increases as winter progresses. The red point on the map indicates the location of Kiruna, Sweden, the SOLVE staging area.

Fekete, George; Newman, Paul

2000-05-30

418

Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design  

PubMed Central

Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

2012-01-01

419

Mathematical Education for Scientists and Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical education for scientists and engineers is defined as including not only the education required to understand currently accepted theories, but also the mathematical background which may become useful in future research. This broader requirement is confronted with the dilemma that the professional academic mathematicians emphasize the axiomatic and rigorously deductive aspects of their work. On the other hand, it

Hyman Serbin

1966-01-01

420

Educational Mismatch and the Careers of Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research confirms that many employees work in jobs not well matched to their skills and education, resulting in lower pay and job satisfaction. While this literature typically uses cross-sectional data, we examine the evolution of mismatch and its consequences over a career, by using a panel data set of scientists in the USA. The results…

Bender, Keith A.; Heywood, John S.

2011-01-01

421

Pollution Problems, Resource Policy, and the Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case history of a power plant proposal for Cayuga Lake, New York, illustrates problems of discussion-making on the use of natural resources. Discusses the motives of special interest groups, and the roles of citizens and scientists. Proposes principles of resoruce management. (EB)

Eipper, Alfred W.

1970-01-01

422

Notre Dame scientists study lake pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists and engineers at the University of Notre Dame will test and evaluate possible methods of reducing pollution in Stone Lake, near Cassopolis, Michigan, under a $46,335 grant from the Environmental Protection Agency.Mark W. Tenney, Associate Professor of civil engineering, explained that a group of five researchers has been studying Stone Lake since 1966, when the nearby town removed a

Anonymous

1971-01-01

423

U.S. Ethnic Scientists and Entrepreneurs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigrants are exceptionally important for U.S. technology development, accounting for almost half of the country's Ph.D. workforce in science and engineering. Most notably, the contribution of Chinese and Indian scientists and entrepreneurs in U.S. high-technology sectors increased dramatically in the 1990s. These ethnic scientific communities…

Kerr, William R.

2007-01-01

424

Tutorial Proposal MapReduce for Scientist  

E-print Network

Tutorial Proposal MapReduce for Scientist using FutureGrid Gregor von Laszewski Assist. Director will in this tutorial outline the concept of MapReduce, introduce criteria on which applications can successfully useGrid. 2 Description 2.1 Overview and Goals of the tutorial (takeaways for the audience) Map

425

Cautiously, Scientists Put Faith in Obama Promise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that academic researchers are optimistic that President Barack Obama's approach to science heralds a new era of support for their work. When Mr. Obama named his top science and technology advisers only weeks after being elected, many scientists celebrated. After eight years of an administration that many academics believed…

Field, Kelly

2009-01-01

426

American Behavioral Scientist 57(6) 796817  

E-print Network

, possibilities for "global cooling" (echo- ing claims made in the 1970s) permeated mass media accounts. The news Borenstein (2009) quoted climate scientist Ken Caldeira, who asserted, "To talk about global cooling;Boykoff 797 What Happened to Global Warming? "Bring the (Signals and) Noise" Numerous events in recent

Colorado at Boulder, University of

427

Career Panel: Scientists in Science Education  

E-print Network

, and helps other scientists reach out to the community. Emily Ferrin (moderator) Teacher Development and evolve, particularly she focuses on the role that large-scale magnetic fields play and also matching. When not researching or working to make science accessible to the public, Alissa enjoys playing music

Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

428

Russian Scientist — Mechanics Ufimtsev A.G  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents description of the some inventions of one talented Russian scientist — inventor who already one hundred\\u000a years ago suggested new ideas of the development of the motors for aero plane, electrical power station and more than twenty\\u000a different inventions.

Zaharov Ivan; Jatsun Sergey; Jatsun Svetlana

429

Build a Scientist! From elementary school  

E-print Network

plenty of good press, but it's not how the three research- ers featured in this issue made their dreams will incite you to lay the ground- work you need to make your own dreams a reality. For years, MagLab engineer surprise you to know that some scientists, such as researcher Art Edison, start out as artists. Art

McQuade, D. Tyler

430

Scientists Describe Molecular Characteristics of Lung Tumors  

Cancer.gov

Scientists report that they were able to distinguish between the patterns of gene expression for two common types of non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, in the current issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

431

SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS STATISTICAL DATA SYSTEM (SESTAT)  

EPA Science Inventory

SESTAT is a comprehensive and integrated system of information about the employment, educational, and demographic characteristics of scientists and engineers (S&E) in the United States. In concept it covers those with a bachelor's degree or higher who either work in or are educat...

432

Scientists Create Tiny Stomachs from Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Scientists Create Tiny Stomachs From Stem Cells Feat may help researchers learn more about causes ... Preidt Wednesday, October 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Stem Cells Stomach Disorders WEDNESDAY, Oct. 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

433

Scientists, Spirituality and Education for Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In August 1985, almost 300 scientists and science educators came together in Bangalore, India, from over 70 different countries, including both developed and developing nations, to take part in a conference on science and technology, education, and future human needs. The conference is described. (RM)

Harlen, Wynne

1986-01-01

434

"The Social Responsibility of the Social Scientist."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although social scientists are often adjured to become more "scientific," they might well remember a phenomenon described by Arthur Lovejoy as "metaphysical pathos" or the set of sentiments with which every theory is associated and which are congruent with the mood or deep lying sentiment of its adherents. Examples from the past include the Social…

Watson, Bernard C.

435

Bioinformatics—an introduction for computer scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article aims to introduce computer scientists to the new field of bioinformatics. This area has arisen from the needs of biologists to utilize and help interpret the vast amounts of data that are constantly being gathered in genomic research---and its more recent counterparts, proteomics and functional genomics. The ultimate goal of bioinformatics is to develop in silico models that

Jacques Cohen

2004-01-01

436

Scientists Detect Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Scientists Detect Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer Finding might lead one day to test for ... September 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Laboratory Tests Pancreatic Cancer SUNDAY, Sept. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers say ...

437

Scientists Report Advance in Understanding Steroid Receptors  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have long known that proteins called steroid receptors play a critical role in switching on hormone-responsive genes. What has been unclear is how these proteins orchestrate the process, a key issue in learning to control genes activated by steroid hormones such as androgen and estrogen.

438

"The Disinterested Scientist": Fact or Fiction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behavior of scientists who studied the moon rocks from the various Apollo missions was examined over a three year period. Methods of interviews ranging from discussion to written questionnaires were designed to explore issues connected with lunar missions and to focus on specific attitudes towards these issues. The central question emphasized…

Mitroff, Ian I.

1973-01-01

439

Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives on Test Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this book is on the way professionals use and make sense of test assessment data in their counseling. The book is oriented specifically toward those training to be psychologists or counselors, especially those interested in a scientist-practitioner orientation to clinical practice. Each of the chapters presents a perspective on test…

Lichtenberg, James W., Ed.; Goodyear, Rodney K., Ed.

440

Student transformations: are they computer scientists yet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the changes in the ways computing students view their field as they learn, as reported by the students themselves in short written biographies. In many ways, these changes result in students thinking and acting more like computer scientists and identifying more with the computing community. Most of the changes are associated with programming and software engineering, rather than

Carol Zander; Jonas Boustedt; Robert McCartney; Jan Erik Moström; Kate Sanders; Lynda Thomas

2009-01-01

441

Scientist and Engineer Shortage: Myth or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With clockwork regularity, the real or perceived shortage of scientists and engineers in the US pops up as a topic of debate in academic and industry circles. Discussions of an imminent shortage have deep impact for education, career prospects, immigration, and "The American Dream." The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it poses a…

Post, Jan F.

2006-01-01

442

Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

2013-12-01

443

The Word ``Scientist'' or its Substitute  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN my little book on ``Notes on the Composition of Scientific Papers'' I have defended the use of ``scientist'': it is quite a normal word, such as artist, economist, etc. Against it is the dislike of all new words or spellings; they are contrary to our habits, But there is more than this: in England (especially as compared with Germany

Clifford Allbutt

1924-01-01

444

Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen…

Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

2013-01-01

445

KAREN J. MITCHELL Senior Research Scientist  

E-print Network

KAREN J. MITCHELL Senior Research Scientist Department of Psychology Yale University Box 208205 New Haven, CT 06520-8205 (203) 432-4654 (W) (203) 432- 4639 (Fax) karen.mitchell@yale.edu Education Kent State University 1991 B.A. Psychology Penn State Erie, Behrend College Academic Positions Fall

Johnson, Marcia K.

446

The VIVO Ontology: Enabling Networking of Scientists  

E-print Network

technologies to model scientists and provides federated search to enhance the discovery of researchers been adopted nationally and internationally, and enables the national and international federated search for finding experts. 1 Introduction The exponential growth in complexity and scope of modern

Menczer, Filippo

447

Modern Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends a change in the way mathematics is taught to engineers and scientists. Espouses a shift away from traditional methods to an approach that makes significant use of algebra packages. Suggests that teaching the language comprised of the notation and grammar of mathematics would be of more use and more accessible than focusing entirely on…

Ward, J. P.

2003-01-01

448

Cleantech to Market ScientiStS +  

E-print Network

sciences, nanotechnology, computer sciences, mechanical engineering, building technologies and moreCleantech to Market StudentS + ScientiStS + ProfeSSionalS = innovation H A A S S C H O O L O F B U. StudentS C2M then engages top graduate students from Business, Engineering, Science, Law, and the Energy

Kammen, Daniel M.

449

Potentially harmful side-effects: medically unexplained symptoms, somatization, and the insufficient illness narrative for viewers of mystery diagnosis.  

PubMed

Illness narrative has often been found to play a positive role in both patients' and providers' efforts to find meaning in the illness experience. However, illness narrative can sometimes become counterproductive, even pathological, particularly in cases of medical mystery--cases wherein biopsychosocial factors blur the distinction between bodily dysfunction and somatizing behavior. In this article, the author draws attention to two examples of medical mystery, the clinical presentation of medically unexplained symptoms, and the popular reality television program Mystery Diagnosis, to demonstrate the potentially harmful effects of illness narrative. The medical mystery's complex narrative structure reflects and tends to reinforce providers' and patients' mistaken assumptions, anxieties, and conflicts in ways which obstruct, rather than facilitate, healing. PMID:23740408

Farkas, Carol-Ann

2013-09-01

450

Secrets of the MIT mystery hunt : an exploration of the theory underlying the construction of a multi-puzzle contest  

E-print Network

This is an exploration of the rules and guidelines that underlie the structure of a multi-puzzle contest (a competition consisting of one large puzzle made up of a number of smaller constituent puzzles). The MIT Mystery ...

Gottlieb, Mark Louis, 1974-

1998-01-01

451

Everyone Knows What a Scientist Looks Like: The Image of a Modern Scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Children are inspired to follow career paths when they can imagine themselves there. Seeing pictures of adult individuals who look like them working in a given career can provide this spark to children's imaginations. Most (though not all) of the current available posters of scientists are of Einstein, and Einstein-like scientists. This is not representative of the current face of science. To change this, Pacific Science Center will host a photography exhibit: photographs of real, current scientists from all races, genders, beliefs, and walks of life. Photos will be taken and short biographies written by Discovery Corps Interns (Pacific Science Center's youth development program) to increase the amount of direct contact between students and scientists, and to give the exhibit an emotional connection for local teachers and families. We plan to make the photographs from this exhibit available to teachers for use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center during the International Year of Astronomy. The objectives of this project are to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community and to meet two of the goals of the International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by under-represented minorities in scientific and engineering careers.

Enevoldsen, A. A. G.

2008-11-01

452

On the origin of mysterious X-ray spectral peaks observed at the REFER electron ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the crystal structure of the molybdenum foil used as an intensity monitor in a previous experiment at 150 MeV electron ring at Hiroshima reporting mysterious unidentified spectral peaks. It was found that the Mo foil had a textured polycrystalline structure and that the <1 1 0> axis of crystalline grains were highly oriented such that they were in parallel to the <1 1 0> axis of the Si target used in the previous experiment. This indicates that the mysterious peaks were due either to the diffraction of bremsstrahlung and transition radiation from the Si target and/or parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) of beam electrons by the textured polycrystalline Mo foil.

Endo, I.; Iseki, D.; Ohnishi, T.; Moriyoshi, C.; Shchagin, A. V.

2004-06-01

453

Myths and Mysteries of Solar Wind Speed and MeV Electrons in the Magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remarkable correlation between high speed solar wind and the enhancement of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere has been identified for over four decades, yet the mystery of this correlation remains. Recently, several interpretations about this correlation have been proposed and most of them are incomplete and some of them may have generated the widespread verdict (or myth) that enhanced ULF waves alone lead to enhanced MeV electrons in the radiation belts. In this presentation, we present a brief review of the association of high speed solar wind and energetic electrons across the entire relevant energy range (10s of keV to multi-MeV) and magnetospheric region (from inner magnetosphere to cental plasmasheet). We discuss the incompleteness of existing interpretations and we describe a more complete picture in understanding this mystery.

Li, X.; Baker, D.

2009-04-01

454

Bringing Female Scientists into the Elementary Classroom: Confronting the Strength of Elementary Students' Stereotypical Images of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the effectiveness of bringing female scientists into elementary classrooms to promote change in the stereotypical images of scientists. Indicates that despite the efforts of the scientists to encourage students to question their image of a scientist, students held onto stereotypical images. Uses both qualitative and quantitative methods…

Buck, Gayle A.; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra; Kirby, Susan K.

2002-01-01

455

CME hits Earth 10/24, 1400 EDT Researchers Identify Mysterious Life  

E-print Network

News CME hits Earth 10/24, 1400 EDT #12;News · Researchers Identify Mysterious Life Forms.spacedaily.com/reports/Spitzer_Snaps_a_Picture_of_the_ Coolest_of_Companions_999.html #12;Europa And the Moons of Jupiter #12;NH and Fl #12;Recap: Comparative to remain stable as a liquid #12;The Moons of Jupiter Ganymede Callisto Io Europa The 4 Galilean moons

Walter, Frederick M.

456

More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available March 2009 Where do rotten apples go after they fall off the tree? Does the temperature of the wood affect the heat of the fire? Can you make water boil faster? How large a mirror do you need to see your whole body? This second volume of 15 mystery stories examines more science concepts and reinforces the value of learning science through inquiry. Each mystery presents opportunities for students to create questions, form hypotheses, test their ideas, and come up with explanations. Focused on concepts such as weather and climate, thermodynamics, interdependency of living things, adaptation, life cycles, properties of matter, reflection and refraction, and chemical bonds, these mysteries draw students into the stories by grounding them in experiences students are familiar with, providing them with the foundation for classroom discussion and inquiry. "These stories are bound to reveal the wonderful ideas all students have, give them the confidence to explore their own thinking, and provide opportunities for them to 'do' science rather than have science 'done' to them." --Page Keeley, NSTA President 2008-09

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

457

Bringing female scientists into the elementary classroom: Confronting the strength of elementary students’ stereotypical images of scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effectiveness of bringing female scientists into the elementary classrooms on promoting changes in\\u000a the stereotypical images of scientists. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed to illuminate changes\\u000a in stereotypical images of scientists. Results indicate that despite the efforts of the scientists to encourage the students\\u000a to question their image of a scientist, the students

Gayle A. Buck; Diandra Leslie-Pelecky; Susan K. Kirby

2002-01-01

458

National Ice Center Visiting Scientist Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term goal of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Visiting Scientist Program at the National Ice Center (NIC) is to recruit the highest quality visiting scientists in the ice research community for the broad purpose of strengthening the relationship between the operational and research communities in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research supports the scientific community by creating, conducting, and coordinating projects that strengthen education and research in the atmospheric, oceanic and earth sciences. UCAR accomplishes this mission by building partnerships that are national or global in scope. The goal of UCAR is to enable researchers and educators to take on issues and activities that require the combined and collaborative capabilities of a broadly engaged scientific community.

Austin, Meg

2002-01-01

459

Differential forms for scientists and engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a review of a number of mathematical concepts from differential geometry and exterior calculus that are finding increasing application in the numerical solution of partial differential equations. The objective of the paper is to introduce the scientist/ engineer to some of these ideas via a number of concrete examples in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The goal is not to explain these ideas with mathematical precision but to present concrete examples and enable a physical intuition of these concepts for those who are not mathematicians. The objective of this paper is to provide enough context so that scientist/engineers can interpret, implement, and understand other works which use these elegant mathematical concepts.

Blair Perot, J.; Zusi, Christopher J.

2014-01-01

460

ACADEMIC FREEDOM: Political Scientist Becomes Cause Celebre.  

PubMed

On 11 May, a criminal court in Vienna found one of Austria's most prominent political scientists, Anton Pelinka, guilty of defaming former Freedom Party leader Jörg Haider. Haider, an outspoken populist who has made questionable comments about Nazism, accused Pelinka of defaming him for asserting in an interview on Italian television in May 1999 that some Haider statements had "trivialized" Nazism. In the 3 months since the judgment, an array of academic and human rights groups have rushed to Pelinka's defense. PMID:17839148

Koenig, R

2000-08-11

461

Scientists contemplate unexplained death in Austrian Alps  

PubMed Central

The recent EMBO Molecular Medicine Workshop on Cell Death and Disease was held this past March in the picturesque Alpen ski-town of Obergurgl, Austria. Scientists working on diverse mechanisms and pathways of cell death convened to present and discuss their current research. Topics included not only cell death signalling pathways, their etiology in human disease, and potential avenues for therapeutic intervention, but also new approaches and perspectives for understanding the subtle mechanisms regulating cell fate. PMID:21674807

Miller, Charles; Dillon, Christopher; Martinez, Jennifer; Parsons, Melissa; Weinlich, Ricardo; Melino, Gerry

2011-01-01

462

The scientist's education and a civic conscience.  

PubMed

A civic science curriculum is advocated. We discuss practical mechanisms for (and highlight the possible benefits of) addressing the relationship between scientific knowledge and civic responsibility coextensively with rigorous scientific content. As a strategy, we suggest an in-course treatment of well known (and relevant) historical and contemporary controversies among scientists over science policy or the use of sciences. The scientific content of the course is used to understand the controversy and to inform the debate while allowing students to see the role of scientists in shaping public perceptions of science and the value of scientific inquiry, discoveries and technology in society. The examples of the activism of Linus Pauling, Alfred Nobel and Joseph Rotblat as scientists and engaged citizens are cited. We discuss the role of science professors in informing the social conscience of students and consider ways in which a treatment of the function of science in society may find, coherently, a meaningful space in a science curriculum at the college level. Strategies for helping students to recognize early the crucial contributions that science can make in informing public policy and global governance are discussed. PMID:23096773

Donald, Kelling J; Kovac, Jeffrey

2013-09-01

463

"Missing Link" Revealing Fast-Spinning Pulsar Mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have discovered a unique double-star system that represents a "missing link" stage in what they believe is the birth process of the most rapidly-spinning stars in the Universe -- millisecond pulsars. "We've thought for some time that we knew how these pulsars get 'spun up' to rotate so swiftly, and this system looks like it's showing us the process in action," said Anne Archibald, of McGill University in Montreal, Canada. Pulsar and Companion Neutron star with accretion disk (left) drawing material from companion star (right). CREDIT:Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Animations of this system and its evolution. Pulsars are superdense neutron stars, the remnants left after massive stars have exploded as supernovae. Their powerful magnetic fields generate lighthouse-like beams of light and radio waves that sweep around as the star rotates. Most rotate a few to tens of times a second, slowing down over thousands of years. However, some, dubbed millisecond pulsars, rotate hundreds of times a second. Astronomers believe the fast rotation is caused by a companion star dumping material onto the neutron star and spinning it up. The material from the companion would form a flat, spinning disk around the neutron star, and during this period, the radio waves characteristic of a pulsar would not be seen coming from the system. As the amount of matter falling onto the neutron star decreased and stopped, the radio waves could emerge, and the object would be recognized as a pulsar. This sequence of events is apparently what happened with a binary-star system some 4000 light-years from Earth. The millisecond pulsar in this system, called J1023, was discovered by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia in 2007 in a survey led by astronomers at West Virginia University and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The astronomers then found that the object had been detected by NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope during a large sky survey in 1998, and had been observed in visible light by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in 1999, revealing a Sun-like star. When observed again in 2000, the object had changed dramatically, showing evidence for a rotating disk of material, called an accretion disk, surrounding the neutron star. By May of 2002, the evidence for this disk had disappeared. "This strange behavior puzzled astronomers, and there were several different theories for what the object could be," said Ingrid Stairs of the University of British Columbia, who has been visiting the Australia Telescope National Facility and Swinburne University this year. The 2007 GBT observations showed that the object is a millisecond pulsar, spinning 592 times per second. "No other millisecond pulsar has ever shown evidence for an accretion disk," Archibald said. "We know that another type of binary-star system, called a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB), also contains a fast-spinning neutron star and an accretion disk, but these don't emit radio waves. We've thought that LMXBs probably are in the process of getting spun up, and will later emit radio waves as a pulsar. This object appears to be the 'missing link' connecting the two types of systems," she explained. "It appears this thing has flipped from looking like an LMXB to looking like a pulsar, as it experienced an episode during which material pulled from the companion star formed an accretion disk around the neutron star. Later, that mass transfer stopped, the disk disappeared, and the pulsar emerged," said Scott Ransom of the NRAO. The scientists have studied J1023 in detail with the GBT, with the Westerbork radio telescope in the Netherlands, with the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, and with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia. Their results indicate that the neutron star's companion has less than half the Sun's mass, and orbits the neutron star once every four hours and 45 minutes. "This system gives us an unparalled 'cosmic laboratory' for studying

2009-05-01

464

Solar mystery nears solution with data from SOHO spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the corona's temperature was first measured 55 years ago, scientists have lacked a satisfactory explanation for why that temperature is over one million degrees while the visible surface of the Sun is only about 6,000 degrees Celsius. According to the laws of physics, thermal energy cannot flow from the cooler surface to the much hotter corona, so the energy transfer has to be in the form of waves or magnetic energy, but no measurement to date had found adequate energy to account for the corona's high temperature. "We now have direct evidence for the upward transfer of magnetic energy from the Sun's surface toward the corona above. There is more than enough energy coming up from the loops of the "magnetic carpet" to heat the corona to its known temperature", said Dr. Alan Title of the Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA, who led the research. "Each one of these loops carries as much energy as a large hydroelectric plant, such as the Hoover dam, generates in about a million years !". "We now appear to be closing in on an explanation as to why the solar corona is over 100 times hotter than the solar surface - the solution to a 55-year old puzzle", said Dr. George Withbroe, Director of the Sun-Earth Connection Programme at NASA Headquarters, Washington DC. "These results underline the importance of long-term study of the changing conditions on the Sun from the superior vantage point of space". Energy flows from the loops when they interact, producing electric and magnetic "short circuits". The very strong electric currents in these short circuits are what heats the corona to a temperature of several million degrees. Images from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the Coronal Diagnostics Spectrometer (CDS) on SOHO show ever-changing brightenings of the hot gases in the corona in response - it is assumed -to the evolving magnetic fields rooted in the solar surface. The observations with SOHO's Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) provided long-duration, highly detailed, and well calibrated time-lapse movies of the magnetic fields on the visible surface or "photosphere" of the Sun. These revealed the rapidly changing properties of what Title calls "the Sun's Magnetic Carpet" a sprinkling of tens-of-thousands of magnetic concentrations; These concentrations have both north and south magnetic poles, which are the "foot points" of magnetic loops extending into the solar corona. Like field biologists who study the populations and life cycles of animal herds, the SOHO researchers analysed the appearances and disappearances of large numbers of the small magnetic concentrations on the solar surface. "We find that after a typical small magnetic loop emerges, it fragments and drifts around and then disappears in only 40 hours" Title said. "It's very hard to understand how such a short-lived effect could be driven by the magnetic dynamo layer that is over 150,000 km beneath the surface of the Sun. This may be evidence that unknown processes are at work in or near the solar surface that continuously form these loops all over the Sun". Professor Phillip Scherrer of Stanford University is the MDI Principal Investigator. MDI was built at the LM Technology Center and is a project of the Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research. The EIT and CDS instruments were built by international consortia under the leadership of, respectively, Dr. Richard A. Harrison of Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory near Oxford (UK) and Dr. Jean-Pierre Delaboudini[re of the Institut d'Astrophysique spatiale in Orsay (F). The new observations were made with these three instruments on SOHO, a spacecraft stationed 1,5 million Kilometres sunward of the Earth in interplanetary space, where it has an uninterrupted view of the Sun and of the solar wind particles blown from the Sun. The SOHO satellite developed by ESA and built by European industry is operated from a control cent

1997-11-01

465

The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving  

PubMed Central

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

2014-01-01

466

The strength of the strongest ties in collaborative problem solving.  

PubMed

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

2014-01-01

467

The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

2014-06-01

468

Solving Equations: Properties of Equality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers the properties of equality as related to algebraic equations. The unit's activities include defining the terminology and properties of equality associated with algebraic operations and solving simple equations using these properties. Practice questions are also included.

Blohowiak, Chad; Jensen, Douglas; Reed, Allen

2011-01-31

469

Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains how to solve quadratic equations with the factoring method. In 4 minutes 23 seconds, the two narrators explain in detail the steps required. Additionally, how these equations relate to objects and events in the real world such as roller coasters is covered.

2012-08-06

470

Robot computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

1974-01-01

471

Solving SAT with Bilateral Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve a simple instance of the SAT problem using a natural physical com- puting system based on uid mechanics. The natural system functions in a way that avoids the combinatorial explosion which generally arises from the exponen- tial number of assignments to be examined. The solution may be viewed as part of a more general type of natural computation

Joshua J. Arulanandham; Cristian S. Calude; Michael J. Dinneen

2002-01-01

472

Solving SAT with Bilateral Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve a simple instance of the SAT problem using a natural physical com- puting system based on fluid mechanics. The natural system functions in a way that avoids the combinatorial explosion which generally arises from the exponen- tial number of assignments to be examined. The solution may be viewed as part of a more general type of natural computation

Joshua J. Arulanandham; Cristian S. Calude; Michael J. Dinneen

2003-01-01

473

Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)  

E-print Network

emissions or decreasing car use. An air pollution model is never exact in its attempt to simulatePSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical

Nizkorodov, Sergey

474

Robot To Solve Rubik's Cube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact, portable dual manipulator robot has been constructed to solve Rubik's CubeTM. The robot system reads the color pattern from the scrambled cube faces, computes a solution, and executes the manipulations required to return each cube face to a uniform color. The vision, mechanical manipulator, and microprocessor control subsystems will be discussed in conjunction with the solution algorithm.

Dyer, R. D.; Bondurant, P. D.; Kelley, R. C.; Hartman, J. S.; Dake, L. S.; Lind, M. A.; Reich, F. R.; Rosier, S. D.

1983-05-01

475

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

2013-01-01

476

Robot computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.

Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

1974-01-01

477

Solving for the Wigner Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a specification of observables, the next step is to find the relevant WF for a given Hamiltonian. Can this be done without solving for the Schrödinger wavefunctions ?, i.e. not using Schrödinger's equation directly? Indeed, the functional equations which f satisfies completely determine it ...

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-11-01

478

Efficient SAT Solving: Beyond Supercubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAT (Boolean satisfiability) has become the primary Boolean reasoning engine for many EDA applications, so the efficiency of SAT solving is of great practical importance. Recently, Goldberg et al introduced supercubing, a different approach to search-space pruning, based on a theory that unifies many existing methods. Their implementation reduced the number of decisions, but no speedup was obtained. In this

Domagoj Babi'c; Jesse D. Bingham; Alan J. Hu

2005-01-01

479

Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

2012-12-01

480

Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by participating in Expedition Earth and Beyond, will also have the opportunity to virtually share their research. These virtual team presentations will allow these emerging scientists to celebrate their own exploration, and in doing so, contribute to the excitement of the Year of the Solar System. As the public joins NASA in the celebration of YSS, students across the nation will not only be excited by the science and discoveries being made, but will prime themselves with experience to perhaps someday become the new leaders in science, discovery, and NASA.

Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

2010-12-01

481

Genetics problem solving and worldview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Dale, Esther

482

Scientists feature their work in Arctic-focused short videos by FrontierScientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether they're guiding an unmanned aerial vehicle into a volcanic plume to sample aerosols, or documenting core drilling at a frozen lake in Siberia formed 3.6 million years ago by a massive meteorite impact, Arctic scientists are using video to enhance and expand their science and science outreach. FrontierScientists (FS), a forum for showcasing scientific work, produces and promotes radically different video blogs featuring Arctic scientists. Three- to seven- minute multimedia vlogs help deconstruct researcher's efforts and disseminate stories, communicating scientific discoveries to our increasingly connected world. The videos cover a wide range of current field work being performed in the Arctic. All videos are freely available to view or download from the FrontierScientists.com website, accessible via any internet browser or via the FrontierScientists app. FS' filming process fosters a close collaboration between the scientist and the media maker. Film creation helps scientists reach out to the public, communicate the relevance of their scientific findings, and craft a discussion. Videos keep audience tuned in; combining field footage, pictures, audio, and graphics with a verbal explanation helps illustrate ideas, allowing one video to reach people with different learning strategies. The scientists' stories are highlighted through social media platforms online. Vlogs grant scientists a voice, letting them illustrate their own work while ensuring accuracy. Each scientific topic on FS has its own project page where easy-to-navigate videos are featured prominently. Video sets focus on different aspects of a researcher's work or follow one of their projects into the field. We help the scientist slip the answers to their five most-asked questions into the casual script in layman's terms in order to free the viewers' minds to focus on new concepts. Videos are accompanied by written blogs intended to systematically demystify related facts so the scientists can focus on presenting what they're passionate about, not get bogged down by basic groundwork. Vlogs and short video bios showcase the enthusiasm and personality of the scientists, an important ingredient in crafting compelling videos. Featured scientists become better communicators, and learn to bring their research to life. When viewers see that genuine wonder, they can be motivated to ask questions and pursue more information about the topic, broadening community participation. The website interface opens the door to audience discussion. Digital media is a community builder, an inclusive tool that lets people continents-apart engage with compelling stories and then interact. Internet videos have become a means of supplementing face-to-face education; video reaches people, it's informal self-education from the comfort of one's own computer screen. FS uses videos and social media as part of an education outreach effort directed at lifelong learners. We feature not only scientists, but also teachers who've gone into the field to add to their own science knowledge, and to bring back new lessons for their students. Students who are exposed to FS videos see science in action in the professional world, which might inspire them in a STEM academic and career path, encouraging the next generation of researchers, as well as scientific and environmental literacy.

Nielsen, L.; O'Connell, E.

2013-12-01

483

Partnering With Scientists To Increase the Visibility and Use of Published Global Climate Change Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific journal articles are notoriously difficult for non-scientists or scientists outside a specialty to comprehend. Yet in societally relevant fields such as global climate change, there is an urgent need to make the published results of scientific research more accessible and useable to a broad audience. NOAA's World Data for Paleoclimatology attempts to meet this need using the Internet to distribute raw data and information products from scientific publications. The Data Center creates "What's New" pages highlighting data from recent publications, along with descriptions and ancillary information such as photographs. The Data Center also authors a "Climate TimeLine", online slide sets and photo gallery, and "Paleo Perspectives" web pages that describe the broader significance of scientific research, and how the data are used to improve our understanding of global warming, drought, and climate change. With the goal to inform and engage, the Climate Time Line provides interactive activities, and information that can be integrated into the classroom. The approach benefits a diverse audience by demystifying climate science and making it more accessible, and benefits scientists by increasing the visibility and use of scientists' published data. The success of the approach can be seen in web site user statistics and comments, and numerous awards for providing valuable information via the Internet. To solve the challenge of simplifying complex scientific problems while maintaining the accuracy and integrity of the scientific information, the World Data Center works closely with scientists who contribute the data. Underlying the effort are the hundreds of scientists who have contributed their data to the World Data Center, and reviewed and edited the online extensions of their research.

Schmidt, L. J.; Scott, M.; Geiger-Wooten, N.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Anderson, D. M.; Eakin, C. M.

2003-12-01

484

Everyone Knows What a Scientist Looks Like: The Image of a Modern Scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Children are inspired to follow career paths when they can imagine themselves there. Seeing pictures of adult individuals who look like them working in a given career can provide this spark to children's imaginations. Most (though not all) of the current available posters of scientists are of Einstein, and Einstein-like scientists. This is not representative of the current face of science. To change this, Pacific Science Center is hoping to host a photography exhibit: photographs of real, current scientists from all races, genders, beliefs, walks of life, and branches of science. Photos will be taken and short biographies written by Discovery Corps Interns (Pacific Science Center's youth development program) to increase the amount of direct contact between students and scientists, and to give the exhibit an emotional connection for local teachers and families. We hope to make the photographs from this exhibit available to teachers for use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center during the International Year of Astronomy. The objectives of this project are to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community and to meet two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by underrepresented minorities in scientific and engineering careers. In this session I will present our preliminary plan for creating the photographs and working with the Discovery Corps youth, which will be available to other institutions interested in creating a similar project. I will also present more detail on the distribution plan for the photographs, so interested members and institutions can discuss contributing images to the project, or learn how they could receive copies of the photographs during IYA and beyond.

Enevoldsen, Alice

2008-05-01

485

Mars Express scientists find a different Mars underneath the surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations by MARSIS, the first subsurface sounding radar used to explore a planet, strongly suggest that ancient impact craters lie buried beneath the smooth, low plains of Mars' northern hemisphere. The technique uses echoes of radio waves that have penetrated below the surface. MARSIS found evidence that these buried impact craters - ranging from about 130 to 470 kilometres in diameter - are present under much of the northern lowlands. The findings appear in the 14 December 2006 issue of the journal Nature. With MARSIS "it's almost like having X-ray vision," said Thomas R. Watters of the National Air and Space Museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, and lead author of the results. "Besides finding previously unknown impact basins, we've also confirmed that some subtle, roughly circular, topographic depressions in the lowlands are related to impact features." Studies of how Mars evolved help in understanding early Earth. Some signs of the forces at work a few thousand million years ago are harder to detect on Earth because many of them have been obliterated by tectonic activity and erosion. The new findings bring planetary scientists closer to understanding one of the most enduring mysteries about the geological evolution and history of Mars. In contrast to Earth, Mars shows a striking difference between its northern and southern hemispheres. Almost the entire southern hemisphere has rough, heavily cratered highlands, while most of the northern hemisphere is smoother and lower in elevation. Since the impacts that cause craters can happen anywhere on a planet, the areas with fewer craters are generally interpreted as younger surfaces where geological processes have erased the impact scars. The surface of Mars' northern