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Solve Medical Mysteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

Miller, Leslie



Pulsating Star Mystery Solved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzy?ski (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzy?ski introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the evolution of stars. This embarrassing discrepancy has been known since the 1960s. To resolve this mystery, astronomers needed to find a double star containing a Cepheid where the orbit happened to be seen edge-on from Earth. In these cases, known as eclipsing binaries, the brightness of the two stars dims as one component passes in front of the other, and again when it passes behind the other star. In such pairs astronomers can determine the masses of the stars to high accuracy [3]. Unfortunately neither Cepheids nor eclipsing binaries are common, so the chance of finding such an unusual pair seemed very low. None are known in the Milky Way. Wolfgang Gieren, another member of the team, takes up the story: "Very recently we actually found the double star system we had hoped for among the stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It contains a Cepheid variable star pulsating every 3.8 days. The other star is slightly bigger and cooler, and the two stars orbit each other in 310 days. The true binary nature of the object was immediately confirmed when we observed it with the HARPS spectrograph on La Silla." The observers carefully measured the brightness variations of this rare object, known as OGLE-LMC-CEP0227 [4], as the two stars orbited and passed in front of one another. They also used HARPS and other spectrographs to measure the motions of the stars towards and away from the Earth - both the orbital motion of both stars and the in-and-out motion of the surface of the Cepheid as it swelled and contracted. This very complete and detailed data allowed the observers to determine the orbital motion, sizes and masses of the two stars with very high accuracy - far surpassing what had been done before for a Cepheid. The mass of the Cepheid is now known to about 1% and agrees exactly with predictions from the theory of stellar pulsation. However, the larger mass predicted by stellar evolution theory was shown to be significantly in error. The much-improved mass estimate is only one outcome of this work, and the team hopes to find other examples of these



Solve Medical Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's CSI episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards. This free teaching tool incorporates online games with classroom activities for middle school students. The virtual experiments engage students in analyzing data, interpreting charts and graphs, and drawing conclusions.

Leslie Miller



Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of distance. "Our measurements showed that the pulsar is about 950 light-years from Earth, essentially the same distance as the supernova remnant," said Steve Thorsett, of the University of California, Santa Cruz. "That means that the two almost certainly were created by the same supernova blast," he added. With that problem solved. the astronomers then turned to studying the pulsar's neutron star itself. Using a variety of data from different telescopes and armed with the new distance measurement, they determined that the neutron star is between 16 and 25 miles in diameter. In such a small size, it packs a mass roughly equal to that of the Sun. The next result of learning the pulsar's actual distance was to provide a possible answer to a longstanding question about cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are subatomic particles or atomic nuclei accelerated to nearly the speed of light. Shock waves in supernova remnants are thought to be responsible for accelerating many of these particles. Scientists can measure the energy of cosmic rays, and had noted an excess of such rays in a specific energy range. Some researchers had suggested that the excess could come from a single supernova remnant about 1000 light-years away whose supernova explosion was about 100,000 years ago. The principal difficulty with this suggestion was that there was no accepted candidate for such a source. "Our measurement now puts PSR B0656+14 and the Monogem Ring at exactly the right place and at exactly the right age to be the source of this excess of cosmic rays," Brisken said. With the ability of the VLBA, one of the telescopes of the NRAO, to make extremely precise position measurements, the astronomers expect to improve the accuracy of their distance determination even more. "This pulsar is becoming a fascinating laboratory for studying astrophysics and nuclear physics," Thorsett said. In addition to Brisken and Thorsett, the team of astronomers includes Aaron Golden of the National University of Ireland, Robert Benjamin of the University of Wiscons



Woolly mammoth diet mystery solved by DNA analysis  

E-print Network

Woolly mammoth diet mystery solved by DNA analysis Nutritious veggies, not just grass, covered roamed the Arctic during the Ice Age. (Mauricio Anton) What did giant mammals like woolly mammoths for big mammals like woolly mammoths to eat. Scientists were puzzled about how such massive animals

Machel, Hans


Mucus balloons solve an ocean mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some tadpole-sized ocean animals live in houses made of almost the very same stuff that leaks out of your nose when you have a cold. As researchers have just discovered, these mucus houses help solve the mystery of how creatures at the bottom of the ocean get enough food.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )



Use Clues to Solve an Ice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore the variables that affect the properties of ice and the places where different types of ice are found. Using evidence from informational text and multiple media resources, as well as their own observations, learners will match six different mystery ice types to the place where each would most likely be found. Recipes for creating six different simulated ice types are provided.

Zych, Ariel



Solving The Mystery: A Schutzian Analysis of Sherlock Holmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s serial adventures of Sherlock Holmes comprise the best representatives of the subgenre of mystery\\u000a writing called the ‘detective story.’ The word, ‘mystery,’ invites an inherent ambiguity and tension as it refers to the profound,\\u000a the inexplicable, or the secretive. ‘Mystery’ carries both secular and non-secular references. The finite Being of humankind\\u000a in its existential situatedness is

Gary Backhaus; Evelyn S. Lang


Frankincense and Myrrh: Solving a Mystery with Historical Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how teachers can use holidays to construct lessons that are academically substantial, interesting, and meaningful. Model lessons are organized around asking exploratory questions and the ensuing process scholars use to unravel an academic mystery. Designed for use in elementary or middle school during Christmas season. (KO)

White, Jane J.; Bennett, Sari J.



Solving a Mediterranean Mystery: Why Do Winter-Deciduous Trees Dominate Some  

E-print Network

525 Solving a Mediterranean Mystery: Why Do Winter-Deciduous Trees Dominate Some Woodlands?1 Chris Ineich2 Abstract Current theory suggests Mediterranean climates favor evergreen over winter is not limiting. However, winter-deciduous trees, especially oaks, are not uncommon in some Mediterranean regions

Standiford, Richard B.


ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) astronomical project will not only enlarge our knowledge of the vast Universe beyond the imaginable. It will also help scientists learn more about the human body. Located 5000m above sea level, in the Chilean Atacama desert, ALMA is the highest site for ground-based astronomy. This property will be put to good use for academic institutions in Chile and in Europe in order to study the human response to extreme altitude conditions. During a ceremony held on 2 April in Antofagasta, the largest town close to ESO's Very Large Telescope, representatives from ALMA, ESO and the University of Antofagasta have officially launched a collaborative agreement that also involves the University of Chile and the University of Copenhagen (Denmark). The newly established cooperation aims at contributing to the promotion of teaching, scientific research, and the expansion of altitude physiology and medicine or other related areas considered appropriate. ESO PR Photo 20/07 ESO PR Photo 20/07 Working at 5000 metres "An increasing number of people are periodically exposed to brisk changes in altitude, and not only for astronomical research," said Jacques Lassalle, the ALMA Safety Manager. "Short stays at high altitude alternate with short stays at sea level but the corresponding shifts are very often established by agreement, and not based on scientific arguments. With this project, we aim at improving our knowledge and procedures in order to protect the long term health of the operators, engineers, and scientists as well as ALMA visitors of all ages and all physical conditions," he added. Around the world, a large number of people systematically commute between sea level and high altitude, for example when working in mountainous mines. This poses stringent conditions that may affect health, wellbeing and working performance. Some of the factors in question are the shift work regime, the perturbation of circadian rhythms, fatigue, family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), a



ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integral solves mystery hi-res Size hi-res: 60 kb Credits: Credit: ESA, F. Lebrun (CEA-Saclay). ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery The central regions of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as seen by Integral in gamma rays. With its superior ability to see faint details, Integral correctly reveals the individual sources that comprised the foggy, gamma-ray background seen by previous observatories. The brightest 91 objects seen in this image were classified by Integral as individual sources, while the others appear too faint to be properly characterized at this stage. During the spring and autumn of 2003, Integral observed the central regions of our Galaxy, collecting some of the perpetual glow of diffuse low-energy gamma rays that bathe the entire Galaxy. These gamma rays were first discovered in the mid-1970s by high-flying balloon-borne experiments. Astronomers refer to them as the 'soft' Galactic gamma-ray background, with energies similar to those used in medical X-ray equipment. Initially, astronomers believed that the glow was caused by interactions involving the atoms of the gas that pervades the Galaxy. Whilst this theory could explain the diffuse nature of the emission, since the gas is ubiquitous, it failed to match the observed power of the gamma rays. The gamma rays produced by the proposed mechanisms would be much weaker than those observed. The mystery has remained unanswered for decades. Now Integral's superb gamma-ray telescope IBIS, built for ESA by an international consortium led by Principal Investigator Pietro Ubertini (IAS/CNR, Rome, Italy), has seen clearly that, instead of a fog produced by the interstellar medium, most of the gamma-rays are coming from individual celestial objects. In the view of previous, less sensitive instruments, these objects appeared to merge together. In a paper published today in "Nature", Francois Lebrun (CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France) and his collaborators report the discovery of 91 gamma-ray sources towards the direction of the Galactic centre. Lebrun's team includes Ubertini and seventeen other European scientists with long-standing experience in high-energy astrophysics. Much to the team's surprise, almost half of these sources do not fall in any class of known gamma-ray objects. They probably represent a new population of gamma-ray emitters. The first clues about a new class of gamma-ray objects came last October, when Integral discovered an intriguing gamma-ray source, known as IGRJ16318-4848. The data from Integral and ESA's other high-energy observatory XMM-Newton suggested that this object is a binary system, probably including a black hole or neutron star, embedded in a thick cocoon of cold gas and dust. When gas from the companion star is accelerated and swallowed by the black hole, energy is released at all wavelengths, mostly in the gamma rays. However, Lebrun is cautious to draw premature conclusions about the sources detected in the Galactic centre. Other interpretations are also possible that do not involve black holes. For instance, these objects could be the remains of exploded stars that are being energised by rapidly rotating celestial 'powerhouses', known as pulsars. Observations with another Integral instrument (SPI, the Spectrometer on Integral) could provide Lebrun and his team with more information on the nature of these sources. SPI measures the energy of incoming gamma rays with extraordinary accuracy and allows scientist to gain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms that generate them. However, regardless of the precise nature of these gamma-ray sources, Integral's observations have convincingly shown that the energy output from these new objects accounts for almost ninety per cent of the soft gamma-ray background coming from the centre of the Galaxy. This result raises the tantalising possibility that objects of this type hide everywhere in the Galaxy, not just in its centre. Again, Lebrun is cautious, saying, "It is tempting to think that we can simply extrapolate our results to the entire Galaxy.


VLBA "Movie" Gives Scientists New Insights On Workings of Mysterious Microquasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have made a 42-day movie showing unprecedented detail of the inner workings of a strange star system that has puzzled scientists for more than two decades. Their work is providing new insights that are changing scientists' understanding of the enigmatic stellar pairs known as microquasars. SS 433 Frame from SS 433 Movie: End to end is some 200 billion miles. CREDIT: Mioduszewski et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Image Files Single Frame Overall Jet View (above image) VLBA Movie (animated gif, 2.3 MB) Animated graphic of SS 433 System (18MB) (Created using software by Robert Hynes, U.Texas) Annotated brightening graphic Unannotated brightening Frame 1 Unannotated brightening Frame 2 "This once-a-day series of exquisitely-detailed images is the best look anyone has ever had at a microquasar, and already has made us change our thinking about how these things work," said Amy Mioduszewski, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of radio telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Caribbean, to follow daily changes in a binary-star system called SS 433, some 15,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Aquila. Mioduszewski worked with Michael Rupen, Greg Taylor and Craig Walker, all of NRAO. They reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. SS 433 consists of a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole is drawing material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense, central object prior to being pulled onto that object. This disk propels jets of subatomic particles outward from its poles. In SS 433, the particles in the jets move at 26 percent of the speed of light; in other microquasars, the jet material moves at 90-95 percent of light speed. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to move in a circle every 164 days. By imaging SS 433 daily, the astronomers were able to trace individual ejections of material in these jets as they moved outward from the center. In addition, they could track the jets' precession, the movement caused by the disk's wobble. In other microquasars, blobs of material shot from the core become fainter, as seen with radio telescopes, as they move outward. However, in SS 433, blobs routinely brighten at specific distances from the core. From earlier studies, researchers had concluded that such brightening always occurs at one specific distance. The VLBA movie shows, instead, that there are multiple brightening regions and not all blobs brighten at all the regions. "We think the ejected material brightens because it's slamming into something," Rupen said. "However, whatever it's hitting has to be replenished somehow so that the brightening can occur again when the jet sweeps through that area the next time," he added. "It also appears that it isn't always replenished, because the brightening doesn't always happen," Mioduszewski pointed out. The VLBA movie revealed vital new information about another part of SS 433 -- material moving outward from the core, but not part of the superfast jets. This material moves outward in a direction not quite perpendicular to the direction of the jets. Discovered with the VLBA in 2000, this material had been seen only in one-time snapshots before, but the movie shows the steady evolution of its movement for the first time. That motion was the key to a possible answer to two riddles -- the source of the slower-moving material itself and the source of whatever the jet blobs are hitting when they brighten. "What seems most plausible to us is that the accretion disk is putting out a broad wind," Rupen explained. That broad wind from the disk hits a denser wind coming from the "normal" companion star to generate the radio waves seen coming from the nonjet region. The same



Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...



NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1802, William Herschel famously declared that the newly discovered celestial objects Ceres and Pallas were asteroids, not planets. The term asteroid was rejected by nearly every astronomer in the early nineteenth century, but is now the most widely-used word to describe the small planetary bodies of the solar system. Even so, its origin has remained a mystery. By default, its creation has always been attributed to Herschel himself, but he lacked the knowledge of Greek and Latin to coin a new word to describe Ceres and Pallas. Herschel instead turned to a network of colleagues for advice. A study of contemporary manuscript evidence has now identified the name of the scholar who created the word asteroid.

Cunningham, Clifford J.



Solving a Five Decade-Old Mystery: Why is there Carbon Dating?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dating is due to the fact that the half-life of 14C is unusually long, namely, 5730 years, after which it decays in to 14N. A priori one would not expect the beta decay of 14C to extend over archaeological times, because the quantum numbers of the initial and final states satisfy the selection rules for an allowed Gamow-Teller transition. The expected half-live would therefore be in the order of minutes or hours. The corresponding nuclear transition matrix element is very small, but it has been a mystery for half a century why it is so small. In a recently published paper [1], we have shown that by incorporating hadronic medium modifications into the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force the decay of 14C is strongly suppressed, explaining the long life-time. The medium modifications are based upon Brown-Rho scaling [2], which predicts that hadron masses decrease at finite nuclear density due to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry. [1] J.W. Holt, G.E. Brown, T.T.S. Kuo, J.D. Holt, and R. Machleidt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 062501 (2008). [2] G.E. Brown and M. Rho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2720 (1991).

Machleidt, Ruprecht



Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis  

PubMed Central

One of the greatest mysteries for most of the twentieth century was the fate of the Romanov family, the last Russian monarchy. Following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, he and his wife, Alexandra, and their five children were eventually exiled to the city of Yekaterinburg. The family, along with four loyal members of their staff, was held captive by members of the Ural Soviet. According to historical reports, in the early morning hours of July 17, 1918 the entire family along with four loyal members of their staff was executed by a firing squad. After a failed attempt to dispose of the remains in an abandoned mine shaft, the bodies were transported to an open field only a few kilometers from the mine shaft. Nine members of the group were buried in one mass grave while two of the children were buried in a separate grave. With the official discovery of the larger mass grave in 1991, and subsequent DNA testing to confirm the identities of the Tsar, the Tsarina, and three of their daughters – doubt persisted that these remains were in fact those of the Romanov family. In the summer of 2007, a group of amateur archeologists discovered a collection of remains from the second grave approximately 70 meters from the larger grave. We report forensic DNA testing on the remains discovered in 2007 using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), autosomal STR, and Y- STR testing. Combined with additional DNA testing of material from the 1991 grave, we have virtually irrefutable evidence that the two individuals recovered from the 2007 grave are the two missing children of the Romanov family: the Tsarevich Alexei and one of his sisters. PMID:19277206

Wadhams, Mark J.; Edson, Suni M.; Maynard, Kerry; Meyer, Carna E.; Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Cordula; Berger, Burkhard; Falsetti, Anthony B.; Gill, Peter; Parson, Walther; Finelli, Louis N.



Solving the Mystery of Mock Mummies: Using Scientific Inquiry Skills in an Integrated Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When the nature of science (NOS) is reinforced, middle school students will be able to appreciate scientific inquiry processes and communication, as outlined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). To this end, the authors developed a mummy-making and dissection activity to help sixth- and seventh-grade students learn more about anthropological research and reinforce NOS. Students become scientists who ask questions, collect data in a methodical and objective manner, make inferences, and form conclusions that are supported with evidence.

Balgopal, Meena; Cornwall, Shaun; Gill-Robinson, Heather; Reinheart, Damien S.



Reanalysis of the Benešov bolide and recovery of polymict breccia meteorites - old mystery solved after 20 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main motivation for this work was to explain and solve the old mystery connected with the detailed instrumental observation of the Benešov superbolide on 7 May 1991 over the central part of the Czech Republic. Detailed analyses of this undoubted meteorite fall were published in several papers, and this is one of the best documented bolides (at least of the superbolide category) ever observed. However, despite high-quality data, favorable trajectory, relatively large terminal mass, and especially great efforts and many attempts, no meteorite was found in the weeks and years after the fall. Here we solve and explain this old mystery. In spring 2011, just before the twentieth anniversary of this extraordinary case, we remeasured all available all-sky records and reanalyzed the data. We used slightly different methods and new approaches, which we gradually developed to analyze several recent instrumentally observed meteorite falls (Morávka, Neuschwanstein, Jesenice, Bunburra Rockhole, Mason Gully, and Košice). We assembled a new consistent picture of the Benešov event, which resulted in a slightly revised impact location and suggested a new strategy that might lead to a recovery of Benešov meteorites after 20 years. The reality completely confirmed all our assumptions and surpassed our expectations. We found four small highly weathered fragments irregular in form and completely without fusion crust with a total mass of 11.63 g (1.54 g (H5), 7.72 g (with achondritic clast), 1.99 g, 0.38 g (all LL3.5)). They were recovered exactly in the predicted impact area for corresponding masses, namely within 40 m from the highest probability line. Although all fragments are very small and their weathering grade is high (W3 for all pieces), their interior was preserved enough for reliable analysis (except for the smallest one). The meteorite is classified as a polymict breccia containing three recognized lithologies with different texture, chemical, and mineralogical composition. This result is pioneering in many aspects. We proved that in some special cases it is still possible to predict and find meteorites a long time after the fall. The most important result, however, is the heterogeneity of the recovered meteorites. This case clearly shows that larger meteoroids can be compositionally very complicated bodies. We discovered that the Benešov meteoroid consisted of at least three different types of material - LL3.5, H5, and primitive achondrite. This case also implies that it is very useful to study as many fragments as possible from one fall because there can be significant differences among them.

Spurný, Pavel; Haloda, Jakub; Borovi?ka, Ji?í; Shrbený, Lukáš; Halodová, Patricie



Mystery Powder Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use their skills as scientists to identify a mystery white powder. This lesson is a hands-on, engaging way to build students' understanding of physical and chemical properties of several common compounds.

Rachel HallettNjuguna



Mystery Marauders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, mystery-solving activity, learners work like detectives, gathering evidence to identify the culprits that are attacking plants. Learners come to understand the impact of insect pests on plant lifeâincluding the fact that crop losses due to insect damage cost billions of dollars. The activity calls for learners to read Action Assignment Cards, but with an adult reading the cards, or with modified, simpler cards, this activity can be adapted for younger learners.

Science, Lawrence H.



Young Stars in Orion May Solve Mystery of Our Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists may have to give the Sun a little more credit. Exotic isotopes present in the early Solar System--which scientists have long-assumed were sprinkled there by a powerful, nearby star explosion--may have instead been forged locally by our Sun during the colossal solar-flare tantrums of its baby years. The isotopes--special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26, calcium-41, and beryllium-10--can form in the X-ray solar flares of young stars in the Orion Nebula, which behave just like our Sun would have at such an early age. The finding, based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has broad implications for the formation of our own Solar System. Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, led a team of scientists on this Chandra observation and presents these results in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "The Chandra study of Orion gives us the first chance to study the flaring properties of stars resembling the Sun when our solar system was forming," said Feigelson. "We found a much higher rate of flares than expected, sufficient to explain the production of many unusual isotopes locked away in ancient meteorites. If the young stars in Orion can do it, then our Sun should have been able to do it too." Scientists who study how our Solar System formed from a collapsed cloud of dust and gas have been hard pressed to explain the presence of these extremely unusual chemical isotopes. The isotopes are short-lived and had to have been formed no earlier than the creation of the Solar System, some five billion years ago. Yet these elements cannot be produced by a star as massive as our Sun under normal circumstances. (Other elements, such as silver and gold, were created long before the creation of the solar system.) The perplexing presence of these isotopic anomalies, found in ancient meteoroids orbiting the Earth, led to the theory that a supernova explosion occurred very close to the Solar System's progenitor gas cloud, simultaneously triggering its collapse and seeding it with short-lived isotopes. Solar flares could produce such isotopes, but the flares would have to be hundreds of thousands of times more powerful and hundreds of times more frequent than those our Sun generates. Enter the stars in the Orion Nebula. This star-forming region has several dozen new stars nearly identical to our Sun, only much younger. Feigelson's team used Chandra to study the flaring in these analogs of the early Sun and found that nearly all exhibit extremely high levels of X-ray flaring--powerful and frequent enough to forge many of the kinds of isotopes found in the ancient meteorites from the early solar system. "This is a very exciting result for space X-ray astronomy," said Donald Clayton, Centennial Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University. "The Chandra Penn State team has shown that stellar-flare acceleration produces radioactive nuclei whether we want them or not. Now the science debate can concentrate on whether such irradiation made some or even all of the extinct radioactivities that were present when our solar system was formed, or whether some contamination of our birth molecular cloud by external material is also needed." "This is an excellent example of how apparently distant scientific fields, like X-ray astronomy and the origins of solar systems, can in fact be closely linked," said Feigelson. The Orion observation was made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Gordon Garmire, the Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State. The Penn State observation team includes Pat Broos, James Gaffney, Gordon Garmire, Leisa Townsley and Yohko Tsuboi. Collaborators also include Lynne Hillenbrand of CalTech and Steven Pravdo of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Background: Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have d



Geo Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students discover information about rocks, fossils, and minerals by solving geo mysteries. In the Mystery of the Floating Rock, they need to try to decide if a sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous rock floats. They are given information about each of the rocks, they can see animated pictures of how each forms, and they can view a volcano erupting. In the Mystery of the Broken Necklace, students need to figure out what kind of fossils are the beads of a necklace. They are given information about crinoid fossils and can see a piece of the ancient Border's Sea. By clicking on each of the fossils, students can see what lived there long ago. They will also learn about the three kinds of fossils and how they are prepared. The Mystery of the Golden Cube has students deciding if a cube is a rock, mineral, or fossil. Information is provided about the cube's shape, hardness, color and streak, density, cleavage and fracture. Students are given the opportunity to test the cube's streak, hardness and density and the cube is compared to a gold nugget. Facts are given for 10 different rocks. Included in this site is a geologic timeline, questions and answers about rocks and fossils, and additional links.

Indianapolis, The C.



9/18/09 2:02 PMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there -Science Fair Page 1 of 3  

E-print Network

9/18/09 2:02 PMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there - Science Fair - Page 1 of 3 Search Most Monday for the mystery of "dark energy" tearing the universe apart at an accelerating rate. It ain

Temple, Blake


Geometry-Lithology-Origin: Solving the mystery of the Late Miocene mounded features below Lake Balaton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences of Eötvös University has carried out single- and multichannel water seismic surveys at the Lake Balaton since 1993. The dense grid of 2D profiles offers a high resolution image of the Late Miocene sedimentary strata (Tihany, Somló and Szák Formations) up to a thickness of 200 meters below the lake. These strata can be divided into smaller sedimentary units by numerous parasequence boundaries (Sztanó&Magyar, 2007). In one of these parasequence interesting, high amplitude mounded features have been observed that follow a seismic horizon over large area. It means that these features indicate a Late Miocene regional event. In terms of their shape these mounds are few tens of meters wide, several tens to a hundreds of meters long and few meters high. Their geometry and inner structure were mapped from 2D segments that were used for 3D reconstructions. The shape and stratigraphic position of these features have inspired Sacchi and Horvath (1999) to interpret them as the subsurface equivalent of the fresh-water siliceous-limestone mounds exposed on the Tihany Peninsula. They held these mounds as an evidence of dryland conditions in the time period of the formation of a Late Miocene erosional surface (PAN-2) that they regarded as a 3rd order sequence boundary. In addition to this so called "travertine" concept another explanation was also formulated as the mounds are the product of sedimentary failures e.g. slumps or water escape. To solve the problem an offshore drilling with a total depth of 19 meters was accomplished in October 2013 to sample one of these mounds and determine their origin. The well has not crossed any travertine body, instead alternating layers of clay-silt and very fine sand - without any convincing sign of fluid escape structures - were found in the core (typical lithology of the Tihany Formation). 3D structural analysis of the mounds revealed spherical organization composing bodies that are superposed on each other. The latter can be interpreted as series of small thrusts in a relatively thin mudstone layer. As coring has found silty material, without the presence of any fluid escape structures the most possible explanation for these features is sheet slumping mechanism that could be induced by seismicity. Although "travertine" concept has been rejected, these mounds should indicate a regionally important geological event that could strengthen correlation of erosional surfaces such us PAN-2 from outcrop to water seismic images. Such an event could be possible the start of the 8 Ma volcanism in the area. Work was financed by OTKA NK83400 research fund. References: Sacchi, M.; Horváth, F.; Magyari O. (1999). Role of unconformity-bounded units in the stratigraphy of the continental record: a case study from the Late Miocene of the western Pannonian basin, Hungary. In: Durand, B. Jolivet, L., Horváth F. & Séranne, M. (eds), The Mediterranean Basins: Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 156, 357-390. Sztanó, O. & Magyar I. (2007): Deltaic parasequences on gamma logs, ultra-high resolution seismic images and outcrops of Lake Pannon deposits. Joannea Geol. Palaont. 9: 105-108.

Visnovitz, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Surányi, Gergely



Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...


Mysteries of the Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a resource about the Sun and its effects on the rest of the Solar System. Learners will watch movie clips and read a guidebook of information about space weather, solar variability, the heliosphere, Earthâs magnetosphere and upper atmosphere, as well as the solar mysteries that scientists are still studying.


Century-old mystery of Puccinia striiformis life history solved with the identification of Berberis as an alternate host.  


The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been identified. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P. striiformis. Analyses using real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence confirmed the rust fungus as P. striiformis. Pycnia and aecia were produced on B. chinensis, B. holstii, B. koreana, and B. vulgaris after inoculation using germinating telia of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici. Wheat inoculated with aeciospores from B. chinensis resulted in uredinia, which demonstrated that Berberis spp. also serve as alternate hosts for the wheat stripe rust pathogen. The elucidation of the complete life history for P. striiformis f. sp. tritici will provide a powerful tool to rapidly advance our knowledge of the genetics of this rust fungus, and will lead to the development of improved strategies for a better control of stripe rust. PMID:20373963

Jin, Yue; Szabo, Les J; Carson, Martin



Space Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These inquiry-driven interactive Web explorations involve five mysteries that take advantage of studentsâ curiosity to build critical thinking and analytical skills. The mysteries are: Solar Supernova, Alien Bandstand, Live! From 2-Alpha, Star Market and Galactic Doom. Each mystery has been constructed to teach at least one physical science standards -e.g. conservation of energy, motion, or forces-, and is accompanied by materials to be used by teachers.



Mystery #1  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #1     View Larger Image This ... you like and see if you can answer these questions: 1.   This collection of islands, or archipelago, is part of what country? ...



Mystery Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.


Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

Thomson, Norman



Mystery Bug Theater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in introductory Computer Science courses often have difficulty with coding and problem solving which results in bugs. These bugs cause both student frustration and attrition of many of our CS majors. The Mystery Bug Theater website classifies several hundred bugs that students have brought to the Utah State University Tutor Lab so that students know that they are not isolated in experiencing bugs. The website also provides games and movies about common bugs.


The Hot Tub Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study sets up a mystery and asks students to solve it using science: why was the couple found dead in their hot tub? The material asks students to connect seemingly unrelated factors, such as blood pressure, hot water and alcohol. The material would be most appropriate for lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

House, Herbert



Mystery Powders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 2 of the PDF, learners conduct chemical tests on certain powders used in cooking. After completing the tests, learners try to figure out the identity of a mystery powder. Learners record their observations on a chart. Note: you will need an adult helper for this activity.

American Chemical Society



Medical Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rice University presents Medical Mysteries (or MedMyst for short) "an Internet-based which you are on a mission to discover the causes of diseases." Designed for middle and high school students, MedMyst offers an engaging, multimedia approach to learning about infectious diseases and the immune system, as well as pharmacology, chemistry, public health policy, and more. MedMyst also includes three downloadable mini-labs that expand on concepts covered in the multimedia adventure. The Web site also includes loads of useful links.



The Mystery of the Golden Cube  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help Rex solve the mystery of the golden cube! You will need to decide if it is a rock, mineral, or a fossil. You will also need to examine the cubes shape, hardness, color, streak, density, cleavage, and fracture.



Biology Today. Ah, Sweet Mysteries of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mysteries of the biological past that paleontologists are trying to solve are discussed. Topics include first seeds, fossils and computers, packrat middens, charcoal clues, soft parts, Burgess shale, halkieriids, toe count, whales with feet, long necks, and changing functions. (KR)

Flannery, Maura C.



Mystery Boxes: Uncertainty and Collaboration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches students that scientific knowledge is fundamentally uncertain. Students manipulate sealed mystery boxes and attempt to determine the inner structure of the boxes which contain a moving ball and a fixed barrier or two. The nature and sources of uncertainty inherent in the process of problem-solving are experienced. The uncertainty of the conclusions is reduced by student collaboration.

Beard, Jean


Tsunami Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast explores some ideas about the cause of a 1946 tsunami which swept from Alaska through the Pacific and killed more than 150 people. The tsunami was one of the worst of the 20th Century. Scientists today still cannot agree on just what caused it. They think it was an earthquake, an undersea landslide, or possibly both. The answer may change how scientists study tsunamis and how people prepare for them. The clip is 6 minutes and 38 seconds in length.


Mystery Aircraft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federation of American Scientists offers this unique perspective into classified government aircraft, "some of which actually exist, some of which certainly do not, and all of which are fascinating in a way." This site is divided into two main sections. The first provides insight into several aircraft that were initially shrouded in secrecy but have since been revealed to the public. Some examples include the SR-71, the B-2, and the Hyper-X. The second section is devoted to aircraft that may or may not be currently under development or in operation by the US government. The much popularized Aurora is in this section, as well as exotic propulsion aircraft.


9/22/09 7:56 AMMystery solved: Dark energy isn't there -Science Fair Page 1 of 3  

E-print Network

Subscribe with RSS Get Science Fair in your inbox Inside Technology Become a member of the USA TODAY-solved-dark-energy-isnt-there.html Coffee Break: Sept. 21 · Scientists: Obama's election may reduce terrorism · Coffee Break: Sept. 18

Temple, Blake


Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and…

Harrington, LaDawna



The Mystery Begins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All teachers and media specialists are looking for the "hook" that will engage their students and make them want to learn--and according to the author, mystery stories are a perfect way to create that hook. Here, she presents a unit on mysteries, intended for collaboration between media specialists and language arts teachers. The unit uses…

Harrington, LaDawna



Who Dun It? Mysteries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers brief descriptions of 23 mysteries that will appeal to adolescent readers. Notes that further lists of excellent titles in the category of juvenile and young adult mystery are available on the Edgar Allen Poe website at (SR)

Zanarini, Anna



A Coprolite Mystery: Who Dung It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discover the secrets contained in fossilized feces. Few topics in middle school classrooms capture students' enthusiasm and interest as do coprolites. These trace fossils offer classroom opportunities for integrated life and Earth sciences study, a stranger-than-fiction history of science, and an opportunity to solve mysteries. (Contains 8…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James



Using Classic Mystery Stories in Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One third-year clinical clerkship in pediatrics has included Sherlock Holmes mysteries in its introductory curriculum, providing students with a model clinical problem-solving process and a list of issues on which they will need information. The nonclinical cases provide an effective and entertaining vehicle for learning clinical reasoning. (MSE)

Sheldon, Stephen H.; Noronha, Peter A.



Space Mysteries: Making Science and Astronomy Learning Fun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do you get and keep a student's attention during class? Make learning fun! Using a game to teach students ensures that they have fun, enjoy the lesson and remember it. We have developed a series of interactive web and CD based games called "Space Mysteries" to teach students math, physics and astronomy. Using real NASA data, the students must find out Who (or What) dunit in an engaging astronomy mystery. The games include video interviews with famous scientists, actors playing roles who give clues to the solution, and even a few blind alleys and red herrings. The first three games are currently online in beta release at

Plait, P.; Tim, G.; Cominsky, L.



Science Nation: Unraveling the Mysteries of Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To better understand tornadoes, scientists, with the help of the National Science Foundation, are embarking on a quest to unravel the mysteries of tornadoes. The project is called VORTEX2, but it could also be called the amazing chase. For five weeks in the spring of 2009, and again in spring 2010, 100 researchers and scientists from 16 universities will deploy about 40 vehicles armed with high tech equipment to measure and probe tornadoes and tornado development. The researchers will span across the Midwest in search of tornadoes--all to better understand how, when and why they form.


BIOMEDICINE: A Cargo Receptor Mystery APParently Solved?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. It is still not clear what causes the deposition of sticky amyloid b peptides in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In a Perspective, Sangram Sisodia offers a provocative look at a new theory that postulates the involvement of defective axonal transport of cargo-laden membrane vesicles in the etiology of this neurodegenerative disease.

Sangram S. Sisodia (Center for Molecular Neurobiology; )



Element Genesis - Solving the Mystery (Video Presentation)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our institute (RIKEN) produced a video on nucleosynthesis. Its new English version is presented. Y. M., I. Tanihata, Y. Yano, and R. Boyd are science editors for this. Time length of the video is 30 minutes. The primary characteristic of this video is that we have employed a number of 2-D and 3-Dimensional visualizations and animations based on an updated understanding of nuclear physics and astrophysics. One of the emphasized points is that microscopic physics (i.e., nuclear physics) and macroscopic physics (i.e., astrophysics) are strongly connected. It contains explanation on the chart of the nuclides, nuclear burning in the sun, big-bang nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis, ``beta-stability valley", the s-process, the r-process, production of an RI beam, etc., and professors D. Arnett, T. Kajino, K. Langanke, K. Sato, C. Sneden, I. Tanihata, and F.-K. Thielemann appear as interviewees. Our prime target is college freshmen. We hope that this video would be useful for education both in the fields of astrophysics and nuclear physics at universities and even at high schools. Our institute is accordingly developing a distribution system of this video and it will be available soon at the cost price (please visit our web site for details: The Japanese version was awarded the prize of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan 2001.

Mochizuki, Yuko



Mystery of the squid beak solved  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A squid's mouth has a sharp beak that it uses to slice through the spinal cord of fish and tear them into pieces for an easy-to-eat meal. The squid beak is made out of some of the hardest material found in nature.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a quartet of space observatories, University of Maryland astronomers may have cracked a 45-year mystery surrounding two ghostly spiral arms in the galaxy M106. The Maryland team, led by Yuxuan Yang, took advantage of the unique capabilities of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, and data obtained almost a decade ago with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. NGC X-ray Image NGC 4258 X-ray Image M106 (also known as NGC 4258) is a stately spiral galaxy 23.5 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. In visible-light images, two prominent arms emanate from the bright nucleus and spiral outward. These arms are dominated by young, bright stars, which light up the gas within the arms. "But in radio and X-ray images, two additional spiral arms dominate the picture, appearing as ghostly apparitions between the main arms," says team member Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland. These so-called "anomalous arms" consist mostly of gas. "The nature of these anomalous arms is a long-standing puzzle in astronomy," says Yang. "They have been a mystery since they were first discovered in the early 1960s." By analyzing data from XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and Chandra, Yang, Bo Li, Wilson, and Christopher Reynolds, all at the University of Maryland at College Park, have confirmed earlier suspicions that the ghostly arms represent regions of gas that are being violently heated by shock waves. Previously, some astronomers had suggested that the anomalous arms are jets of particles being ejected by a supermassive black hole in M106's nucleus. But radio observations by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico, later identified another pair of jets originating in the core. "It is highly unlikely that an active galactic nucleus could have more than one pair of jets," says Yang. In 2001, Wilson, Yang, and Gerald Cecil, of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, noted that the two jets are tipped 30 degrees with respect to the galaxy disk. But if one could vertically project the jets onto the disk, they would line up almost perfectly with the anomalous arms. Figuring that this alignment was not strictly a matter of chance, Wilson, Yang, and Cecil proposed that the jets heat the gas in their line of travel, forming an expanding cocoon. Because the jets lie close to M106's disk, the cocoon heats gas in the disk and generates shock waves, heating the gas to millions of degrees and causing it to radiate brightly in X-rays and other wavelengths. Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 To test this idea, Yang and his colleagues looked at archival spectral observations from XMM-Newton. With XMM-Newton's superb sensitivity, the team could measure the gas temperature in the anomalous arms and also see how strongly X-rays from the gas are absorbed en route by intervening material. "One of the predictions of this scenario is that the anomalous arms will gradually be pushed out of the galactic disk plane by jet-heated gas," says Yang. The XMM-Newton spectra show that X-rays are more strongly absorbed in the direction of the northwest arm than in the southeast arm. The results strongly suggest that the southeast arm is partly on the near side of M106's disk, and the northwest arm is partly on the far side. The scientists noted that these observations show clear consistency with their scenario. Confirmation of this interpretation has recently come from archival observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, whose infrared view shows clear signs that X-ray emission from the northwest arm is being absorbed by warm gas and dust in the galaxy's disk. Moreover, Chandra's superior imaging resolution gives clear indications of gas shocked by interactions with the two jets. Besides addressing the mystery of the anomalous arms, these observations allowed the team to estimate the energy in the jet



Detective Scientist - Duration: 0:31.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA has many detectives looking for clues to solve a mystery, like "science detective" Monsi Roman. She is making sure the water and air on board the International Space Station are safe for the a...


What we do not know about management history : Some categories of research and methods to uncover management history mysteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management history contains many unsolved mysteries. In this paper four categories of mysteries are discussed, along with methodologies that have proved useful in solving such mysteries. Examples of the successful use of the outlined methodologies are also presented with illustrations of the results achieved.

Charles D. Wrege; Regina A. Greenwood; Sakae Hata



Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

Christa Colyer



Three Modes of Hydrogeophysical Investigation: Puzzles, Mysteries, and Conundrums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an article in the New Yorker in 2007, Malcolm Gladwell discussed the distinction that national security expert Gregory Treverton has made between puzzles and mysteries. Specifically, puzzles are problems that we understand and that will eventually be solved when we amass enough information. (Think crossword puzzles.) Mysteries are problems for which we have the necessary information, but it is often overwhelmed by irrelevant or misleading input. To solve a mystery, we require improved analysis. (Think find-a-word.) Gladwell goes on to explain that, in the national security realm, the Cold War was a puzzle while the current national security condition is a mystery. I will discuss the past, current, and future trajectories of hydrogeophysics in terms of puzzles and mysteries. I will also add a third class of problem: conundrums - those for which we lack sufficient information about their structure to know how to solve them. A conundrum is a mystery with an unexpected twist. I hope to make the case that the future growth of hydrogeophysics lies in our ability to address this more challenging and more interesting class of problem.

Ferre, P. A.



Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

Lincoln, Don



A Microbial Murder Mystery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a microbial mystery activity to test students' knowledge of human anatomy and their ability to identify microbes. Provides an opportunity for students to develop logical deductive reasoning. Includes national science education standards related to this activity, activity sheets with whole procedures, and Internet resources. (KHR)

Mitchell, Melissa A.; Mitchell, James K.



The Mystery of Decimals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson reviews all four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing) with decimals. It is designed to easily provide differentiated instruction for the struggling students, as well as extensions for the high level students. The culmination of the lesson is a computer based assessment set in a mystery format which provides a fun change from a typical pencil and paper test.



Mystery in Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Mystery in Progress," a traveling exhibit which traces the development of Predynastic Egypt. The exhibit provides a time line for Predynastic Egypt, depicts the history of the Hierakonpolis expedition, documents the formation of Egypt's first centralized nation state, and summarizes the emergence of a unified Egypt. (LS)

Hall, Kristen



Passport to Mystery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

Williams, Wilda



Sustainable Scientists  

SciTech Connect

Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

Mills, Evan




NSDL National Science Digital Library

ToxMystery is an interactive learning site for 7-10 year old kids. It provides a game-like experience while introducing potential environmental health hazards sometimes found in the home.Toxie the cat helps find the hazards hidden in each room, and offers hints when needed. The objective is to find all the hazards. When all the hazards in the house have been discovered, Toxie delivers an animated celebration, and players can print a personalized certificate.ToxMystery's Parent Resources page provides more detailed information about everyday environmental hazards that can be harmful to one's health. A For Teachers page contains more than ten downloadable activity pages that can be used in elementary school classrooms.

Specialized Information Services Division (National Library of Medicine;)



Mysteries of Catalhoyuk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Catalhoyuk (chat-al-hoy-ook), which means "forked mound," is a major Neolithic archaeological site in south-central Turkey considered to be one of the first "urban" centers, built between 8,000 and 10,0000 years ago. This engaging multimedia Website, developed by the Science Museum of Minnesota for a general audience, examines the big mysteries underlying Catalhoyuk, as seen through the eyes of an international team of archaeologists and other specialists. Visitors may sift through artifacts and recent findings from the excavations, learn about the people and processes behind the digs, take a virtual tour of the site, or investigate the mysteries surrounding human remains, food habits, murals, clay balls, and goddess figurines.


BOTANY: The Abominable Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A report by Sun et al. describes the first plausible fossil evidence of a Jurassic angiosperm (the type of plants that have flowers and fruits). This finding has important implications for one of evolutionary biology's most enduring puzzles: the origin of, and relationships within, the flowering plants--what Charles Darwin called the "abominable mystery."

William L. Crepet (Cornell University; L. H. Bailey Hortorium, Division of Biological Sciences)



Mysterious Meteorites: Nobelsville Fall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about meteorite investigations. Learners will listen to the story of an actual meteorite fall, participate in a brainstorm session intended to focus their interest on and arouse their curiosity about meteorites, view a slide show that provides background information, and compose a conclusion to the narrative. Advanced preparation and procedural tips are included. This is lesson 1 of 19 in Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.


Space Mysteries: Solar Supernova  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive, computer-based activity presents a series of inquiries that allow students to discover how the colors, masses, and luminosities of stars are related. Students also investigate how these characteristics influence the life cycle of the stars. The concluding activity allows students to use the information learned in the previous activities to determine the eventual fate of our Sun. The activity is part of the Space Mysteries series.



A Mystery Unraveled: Booming Sand Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Booming" sand dunes have intrigued travelers and scientist for centuries. These dunes emit a persistent, low-frequency sound during a slumping event or a natural avalanche on the leeward face of the dune. The sound can last for several minutes and be audible from miles away. The resulting acoustic emission is characterized by a dominant audible frequency (70 - 105 Hz) and several higher harmonics. In the work of Vriend et al. (2007), seismic refraction experiments proved the existence of a multi-layer internal structure in the dune that acts as a waveguide for the acoustic energy. Constructive interference between the reflecting waves enables the amplification and sets the frequency of each boom. A relationship was established that correctly predicts the measured frequency in terms of the thickness (~ 2.0 m) and the seismic body wave velocity of the loose, dry surficial layer (~ 240 m/s) and the substrate half-space (~ 350 m/s). The current work highlights additional measurements and simulations supporting the waveguide model for booming sand dunes. Experiments with ground penetrating radar continuously display the subsurface features which confirm the layered subsurface structure within the dune. Cross-correlation analysis shows that the booming sound propagates at speeds close to the measured body wave velocity. Squeaking sounds, which are generated during the onset of the slide and precede the sustained booming emission, have been found to have distinctly different characteristics. These short bursts of sound are emitted at a lower frequency (50 - 65 Hz) and propagate at a lower propagation speed (125 m/s) than the booming emission. The acoustic and elastic wave propagation in the dune has been simulated with a finite difference code. The interaction between the air and the ground produces a coupling wave along the surface. The reflections in the surficial layer propagate in a dispersive band at a group velocity that is slower than the phase velocity of the layer. Different source mechanisms are used in order to simulate the squeaking and booming emission within the dune. špace{.1in} {\\footnotesize Vriend, N. M., M. L. Hunt, R. W. Clayton, C E. Brennen, K. S. Brantley, and A. Ruiz-Angulo (2007), Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16306, doi:10.1029/2007GL030276.}

Vriend, N. M.; Hunt, M. L.; Clayton, R. W.



The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches…

Heid, Christy; Biglan, Barbara; Ritson, Margaret



Scientist Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For scientists desiring to become more involved in education, the COSEE Mid-Atlantic is dedicated to establishing meaningful and productive collaborations between scientists and educators. This web site is meant to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. The information is broken down by how much time the scientist is willing to dedicate to education and public outreach.


The Mysterious Hammerhead  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Of all the animals in the oceans, the hammerhead shark may be one of the strangest looking. The exact purpose of the wide, flat head is a mystery, but several theories abound. In this video, we travel to the shark-infested waters of the Galapagos in Ecuador and to a research station in Hawaii to learn about the unusual habits of these sinister-looking sharks. Jonathan swims in schools of hundreds of hammerheads, and yet the sharks ignore him. What are the sharks up to? Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.



Who Took Jerell's iPod? -- An Organic Compound Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn how to test for triglycerides, glucose, starch, and protein and then use these tests to solve a mystery. The activity reinforces students understanding of the biological functions and food sources of these different types of organic compounds.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid


The Mysterious Bogpeople  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the seemingly spooky title of this site, visitors should not be afraid of entering and exploring around the contents of this very interactive site. Created through a collaborative partnership between organizations such as the Canadian Museum of Civilization and the Drents Museum, this site concerns itself with the artifacts and material world created by the so-called "bogpeople" of northwestern Europe who lived approximately 10,000 years ago. Visitors can explore their world through sections that include "Science", "Timeline", "Profile" and "Mediatheatre". The "Mediatheatre" section is a good place to start as visitors can view short film clips that cover the mysteries of the bog, fishing with a harpoon, and the fabled Ubbena wheel. Moving along, the "Timeline" area gives some nice chronological context to the events and transformations covered by the site, and the "Science" area includes some insights into what archaeologists do in the field.


Magnetic Mystery Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.



Oriental mystery: ginseng  

SciTech Connect

As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the natural killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.

Yun, T.K.; Cho, H.O.; Yun, Y.S.



Electricity: The Mysterious Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document examines the mysterious force of electricity. The reading will focus on the physical properties of electricity and discuss topics such as (1) The Atom of Carbon, (2) Static electricity, (3) Magnets are special, (4) Magnetic fields can produce electricity, (5) Batteries produce electricity, (6) Electricity travels in circuits, (7) Secondary energy source, (8) Making electricity, (9) Moving electricity from power plants to homes, (10) Fuels that make electricity, (11) Fossil fuel power plants, (12) Nuclear power plants, (13) Hydropower plants, (14) What's a Watt, and (15) Cost of electricity. The document also depicts illustrations of a bar magnet, turbine generator, transporting electricity, U.S. electricity production, peak demand, and energy efficiency. This resource is structured as an informational booklet to supplement your energy activities or to generate discussion questions.



The Mystery Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for larger view

This high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the region containing the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station. Scientists examined this patch on the 13th and 15th martian days, or sols, of Spirit's journey. Using nearly all the science instruments located on the rover's instrument deployment device or 'arm,' scientists yielded some puzzling results including the detection of a mineral called olivine and the appearance that the soil is stronger and more cohesive than they expected. Like detectives searching for clues, the science team will continue to peruse the landscape for explanations of their findings.

Data taken from the camera's red, green and blue filters were combined to create this approximate true color picture, acquired on the 12th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey.

The yellow box (see inset above) in this high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit outlines the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station.



Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery  


... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery Preface Over the past ...


Exquisite Corpses : an architectural mystery  

E-print Network

In 1937, writing about the parallels between mystery fiction and urban dwelling, Walter Benjamin wrote, ""in times of terror, when everyone is something of a conspirator, everybody will be in the position of having to play ...

Canizares, Galo



Aura of mystery.  


It begins as a slowly expanding spot of light or similar visual disturbance, often accompanied by phantom noises and other sensory distortions. People who experience such 'auras' know all too well that these early warning signs will culminate in a head-splitting migraine, yet scientists have little idea what causes the debilitating deluge of symptoms. Elie Dolgin talks to neurologists hoping to change that - by triggering auras in the laboratory in order to study them. PMID:24013740

Dolgin, Elie



Exploring Meteorite Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers and scientists designed this book to engage students in inquiry science and to extend science with interdisciplinary connections. The study of meteorites provides a unifying theme that links almost every aspect of Earth and planetary science with mathematics, physics, chemistry and even biology. The effects of meteorite impacts have serious implications for social science. The activities in this book are designed for upper elementary to high school levels. Many of the lessons begin with a simple activity and build to more complex ones.



Big Mysteries: Dark Energy  

SciTech Connect

Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

Lincoln, Don



Mummy Tales and Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thanks to technology, history, and deductive reasoning, experts are able to access important scientific and cultural information about mummies. In turn, this information usually reveals much about the culture, religion, and daily lives of the members of a civilization. But how do scientists find out a mummy's sex, age, diet, social standing, cause of death, or original appearance? Utah State Core: Standard 1 - Students will gain an understanding of early civilizations and their contributions to the foundations of human culture. Objective 3 - Examine the major characteristics of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the ...

Myers, Mr.



An Antipodal Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery of the platypus had the scientific world in an uproar and kept it tantalized for decades. Here was the strangest animal ever seen. How was one to classify it? It had fur. So, was it a mammal? But then what to make of its duck-like bill? And how did it produce and suckle its young? Based on the book by Ann Moyal titled Platypus: The Extraordinary Story of How a Curious Creature Baffled the World, the case focuses on classification and evolution and models the scientific process, with scientists arguing, debating, collecting more information, and revising their opinions as more data become available.

Herreid, Clyde F.



Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia  

SciTech Connect

A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

Balos, Sebastian [Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia (Serbia ); Benscoter, Arlan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Pense, Alan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)], E-mail:



Dr. Earl N. Meyer, in the lab, with a scalpel: A murder mystery as a biochemistry recruitment tool.  


Increasing student participation in science is an ongoing challenge for many universities. In this active learning workshop, centered on inquiry and teamwork, we introduce high-school students to biochemistry and molecular biology techniques using a murder mystery activity. During this intensive 3 hr workshop, we engage students in a murder scenario entitled "The Case of the Silenced Scientist." A commercially available DNA fingerprinting kit was used as a basis to create a customized scenario whereby students collaborate with one another to solve a murder mystery. Through analysis of DNA samples taken from the crime scene and suspects, students can identify the murderer while developing technical, teamwork, and critical thinking skills. Emphasis is placed on teamwork by immersing students in the collaborative process of research inquiry. Though short in duration, this workshop aims to build student relationships to science through creativity and exploration. In this article, we describe the key customized applications of this workshop as a blueprint for science recruitment. We focus on the workshop facilitators' perceived learning impact on students. © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(1):20-27, 2015. PMID:25395001

Vulcu, Felicia; Heirwegh, Meagan



The Three Color Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to an engineering challenge in which they are given a job assignment to separate three types of apples. However, they are unable to see the color differences between the apples, and as a result, they must think as engineers to design devices that can be used to help them distinguish the apples from one another. Solving the challenge depends on an understanding of wave properties and the biology of sight. After being introduced to the challenge, students form ideas and brainstorm about what background knowledge is required to solve the challenge. A class discussion produces student ideas that can be grouped into broad subject categories: waves and wave properties, light and the electromagnetic spectrum, and the structure of the eye.



Diabetes mellitus and viral hepatitis: the unsolved mystery.  


Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder that is becoming a major public health problem. Viral hepatitis infection is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease. Several reports from different parts of the world found an association between these two common disorders. In this review we highlight some of the epidemiological aspects of these two disorders, discussed some of the possible mechanisms and questions to be answered to understand this link and be able to solve this mystery. PMID:12861404

Akbar, D H



Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some organizations like to promote the teaching of history through architecture, immigration patterns, or transportation innovations. This project encourages students to learn about history through "the enticement of solving historical cold crimes." It's a compelling and intriguing premise, and the project, initiated in 1997, builds on the ideas of document-centered inquiry and "active learning" pedagogical thinking. First-time visitors should view the video introduction to the project, and then use the "Quick Access" drop-down menu to look at the twelve different mysteries featured. A good one to start with is the "Where is Vinland?" project. Here visitors can learn about this Viking colony, learn about historical artifacts associated with the colony, and then review the contemporary and historical findings on the subject. Moving on, the "Teachers" section includes lesson plans, briefing sheets, and student-oriented briefing sheets for use in the classroom.


Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quizzes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These quizzes are designed to inspire understanding of the physical, biological and human processes that influence our home planet and cover topics from archaeology to zoology. Several resources for discovering and revealing the meaning of image features may help new geographical detectives to solve the challenging quiz questions. A new Where on Earth...? mystery quiz appears periodically. Answers are published on the MISR web site. The names and hometowns of respondents who answer all questions correctly by the deadline will also be published in the order responses were received. The first 3 people on this list who are not affiliated with NASA, JPL, or MISR and who have not previously won a prize will be sent a print of the image.



The 'Razorback' Mystery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pointy features in this image may only be a few centimeters high and less than 1 centimeter (0.4 inches) wide, but they generate major scientific interest. Dubbed 'Razorback,' this chunk of rock sticks up at the edge of flat rocks in 'Endurance Crater.' Based on their understanding of processes on Earth, scientists believe these features may have formed when fluids migrated through fractures, depositing minerals. Fracture-filling minerals would have formed veins composed of a harder material that eroded more slowly than the rock slabs.

Possible examination of these features using the instruments on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity may further explain what these features have to do with the history of water on Mars. This false-color image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.



Citizen Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

Bennett, Katherine



Playing Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

Campbell, Ashley



Exploring Meteorite Mysteries: Slide Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of slides is designed to accompany the teacher's guide 'Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.' The slides include images of recent and historic meteorites, impact sites and craters, collecting sites, and a sequence of slides on where meteorites come from and how they reach the Earth. They can be viewed online and are also available in a downloadable, printable format.


Theorem of Mystery: Part 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the author was searching the web, he came across an article by Michael Keyton of IMSA (Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy) called "Theorems of mystery". The phrase is Keyton's own, and he defines such a theorem as "a result that has considerable structure with minimal hypotheses." The simplest of his 10 examples is one that many…

Lopez-Real, Francis



Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

Stark, Rebecca


Geological mysteries on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL



Mystery big cats’ in the Peruvian Amazon: morphometrics solve a cryptozoological mystery  

PubMed Central

Two big cat skulls procured from hunters of Yanachaga National Park, Peru, were reported as those of cats informally dubbed the ‘striped tiger’ and ‘anomalous jaguar’. Observations suggested that both skulls were distinct from those of jaguars, associated descriptions of integument did not conform to this species, and it has been implied that both represent members of one or two novel species. We sought to resolve the identity of the skulls using morphometrics. DNA could not be retrieved since both had been boiled as part of the defleshing process. We took 36 cranial and 13 mandibular measurements and added them to a database incorporating nearly 300 specimens of over 30 felid species. Linear discriminant analysis resolved both specimens as part of Panthera onca with high probabilities for cranial and mandibular datasets. Furthermore, the specimens exhibit characters typical of jaguars. If the descriptions of their patterning and pigmentation are accurate, we assume that both individuals were aberrant. PMID:24688867

Sakamoto, Manabu; Hocking, Peter; Sanchez, Gustavo



Subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers: enduring enigma or mystery solved?  


The phenomenon of subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) is not a unique ecological response to environmental conditions; rather, a broad range of interacting processes can contribute to the formation of persistent layers of elevated chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) that are nearly ubiquitous in stratified surface waters. Mechanisms that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the SCMLs include a local maximum in phytoplankton growth rate near the nutricline, photoacclimation of pigment content that leads to elevated Chl relative to phytoplankton biomass at depth, and a range of physiologically influenced swimming behaviors in motile phytoplankton and buoyancy control in diatoms and cyanobacteria that can lead to aggregations of phytoplankton in layers, subject to grazing and physical control. A postulated typical stable water structure characterizes consistent patterns in vertical profiles of Chl, phytoplankton biomass, nutrients, and light across a trophic gradient structured by the vertical flux of nutrients and characterized by the average daily irradiance at the nutricline. Hypothetical predictions can be tested using a nascent biogeochemical global ocean observing system. Partial results to date are generally consistent with predictions based on current knowledge, which has strong roots in research from the twentieth century. PMID:25251268

Cullen, John J



Teaching physics mysteries versus pseudoscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interpretation of quantum mechanics (and the encounter with consciousness) is contentious and has been called ``physics' skeleton in the closet.'' The reluctance of physicists to share this enigma with students and with the larger public has left the discussion open to the wild claims of purveyors of pseudoscience. The movie ``What the Bleep'' is a recent example. Bringing the enigma into the open is the best way to combat pseudoscience and share the true, deep mysteries that physics has uncovered. I will discuss my own experience and that of colleagues with ways of presenting this material to physics majors, non-majors, and the public.

Kuttner, Fred



The Mysteries of Real Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation will consist of showing arc jet data mysterious to the modelers. It will show pictures from an arc jet test where a material (unidentified) exhibited a failure mode that nobody understands followed by thermocouple data from arc jet tests on another (unidentified) material of interest in which the T/Cs exhibit repeatable, consistent, fascinating yet frustrating response characteristics that have the modelers stumped. This all happens between RT and 200 F. Unless we figure out what the responsible phenomenology is and can model it, we can't size the TPS with any confidence.

Laub, Bernard



HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity  

E-print Network

ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the StanislausLeo #12;#12;ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the Stanislaus 1. Distribution of precipitation and soil salinity, Western United States. 1 INTRODUCTION


238 American Scientist, Volume 98 Scientists' Bookshelf  

E-print Network

238 American Scientist, Volume 98 Scientists' Bookshelf © 2009 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research- nitive psychologist, in their book What Darwin Got Wrong. In the view of the authors, Darwin and the neo

Richards, Robert J.


Problem Solving with Patents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.



From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constru

Virginia Frissell



The mystery of language evolution  

PubMed Central

Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

Hauser, Marc D.; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C.; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J.; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C.



The mystery of language evolution.  


Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

Hauser, Marc D; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C



Energy Demand Staff Scientist  

E-print Network

Scientist Lynn Price Staff Scientist Nan Zhou Scientist Nate Aden Senior Research Associate Hongyou Lu Senior Research Associate Nina Zheng Research Associate Ali Hasanbeigi Post Doc Yining Qin Post Doc for the Industrial Sector in China: Experience from a Pilot Project with Two Steel Mills in Shandong Province

Eisen, Michael


Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna



Problem Solving with Patents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.



Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is developed to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom through the study of historical mysteries. What better place to snoop around and dig through mysterious graves than in history class? This book takes ten mysterious events in history from ancient Egypt to the 21st century for…

Pahl, Ronald Hans



Unlocking the Mysteries of the Bounding Box  

E-print Network

Coordinates Series A, No. 2 Unlocking the Mysteries of the Bounding Box Persistent URL for citation: Date of Publication: 08/29/05 Douglas R. Caldwell Douglas R. Caldwell (e-mail: Douglas.R. Caldwell...

Caldwell, Douglas R.



Taking the "Mystery" Out of Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers have developed "tried and true" lessons that they look forward to teaching-- mystery powders is one that these authors like. Originally part of the Elementary Science Study curricula in the 1960s, there are now many different versions of this well-known activity in which students examine physical and chemical properties of…

Lee, Eun Ju; Cite, Suleyman; Hanuscin, Deborah



Eratosthenes and the mystery of the stades  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article on the history of mathematics explains the famous measurement of the circumference of the Earth made by Eratosthenes, and discusses the mystery surrounding the accuracy of that measurement. A key element in the discussion is the ancient unit of length used in the measurement: the stade. The in-depth article uses diagrams as well as text to make its point.

Walkup, Newlyn



Ten mysteries of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus: Ten mysteries of the Solar System: (1) Is there life on Titan? (2) How many asteroids are there? (3) What is the great wall of Iapetus? (4) How did Saturn's rings form? (5) Is there a tenth planet? (6) Are there giant volcanoes on Mercury? (7) Is Pluto a planet? (8) Why is Uranus so cold? (9) What triggers

David Hawksett; Alan Longstaff; Keith Cooper; Stuart Clark



The Magic and Mysteries of Water  

E-print Network

The Magic and Mysteries of Water Speaker: Prof. Geri Richmond University of Oregon Water is ubiquitous in our lives. Covering more than two thirds of this planet, water surfaces provide a unique role in controlling our climate. In our bodies, water is the `canal of life', transporting and passing

Richmond, Geraldine L.


The ``Mysterious'' Origin of Brown Dwarfs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of brown dwarfs (BDs) have been discovered in the last few years in stellar clusters and among field stars. BDs are almost as numerous as hydrogen-burning stars, and so a theory of star formation should also explain their origin. The ``mystery'' of the origin of BDs is that their mass is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the average

Paolo Padoan; Åke Nordlund



NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries  


Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark




EPA Science Inventory

Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals ...


Putting a Little Mystery in Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posing mysteries is not just a gimmicky way to increase the entertainment value of a lesson; it taps into students' innate human desire to explore and learn about their environments. Instead of coming right out and providing students with the answers, teachers can build suspense, piquing students' natural curiosity. Teachers can guide students,…

Goodwin, Bryan; Ristvey, John



Mysterious Lava Mineral on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This graph or spectrum captured by the Moessbauer spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the presence of three different iron-bearing minerals in the soil at the rover's landing site. One of these minerals has been identified as olivine, a shiny green rock commonly found in lava on Earth. The other two have yet to be pinned down. Scientists were puzzled by the discovery of olivine because it implies the soil consists at least partially of ground up rocks that have not been weathered or chemically altered. The black line in this graph represents the original data; the three colored regions denote individual minerals and add up to equal the black line.

The Moessbauer spectrometer uses two pieces of radioactive cobalt-57, each about the size of pencil erasers, to determine with a high degree of accuracy the composition and abundance of iron-bearing minerals in martian rocks and soil. It is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.'



Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass  

SciTech Connect

With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

Lincoln, Don



Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass  


With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

Lincoln, Don



Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann



Fulbrighters Agricultural scientists  

E-print Network

with research and education. A Fulbright award gives students and scholars the benefit of conducting worldFulbrighters are... Agricultural scientists Anthropologists Archeologists Architects Art historians


Just Like Real Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about the scientists' work with chimpanzees in Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa, students conducted an animal behavior inquiry of their own--with their pets! In doing so, students modeled real scientists as they practiced keeping records while learning how to make and read graphs. Their "Great Moments in Record Keeping" are shared here.



Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,


GeoSleuth Murder Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activity begins by asking students to look at a drawing of a crime scene. The crime scene is specifically drawn so that illustrates several key geologic principals, but to the untrained eye it appears as a murder that took place inside an office. After quietly looking at the image for a few minutes alone, they share with a partner what they think happened. As a class, we record a list of "Observations," making sure to use the opportunity to highlight the difference between observation and interpretation. After we complete the list of observations, students then offer their interpretations about the sequence of events. Without using any new vocabulary, the teacher makes sure to highlight the geologic principles of original horizontality, superposition, cross cutting relations, and uniformitarianism in the students' interpretations. After students share enough competing theories, the professor shows slides of geologic examples that have things in common with parts of the crime scene and points out the similar processes. The activity eventually ends without a clear answer about "whodunnit." This open ending leaves students frustrated, but it really gets across the point that we can never know the exact answer to some problems, we can only come up with viable theories. Students continue to ask for months about what "really" happened, but I never tell them :-) Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Matthew Dalessio


USGS Scientist Anna Chalfoun  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Anna D. Chalfoun, a USGS scientist and assistant leader at the Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scien...


USGS Scientist Gavin Hayes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Gavin Hayes,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Haye...


USGS Scientist Burke Minsley  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Burke Minsley,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Minsl...


Just like Real Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

Betteley, Pat



Misquoted Scientists Respond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

Cole, John R.



Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.



Stories of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

Mascazine, John R.



Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story  


The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

Lawrence Krauss



The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future  

SciTech Connect

The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of videos is designed to showcase classrooms in which the NCTM Process Standards are evident. Scroll to video #48, Problem Solving, and select the "VoD" box to view this half-hour video. It includes 13 classroom excerpts from lessons that illustrate students investigating and learning mathematics through problem solving. Teachers share their approaches and observations.

Boston, Wgbh



Spotlight on Scientists Videos

NCI scientists, from postdoctoral fellows to principal investigators, discuss various topics including their personal backgrounds, how they came to be in the field of cancer research, their current projects, and a look to the future of medical oncology.


Talk Like a Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in wh

Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette



Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries  


Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve



Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve



Solving Quartics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented, which is different from the well-known Ferrari's method, to solve a general quartic equation. Formulae for the four roots of quartic are derived. A numerical example verifies the formulae obtained.

Kulkarni, R. G.



Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to a systematic procedure for solving problems through a demonstration and then the application of the method to an everyday activity. The unit project is introduced to provide relevance to subsequent lessons.

Office of Educational Partnerships,


Marine Mystery: A Watery Who-dunnit!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the causes of coral reef destruction by assuming various character roles in this marine murder-mystery. As they determine who killed Seymour Coral, students learn the basics of DNA testing. Suspects include global warming, sedimentation, and other threats facing coral reefs today. This activity is designed for 15 students, but can be modified for 12ÃÂ24 students. A narrated PowerPoint that provides background information on coral reefs can be shared in advance in a separate lesson. The total class time for the PowerPoint, skit, and pre- and post-surveys is about 100 minutes.



The Case of the Mysterious Renters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students to identify ways in which water is used, determine how much water families use each day, recognize the importance of conserving water, and determine ways in which water can be conserved. The activity revolves around a simulated mystery in which the number of renters living in an apartment is determined by water usage. It is designed to lead students to recognize their own ability to make a difference in conserving and protecting our water resources and to make a life-long commitment to water stewardship.


An attractive remedy: Matching scientists with teachers  

SciTech Connect

In too many of today`s precollege classrooms, little hands-on, inquiry-based science instruction can be found and much of the content-based science curricula is out of date and irrelevant. We purpose an intervention strategy to renew the science teacher who is unflagging in dedication and commitment. It is a strategy also to revitalize the science teacher clearly flagging, disillusioned, and out of touch. The strategy is to provide teachers with the opportunity to become full-share partners in the scientific community through scientific work experience in a laboratory setting. Characterized by intensive immersion in the day-to-day world of the scientist, the experience frees teachers from their classroom persona and lets them be scientists engaged in uncovering knowledge and solving problems. By matching teachers with scientists in laboratories for extended research experiences, we couple science education with ongoing research.

Hays, I.D.



Make a Mystery Circuit with a Bar Light Fixture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers have been building mystery circuits or so-called "black box circuits" to use as a demonstration with their students for years. This paper presents an easy way to make simple mystery circuits using inexpensive light fixtures (see Fig. 1) available at almost any home improvement store. In a black box circuit, only the lightbulbs are visible…

Lietz, Martha




E-print Network

, geologists won- dered, could gold deposits form in this way? This remained a mystery well over a hundred to "breath" the gold in these fluids, causing metallic gold to be deposited in the sediments. Frank ChapelleTHE STATE. COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA A look at the mystery of Carolina gold I n 1827, a plantation

Lovley, Derek


Cosmic Butterflies: The Colorful Mysteries of Planetary Nebulea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using more than 100 spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, this book explores the beauty of the most mysterious celestial objects in space, planetary nebulae. The mystery begins at the end of the star's life, when it wraps itself in a cocoon by spilling out gas and dust. Sometime later, a butterfly-like nebula emerges from the cocoon and develops

Sun Kwok



Marine Scientists Directory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Sciences Board of the National Academy of Sciences is distributing questionnaires to oceanographers, in preparation for the next edition of the U.S. Directory of Marine Scientists. The questionnaires are being sent to heads of oceanography activities in academia, government, and industry for further distribution to their ocean science staff members. EOS readers in the U.S. who consider themselves marine scientists but who do not receive a questionnaire before October 24 should write directly to Richard C. Vetter, Ocean Sciences Board, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418.


Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

Saia, S. M.



Jalal Rastegary Research Scientist  

E-print Network

), Reviewer for Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science Review (BRJASR) #12;Jalal Rastegary Research Scientist Collage of Engineering Institute for Energy and the Environment Obispo, CA 1987 M.S. Agriculture, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 2007 Ph

Johnson, Eric E.


Teaming Up with Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Scientist Releases Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...


Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.



Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

Gordon, Wendy



Early Primary Invasion Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control invasive plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potenti

Christine P. Villano



Scientists on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.


Reading about Real Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

Cummins, Sunday



Bringing Scientists to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

Casey, Peter



Naked Scientists Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Naked Scientists are "a media-savvy group of physicians and researchers from Cambridge University who use radio, live lectures, and the Internet to strip science down to its bare essentials, and promote it to the general public." They have a weekly radio program on BBC radio and this is available via a weekly podcast as well. Visitors to this site can learn more about the Naked Scientists as well as subscribe to their podcasts which include: Naked Scientists Podcast (and an enhanced version with images), Ask the Naked Scientists, and Question of the week. Subscriptions are available via iTunes, Yahoo, or Google or they can be downloaded as MP3 or MP4 from the site. Recent topics have included: Flu and Viruses; Combating Climate Change; and Memory and Learning. Anybody with a desire to learn about science in an accessible and entertaining way will find these podcasts useful. These podcasts could also be used in a classroom or for homework - as a way to integrate technology and fundamentals.



Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

Porter, Diana



Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.


Nurturing the Child Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda



Sporadic inclusion body myositis: an unsolved mystery.  


Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is considered to be the most common acquired muscle disease associated with aging. It is a disabling disorder still without effective treatment. sIBM causes weakness and atrophy of the distal and proximal muscles. Involvement of quadriceps and deep finger flexors are clues to early diagnosis. Dysphagia in the course of the disease is common. Muscle biopsy shows chronic myopathic features, lymphocytic infiltration invading non-necrotic fibbers, rimmed vacuoles and accumulation of amyloid-related proteins. It remains uncertain whether sIBM is primarily an immune-mediated inflammatory myopathy or a degenerative myopathy with an associated inflammatory component. This review describes the epidemiology and clinical features of the disease as well as the current genetic and pathogenic concepts and therapeutic approaches. Despite recent clues, in many respects sIBM remains an unsolved mystery. PMID:19474772

Machado, Pedro; Miller, Adrian; Holton, Janice; Hanna, Michael



Unraveling the mystery of exozodiacal dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exozodiacal dust clouds are thought to be the extrasolar analogs of the Solar System's zodiacal dust. Studying these systems provides insights in the architecture of the innermost regions of planetary systems, including the habitable zone. Furthermore, the mere presence of the dust may result in major obstacles for direct imaging of earth-like planets. Our EXOZODI project aims to detect and study exozodiacal dust and to explain its origin. We are carrying out the first large, near-infrared interferometric survey in the northern (CHARA/FLUOR) and southern (VLTI/PIONIER) hemisphere. Preliminary results suggest a detection rate of up to 30% around A to K type stars and interesting trends with spectral type and age. In addition to the statistical analysis of our survey results, detailed modeling studies of single systems, modeling of possible dust creation mechanisms and the development of next-generation modeling tools dedicated to address the mystery of exozodiacal dust are main tasks of our project.

Ertel, Steve; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Thebault, Philippe; Absil, Olivier; Bonsor, Amy; Defrere, Denis; Kral, Quentin; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Lebreton, Jeremy; Coude du Foresto, Vincent



222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.



Helping early career research scientists ascend the professional ladder.  


The Keystone Symposia Early Career Investigator Travel Award initiative is a unique successful research mentoring program tailored for 'end of the pipeline' life and biomedical scientists from academia and industry. Using targeted educational, mentoring, and networking activities, the program benefits early career scientists in solving a specific laboratory-based research question that is limiting their evolving research and could increase their ability to obtain new grants and improve their career progression. PMID:23889774

King, Laina



Minerals in Martian meteorite illuminate magnetic mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since magnetic anomalies on Mars were detected in Noachian-aged crust (about 4.4 billion years old) by the Mars Global Surveyor mission in the 1990s, scientists have been searching for their mineral origins. So far, meteorite samples from Mars have not yielded rocks with enough magnetic minerals to account for the anomalies.

Wendel, JoAnna



Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the fourth annual annotated bibliography of adult mysteries to recommend to teen readers. Includes titles under the headings of private eyes, reference sources, amateur sleuths, historical sleuths, suspense and thrillers, police procedurals, and anthologies. (LRW)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna



Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease  


... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / Summer ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research with ...


Gene Scan Helps Diagnose Mystery Disorders in Children  


... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gene Scan Helps Diagnose Mystery Disorders in Children Using ... new test that scans all of a person's genes to pinpoint a single mutation can help identify ...


Life in Death Valley: The Mystery of the Racing Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PBS site provides information of the mysterious sliding rocks in Death Valley, reviews competing hypotheses, and features the work of a geologist using GPS in her investigation. The site includes a photo of a rock and its track.



The mystery of missing heritability: Genetic interactions create phantom heritability  

E-print Network

Human genetics has been haunted by the mystery of “missing heritability” of common traits. Although studies have discovered >1,200 variants associated with common diseases and traits, these variants typically appear to ...

Sunyaev, Shamil R.


Addressing Unsolved Mysteries of Polymer Viscoelasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using coarse-grained bead-spring and entanglement tube models, much progress has been made over the past 50 years in understanding and modeling the dynamics and rheology of polymers, both in dilute solution state and in entangled solutions and melts. However, several major issues have remained unresolved, and these are now being addressed using microscopic simulations resolved at the level of the monomer. In the dilute solution state, the dynamics can be described by a coarse-grained bead-spring model, with each spring representing around 100 backbone bonds, even at frequencies high enough that one expects to see modes of relaxation associated with local motions of smaller numbers of bonds. The apparent absence of these local modes has remained a mystery, but microscopic simulations now indicate that these modes are slowed down by torsional barriers to the extent that they are coincident with much longer ranged spring-like modes. Other mysteries of dilute solution rheology include extension-thinning behavior observed at very high extension rates, an apparent lack of complete stretching of polymers in fast extensional flows as measured by light scattering experiments, and the unusual molecular weight dependence of polymer scission in fast flows. In entangled solutions, it is still not entirely clear how, or even if, the rheology can be mapped onto that of a "dynamically equivalent" melt, and, if so, what the scaling laws are for choosing the appropriate renormalized monomer size and renormalized time and modulus scales. It is also not yet clear to what extent "dynamic dilution" can be used to simplify and organize constraint release effects in the relaxation of monodisperse and polydisperse linear and long-chain branched polymers. For multiply-branched polymers, the motion of the branch point is critical in determining the rate of relaxation of the molecule, and theories for this motion have not been adequately tested. As with dilute solutions, simulations resolved at the level of the monomer are now helping to settle these issues. For example, molecular dynamics simulations of branched polymers show that ideas of hierarchical relaxation, introduced by McLeish and coworkers, appear to be valid. Similar simulations indicate that the effective "tube diameter" increases gradually starting at times as short as the "equilibration time" at which the polymer first "feels" the presence of the tube, and that this slow increase in effective tube diameter can help explain some anomalies in the relaxation of asymmetric star branched polymers.

Larson, Ronald G.



Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or colliding compact objects in distant galaxies. The pieces of the puzzle are beginning to fall into place and yet the story isn't quite finished. I will frame the history of gamma-ray bursts as a mystery story and will end with a description of what we still don't know and what we'll have to do to get the next clues.

Parsons, Ann



The Scientist - Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientist magazine is written for life science professionals, but promises it to be "concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining." The magazine's online version has a great Multimedia section on its website that has "Videos," "Slideshows," and "Infographics." Visitors shouldn't miss the story titled "Bat Hunt" from the January 2012 issue, which profiles a mammologist working in the South Sudan. The photographs in included this story are excellent, and visitors will be amazed by the photo of the wide-eyed fruit bat cradling its baby. Back on the homepage, the Infographics section contains stories accompanied by colorful, easy-to-follow diagrams, and it is also well worth a look.



Career Explorations: Solar Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about science careers. Learners will answer questions prior to and after viewing an online video about careers for solar scientists and astronomers. This activity requires access to the Internet and, ideally, a method of projecting the video onto a screen and for playing the audio. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 2-4 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.


Astronomer to Data Scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

Kirkpatrick, Jessica



The Dismal Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dismal Scientist, provided by Dismal Sciences, is a web site aimed at college students interested in the US economy. The site provides a "quick summary of major economic releases, along with an economist's perspective on its implications" and a summary table of the main indicators. It also contains regional data for all 50 states, Washington D.C., and 257 metro areas which can be ranked by different criteria. Other features include historical and forecast information for various geographical level variables and an economic data series dictionary.



Soviet scientists speak out  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))



Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program  

SciTech Connect

The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

Sharlin, H.I.



The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined

Banmali Banerjee



Problem Solving and Game-Based Learning: Effects of Middle Grade Students' Hypothesis Testing Strategies on Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Targeted as a highly desired skill for contemporary work and life, problem solving is central to game-based learning research. In this study, middle grade students achieved significant learning gains from gameplay interactions that required solving a science mystery based on microbiology content. Student trace data results indicated that effective…

Spires, Hiller A.; Rowe, Jonathan P.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.



Science Sampler: Hire a scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hire a scientist is an activity that asks students to review the qualifications of a scientist who has applied for a job at a research facility. During this review, students learn about the scientist's job skills, education, and work experience by conducting their own research on the Internet and at the library, through interviews conducted by email, and during conversations with visiting scientists. Once the research is completed, the student assumes the role of the scientist to complete a job application and answer some interview questions. This role-playing activity helps bring science to life.

Mesmer, Karen



Sirius B - A still mysterious white dwarf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and knowledge of Sirius B, the companion star to Sirius A are reviewed, noting the solar mass and terrestrial radius of the dwarf. The system is 2.65 pc distant, with separation between the stars oscillating from 8-32 AU. Spectral observations are best obtained when the stars are at maximum distance, and redshifts which affirm the theory of relativity have been detected. Copernicus satellite observations have also revealed the emissions of UV and X rays from the dwarf. It is noted that Grecian records over 2000 yr old cite Sirius as a red star, which implies that the dwarf was then a red star since Sirius A is a main sequence star, an implication which does not correspond with the known evolution of stars. Another mystery is cited, that of the tribal records of the Sudanese Dogon, which maintains an ancient legend of Sirius A having an invisible companion called Digitaria, composed of a substance called segala, which cannot be lifted by all the humans on earth combined.

Wesemael, F.; Fontaine, G.



Ask a Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is able to attract many of the top scientists from around the world. It makes sense that they would also draw upon this collective acumen to help young people learn about what they do. Visitors can submit their own questions for these professionals or look at questions that have already been answered. First-time visitors can start with the Top Ten Questions to get started on their journey. There are actually sixty questions answered here, as there are six sections, including Animals, General Biology, Evolution, and Genetics. The questions answered here are a diverse lot, ranging from "Why is there no mammal with green fur?" to "Why is memory affected by age?" The answers are lucid, well-written, and quite thorough. The generally curious will not be disappointed by this site.



The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."



The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. ...

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre


The Cactus Code: A Problem Solving Environment for the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus is an open source problem solving environment designed for scientists and engineers. Its modular structure facilitates parallel computation across different architectures and collaborative code development between different groups. The Cactus Code originated in the academic research community, where it has been developed and used over many years by a large international collaboration of physicists and computational scientists. We discuss

Gabrielle Allen; Werner Benger; Tom Goodale; Hans-christian Hege; Gerd Lanfermann; André Merzky; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf



The Society for Amateur Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society for Amateur Scientists created this website to present its goal "to create unique collaborations between world-class professionals and citizen scientists and to remove the roadblocks that prevent ordinary people from participating in extraordinary science." The website features The Citizen Scientist, a weekly publication presenting news and projects from amateur scientists. Students can learn about the educational program, LABRats. Photographers can submit interesting images to the Society' Gallery. With so many tools and resources, everyone interested in science should visit this website.


Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

Polland, Mark J.


Solving Big Problems Managed by UT-Battelle for the US Department of Energy  

E-print Network

the mysteries of materials 16 Nuclear Science and Engineering: Powering the future and ensuring safety #12;3 A s the largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory of the US Department of Energy, OakSolving Big Problems Managed by UT-Battelle for the US Department of Energy Science and Technology

Pennycook, Steve


Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What causes condensation? Does temperature affect how well a balloon will fly? How do tiny bugs get into oatmeal? Through 15 mystery stories, this book memorably illustrates science concepts for students and reinforces the value of learning science through inquiry. Each mystery presents opportunities for students to create questions, form hypotheses, test their ideas, and come up with explanations. Focused on concepts such as periodic motion, thermodynamics, temperature and energy, and sound, these mysteries draw students into the stories by grounding them in experiences students are familiar with, providing them with a foundation for classroom discussion and inquiry. The story format is used because it is one of the most effective ways to engage students' attention right from the start. Each chapter includes a list of science concepts explored, targeted strategies for using the stories with children in grades K-4 and with older students in grades 5-8, and a key matching story concepts with corresponding standards in the NSES.



Protoplanetary dust porosity and FU Orionis outbursts: Solving the mystery of Earth’s missing volatiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is known to be depleted in volatile lithophile elements in a fashion that defies easy explanation. We resolve this anomaly with a model that combines the porosity of collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks with heating from FU Orionis events that dramatically raise protoplanetary disk temperatures. The heating from an FU Orionis event alters the aerodynamical properties of the dust while evaporating the volatiles. This causes the dust to settle, abandoning those volatiles. The success of this model in explaining the elemental composition of the Earth is a strong argument in favor of highly porous collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks outside our Solar System. Further, it demonstrates how thermal (or condensation based) alterations of dust porosity, and hence aerodynamics, can be a strong factor in planet formation, leading to the onset of rapid gravitational instabilities in the dust disk and the subsequent collapse that forms planetesimals.

Hubbard, Alexander; Ebel, Denton S.



Solving the mystery of human sleep schedules one mutation at a time  

PubMed Central

Sleep behavior remains one of the most enigmatic areas of life. The unanswered questions range from “why do we sleep?” to “how we can improve sleep in today's society?” Identification of mutations responsible for altered circadian regulation of human sleep lead to unique opportunities for probing these territories. In this review, we summarize causative circadian mutations found from familial genetic studies to date. We also describe how these mutations mechanistically affect circadian function and lead to altered sleep behaviors, including shifted or shortening of sleep patterns. In addition, we discuss how the investigation of mutations can not only expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the circadian clock and sleep duration, but also bridge the pathways between clock/sleep and other human physiological conditions and ailments such as metabolic regulation and migraine headaches. PMID:24001255

Hallows, William C.; Ptá?ek, Louis J.; Fu, Ying-Hui



Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes Nathalie M. Vriend,1  

E-print Network

by the boom- ing sounds of the desert. Sustained booming is defined as the continuous, loud droning sound that booming should occur on all dunes, in contradiction to observations. The current work presents new- guide. This waveguide model explains why the booming phenomena only occur in certain locations

Martin, Alain


Ancient Arctic mystery solved: What did a woolly rhino do for food? New study has `profound'  

E-print Network

' answers Forbs, flowering plants, were the food of choice for woolly mammoths, woolly rhinos, horses approximately 10,000 years ago, woolly rhinos, woolly mammoths, horses, bison and even camels roamed mammoth, woolly rhinos, camels, horses, bison. That was the problem. How did you support

Machel, Hans


[Solving the mystery of cellular inclusions. A contribution to the history of virology].  


In the middle of the 19th century cell inclusions were observed with increasing frequency in more and more diseases and were closely scrutinized by researchers working in different fields. Because of their distinct viewpoints, however, the various authors came inevitably to different conclusions. The morphologists interpreted the inclusions as artefacts or degenerative changes, the etiologists, on the other hand, took them for pathogenic protozoa, for cellular lesions inflicted by invisible agents or, conversely--for aggregated products of the cellular defense. Various morphological, parasitological and bacteriological methods have been used to clear up the pros and cons of these hypotheses. It was the rapid progress realized in virology at the middle of the 20th century that finally brought to light their real significance. PMID:10024769

Diosi, P



Man's Best Friend? Using Animal Bones to Solve an Archaeological Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students learn how archaeology operates as an historical science by collecting and analyzing material evidence to make claims about the past. Assuming the role of zooarchaeologists, they evaluate a hypothetical case in which “Dr. Jasper Eraillure” shocks the world by claiming a canid skull he has found at a Neanderthal site is actually that of a domestic dog. Students analyze modern skulls from wild and domestic canids, and develop a set of criteria for determining whether the “unknown” canid skull belonged to a domestic dog. They further explore the reasons behind the divergence between wild and domestic dog populations and evaluate the potential impact of Dr. Eraillure’s assertions on our understanding of the past. The case was designed for an introductory course in archaeology, but could be adpated for use in an introductory biology course.

Scharf, Elizabeth



Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893 Torare River "chloromelanite" is an extremely close match texturally and mineralogically with the jadeitite jade gouge, including Nb-rich titanite—thus a match, but that (2) the axes are omphacitites that have a geologically similar origin (high pressure/low-temperature subduction channel) but do not share the jadeite+aegerine-rich pyroxene or Nb-Y rich accessory phases. This research clearly shows that natural history collections are important archives that contain samples of potentially important value for science and cultural research. Moreover, research like this that connects geology, archaeology, history and preserved collections can yield a story that makes science and collections tangible and interesting to a popular audience. References: Harlow et al. 2012, Eur. J. Mineral. 24, 391-399.

Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.



Solving the Mystery of Mock Mummies: Using Scientific Inquiry Skills in an Integrated Lesson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the nature of science (NOS) is reinforced, middle school students will be able to appreciate scientific inquiry processes and communication, as outlined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). To this end, the authors developed a mummy-making and dissection activity to help sixth- and seventh-grade students learn more about…

Balgopal, Meena; Cornwall, Shaun; Gill-Robinson, Heather; Reinhart, Damien S.



Solving a Five Decade-Old Mystery: Why is there Carbon Dating?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dating is due to the fact that the half-life of 14C is unusually long, namely, 5730 years, after which it decays in to 14N. A priori one would not expect the beta decay of 14C to extend over archaeological times, because the quantum numbers of the initial and final states satisfy the selection rules for an allowed Gamow-Teller transition.

Ruprecht Machleidt



The Dynamics of Backfilling: Solving the Mystery of Why Increased Inaccuracy May Help  

E-print Network

is actually inappropriate for studying the effect of the inaccuracy of estimates. I. INTRODUCTION The workload by their arrival time, size (number of processors they need), runtime, and a runtime estimate provided by the user, Israel Abstract-- Parallel job scheduling with backfilling requires users to provide runtime estimates

Feitelson, Dror


The Dynamics of Backfilling: Solving the Mystery of Why Increased Inaccuracy May Help  

E-print Network

, and is (2) ill-suited for studying the effect of real inaccuracy. Real estimates are modal (90% of the jobs by their arrival time, size (number of processors they need), runtime, and a runtime estimate provided by the user, Israel Abstract-- Parallel job scheduling with backfilling requires users to provide runtime estimates

Wiseman, Yair


Role of Exposure Analysis in Solving the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur. PMID:17589972

Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.



MALDI and Related Methods: A Solved Problem or Still a Mystery?  

PubMed Central

MALDI ionization mechanisms remain a topic of controversy. Some of the major modern models are compared, with emphasis on those of the author. Primary formation, secondary reaction, and loss mechanisms are considered. PMID:24349925

Knochenmuss, Richard



Oxyluciferin photoacidity: the missing element for solving the keto-enol mystery?  


The oxyluciferin family of fluorophores has been receiving much attention from the research community and several systematic studies have been performed in order to gain more insight regarding their photophysical properties and photoprotolytic cycles. In this minireview, we summarize the knowledge obtained so far and define several possible lines for future research. More importantly, we analyze the impact of the discoveries on the firefly bioluminescence phenomenon made so far and explain how they re-open again the discussion regarding the identity (keto or enol species) of the bioluminophore. PMID:23843204

da Silva, Luís Pinto; Simkovitch, Ron; Huppert, Dan; da Silva, Joaquim C G Esteves



Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA Image of SS 433: Red-and-Blue Line Shows Path of Constant-Speed Jets. Note Poor Match of Path to Image. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF SS 433 Same Image, With Colored Beads Representing Particle Ejections at Different Speeds. Particle Path Now Matches. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click Here for Page of Full-Sized Graphics The new VLA image shows two full turns of the jets' corkscrew on both sides of the core. Analyzing the image showed that if material came from the core at a constant speed, the jet paths would not accurately match the details of the image. "By simulating ejections at varying speeds, we were able to produce an exact match to the observed structure," Blundell explained. The scientists first did their match to one of the jets. "We then were stunned to see that the varying speeds that matched the structure of one jet also exactly reproduced the other jet's path," Blundell said. Matching the speeds in the two jets reproduced the observed structure even allowing for the fact that, because one jet is moving more nearly away from us than the other, it takes light longer to reach us from it, she added. The astrophysicists speculate that the changes in ejection speed may be caused by changes in the rate at which material is transferred from the companion star onto the accretion disk. The detailed new VLA image also allowed the astrophysicists to determine that SS 433 is nearly 18,000 light-years distant from Earth. Earlier estimates had the object, in the constellation Aquila, as near as 10,000 light-years. An accurate distance, the scientists said, now allows them to better determine the age of the shell of debris blown out by the supernova explosion that created the dense, compact object in the microquasar. Knowing the distance accurately also allows them to measure the actual brightness of the microquasar's components, and this, they said, improves their understanding of the physical processes at work in the system. The breakthrough image was made us



Dimensional Calculator for Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching students how to convert units is straight-forward. Getting them to appreciate the power of including units in their calculations and analyses is far more difficult. Too many students fail to see dimensions as an integral part of an analysis but instead view it as an annoyance -- an added burden to be dealt with in addition to solving the program usually done using a separate unit conversion program. There are hundreds of online calculators and unit converters but this is the only site that integrates both. It automatically handles all unit conversion as part of its calculations. You just enter your input using any units - metric English or mixed and then enter your formula. The site knows about many geoscience specific units such as Darcys. The calculator tells you if your formula and/or input are dimensionally inconsistent greatly reducing mistakes and making it easier for students to begin to understand the advantages of including units in their calculations.

Engine, Dimension


Anania Shirakatsi and "Pagan" Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anania Shirakatsi's approach to the views of "Pagan" scientists is discussed. He had special attitude to ancient science and its representatives. In his various works he criticizes their wrong views. Shirakatsi was especially good in distinguishing the correct and erroneous points of view by different scientists and he could chose the right approach and add his own one.

Vardumyan, Gohar



Donald F. Hornig, scientist who  

E-print Network

Donald F. Hornig, scientist who helped develop the atomic bomb, dies at 92 By Matt Schudel, was designed to produce an atomic bomb. Dr. Hornig led a team that developed a device called the "X unit, Published: January 23 Donald F. Hornig, who as a young scientist once "babysat" the world's first atomic

Colorado at Boulder, University of


Frontier Scientists use Modern Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

O'connell, E. A.



Weird Stellar Pair Puzzles Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have discovered a speedy spinning pulsar in an elongated orbit around an apparent Sun-like star, a combination never seen before, and one that has them puzzled about how the strange system developed. Orbital Comparison Comparing Orbits of Pulsar and Its Companion to our Solar System. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for full caption information and available graphics. "Our ideas about how the fastest-spinning pulsars are produced do not predict either the kind of orbit or the type of companion star this one has," said David Champion of the Australia Telescope National Facility. "We have to come up with some new scenarios to explain this weird pair," he added. Astronomers first detected the pulsar, called J1903+0327, as part of a long-term survey using the National Science Foundation's Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. They made the discovery in 2006 doing data analysis at McGill University, where Champion worked at the time. They followed up the discovery with detailed studies using the Arecibo telescope, the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, the Westerbork radio telescope in the Netherlands, and the Gemini North optical telescope in Hawaii. The pulsar, a city-sized superdense stellar corpse left over after a massive star exploded as a supernova, is spinning on its axis 465 times every second. Nearly 21,000 light-years from Earth, it is in a highly-elongated orbit that takes it around its companion star once every 95 days. An infrared image made with the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii shows a Sun-like star at the pulsar's position. If this is an orbital companion to the pulsar, it is unlike any companions of other rapidly rotating pulsars. The pulsar, a neutron star, also is unusually massive for its type. "This combination of properties is unprecedented. Not only does it require us to figure out how this system was produced, but the large mass may help us understand how matter behaves at extremely high densities," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Pulsars are neutron stars whose strong magnetic fields channel lighthouse-like beams of light and radio waves that whirl around as the star spins. Typical pulsars spin a few times a second, but some, like PSR J1903+0327, are much faster, rotating hundreds of times a second. They are called millisecond pulsars. Astronomers think most millisecond pulsars are sped up by material falling onto them from a companion star. This requires the pulsar to be in a tight orbit around its companion that becomes more and more circular with time. The orbits of some millisecond pulsars are the most perfect circles in the Universe, so the elongated orbit of the new pulsar is a mystery. "What we have found is a millisecond pulsar that is in the wrong kind of orbit around what appears to be the wrong kind of star," Champion said. "Now we have to figure out how this strange system was produced." The scientists are considering three possibilities. The first, that the pulsar simply was born spinning quickly, seems unlikely to them. Another possibility, they say, is that the pulsar was formed in a tight group of stars known as a globular cluster, where it had a companion that spun it up. Later, a close encounter with another star in the cluster stripped it of its companion and flung it out of the cluster. For several reasons, including the fact that they don't see a nearby cluster from which it could have come, they don't like that explanation either. A third scenario says the pulsar may be part of a triple, not a double, star system. In this case, the pulsar's 95-day orbit is around a neutron star or white dwarf, not the Sun-like star seen in the infrared image. The Sun-like star would then be in a more-distant orbit around the pulsar and its close companion. "We've found about 50 pulsars in binary systems. We may now have found our first pulsar in a stellar triple system," Ransom said. The international research team is busy trying to get their



ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identifying a mysterious aquatic fern gametophyte  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identifying a mysterious aquatic fern gametophyte Fay-Wei Li � Benito C. Tan � because of its ribbon-like thallus. How- ever, its antheridia are remarkably fern-like in morphology. To corroborate the hypothesis that Su¨�wassertang is a fern gametophyte and to determine its closest relative, we


Mysteries of TGF-? Paradox in Benign and Malignant Cells  

PubMed Central

TGF-? regulates a wide range of biological functions including embryonic development, wound healing, organogenesis, immune modulation, and cancer progression. Interestingly, TGF-? is known to inhibit cell growth in benign cells but promote progression in cancer cells; this phenomenon is known as TGF-? paradox. To date, the mechanism of this paradox still remains a scientific mystery. In this review, we present our experience, along with the literature, in an attempt to answer this mystery. First, we observed that, on TGF-? engagement, there is a differential activation of Erk between benign and cancer cells. Since activated Erk is a major mediator in tumor progression and metastasis, a differentially activated Erk represents the answer to this mystery. Second, we identified a key player, PP2A-B56?, which is differentially recruited by the activated type I TGF-? receptor (TBRI) in benign and tumor cells, resulting in differential Erk activation. Finally, TGF-? stimulation leads to suppressed TBRs in tumor cells but not in benign cells. This differentially suppressed TBRs triggers differential recruitment of PP2A-B56? and, thus, differential activation of Erk. The above three events explain the mysteries of TGF-? paradox. Understanding the mechanism of TGF-? paradox will help us to predict indolent from aggressive cancers and develop novel anti-cancer strategies. PMID:24860782

Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Nengwang; Lee, Chung



Exploring Mystery in Fifth Grade: A Journey of Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instructional framework that included the use of a touchstone text, literature circles, and independent reading and writing created a rich context for the study of mysteries in a fifth-grade classroom. Key points include a) the complexity of the touchstone text as a key factor in shaping the instructional goals in this genre study, and b) the…

Sharp, Claudia; Martinez, Miriam



WILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World  

E-print Network

WILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World Grades 6-12 encounterart #12;1 Williams College Museum of Art © 2011 Guide developed by Joann Harnden, Coordinator of Education Programs English Cook, Class of 2013 #12;Williams College Museum of Art © 2011 2 We look forward to your visit

Aalberts, Daniel P.


Anodyne Aesthetics in Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a sustained exploration of Ann Radcliffe's engagement with art and aesthetics in her most lengthy novel, The Mysteries of Udolpho. While critics often address how Radcliffe draws upon the eighteenth-century aesthetic categories of the sublime and the picturesque, such considerations often cast her efforts as simply transcriptions of the pictorial works of landscape painters, or translations of

Mira Radanovic



Mystery Mud : Exploring Changes in States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Join a group of middle-school students on a visit to a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they experiment with mystery mud and learn about the relationships between magnetism, particle motion, and changes in the state of matter.



Unearthing a mystery Hollywood physics Digital security Good bones  

E-print Network

Unearthing a mystery Summer2009 Hollywood physics Digital security Good bones #12;summer 2009, letter to the editor or story ideas to Your input is important! Comings: Richard Bootsma Newsletter Mission Statement EUREKA! is published for the alumni, faculty, staff, friends

Dawson, Jeff W.


Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms  

E-print Network

Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms T. Jonathan Davies 8, 2003 (received for review June 20, 2003) Angiosperms are among the major terrestrial radiations comparative studies, we compiled a supertree of angiosperm families from published phylogenetic studies

Davies, Jonathan


Problem Solving Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a summary of five topics on problems solving: What is a Problem?, What is Problem Solving?, Problem Solving Strategies, Why Teach Problem Solving?, Organizing the Teaching of Problem Solving and a reference section. Users can read more detailed information by accessing the 'More Information' link under each heading.



SGR: Scientists for Global Responsibility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists for Global Responsibility (SGR) have created a site depicting the belief that "science and technology should be used responsibly in a way that contributes to justice and peace in human society and to the long-term well-being of the wider environment". Scientists can download reports that the group, consisting of 600 scientists, has written such as Cleaner Technologies: A Positive Choice. Students can learn about how to make wise career choices that will be both rewarding and environmentally friendly. The site also contains abstracts of future and previous conferences including Franks Barnaby's abstract The Rick of Nuclear Terrorism. All scientists and students interested in promoting ethical science and technology will want to explore this site.


Developing Nurse Scientist Course Login

Privacy  |   Disclaimer  |   Help  |   Logout      Developing Nurse Scientist Course User Login / Registration Returning Users Email: Password: Having trouble logging in? New User Registration If you are entering the course for the first time, you must


Looking out for future scientists  

PubMed Central

Proposals to reduce the number of students who do PhDs are misguided, writes Eve Marder, because they would exclude young scientists with qualities that do not show up in exam results and interviews. PMID:25291257




EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...


Scientists Check for Volcanic Activity  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Four scientists are busy reviewing seismic data, checking maps, and uploading activity updates in the USGS Volcano Hazards Program's Volcano Observatory operations room from the Menlo Park, California USGS campus....


AGU Honors Space Weather Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU has recently presented two awards to space weather scientists. Yao Chen is the recipient of the 2008 Sunanda and Santimay Basu Early Career Award in Sun-Earth Systems Science. The award, given by the Space Physics and Aeronomy section of AGU, recognizes an individual scientist from a developing nation for making "outstanding contributions to research in Sun-Earth systems science that further the understanding of both plasma physical processes and their applications for the benefit of society."

Tretkoff, Ernie



Brightness Variations of Sun-like Stars: The Mystery Deepens - Astronomers facing Socratic "ignorance"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive study made with ESO's Very Large Telescope deepens a long-standing mystery in the study of stars similar to the Sun. Unusual year-long variations in the brightness of about one third of all Sun-like stars during the latter stages of their lives still remain unexplained. Over the past few decades, astronomers have offered many possible explanations, but the new, painstaking observations contradict them all and only deepen the mystery. The search for a suitable interpretation is on. "Astronomers are left in the dark, and for once, we do not enjoy it," says Christine Nicholls from Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia, lead author of a paper reporting the study. "We have obtained the most comprehensive set of observations to date for this class of Sun-like stars, and they clearly show that all the possible explanations for their unusual behaviour just fail." The mystery investigated by the team dates back to the 1930s and affects about a third of Sun-like stars in our Milky Way and other galaxies. All stars with masses similar to our Sun become, towards the end of their lives, red, cool and extremely large, just before retiring as white dwarfs. Also known as red giants, these elderly stars exhibit very strong periodic variations in their luminosity over timescales up to a couple of years. "Such variations are thought to be caused by what we call 'stellar pulsations'," says Nicholls. "Roughly speaking, the giant star swells and shrinks, becoming brighter and dimmer in a regular pattern. However, one third of these stars show an unexplained additional periodic variation, on even longer timescales - up to five years." In order to find out the origin of this secondary feature, the astronomers monitored 58 stars in our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud, over two and a half years. They acquired spectra using the high resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope and combined them with images from other telescopes [1], achieving an impressive collection of the properties of these variable stars. Outstanding sets of data like the one collected by Nicholls and her colleagues often offer guidance on how to solve a cosmic puzzle by narrowing down the plethora of possible explanations proposed by the theoreticians. In this case, however, the observations are incompatible with all the previously conceived models and re-open an issue that has been thoroughly debated. Thanks to this study, astronomers are now aware of their own "ignorance" - a genuine driver of the knowledge-seeking process, as the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates is said to have taught. "The newly gathered data show that pulsations are an extremely unlikely explanation for the additional variation," says team leader Peter Wood. "Another possible mechanism for producing luminosity variations in a star is to have the star itself move in a binary system. However, our observations are strongly incompatible with this hypothesis too." The team found from further analysis that whatever the cause of these unexplained variations is, it also causes the giant stars to eject mass either in clumps or as an expanding disc. "A Sherlock Holmes is needed to solve this very frustrating mystery," concludes Nicholls. Notes [1] Precise brightness measurements were made by the MACHO and OGLE collaborations, running on telescopes in Australia and Chile, respectively. The OGLE observations were made at the same time as the VLT observations. More information This research was presented in two papers: one appeared in the November issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ("Long Secondary Periods in Variable Red Giants", by C. P. Nicholls et al.), and the other has just been published in the Astrophysical Journal ("Evidence for mass ejection associated with long secondary periods in red giants", by P. R. Wood and C. P. Nicholls). The team is composed of Christine P. Nicholls and Peter R. Wood (Research School of Astronomy and Ast



Cosmic Butterflies: The Colorful Mysteries of Planetary Nebulea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using more than 100 spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, this book explores the beauty of the most mysterious celestial objects in space, planetary nebulae. The mystery begins at the end of the star's life, when it wraps itself in a cocoon by spilling out gas and dust. Sometime later, a butterfly-like nebula emerges from the cocoon and develops into a planetary nebula. These newly formed structures are complemented by a kaleidoscope of colors emitted by glowing gases. Hovering in the gossamer of delicate streamers, the production of planetary nebula by a star is both its most momentous event and foretells its doom when its central energy runs out. In this extraordinary book, Sun Kwok details the discovery process of the creation of planetary nebulae and of the future of the Earth's Sun.

Kwok, Sun


Mastery, Mystery, and Misery: The Ideologies of Web Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A presentation on Jakob Nielson\\'s Alertbox from August 30, 2004. Jakob Nielson uses the titles mastery, mystery, and misery to describe three seperate approaches to web design. Mastery Mastery describes the ideology of empowering the user. The web designer does everything possible to give the user complete control over the website. For example, search engines are designed to put the ...

Mr. Meeker



Who took the "x" out of expectancy-value theory? A psychological mystery, a substantive-methodological synergy, and a cross-national generalization.  


Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction. PMID:21750248

Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich



The Effects of Using Diagramming as a Representational Technique on High School Students' Achievement in Solving Math Word Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to…

Banerjee, Banmali



The Unsolved Mysteries of Atmospheric Chemistry for High School Students and Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The grant "CAREER: New Molecular Markers of Asian Air Emissions - Anthropogenic Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds" (ATM-0239823) was funded by NSF from 2003-2008. The CAREER proposal described the integration of research and outreach education activities in the field of atmospheric chemistry, specifically atmospheric measurements and atmospheric transport. The primary objective of the research was to identify anthropogenic semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) that could be used as molecular markers for Asian air emissions and trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. The outreach education activity was integrated with the research by developing curriculum to introduce underrepresented minority high school students, and their teachers, to atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric measurements through Oregon State University's National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences funded Hydroville Curriculum Project ( A curriculum was developed to allow students to assume the role of "Air Quality Scientist" and measure air temperature, air flow, relative humidity, CO, CO2, O3, and volatile organic compounds in out-door and in-door air. The students gained an understanding of atmospheric transport and compared measured concentrations to recommended guidelines. In addition, the outreach education activities included the development of the "Unsolved Mysteries of Human Health" website (, including a specific module on the research conducted under the CAREER grant ( /Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry-Overview). The PI of the CAREER proposal, Dr. Staci Massey Simonich, is now a full professor at Oregon State University. To date, she has published over 50 peer-review journal articles, as well as mentored 9 undergraduate students, 20 graduate students, 3 post-doctoral scholars, and 3 international visiting scientists in her laboratory.

Simonich, S. L.



The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist  

E-print Network

/8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears the possibility of doing preimplantation single-cell SNP screening--a single-cell form of whole- genome genetic, and metabolites in single cells. By necessity or convenience, almost everything we know about biochemistry

Heller, Eric


Materials Analysis: A Key to Unlocking the Mystery of the Columbia Tragedy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials analyses of key forensic evidence helped unlock the mystery of the loss of space shuttle Columbia that disintegrated February 1, 2003 while returning from a 16-day research mission. Following an intensive four-month recovery effort by federal, state, and local emergency management and law officials, Columbia debris was collected, catalogued, and reassembled at the Kennedy Space Center. Engineers and scientists from the Materials and Processes (M&P) team formed by NASA supported Columbia reconstruction efforts, provided factual data through analysis, and conducted experiments to validate the root cause of the accident. Fracture surfaces and thermal effects of selected airframe debris were assessed, and process flows for both nondestructive and destructive sampling and evaluation of debris were developed. The team also assessed left hand (LH) airframe components that were believed to be associated with a structural breach of Columbia. Analytical data collected by the M&P team showed that a significant thermal event occurred at the left wing leading edge in the proximity of LH reinforced carbon carbon (RCC) panels 8 and 9. The analysis also showed exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,649 C, which would severely degrade the support structure, tiles, and RCC panel materials. The integrated failure analysis of wing leading edge debris and deposits strongly supported the hypothesis that a breach occurred at LH RCC panel 8.

Mayeaux, Brian M.; Collins, Thomas E.; Piascik, Robert S.; Russel, Richard W.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Shah, Sandeep R.; McDanels, Steven J.



Solving with Seesaws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a simple seesaw to visualize solving a two- or three-step mathematics equation, while solving a basic structural engineering weight balance problem in the process. They solve two-step equations on a worksheet and attempt to solve the challenge of "balancing a beam" through hands-on problems. The use of sensor equipment for correct position monitoring aids students in balancing the structure, as well as balancing the equation as they solve it on paper.

AMPS GK-12 Program,


Cold Spring Harbor scientists determine mechanism of one of the most powerful tumor-suppressor proteins, Chd5

A team of cancer researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) has solved the mystery of how one of the most powerful of the body’s natural tumor-suppressing proteins, called Chd5, exerts its beneficial effects. The findings, published online in the journal Cell Reports, are important because Chd5 engages processes fundamental to cancer prevention. Conversely, when Chd5 is mutated or missing, an important door is opened to cancer initiation.


Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

Schooler, Dean, Jr.


Cassini Scientist for a Day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Mission's "Scientist for a Day" program allows students the opportunity to be in scientists' shoes, evaluate various options and learn how to make decisions based on scientific value. Students are given three or more possible imaging targets. They research these targets and decide which one will bring the best scientific results. They then defend their choice in a 500-word essay. The essay with the best scientific argument for a chosen target wins the contest. Cassini will take the images on Nov. 30, 2007. A few days later, winners (and as many other students as possible) are invited to discuss the results with Cassini scientists via videoconferences. Entries are judged by a committee composed of Cassini scientists, Cassini mission planners, Cassini Outreach and JPL Education Specialists. The contest has been held on a smaller scale three times. This edition is open to all U.S. schools. Students will be divided in two groups, grades 5 to 8 and grades 9 to 12. The contest will also be held in England, and possibly in other countries.

Evans, Michael W.; Murray, C. D.; Piazza, E.; McConnell, S.



Deborah K. Smith Senior Scientist  

E-print Network

Deborah K. Smith Senior Scientist Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Publications: Jordan, T. H., H. W. Menard, and D.K. Smith, Density and size distribution of seamounts in the eastern Pacific inferred from wide-beam sounding data, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10508-10518, 1983. Kim, I. I., D. K. Smith, H

Smith, Deborah K.


The Gonzo Scientist. Flunking Spore.  


The blockbuster video game Spore is being marketed as a science-based adventure that brings evolution, cell biology, and even astrophysics to the masses. But after grading the game's science with a team of researchers, the Gonzo Scientist has some bad news. PMID:18948523

Bohannon, John



Scientists at Work. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes activities related to the development, field testing, evaluation, and marketing of the "Scientists at Work" program which combines computer assisted instruction with database tools to aid cognitively impaired middle and early high school children in learning and applying thinking skills to science. The brief report reviews…

Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., Falls Church, VA.


Scientist Using Terrestrial Lidar Equipment  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Chris Soulard using the Terrestrial Lidar to scan study area in the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, AZ.  Note the bag of ice on the equipment.  High temperates can cause equipment to overheat, requiring scientists to be creative in protecting equipment....


SCOPE-Zhongyu Young Scientist  

E-print Network

such as UNEP and UNESCO to develop the next generation of environmental assessments. This international forumSCOPE-Zhongyu Young Scientist Environmental Awards 2011 The SCOPE-Zhongyu Environmental Awards were to the improvement of the world environment through promotion of environmental sciences, technological advances

Wang, Wei Hua


NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of observations is needed to help us understand the complex relationship that exists among the various components," Blair said. The explosion of a star is a catastrophic event. The blast rips the star apart and unleashes a roughly spherical shock wave that expands outward at more than 22 million mph like an interstellar tsunami. The shock wave spreads out into surrounding space, sweeping up any tenuous interstellar gas and dust into an expanding shell. The stellar ejecta from the explosion initially trail behind the shock wave. It eventually catches up with the inner edge of the shell and is heated to X-ray temperatures. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Hubble Optical Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps that form behind the shock wave. Sankrit and Blair compared their HST observations with those taken with ground-based telescopes to obtain a more accurate distance to the supernova remnant of about 13,000 light-years. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Spitzer Infrared Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. SST is sensitive enough to detect both the densest regions seen by HST and the entire expanding shock wave, a spherical cloud of material. Instruments on SST also reveal information about the chemical composition and physical environment of the expanding clouds of gas and dust ejected into space. This dust is similar to dust which was part of the cloud of dust and gas that formed the sun and planets in our solar system. Interview with Dr. William Blair Interview with Dr. William Blair The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas. The hottest gas, higher-energy X-rays, is located primarily in the regions directly behind the shock front. These regions also show up



Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle



Mathematics Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a studentâs mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

Taplin, Margaret



Solving quadratic Introduction  

E-print Network

Solving quadratic equations 3.2 Introduction A quadratic equation is one which can be written. In this section we describe several ways in which quadratic equations can be solved. ' & $ % Prerequisites Before completing this Section you should be able to . . . recognise a quadratic equation solve a quadratic

Vickers, James


Where and why g matters: Not a mystery  

E-print Network

g is a highly general capability for processing complex information of any type. This explains its great value in predicting job performance. Complexity is the ma-jor distinction among jobs, which explains why g is more important further up the occupational hierarchy. The predictive validities of g are moderated by the criteria and other predictors considered in selection research, but the resulting gradients of g’s effects are systematic. The pattern provides personnel psychologists a road map for how to design better selection batteries. Despite much literature on the meaning and impact of g, there nonetheless remains an aura of mystery about where and why g cognitive tests might be useful in selection. The aura of mystery encourages false beliefs and false hopes about how we might reduce disparate impact in em-ployee selection. It is also used to justify new testing techniques whose major effect, witting or not, is to reduce the validity of selection in the service of racial goals. The general mental ability factor—g—is the best single predictor of job perfor-mance. It is probably the best measured and most studied human trait in all of psy-chology. Much is known about its meaning, distribution, and origins thanks to re-search across a wide variety of disciplines (Jensen, 1998). Many questions about g remain unanswered, including its exact nature, but g is hardly the mystery that some people suggest. The totality—the pattern—of evidence on g tells us a lot about where and why it is important in the real world. Theoretical obtuseness about g is too often used to justify so–called technical advances in personnel selection that minimize, for sociopolitical purposes, the use of g in hiring.

Linda S. Gottfredson; Requests Linda; S. Gottfredson; School Of Education




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Hawaii, this educational Website covers topics in and beyond the fields of geology and geophysics. At the site, users may send (electronic) questions to 'real live scientists' regarding: Volcanoes and Igneous Rocks; Geochemistry, the Environment, and Pollution; Geophysics and General Geology; Earthquakes and Seismology; Hydrology and Water Quality; Natural Hazards; Minerals, Gems, Ores and Crystals; and Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Answers are thoughtful and content-rich, although many are specific to the Hawaiian Islands (as expected). To submit a question, users must select from a related topic area and then complete the online submission form. First-time users should begin by browsing previous questions and FAQs, however. This is a wonderful resource for students wishing to interact with established scientists, or for educators seeking clear and interesting explanations of natural phenomena.


Scientists Sift Through Urban Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City soil gets tramped on, dumped on, and pushed around, but some soil scientists are carefully examining what is underfoot in urban areas. During a 3 May session on urban soils at the European Geosciences Union's General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, scientists discussed various aspects of city dirt. In a presentation about the large amount of rubble from buildings that were bombed during World War II, Beate Mekiffer with the Soil Protection Group at the Berlin Institute of Technology, Germany, noted that the sulfate concentration in Berlin's upper aquifer has increased continuously for decades. Many areas in Berlin now exceed a 240-milligram-per-liter “precaution value” for sulfate in drinking water, according to Mekiffer.

Showstack, Randy



The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

Oreskes, N.



Science Explorations: Writing With Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Writing with Scientists is a workshop that provides in-depth information about crafting a science report. In this workshop students are guided through a six step process for writing a scientific report. Excerpts from student reports are used as examples. Students are encouraged to have researched a topic prior to the workshop so that they are working on a specific report.


Climate Kids: Renewable Energy Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this career-oriented interview, readers are introduced to a scientist who works primarily on wind energy. He explains the importance of wind farm placement planning. Images of architectural wind and a wind farm are included, along with a link to the Power Up game. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.


The Mysteries of Aging: Is Diet a Contributing Factor?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Of all the claims for nutrition as an influence on aging, only DR in laboratory rodents has been shown to globally slow senescence. Whether DR retards senescence in other classes of mammals (including humans) is not known; the high cost in resources to execute such studies in long-lived animals has up to now precluded definitive answers. However, even if it turns out that DR does not slow senescence in humans, research of this phenomenon in rodents is likely to yield information of value for the development of interventions that will lessen the deterioration which commonly occurs with advancing age in humans. Aging is still a mystery, but its dynamics are unfolding.

Edward J. Masoro (Univeristy of Texas Health Science Center REV)



USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek - Photo taken by Heidi Koontz, USGS Communications, Friday, Sept. 13. USGS scientist Ben Glass conducting current profiler measurements along Bear Creek near Bear Creek Lake in Morrison, Colo....


Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1998-2002  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineers: 1998?2002 Hypertext Format Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1998?2002 Portable Document ... Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1998?2002 This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and ...


Even More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the odds of a meteor hitting your house? What are "warm" clothes anyway? Do you get "more" sunlight from Daylight Saving Time? Everyone loves a good mystery and these unfold in the 15 stories presented in Even More Everyday Science Mysteries

Konicek-Moran, Richard



Even More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the odds of a meteor hitting your house? What are "warm" clothes anyway? Do you get "more" sunlight from Daylight Saving Time? Everyone loves a good mystery and these unfold in the 15 stories presented in Even More Everyday Science Mysteries, the

Konicek-Moran, Richard



Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

Thiet, Rachel K.



Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

Conklin, Tom, Ed.


Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James



Enabling Systems Biology: A Scientific Problem-Solving Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biologists today are striving to solve multidisciplinary, complex systems biology questions. To successfully address these\\u000a questions, software tools must be created to allow scientists to capture data and information, to share this information,\\u000a and to analyze the data as elements of a complete system. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are creating the Computational\\u000a Cell Environment, a biology-centered collaborative problem-solving

Mudita Singhal; Eric G. Stephan; Kyle R. Klicker; Lynn L. Trease; George Chin Jr.; Deborah K. Gracio; Deborah A. Payne



Developing the Talents of Teacher/Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Going on an expedition enables teachers to become better scientists and researchers and, thus, better classroom instructors. Teachers have the opportunities to go on exotic field trips around the world as amateur research assistants, do hands on research in their own backyards, or vicariously experience another scientist?s work via the Internet. A…

Robinson, George



The Scientist in Society: Perspectives from Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is whether scientists should take responsibility for the social consequences of their discoveries. Reviewed is the role to which the "modern" playwright assigns scientists in modern society and what might realistically be a role that scientists and scientific societies should play in the modern world. (KR)

Brouwer, Wytze




E-print Network

SURGICAL SCIENTIST PROGRAM Department of Surgery McGill University The purpose of the Surgical Scientist Program of the Department of Surgery is to develop surgical scientists who will be the future leaders in academic surgery both at McGill and in other university Departments of Surgery. Application

Barthelat, Francois


Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he takes a…

Brodie, Carolyn S.



Helping Young People Engage with Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy



3/9/12 Astrophile: The rock that sprayed 'fairy dust' on moon -space -09 March 2012 -New Scientist 1/  

E-print Network

3/9/12 Astrophile: The rock that sprayed 'fairy dust' on moon - space - 09 March 2012 - New Scientist 1/ Magnetic mysteries of the moon (Image: Science/AAAS) A ophile is our weekl column on curious cosmic objects

Weiss, Benjamin P.


ALMA European Project Scientist Appointed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ALMA European Project Scientist is Dr. Leonardo Testi. He took up the appointment in May 2007. Leonardo Testi received his Ph.D. from the University of Florence in 1997. Subsequently he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory of Caltech. In 1998 he joined staff of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, and later on of INAF, for which he also served on the Science Council. Leonardo has been chair of the European ALMA Science Advisory committee and a member of the ALMA Science Advisory committee, so he well knows the details of the project as well as the science that can be carried out with ALMA.

Wilson, T.



Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

Abate, T.



Successful collaborations between scientists and schools  

SciTech Connect

There are many ways for scientists to support science education in the schools; each method reflects the motivation and goals of the provider. In order to be most effective it is essential to find out the needs of the teacher and the best way to support his/her work in the classroom. Four models of interaction between scientists and teachers are described including: Summer teacher professional development programs; Adopt-a-Scientist; Industry initiated visits by industrial scientists; and, Bringing students into scientists` laboratories. It is crucial not to forget that science and engineering involve doing something. The projects must be ones the students can do and find exciting.

Ostwald, T.



Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to…

Grimnes, Karin A.



Techniques of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

Krantz, Steven G.


Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.



K2P potassium channels, mysterious and paradoxically exciting.  


New evidence reveals that the common electrolyte disorder hypokalemia can induce K2P1 channels that are normally selective for K+ to break the rules and conduct Na+. This defiant behavior leads to paradoxical depolarization of many cells in the heart, increasing the risk for lethal arrhythmia. The new research resolves a mystery uncovered 50 years ago and bestows an array of new riddles. Here, I discuss how K2P1 might achieve this alchemy--through stable residence of the K+ selectivity filter in a Na+-conductive state between its open and C-inactive configurations--and predict that other K+ channels and environmental stimuli will be discovered to produce the same excitatory misconduct. PMID:21868351

Goldstein, Steve A N



Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers  

SciTech Connect

The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J. E. [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States)] [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)] [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)



K2P Potassium Channels, Mysterious and Paradoxically Exciting  

PubMed Central

New evidence reveals that the common electrolyte disorder hypokalemia can induce K2P1 channels that are normally selective for K+ to break the rules and conduct Na+. This defiant behavior leads to paradoxical depolarization of many cells in the heart, increasing the risk for lethal arrhythmia. The new research resolves a mystery uncovered 50 years ago and bestows an array of new riddles. Here, I discuss how K2P1 might achieve this alchemy—through stable residence of the K+ selectivity filter in a Na+-conductive state between its open and C-inactive configurations—and predict that other K+ channels and environmental stimuli will be discovered to produce the same excitatory misconduct. PMID:21868351

Goldstein, Steve A. N.



Murder with Southern Hospitality: An Exhibition of Mississippi Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those people who still think of Mississippi as solely being the land of such authors as Faulkner and his ilk, this fine online exhibit offered by the University of Mississippi Libraries may expand their knowledge of Southern writers. The exhibit prominently features the book covers of mystery novels written by a host of Mississippians, including such authors as Newton Gayle, Nevada Barr, and Colonel William C. Falkner. Here they may peruse the cover art of such novels as "The White Rose of Memphis" and Elmore Leonard's "Tishomingo Blues". For those who wish to locate authors by their location, an interactive map of Mississippi makes this process rather simple. The site is rounded out by a complete bibliography, which includes links to each work's cover art.


Uncovering the Mystery of Gliding Motility in the Myxobacteria  

PubMed Central

Bacterial gliding motility is the smooth movement of cells on solid surfaces unaided by flagella or pili. Many diverse groups of bacteria exhibit gliding, but the mechanism of gliding motility has remained a mystery since it was first observed more than a century ago. Recent studies on the motility of Myxococcus xanthus, a soil myxobacterium, suggest a likely mechanism for gliding in this organism. About forty M. xanthus genes were shown to be involved in gliding motility, and some of their protein products were labeled and localized within cells. These studies suggest that gliding motility in M. xanthus involves large multiprotein structural complexes, regulatory proteins, and cytoskeletal filaments. In this review, we summarize recent experiments that provide the basis for this emerging view of M. xanthus motility. We also discuss alternative models for gliding. PMID:21910630

Nan, Beiyan; Zusman, David R.



Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: an unresolved mystery  

PubMed Central

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a cutaneous sequela of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), develops in some patients alongside but more commonly after apparent cure from VL. In view of the pivotal role of PKDL patients in the transmission of VL, here we review clinical, epidemiological, parasitological, and immunological perspectives of this disease, focusing on five hypotheses to explain the development of PKDL: (i) the role of antimonial drugs; (ii) UV-induced skin damage; (iii) reinfection; (iv) organ specific failure of memory T cell responses; and (v) genetic susceptibility of the host. This review will enable researchers and clinicians to explore the unresolved mystery of PKDL and provide a framework for future application of ‘omic’ approaches for the control and eventual elimination of VL. PMID:24388776

Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Dalton, Jane E.; Kaye, Paul M.; Chatterjee, Mitali



Pain Mystery Score Beliefs: A Comparison of Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To compare the mysteriousness scores of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory in fibromyalgia. Methods. Two cohorts of patients, one with fibromyalgia (FM) and one with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), completed the Mystery Scale component of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory to determine whether subjects in the two diagnostic groups had significantly different scores on the Mystery Scale. Results. A total of 126 subjects (64 FM, 62 RA) completed all questionnaires. The FM group had a greater percentage of female subjects, more severe pain, more severe anxiety, more severe depression, and a higher perceived injustice score. When the RA and FM group scores for the Mystery Scale were adjusted for age, sex, pain severity, HADS scores, and perceived injustice scores, the FM group still had a higher Mystery Scale score. Discussion. Fibromyalgia is associated with a higher level of perception of mysteriousness in the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory than is seen with rheumatoid arthritis. This difference appears to be independent of levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and perceived injustice. This sense of mysteriousness may reflect a lack of understanding of pain in fibromyalgia as previously reported and may be an area to be addressed in therapy. PMID:25548570

Russell, Anthony Science



Scientists Turn Healthy Cells Cancerous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biologists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research recently announced in the journal Nature that they have been able to genetically alter a healthy human cell to create a cancerous one. The discovery is being hailed as an important step forward towards the development of anti-cancer drugs. Previously, scientists have been able to turn normal cells cancerous by using chemicals and e-rays, but this is the first time it has been accomplished through genetic manipulation. This holds promise for a relatively new approach to treating cancer, one that attempts to remove the underlying genetic flaws that cause cancer instead of attacking both healthy and cancerous cells with present-day chemotherapy treatments. The sites listed provide information about this important new development in cancer research.

de Nie, Michael Willem.


Scientists measure Arctic Ozone Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible ozone hole has opened in the Arctic stratosphere, according to research published in the November 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. Scientists report that ozone values in the northern polar region set record low levels during the spring of 1997. They speculate that the record ozone depletion may have been caused by a fundamental shift in polar climatology and an unusual springtime cooling trend of the lower Arctic stratosphere.Long-term records of total ozone from both the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument and from groundbased observations show a continuing decrease over the last several years, according to the papers. Chlorine gases, particularly the radical CIO, have been conclusively identified as the cause of the ozone depletion.

Showstack, Randy


Professional Societies of Minority Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This session will highlight professional organizations that serve minorities in physics, astronomy, and space science, such as the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), the National Society of Hispanic Physicists (NSHP), and the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS). These organizations represent and serve minority colleagues and students at both majority and minority-serving institutions. A panel of representatives from these organizations---as well as AAS members who are presently working with them---will discuss these groups' activities and will offer suggestions for how AAS members can better connect with their constituencies. The panel will also include representatives from APS and NASA who will discuss programmatic efforts being developed in partnership with these groups to better engage minority scientists in the research enterprise. Specific funding opportunities will also be presented, including support for minority outreach, undergraduate scholarships, and research grants.

Stassun, K. G.



Universities Earth System Scientists Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

Estes, John E.



Doctoral training of African scientists.  


There are two principal rationales for doctoral training of African scientists in health: 1) these scientists are essential for the nations of sub-Saharan Africa to define and implement their own health priorities, and 2) the research they perform is essential for development. However, this training is difficult because of its expense (> $20,000 per year), because many developed country mentors are unaware of the realities of research in sub-Saharan Africa, and because major differences in salary provide a financial disincentive to return. We describe a training strategy that reduces attrition because it is linked to the investigators' responsibilities before and after training, and to home country priorities. This strategy requires a close relationship between the developing country (on-site) and developed country (off-site) mentors, with joint participation in the selection and funding process, followed by course work and short-term, independent projects off-site that lead to a thesis project in the developing country, and subsequently to a defined professional position in the developing country after completion of the doctoral degree. For this strategy to succeed, the developed country mentor must have both field experience and investigative expertise; the developing country mentor must have an understanding of modern biology, as well as clinical and epidemiologic experience. In addition, we would like to emphasize that the long-term retention of these talented, highly-trained individuals requires a similar long-term commitment by their developed country mentors, well beyond the short term of most research funding. PMID:9502592

Doumbo, O K; Krogstad, D J



Scientists Toast the Discovery of Vinyl Alcohol in Interstellar Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, have discovered the complex organic molecule vinyl alcohol in an interstellar cloud of dust and gas near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The discovery of this long-sought compound could reveal tantalizing clues to the mysterious origin of complex organic molecules in space. Vinyl Alcohol and its fellow isomers "The discovery of vinyl alcohol is significant," said Barry Turner, a scientist at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Va., "because it gives us an important tool for understanding the formation of complex organic compounds in interstellar space. It may also help us better understand how life might arise elsewhere in the Cosmos." Vinyl alcohol is an important intermediary in many organic chemistry reactions on Earth, and the last of the three stable members of the C2H4O group of isomers (molecules with the same atoms, but in different arrangements) to be discovered in interstellar space. Turner and his colleague A. J. Apponi of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory in Tucson detected the vinyl alcohol in Sagittarius B -- a massive molecular cloud located some 26,000 light-years from Earth near the center of our Galaxy. The astronomers were able to detect the specific radio signature of vinyl alcohol during the observational period of May and June of 2001. Their results have been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Of the approximately 125 molecules detected in interstellar space, scientists believe that most are formed by gas-phase chemistry, in which smaller molecules (and occasionally atoms) manage to "lock horns" when they collide in space. This process, though efficient at creating simple molecules, cannot explain how vinyl alcohol and other complex chemicals are formed in detectable amounts. For many years now, scientists have been searching for the right mechanism to explain how the building blocks for vinyl alcohol and other chemicals are able to form the necessary chemical bonds to make larger molecules - those containing as many as six or more atoms. "It has been an ongoing quest to understand exactly how these more complex molecules form and become distributed throughout the interstellar medium," said Turner. Since the 1970s, scientists have speculated that molecules could form on the microscopic dust grains in interstellar clouds. These dust grains are thought to trap the fast-moving molecules. The surface of these grains would then act as a catalyst, similar to a car's catalytic converter, and enable the chemical reactions that form vinyl alcohol and the other complex molecules. The problem with this theory, however, is that the newly formed molecules would remain trapped on the dust grains at the low temperature characteristic of most of interstellar space, and the energy necessary to "knock them off" would also be strong enough to break the chemical bonds that formed them. "This last process has not been well understood," explained Turner. "The current theory explains well how molecules like vinyl alcohol could form, but it doesn't address how these new molecules are liberated from the grains where they are born." To better understand how this might be accomplished, the scientists considered the volatile and highly energetic region of space where these molecules were detected. Turner and others speculate that since this cloud lies near an area of young, energetic star formation, the energy from these stars could evaporate the icy surface layers of the grains. This would liberate the molecules from their chilly nurseries, depositing them into interstellar space where they can be detected by sensitive radio antennas on Earth. Astronomers are able to detect the faint radio signals that these molecules emit as they jump between quantum energy states in the act of rotating or vibrating. Turner cautions, however, that even though this discovery has shed new light on how certain h



The talent process of successful academic women scientists at elite research universities in New York state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of science in our society continues to increase, as the needs of the global culture and the problems of the world's growing populations affect resources internationally (DeLisi, 2008; Fischman, 2007; Park, 2008). The need for qualified and experienced scientists to solve complex problems is important to the future of the United States. Models of success for women in

Lisa M. Kaenzig



Modelling biological complexity: a physical scientist's perspective  

PubMed Central

We discuss the modern approaches of complexity and self-organization to understanding dynamical systems and how these concepts can inform current interest in systems biology. From the perspective of a physical scientist, it is especially interesting to examine how the differing weights given to philosophies of science in the physical and biological sciences impact the application of the study of complexity. We briefly describe how the dynamics of the heart and circadian rhythms, canonical examples of systems biology, are modelled by sets of nonlinear coupled differential equations, which have to be solved numerically. A major difficulty with this approach is that all the parameters within these equations are not usually known. Coupled models that include biomolecular detail could help solve this problem. Coupling models across large ranges of length- and time-scales is central to describing complex systems and therefore to biology. Such coupling may be performed in at least two different ways, which we refer to as hierarchical and hybrid multiscale modelling. While limited progress has been made in the former case, the latter is only beginning to be addressed systematically. These modelling methods are expected to bring numerous benefits to biology, for example, the properties of a system could be studied over a wider range of length- and time-scales, a key aim of systems biology. Multiscale models couple behaviour at the molecular biological level to that at the cellular level, thereby providing a route for calculating many unknown parameters as well as investigating the effects at, for example, the cellular level, of small changes at the biomolecular level, such as a genetic mutation or the presence of a drug. The modelling and simulation of biomolecular systems is itself very computationally intensive; we describe a recently developed hybrid continuum-molecular model, HybridMD, and its associated molecular insertion algorithm, which point the way towards the integration of molecular and more coarse-grained representations of matter. The scope of such integrative approaches to complex systems research is circumscribed by the computational resources available. Computational grids should provide a step jump in the scale of these resources; we describe the tools that RealityGrid, a major UK e-Science project, has developed together with our experience of deploying complex models on nascent grids. We also discuss the prospects for mathematical approaches to reducing the dimensionality of complex networks in the search for universal systems-level properties, illustrating our approach with a description of the origin of life according to the RNA world view. PMID:16849185

Coveney, Peter V; Fowler, Philip W



Leadership Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Contract Administrator Credit Manager Customer Service Manager Distribution Manager Entrepreneur Facilities Leadership Problem Solving Organizational Behavior Project Management Teambuilding Multi POSSIBLE EMPLOYERS Advertising Account Executive Benefits Administrator Manager/Loan Officer Consultant

Jiang, Huiqiang



NSDL National Science Digital Library

NetSolve is a project that aims to bring together disparate computational resources connected by computer networks. It is a RPC based client/agent/server system that allows one to remotely access both hardware and software components.


The Secret Life of Scientists & Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.


Problem Solving - Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...




Problem Solving Seminar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course includes elements from an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. The material will help students develop their mathematical and problem solving skills. A few topics that are covered include probability, generating mathematical functions and polynomials. Course materials include student assignments and solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Kedlaya, Kiran Sridhara, 1974-; Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-; Stanley, Richard



Solving Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage includes six examples of solving linear equations using balancing. Students learn to "keep the equation balanced by making the same changes to both sides of the equal sign." Six examples of this mathematical process are included, each one being slightly more challenging than the last. Equations include more than one operation, variables, multiple terms on the same side, parentheses and fractions. The process for solving each is explained step by step.

Murray, Michael



The interface between the phonetic scientist and forensic investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many scientists find the interface with criminal/civil investigations and the resulting litigation quite challenging. The great variety found among such cases and their (sometimes) shockingly grim aspects, can be most daunting. Moreover, the aid these scientists can expect when attempting to learn their responsibilities (while good) tends to focus only on the roles they will play in the courts. The reality is that they also must serve in a second domain that of investigator/consultant to law enforcement personnel and attorneys. Since training, structure and guidelines are lacking in this area, the relevant problems must be addressed (and solved) directly by the scientist. To do so, he/she must (1) learn about the parallels between laboratory investigations and forensic investigations and organize links, (2) compensate for the differences between them, (3) organize scientific personnel for collaborations in support of the needs of the practitioners, (4) adapt laboratory procedures for forensic application, (5) establish criteria for these applications and (6) develop and articulate what can and cannot be expected of these procedures. Brief case reviews will be presented to illustrate each of these issues.

Hollien, Harry



Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists  

PubMed Central

The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists. PMID:23803301

Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D.; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L.; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K.



How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries  

SciTech Connect

Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

Baden, Michael (MD, New York Police) [MD, New York Police



Computer as Thinker\\/Doer: Problem-Solving Environments for Computational Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early 1960s, scientists began to envision problem-solving computing environments not only powerful enough to solve complex problems but also able to interact with users on human terms. While many tried to create PSEs over the next few years, by the early 1970s they had abandoned almost all of these attempts. Technology could not yet support PSEs in computational

E. Gallopoulos; E. Houstis; J. r. Rice



Jets Spout Far Closer to Black Hole Than Thought, Scientists Say  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, taking advantage of multiple unique views of black hole particle jets over the course of a year with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, have assembled a "picture" of the region that has revealed several key discoveries. They have found that the jets may be originating five times closer to the black hole than previously thought; they see in better detail how these jets change with time and distance from the black hole; and they could use this information as a new technique to measure black hole mass. Presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, the observation will ultimately help solve the mystery of the great cosmic contradiction, in which black holes, notorious for pulling matter in, somehow manage to also shoot matter away in particle jets moving close to the speed of light. The observation is of a familiar source named SS 433 -- a binary star system within our Galaxy in the constellation Aquila, the Eagle, about 16,000 light years away. The black hole and its companion are about two-thirds closer to each other than the planet Mercury is to the Sun. The jets shoot off at 175 million miles per hour, 26 percent of light speed. "The high-speed jets in nearby SS 433 may be caused by the same mechanisms as the powerful outflows in the most distant and much more massive black holes, such as quasars," said Laura Lopez, an undergraduate student at MIT and lead author on a paper about the result. "SS 433 provides a nice local laboratory to study the formation of and conditions in relativistic jets." Dr. Herman Marshall, Ms. Lopez's research supervisor, led the investigation. Matter from the companion star pours into the black hole via a swirling accretion disk, much like water down a drain. Black hole particles jets are thought to be produced as some of the matter encounters strong magnetic fields close to the black hole. SS 433 is angled in such a way that one jet is shooting away from us while the other is aimed slightly towards us. The black hole's companion star enters the picture here as it periodically eclipses parts of the jets. Scientists use the eclipse, called an occultation, as a tool to block one part of the jet so that they can study other parts more easily. Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, the MIT group measured many characteristics of the jets, forming the best view of a jet's structure ever obtained. No image was created, as in other Chandra observations. Rather, the scientists pieced together the scene through spectroscopy, the fingerprint of chemical elements that reveals temperature and velocity of matter in the jets. They determined the length of the X-ray-emitting portion of the jet (over one million miles, about five times the distance from the Earth to the Moon); the temperature range (dropping from about 100 million degrees Celsius to 10 million degrees farther out); the chemical abundances (iron, silicon, and more); and the jet opening angle. In a previous observation they measured the jet's density. With this information, the team could determine that the jet base was five times closer to the black hole than previously observed, with a base diameter of about 1,280 miles. Also, from a bit of geometry along with information on the size of the binary system from optical observations by a team led by Douglas Gies of Georgia State University, the MIT group determined that the size of the companion star that blocked the view of the receding jet is about nine times the size of the Sun. From that, they estimated that the black hole is 16 solar masses. (For many years scientists have speculated whether SS 433 contains a black hole or a neutron star. Today's announcement of a 16-solar-mass object confirms that it is indeed a black hole, too massive to be a neutron star.) "The uniqueness of SS 433 cannot be overstated," said Marshall. "SS 433 provides an excellent opportunity to study the origin, evolution, and long-term beha



Enigma of Runaway Stars Solved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova Propels Companion Star through Interstellar Space The following success story is a classical illustration of scientific progress through concerted interplay of observation and theory. It concerns a 35-year old mystery which has now been solved by means of exciting observations of a strange double star. An added touch is the successive involvement of astronomers connected to the European Southern Observatory. For many years, astronomers have been puzzled by the fact that, among the thousands of very young, hot and heavy stars which have been observed in the Milky Way, there are some that move with exceptionally high velocities. In some cases, motions well above 100 km/sec, or ten times more than normal for such stars, have been measured. How is this possible? Which mechanism is responsible for the large amounts of energy needed to move such heavy bodies at such high speeds? Could it be that these stars are accelerated during the powerful explosion of a companion star as a supernova? Such a scenario was proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw [1], but until now, observational proof has been lacking. Now, however, strong supporting evidence for this mechanism has become available from observations obtained at the ESO La Silla observatory. The mysterious runaway stars OB-runaway stars [2] are heavy stars that travel through interstellar space with an anomalously high velocity. They have been known for several decades, but it has always been a problem to explain their high velocities. Although most OB-runaway stars are located at distances of several thousands of lightyears, their high velocity results in a measurable change in position on sky photos taken several years apart. The velocity component in the direction of the Earth can be measured very accurately from a spectrogram. From a combination of such observations, it is possible to measure the space velocity of OB-runaways. Bow shocks reveal runaway stars It has also been found that some OB-runaways display bow shocks of compressed matter, which look very much like the bow wave around a boat crossing the ocean. They are of the same physical nature as a bow shock created by a jet-fighter in the air. The explanation is similar: when an OB-runaway star plows through the interstellar medium (a very thin mixture of gas and dust particles) with supersonic velocity [3], interstellar matter is swept up in a bow shock. Stars of low velocity do not create bow shocks. Thus, the detection of a bow shock around a particular OB star indicates that it must have a supersonic velocity, thereby securely identifying it as a runaway star, even if its velocity has not been measured directly. Runaway stars come from stellar groups When a star's direction of motion in space is known, it is possible to reconstruct its previous path and, even more interestingly, to find the place where the star originally came from. It turns out that the paths of many OB-runaways can be traced back to socalled OB-associations , that is groups of 10 to 100 OB-type stars which are located in the spiral arms of our galaxy. About fifty OB-associations are known in the Milky Way. In fact, the majority of all known OB stars are members of an OB-association. Therefore, it is not very surprising that OB-runaway stars should also originate from OB-associations. This is also how they got their name: at some moment, they apparently left the association in which they were formed. The ejection mechanism But why were the OB-runaway stars kicked out of the OB-association and how did they achieve such high speeds? One possibility is that some OB stars in an OB-association are ejected due to strong gravitational effects at the time of close encounters between the members of the group. Complicated computer simulations show that this is in principle possible. Nevertheless, since many years, most astronomers think that a more likely scenario is that of violent supernova explosions, first proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw. Stellar evolution theory predicts that all OB stars will end their life in a supernova explosion. The he



The soul of the scientist  

SciTech Connect

The author addresses the essense of scientific personnel as the animating and vital principle in people credited with the facilities of thought, action and emotion. Science pervades our lives and civilization. The author provides a view of the nature of science as a way of thinking and of solving problems. Science is presented as a highly organized, integrated, dynamic structure with diverse branches and widely disparate components that often combine for producing remarkable and unexpected benefits. Medical science is used to illustrate the humane goals of science. Modern medical issues and the Nation`s concern for reform in our health management systems are used to show the need for priorities and furthering the scientific education of the nation. 3 refs.

DeBakey, M.E. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)



Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

Pollio, David E.



Fibonacci series goes microscopic New Scientist  

E-print Network

Fibonacci series goes microscopic New Scientist 13 August 2005 THE intricate spiral patterns seen of spirals in each pair of spiral sets were always adjacent members of the Fibonacci series, in which each of a Fibonacci pattern," he says. From issue 2512 of New Scientist magazine, 13 August 2005, page 19 #12;

Zexian, Cao


Robotics and Vision Scientist Evolution Robotics  

E-print Network

Robotics and Vision Scientist Evolution Robotics 1055 E. Colorado Bl., #410 Pasadena, California 91106 (626) 993-3300 09 May 2011 Evolution Robotics Employment Opportunity Profile · Title: Robotics and Vision Scientist · Reports to: VP of Research and Development The Company: Evolution Robotics, Inc

Plotkin, Joshua B.


Transformation of Scientists and Engineers Into Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical factors in the phenomenon of scientist's and engineer's transition from working as specialists to working as supervisors or managers were studied among 489 employees of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Institutes of Health to discover ways of avoiding or overcoming transition problems. Bench scientists

Bayton, James A.; Chapman, Richard L.


Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

Seltzer, Richard J.



Thomas Paine: American Founder and Political Scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Thomas Paine was a Founder of America and one of our first political scientists. Acrimony after 1791 reversed the esteem of the 1770's and 1780's. Paine had gained wide political experience in England and gave to the founding many practical ideas and deep loyalty. He was also one of our first political scientists and did econometric, sociometric and political analysis.

Michael M. Kiley



Thomas Paine: American Founder and Political Scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thomas Paine was a Founder of America and one of our first political scientists. Acrimony after 1791 reversed the esteem of the 1770's and 1780's. Paine had gained wide political experience in England and gave to the founding many practical ideas and deep loyalty. He was also one of our first political scientists and did econometric, sociometric and political analysis.

Michael M. Kiley



Educators' Views of Collaboration with Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated educators' views of collaboration with scientists, a baseline for COSEE Great Lakes efforts in facilitating dynamic collaborative relationships between Great Lakes researchers and educators. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how are educators in the Great Lakes region involved in collaboration with scientists,…

Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne



Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)

Condon, Marty



Young Children's Conceptions of Science and Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores young children's images of science and scientists, their sources for scientific knowledge, and the nature of their science-related experiences. A cross-sectional design was used to study how students' ideas differ over the first three years of elementary school. A modified version of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and a…

Lee, Tiffany R.



Hot Evolved Companions to Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars: Solving the Mystery of KOI-81  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Kepler Science Team recently announced the discovery of twotransiting binaries that have "planets" hotter than their host stars.These systems probably represent the first known examples of white dwarfsformed through mass loss and transfer among intermediate mass, closebinary stars. Here we propose to obtain COS FUV spectroscopy of one ofthese systems, KOI-81, in order to detect the hot companion in a part of the spectrum where it is relatively bright. The spectral flux and Doppler shift measurements will yield the temperatures, masses, radii, and compositions of both components. These observations will provide our first opportunity to explore this previously hidden stage of close binary evolution.

Gies, Douglas



Solving a problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to a three-stage process for problem solving. The three stages are identify the problem, test the solutions, and evaluate the results. A student tip sheet explains each stage and enables students to work through the processes in a step-by-step manner while seeing how the information is tied together. A graphic organizer provides students with an opportunity to evaluate the problem-solving solutions they have developed. A brief outline of the problem-solving process gives students a handy summary to use while investigating problems. The downloadable activity sheets are in pdf files. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.



The Complex World of Adolescent Literacy: Myths, Motivations, and Mysteries  

PubMed Central

In this article, Elizabeth Birr Moje, Melanie Overby, Nicole Tysvaer, and Karen Morris challenge some of the prevailing myths about adolescents and their choices related to reading. The reading practices of youth from one urban community are examined using mixed methods in an effort to define what, how often, and why adolescents choose to read. By focusing on what features of texts youth find motivating, the authors find that reading and writing frequently occur in a range of literacy contexts outside school. However, only reading novels on a regular basis outside of school is shown to have a positive relationship to academic achievement as measured by school grades. This article describes how adolescents read texts that are embedded in social networks, allowing them to build social capital. Conclusions are framed in terms of the mysteries that remain — namely, how to build on what motivates adolescents' literacy practices in order to both promote the building of their social selves and improve their academic outcomes. PMID:19756223

Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Overby, Melanie; Tysvaer, Nicole; Morris, Karen



Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.  


Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

Rutkin, H Darrel



The First Release of ?Solve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the first release of ?Solve. ?Solve is software that will replace the current interactive part of the SOLVE system. We review the capabilities of the software, its current status, and our plans for future development.

Bolotin, S.; Baver, K. D.; Gipson, J. M.; Gordon, D.; MacMillan, D. S.



Solving Linear Inequalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Elizabeth Stapel at Purplemath, this module helps students understand how to solve linear inequalities with an introduction to the topic using both inequality notation and a graphic representation to express the inequality. This section also briefly covers set notation and interval notation. The next two pages of the site give elementary examples and advanced examples. The elementary examples are simple problems with solutions and an interactive widget on which students can try their knowledge. The advanced examples include real-world word problems in physics, finance, and chemistry that require students to identify and solve the linear inequality.

Elizabeth Stapel



Problem-Solving Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.



Giant Squid: One Gigantic Mystery (ScienceWorld)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 6-10, this article from Science World magazine has an interview with AMNH paleontologist Neal Landman, in which he discusses the giant squid and what scientists have been able to learn by studying only dead specimens. There are Web links that offer further opportunities for learning about the giant squid.


The Death of Baby Pierre A Genetic Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This directed case study on a genetic disorder was developed for an exam on genetics for a general biology course.  The case is based on an article by scientist and author Jared Diamond titled “Founding Fathers and Mothers” that appeared in Natural History magazine in June 1988.  In the article, Diamond illustrates the significance of the “founder effect” in small isolated populations like the one described in this case.

Clyde Freeman Herreid



Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

Embry, Lynn


Electric Current Solves Mazes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

Ayrinhac, Simon



Circumference and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…

Blackburn, Katie; White, David


Interactive insight problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In

Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau



Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.



On Solving Linear Recurrences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

Dobbs, David E.



Constraint Solving over Semirings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a general framework for con­ straint solving where classical CSPs, fuzzy CSPs, weighted CSPs, partial constraint sat­ isfaction, and others can be easily cast. The framework is based on a semiring structure, where the set of the semiring specifies the val­ ues to be associated to each tuple of values of the variable domain, and the two semiring

Stefano Bistarelli; Ugo Montanari; Francesca Rossi



Solving Energy Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

Office Of Educational Partnerships


[Problem Solving Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.


Problem Solving by Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy



Problem Solving in Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias


Mystery Plants Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This transfer activity tests student understanding of variation and inheritance. It starts with five flower boxes, as in ?The Virtual Greenhouse,? and three types of seeds with variations in their roots. The flower boxes differ in the amount of water they receive, and students discover which seeds thrive in which environment. Students are then challenged to produce a crop of plants that can grow everywhere in a field by taking advantage of the small variation in root type from one generation to the next.



Scientist volunteers: Doing science with children  

SciTech Connect

The number of scientists who are volunteering to visit school classrooms is growing. Unfortunately, scientists have a tendency to cram too much information into their presentation. The result is almost always disastrous. The best thing a scientist can do is provide students with a positive science experience that may cause them to re-evaluate their attitude toward science. One of the best ways to do this is to involve students in a novel hands-on activity that engages and maintains their interest. Guidelines for developing such activities are provided.

Kirwan, G.M.



My path to becoming a data scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice to become a data scientist wasn't one I consciously made. I began as a student assistant working on a small data analysis package, and have evolved since then (with various diversions along the way) to become NCAR's primary global climate model data manager and global climate model data scientist. I've witnessed how data management in this area of the earth sciences has changed, from notes attached to cases for magnetic tapes containing esoteric binary data, to today's standards for data formats and metadata standards. I'll talk about how I became a data scientist and the experiences I've had in my career.

Strand, G.



The Real Life of a Data Scientist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice to become a data scientist wasn't one I consciously made. I began as a student assistant working on a small data analysis package, and have evolved since then (with various diversions along the way) to become NCAR's primary global climate model data manager and global climate model data scientist. I've witnessed how data management in this area of the earth sciences has changed, from notes attached to cases for magnetic tapes containing esoteric binary data, to today's standards for data formats and metadata standards. I'll talk about how I became a data scientist and the experiences I've had in my career.

Strand, W. G.



Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers  

SciTech Connect

Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.



The Mystery of the Cosmic Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse cosmic background radiation in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV, 1300-1700 Å) is deduced to originate only partially in the dust-scattered radiation of FUV-emitting stars: the source of a substantial fraction of the FUV background radiation remains a mystery. The radiation is remarkably uniform at both far northern and far southern Galactic latitudes and increases toward lower Galactic latitudes at all Galactic longitudes. We examine speculation that this might be due to interaction of the dark matter with the nuclei of the interstellar medium, but we are unable to point to a plausible mechanism for an effective interaction. We also explore the possibility that we are seeing radiation from bright FUV-emitting stars scattering from a "second population" of interstellar grains—grains that are small compared with FUV wavelengths. Such grains are known to exist, and they scatter with very high albedo, with an isotropic scattering pattern. However, comparison with the observed distribution (deduced from their 100 ?m emission) of grains at high Galactic latitudes shows no correlation between the grains' location and the observed FUV emission. Our modeling of the FUV scattering by small grains also shows that there must be remarkably few such "smaller" grains at high Galactic latitudes, both north and south; this likely means simply that there is very little interstellar dust of any kind at the Galactic poles, in agreement with Perry and Johnston. We also review our limited knowledge of the cosmic diffuse background at ultraviolet wavelengths shortward of Ly?—it could be that our "second component" of the diffuse FUV background persists shortward of the Lyman limit and is the cause of the reionization of the universe.

Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, Jayant; Overduin, James; Tyler, Joshua



Emanations and ``induced'' radioactivity: From mystery to (mis)use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon, Rn; atomic number Z=85; is a (gaseous) chemical element of which no stable but only radioactive isotopes exist. Three of them, namely actinon (219Rn), thoron (220Rn) and radon (222Rn) are the decay products of naturally occurring radioisotopes of radium:223Ra,224Ra and226Ra, respectively. The natural Rn isotopes were discovered within the period 1899-1902 and at that time referred to as emanations because they came out (emanated) of sources/materials containing actinium, thorium and radium, respectively. The (somewhat mysterious) emanations appeared to disintegrate into radioactive decay products which by depositing at solid surfaces gave rise to “induced” radioactivity i.e. radioactive substances with various half-lives. Following the discovery of the emanations the volume of the research involving them and their disintegration products grew steeply. The identity of a number of these radioactive products was soon established. Radium- emanation was soon used as a source of RaD (210Pb) to be applied as an “indicator” (radiotracer) for lead in a study on the solubility of lead sulphide and lead chromate. Moreover, radium and its emanation were introduced into the medical practice. Inhaling radon and drinking radon-containing water became an accepted medicinal use (or misuse?) of that gas. Shortly after the turn of the century, the healing (?) action of natural springs (spas) was attributed to their radium emanation i.e. radon. Bathing in radioactive spring water and drinking it became very popular. Even today, bathing in radon-containing water is still a common medical treatment in Jáchymov, Czech Republic.

Kolar, Z. I.



Precise Heat Control: What Every Scientist Needs to Know About Pyrolytic Techniques to Solve Real Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a material is greatly influenced by its thermal and chemical properties. Analytical pyrolysis, when coupled to a GC-MS system, is a powerful technique that can unlock the thermal and chemical properties of almost any substance and provide vital information. At NASA, we depend on precise thermal analysis instrumentation for understanding aerospace travel. Our analytical techniques allow us to test materials in the laboratory prior to an actual field test; whether the field test is miles up in the sky or miles underground, the properties of any involved material must be fully studied and understood in the laboratory.

Devivar, Rodrigo



The Social Responsibilities of Scientists and Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the important role of scientists in society as educators. Explains problems caused by not understanding the theory of evolution and discusses possible solutions. First published in 1966. (YDS)

Pauling, Linus



USGS Scientists in Wadi Degla, Northern Egypt  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists looking at Eocene sandstones and limestones in Wadi Degla, northern Egypt. This area was studied to understand the Levant Basin Province, as both regions have similar rock formations....



Scientists share nobel prize for "nanoscopy".  


Three scientists were awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their contributions to developing super-resolved fluorescence microscopy, which allows biologists to study cells on a nanometer scale. PMID:25477087



Education and Outreach: Advice to Young Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carl Sagan set an example to all scientists when he encouraged us to reach out to the public and share the excitement of discovery and exploration. The prejudice that ensued did not deter Sagan and, with the passing of years, more and more scientists have followed his example. Although at present scientists at all ranks are encouraged by their institutions to do outreach, the balancing of a successful scientific career with teaching and outreach is often not an easy one. Young scientists, in particular, may worry about how their outreach efforts are viewed in the community and how they will find the time and energy for these efforts. This talk will offer suggestions on how to balance an active science research program with outreach activities, the many different ways to engage in education and public outreach, and how the rewards are truly priceless.

Lopes, R. M. C.



A Scientist's Guide to Science Denial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why are so many scientifically uncontroversial topics, from evolution and the age of the earth to climate change and vaccines, so contentious in society? The American public respects science and scientists, yet seems remarkably unaware of - or resistant to accepting - what scientists have learned about the world around us. This resistance holds back science education and undermines public policy discussions. Scientists and science communicators often react to science denial as if it were a question of scientific knowledge, and respond by trying to correct false scientific claims. Many independent lines of evidence show that science denial is not primarily about science. People reject scientific claims which seem to conflict with their personal identity - often because they believe that accepting those claims would threaten some deeply-valued cultural, political, or religious affiliation. Only by identifying, addressing, and defusing the underlying political and cultural concerns can educators, scientists, and science communicators undo the harm done by science denial.

Rosenau, J.



In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann  


Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

Ron Zuckerman



Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Draw-A-Scientist Test is an assessment tool devised to explore and measure children's stereotypical views of scientists. We administered this test to a group of 49 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in a teacher certification program. While this was originally intended as a purely pedagogical exercise, we were struck by the degree to which the drawings so produced resembled, in stereotypical content, those usually produced by children. This suggests that stereotypes of science and scientists formed during childhood, presumably via the influence of the media, remain largely unaffected by the subsequent passage through high school and college, despite the fact that numerous real-life figures of science teachers and scientists are presumably encountered throughout those formative years. We argue that this state of affairs has subtle and far reaching consequences, and is worthy of our collective attention. é1997 American Association of Physics Teachers.

Rahm, Jrã¨ne; Charbonneau, P.



Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1997 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

... Tables Portable Document Format (.pdf) Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 1997 Profile Tables ... Table 26; it now includes the occupations of the second job. Three new tables have been added. Table ...


Climate Scientists Dig Deep Into Greenland's Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, under 6 minutes, explores Greenland Ice Core data that that reveal rapid climate changes that have happened in the past. The video includes scientists discussing their research results and views of Ice core sampling.


Scientists Spot Gene Linked to Tanning 'Addiction'  


... enable JavaScript. Scientists Spot Gene Linked to Tanning 'Addiction' Understanding biology behind dependence important because of rising ... variant may be more likely to develop an "addiction" to tanning, a preliminary study suggests. The idea ...


Natural Scientists have asked Complex numbers  

E-print Network

Diagrams Predator-Prey Systems Discrete time models etc...... Drop in sessionsDrop in sessions #12;Sports Scientists have asked about Biomechanics Angular Momentum u,v,s,a,t equations Simultaneous equations

Burton, Geoffrey R.


CGH Short Term Scientist Exchange Program (STSEP)

STSEP promotes collaborative research between established U.S. and foreign scientists from low, middle, and upper-middle income countries (LMICs) by supporting, in part, exchange visits of cancer researchers between U.S. and foreign laboratories.


Lifelines Episode 06: The Mystery of Serotonin and Hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking the "collections" tab in the left hand column. We continue our coverage of Experimental Biology 2008 with an interview with Michigan State University Professor Stephanie W. Watts, who has been investigating whether serotonin plays a role in high blood pressure. The APS has awarded Dr. Watts the Henry Pickering Bowditch Memorial Award for early-career achievement. The award goes to a scientist younger than 42 years whose accomplishments are original and outstanding. It is the Society''s second-highest award.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)



Solar Week Tuesday: Meet Today's Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of readings associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. Female scientists with different perspectives about the Sun are highlighted in the online readings. This activity is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.


Audio Gallery: Scientists and Social Responsibility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online audio gallery is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Scientists and Social Responsibility, part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, is available in broadband and modem formats and with a printable PDF transcript. The audio discusses some of the social-responsibility issues that scientists are grappling with today.


Contributions by Citizen Scientists to Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Abstract only) The AAVSO's experience in utilizing the skills, equipment, and enthusiasm of amateur astronomers towards its research is not unique in astronomy. Citizen Scientists have contributed to our understanding of asteroids, exo-planets, solar system weather, light echoes, and galactic streaming, as well as inventing new equipment and software. This talk will highlight some of the recent advances by Citizen Scientists, and suggest some areas where they can contribute in the future.

Henden, A. A.



Clinical Problem Solving  

PubMed Central

This review demonstrates the unique advantages of sonography in the oncologic setting. Although computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography are primary imaging modalities for evaluation of the oncologic patient, sonography is useful for evaluation of various conditions and clinical scenarios associated with cancer. The following article will illustrate the utility of sonography at a tertiary cancer center for diagnosis and problem solving. PMID:24371094

Cooley, Christine; Nishino, Mizuki; Jagannathan, Jyothi; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Di Salvo, Donald; Krajewski, Katherine M.



Electric current solves mazes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question: how can the electric current choose the right way and avoid dead ends?

Ayrinhac, Simon



The GLOBE International Scientist Network: Connecting Scientists and Schools to Promote Earth System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLOBE Program has a rich history of connecting scientists and schools around the world on issues related to Earth System Science. Science teams developed the program's core science protocols, and these and other scientists use the data collected by GLOBE students, following these protocols, in their research projects. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with scientists, teachers, and students in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has recently initiated a focus on climate science, as well as unveiled a new technological infrastructure (website, database, online collaboration tools, etc.). These recent technological advances provide new opportunities to increase scientist participation in the program. To better facilitate scientist involvement in GLOBE, The GLOBE International Scientist Network (GISN) was developed. This network aims to connect scientists, teachers, and students around the world to promote Earth System Science. It provides a venue for scientists seeking to engage in education and outreach to connect with schools willing to collaborate, as well as to connect with one another. Via the GLOBE website, scientists in the GISN are provided a profile page to display their bio and interests, the ability to make online "friends" thereby connecting with other registered GLOBE community members (i.e. scientists, teachers), and the ability to participate in online discussions. All interested candidates' credentials are reviewed to ensure that they meet designated criteria to maintain the quality of individuals who work with GLOBE schools. The GLOBE Program Office staff scientists facilitate the network, by creating online accounts for approved new members and responding to inquiries. This presentation will provide an overview of the GISN, including how the network is maintained, the process for membership approval, and a few examples of how scientists in the network are working with GLOBE.

Tessendorf, S. A.; Andersen, T.; Mackaro, J.; Malmberg, J.; Randolph, J. G.; Wegner, K.



Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Here's another chance to play geographical detective! This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. Use any reference materials you like and answer the following five questions: The large lagoon in the image is named for a particular type of bird. Name the bird. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. What did they call the river? A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. Which ONE of the following is most responsible for the formation of these cusps? Violent storm impacts on erosion and accretion Wind and tide-driven sediment transport and circulation Tectonic folding associated with nearby mountain ridges Bathymetric effects of dredging operations True or false: Changes in regional precipitation associated with large scale atmospheric circulation patterns have no effect on the salinity of the lagoon's water. Which one of these is NOT distributed within the area covered by this image? Ruppia maritima Chelonia mydas Tapirus bairdii Microcystis aeruginosa E-mail your answers, name (initials are acceptable if you prefer), and your hometown by Tuesday, February 19, 2002 to Answers will be published on the MISR web site in conjunction with the next weekly image release. The names and home towns of respondents who answer all questions correctly by the deadline will also be published in the order responses were received. The first 3 people on this list who are not affiliated with NASA, JPL, or MISR and who did not win a prize in the last quiz will be sent a print of the image. A new 'Where on Earth...?' mystery appears as the MISR 'image of the week' approximately once per month. A new image of the week is released every Wednesday at noon Pacific time on the MISR home page The image also appears on the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center home page,, though usually with a several-hour delay. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.



Problem Solving through Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit that focuses on problem solving through real life situations that involveaviation. In spite of a variety of shapes and sizes all airplanes fly in the same way, and the problems of the aviation industry are basically the same. Some of the problems in this unit deal with the tests that have already been in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Agency, and the Department of Defense in order to ensure safety, convenience, and efficiency in aviation.

Bryant, Joyce


The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

Sugarman, Sally


North Carolina Museum of Art: Mystery of the Poison-Dart Frog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the North Carolina Museum of Art, this nicely designed website invites visitors to take a virtual journey to Costa Rica to uncover the Mystery of the Poison-Dart Frog. Prior to beginning the mystery adventure, site visitors are encouraged to research several animals, works of animal art, and the geography of Costa Rica. The science information provided by this site is not extensive, but it is presented in a fun, interactive format. The website is offered in Spanish and English and includes a list of related links. In addition, the site provides Competency Goals for teachers in North Carolina, and will be adding a Classroom Connection section in the future.


Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...


Looking for Clues to the Mystery of Life on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the vast central hall in Chambord Castle, the largest of the great chateaux on France's River Loire, an ornate double-helical staircase rises to a roof terrace. It was an appropriate setting for a banquet of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life (ISSOL), which held its triennial meeting last month in nearby Orleans. Without double-helical DNA and RNA molecules, life would not exist. At the meeting, nearly 300 scientists, including three Nobel laureates, grappled with the riddle of how these molecules first appeared and how they evolved into self-reproducing cells-questions that have gained new urgency with the hint that life in some form also may have evolved on Mars (see pages 864 and 924).

Balter, Michael



Classroom Activities for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts directed to emphasizing problem solving and using the immediate environment to create problem situations are described. Teachers are urged to incorporate problem-solving activities in their instruction. (MP)

Schmalz, Rosemary



Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?  


Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. PMID:23890623

Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh



Images of Science and Scientists: A Study of School Teachers' Views. I. Characteristics of Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines trends in teachers' beliefs about scientists and the nature of science. Discusses teachers' questionnaire responses on the following qualities of scientists: minimum educational qualifications; creativity; temperament; stereotyped image; and personal beliefs about indigenous systems of medicine and astrology. (Contains 63 references.)…

Rampal, A.



How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

Kea, Howard



Developing Meaningful Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the Earth System Scientist Network, in which students and teachers participate in research projects with scientists. In these projects the scientists can take advantage of having an extended research team, and the students and teachers can contribute to a research project while developing skills in inquiry and expanding content knowledge in Earth system science. Several issues must be addressed in order to facilitate these partnerships: identifying the scientific research questions, the data that the students will analyze, the requirements for participating schools, and the tools and protocols that the students and teachers will use during their research. Other logistical issues must also be addressed, such as assuring that instruments and tools are available to the teachers and students, providing the background information and training they will need, providing additional research questions that can help spark students interest, and recognizing students and teachers for their contributions.



Scientists warn DOE of dwindling funding  

SciTech Connect

Fusion scientists have raised their voices to let the Department of Energy know that they are concerned about the DOE`s commitment to fusion research. In a letter dated February 28, 1994, 37 scientists from 21 institutions noted that {open_quotes}US funding for fusion has steadily decreased: It is now roughly half its level of 1980. This peculiar and painful circumstance has forced the program to contract drastically, losing skilled technical personnel, even as it faces its most exciting opportunities.{close_quotes} The letter was addressed to Martha Krebs, the DOE`s director of the Office of Energy Research, and N. Anne Davies, associated director for fusion energy. The scientists wanted to make two points. The first was that fusion energy research, only midway between concept and commercialization, deserves major reinvestment. The second was that basic scientific knowledge in the area of fusion, not just applied engineering, must remain a priority.




Ice Stories: Dispatches from Polar Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Exploratorium recently decided to celebrate International Polar Year 2007-2008 by giving cameras to a group of penguin biologists, glaciologists, cosmologists, geologists, and marine scientists working in Antarctica and the Arctic. The results of this interesting idea can be found on this site, and visitors will enjoy learning about the thoughts and experiences of the scientists working in these two regions. Visitors can learn how penguins function as barometers of climate change, get up close and personal with a smattering of charismatic marine mammals, and learn about the fascinating South Pole Telescope. Visitors can also browse through archived materials and they should definitely revisit the site, as they will be adding posts from scientists in the Arctic over the coming months.


Research and Teaching: Fostering Collaborative Problem Solving and 21st Century Skills Using the DEEPER Scaffolding Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative problem solving is an essential component of any 21st century science career. Scientists are hired, retained, and promoted for solving problems in dynamic and interdisciplinary teams. They discuss issues, explain and justify their opinions, debate, elaborate, and reflect on their collective knowledge. At the same time, both…

Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Jahanzad, Farzaneh; Greenwood, Carmen



Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.



Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving

Lin, Shih-Yin



Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried



Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.

Wiener, Richard



Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists and engineers who foster information-sharing and respect between science and the public are essential for the public communication of and engagement with science. Although traditional scientific training typically does not prepare scientists and engineers to be effective communicators outside of academia, funding agencies are increasingly encouraging researchers to extend beyond peer-reviewed publishing and communicate their results directly to the greater public.Includes links to webinars, how-to tips for media interviews, strategies for identifying public outreach opportunities, and more.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Media and the making of scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the unknown. Advocates of informal science learning initiatives suggest that media can be used as a tool for teaching science content. The potential of entertainment media to provide a sense of wonder is a powerful aspect of its potential to inspire the next generation of scientists.

O'Keeffe, Moira


Why scientists should cooperate with journalists.  


Despite a widespread impression that the public is woefully ignorant of science and cares little for the subject, U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) surveys show the majority are very interested and understand that they are not well informed about science. The data are consistent with the author's view that the popularity of pseudoscience does not indicate a rejection of science. If this is so, opportunities for scientists to communicate with the public promise a more rewarding result than is commonly believed among scientists. In fact, the increasing visibility of science in the mass media correlates with a slow, steady improvement in public understanding of science in recent years. PMID:11228777

Rensberger, B



AGU Hosts Networking Event for Female Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Fall Meeting this year I had the pleasure of cohosting a new event, a Networking Reception for Early Career Female Scientists and Students, with Jane Lubchenco, under secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator, and Marcia McNutt, director of the U.S. Geological Survey. AGU recognizes the importance of having a diverse pool of new researchers who can enrich Earth and space sciences with their skills and innovation. That's why one of our four strategic goals is to help build the global talent pool and provide early-career scientists with networking opportunities like this one.

McEntee, Chris



The Scientist: Magazine of the Life Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientist is an international news magazine, published in both print and online versions, that reports on and analyzes the issues and events that impact the world of life scientists. Its mission is to provide compelling coverage of the latest developments, including research, technology, and business. Its target audience is active researchers interested in maintaining a broad view of the life sciences. The web site features news articles and discussion of research, the profession, and technology. There are also links to blogs, video and multimedia resources, and links to supplemental articles and survey materials.


[Alf Brodal--the great brain scientist].  


The use of scientific methods in the investigation of the central nervous system began at the beginning of the twentieth century, as gifted scientists like Gustav Adolf Guldberg (1854-1908), Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930), and Georg Herman Monrad-Krohn (1884-1964) took up their research work. Dr Monrad-Krohn's renowned textbook, the so-called "Blue Bible", appeared in 1914 and enhanced the reputation of Norwegian science among specialists internationally. More than any other Norwegian scientist, Professor Alf Brodal (1910-88) brought brain research to new heights. This article presents a portrait of him in relation to his area of research. PMID:11826787

Holck, P



Perspectives on Being a Data Scientist (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in computation and data management are fundamentally changing the way geoscience research is undertaken. However, to effectively utilize these advances scientific teams must be skilled in multiple areas and have a high degree of computer literacy. The 'data scientist', a new breed of researcher that has skills in the science fundamentals as well as the computational and data sciences, can help bridge this gap. I present my own experiences in becoming a 'data scientist' highlighting what's working and what's not working in making data science routine. Additionally, I will show examples of geoscience advances made via data science collaborations.

Narock, T. W.



Why we disagree about climate change Climate change will not be `solved' by science, nor will it be `solved' by the evangelical  

E-print Network

Why we disagree about climate change Climate change will not be `solved' by science, nor's international climate change summit in Montreal. Climate scientists worked overtime during 2005 to deliver new adopted for post-2012 action, a new fund established for adaptation. Underneath the surface, these climate

Hulme, Mike


Solving a Historical Puzzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements of four closely related perovskite materials: SrTiO3, CaTiO3, CaZrO3, and SrZrO3. This data is used to address the conceptually important, early EXAFS experiment of Perel and Deslattes. That experiment attempted to distinguish between the then-competing short-range and long-range theories of EXAFS by cross-material comparison of the EXAFS for the metal ions in the four perovskites reported here. Their inconclusive result is surprising, given the modern understanding of EXAFS. Our new measurements show strong disagreements with the prior results at multiple edges. When analyzed in qualitative, conceptual framework of the original study, our new results are in strong agreement with the short-range order theory. This solves a historical puzzle in the early scientific development of x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Groves, M.; Stern, E. A.; Seidler, G.; Balasubramanian, M.



What Cognitive Scientists Need to Know about Virtual Machines Aaron Sloman (  

E-print Network

What Cognitive Scientists Need to Know about Virtual Machines Aaron Sloman ( of computational systems and to solve engineering design problems. The first, Abstract virtual machine (AVM interact with a collection of man-made virtual machines (VMs) every day without reflecting on what that im

Sloman, Aaron


Favorite Demonstration: How Scientists Use Critical-Thinking Skills -- Isolating Both Total RNA and Protein Using the Same Small Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Undergraduate biology programs are currently undergoing reform to involve students in biomedical research. Engaging students in more active, hands-on experiments allows students to discover scientific principles for themselves, and to develop techniques of critical thinking and problem solving. This models the world of real scientific research, where scientists are confronted with specific problems each day, often dealing with experimental design.

Porta, Angela R.; Dhawan, Puneet



"Physics and Life" - Teachers Meet Scientists at Major EIROforum Event [  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 400 selected delegates from 22 European countries will take part in "Physics on Stage 3" , organised by the EIROforum [1] research organisations (CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF, ILL) at the ESA ESTEC site (Noordwijk, The Netherlands). It is the culmination of a year-long educational programme and is a central event during the EC-sponsored European Science and Technology Week (November 8-15, 2003). Following the vastly successful preceeding events in 2000 and 2002, the main theme this year is "Physics and Life", reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass more of the natural sciences within an interdisciplinary approach. As before, European teachers, scientists, curricula organisers and others connected to the national education systems in Europe will gather with the main goal of exploring solutions to stimulate the interest of young people in science, by means of exciting and innovative teaching methods and materials. The rich one-week programme has many components: spectacular and original performances by students and professional actors, intensive encounters at a central fair where each country will present the latest developments from its teaching community at their stands, workshops about a host of crucial themes related to the central mission of this programme, seminars where EIROforum scientists and experienced high school teachers get together to discuss new teaching opportunities based on the latest results from front-line research projects at Europe's leading science centres, as well as a publishers fair that will also serve as an international exchange for new educational materials. A mystery cultural event will surprise everyone with its originality. And last but not least, the annual European Science Teaching Awards - the highest distinction in this field - will be presented at the end of the meeting. "Physics on Stage" is a joint project organised by EIROforum, together with the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) . The project is funded in part by the European Commission and takes place under the auspices of the European Science and Technology Week 2003. It is directed by the EIROforum Working Group on Outreach that brings together key members of the seven organisations' respective outreach departments. The "Physics on Stage 3" festival will be opened on Monday, November 10, by His Royal Highness, Prince Johan Friso of the Netherlands. Among the distinguished guests will also be Her Excellency, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, as well as several Directors-General of the EIROforum organisations. This "Physics on Stage 3" festival is the most visible event within a year-long programme with the very active involvement of National Committees in two dozen European countries, each of which organised national events or competitions, during which the 400 delegates to the festival were selected for their outstanding projects to promote science teaching. Among the many entries, for example, two young physicists from Germany focus on the beauty of physical phenomena, producing fractals and demonstrating the "Theremin", the only musical instrument played without being touched. In another demonstration, a team from the UK explore the nature of sound and the theme of genetics through drama, music and physical theatre. In this third international festival of physics education, biological and biochemical themes will also play a major role. As usual, the colourful centrepiece of the week is the Fair. Every country has its own stand where delegates show their new, exciting and surprising projects, innovative software, elegant experiments, etc. In this highly inspiring atmosphere, the teachers exchange practical experience and insights, learning from each other and preparing themselves to bring back to their respective countries a rich harvest of new ideas and inspiration for better teaching of science. "Physics



Mystery Sums, Part One â Deduce the Unknown Addends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value of four letters, which are initially from 1-10, but this upper limit can be changed. Players drag any two letters across a divider to the right to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Scher, Daniel



SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the next three months, more than 350 scientists from Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States will combine forces to measure ozone levels and changes in the upper Arctic atmosphere as part of SOLVE, the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. Although much of the SOLVE homepage targets the public, several sections will be of interest to researchers and educators. The section entitled Mission Description features illustrated information on ozone, including ozone effects, UV-ozone interactions, Polar Stratospheric Clouds, and chemical reactions, among other topics. Also of interest is the Theory Teams section, providing summaries and references for more than a dozen SOLVE research projects -- including Photochemistry of Arctic Ozone, Resolution Modeling of Synoptic and Gravity Waves, and Theoretical Studies of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Clouds and Aerosols, to name a few. A collection of links rounds out the site.


From the Big Bang to the End of the Universe: The Mysteries of Deep Space Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS presents a timeline of the universe from the Big Bang to the future. This interactive website offers concise introductions to many of the key developments of the universe including the formation of elements, the earliest life forms, the evolution of life, and the dark era. The Mysteries of Deep Space series also offers lessons for educators and a trivia challenge.


More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where do rotten apples go after they fall off the tree? Does the temperature of the wood affect the heat of the fire? Can you make water boil faster? How large a mirror do you need to see your whole body? This second volume of 15 mystery stories examines

Richard Konicek-Moran




E-print Network

Washington University, St. Louis MO, U.S.A. Abstract : We show how the character of a scientific theory depends on one's attitude toward proba­ bility. Many circumstances seem mysterious or paradoxical to one Jeffreys. He stated the general philosophy of what scientific inference is, fully and correctly

Rodriguez, Carlos


Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect pest  

E-print Network

Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect GilleN #12;What are compost teas? · Watery extracts (teas) made from placing compost in a mesh bag and soaking in water · Plant vs. animal (manure


The Mystery of Dos Bocas Reservoir, Puerto Rico: Explaining Extreme Spatial Heterogeneity in Largemouth Bass Distribution  

E-print Network

The Mystery of Dos Bocas Reservoir, Puerto Rico: Explaining Extreme Spatial Heterogeneity.--Dos Bocas Reservoir, Puerto Rico, has pronounced in-lake variability in fish distributions, especially in piscivore abundance, between the two primary reservoir basins. We quantified fish community distributions

Cope, W. Gregory


Totally tubular: the mystery behind function and origin of the brain ventricular system  

E-print Network

Totally tubular: the mystery behind function and origin of the brain ventricular system Laura Anne School, 240 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA, USA A unique feature of the vertebrate brain is the ventricular by neu- roepithelium. While CSF is critical for both adult brain function and embryonic brain development

Lowery, Laura Anne


Women of Mystery: Investigating Learning Pathways of Canadian and American Female Crime Fiction Writers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…

Gouthro, Patricia A.



Change and Mystery: The Grist of How's and Why's in Inquiry Indicator Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this activity, students mix mystery chemicals in a freezer bag to produce reactions that are unexpected. As a result, one chemical seems to disappear, the bag expands, and then the bag turns hot and cold. Participants then ask questions and design their own activities to answer their self-generated questions. The research cycle continues until…

Schlenker, Richard M.; Petrichenko, Oksana Y.



Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

Christensen, Damaris



Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory  

PubMed Central

Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.



On the Mysterious Propulsion of Synechococcus Kurt Ehlers1,2  

E-print Network

On the Mysterious Propulsion of Synechococcus Kurt Ehlers1,2 , George Oster3 * 1 Mathematics, California, United States of America Abstract We propose a model for the self-propulsion of the marine to the helical ribbon provides the propulsive thrust. A variation on the helical rotor model of [1] allows

Oster, George


Identifying the Source of Mystery Waterborne Oil Spills—A Case for Quantitative Chemical Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil spills of unknown origin, so-called “mystery” spills, occur routinely in rivers, open water, and navigable coastal waterways. The natural resources damage (NRD) liability associated with even a small volume of oil released into the environment warrants that a thorough chemical characterization of the spilled oil be conducted by agencies and potentially responsible parties (PRPs). Chemical fingerprinting methods have played

Scott A. Stout; Gregory S. Douglas; Allen D. Uhler; Kevin J. McCarthy; Stephen D. Emsbo-Mattingly



Out of the Mouths of Babes: Unlocking the Mysteries of Language and Voice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes three studies that have revolutionized child psychology by teaching us that children are biologically programmed to learn language; children's language development is orderly and pragmatic, but grammatically mysterious; and children's linguistic self-expression reveals some disturbing ways in which they have been socialized. Presents…

Thurber, Christopher A.



Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leonardo; Heller, Kenneth



Social scientists prompt educational reforms 2  

E-print Network

Social scientists prompt educational reforms 2 Museum exhibit project 3 On the BookShelf 3 of the 1998 national curricula reforms. For Takehiko Kariya, a professor at the University of Tokyo's Graduate School of Education and one of the reforms' most vocal critics, this shift confirmed what his and other

Shahriar, Selim


Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The

Richard Wiener



Scientists Track Sulfate Emissions Across Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have a precise record of sulfate deposition from volcanoes stretching back 2000 years, a finding that will better inform future climate models and policy decisions. The new reconstruction was detailed in a paper published online on 6 July in Nature Climate Change (doi:10.1038/nclimate2293).

Wendel, JoAnna



Educational Mismatch and the Careers of Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research confirms that many employees work in jobs not well matched to their skills and education, resulting in lower pay and job satisfaction. While this literature typically uses cross-sectional data, we examine the evolution of mismatch and its consequences over a career, by using a panel data set of scientists in the USA. The results…

Bender, Keith A.; Heywood, John S.



The Physician-Scientist: An Endangered Species.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of physician-scientists in training decreased below the recommended level in 1976. Reasons young doctors are not attracted to research training and why these academic physicians are needed are discussed. The demise of the academic medical community will begin an ice age in American medicine. (SR)

Legato, Marianne, J.



Citizen Scientists: Investigating Science in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizen science programs are becoming increasingly popular among teachers, students, and families. The term "citizen scientist" has various definitions. It can refer to those who gather information for a particular science research study or to people who lobby for environmental protection for their communities. "Citizen science" has been called…

Jones, Gail; Childers, Gina; Stevens, Vanessa; Whitley, Blake



Scientist Elected Fellow of Prestigious Ornithological Society  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Douglas H. Johnson, U.S. Geological Survey scientist, was elected Fellow of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) at its 129th Stated Meeting in Jacksonville, Fla., in recognition of his significant contributions to the scientific study of birds. The award is the highest level of individual r...


Helping Scientists Reconnect their Datasets Abdussalam Alawini  

E-print Network

Helping Scientists Reconnect their Datasets Abdussalam Alawini Portland State University alawini that the datasets associated with a re- search project proliferate over time: collaborators may ex- tend datasets- tures, and subsets of data are extracted for independent analysis. As these "residual" datasets begin

Tufte, Kristin


Be a Scientist Save the World  

E-print Network

Be a Scientist Save the World School of Choice Spring Branch ISD September 2, 2003 Rick Smalley 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Oil Coal GasFusion /Fission Biom assHydroelectric Solar,w ind,geotherm al Century = OIL 21st Century = ?? #12;World Energy Millions of Barrels per Day (Oil Equivalent) 300 200 100


"The Social Responsibility of the Social Scientist."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although social scientists are often adjured to become more "scientific," they might well remember a phenomenon described by Arthur Lovejoy as "metaphysical pathos" or the set of sentiments with which every theory is associated and which are congruent with the mood or deep lying sentiment of its adherents. Examples from the past include the Social…

Watson, Bernard C.


WHAT IS A SCIENTIST? A researcher  

E-print Network

WHAT IS A SCIENTIST? · A researcher · Someone who makes discoveries · A scholar Have we left the data needed for answering the questions And, oh, of course, you should tell somebody what you did's more. · Publishing is a critical part of what is all about. · If you don't publish, you aren't doing

Hickman, Mark


Becoming a Creative Scientist: Jean Piaget's development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jean Piaget has surpassed most of his scientific contemporaries in influence, significance and productivity. Two questions of pedagogical interest can be asked: How did the boy Jean Piaget, with his peculiar interest in philosophy, become such an outstanding scientist, and what was the role of his teachers in this respect? Piaget's way into science demonstrates that personal ability, drive and

Burkhard Vollmers



Scientists Report Advance in Understanding Steroid Receptors

Scientists have long known that proteins called steroid receptors play a critical role in switching on hormone-responsive genes. What has been unclear is how these proteins orchestrate the process, a key issue in learning to control genes activated by steroid hormones such as androgen and estrogen.


Research Scientist-Horticulture Position Overview  

E-print Network

Research Scientist-Horticulture Position Overview: Develops innovative programs and consumer. 3. Works with regional technical staff to develop and/or improve agronomic and horticultural.g., fitting agronomic and horticultural principles to the business environment, determining the best course

Isaacs, Rufus


Designer drugs Scientists are working across disciplines  

E-print Network

Designer drugs Scientists are working across disciplines to make new drugs Rapid response The power Zealand installation at the 2011 Venice Biennale being as much about music as art. Michael Parekowhai plants. "With six tonnes of bronze the works themselves are indeed heavy and impressive," Michael says

Auckland, University of


Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile Tables  

NSF Publications Database

This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and Portable Document Format (.pdf). See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats. Links to additional reports in the Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication series page.


Pollution Problems, Resource Policy, and the Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case history of a power plant proposal for Cayuga Lake, New York, illustrates problems of discussion-making on the use of natural resources. Discusses the motives of special interest groups, and the roles of citizens and scientists. Proposes principles of resoruce management. (EB)

Eipper, Alfred W.



Scientists Create Tiny Stomachs from Stem Cells  


... please enable JavaScript. Scientists Create Tiny Stomachs From Stem Cells Feat may help researchers learn more about causes ... Preidt Wednesday, October 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Stem Cells Stomach Disorders WEDNESDAY, Oct. 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...


Writing for Non-Scientists about Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physicists should communicate their knowledge to the general public because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." This article discusses what I've learned about writing for non-scientists from working on my physics…

Hobson, Art



Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery  

PubMed Central

We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist. PMID:20119518



Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Tunison Lab scientists Rich Chiavelli (left) and Emily Waldt (middle) hand a bucketful of young Atlantic salmon to Dan Bishop (right) of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for release into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of you...


Scientists Release Altantic Salmon into Beaverdam Brook  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Tunison Lab scientist Emily Waldt (right) assists Dan Bishop of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in releasing Atlantic salmon into Beaverdam Brook at the state's Salmon River Fish Hatchery. Thousands of young Atlantic salmon are being release...


All-in-One Python for Scientists  

E-print Network

Py4Science @ UND #12;#12;All-in-One Python for Scientists Enthought Python Distribution Open, NASA, NCAR, NOAA uses "Every pixel counts " #12;Resources 1 What is Python? by Wesley Chun Python 101 and 102 @ PyCon 2009 An Introduction to OO Programming - PyCon 2009 Python 401: Some Advanced Topics @ Py

Delene, David J.


Life as a Mother-Scientist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…

Louis, Lucille



Cautiously, Scientists Put Faith in Obama Promise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that academic researchers are optimistic that President Barack Obama's approach to science heralds a new era of support for their work. When Mr. Obama named his top science and technology advisers only weeks after being elected, many scientists celebrated. After eight years of an administration that many academics believed…

Field, Kelly



Scientists Involved in K-12 Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations ( that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping-in pre-existing programs to contribute right away without having to re-invent the wheel is a good approach. Education and outreach sessions are expanding at professional, scientific meetings such as AGU, and provide an excellent start for those in search of new educational experiences. Contacting a regional COSEE is also a very effective way to get involved.

Robigou, V.



National Conference on Student & Scientist Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education is turning an exciting corner with the development of a new class of projects called Student and Scientist Partnerships for authentic research. Examples include GLOBE, Hands-On Universe and EarthKAM. These projects engage students as learners and as participants in authentic research.Through such projects scientists acquire new research partners. At the same time, students experience real science, learning up-to-date science content and developing essential investigation skills. To better understand the nature and potential of these partnerships, an invitational conference was held in Washington, D.C.,from October 23-25, 1996. The conference, funded by the National Science Foundation and coordinated by TERC and the Concord Consortium, brought together 60 leaders in science and education who have research backgrounds, practical experience, or a high interest in Student, Scientists & Partnerships. The participants confirmed that this shift from the "student as recipient" to the "student as partner" model can be of real and substantive benefit for both the scientists and the students. The primary and most obvious benefits for the students are the excitement of doing authentic science, a new context for hands-on experiential learning, and the linkage of school learning with the "real world." For the scientists, the primary benefits are the help of student partners who enable the scientists to do research that might not otherwise be possible and the personal rewards of supporting education. Beyond these primary benefits, however, is a secondary and perhaps deeper level of benefits, resulting from the cross-fertilization between these two rich cultures. In each partnership, it helps to recognize and articulate what I call "the three authentics". Authentic Science-The science must be real science. It must contribute new knowledge. The research must be central to the scientists' work, and the student participation must contribute in a meaningful way to this research. Authentic Education-The learning experience for the students must build on "best practice" in education. Students should not simply be "data robots" for the scientists. Students should also do their own related investigations, so that they participate in effective inquiry-based learning, developing both content knowledge and skills of scientific investigation. The fact that they are contributing to the scientists' research is an exciting and compelling context for their learning, but it cannot be the only learning. Authentic Partnership-The partnership among the scientists, students and teachers must be a real partnership. Each partner must have a sincere and personal desire to participate in the partnership an enlightened self-interest. Each must also have a respect for the other's domain and a willingness to learn more about it. Neither partner can blindly relinquish its own core values. Each should, however, be prepared for new ideas and a few paradigm shifts, both in his or her perception of the other's domain and even in one's own field.

Barstow, D.



Petrographic Problem Solving Assignments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Petrographic problem-solving (PPS) assignments consist of a series of two-week mini-projects used within the context of an undergraduate petrology course. The central idea behind PPS assignments is for students to use thin sections as a geologic data source for conducting authentic scientific investigations. For each assignment, students are provided a thin section and corresponding hand sample. Drawing from their initial observations and foundation knowledge, students identify a scientific question, propose a working hypothesis to explain it, test the hypothesis using observations and data collected from the sample, and defend their results in oral presentations and written reports. They use digital cameras interfaced with microscopes to acquire photomicrographs and various software applications to collect and analyze data. For each assignment, students prepare a two-page paper and give a brief presentation to the class (5-10 minutes in duration with 3-5 minutes for discussion). During the presentation sessions, which each require a two-hour class period, class members are encouraged to question their student colleagues. Students are introduced to PPS assignments as part of the take-home final in the prerequisite Microscopy course. Three PPS assignments are in turn engaged in the subsequent Petrology course during the 10-week term. A summative take-home PPS exercise is completed as part of the final exam. In Petrology, PPS assignments augment more traditional laboratory exercises and are specifically aligned with course content, as follows (refer to student handout sheets in supplemental materials section). Using a set of rocks representing distinct lithologies, students are guided to think about what geologic conditions and/or environment the sample formed in. Using a set of plutonic and volcanic rocks from a description and classification exercise, students define their own geologic problem. Using a set of metamorphic rocks, students are instructed to interpret the genetic conditions based on textures and/or mineralogy. Using several different andesite samples, students are directed to consider the origin of the sample in context of a case-study activity conducted during the term. This PPS assignment is completed as part of the final exam and requires a summative two-page paper. In the context of a broad-based undergraduate Earth Science degree program, PPS assignments engage students in the study of Earth materials, actively involve them in the scientific process, and emphasize creative problem solving rather than factual recall.

Templeton, Jeffrey


Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…

Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany



Federation of American Scientists: WMD Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a non-profit organization founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists. The founders "were members of the Manhattan Project, creators of the atom bomb and deeply concerned about the implications of its use for the future of humankind." Although not as sleek a design as the main website for FAS, this website has a wealth of information on nuclear resources, with particular emphasis on the now common household term, WMD. From this website, visitors can read the Special Weapons Primer for an introduction to special weapons, research arms control agreements, review the "global guide to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, including information on delivery systems, doctrine, organizations and facilities," read up on Richard L. Garwin, the famous weapons designer, learn about the history and technology of space nuclear propulsion, or explore numerous other links.


Climate Scientists Build Relationships With Legislators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty climate scientists ventured to Washington, D. C., on 29 January 2014 for the fourth annual Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill. AGU, along with 13 other scientific societies, including the Geological Society of America and the American Chemical Society, invited members at the forefront of climate science, with communications expertise, to meet with their legislators. Through this event, the organizers facilitated more than 100 congressional meetings over the course of the day.

Hankin, Erik



Planned Topaz 2 launch worries space scientists  

SciTech Connect

US plans to launch into orbit a Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) experiment powered by a Russian-supplied Topaz 2 space reactor has raised objections from some space scientists. They say that radiation from the reactor could adversely affect about a dozen present and future scientific satellites - such as the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) launched in 1991 - by disrupting instruments and computers, and causing damage. In response, SDIO said it is working to address the concerns of the scientific community.

Taylor, G.M.



The flip side: scientists who rock.  


Many scientists play music. I'm one. I'm the rhythm guitar player, song writer, and singer in The Amygdaloids. We play original music about mind and brain and mental disorders. The songs are inspired by research that I do, as well as general ideas in the brain and cognitive sciences, and the philosophy of mind. For me, playing music is not a distraction to other life obligations. It makes me better at everything else I do. PMID:21665517

Ledoux, Joseph



OceanLink: Ask A Marine Scientist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site is dedicated to ocean education. You will find all kinds of interesting information about things like: the biggest sea animals, marine biology careers, answers to common ocean and animal questions, and more. Check the Answer Archive for answers to your marine science questions, and if you do not find your answer, ask one of their scientists. Site also includes ocean news, world records, and information on summer camps.


Scientists Develop Precision Maps for Other Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth and planetary scientists are united by their need for accurate maps. Without them, features studied have no reference point, attempts to understand how our and other planets evolved have no context, and missions flown to other planets lack purpose. "Making maps out of data is critical to further progress in our fields," explained Randolph Kirk of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center, based in Flagstaff, Ariz. "Building maps helps other people find what's out there."

Kumar, Mohi



SPITZER'S STARLIGHT A mysterious infrared glow, spread across the entire night sky, has caught the attention of scientists using NASA's Spitzer  

E-print Network

on other planets, see "Are We Alone?" on page 26.) The Drake Equation The number of civilizations for the development of intelligent life. The number of planets, per solar system, with an envi- ronment suitable about the factors involved in any estimate of the number of technologically advanced civilizations


The scientist's education and a civic conscience.  


A civic science curriculum is advocated. We discuss practical mechanisms for (and highlight the possible benefits of) addressing the relationship between scientific knowledge and civic responsibility coextensively with rigorous scientific content. As a strategy, we suggest an in-course treatment of well known (and relevant) historical and contemporary controversies among scientists over science policy or the use of sciences. The scientific content of the course is used to understand the controversy and to inform the debate while allowing students to see the role of scientists in shaping public perceptions of science and the value of scientific inquiry, discoveries and technology in society. The examples of the activism of Linus Pauling, Alfred Nobel and Joseph Rotblat as scientists and engaged citizens are cited. We discuss the role of science professors in informing the social conscience of students and consider ways in which a treatment of the function of science in society may find, coherently, a meaningful space in a science curriculum at the college level. Strategies for helping students to recognize early the crucial contributions that science can make in informing public policy and global governance are discussed. PMID:23096773

Donald, Kelling J; Kovac, Jeffrey



Rice scientists lay biotech network foundations  

SciTech Connect

To help agricultural researchers in poorly funded Asian laboratories improve food crops, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is proposing a biotechnology network that would disseminate instruments, plant genetic materials, chemicals, and scientific information free of charge. The network will focus primarily on Asian researchers trained at the Philippines-based IRRI who are trying to breed high-yield, disease-resistant rice strains and thereby pump up the world's rice production by about 10 million metric tons a year. The total crop in 1990 was about 520 million tons. Not all biological substances are legal to import and export, and this may impede distributing some plant genetic material to network scientists. However, at present it is legal to ship molecular DNA markers that are essential for tagging important genes in lab studies. As a test balloon for the network, markers are being distributed to scientists in national agricultural research programs in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. IRRI is seeking $5.5 million in funding, enough to run the network for 5 years. If the network becomes a reality, Asian rice scientists may pluck out of the mail something far more valuable than DNA markers or even sweepstakes notices: genetically engineered plants, which might be allowed across national boundaries in 2 or 3 years.

Not Available




E-print Network

numerical results to show its efficiency and accuracy. 1. Introduction In this paper, we study the Helmholtz decades, many scientists have presented efficient methods for this kind of problem, such as the fast, the method was applied to solve the steady MHD duct flow problems with boundary layers successfully [19

Bigelow, Stephen


Determining the Effectiveness of Prompts for Self-Regulated Learning in Problem-Solving Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive scientists have studied internal cognitive structures, processes, and systems for decades in order to understand how they function in human learning. In order to solve challenging tasks in problem situations, learners not only have to perform cognitive activities, e.g., activating existing cognitive structures or organizing new…

Ifenthaler, Dirk



Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design  

PubMed Central

Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa



Secrets of the MIT mystery hunt : an exploration of the theory underlying the construction of a multi-puzzle contest  

E-print Network

This is an exploration of the rules and guidelines that underlie the structure of a multi-puzzle contest (a competition consisting of one large puzzle made up of a number of smaller constituent puzzles). The MIT Mystery ...

Gottlieb, Mark Louis, 1974-



Astronomers Get Closest Look Yet At Milky Way's Mysterious Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have gotten their deepest glimpse into the heart of our Milky Way Galaxy, peering closer to the supermassive black hole at the Galaxy's core then ever before. Using the National Science Foundation's continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), they found that a radio-wave-emitting object at the Galaxy's center would nearly fit between the Earth and the Sun. This is half the size measured in any previous observation. "We're getting tantalizingly close to being able to see an unmistakable signature that would provide the first concrete proof of a supermassive black hole at a galaxy's center," said Zhi-Qiang Shen, of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. A black hole is a concentration of mass so dense that not even light can escape its powerful gravitational pull. Milky Way Nucleus The Milky Way's nucleus, as seen with the VLA. Sagittarius A* is the bright white dot at center. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, Jun-Hui Zhao, W.M. Goss (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astronomers used the VLBA to measure the size of an object called Sagittarius A* (pronounced "A-star") that marks the exact center of our Galaxy. Last year, a different team announced that their measurements showed the object would fit inside the complete circle of Earth's orbit around the Sun. Shen and his team, by observing at a higher radio frequency, measured Sagittarius A* as half that size. A mass equal to four million Suns is known to lie within Sagittarius A*, and the new measurement makes the case for a black hole even more compelling than it was previously. Scientists simply don't know of any long-lasting object other than a black hole that could contain this much mass in such a small area. However, they would like to see even stronger proof of a black hole. "The extremely strong gravitational pull of a black hole has several effects that would produce a distinctive 'shadow' that we think we could see if we can image details about half as small as those in our latest images," said Fred K.Y. Lo, Director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and another member of the research team. "Seeing that shadow would be the final proof that a supermassive black hole is at the center of our Galaxy," Lo added. Many galaxies are believed to have supermassive black holes at their centers, and many of these are much more massive than the Milky Way's black hole. The Milky Way's central black hole is much less active than that of many other galaxies, presumably because it has less nearby material to "eat." Astronomers believe that the radio waves they see coming from Sagittarius A* are either generated by particle jets that have been detected in many more-active galaxies or from accretion flows that are spiraling into the central black hole. By observing the object at higher radio frequencies, scientists have detected a region of radiation ever closer to the black hole. The results announced last year were based on observations at 43 GigaHertz (GHz), and the latest observations were made at 86 GHz. "We believe that if we can double the frequency again, we will see the black-hole shadow produced by effects of Einstein's General Relativity theory," Lo said. In a few years, when the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) comes on line, it may be used in conjunction with other millimeter-wave telescopes to make the higher-frequency observations that will reveal the telltale black-hole shadow. At a distance of 26,000 light-years, the Milky Way's central black hole is the closest such supermassive object. That makes it the most likely one to finally reveal the concrete evidence for a black hole that astronomers have sought for years. Shen and Lo worked with Mao-Chang Liang of Caltech, Paul Ho of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) and the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics of the Academia Sinica in Taiwan, and Jun-Hui Zhao of CfA. The astronomers published their findings in the November 3 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The National



Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.



Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by participating in Expedition Earth and Beyond, will also have the opportunity to virtually share their research. These virtual team presentations will allow these emerging scientists to celebrate their own exploration, and in doing so, contribute to the excitement of the Year of the Solar System. As the public joins NASA in the celebration of YSS, students across the nation will not only be excited by the science and discoveries being made, but will prime themselves with experience to perhaps someday become the new leaders in science, discovery, and NASA.

Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.



Learning Impasses in Problem Solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

Hodgson, J. P. E.



A Method for Solving Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

Knoop, Robert



The Future Problem Solving Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

Crabbe, Anne B.



Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.



Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.



Multiple Ways to Solve Proportions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When solving problems involving proportions, students may intuitively draw on strategies that connect to their understanding of fractions, decimals, and percents. These two statements--"Instruction in solving proportions should include methods that have a strong intuitive basis" and "Teachers should begin instruction with more intuitive…

Ercole, Leslie K.; Frantz, Marny; Ashline, George



Medical Math applications (Solving Equations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a formula to solve equations, for problems with a medical slant provided by Mesa Collegeâs Veterinary Program. This requires the use of subscript notation and the multiplication property of equality to solve. The equations are the simplest of linear equations however the application makes them more interesting.



Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.  


Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak



Scientists Gain New Insights into Genetic Mechanisms of Ankylosing Spondylitis  


... January 2012 Scientists Gain New Insights into Genetic Mechanisms of Ankylosing Spondylitis New research supported, in part, ... scientists a step closer to understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying ankylosing spondylitis, a chronic inflammatory form of ...


Science 101: What writing represents what scientists actually do?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article addresses whether or not a report based on scientific method accurately represents what scientists do as well as what kind of writing scientists engage in that goes beyond the reporting of conclusions.

Robertson, William C.



Scientists Develop New Profile for Lake Tahoe Earthquake Risk  

NSF Publications Database

... 05-066Scientists Develop New Profile for Lake Tahoe Earthquake Risk Suite of Instruments Helps ... lake's waters are a primary component of the area's serenity and beauty. For scientists, the lake's ...


Unlocking the Mysteries: Science on the Edge of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the Discovery Program's exploration of the solar system. Learners will identify and communicate to others the varied space science explorations carried out by the Discovery Program and dig into one mission in depth. They can then respond to a NASA Discovery Program Announcement of Opportunity (AO) to submit a mock proposal. Includes the award-winning video, "Unlocking Mysteries of Our Solar System."


Youths' and scientists' authoring of and positioning within science and scientists' work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What would it take for youth to come to see science as a source of inspiration, as something intriguing and valuable, and as a world including them as active agents and legitimate members irrespective of who they are or who they want to become? I attempt to find some answers to this question by listening in on what youth have to say about science and scientists, talk occasioned through the conduct of oral histories of scientists and reflective work about visits to their work places, conducted by a small group of youth participating in an inner-city summer gardening program. I examine how youth and scientists position each other through talk and action and how they co-construct and deconstruct science and scientists' work. I show how creating spaces within which youths' images are validated and taken as resources for further co-construction and deconstruction of the world of science can lead to the development of broad notions of science that make insider status a possibility for them, whether as informed citizens or scientists.

Rahm, Jrène



More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available March 2009 Where do rotten apples go after they fall off the tree? Does the temperature of the wood affect the heat of the fire? Can you make water boil faster? How large a mirror do you need to see your whole body? This second volume of 15 mystery stories examines more science concepts and reinforces the value of learning science through inquiry. Each mystery presents opportunities for students to create questions, form hypotheses, test their ideas, and come up with explanations. Focused on concepts such as weather and climate, thermodynamics, interdependency of living things, adaptation, life cycles, properties of matter, reflection and refraction, and chemical bonds, these mysteries draw students into the stories by grounding them in experiences students are familiar with, providing them with the foundation for classroom discussion and inquiry. "These stories are bound to reveal the wonderful ideas all students have, give them the confidence to explore their own thinking, and provide opportunities for them to 'do' science rather than have science 'done' to them." --Page Keeley, NSTA President 2008-09

Richard Konicek-Moran



Mystery swine disease in The Netherlands: the isolation of Lelystad virus.  


In early 1991, the Dutch pig-industry was struck by the so-called mystery swine disease. Large-scale laboratory investigations were undertaken to search for the etiological agent. We focused on isolating viruses and mycoplasmas, and we tested paired sera of affected sows for antibodies against ten known pig viruses. The mycoplasmas M. hyosynoviae, M. hyopneumoniae, and Acholeplasma laidlawii, and the viruses encephalomyocarditis virus and porcine enterovirus types 2 and 7 were isolated from individual pigs. An unknown agent, however, was isolated from 16 of 20 piglets and from 41 of 63 sows. This agent was characterised as a virus and designated Lelystad virus. No relationship between this virus and other viruses has yet been established. Of 165 sows reportedly afflicted by the disease, 123 (75 per cent) seroconverted to Lelystad virus, whereas less than 10 per cent seroconverted to any of the other virus isolates or to the known viral pathogens. Antibodies directed against Lelystad virus were also found in pigs with mystery swine disease in England, Germany, and in the United States. We conclude that infection with Lelystad virus is the likely cause of mystery swine disease. PMID:1835211

Wensvoort, G; Terpstra, C; Pol, J M; ter Laak, E A; Bloemraad, M; de Kluyver, E P; Kragten, C; van Buiten, L; den Besten, A; Wagenaar, F



Women Life Scientists: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increase student's exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach and problem-solving science activities, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. Each module contains a brief biography of a female science role model and hands-on, inquiry approach, and/or problem-solving life sciences activities with a multidisciplinary focus. Modules drop easily into middle and high school life sciences curricula. The book may be purchased from the American Physiological Society or the individual chapters may be downloaded for free from the Archive. To access all of the chapters, click the "All in This Collection" link to the left.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)



Researchers Dispute Notion that America Lacks Scientists and Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers who track the American labor market told Congress last week that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the United States has more than enough scientists and engineers and that federal agencies and universities should reform the way they train young scientists to better match the supply of scientists with the demand for researchers. At a…

Monastersky, Richard



Investigating Students' Private Perceptions of Scientists and Their Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews were conducted with Year 6 students (n=67) and Year 10 students (n=58) who were asked whether scientists can do anything about endangered species. Most students gave positive answers which were at variance with the stereotyped image of scientists. It was concluded that students have private perceptions of scientists and their work as…

Palmer, David H.



What Are Scientists Really Like? The Acclaim Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Acclaim Project which aims to familiarize school children and the public with today's scientists. Focuses on scientists' activities in daily life and laboratories as well as participant scientists' comments. Explains how this project can be implemented at the elementary education level. (YDS)

Fenton, Sharon; Jordan, Julie



Sign In or Register The Scientist Magazine Features  

E-print Network

. © DAVID M. PHILLIPS/SCIENCE SOURCE D --Stephen Doxsey, University of Massachusetts School of Medicine in Science, 0 Comments 2Like 41 Follow The Scientist Stay Connected with The Scientist The Scientist Magazine Revealed2. What to Do About "Clare Francis" 3. Is Cannabis Really That Bad?4. Tracking Fecal Transplants5

Skop, Ahna


How to Think Like a Computer Scientist Learning with Python  

E-print Network

How to Think Like a Computer Scientist Learning with Python #12;#12;How to Think Like a Computer Scientist Learning with Python Allen Downey Jeffrey Elkner Chris Meyers Green Tea Press Wellesley a computer scientist : learning with Python / Allen Downey, Jeffrey Elkner, Chris Meyers. ­ 1st ed. p. cm

Reluga, Tim


27/05/2009 12:35Molly mating mystery :The Scientist [10th April 2009] Page 1 of 3  

E-print Network

of reproduction, according to a study published in Oikos last week. The Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa) is an asexually reproducing species in which females produce only female clones via parthenogenesis. To initiate living as a complex in nature are doomed because population growth in the asexual species should

Rankin, Daniel


Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers - data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance: Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data management principles. ?? 2011 Tenopir et al.

Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglass, K.; Aydinoglu, A.U.; Wu, L.; Read, E.; Manoff, M.; Frame, M.



Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices and Perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers – data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound data management principles. PMID:21738610

Tenopir, Carol; Allard, Suzie; Douglass, Kimberly; Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Wu, Lei; Read, Eleanor; Manoff, Maribeth; Frame, Mike



Scientists find mutation driving pediatric brain tumors

A type of low-grade but sometimes lethal brain tumor in children has been found in many cases to contain an unusual mutation that may help to classify, diagnose and guide the treatment of the tumors, report scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. The researchers led a study of pediatric low-grade gliomas, samples of which were collected through an international consortium organized by brain tumor specialists at Dana-Farber/Children’s Hospital Cancer Center. Their findings are being published online by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) the week of April 29.


Argonne scientist Cristina Negri talks about phytoremediation  


Phytoremediation is the use of plants and trees to remove or neutralize contaminants in polluted soil or water. Argonne scientist M. Cristina Negri leads the phytotechnologies R&D activities at Argonne. Phytotechnologies encompass the treatment of environmental problems through the use of plants. She was the scientific lead in the deployment and monitoring of multi-acre field scale phytoremediation installations and for the development of a phyto- and bio-remediation researcha nd development project in Russia. Her interests also focus on input-efficient approaches to growing energy crops, water efficiency in growing biofuel crops, and on the advanced treatment and reuse of wastewater and other impaired water.

Negri, Cristina



Argonne scientist Cristina Negri talks about phytoremediation  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation is the use of plants and trees to remove or neutralize contaminants in polluted soil or water. Argonne scientist M. Cristina Negri leads the phytotechnologies R&D activities at Argonne. Phytotechnologies encompass the treatment of environmental problems through the use of plants. She was the scientific lead in the deployment and monitoring of multi-acre field scale phytoremediation installations and for the development of a phyto- and bio-remediation researcha nd development project in Russia. Her interests also focus on input-efficient approaches to growing energy crops, water efficiency in growing biofuel crops, and on the advanced treatment and reuse of wastewater and other impaired water.

Negri, Cristina



Federation of American Scientists: Intelligence Resource Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1945 by members of the Manhattan Project, the main commitment of the Federation of American Scientists is to end "the worldwide arms race." This section of its Web site has extensive information about US and international intelligence resources and the threat of terrorism, many of which are technology related. For example, chemical and biological weapons are discussed in several documents. There are also cryptographic and security systems highlighted, as well as overviews of classified aircraft. A wide assortment of news articles, government reports, and official documents are provided, including a recent report about "the acquisition of technology relating to weapons of mass destruction."



Airborne scientists begin Ohio acid rain study  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric scientists spent June flying through storm clouds over Ohio to collect rain and air samples to better understand rain chemistry, the conditions that cause acid rain and methods for controlling it. The authors will be collecting samples in the Columbus, Ohio area because many of the materials suspected of causing acid rain, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen peroxide, can be found in this vicinity. The study is part of the US Department of the Energy's Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation program (PRECP).

Not Available



Plate Tectonics: The Scientist Behind the Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The scientific community does not always embrace every new idea that comes along. Alfred Wegener, the scientist who first proposed the theory of continental drift, learned that the hard way. This video segment shows how Wegner developed his theory by using multiple lines of evidence, and chronicles the less-than-enthusiastic reponse of the geologic community in the early twentieth century. It also points out the great weakness in Wegner's theory, the lack of a driving mechanism for the movements of the continents. The segment is three minutes fifty-five seconds in length.



Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program. Summary of activities for school year 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children`s natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

Sharlin, H.I.



Solar mystery nears solution with data from SOHO spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the corona's temperature was first measured 55 years ago, scientists have lacked a satisfactory explanation for why that temperature is over one million degrees while the visible surface of the Sun is only about 6,000 degrees Celsius. According to the laws of physics, thermal energy cannot flow from the cooler surface to the much hotter corona, so the energy transfer has to be in the form of waves or magnetic energy, but no measurement to date had found adequate energy to account for the corona's high temperature. "We now have direct evidence for the upward transfer of magnetic energy from the Sun's surface toward the corona above. There is more than enough energy coming up from the loops of the "magnetic carpet" to heat the corona to its known temperature", said Dr. Alan Title of the Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA, who led the research. "Each one of these loops carries as much energy as a large hydroelectric plant, such as the Hoover dam, generates in about a million years !". "We now appear to be closing in on an explanation as to why the solar corona is over 100 times hotter than the solar surface - the solution to a 55-year old puzzle", said Dr. George Withbroe, Director of the Sun-Earth Connection Programme at NASA Headquarters, Washington DC. "These results underline the importance of long-term study of the changing conditions on the Sun from the superior vantage point of space". Energy flows from the loops when they interact, producing electric and magnetic "short circuits". The very strong electric currents in these short circuits are what heats the corona to a temperature of several million degrees. Images from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the Coronal Diagnostics Spectrometer (CDS) on SOHO show ever-changing brightenings of the hot gases in the corona in response - it is assumed -to the evolving magnetic fields rooted in the solar surface. The observations with SOHO's Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) provided long-duration, highly detailed, and well calibrated time-lapse movies of the magnetic fields on the visible surface or "photosphere" of the Sun. These revealed the rapidly changing properties of what Title calls "the Sun's Magnetic Carpet" a sprinkling of tens-of-thousands of magnetic concentrations; These concentrations have both north and south magnetic poles, which are the "foot points" of magnetic loops extending into the solar corona. Like field biologists who study the populations and life cycles of animal herds, the SOHO researchers analysed the appearances and disappearances of large numbers of the small magnetic concentrations on the solar surface. "We find that after a typical small magnetic loop emerges, it fragments and drifts around and then disappears in only 40 hours" Title said. "It's very hard to understand how such a short-lived effect could be driven by the magnetic dynamo layer that is over 150,000 km beneath the surface of the Sun. This may be evidence that unknown processes are at work in or near the solar surface that continuously form these loops all over the Sun". Professor Phillip Scherrer of Stanford University is the MDI Principal Investigator. MDI was built at the LM Technology Center and is a project of the Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research. The EIT and CDS instruments were built by international consortia under the leadership of, respectively, Dr. Richard A. Harrison of Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory near Oxford (UK) and Dr. Jean-Pierre Delaboudini[re of the Institut d'Astrophysique spatiale in Orsay (F). The new observations were made with these three instruments on SOHO, a spacecraft stationed 1,5 million Kilometres sunward of the Earth in interplanetary space, where it has an uninterrupted view of the Sun and of the solar wind particles blown from the Sun. The SOHO satellite developed by ESA and built by European industry is operated from a control cent



"Missing Link" Revealing Fast-Spinning Pulsar Mysteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have discovered a unique double-star system that represents a "missing link" stage in what they believe is the birth process of the most rapidly-spinning stars in the Universe -- millisecond pulsars. "We've thought for some time that we knew how these pulsars get 'spun up' to rotate so swiftly, and this system looks like it's showing us the process in action," said Anne Archibald, of McGill University in Montreal, Canada. Pulsar and Companion Neutron star with accretion disk (left) drawing material from companion star (right). CREDIT:Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Animations of this system and its evolution. Pulsars are superdense neutron stars, the remnants left after massive stars have exploded as supernovae. Their powerful magnetic fields generate lighthouse-like beams of light and radio waves that sweep around as the star rotates. Most rotate a few to tens of times a second, slowing down over thousands of years. However, some, dubbed millisecond pulsars, rotate hundreds of times a second. Astronomers believe the fast rotation is caused by a companion star dumping material onto the neutron star and spinning it up. The material from the companion would form a flat, spinning disk around the neutron star, and during this period, the radio waves characteristic of a pulsar would not be seen coming from the system. As the amount of matter falling onto the neutron star decreased and stopped, the radio waves could emerge, and the object would be recognized as a pulsar. This sequence of events is apparently what happened with a binary-star system some 4000 light-years from Earth. The millisecond pulsar in this system, called J1023, was discovered by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia in 2007 in a survey led by astronomers at West Virginia University and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The astronomers then found that the object had been detected by NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope during a large sky survey in 1998, and had been observed in visible light by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in 1999, revealing a Sun-like star. When observed again in 2000, the object had changed dramatically, showing evidence for a rotating disk of material, called an accretion disk, surrounding the neutron star. By May of 2002, the evidence for this disk had disappeared. "This strange behavior puzzled astronomers, and there were several different theories for what the object could be," said Ingrid Stairs of the University of British Columbia, who has been visiting the Australia Telescope National Facility and Swinburne University this year. The 2007 GBT observations showed that the object is a millisecond pulsar, spinning 592 times per second. "No other millisecond pulsar has ever shown evidence for an accretion disk," Archibald said. "We know that another type of binary-star system, called a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB), also contains a fast-spinning neutron star and an accretion disk, but these don't emit radio waves. We've thought that LMXBs probably are in the process of getting spun up, and will later emit radio waves as a pulsar. This object appears to be the 'missing link' connecting the two types of systems," she explained. "It appears this thing has flipped from looking like an LMXB to looking like a pulsar, as it experienced an episode during which material pulled from the companion star formed an accretion disk around the neutron star. Later, that mass transfer stopped, the disk disappeared, and the pulsar emerged," said Scott Ransom of the NRAO. The scientists have studied J1023 in detail with the GBT, with the Westerbork radio telescope in the Netherlands, with the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, and with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia. Their results indicate that the neutron star's companion has less than half the Sun's mass, and orbits the neutron star once every four hours and 45 minutes. "This system gives us an unparalled 'cosmic laboratory' for studying



Sherlock Holmes as a Social Scientist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a way of teaching the scientific method through studying the adventures of Sherlock Holmes. Asserting that Sherlock Holmes used the scientific method to solve cases, the authors construct Holmes' method through excerpts from novels featuring his adventures. Discusses basic assumptions, paradigms, theory building, and testing. (SLM)

Ward, Veronica; Orbell, John



Solving Trade Discount Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

Coonce, Carol; Nunenkamp, David



Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef



Research on Problem Solving: Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a very detailed and comprehensive review of the extensive literature in education and cognitive science on the use of physics problems as a context for examining cognitive processes and approaches to problem solving.

Maloney, David



Microgravity sciences application visiting scientist program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contract NAS8-38785, Microgravity Experimental and Theoretical Research, is a project involving a large number of individual research programs related to: determination of the structure of human serum albumin and other biomedically important proteins; analysis of thermodynamic properties of various proteins and models of protein nucleation; development of experimental techniques for the growth of protein crystals in space; study of the physics of electrical double layers in the mechanics of liquid interfaces; computational analysis of vapor crystal growth processes in microgravity; analysis of the influence of magnetic fields in damping residual flows in directional solidification processes; crystal growth and characterization of II-VI semiconductor alloys; and production of thin films for nonlinear optics. It is not intended that the programs will be necessarily limited to this set at any one time. The visiting scientists accomplishing these programs shall serve on-site at MSFC to take advantage of existing laboratory facilities and the daily opportunities for technical communications with various senior scientists.



How scientists develop competence in visual communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This examination takes the form of an extensive multi-disciplinary integrative literature review and a series of interviews with graduate-level science students. The results are presented as a conceptual framework that lays out the components of competence in visual communication, including the communicative goals of science visuals, the characteristics of effective visuals, the skills and knowledge needed to create effective visuals and the learning experiences that promote the acquisition of these forms of skill and knowledge. This conceptual framework can be used to inform pedagogy and thus help graduate students achieve a higher level of competency in this area; it can also be used to identify aspects of acquiring competence in visual communication that need further study.

Ostergren, Marilyn


SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

Bederson, Benjamin



Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gender and mathematical problem-solving among high ability students depends on the attributes of the problem solving questions. This was evident in the present study of 12-year-olds. The children were from predominately White families. Eighty-three males and 76 females were tested in both the fall and the spring on the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales and on the Canadian

Jim Duffy; Georg Gunther; Lloyd Walters



Program solves line flow equation  

SciTech Connect

A program written for the TI-59 programmable calculator solves the Panhandle Eastern A equation - an industry-accepted equation for calculating pressure losses in high-pressure gas-transmission pipelines. The input variables include the specific gravity of the gas, the flowing temperature, the pipeline efficiency, the base temperature and pressure, the inlet pressure, the pipeline's length and inside diameter, and the flow rate (SCF/day); the program solves for the discharge pressure.

McCaslin, K.P.



Problem solving, scaffolding and learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Helping students to construct understanding of physics concepts and develop good problem solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examines studentsâ problem solving abilities and explores strategies to scaffold studentsâ learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving between isomorphic problems, we evaluate introductory physics studentsâ abilities to learn from provided solved problems and to transfer their learning to quiz problems involving the same physics principles but different surface features. Findings suggest that providing solved problems after students have attempted to solve quiz problems without help is a good way to scaffold studentsâ analogical problem solving. Categorization of problems based upon similarity of solution provides another angle to evaluate and scaffold studentsâ ability to reflect on problems' deep features. A study on categorization of quantum mechanics problems reveals that faculty overall perform better than students. However, unlike categorization of introductory mechanics problems, in which categories created by faculty are uniform and based on fundamental principles, quantum mechanics categorization is more diverse and based on concepts and procedures. In addition, we also explore possible strategies to help instructors improve their teaching of problem solving and to assess student difficulties more efficiently. Investigating how teaching assistants (TAs) design problem solutions, we find much room for improvement as TAs donât necessarily notice all solution components recommended in the research literature. Another study involving comparison between different assessment tools reveals that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response problems while maintaining the benefit of ease of grading, especially if the multiple-choice question choices are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin



Polar Stratospheric Clouds from SOLVE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Polar stratospheric clouds form at extremely low temperatures in the upper atmosphere. Should the temperature rise, clouds wont form. In this visualization, sequential temperature readings taken in the research area for SOLVE (Stratospheric Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment) are plotted against a threshold temperature for PSC formation. These are clouds essentially made of nitric acid. Note how the area covered by the clouds increases as winter progresses. The red point on the map indicates the location of Kiruna, Sweden, the SOLVE staging area.

George Fekete