Sample records for scientists solve mystery

  1. Forensic Scientists and Scholars Solve Mystery of "Unknown Child" Lost on the Titanic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2002-01-01

    Earlier this week, a team of scientists, historians, and genealogists announced that they had discovered the identity of the "Unknown Child," a young boy who was found in the water around the Titanic several days after it sank on April 5, 1912. Using three small teeth from the boy's grave in Halifax's Fairview Lawn Cemetery and a blood sample from a Finnish woman thought to be related to the boy, researcher Alan Parr (from Lakehead University) was able to determine that the boy was in fact Eino Viljami Panula, who was traveling with his mother and four brothers to America. While the discovery granted closure to one family and their descendants, there are still many persons who perished in the sinking of the Titanic who have never been positively identified.The first link leads to a complete news story on the recent discovery published by the BBC. The second link features material from an upcoming PBS television program on the question of using forensic science in answering questions associated with identifying persons on board the Titanic when it sank. The third link offers a nice overview of DNA testing written by Dr. Donald E. Riley. The fourth link leads to a detailed list of all the other Titanic victims buried at Halifax's Fairview and Mt. Olivet cemeteries. The fifth link is to the fabulous Encyclopedia Titanica, which is a massive compendium of all things Titanic, including passenger biographies, theories on why the ship sank, and research articles. The final link is to the RMS Titanic, Inc. homepage, which includes information about the Titanic's various research missions to recover materials and detritus from the Titanic's resting place at the bottom of the North Atlantic.

  2. Solve Medical Mysteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

  3. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzy?ski (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzy?ski introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the evolution of stars. This embarrassing discrepancy has been known since the 1960s. To resolve this mystery, astronomers needed to find a double star containing a Cepheid where the orbit happened to be seen edge-on from Earth. In these cases, known as eclipsing binaries, the brightness of the two stars dims as one component passes in front of the other, and again when it passes behind the other star. In such pairs astronomers can determine the masses of the stars to high accuracy [3]. Unfortunately neither Cepheids nor eclipsing binaries are common, so the chance of finding such an unusual pair seemed very low. None are known in the Milky Way. Wolfgang Gieren, another member of the team, takes up the story: "Very recently we actually found the double star system we had hoped for among the stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It contains a Cepheid variable star pulsating every 3.8 days. The other star is slightly bigger and cooler, and the two stars orbit each other in 310 days. The true binary nature of the object was immediately confirmed when we observed it with the HARPS spectrograph on La Silla." The observers carefully measured the brightness variations of this rare object, known as OGLE-LMC-CEP0227 [4], as the two stars orbited and passed in front of one another. They also used HARPS and other spectrographs to measure the motions of the stars towards and away from the Earth - both the orbital motion of both stars and the in-and-out motion of the surface of the Cepheid as it swelled and contracted. This very complete and detailed data allowed the observers to determine the orbital motion, sizes and masses of the two stars with very high accuracy - far surpassing what had been done before for a Cepheid. The mass of the Cepheid is now known to about 1% and agrees exactly with predictions from the theory of stellar pulsation. However, the larger mass predicted by stellar evolution theory was shown to be significantly in error. The much-improved mass estimate is only one outcome of this work, and the team hopes to find other examples of these

  4. Solve Medical Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leslie Miller

    2007-11-01

    Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's CSI episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards. This free teaching tool incorporates online games with classroom activities for middle school students. The virtual experiments engage students in analyzing data, interpreting charts and graphs, and drawing conclusions.

  5. NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus Discovery Is Decades in the Making Scientists from ... of a protein related to the Hepatitis B virus. Their findings, reported in Structure, could lead to ...

  6. Mucus balloons solve an ocean mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2005-06-09

    Some tadpole-sized ocean animals live in houses made of almost the very same stuff that leaks out of your nose when you have a cold. As researchers have just discovered, these mucus houses help solve the mystery of how creatures at the bottom of the ocean get enough food.

  7. Use Clues to Solve an Ice Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-07-01

    Learners explore the variables that affect the properties of ice and the places where different types of ice are found. Using evidence from informational text and multiple media resources, as well as their own observations, learners will match six different mystery ice types to the place where each would most likely be found. Recipes for creating six different simulated ice types are provided.

  8. Lake Baikal deepwater renewal mystery solved Martin Schmid,1

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Lake Baikal deepwater renewal mystery solved Martin Schmid,1 Nikolay M. Budnev,2 Nick G. Granin,3 in Lake Baikal is very effective despite the enormous depth of up to 1642 m and the permanently stable and for evaluating the local climate history from the extraordinary sedimentary record of Lake Baikal. Citation

  9. Trust in virtual teams: solved or still a mystery?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alanah Mitchell; Ilze Zigurs

    2009-01-01

    Trust was one of the most prominent topics of early research in virtual teams, highlighted by the emergence of the theory of swift trust. As researchers continue to study this topic, it is important to understand what problems have been solved as well as what aspects of trust in virtual teams remain a mystery. We address this goal by presenting

  10. Internet Investigations: Solving Mysteries on the Information Superhighway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy; Brown, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a group of gifted primary-school children in New Zealand explored the Internet in a workshop project organized around solving the mystery of what happened to the Titanic. Insets include the student "contract," a listing of Web sites, and the evaluation instrument. (DB)

  11. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a mystery solved?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The permeability transition (PT) denotes an increase of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability to solutes with molecular masses up to about 1500 Da. It is presumed to be mediated by opening of a channel, the permeability transition pore (PTP), whose molecular nature remains a mystery. Here I briefly review the history of the PTP, discuss existing models, and present our new results indicating that reconstituted dimers of the FOF1 ATP synthase form a channel with properties identical to those of the mitochondrial megachannel (MMC), the electrophysiological equivalent of the PTP. Open questions remain, but there is now promise that the PTP can be studied by genetic methods to solve the large number of outstanding problems. PMID:23675351

  12. Developing Economic Reasoning through Solving Mysteries in U.S. History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susskind, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Briefly summarizes a study testing the efficacy of some of the ideas delineated in the "Handy Dandy Guide for Solving Economic Mysteries." The guide stresses an experiential approach where students solve "mysteries" using their knowledge of basic economic principles. The study's findings suggest a significant improvement in economic reasoning.…

  13. The Deep Impact Microlens Explorer, Solving the Macho Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. H.; DIME Collaboration

    2003-12-01

    The Deep Impact Microlens Explorer is a new science extended mission for the Deep Impact spacecraft which will solve the mystery of the gravitational microlensing events seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and determine if any of the Milky Way's dark matter is Baryonic. The MACHO Project has detected more than 5 times as many microlensing events in the LMC as expected due to known stellar populations (Alcock et al 2000), and this suggests that about 20% of the Milky Way's dark matter may be in stellar mass objects - possibly very old white dwarfs. It has also been suggested that microlensing due to stars in the LMC itself could be responsible for the microlensing excess seen in the LMC (Sahu 1994). Ground-based data cannot determine the distances to the lensing object, but simultaneous observations by two telescopes separated by 1 AU can measure the microlens parallax effect and determine the distance to the lensing object. In August, 2005, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft will provide an opportunity to carry out this mission at extremely low cost. DI will be carrying a 30cm telescope at 0.9AU from the Earth and will have completed its prime mission. We are proposing the DIME mission extension to carry out the microlensing parallax observations that will resolve this dark matter mystery. DIME observations of the Galactic bulge will also measure the abundance of stellar mass black holes in the bulge. KHC's work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. Citizen Sky, Solving the Mystery of epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Kloppenborg, B.; Henden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants then move on to monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse (already underway) of epsilon Aurigae. This object undergoes eclipses only every 27.1 years and each eclipse lasts nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. Training will be provided in observing techniques as well as basic data analysis of photometric and visual datasets (light curve and period analysis). The project also involves two public workshops, one on observing (already held in August of 2009) and one on data analysis and scientific paper writing (to be held in 2010.) This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  15. Baby Stars in Orion Solve Solar System Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    What do X-rays, meteoroids, infant stars in the Orion Nebula, and our solar system have in common? Perhaps much more than anyone thought. Eric Feigelson of Penn State University stumbled onto a connection one day while his thoughts were far from the solar system, turned toward the vibrant neighborhood of young stars, hot gas, and caliginous dust of the Orion Nebula. This nebula, 1500 light-years away, is visible to the naked eye in the constellation Orion, a gem to behold with a good pair of binoculars or a telescope under dark skies. In Orion, Feigelson inadvertently found a possible solution to a long-standing mystery about our own solar system: the presence of exotic isotopes locked away in meteoroids. Scientists have assumed that these short-lived isotopes - special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26 and calcium-41 - were transported here by a nearby supernova. Only tenuous evidence for such an explosion exists, but what else could have made the isotopes? The isotopes are about as old as the solar system, and the Sun couldn t possibly have been powerful enough to create them. Well, maybe we need to give the Sun a little more credit. Feigelson found that very young, midsized stars in the Orion Nebula - in the same stellar class as our Sun except they are only a million years old - produce powerful flares visible in X-rays. His team spotted these X-ray flares with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. These baby-tantrum flares are indeed energetic enough to forge heavy isotopes, Feigelson says. If the infant stars in Orion can do it now, then our Sun could have done the same when the solar system was forming about 4.5 billion years ago, when the Sun itself was only a few million years old.

  16. "Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts - Mystery Solved?????"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2006-01-01

    After over a decade of speculation about the nature of short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the recent detection of afterglow emission from a small number of short bursts has provided the first physical constraints on possible progenitor models. While the discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a real breakthrough linking their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, the progenitors, energetics, and environments for short gamma-ray burst events remain elusive despite a few recent localizations. Thus far, the nature of the host galaxies measured indicates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. On the other hand, some of the short burst afterglow observations cannot be easily explained in the coalescence scenario. These observations raise the possibility that short GRBs may have different or multiple progenitors systems. The study of the short-hard GRB afterglows has been made possible by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, launched in November of 2004. Swift is equipped with a coded aperture gamma-ray telescope that can observe up to 2 steradians of the sky and can compute the position of a gamma-ray burst to within 2-3 arcmin in less than 10 seconds. The Swift spacecraft can slew on to this burst position without human intervention, allowing its on-board x ray and optical telescopes to study the afterglow within 2 minutes of the original GRB trigger. More Swift short burst detections and afterglow measurements are needed before we can declare that the mystery of short gamma-ray burst is solved.

  17. Rosetta - a new target to solve planetary mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    This delay meant that the original mission's target, Comet Wirtanen, could no longer be reached. Instead, a new target has been selected, Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which Rosetta will encounter in 2014 after a ‘billiard ball’ journey through the Solar System lasting more than ten years. Rosetta’s name comes from the famous ‘Rosetta Stone’, from which Egyptian hieroglyphics were deciphered almost 200 years ago. In a similar way, scientists hope that the Rosetta spacecraft will unlock the mysteries of the Solar System. Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. In orbiting Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and landing on it, Rosetta will collect information essential to an understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules that, delivered to Earth through impacts, perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, ‘volatile’ light elements carried by comets might also have played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions undertaken so far,” says Professor David Southwood, ESA Director of Science. “No one has ever attempted such a mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres.” Before reaching its target in 2014, Rosetta will circle the Sun four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; the spacecraft will then closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be landing on a small, fast-moving ‘cosmic bullet’ about whose 'geography' very little is known yet. An amazing 10-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a three-tonne box-type spacecraft about three metres high, with two 14-metre solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately one metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the orbiter during the journey to Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will be kept in hibernation during most of its 10-year trek towards the comet. Why does Rosetta's cruise need to take so long? To reach Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the spacecraft needs to go out into deep space as far out from the Sun as Jupiter. No launcher could possibly get Rosetta there directly. ESA's spacecraft will gather speed from gravitational ‘kicks’ provided by four planetary fly-bys: one of Mars in 2007 and three of Earth in 2005, 2007 and 2009. During the trip, Rosetta will also twice pass through the asteroid belt, where a fly-by with one or more of these primitive objects is possible. A number of candidate targets have already been identified, but the final selection will be made after launch, once the amount of surplus fuel has been verified by mission engineers. During these encounters, scientists plan to switch on Rosetta's instruments for scientific studies of these largely unexplored Solar System bodies. Long trips in deep space include many hazards, such as extreme changes in temperature. Rosetta will leave the benign environment of near-Earth space to the dark, frigid regions beyond the asteroid belt. To manage these thermal loads, experts have done very tough pre-launch tests to study Rosetta's endurance. For example, they have heated its external surfaces to more than 150°C, then cooled it to -150°C in the next test. The spacecraft will be fully reactivated prior to the comet rendezvous manoeuvre in 2014. Then, Rosetta will orbit the comet - an object only about 4 kilometres in d

  18. Solving the Mystery of Short Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. Until this year, the origin of short gamma-ray bursts was a complete mystery. A new NASA satellite named Swift has now captured the first images of these events and found that they are caused by tremendous explosions in the distant universe.

  19. Mystery Solved: One Way To Motivate Middle Schoolers To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herder, Deb Den

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project for middle school librarians to use to motivate students to read for pleasure. Explains activities based on the idea of a mystery at the school, and describes how clues were developed and linked to books in certain genres that students had to read. (LRW)

  20. Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes Nathalie M. Vriend,1

    E-print Network

    Martin, Alain

    Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes Nathalie M. Vriend,1 Melany L. Hunt,1 Robert W. Clayton,2 of a large dune. The sound is remarkable because it is composed of one dominant audible frequency (70 to 105 Hz) plus several higher harmonics. This study challenges earlier reports that the dunes' frequency

  1. Mystery of Easter Island For centuries, scientists have tried to solve the mystery of

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    Long Beach worked closely with archaeologist Sergio Rapu (a member of the South Pacific island by the National Geographic Society's Expeditions Council, Hunt and Lipo showed that as few as 18 people could were "very resilient people"--contrasts those of some popular writers. The StatuesThatWalked #12;33 Ke

  2. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) astronomical project will not only enlarge our knowledge of the vast Universe beyond the imaginable. It will also help scientists learn more about the human body. Located 5000m above sea level, in the Chilean Atacama desert, ALMA is the highest site for ground-based astronomy. This property will be put to good use for academic institutions in Chile and in Europe in order to study the human response to extreme altitude conditions. During a ceremony held on 2 April in Antofagasta, the largest town close to ESO's Very Large Telescope, representatives from ALMA, ESO and the University of Antofagasta have officially launched a collaborative agreement that also involves the University of Chile and the University of Copenhagen (Denmark). The newly established cooperation aims at contributing to the promotion of teaching, scientific research, and the expansion of altitude physiology and medicine or other related areas considered appropriate. ESO PR Photo 20/07 ESO PR Photo 20/07 Working at 5000 metres "An increasing number of people are periodically exposed to brisk changes in altitude, and not only for astronomical research," said Jacques Lassalle, the ALMA Safety Manager. "Short stays at high altitude alternate with short stays at sea level but the corresponding shifts are very often established by agreement, and not based on scientific arguments. With this project, we aim at improving our knowledge and procedures in order to protect the long term health of the operators, engineers, and scientists as well as ALMA visitors of all ages and all physical conditions," he added. Around the world, a large number of people systematically commute between sea level and high altitude, for example when working in mountainous mines. This poses stringent conditions that may affect health, wellbeing and working performance. Some of the factors in question are the shift work regime, the perturbation of circadian rhythms, fatigue, family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), a

  3. Rosetta - a comet ride to solve planetary mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. By orbiting Comet Wirtanen and landing on it, Rosetta will collect essential information to understand the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules, that - delivered to Earth through impacts - perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, “volatile” light elements carried by comets may have also played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmopshere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions ever undertaken so far”, says Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, “No one before attempted a similar mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres”. Before reaching its target in 2011, Rosetta will circle the Sun almost four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Wirtanen, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; then the spacecraft will closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be like landing on a small, fast-moving cosmic bullet that still has - at present - an almost unknown 'geography'. An amazing 8-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a 3-tonne box-type spacecraft about 3 metres high, with two 14-metre long solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately 1 metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the Rosetta orbiter during the journey to Comet Wirtanen. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will be kept in hibernation during most of its 8-year trek towards Wirtanen. What makes Rosetta's cruise so long? To reach Comet Wirtanen, the spacecraft needs to go out in deep space as far from the Sun as Jupiter is. No launcher could possibly get Rosetta there directly. ESA's spacecraft will gather speed from gravitational ‘kicks’ provided by three planetary fly-bys: one of Mars in 2005 and two of Earth in 2005 and 2007. During the trip, Rosetta will also visit two asteroids, Otawara (in 2006) and Siwa (in 2008). During these encounters, scientists will switch on Rosetta's instruments for calibration and scientific studies. Long trips in deep space include many hazards, such as extreme changes in temperature. Rosetta will leave the benign environment of near-Earth space to the dark, frigid regions beyond the asteroid belt. To manage these thermal loads, experts have done very tough pre-launch tests to study Rosetta's endurance. For example, they have heated its external surfaces to more than 150°C, then quickly cooled it to -180°C in the next test. The spacecraft will be fully reactivated prior to the comet rendezvous manoeuvre in 2011. Then, Rosetta will orbit the comet - an object only 1.2 km wide - while it cruises through the inner Solar System at 135 000 kilometres per hour. At that time of the rendezvous - around 675 million km from the Sun - Wirtanen will hardly show any surface activity. It means that the carachteristic coma (the comet’s ‘atmosphere’) and the tail will not be formed yet, because of the large distance from the Sun. The comet's tail is in fact made of dust grains and frozen gases from the comet's surface that vapourise because of the Sun's heat. During 6-month, Rosetta will extensively map the comet surface, prior to selecting a landing site. In July 2012, the lander will self-eject from the spacecraft from a height of just one kilometre. Touchdown will take place at walking speed - less than 1 metre per second. Immediately after touchdown, the lander will fire a harpoon into the ground to avoid bouncing off the surface back in

  4. SNO: solving the mystery of the missing neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Jelley, Nick; Poon, Alan

    2007-03-30

    The end of an era came on 28 November 2006 when the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) finally stopped data-taking after eight exciting years of discoveries. During this time the Observatory saw evidence that neutrinos, produced in the fusion of hydrogen in the solar core, change flavour while passing through the Sun on their way to the Earth. This observation explained the longstanding puzzle as to why previous experiments had seen fewer solar neutrinos than predicted and confirmed that these elusive particles have mass. Solar neutrinos were first detected in Ray Davis's radiochemical experiment in 1967, for which discovery he shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. Surprisingly he found only about a third of the number predicted from models of the Sun's output. This deficit, the so-called Solar Neutrino Problem, was confirmed by Kamiokande-II while other experiments saw related deficits of solar neutrinos. A possible explanation for this deficit, suggested by Gribov and Pontecorvo in 1969, was that some of the electron-type neutrinos, which are produced in the Sun, had ''oscillated'' into neutrinos that could not be detected in the Davis detector. The oscillation mechanism requires that neutrinos have non-zero mass. The unique advantage, which was pointed out by the late Herb Chen in 1985, of using heavy water (D{sub 2}O) to detect the neutrinos from {sup 8}B decays in the solar fusion process is that it enables both the number of electron-type and of all types of neutrinos to be measured. A comparison of the flux of electron-type neutrinos to that of all flavours could then reveal whether flavour transformation is the cause of the solar neutrino deficit. In heavy water neutrinos of all types can break a deuteron apart into its constituent proton and neutron (neutral-current reaction), while only electron-type neutrinos can change the deuteron into two protons and release an electron (charged-current reaction). SNO was designed by scientists from Canada, the USA and the UK to attain a detection rate of about 10 solar neutrinos per day using 1000 tonnes of heavy water. Neutrino interactions were detected by 9,456 photomultiplier tubes surrounding the heavy water, which was contained in a 12-m diameter acrylic sphere. This sphere was surrounded by 7000 tonnes of ultra-pure water to shield against radioactivity. Figure 1 shows the layout of the SNO detector, which is located about 2 km underground in Inco's Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury in Canada, to all but eliminate cosmic rays from reaching the detector. The pattern of hit photomultiplier tubes following the creation of an electron by an electron-type neutrino is shown in Figure 2.

  5. In a Flash, NASA Helps Solve 35-Year-Old Cosmic Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Scientists have solved the 35-year-old mystery of the origin of powerful, split-second flashes of light known as short gamma-ray bursts. These flashes, brighter than a billion galaxies, yet lasting only a few milliseconds, have been simply too fast to catch - until now. Through the unprecedented coordination of observations from several ground-based telescopes and NASA satellites, scientists determined the flashes arise from violent collisions in space. The clashes are either between a black hole and a neutron star or between two neutron stars. In either scenario, the impact creates a new black hole. In at least one burst, scientists saw tantalizing, first-time evidence of a black hole eating a neutron star. The neutron star was first stretched into a crescent, then swallowed by the black hole. Two recently detected bursts are featured in four papers in this week's Nature magazine. These observations could enable direct detection of exotic gravitational waves that have never before been seen. "Gamma-ray bursts in general are notoriously difficult to study, but the shortest ones have been next to impossible to pin down," said Dr. Neil Gehrels, principal investigator for the Swift satellite at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "All that has changed. We now have the tools in place to study these events," he said. Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Gamma-ray bursts, first detected in the 1960s, are the most powerful explosions known. They are random, fleeting and can occur from any region of the sky. Two years ago, scientists discovered longer bursts, lasting more than two seconds, arise from the explosion of very massive stars. About 30 percent of bursts are short and under two seconds. The Swift satellite detected a short burst on May 9, and NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) detected another on July 9. The May 9 event marked the first time scientists identified an afterglow for a short gamma-ray burst, something commonly seen after long bursts. "We had a hunch that short gamma-ray bursts came from a neutron star crashing into a black hole or another neutron star, but these new detections leave no doubt," said Dr. Derek Fox, assistant professor of Astronomy & Astrophysics at Penn State University, State College, Pa. Fox is lead author of one Nature report detailing a multi-wavelength observation. Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Animation of Colliding Binary Neutron Stars Fox's team discovered the X-ray afterglow of the July 9 burst with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A team led by Jens Hjorth, a professor at the University of Copenhagen identified the optical afterglow using the Danish 1.5-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Fox's team continued studying the afterglow with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes of the Carnegie Institution, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. "The July 9 burst was like the dog that didn't bark," said Dr. George Ricker, HETE principal investigator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and co-author of another Nature article. "Powerful telescopes detected no supernova as the gamma-ray burst faded, arguing against the explosion of a massive star. Also, the July 9 burst, and probably the May 9 burst, are located in the outskirts of their host galaxies, just where old merging binaries are expected," he added. Mergers create gravitational waves, ripples in space-time predicted by Einstein but never directly detected. The July 9 burst was about 2 billion light-years away. A big merger closer to the Earth could be detected by the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). If Swift detects a nearby short burst, scientists could go back and check the data with a precise time and location. "This is good news for LIGO," said Dr. Albert Lazzarini, Data & Computing group leader at the California Institut

  6. 12/13/12 Solving a biological mystery | Harvard Gazette 1/2news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/12/solvingabiologicalmystery/

    E-print Network

    Extavour, Cassandra

    12/13/12 Solving a biological mystery | Harvard Gazette 1/2news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/12/solvingabiologicalmystery/ Solving a biological mystery Researchers find gene related to germ cell formation older than thought By Peter Reuell Harvard Staff Writer Monday, December 10, 2012 HarvardScience Life Sciences

  7. VLBA "Movie" Gives Scientists New Insights On Workings of Mysterious Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have made a 42-day movie showing unprecedented detail of the inner workings of a strange star system that has puzzled scientists for more than two decades. Their work is providing new insights that are changing scientists' understanding of the enigmatic stellar pairs known as microquasars. SS 433 Frame from SS 433 Movie: End to end is some 200 billion miles. CREDIT: Mioduszewski et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Image Files Single Frame Overall Jet View (above image) VLBA Movie (animated gif, 2.3 MB) Animated graphic of SS 433 System (18MB) (Created using software by Robert Hynes, U.Texas) Annotated brightening graphic Unannotated brightening Frame 1 Unannotated brightening Frame 2 "This once-a-day series of exquisitely-detailed images is the best look anyone has ever had at a microquasar, and already has made us change our thinking about how these things work," said Amy Mioduszewski, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of radio telescopes stretching from Hawaii to the Caribbean, to follow daily changes in a binary-star system called SS 433, some 15,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Aquila. Mioduszewski worked with Michael Rupen, Greg Taylor and Craig Walker, all of NRAO. They reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. SS 433 consists of a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole is drawing material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense, central object prior to being pulled onto that object. This disk propels jets of subatomic particles outward from its poles. In SS 433, the particles in the jets move at 26 percent of the speed of light; in other microquasars, the jet material moves at 90-95 percent of light speed. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to move in a circle every 164 days. By imaging SS 433 daily, the astronomers were able to trace individual ejections of material in these jets as they moved outward from the center. In addition, they could track the jets' precession, the movement caused by the disk's wobble. In other microquasars, blobs of material shot from the core become fainter, as seen with radio telescopes, as they move outward. However, in SS 433, blobs routinely brighten at specific distances from the core. From earlier studies, researchers had concluded that such brightening always occurs at one specific distance. The VLBA movie shows, instead, that there are multiple brightening regions and not all blobs brighten at all the regions. "We think the ejected material brightens because it's slamming into something," Rupen said. "However, whatever it's hitting has to be replenished somehow so that the brightening can occur again when the jet sweeps through that area the next time," he added. "It also appears that it isn't always replenished, because the brightening doesn't always happen," Mioduszewski pointed out. The VLBA movie revealed vital new information about another part of SS 433 -- material moving outward from the core, but not part of the superfast jets. This material moves outward in a direction not quite perpendicular to the direction of the jets. Discovered with the VLBA in 2000, this material had been seen only in one-time snapshots before, but the movie shows the steady evolution of its movement for the first time. That motion was the key to a possible answer to two riddles -- the source of the slower-moving material itself and the source of whatever the jet blobs are hitting when they brighten. "What seems most plausible to us is that the accretion disk is putting out a broad wind," Rupen explained. That broad wind from the disk hits a denser wind coming from the "normal" companion star to generate the radio waves seen coming from the nonjet region. The same

  8. Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

  9. 211-YEAR-OLD MYSTERY SOLVED: CREATOR OF THE WORD “ASTEROID” REVEALED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2013-10-01

    In 1802, William Herschel famously declared that the newly discovered celestial objects Ceres and Pallas were asteroids, not planets. The term asteroid was rejected by nearly every astronomer in the early nineteenth century, but is now the most widely-used word to describe the small planetary bodies of the solar system. Even so, its origin has remained a mystery. By default, its creation has always been attributed to Herschel himself, but he lacked the knowledge of Greek and Latin to coin a new word to describe Ceres and Pallas. Herschel instead turned to a network of colleagues for advice. A study of contemporary manuscript evidence has now identified the name of the scholar who created the word asteroid.

  10. Mystery solved: the identification of the two missing Romanov children using DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Coble, Michael D; Loreille, Odile M; Wadhams, Mark J; Edson, Suni M; Maynard, Kerry; Meyer, Carna E; Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Cordula; Berger, Burkhard; Falsetti, Anthony B; Gill, Peter; Parson, Walther; Finelli, Louis N

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries for most of the twentieth century was the fate of the Romanov family, the last Russian monarchy. Following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, he and his wife, Alexandra, and their five children were eventually exiled to the city of Yekaterinburg. The family, along with four loyal members of their staff, was held captive by members of the Ural Soviet. According to historical reports, in the early morning hours of July 17, 1918 the entire family along with four loyal members of their staff was executed by a firing squad. After a failed attempt to dispose of the remains in an abandoned mine shaft, the bodies were transported to an open field only a few kilometers from the mine shaft. Nine members of the group were buried in one mass grave while two of the children were buried in a separate grave. With the official discovery of the larger mass grave in 1991, and subsequent DNA testing to confirm the identities of the Tsar, the Tsarina, and three of their daughters--doubt persisted that these remains were in fact those of the Romanov family. In the summer of 2007, a group of amateur archeologists discovered a collection of remains from the second grave approximately 70 meters from the larger grave. We report forensic DNA testing on the remains discovered in 2007 using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), autosomal STR, and Y-STR testing. Combined with additional DNA testing of material from the 1991 grave, we have virtually irrefutable evidence that the two individuals recovered from the 2007 grave are the two missing children of the Romanov family: the Tsarevich Alexei and one of his sisters. PMID:19277206

  11. Perfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

    2012-04-01

    PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.

  12. Young Stars in Orion May Solve Mystery of Our Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Scientists may have to give the Sun a little more credit. Exotic isotopes present in the early Solar System--which scientists have long-assumed were sprinkled there by a powerful, nearby star explosion--may have instead been forged locally by our Sun during the colossal solar-flare tantrums of its baby years. The isotopes--special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26, calcium-41, and beryllium-10--can form in the X-ray solar flares of young stars in the Orion Nebula, which behave just like our Sun would have at such an early age. The finding, based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has broad implications for the formation of our own Solar System. Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, led a team of scientists on this Chandra observation and presents these results in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "The Chandra study of Orion gives us the first chance to study the flaring properties of stars resembling the Sun when our solar system was forming," said Feigelson. "We found a much higher rate of flares than expected, sufficient to explain the production of many unusual isotopes locked away in ancient meteorites. If the young stars in Orion can do it, then our Sun should have been able to do it too." Scientists who study how our Solar System formed from a collapsed cloud of dust and gas have been hard pressed to explain the presence of these extremely unusual chemical isotopes. The isotopes are short-lived and had to have been formed no earlier than the creation of the Solar System, some five billion years ago. Yet these elements cannot be produced by a star as massive as our Sun under normal circumstances. (Other elements, such as silver and gold, were created long before the creation of the solar system.) The perplexing presence of these isotopic anomalies, found in ancient meteoroids orbiting the Earth, led to the theory that a supernova explosion occurred very close to the Solar System's progenitor gas cloud, simultaneously triggering its collapse and seeding it with short-lived isotopes. Solar flares could produce such isotopes, but the flares would have to be hundreds of thousands of times more powerful and hundreds of times more frequent than those our Sun generates. Enter the stars in the Orion Nebula. This star-forming region has several dozen new stars nearly identical to our Sun, only much younger. Feigelson's team used Chandra to study the flaring in these analogs of the early Sun and found that nearly all exhibit extremely high levels of X-ray flaring--powerful and frequent enough to forge many of the kinds of isotopes found in the ancient meteorites from the early solar system. "This is a very exciting result for space X-ray astronomy," said Donald Clayton, Centennial Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University. "The Chandra Penn State team has shown that stellar-flare acceleration produces radioactive nuclei whether we want them or not. Now the science debate can concentrate on whether such irradiation made some or even all of the extinct radioactivities that were present when our solar system was formed, or whether some contamination of our birth molecular cloud by external material is also needed." "This is an excellent example of how apparently distant scientific fields, like X-ray astronomy and the origins of solar systems, can in fact be closely linked," said Feigelson. The Orion observation was made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Gordon Garmire, the Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State. The Penn State observation team includes Pat Broos, James Gaffney, Gordon Garmire, Leisa Townsley and Yohko Tsuboi. Collaborators also include Lynne Hillenbrand of CalTech and Steven Pravdo of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Background: Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have d

  13. Solving Wakulla Springs underwater mysteries. Using GPS to map Florida's underground caverns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Am, Ende B.

    2002-01-01

    Located in the Woodville Karst Plain stretching south from Tallahassee to the Gulf of Mexico, Florida's Wakulla Springs is one of the largest and deepest freshwater Springs in the world. It is also a gateway into one of the longest underwater cave system in the United States, a system that remained largely unexplored until recently. Soon, however, thanks to one of the world's most extreme scientific and exploration-related diving projects ever undertaken, visitors to Wakulla Springs State Park will be able to take a virtual tour through the Spring's huge underwater labyrinth. Using such cutting-edge technology as a 3D Digital Wall Mapper (DWM) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Wakulla 2 Expedition - with 151 volunteer cave divers, scientists and engineers from all over the world - created the world's first three-dimensional digital map of an underwater cave. Underwater caves are priceless treasures, helping supply fresh water to the region as well as acting as 'time capsules' to the past. Home to creatures found in few other places, areas such as Wakulla face threats of pollution and over-development. Wakulla 2 hopes their 3D interactive 'swim through' will help increase the understanding and preservation of these important areas.

  14. Mystery Powder Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rachel HallettNjuguna

    2012-07-27

    Students will use their skills as scientists to identify a mystery white powder. This lesson is a hands-on, engaging way to build students' understanding of physical and chemical properties of several common compounds.

  15. Mystery Marauders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1982-01-01

    In this outdoor, mystery-solving activity, learners work like detectives, gathering evidence to identify the culprits that are attacking plants. Learners come to understand the impact of insect pests on plant life—including the fact that crop losses due to insect damage cost billions of dollars. The activity calls for learners to read Action Assignment Cards, but with an adult reading the cards, or with modified, simpler cards, this activity can be adapted for younger learners.

  16. Geo Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Children's Museum of Indianapolis

    2000-01-01

    Students discover information about rocks, fossils, and minerals by solving geo mysteries. In the Mystery of the Floating Rock, they need to try to decide if a sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous rock floats. They are given information about each of the rocks, they can see animated pictures of how each forms, and they can view a volcano erupting. In the Mystery of the Broken Necklace, students need to figure out what kind of fossils are the beads of a necklace. They are given information about crinoid fossils and can see a piece of the ancient Border's Sea. By clicking on each of the fossils, students can see what lived there long ago. They will also learn about the three kinds of fossils and how they are prepared. The Mystery of the Golden Cube has students deciding if a cube is a rock, mineral, or fossil. Information is provided about the cube's shape, hardness, color and streak, density, cleavage and fracture. Students are given the opportunity to test the cube's streak, hardness and density and the cube is compared to a gold nugget. Facts are given for 10 different rocks. Included in this site is a geologic timeline, questions and answers about rocks and fossils, and additional links.

  17. Geometry-Lithology-Origin: Solving the mystery of the Late Miocene mounded features below Lake Balaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnovitz, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Surányi, Gergely

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences of Eötvös University has carried out single- and multichannel water seismic surveys at the Lake Balaton since 1993. The dense grid of 2D profiles offers a high resolution image of the Late Miocene sedimentary strata (Tihany, Somló and Szák Formations) up to a thickness of 200 meters below the lake. These strata can be divided into smaller sedimentary units by numerous parasequence boundaries (Sztanó&Magyar, 2007). In one of these parasequence interesting, high amplitude mounded features have been observed that follow a seismic horizon over large area. It means that these features indicate a Late Miocene regional event. In terms of their shape these mounds are few tens of meters wide, several tens to a hundreds of meters long and few meters high. Their geometry and inner structure were mapped from 2D segments that were used for 3D reconstructions. The shape and stratigraphic position of these features have inspired Sacchi and Horvath (1999) to interpret them as the subsurface equivalent of the fresh-water siliceous-limestone mounds exposed on the Tihany Peninsula. They held these mounds as an evidence of dryland conditions in the time period of the formation of a Late Miocene erosional surface (PAN-2) that they regarded as a 3rd order sequence boundary. In addition to this so called "travertine" concept another explanation was also formulated as the mounds are the product of sedimentary failures e.g. slumps or water escape. To solve the problem an offshore drilling with a total depth of 19 meters was accomplished in October 2013 to sample one of these mounds and determine their origin. The well has not crossed any travertine body, instead alternating layers of clay-silt and very fine sand - without any convincing sign of fluid escape structures - were found in the core (typical lithology of the Tihany Formation). 3D structural analysis of the mounds revealed spherical organization composing bodies that are superposed on each other. The latter can be interpreted as series of small thrusts in a relatively thin mudstone layer. As coring has found silty material, without the presence of any fluid escape structures the most possible explanation for these features is sheet slumping mechanism that could be induced by seismicity. Although "travertine" concept has been rejected, these mounds should indicate a regionally important geological event that could strengthen correlation of erosional surfaces such us PAN-2 from outcrop to water seismic images. Such an event could be possible the start of the 8 Ma volcanism in the area. Work was financed by OTKA NK83400 research fund. References: Sacchi, M.; Horváth, F.; Magyari O. (1999). Role of unconformity-bounded units in the stratigraphy of the continental record: a case study from the Late Miocene of the western Pannonian basin, Hungary. In: Durand, B. Jolivet, L., Horváth F. & Séranne, M. (eds), The Mediterranean Basins: Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 156, 357-390. Sztanó, O. & Magyar I. (2007): Deltaic parasequences on gamma logs, ultra-high resolution seismic images and outcrops of Lake Pannon deposits. Joannea Geol. Palaont. 9: 105-108.

  18. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  19. Scientists at NASA are working to solve a problem with driving robotic rovers on the planet Mars and an Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Scientists at NASA are working to solve a problem with driving robotic rovers on the planet Mars new technology that would make self-directed driving for rovers possible on the surface of Mars into a robot so that it can drive itself on Mars. With our technology, the robot can recognize rocks in its

  20. Mystery Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

  1. Modern Solar Mysteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2004-01-01

    100 years ago we thought that the Sun and stars shone as a result of slow gravitational contraction over a few tens of millions of years - putting astronomers at odds with geologists who claimed that the Earth was much, much older. That mystery was solved in the 1920s and 30s with the discovery of nuclear energy (proving that the geologists had it right all along). Other scientific mysteries concerning the Sun have come and gone but three major mysteries remain: 1) How does the Sun produce sunspots with an 11-year cycle? 2) What produces the huge explosions that result in solar flares, prominence eruptions, and coronal mass ejections? and 3) Why is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, so darned hot? Recent progress in solar astronomy reveals a single key to understanding all three of these mysteries.

  2. Century-old mystery of Puccinia striiformis life history solved with the identification of Berberis as an alternate host.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Szabo, Les J; Carson, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been identified. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P. striiformis. Analyses using real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence confirmed the rust fungus as P. striiformis. Pycnia and aecia were produced on B. chinensis, B. holstii, B. koreana, and B. vulgaris after inoculation using germinating telia of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici. Wheat inoculated with aeciospores from B. chinensis resulted in uredinia, which demonstrated that Berberis spp. also serve as alternate hosts for the wheat stripe rust pathogen. The elucidation of the complete life history for P. striiformis f. sp. tritici will provide a powerful tool to rapidly advance our knowledge of the genetics of this rust fungus, and will lead to the development of improved strategies for a better control of stripe rust. PMID:20373963

  3. DeLorenzo's Four Interesting Mysteries Verified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriols-Pavico, Josefina Ma.

    2002-10-01

    Ron DeLorenzo wrote about four interesting mysteries in this Journal. My students and I investigated these mysteries at the Lyceum-Northwestern University, Dagupan City, Pangasinan, a province in the Philippines. Simple experiments were devised which may be included in the laboratory activities to solve the mysteries described by DeLorenzo.

  4. Space Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    These inquiry-driven interactive Web explorations involve five mysteries that take advantage of students’ curiosity to build critical thinking and analytical skills. The mysteries are: Solar Supernova, Alien Bandstand, Live! From 2-Alpha, Star Market and Galactic Doom. Each mystery has been constructed to teach at least one physical science standards -e.g. conservation of energy, motion, or forces-, and is accompanied by materials to be used by teachers.

  5. The psychology of mystery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Krasner

    1983-01-01

    Describes the development of the ways in which psychology has been used in the fictional world of the mystery\\/detective novel. Application of psychology has included (1) the use of experimental techniques, such as laboratory techniques and deductive reasoning, and (2) the use of applied theories, such as those on motivation or personality, by detectives, psychological consultants, and psychologist-detectives to solve

  6. Mysterious Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkcombe, Josie; Ellyn, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Introduce students to humankind's mysterious beginnings with a captivating sense of mystery. Low lighting and simple percussion music will add to the mood. Allow students time to leave behind the sunshine of this modern era and crawl through the narrow tunnel of their imaginations into an immense, dark, underground cave. This is, in fact, was what…

  7. Mystery #16

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... x 184 kilometers (right panel). This mystery concerns two coral atoll ecosystems located in different parts of the globe. Use any ... production.   B.   Symbiotic zooxanthellae provide reef corals with the calcium and nutrients they need to grow.   C. ...

  8. Mystery Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

  9. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  10. Fuel Mystery Dis-Solved!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    In this activity, students investigate the simulated use of solid rocket fuel by using an antacid tablet. Students observe the effect that surface area and temperature has on chemical reactions. Also, students compare the reaction time using two different reactants: water and vinegar. Finally, students report their results using a bar graph.

  11. Mystery Bug Theater

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students in introductory Computer Science courses often have difficulty with coding and problem solving which results in bugs. These bugs cause both student frustration and attrition of many of our CS majors. The Mystery Bug Theater website classifies several hundred bugs that students have brought to the Utah State University Tutor Lab so that students know that they are not isolated in experiencing bugs. The website also provides games and movies about common bugs.

  12. The Hot Tub Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    House, Herbert

    This case study sets up a mystery and asks students to solve it using science: why was the couple found dead in their hot tub? The material asks students to connect seemingly unrelated factors, such as blood pressure, hot water and alcohol. The material would be most appropriate for lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

  13. The Mixed-Up Microbe Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series challenges kids to help solve the Case of the Dragon That Caused Diarrhea. The online activity begins with an overview of "The Facts" behind this challenge given to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with suggestions for "How to Solve a Microbe Mystery." Before starting the online challenge, kids are taken to a page that explains their "mission" and how to play. A series of six tabs contains details about Cindy's steps towards solving the mystery; using the guidance from "How To Solve a Microbe Mystery," students are asked to correctly order her steps.

  14. Mystery Tubes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of California Museum of Paleontology

    2010-01-01

    Learners investigate a pre-constructed mystery tube to determine its interior mechanism. Working in small groups, learners pose explanations (hypotheses) for what they are observing and test their hypotheses. In a possible extension of this activity, learners build their own model to test their hypothesis. This lesson serves as a good introduction to the nature of scientific inquiry.

  15. Mystery Liquids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PBS

    2012-01-01

    In this math lesson, learners analyze the density of liquids in order to explore linear functions. Learners gather mass and volume data for two mystery liquids, oil and water, and then use the data to explore linear functions. Learners discuss the physical meaning of the slopes and y-intercepts of the various lines they create from scatterplots.

  16. Mystery Powders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2000-01-01

    In this activity on page 2 of the PDF, learners conduct chemical tests on certain powders used in cooking. After completing the tests, learners try to figure out the identity of a mystery powder. Learners record their observations on a chart. Note: you will need an adult helper for this activity.

  17. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... must use their expertise to determine the best method for solving a specific research question. Data-analysis skills. Medical scientists use statistical techniques, so that they can properly quantify and ...

  18. The Mystery of the Golden Cube

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Help Rex solve the mystery of the golden cube! You will need to decide if it is a rock, mineral, or a fossil. You will also need to examine the cubes shape, hardness, color, streak, density, cleavage, and fracture.

  19. Biology Today. Ah, Sweet Mysteries of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Mysteries of the biological past that paleontologists are trying to solve are discussed. Topics include first seeds, fossils and computers, packrat middens, charcoal clues, soft parts, Burgess shale, halkieriids, toe count, whales with feet, long necks, and changing functions. (KR)

  20. Mystery Sums, Part Two

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel Scher

    2012-10-08

    This second Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value from -10 to 10 of the letters, A, B, -B and C. Players drag any two letters across a divider to the right to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

  1. Mystery Sums, Part Three

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel Scher

    2012-10-08

    This third Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad, as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately) allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value of ten letters, which are initially from 1-10, but this upper limit can be changed. Players encompass letters within a circle to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

  2. Mystery Boxes for Grades 3-5

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sharon Janulaw

    2010-01-01

    Learners manipulate opaque, sealed boxes and attempt to determine their interior structures. Each box contains a moving ball and one or more fixed barriers. Use this activity to introduce students to the scientific process--scientists make observations and collect evidence, scientists interpret evidence, scientists must work together to gain consensus about interpretations. This activity has been adapted for grades 3-5 from the ENSI lesson, Mystery Boxes: Uncertainty & Collaboration.

  3. Tsunami Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast explores some ideas about the cause of a 1946 tsunami which swept from Alaska through the Pacific and killed more than 150 people. The tsunami was one of the worst of the 20th Century. Scientists today still cannot agree on just what caused it. They think it was an earthquake, an undersea landslide, or possibly both. The answer may change how scientists study tsunamis and how people prepare for them. The clip is 6 minutes and 38 seconds in length.

  4. Mystery Aircraft

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Federation of American Scientists offers this unique perspective into classified government aircraft, "some of which actually exist, some of which certainly do not, and all of which are fascinating in a way." This site is divided into two main sections. The first provides insight into several aircraft that were initially shrouded in secrecy but have since been revealed to the public. Some examples include the SR-71, the B-2, and the Hyper-X. The second section is devoted to aircraft that may or may not be currently under development or in operation by the US government. The much popularized Aurora is in this section, as well as exotic propulsion aircraft.

  5. Structure problems in hypertext mysteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Willerton

    2000-01-01

    Detective or mystery stories have always depended on linear storytelling. Can hypertext be nonlinear and still present a detective or mystery story? This paper analyzes how mystery stories work, examines one feasible structure for a hypertext mystery, and suggests hypertext opportunities for mystery writers. It concludes that the mystery reader's expectations (rather than assumptions about hypertext) should determine structure.

  6. Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2011-01-01

    A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and…

  7. A Coprolite Mystery: Who Dung It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Discover the secrets contained in fossilized feces. Few topics in middle school classrooms capture students' enthusiasm and interest as do coprolites. These trace fossils offer classroom opportunities for integrated life and Earth sciences study, a stranger-than-fiction history of science, and an opportunity to solve mysteries. (Contains 8…

  8. The Mystery Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2008-01-01

    All teachers and media specialists are looking for the "hook" that will engage their students and make them want to learn--and according to the author, mystery stories are a perfect way to create that hook. Here, she presents a unit on mysteries, intended for collaboration between media specialists and language arts teachers. The unit uses…

  9. Scientist to Scientist Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of its mission to enhance collaboration between scientists and engineers from the US and other countries, the International Directorate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) placed the newsletter Scientist to Scientist online. Past issues of the newsletter (back to April 1992) report on funding opportunities and other programs (such as conferences, workshops, etc.) that "promote scientific cooperation in East Central Europe and the NIS."

  10. Space Mysteries: Making Science and Astronomy Learning Fun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, P.; Tim, G.; Cominsky, L.

    2001-12-01

    How do you get and keep a student's attention during class? Make learning fun! Using a game to teach students ensures that they have fun, enjoy the lesson and remember it. We have developed a series of interactive web and CD based games called "Space Mysteries" to teach students math, physics and astronomy. Using real NASA data, the students must find out Who (or What) dunit in an engaging astronomy mystery. The games include video interviews with famous scientists, actors playing roles who give clues to the solution, and even a few blind alleys and red herrings. The first three games are currently online in beta release at http://mystery.sonoma.edu.

  11. Cell biology solves mysteries of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sutovsky, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Reproduction and fertility have been objects of keen inquiry since the dawn of humanity. Medieval anatomists provided the first accurate depictions of the female reproductive system, and early microscopists were fascinated by the magnified sight of sperm cells. Initial successes were achieved in the in vitro fertilization of frogs and the artificial insemination of dogs. Gamete and embryo research was in the cradle of modern cell biology, providing the first evidence of the multi-cellular composition of living beings and pointing out the importance of chromosomes for heredity. In the 20th century, reproductive research paved the way for the study of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, and the cell cycle. In the last three decades, the advent of reproductive cell biology has brought us human in vitro fertilization, animal cloning, and human and animal embryonic stem cells. It has contributed to the development of transgenesis, proteomics, genomics, and epigenetics. This Special Issue represents a sample of the various areas of reproductive biology, with emphasis on molecular and cell biological aspects. Advances in spermatology, ovarian function, fertilization, and maternal-fetal interactions are discussed within the framework of fertility and diseases such as endometriosis and diabetes. PMID:22864985

  12. Mystery of the squid beak solved

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2008-03-27

    A squid's mouth has a sharp beak that it uses to slice through the spinal cord of fish and tear them into pieces for an easy-to-eat meal. The squid beak is made out of some of the hardest material found in nature.

  13. Curious Scientific Investigators Solve Museum Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth Wood

    2008-01-01

    The Children's Museum of Indianapolis has developed the Curious Scientific Investigators (CSI) program, which mixes the best the Museum has to offer with classroom instruction. Therefore, CSI's vision is to support learning by all members of a classroom community, stimulate a lifelong interest in science, and demonstrate the museum as a place of investigation. The program targets three areas of emphasis: (a) guiding students in active and extended scientific inquiry, (b) developing teacher skills in integration of science knowledge, and (c) helping teachers implement inquiry strategies. The program combines the strong informal learning orientation of the museum with these elements of the NSES standards into a cohesive program that incorporates professional development, small-group inquiry experiences, student-centered learning, and content-rich experiences. These learning opportunities are grounded in the inquiry-based environment of the museum that promotes interaction and collaboration.

  14. Solving the Mystery of the AFRICA Dummy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Englebert

    2000-01-01

    Most empirical studies have reported a negative effect on growth of being an African country, even when accounting for ethnic heterogeneity. Modeling policy choices has reduced this effect in recent studies, but these have begged the question of why Africa appears adverse to developmental policies. This paper uses a cross-sectional data set to show that the governments of arbitrary postcolonial

  15. The Paluxy River Footprint Mystery--Solved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R., Ed.; Godfrey, Laurie R., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This document points out that creationists claim that humans and dinosaurs lived together in Texas just before Noah's flood by citing alleged human footprints found side-by-side with those of dinosaurs in the Cretaceous limestone of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. An investigation was conducted to determine if this claim were true.…

  16. Science Nation: Unraveling the Mysteries of Tornadoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    To better understand tornadoes, scientists, with the help of the National Science Foundation, are embarking on a quest to unravel the mysteries of tornadoes. The project is called VORTEX2, but it could also be called the amazing chase. For five weeks in the spring of 2009, and again in spring 2010, 100 researchers and scientists from 16 universities will deploy about 40 vehicles armed with high tech equipment to measure and probe tornadoes and tornado development. The researchers will span across the Midwest in search of tornadoes--all to better understand how, when and why they form.

  17. Detective Scientist - Duration: 0:31.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA has many detectives looking for clues to solve a mystery, like "science detective" Monsi Roman. She is making sure the water and air on board the International Space Station are safe for the a...

  18. Mystery #11 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #11: Queensland, Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Queensland, Australia, were captured by the instrument's nadir camera on November 19, 2001, ...

  19. A Spectral Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students use the spectrographs from the "Building a Fancy Spectrograph" activity to gather data about light sources. Using their data, they make comparisons between different light sources and make conjectures about the composition of a mystery light source.

  20. Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Using a quartet of space observatories, University of Maryland astronomers may have cracked a 45-year mystery surrounding two ghostly spiral arms in the galaxy M106. The Maryland team, led by Yuxuan Yang, took advantage of the unique capabilities of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, and data obtained almost a decade ago with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. NGC X-ray Image NGC 4258 X-ray Image M106 (also known as NGC 4258) is a stately spiral galaxy 23.5 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. In visible-light images, two prominent arms emanate from the bright nucleus and spiral outward. These arms are dominated by young, bright stars, which light up the gas within the arms. "But in radio and X-ray images, two additional spiral arms dominate the picture, appearing as ghostly apparitions between the main arms," says team member Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland. These so-called "anomalous arms" consist mostly of gas. "The nature of these anomalous arms is a long-standing puzzle in astronomy," says Yang. "They have been a mystery since they were first discovered in the early 1960s." By analyzing data from XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and Chandra, Yang, Bo Li, Wilson, and Christopher Reynolds, all at the University of Maryland at College Park, have confirmed earlier suspicions that the ghostly arms represent regions of gas that are being violently heated by shock waves. Previously, some astronomers had suggested that the anomalous arms are jets of particles being ejected by a supermassive black hole in M106's nucleus. But radio observations by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico, later identified another pair of jets originating in the core. "It is highly unlikely that an active galactic nucleus could have more than one pair of jets," says Yang. In 2001, Wilson, Yang, and Gerald Cecil, of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, noted that the two jets are tipped 30 degrees with respect to the galaxy disk. But if one could vertically project the jets onto the disk, they would line up almost perfectly with the anomalous arms. Figuring that this alignment was not strictly a matter of chance, Wilson, Yang, and Cecil proposed that the jets heat the gas in their line of travel, forming an expanding cocoon. Because the jets lie close to M106's disk, the cocoon heats gas in the disk and generates shock waves, heating the gas to millions of degrees and causing it to radiate brightly in X-rays and other wavelengths. Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 To test this idea, Yang and his colleagues looked at archival spectral observations from XMM-Newton. With XMM-Newton's superb sensitivity, the team could measure the gas temperature in the anomalous arms and also see how strongly X-rays from the gas are absorbed en route by intervening material. "One of the predictions of this scenario is that the anomalous arms will gradually be pushed out of the galactic disk plane by jet-heated gas," says Yang. The XMM-Newton spectra show that X-rays are more strongly absorbed in the direction of the northwest arm than in the southeast arm. The results strongly suggest that the southeast arm is partly on the near side of M106's disk, and the northwest arm is partly on the far side. The scientists noted that these observations show clear consistency with their scenario. Confirmation of this interpretation has recently come from archival observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, whose infrared view shows clear signs that X-ray emission from the northwest arm is being absorbed by warm gas and dust in the galaxy's disk. Moreover, Chandra's superior imaging resolution gives clear indications of gas shocked by interactions with the two jets. Besides addressing the mystery of the anomalous arms, these observations allowed the team to estimate the energy in the jet

  1. Childbed Fever A Nineteenth-Century Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christa Colyer

    1999-01-01

    This case describes the pioneering work of Ignaz Semmelweis and his efforts to remedy the problem of childbed fever in mid-19th century Europe.  Its purpose is to teach students about the scientific method by “dissecting” the various steps involved in this important, historical medical breakthrough. The case is an interrupted case, that is, students receive only one piece of information at a time, followed by discussion, before moving on to the next piece of information to solve the mystery.

  2. UMass scientist poses new theory of life By STAN FREEMAN

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    UMass scientist poses new theory of life By STAN FREEMAN Staff writer AMHERST - It's possible some light on that mystery in an article published last week in Nature, one of the world's premier. "That is still one of the great mysteries," he said. #12;

  3. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  4. Building Collections. Mystery and Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    Mystery and Adventure travel the same path. Within every mystery is an adventure, be it a struggle for survival, network of suspense, or matching of wits. A mystery is a secret jigsaw puzzle. Its popularity lies in the author's skillful engagement of the reader in putting together the pieces by using such elements as clues, foreshadowing, and…

  5. Increasing the Relevance: A Who Done It Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the approach she used to teach American government to high school seniors. Beginning with a court procedure unit, the central strategy she used for this unit was a murder mystery that peaked the students' curiosity and encouraged them to think like scientists and lawyers. The court procedure lesson uses a…

  6. Martian Mysteries Is there any life on Mars right now?

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Martian Mysteries · Is there any life on Mars right now? · Was there ever life on Mars? · Can humans live on Mars? · How would YOU find the answers? #12;Scientists have been trying to answer these questions by sending space probes to Mars. Enjoy these 3-D photos from Mars missions. #12;Mars Pathfinder 3D

  7. A Microbial Murder Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Melissa A.; Mitchell, James K.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a microbial mystery activity to test students' knowledge of human anatomy and their ability to identify microbes. Provides an opportunity for students to develop logical deductive reasoning. Includes national science education standards related to this activity, activity sheets with whole procedures, and Internet resources. (KHR)

  8. Ralph Keeler, Journalism's Mystery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Graham

    1963-01-01

    Ralph O. Keeler had established a bright reputation as a magazine writer and New York Tribune correspondent when he mysteriously disappeared from a steamer off Cuba in 1873. The author makes Keeler come alive again as “the best loved freelance journalist” of his time.

  9. Mysteries of the Sun

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    Mysteries of the Sun is a unique NASA resource on the web, in print, and with companion videos, introducing Heliophysics - the study of the Sun's influence throughout the solar system and, in particular, its connection to the Earth and Earth's extended space environment. Topics include space weather, solar variability, the heliosphere, Earth's magnetosphere, and the Earth's upper atmosphere.

  10. Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-06-10

    The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

  11. The Mystery Constellation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This activity is intended to extend the astronomy curriculum so that students may learn more about constellations. Beginning early in the school year, students are introduced to mystery constellations every month and work on identifying them through the school year. They will also map the constellations they have learned at the culmination of the unit.

  12. Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

  13. Mystery Box Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  14. Passport to Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wilda

    2010-01-01

    Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

  15. The Mystery of Decimals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-30

    This lesson reviews all four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing) with decimals. It is designed to easily provide differentiated instruction for the struggling students, as well as extensions for the high level students. The culmination of the lesson is a computer based assessment set in a mystery format which provides a fun change from a typical pencil and paper test.

  16. Mystery Box Writing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Straits

    2005-11-01

    Developing writing skills along with content by incorporating hands-on science experiences and related writing lessons provides students with a purpose for writing, which makes it more meaningful to students. The Mystery Box lesson discussed in this article is a fun science/writing activity which helps students to develop observation skills while also motivating students to write.

  17. ToxMystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Specialized Information Services Division (National Library of Medicine; )

    2007-02-28

    ToxMystery is an interactive learning site for 7-10 year old kids. It provides a game-like experience while introducing potential environmental health hazards sometimes found in the home.Toxie the cat helps find the hazards hidden in each room, and offers hints when needed. The objective is to find all the hazards. When all the hazards in the house have been discovered, Toxie delivers an animated celebration, and players can print a personalized certificate.ToxMystery's Parent Resources page provides more detailed information about everyday environmental hazards that can be harmful to one's health. A For Teachers page contains more than ten downloadable activity pages that can be used in elementary school classrooms.

  18. Mysteries of Catalhoyuk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catalhoyuk (chat-al-hoy-ook), which means "forked mound," is a major Neolithic archaeological site in south-central Turkey considered to be one of the first "urban" centers, built between 8,000 and 10,0000 years ago. This engaging multimedia Website, developed by the Science Museum of Minnesota for a general audience, examines the big mysteries underlying Catalhoyuk, as seen through the eyes of an international team of archaeologists and other specialists. Visitors may sift through artifacts and recent findings from the excavations, learn about the people and processes behind the digs, take a virtual tour of the site, or investigate the mysteries surrounding human remains, food habits, murals, clay balls, and goddess figurines.

  19. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  20. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All who live on Earth must recognize that they play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. People must solve this great atmospheric mystery if they are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  1. Space Mysteries: Solar Supernova

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-02-27

    This interactive, computer-based activity presents a series of inquiries that allow students to discover how the colors, masses, and luminosities of stars are related. Students also investigate how these characteristics influence the life cycle of the stars. The concluding activity allows students to use the information learned in the previous activities to determine the eventual fate of our Sun. The activity is part of the Space Mysteries series.

  2. BOTANY: The Abominable Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William L. Crepet (Cornell University; L. H. Bailey Hortorium, Division of Biological Sciences)

    1998-11-27

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A report by Sun et al. describes the first plausible fossil evidence of a Jurassic angiosperm (the type of plants that have flowers and fruits). This finding has important implications for one of evolutionary biology's most enduring puzzles: the origin of, and relationships within, the flowering plants--what Charles Darwin called the "abominable mystery."

  3. Mystery Fish of Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This worksheet from the Midwest Regional Center for Nanotechnology Education (NANO-LINK) contains instructions for an experiment using a mystery fish. This fun experiment will introduce students to the applications of the Scientific Method. Each student will place the magic fish made of cellophane on his or her hand and watch it curl followed by hypothesizing why this occurs. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format.

  4. A Spectral Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-06

    This is a lesson about using light to identify the composition of an object. Learners will use a spectrograph to gather data about light sources. Using the data they’ve collected, students are able to make comparisons between different light sources and make conjectures about the composition of a mystery light source. The activity is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering program for middle-high school students, focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

  5. Scientist Connections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For scientists desiring to become more involved in education, the COSEE Mid-Atlantic is dedicated to establishing meaningful and productive collaborations between scientists and educators. This web site is meant to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. The information is broken down by how much time the scientist is willing to dedicate to education and public outreach.

  6. The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Christy; Biglan, Barbara; Ritson, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches…

  7. It's a mystery : Mystery shopping in New Zealand's public libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Calvert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – To explore and evaluate the evidence about the effectiveness of “mystery shopping” as a technique for service evaluation in the public library system of one country. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A critical summary and review of the literature in this field. Interviews with public librarians in New Zealand who have used mystery shopping. Findings – Demonstrates that there were three

  8. History Mystery: A Documents-Based Lesson on Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libresco, Andrea S.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson used with fourth and fifth graders focusing on women's rights in the 1880s in which students solve a mystery through historical research. States the lesson prepares elementary students to investigate historical questions by examining primary sources. (CMK)

  9. Murder mystery for student practice of pulmonary physiology calculations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Michael B Maron (Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine Physiology and Pharmacology)

    2008-02-26

    A paper and pencil exercise where students use many of the equations of pulmonary physiology to solve a murder mystery. These are instructor and student word document versions of the published Advan. Physiol. Edu. 261: 3S-6S, 1991 that may be used in the classroom.

  10. The Mysterious Hammerhead

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    Of all the animals in the oceans, the hammerhead shark may be one of the strangest looking. The exact purpose of the wide, flat head is a mystery, but several theories abound. In this video, we travel to the shark-infested waters of the Galapagos in Ecuador and to a research station in Hawaii to learn about the unusual habits of these sinister-looking sharks. Jonathan swims in schools of hundreds of hammerheads, and yet the sharks ignore him. What are the sharks up to? Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  11. Mysteries of the Deep

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Scientific American Frontiers website contains videos from the television episode Mysteries of the Deep, as well as related articles and student activities. The videos explore the technology that has opened up the farthest reaches of the ocean and made it possible to lift shipwrecks from the ocean floor. The videos total to approximately one hour in length. The articles explore evidence in support of the flood in the biblical story of Noah; what deep-ocean research has revealed about continental drift, plate tectonics, and the formation of the Earth; and how shipwrecks are lifted from the ocean floor.

  12. The Mysterious Dark Energy

    E-print Network

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2004-11-24

    The concept of an all pervading Aether is age old, and contrary to popular belief, it survived the twentieth century too though with different nuances. Using this concept of a background Quantum Vacuum, the author in 1997 proposed a cosmological model with some resemblance to the Dirac cosmology, which correctly predicted a dark energy driven accelerating universer with a small cosmological constant, as was subsequently confirmed by observation in 1998. Moreover the so called Large Number coincidences including the mysterious Weinberg formula are deduced in this theory, rather than being ad hoc. We examine the concept of Aether in this context and indicate how this dark energy may be harnessed.

  13. Glueballs: Advances, problems, mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkov, S.

    1989-04-25

    Identifying glueballs is intimately intertwined with the study of meson spectroscopy. Recent expreimental results agree remarkably well with OCD inspired predictions for the masses of the 0/sup /minus/+/, 1/sup +/minus//, 1/sup + +/ mesons. For the 0/sup /minus/+/ and 1/sup + +/ systems, these agreements lead to the possibility of identifying additional states as candidates for exotica. Major mysteries are: what is the theta(1720), and why are the 2/sup + +/ g/sub T/ states not seen in J//psi/ /r arrow/ ..gamma../phi//phi/, in view of the fact that the OZI-violating mechanism should be a good way to produce glueballs.

  14. The Mystery of Music Raising

    E-print Network

    Tam, Vincent W. L.

    2 The Mystery of Music Raising the Tone Volume 6 Number 3 May 31, 2005Volume 6 Number 3 May 31, 2005 THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG The Mystery of Music Raising the Tone #12;Patients are Human Too graduates." 1 NEWS ROUND-UPCONTENTS Editor The Registrar Editorial Board Sheila Stimpson, Dora Yue Writers

  15. A Long-Standing Mystery Solved: The Formation of 3-Hydroxydesloratadine Is Catalyzed by CYP2C8 But Prior Glucuronidation of Desloratadine by UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B10 Is an Obligatory Requirement.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Faraz; Barbara, Joanna E; Yerino, Phyllis; Parkinson, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Desloratadine (Clarinex), the major active metabolite of loratadine (Claritin), is a nonsedating long-lasting antihistamine that is widely used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. For over 20 years, it has remained a mystery as to which enzymes are responsible for the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine, the major active human metabolite, largely due to the inability of any in vitro system tested thus far to generate this metabolite. In this study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved human hepatocytes (CHHs) form 3-hydroxydesloratadine and its corresponding O-glucuronide. CHHs catalyzed the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine with a Km of 1.6 ?M and a Vmax of 1.3 pmol/min per million cells. Chemical inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in CHHs demonstrated that gemfibrozil glucuronide (CYP2C8 inhibitor) and 1-aminobenzotriazole (general P450 inhibitor) inhibited 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation by 91% and 98%, respectively. Other inhibitors of CYP2C8 (gemfibrozil, montelukast, clopidogrel glucuronide, repaglinide, and cerivastatin) also caused extensive inhibition of 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation (73%-100%). Assessment of desloratadine, amodiaquine, and paclitaxel metabolism by a panel of individual CHHs demonstrated that CYP2C8 marker activity robustly correlated with 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation (r(2) of 0.70-0.90). Detailed mechanistic studies with sonicated or saponin-treated CHHs, human liver microsomes, and S9 fractions showed that both NADPH and UDP-glucuronic acid are required for 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation, and studies with recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and P450 enzymes implicated the specific involvement of UGT2B10 in addition to CYP2C8. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time that desloratadine glucuronidation by UGT2B10 followed by CYP2C8 oxidation and a deconjugation event are responsible for the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine. PMID:25595597

  16. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This presentation highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines around "mystery planets" using orbiting "spacecraft" (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle/high school age audiences. However, we also show a scaled-down version that has been used with elementary school age audiences.

  17. The mystery of reincarnation

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of “reincarnation” which literally means “to take on the flesh again.” As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was “East” and “West.” The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  18. The Mysterious Bogpeople

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Despite the seemingly spooky title of this site, visitors should not be afraid of entering and exploring around the contents of this very interactive site. Created through a collaborative partnership between organizations such as the Canadian Museum of Civilization and the Drents Museum, this site concerns itself with the artifacts and material world created by the so-called "bogpeople" of northwestern Europe who lived approximately 10,000 years ago. Visitors can explore their world through sections that include "Science", "Timeline", "Profile" and "Mediatheatre". The "Mediatheatre" section is a good place to start as visitors can view short film clips that cover the mysteries of the bog, fishing with a harpoon, and the fabled Ubbena wheel. Moving along, the "Timeline" area gives some nice chronological context to the events and transformations covered by the site, and the "Science" area includes some insights into what archaeologists do in the field.

  19. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

  20. Electricity: The Mysterious Force

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This document examines the mysterious force of electricity. The reading will focus on the physical properties of electricity and discuss topics such as (1) The Atom of Carbon, (2) Static electricity, (3) Magnets are special, (4) Magnetic fields can produce electricity, (5) Batteries produce electricity, (6) Electricity travels in circuits, (7) Secondary energy source, (8) Making electricity, (9) Moving electricity from power plants to homes, (10) Fuels that make electricity, (11) Fossil fuel power plants, (12) Nuclear power plants, (13) Hydropower plants, (14) What's a Watt, and (15) Cost of electricity. The document also depicts illustrations of a bar magnet, turbine generator, transporting electricity, U.S. electricity production, peak demand, and energy efficiency. This resource is structured as an informational booklet to supplement your energy activities or to generate discussion questions.

  1. The mystery of reincarnation.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  2. Reflections on Mystery and Awe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Elkins

    2001-01-01

    In this “Discussant's Response” to the foregoing papers, the author shares his own reactions and then underscores the importance of awe by quoting poets, mystics, writers, and scholars who understood that mystery is central to human life.

  3. Exquisite Corpses : an architectural mystery

    E-print Network

    Canizares, Galo

    2014-01-01

    In 1937, writing about the parallels between mystery fiction and urban dwelling, Walter Benjamin wrote, ""in times of terror, when everyone is something of a conspirator, everybody will be in the position of having to play ...

  4. The Mystery Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for larger view

    This high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the region containing the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station. Scientists examined this patch on the 13th and 15th martian days, or sols, of Spirit's journey. Using nearly all the science instruments located on the rover's instrument deployment device or 'arm,' scientists yielded some puzzling results including the detection of a mineral called olivine and the appearance that the soil is stronger and more cohesive than they expected. Like detectives searching for clues, the science team will continue to peruse the landscape for explanations of their findings.

    Data taken from the camera's red, green and blue filters were combined to create this approximate true color picture, acquired on the 12th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey.

    The yellow box (see inset above) in this high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit outlines the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station.

  5. Citizen Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katherine Bennett

    2010-09-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest

  6. Dr. Earl N. Meyer, in the lab, with a scalpel: a murder mystery as a biochemistry recruitment tool.

    PubMed

    Vulcu, Felicia; Heirwegh, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student participation in science is an ongoing challenge for many universities. In this active learning workshop, centered on inquiry and teamwork, we introduce high-school students to biochemistry and molecular biology techniques using a murder mystery activity. During this intensive 3 hr workshop, we engage students in a murder scenario entitled "The Case of the Silenced Scientist." A commercially available DNA fingerprinting kit was used as a basis to create a customized scenario whereby students collaborate with one another to solve a murder mystery. Through analysis of DNA samples taken from the crime scene and suspects, students can identify the murderer while developing technical, teamwork, and critical thinking skills. Emphasis is placed on teamwork by immersing students in the collaborative process of research inquiry. Though short in duration, this workshop aims to build student relationships to science through creativity and exploration. In this article, we describe the key customized applications of this workshop as a blueprint for science recruitment. We focus on the workshop facilitators' perceived learning impact on students. PMID:25395001

  7. Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia

    SciTech Connect

    Balos, Sebastian [Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia (Serbia ); Benscoter, Arlan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Pense, Alan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)], E-mail: awp0@lehigh.edu

    2009-04-15

    A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

  8. Swedish Scientists have Solved Honey's Enigma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, it was discovered by Olofsson and Vasquez (2008) that a novel flora composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, exists in the honey stomach of the honey bee Apis mellifera. The twelve different flora members varied numerically with the sources o...

  9. An Antipodal Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clyde Freeman Herreid

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of the platypus had the scientific world in an uproar and kept it tantalized for decades. Here was the strangest animal ever seen. How was one to classify it? It had fur. So, was it a mammal? But then what to make of its duck-like bill? And how did it produce and suckle its young? Based on the book by Ann Moyal titled Platypus: The Extraordinary Story of How a Curious Creature Baffled the World, the case focuses on classification and evolution and models the scientific process, with scientists arguing, debating, collecting more information, and revising their opinions as more data become available.

  10. Big Mysteries: Dark Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

  11. Mummy Tales and Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Myers

    2010-06-04

    Thanks to technology, history, and deductive reasoning, experts are able to access important scientific and cultural information about mummies. In turn, this information usually reveals much about the culture, religion, and daily lives of the members of a civilization. But how do scientists find out a mummy's sex, age, diet, social standing, cause of death, or original appearance? Utah State Core: Standard 1 - Students will gain an understanding of early civilizations and their contributions to the foundations of human culture. Objective 3 - Examine the major characteristics of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the ...

  12. Big Mysteries: Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-15

    Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

  13. The Scientist

    E-print Network

    Seroude, Laurent

    , resulting in fat body transition, upregulation of immune genes, and gut remodeling. Most larval bacteriaThe Scientist :: Bacteria help Drosophila August 19, 2004 Previous | Next Bacteria help Drosophila Fly lifespan is boosted by early exposure to bacteria, but curbed by presence late in life

  14. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  15. USGS Scientist

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Janice Albers presents study results at the 6th International Symposium on Sturgeon in Wuhan, China in 2009. USGS scientists and their collaborators in the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project provided six presentations at the symposium on topics ranging from reproductive readiness, migration, sp...

  16. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quizzes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    These quizzes are designed to inspire understanding of the physical, biological and human processes that influence our home planet and cover topics from archaeology to zoology. Several resources for discovering and revealing the meaning of image features may help new geographical detectives to solve the challenging quiz questions. A new Where on Earth...? mystery quiz appears periodically. Answers are published on the MISR web site. The names and hometowns of respondents who answer all questions correctly by the deadline will also be published in the order responses were received. The first 3 people on this list who are not affiliated with NASA, JPL, or MISR and who have not previously won a prize will be sent a print of the image.

  17. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  18. The Three Color Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program, Center of Advancement of Engineering Fibers and Films,

    Students are introduced to an engineering challenge in which they are given a job assignment to separate three types of apples. However, they are unable to see the color differences between the apples, and as a result, they must think as engineers to design devices that can be used to help them distinguish the apples from one another. Solving the challenge depends on an understanding of wave properties and the biology of sight. After being introduced to the challenge, students form ideas and brainstorm about what background knowledge is required to solve the challenge. A class discussion produces student ideas that can be grouped into broad subject categories: waves and wave properties, light and the electromagnetic spectrum, and the structure of the eye.

  19. The 'Razorback' Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The pointy features in this image may only be a few centimeters high and less than 1 centimeter (0.4 inches) wide, but they generate major scientific interest. Dubbed 'Razorback,' this chunk of rock sticks up at the edge of flat rocks in 'Endurance Crater.' Based on their understanding of processes on Earth, scientists believe these features may have formed when fluids migrated through fractures, depositing minerals. Fracture-filling minerals would have formed veins composed of a harder material that eroded more slowly than the rock slabs.

    Possible examination of these features using the instruments on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity may further explain what these features have to do with the history of water on Mars. This false-color image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  20. Exploring Meteorite Mysteries: Slide Set

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of slides is designed to accompany the teacher's guide 'Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.' The slides include images of recent and historic meteorites, impact sites and craters, collecting sites, and a sequence of slides on where meteorites come from and how they reach the Earth. They can be viewed online and are also available in a downloadable, printable format.

  1. Technological Clues to Ancient Mysteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    The components of archeological research, including the low and high tech tools employed in its pursuit, are described. Archeology appeals to students because of its sense of mystery and is rich in cross-curricular possibilities. Activities based on the Anasazi people (prehistoric people of southwest United States) are included. (KR)

  2. DNA Methyltransferases: Facts, Clues, Mysteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Brenner; F. Fuks

    DNA methylation plays a pivotal role during development in mammals and is central to transcriptional silencing. The DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are responsible for the generation of genomic methylation patterns leading to gene silencing, but the underlying molecular basis remains largely shrouded in mystery. Here we review our current understanding of the mechanisms by which DNMTs repress transcription and how they

  3. Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

  4. A Mysterious Advertisement BRIAN RANDELL

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    A Mysterious Advertisement BRIAN RANDELL Editor's Note. Brian Randell submitted the following notes on July 9, 1981, in response to seeing the text of the advertisement mentioned by Garry J. Tee in this issue) contain one very curious item in Babbage's handwriting, namely the text of an advertisement

  5. Theorem of Mystery: Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Real, Francis

    2008-01-01

    While the author was searching the web, he came across an article by Michael Keyton of IMSA (Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy) called "Theorems of mystery". The phrase is Keyton's own, and he defines such a theorem as "a result that has considerable structure with minimal hypotheses." The simplest of his 10 examples is one that many…

  6. How To Write a Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinhart, Larry

    Drawing on examples from the best and most popular works in mystery writing--from Raymond Chandler and Mickey Spillane to Scott Turow and Thomas Harris--this book introduces the fledgling writer to his or her most indispensable "partners in crime": character, plot, and procedure; the secrets to creating heroes and villains; the art of scripting…

  7. Geological mysteries on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

    The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  8. A Mysterious Disease Is Infecting Northeast Clam Beds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Powell, Hugh

    This Oceanus article examines Quahog Parasite Unknown, a mysterious new threat to the shellfish aquaculture business. Code-named QPX, the parasite is an obscure, single-celled relative of slime mold that has both animal and fungal characteristics. QPX secretes a thick layer of mucus to ward off the clam's immune response and was responsible for killing nine out of every ten clams in some plots when it first hit the Massachusetts coast in 1993. The article follows the efforts of Woods Hole scientists Roxanna Smolowitz and Rebecca Gast as they learn more about QPX and search for ways to prevent the disease. It also features links to related websites.

  9. The puzzling unsolved mysteries of liquid water: Some recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Kumar, P.; Xu, L.; Yan, Z.; Mazza, M. G.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Chen, S.-H.; Mallamace, F.

    2007-12-01

    Water is perhaps the most ubiquitous, and the most essential, of any molecule on earth. Indeed, it defies the imagination of even the most creative science fiction writer to picture what life would be like without water. Despite decades of research, however, water's puzzling properties are not understood and 63 anomalies that distinguish water from other liquids remain unsolved. We introduce some of these unsolved mysteries, and demonstrate recent progress in solving them. We present evidence from experiments and computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water displays a special transition point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell). The general idea is that when the liquid is near this “tipping point,” it suddenly separates into two distinct liquid phases. This concept of a new critical point is finding application to other liquids as well as water, such as silicon and silica. We also discuss related puzzles, such as the mysterious behavior of water near a protein.

  10. Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.; DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the kidnapping of a child whose fingerprints were not found inside the crime vehicle. Discusses the investigation that followed and led to knowledge of the differences between the fingerprints of children and adults. (DDR)

  11. Comment on "Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes"

    E-print Network

    B. Andreotti; L. Bonneau; E. Clement

    2007-10-30

    We show here that the standard physical model used by Vriend et al. to analyse seismograph data, namely a non-dispersive bulk propagation, does not apply to the surface layer of sand dunes. According to several experimental, theoretical and field results, the only possible propagation of sound waves in a dry sand bed under gravity is through an infinite, yet discrete, number of dispersive surface modes. Besides, we present a series of evidences, most of which have already been published in the literature, that the frequency of booming avalanches is not controlled by any resonance as argued in this article. In particular, plotting the data provided by Vriend et al. as a table, it turns out that they do not present any correlation between the booming frequency and their estimate of the resonant frequency.

  12. Latitude: How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    First longitude, now latitude. From Latitude's title we cannot help thinking of Dava Sobel's recent bestseller, Longitude. I suppose it's unlikely to be such a moneymaker, but this delightful new book by Bill and Merri Sue Carter, a father and daughter team, is similar to Sobel's book. Both are physically small, with short chapters, which makes for a quick read. And both have a clear hero: John Harrison and his chronometers for longitude; and Seth Carlo Chandler Jr. and his almucantar for latitude. Both books eschew academic-style footnoting, although Latitude does list a few useful sources for each chapter and provides a comprehensive list of Chandler's astronomical publications. Chandler's name is known to most AGU members for its association with the 14-month wobble of the Earth's pole. He also discovered the slightly smaller annual wobble, and an argument can be made that he was the principal discoverer of polar motion, or latitude variation, in general.

  13. Solving the mystery of the internal structure of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Ingham, B; Erlangga, G D; Smialowska, A; Kirby, N M; Wang, C; Matia-Merino, L; Haverkamp, R G; Carr, A J

    2015-03-25

    The interpretation of milk X-ray and neutron scattering data in relation to the internal structure of the casein micelle is an ongoing debate. We performed resonant X-ray scattering measurements on liquid milk and conclusively identified key scattering features, namely those corresponding to the size of and the distance between colloidal calcium phosphate particles. An X-ray scattering feature commonly assigned to the particle size is instead due to protein inhomogeneities. PMID:25711160

  14. The enigmatic star EZ Pegasi - A mystery solved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, S. B.; Bopp, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    EZ Peg, a ninth-magnitude G star that has been classified by various authors as an irregular variable, a U Gem system, and a contact binary, is shown to have all the spectroscopic and photometric characteristics of an active-chromosphere RS CVn binary. It is suggested that the reported outburst of 1943, when the spectrum appeared to be that of a B star, never occurred. The strong Ca II H and K reversals, viewed with low spectral resolution, caused the photospheric Ca II absorption to appear abnormally weak, mimicking a much earlier spectral type.

  15. Subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers: enduring enigma or mystery solved?

    PubMed

    Cullen, John J

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) is not a unique ecological response to environmental conditions; rather, a broad range of interacting processes can contribute to the formation of persistent layers of elevated chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) that are nearly ubiquitous in stratified surface waters. Mechanisms that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the SCMLs include a local maximum in phytoplankton growth rate near the nutricline, photoacclimation of pigment content that leads to elevated Chl relative to phytoplankton biomass at depth, and a range of physiologically influenced swimming behaviors in motile phytoplankton and buoyancy control in diatoms and cyanobacteria that can lead to aggregations of phytoplankton in layers, subject to grazing and physical control. A postulated typical stable water structure characterizes consistent patterns in vertical profiles of Chl, phytoplankton biomass, nutrients, and light across a trophic gradient structured by the vertical flux of nutrients and characterized by the average daily irradiance at the nutricline. Hypothetical predictions can be tested using a nascent biogeochemical global ocean observing system. Partial results to date are generally consistent with predictions based on current knowledge, which has strong roots in research from the twentieth century. PMID:25251268

  16. Subsurface Chlorophyll Maximum Layers: Enduring Enigma or Mystery Solved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, John J.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) is not a unique ecological response to environmental conditions; rather, a broad range of interacting processes can contribute to the formation of persistent layers of elevated chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) that are nearly ubiquitous in stratified surface waters. Mechanisms that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the SCMLs include a local maximum in phytoplankton growth rate near the nutricline, photoacclimation of pigment content that leads to elevated Chl relative to phytoplankton biomass at depth, and a range of physiologically influenced swimming behaviors in motile phytoplankton and buoyancy control in diatoms and cyanobacteria that can lead to aggregations of phytoplankton in layers, subject to grazing and physical control. A postulated typical stable water structure characterizes consistent patterns in vertical profiles of Chl, phytoplankton biomass, nutrients, and light across a trophic gradient structured by the vertical flux of nutrients and characterized by the average daily irradiance at the nutricline. Hypothetical predictions can be tested using a nascent biogeochemical global ocean observing system. Partial results to date are generally consistent with predictions based on current knowledge, which has strong roots in research from the twentieth century.

  17. Woolly mammoth diet mystery solved by DNA analysis

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    roamed the Arctic during the Ice Age. (Mauricio Anton) What did giant mammals like woolly mammoths and helps explain the rise and fall of giant mammals. Up until now, the diet of mammoths and other large to sustaining the populations of large mammals." Forbs include many plants that humans eat, including

  18. Mystery big cats’ in the Peruvian Amazon: morphometrics solve a cryptozoological mystery

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Hocking, Peter; Sanchez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Two big cat skulls procured from hunters of Yanachaga National Park, Peru, were reported as those of cats informally dubbed the ‘striped tiger’ and ‘anomalous jaguar’. Observations suggested that both skulls were distinct from those of jaguars, associated descriptions of integument did not conform to this species, and it has been implied that both represent members of one or two novel species. We sought to resolve the identity of the skulls using morphometrics. DNA could not be retrieved since both had been boiled as part of the defleshing process. We took 36 cranial and 13 mandibular measurements and added them to a database incorporating nearly 300 specimens of over 30 felid species. Linear discriminant analysis resolved both specimens as part of Panthera onca with high probabilities for cranial and mandibular datasets. Furthermore, the specimens exhibit characters typical of jaguars. If the descriptions of their patterning and pigmentation are accurate, we assume that both individuals were aberrant. PMID:24688867

  19. Halley's Legacy: The Selfless Genius Who Founded Geophysics, Led the Science Community to Solve the Problem of Finding Longitude at Sea, and Whose Work in Areas from Geomagnetism to Planetology Still Has Meaning For Today's Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, J.

    2005-12-01

    2005 marks the 300th anniversary of Edmond Halley's publication of his infamous synopsis predicting the accurate return of the comet that would come to bear his name. On this occasion, it is time to remember him not only as the founder of geophysics but for his contributions to the world of science beyond his comet work. Halley's comet-transformed by the first triumph of the Newtonian revolution from a dire supernatural omen to a predictable element of the universe's clockwork-remains a recurring symbol of the scientific age of the Enlightenment. His comet is hurtling through space at some 20,000 miles per hour and won't be back until 2061. But it can remind us of past epochs and everlastingly of Halley's contributions to geophysics and the world of science writ large. For a start, Halley completed a series of little known sea voyages in his effort to solve one of his life-long quests: the problem of determining longitude at sea. On the basis of his earlier theories on magnetism, his approach entailed mapping the magnetic deviation across the test-bed of the Atlantic Ocean. In this paper, his findings from the voyages, which technically comprised the first science mission funded by a government and stand as the forerunner of all big science projects, will be reconsidered and put into the context of today's notions about terrestrial magnetism, including the geodynamo. To this day, scientists remain perplexed about exactly how core's dynamo regenerates its energy. When Halley was sailing his vessel, the Paramore, across the North Atlantic and making the first charts of geomagnetism, little did he ever imagine magnetism would underpin today's stunning advances in information technology and electromagnetic engineering. Magnetism also offers ways to study phase transitions, random disorder, and physics in low dimensions, which looks at particle interactions at ever higher energies in order to essentially study matter at smaller and smaller size scales. The presentation will also give an overview of his legacy to geophysics, which includes his contributions to meteorology, hydrology, ocean sciences, among other disciplines.

  20. Extreme Events: Magic, Mysteries, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentsch, Volker; Kantz, Holger; Albeverio, Sergio

    Extreme events (henceforth Xevents) occur in natural, technical and societal environments. They may be natural or anthropogenic in origin, or they can arise simply from "chance". They often entail loss of life and/or materials. They usually occur "by surprise" and therefore often only become the focus of scientific attention after their onset. Knowledge of Xevents is often rather fragmentary, and recorded experience is limited. Indeed, scientists do not really understand what causes extreme events, how they develop, and when and where they occur. In addition, we are rarely able to cope with their consequences, due to lack of anticipation and preparedness. All this has motivated us, the editors of this volume, to bring together specialists from a variety of fields of expertise, all of whom have a common background in mathematics and physics. We asked them to write their views about Xevents. The result is the present book of essays that will (hopefully) enable the reader to unlock the mysteries surrounding Xevents.

  1. 1/28/2014 Infertility, Diabetes, Obesity and the Mystery of PCOS -WSJ.com http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303553204579346762768385746#printMode 1/4

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    1/28/2014 Infertility, Diabetes, Obesity and the Mystery of PCOS - WSJ.com http.djreprints.com Order a reprint of this article now IN THE LAB Infertility, Diabetes, Obesity and the Mystery of PCOS Scientists know this much about polycystic ovary syndrome: It is one of the most common causes of infertility

  2. I was six years old when Voyager sent its final images of the solar system. I was enchanted by the dramatic, mysterious blues of Neptune and the icy volcanoes of

    E-print Network

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    by the dramatic, mysterious blues of Neptune and the icy volcanoes of Triton. Voyager taught me about the solar the benefits of modern science. I also know that scientists must always remember that we work within a larger

  3. The Mysteries of Real Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The presentation will consist of showing arc jet data mysterious to the modelers. It will show pictures from an arc jet test where a material (unidentified) exhibited a failure mode that nobody understands followed by thermocouple data from arc jet tests on another (unidentified) material of interest in which the T/Cs exhibit repeatable, consistent, fascinating yet frustrating response characteristics that have the modelers stumped. This all happens between RT and 200 F. Unless we figure out what the responsible phenomenology is and can model it, we can't size the TPS with any confidence.

  4. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  5. HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity

    E-print Network

    ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the StanislausLeo #12;#12;ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the Stanislaus 1. Distribution of precipitation and soil salinity, Western United States. 1 INTRODUCTION

  6. Teaching U.S. History as Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David; Zevin, Jack

    One way to engage students in grades 7 through 12 is to encourage them to investigate history as a puzzle, a set of dilemmas, a collection of conflicting viewpoints in short, a mysterious and provocative subject. In this book a collection of cases have been assembled both real mysteries and purposely constructed classroom problems with techniques…

  7. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)

  8. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  9. Adult Age Differences in Reading and Rereading Processes Associated with Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Gagne, Danielle D.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated age differences in reading and rereading processes associated with problem solving and explored the extent to which prior information affects rereading processes. Participants' reading times were recorded as they read short mysteries, twice, at their own pace on a computer, with the goal of providing the solution to the mystery. We…

  10. 6/26/12 Scientists rethink old ideas about the moon -The Boston Globe 1/2www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2012/06/24/scientists_rethink_old_ideas_about_the_moon/?...

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    6/26/12 Scientists rethink old ideas about the moon - The Boston Globe 1/2www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2012/06/24/scientists_rethink_old_ideas_about_the_moon/?... A giant leap in interest in the moon By Carolyn Y. Johnson Globe Staff June 24, 2012 As scientific mysteries go, the moon has long seemed a closed

  11. The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Biglan

    2008-02-01

    Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches of North Carolina. Based on the original case from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science at the University at Buffalo (Kosal 2003), the authors modified the case and developed inquiry-based activities for use in the middle school classroom.

  12. From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Virginia Frissell

    2010-02-01

    Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constru

  13. Problem Solving with Patents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jerilou Moore

    2008-03-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

  14. The MAD Scientist Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Mad Scientist Network, provided by Washington University at St. Louis Medical School, is a Web based "ask a scientist" forum. You ask a question, and a scientist answers it. Answers are usually concise. The expert scientists include high school teachers, university faculty, and others. Both questions and answers are submitted via Web forms. A browsable and searchable question and answer archive is maintained. Scientists interested in joining the Mad Scientist Network will find information at the site. The Mad Scientist Network is part of the St. Louis Science Education Network. http://medinfo.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/ Scientists interested in participating: http://medicine.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/join/ List of "Mad Scientists": http://medicine.wustl.edu/cgi/cgiwrap.cgi/~ysp/mad/mad.scilist

  15. The mystery of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Marc D.; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C.; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J.; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

  16. Particles, Mysteries, and Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brau, James E.

    2003-05-01

    One of the great intellectual accomplishments of the Twentieth Century was the development of the Standard Model of elementary particles, a vigorously tested theory of the fundamental particles and interactions. While no experimental conflicts with this theory have been confirmed, it is not theoretically complete, suggesting new physics at higher energies. The nature of the new physics could appear in many forms, including Higgs bosons, superpartners to the known particles of the Standard Model, and extra dimensions. The properties of this new physics shaped the early universe, perhaps with complexities in space and time beyond our current thinking. The mysterious nature of this new physics and its role in the structure of the "old" physics of the Standard Model will be explored early in the Twenty First Century. The Large Hadron Collider is scheduled to begin unravelling this story later in this decade. Building on the success of the SLAC Linear Collider, a world-wide effort to build a high-energy (TeV) electron-positron linear collider is underway, and will provide additional insight into the nature of the physical universe.

  17. Mystery of Environmental MysteryEffects of Light, Occlusion, and Depth of View

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur E. Stamps

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the strengths of the relationships between judgments of mystery and amount of light, depth of view, and occlusion, whether visual and locomotive occlusion or just visual occlusion. Three experiments were conducted with totals of 145 respondents and 33 scenes. Light had the largest effect on mystery, followed by occlusion of both vision

  18. Mars Rock Formation Poses Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, close-up image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' located on the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are studying this area for clues about the rock outcrop's composition. This image measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and was taken on the 15th day of Opportunity's journey (Feb. 8, 2004).

  19. Mysteries in World Geography: A Supplement Activity Book for Teachers of Seventh Grade World Geography in Hillsborough County Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baucom, Wayne; And Others

    This activity book for teachers contains lessons designed to motivate students to master world geography. Questions on geographic concepts are formulated as mysteries for students to solve. The materials are written with seventh-grade students in mind, but could be adapted for use with other grade levels. Some of the lessons are more challenging…

  20. The Love of an Unknown Soldier: A Story of Mystery, Myth and Masculinity in World War I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Bruley

    2005-01-01

    This article is focused on an anonymous book published in 1918 which purports to be the diary of a dead junior army officer from the Western Front in World War I. The article solves the mystery of the authorship of this book and in doing so discusses questions of masculinity at this time and its connections with contemporary ideologies of

  1. Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K-12 Outreach,

    Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

  2. Inspiring Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  3. A research approach to training: a case study of mystery guest methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise N. Anderson; David L. Groves; Julie Lengfelder; Dallen Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Tests and analyzes a total quality management (TQM) methodology known as the mystery guest approach. The method involved the development of a research-based approach to employee training by involving employees in the problem-solving and strategic planning process. In this case study university student subjects were asked to participate in a focus group format which utilized the critical incidents, importance\\/performance analysis

  4. Pump thrombosis—A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the state of the art regarding the subject of pump thrombosis (PT). The historical context of PT and the clinical data are described, the etiologic factors are elucidated, preventive strategies are explored, diagnostic modalities are reviewed, and management principles are defined. There clearly remains much work to be done towards solving this riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma, but promising foundations are being established. PMID:25452905

  5. Interpretive principles and the quantum mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotson, Allen C.

    1998-11-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the strange features associated with the quantum-mechanical description of nature at the atomic level. Physics teachers should help their students to see that many of these mysterious features are direct results of interpretive principles added to the basic theory of quantum mechanics, and that therefore they may or may not reflect the best possible understanding we can achieve of how nature works at that level. This paper discusses three such principles and their connection to well-known quantum mysteries. The practical significance of distinguishing between quantum mechanics itself and these principles is that it remains possible that other explanatory ideas may be found which lead to less mysterious consequences.

  6. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  7. Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery

    E-print Network

    Levine, Stuart

    2012-09-05

    1 Citation: Levine, Stuart. (2012) Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery [Kindle Edition]. Amazon Digital Services, Amazon.com. Published version: http://www.amazon.com/Killing-Okaraygua-Inspector-Irronogaray- ebook.../dp/B0096TUC9K/ref=sr_1_9?ie=UTF8&qid=1347294990&sr=8-9&keywords=Stuart+Levine Description: Killing in Okaraygua is an historical novel as well as a murder mystery that takes place in an imaginary Latin American nation in the 1980s. The characters found...

  8. Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom through the study of historical mysteries. What better place to snoop around and dig through mysterious graves than in history class? This book takes ten mysterious events in history from ancient Egypt to the 21st century for…

  9. Hercule Poirot v. Reality: Murder Mysteries as an Epistemic Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler, Deborah M.

    If murder mysteries are to carry an epistemic force, it is important to examine how murder mysteries represent a unique way of knowing, of coming to view the world, for their readers. This can be accomplished by looking at the text of murder mysteries and how the nature of the text influences the reality creating process; by exploring the nature…

  10. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  11. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2014-08-12

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  12. Unraveling the Mystery of an Environmental Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Grollman

    2008-05-15

    For many years, residents of farming villages along the Danube River basin suffered from a fatal kidney disease and an associated urinary tract cancer. The cause of the disease remained a mystery for more than 50 years. Recently, however, Arthur Grollman and his colleagues have determined that home-baked bread is implicated in the disease, known as Balkan endemic nephropathy.

  13. Putting a Little Mystery in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Bryan; Ristvey, John

    2011-01-01

    Posing mysteries is not just a gimmicky way to increase the entertainment value of a lesson; it taps into students' innate human desire to explore and learn about their environments. Instead of coming right out and providing students with the answers, teachers can build suspense, piquing students' natural curiosity. Teachers can guide students,…

  14. The ``Mysterious'' Origin of Brown Dwarfs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Padoan; Åke Nordlund

    2004-01-01

    Hundreds of brown dwarfs (BDs) have been discovered in the last few years in stellar clusters and among field stars. BDs are almost as numerous as hydrogen-burning stars, and so a theory of star formation should also explain their origin. The ``mystery'' of the origin of BDs is that their mass is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the average

  15. From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frissell, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constructivist approach, students can explore and construct their learning as they continue to use…

  16. Taking the "Mystery" Out of Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cite, Suleyman; Hanuscin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers have developed "tried and true" lessons that they look forward to teaching-- mystery powders is one that these authors like. Originally part of the Elementary Science Study curricula in the 1960s, there are now many different versions of this well-known activity in which students examine physical and chemical properties of…

  17. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2012-09-06

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  18. THE FEASIBILITY OF IDENTIFYING MYSTERY OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals ...

  19. Mystery Boxes: Helping Children Improve Their Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2007-01-01

    This guest editorial describes ways teachers can use guessing games about an unknown item in a "mystery box" to help children improve their abilities to listen to others, recall information, ask purposeful questions, classify items by class, make inferences, synthesize information, and draw conclusions. The author presents information from a…

  20. An investigation into the Paulding Mystery Lights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy P. Bos; William Norkus; Michael Maurer; Douglas Sims; Christopher Middlebrook; Michael C. Roggeman

    2011-01-01

    The Paulding Mystery Lights are a purportedly unexplained optical phenomenon, occurring nightly, deep in the woods of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The Michigan Tech Student Chapter of the SPIE initiated a project in 2008 to understand the cause of the Paulding Lights. Previous investigations by skeptics attributed the lights to headlights without explicitly identifying a source location. Our team applied a

  1. The Magic and Mysteries of Water

    E-print Network

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    The Magic and Mysteries of Water Speaker: Prof. Geri Richmond University of Oregon Water is ubiquitous in our lives. Covering more than two thirds of this planet, water surfaces provide a unique role in controlling our climate. In our bodies, water is the `canal of life', transporting and passing

  2. Who Dunnit? Language Activities for Mystery Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    Use of English-language mystery movies is recommended to teach English-as-a-Second-Language listening and speech skills outside an English-language environment. A variety of issues are discussed, including the following: presenting the film in segments for more effectiveness; presenting students with activities that develop specific aspects of the…

  3. Mysteries of the Lunar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar atmosphere has been probed by various instruments since the Apollo program, and continues to be measured today by the instruments onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LRO. But like Sisyphus' trek, the progress has not been linear. LAMP, The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project, onboard LRO, measured He in the lunar exosphere, confirming the Apollo 17 result from the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Hoffman et al., 1973), but LAMP did not observe Ar although the expected 0.1 R should have been detectable by their instrument (Gladstone et al., Science, 2010). A surfeit of O+ was reported in the lunar wake (Mall et al. 1998; Hilchenbach et al. 1992;1993), but the origin of those ions is unknown, since oxygen has not been seen. Water and OH were measured on the surface of the moon, but theory tells us that efficiencies of production of water by solar wind proton bombardment may be low (Burke et al., Icarus, 2011). Starukhina and Shukaratov (LPSC, abstract 1385, 2010) suggest that the observed diurnal variation in the 3 micron band at the moon is due to thermal emission and not to variation in OH. LAMP observed Hg vapor following the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater, but Hg atoms at 800 K (Wooden et al., LPSC abstract 2025, 2010) are too heavy to reach the altitudes where they would be exposed to sunlight, and thereby resonantly scatter photons, unless they are entrained in a gas with bulk velocity 3.5 km/s (Hurley et al., JGR, 2012). This bulk velocity is high for a 2 km/s impact. Another mystery from LCROSS is the H2 energy budget. Given the large amount of H2 observed after the LCROSS impact, and the high velocity required (a few km/s) to get in the field of view when it did, the kinetic energy associated with the H2 is too large of a fraction of the impactor energy. One possibility is that the H2 is produced by an exothermic reaction, which has implications for how it is stored in the regolith in permanently shadowed regions. The Na density is known to be low in the lunar exosphere when the Moon enters and traverses the Earth's magnetosphere, even though the major source processes should still be operative there. The high-energy component of Na observed in the extended Na tail at the moon, along with the very energetic Ca and Mg atoms observed at Mercury, also suggest the possibility of exothermic chemical reactions at or near the surfaces of these bodies. LCROSS also reported the presence of organics (Colaprete et al., Science, 2010), but their origin is unknown. The Apollo 15 coronal photographs recorded light scattering that was attributed to dust lofted from the lunar surface. More recently, upper limits on line of sight dust column of 103 cm-2 for 0.1 micron grains have been made via an analysis of Clementine star tracker data, much less than that predicted from Apollo results (Glenar et al., NLSI, 2012). We will report on modeling efforts that aim to resolve some of these uncertainties. Future observations by LADEE will be used along with models to further constrain the source and loss rates of volatiles.

  4. MAD Scientist Network: Ask

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The MAD Scientist Network is a collection of scientists from all over the country available to answer any of your science questions. Search the archive of over 25,000 questions, explore the MadSci Library for resources, demos and science fair project ideas, or read the FAQ that answers common questions, like why is the sky blue? Scientists will not answer homework questions, medical questions, or science fair project questions.

  5. Just Like Real Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about the scientists' work with chimpanzees in Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa, students conducted an animal behavior inquiry of their own--with their pets! In doing so, students modeled real scientists as they practiced keeping records while learning how to make and read graphs. Their "Great Moments in Record Keeping" are shared here.

  6. Scientists in Action!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scientists in Action provides news about natural scientists and what they do, including: how scientists must react to rockfalls and earthquakes; spy plane modification by NASA to gather data to help forecast brush fires and spot toxic waste; frog malformation and population decrease; the 'Geologists in the Parks' program, which involves new earth scientists in helping National Park staff understand and manage resources; recovery by micropaleontologists of a K-T core from the bottom of the ocean; mapping the Grand Canyon; managing the treasures of Yellowstone; fossil preparators combining art and science skills; and bringing panthers back to the Florida Everglades.

  7. Mysterious Lava Mineral on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph or spectrum captured by the Moessbauer spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the presence of three different iron-bearing minerals in the soil at the rover's landing site. One of these minerals has been identified as olivine, a shiny green rock commonly found in lava on Earth. The other two have yet to be pinned down. Scientists were puzzled by the discovery of olivine because it implies the soil consists at least partially of ground up rocks that have not been weathered or chemically altered. The black line in this graph represents the original data; the three colored regions denote individual minerals and add up to equal the black line.

    The Moessbauer spectrometer uses two pieces of radioactive cobalt-57, each about the size of pencil erasers, to determine with a high degree of accuracy the composition and abundance of iron-bearing minerals in martian rocks and soil. It is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.'

  8. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-28

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  9. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-06-03

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  10. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  11. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  12. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  13. Growing Seeds and Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alicia M. Culp

    2009-09-01

    How do young children develop their ideas about science and scientists' work in their first year of school? How do we teach them to believe they are real scientists? In this article, the authors--a university science educator, a kindergarten teacher, and a

  14. USGS Scientist Gavin Hayes

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dr. Gavin Hayes,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Haye...

  15. Quantum Computing Computer Scientists

    E-print Network

    Yanofsky, Noson S.

    .4 The Future of Quantum Hardware Appendix A) Historical Bibliography of Quantum Computing by Jill CirasellaQuantum Computing for Computer Scientists Noson S. Yanofsky and Mirco A. Mannucci #12;© May 2007 Noson S. Yanofsky Mirco A. Mannucci #12;Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists Noson S. Yanofsky

  16. Misquoted Scientists Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

  17. USGS Scientist Anna Chalfoun

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dr. Anna D. Chalfoun, a USGS scientist and assistant leader at the Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scien...

  18. USGS Scientist Burke Minsley

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dr. Burke Minsley,  a USGS geophysicist, was awarded the 2012 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This award is the highest recognition granted by the United States government to scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. Minsl...

  19. Scientists as writers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry D. Yore; Brian M. Hand; Vaughan Prain

    2002-01-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a syn- thesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits,

  20. Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists

  1. GeoSleuth Murder Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthew Dalessio

    The activity begins by asking students to look at a drawing of a crime scene. The crime scene is specifically drawn so that illustrates several key geologic principals, but to the untrained eye it appears as a murder that took place inside an office. After quietly looking at the image for a few minutes alone, they share with a partner what they think happened. As a class, we record a list of "Observations," making sure to use the opportunity to highlight the difference between observation and interpretation. After we complete the list of observations, students then offer their interpretations about the sequence of events. Without using any new vocabulary, the teacher makes sure to highlight the geologic principles of original horizontality, superposition, cross cutting relations, and uniformitarianism in the students' interpretations. After students share enough competing theories, the professor shows slides of geologic examples that have things in common with parts of the crime scene and points out the similar processes. The activity eventually ends without a clear answer about "whodunnit." This open ending leaves students frustrated, but it really gets across the point that we can never know the exact answer to some problems, we can only come up with viable theories. Students continue to ask for months about what "really" happened, but I never tell them :-) Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

  2. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    ScienceCinema

    Lawrence Krauss

    2010-09-01

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  3. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain on of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics in spite of recent observational advances and intense theoretical work. Although some of the basic properties of bursts were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in the past five years. Recent observations of bursts and some proposed models will be discussed.

  4. Chances Are: It's a Mystery to Me

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PBS

    2012-01-01

    In this math lesson, learners extend their understanding of basic probability concepts as they learn to name all of the possible outcomes of an event as well as ways to express the likelihood of such an event occurring. Learners use large number cubes and oversized playing cards as they explore ways to express probability. Learners are then actively engaged in a probability experiment where they must collect, organize, display, and interpret data concerning thirty spins on a "mystery spinner."

  5. Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1996-04-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

  6. The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

  7. Modeling the Nature of Science with the Mystery Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Oftentimes physics is portrayed as merely a list of facts that we know about the world around us, when in fact it is a way of knowing about that world. At times physics claims to understand the inner working of objects that cannot be directly observed, such as the core of the planets and Sun, or the structure of an atom. It is important for students to learn not only the facts of what we know about science, but also how we know what we know about science, even if we cannot directly observe it. This article describes a new take on a black box activity that has been around for years, the mystery tube.1 It is simple to construct but effective at demonstrating the nature of science (NOS). It illustrates the difference between observation and inference, and steps students through the scientific process. Beginning with a scientific question, students make observations, form a hypothesis, predict further observations, and test them before revising or strengthening their hypothesis. This activity provides a fantastic introduction to NOS, either as an alternative to other NOS activities2 or as a lead-in to a discussion of NOS.3 It can be used as an in-class activity, starting off a discussion of how scientists can claim to know what we know, or it can be used as an introductory lab, setting the foundation for how all subsequent activities should be conducted.

  8. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop

  9. COSEE Southeast: Scientist's Niche

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scientists can get help engaging in K-16 education efforts from this resource. It provides information and publications on how researchers can get involved in education, and contains a link to the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories (SAML).

  10. Scientists and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  11. Spotlight on Scientists Videos

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists, from postdoctoral fellows to principal investigators, discuss various topics including their personal backgrounds, how they came to be in the field of cancer research, their current projects, and a look to the future of medical oncology.

  12. Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Diana Porter

    2009-10-01

    Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, Science to the Rescue (Markle 1

  13. Talk Like a Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanette Marcum-Dietrich

    2010-04-01

    In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in wh

  14. Scientist of the Day

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maria Salinas

    2005-10-01

    A first grade teacher in an urban school, eager to bring authentic science into the classroom, provides an opportunity for her students to experience science adventures and explorations, while also getting parents involved. She implemented a program called Scientist of the Day which allows students to experience simple hands-on science experiments, and to involve their parents both in and out of the classroom. The idea is for every child to have a turn being "Scientist of the Day".

  15. Research Scientist, Chemistry Madison, WI

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul G.

    in medical writing, clinical protocols or regulatory filings · Experience managing federal research grants Research Scientist, Chemistry Madison, WI Position summary: We are looking for a highly motivated Research Scientist with experience in chemistry and materials science. Research Scientist

  16. Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve

    2014-05-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

  17. Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve

    2014-04-14

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

  18. Solving equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Berry

    2011-06-16

    The activities on this site will help you practice solving one, two, and multi-step equations. 1. View this video to see the importance of following math facts. abbot and costello videa 2. Practice simple 2 step equations by playing Equations Blaster. Use the arrow keys to move side to side and the spacebar to blast. Only play 1 or 2 games , then move to the next ...

  19. Reconciling Scientists and Journalists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, H.

    2006-12-01

    The very nature of scientists' and journalists' jobs can put them at cross-purposes. Scientists work for years on one research project, slowly accumulating data, and are hesitant to draw sweeping conclusions without multiple rounds of hypothesis-testing. Journalists, meanwhile, are often looking for "news"—a discovery that was just made ("scientists have just discovered that...") or that defies conventional wisdom and is therefore about to turn society's thinking on its head. The very criteria that the mediamakers often use to determine newsworthiness can automatically preclude some scientific progress from making the news. There are other built-in problems in the relationship between journalists and scientists, some of which we can try to change and others of which we can learn to work around. Drawing on my personal experience as a journalist who has written for a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and web sites, this talk will illustrate some of the inherent difficulties and offer some suggestions for how to move beyond them. It will provide a background on the way news decisions are made and how the journalist does her job, with an eye toward finding common ground and demonstrating how scientists can enjoy better relationships with journalists—relationships that can help educate the public on important scientific topics and avoid misrepresentation of scientific knowledge in the media.

  20. Is human aging still mysterious enough to be left only to scientists?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Baynes; David Berd; Christopher B. Heward; Graham Pawelec; Gregory Stock

    2002-01-01

    Summary Thefeasibilityofreversinghumanagingwithinamatterof decades has traditionally been dismissed by all profes- sional biogerontologists, on the grounds that not only is aging still poorly understood, but also many of those aspects that we do understand are not reversible by any current or foreseeable therapeutic regimen. This broad consensus has recently been challenged by the publica- tion, by five respected experimentalists in diverse

  1. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

  2. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  3. Marine Mystery: A Watery Who-dunnit!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    Students learn about the causes of coral reef destruction by assuming various character roles in this marine murder-mystery. As they determine who killed Seymour Coral, students learn the basics of DNA testing. Suspects include global warming, sedimentation, and other threats facing coral reefs today. This activity is designed for 15 students, but can be modified for 12Â?24 students. A narrated PowerPoint that provides background information on coral reefs can be shared in advance in a separate lesson. The total class time for the PowerPoint, skit, and pre- and post-surveys is about 100 minutes.

  4. The Case of the Mysterious Renters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will help students to identify ways in which water is used, determine how much water families use each day, recognize the importance of conserving water, and determine ways in which water can be conserved. The activity revolves around a simulated mystery in which the number of renters living in an apartment is determined by water usage. It is designed to lead students to recognize their own ability to make a difference in conserving and protecting our water resources and to make a life-long commitment to water stewardship.

  5. Mystery Box: Making Observations and Collecting Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Perkins School for the Blind

    2012-06-26

    This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can use it to learn to differentiate between qualitative and quantitative observations and to practice data collection. In this activity, the learner works with a partner and describes and records the items in their mystery box. Low vision learners can practice using their vision to collect data by putting their objects in an open tub, while sighted learners can be encouraged to use their tactile senses by putting their objects in a closed box with access only for their hands to enter.

  6. Campus Spies? Using Mystery Students to Evaluate University Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Alex; Douglas, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Background: This paper explores the appropriateness of using mystery customer programmes in higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK. Purpose: The main aim of the paper is to examine potential advantages and disadvantages of mystery customer programmes within HEIs, and to identify any issues that would need to be successfully resolved were…

  7. Make a Mystery Circuit with a Bar Light Fixture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lietz, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Teachers have been building mystery circuits or so-called "black box circuits" to use as a demonstration with their students for years. This paper presents an easy way to make simple mystery circuits using inexpensive light fixtures (see Fig. 1) available at almost any home improvement store. In a black box circuit, only the lightbulbs are visible…

  8. The Mystery in Science: A Neglected Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papacosta, Pangratios

    2008-01-01

    Of the many valuable tools available to science education, the mystery in science is the one that is most ignored, underused, or misunderstood. whenever it is used, it is only as mere entertainment or as an attention grabber. In this article, the author discusses how the mystery in science can improve student attitudes, generate a life-long…

  9. Library Programs for Teens: Mystery Theater. VOYA Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siwak, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    It's no mystery that fun and exciting programs bring teens into the library. Theater programs provide a venue for teens to express themselves creatively, encourage their participation in library programming, and offer them the opportunity for lively interaction with peers and adults. In "Library Programs for Teens: Mystery Theater," Karen Siwak…

  10. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  11. Naked Scientists Podcast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Naked Scientists are "a media-savvy group of physicians and researchers from Cambridge University who use radio, live lectures, and the Internet to strip science down to its bare essentials, and promote it to the general public." They have a weekly radio program on BBC radio and this is available via a weekly podcast as well. Visitors to this site can learn more about the Naked Scientists as well as subscribe to their podcasts which include: Naked Scientists Podcast (and an enhanced version with images), Ask the Naked Scientists, and Question of the week. Subscriptions are available via iTunes, Yahoo, or Google or they can be downloaded as MP3 or MP4 from the site. Recent topics have included: Flu and Viruses; Combating Climate Change; and Memory and Learning. Anybody with a desire to learn about science in an accessible and entertaining way will find these podcasts useful. These podcasts could also be used in a classroom or for homework - as a way to integrate technology and fundamentals.

  12. Women Scientists. American Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglahn, Nancy, J.

    This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

  13. A role for scientists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Gherardi

    Species introductions and their ecological consequences have long fascinated scientists. In trying to explain patterns of species distributions and abundances, Charles Darwin (1859) was faced with the problems of non-indigenous species (NIS) (Cadotte 2006). He used them as a device to illustrate his theory of natural selection and descent with modifications, but he was also the first to note marked

  14. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  15. Management Scientists Are Human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geert Hofstede

    1994-01-01

    The culture of the national environment in which an organization operates affects the management process through the collective mental programming of its members, its managers, and the management scientists who offer their theories. Four dimensions of national culture differences have been found. Among other things, they affect the implicit models in people's minds of what the act of organizing means.

  16. Scientists on Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.

  17. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christine P. Villano

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control invasive plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potenti

  18. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  19. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  20. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

  1. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  2. Becoming a computer scientist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Pearl; Martha E. Pollack; Eve A. Riskin; Elizabeth Wolf; Becky Thomas; Alice Wu

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that women are significantly underrepresented in scientific fields in the United States, and computer science is no exception. As of 1987- 1988, women constituted slightly more than half of the U.S. population and 45% of employed workers in the U.S., but they made up only 30% of employed computer scientists. Moreover, they constituted only 10% of

  3. When do scientists \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Ynalvez; Ricardo B. Duque; Paul Mbatia; R. Sooryamoorthy; Antony Palackal; Wesley Shrum

    2005-01-01

    Summary We examine the diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the knowledge production sectors of three developing areas. Using interviews with 918 scientists in one South Asian and two African locations, we address three fundamental questions: (1) To what degree has the research community in the developing world adopted the Internet? (2) How can the disparities in Internet

  4. Scientist Releases Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

  5. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  6. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  7. Jalal Rastegary Research Scientist

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    ), Reviewer for Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science Review (BRJASR) #12;Jalal Rastegary Research Scientist Collage of Engineering Institute for Energy and the Environment Obispo, CA 1987 M.S. Agriculture, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 2007 Ph

  8. Phil Taylor Spatial Scientist

    E-print Network

    Phil Taylor Spatial Scientist Forest Research ESC Evidence For FC Scotland's Climate Change Risk Assessment Uses Conclusion Methodology Outputs #12;Climate Change Risk Assessments · The CCRA is a requirement under the Climate Change Act to be delivered to parliament in 2012. · UK Government asked

  9. Researchers Resolve Intermediate Mass Black Hole Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    New research, funded by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Advanced Physical and Chemical Research, NASA and the University of Tokyo, solved the mystery of how a black hole, with the mass more than several hundreds times larger than that of our Sun, could be formed in the nearby starburst galaxy, M82. Recent observations of the Chandra X-ray observatory (Matsumoto et al., 2001 ApJ 547, L25) indicate the presence of an unusually bright source in the star cluster MGG11 in the starburst galaxy M82. The properties of the X-ray source are best explained by a black hole with a mass of about a thousand times the mass of the Sun, placing it intermediate between the relatively small (stellar mass) black holes in the Milky way Galaxy and the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of galaxies. For comparison, stellar-mass black holes are only a few times more massive than the Sun, whereas the black hole in the center of the Milky-way Galaxy is more than a few million times more massive than the Sun. An international team of researchers, using the world's fastest computer, the GRAPE-6 system in Japan, were engaged in a series of simulations of star clusters that resembled MGG11. They used the GRAPE-6 to perform simulations with two independently developed computer programs (Starlab and NBODY4 developed by Sverre Aarseth in Cambridge), both of which give the same qualitative result. The simulations ware initiated by high resolution observations of the star cluster MGG11 by McCrady et al (2003, ApJ 596, 240) using the Hubble Space Telescope and Keck, and by Harashima et al (2001) using the giant Subaru telescope. M82 Chandra X-ray image of the central region of the starburst galaxy M82. The GRAPE's detailed, star-by-star simulations represent the state of the art in cluster modeling. For the first time using the GRAPE, researchers perform simulations of the evolution of young and dense star clusters with up to 600000 stars; they calculate the orbital trajectory and the evolution of each star individually. Using this unique tool, the team found they could reproduce the observed characteristics of the star cluster MGG11. As a bonus, however, the star cluster produces a black hole with a mass between 800 and 3000 times the mass of the Sun. The black hole is produced within 4 million years which is in an early phase in the evolution of the star cluster. During this phase the stellar density in the center becomes so high that physical collisions between the stars become frequent. If the stellar densities exceed a million times the density in the neighborhood of the Sun, collision start to dominate the further evolution of the star cluster. In this over-dense cluster center, stars experience repeated collisions with each other, resulting in a collision runaway in which a single stars grows to enormous mass. After the central fuel of this star is exhausted, it collapses to a black hole of about 1000 times the mass of the Sun. New results of these detailed computer simulations, published in Nature show that the star cluster in which the X-ray source resides has characteristics such that a black hole of 800-3000 times the mass of the Sun can form within a very short time. The calculations therewith provide compelling evidence for the process which produces intermediate mass black holes and at the same time provide an explanation for the bright X-ray source observed in the cluster. The GRAPE team's members are Simon Portegies Zwart, from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands; Holger Baumgardt, from RIKEN in Tokyo; Piet Hut, of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J.; Jun Makino from Tokyo University; Steve McMillan, from Drexel University in Philadelphia. The GRAPE group's results appear in the April 15, 2004, issue of Nature. Relevant internet addresses: http://carol.wins.uva.nl/~spz/act/press/Nature2004/index.html http://www.astrogrape.org http://www.manybody.org http://www.manybody.org/manybody/starlab.html

  10. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  11. William Dampier, seaman, scientist

    E-print Network

    Shipman, Joseph C.

    1962-01-01

    , as Sir William Shaw points out, distinguished between the Corpus Sant on the mast-head and the luminosity washing about on the deck. Shaw's faith in Dampier's powers of observation was such that, nearly two hundred and fifty years later, he accepts... WILLIAM DAMPIER SEAMAN-SCIENTIST Joseph C. Shipman LAWRENCE, KANSAS THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS LIBRARIES 1962 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS Library Scries, 15 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS Library Series Editor,, JAMES HELYAR 1...

  12. Problem Solving and Game-Based Learning: Effects of Middle Grade Students' Hypothesis Testing Strategies on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spires, Hiller A.; Rowe, Jonathan P.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted as a highly desired skill for contemporary work and life, problem solving is central to game-based learning research. In this study, middle grade students achieved significant learning gains from gameplay interactions that required solving a science mystery based on microbiology content. Student trace data results indicated that effective…

  13. The effects of using diagramming as a representational technique on high school students' achievement in solving math word problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Banmali Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    Methods and procedures for successfully solving math word problems have been, and continue to be a mystery to many U.S. high school students. Previous studies suggest that the contextual and mathematical understanding of a word problem, along with the development of schemas and their related external representations, positively contribute to students' accomplishments when solving word problems. Some studies have examined

  14. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  15. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  16. The peroxisome: still a mysterious organelle

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, H. Dariush

    2008-01-01

    More than half a century of research on peroxisomes has revealed unique features of this ubiquitous subcellular organelle, which have often been in disagreement with existing dogmas in cell biology. About 50 peroxisomal enzymes have so far been identified, which contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as ?-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of ether phospholipids and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and render peroxisomes indispensable for human health and development. It became obvious that peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that rapidly assemble, multiply and degrade in response to metabolic needs. However, many aspects of peroxisome biology are still mysterious. This review addresses recent exciting discoveries on the biogenesis, formation and degradation of peroxisomes, on peroxisomal dynamics and division, as well as on the interaction and cross talk of peroxisomes with other subcellular compartments. Furthermore, recent advances on the role of peroxisomes in medicine and in the identification of novel peroxisomal proteins are discussed. PMID:18274771

  17. Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharlin, H.I.

    1992-09-01

    The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

  18. Another Kind of Scientist Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

  19. Students as Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Through two lessons and their associated activities, students do the work of scientists by designing their own experiments to answer questions they generate. Through a simple activity involving surface tension, students learn what a hypothesis is—and isn't—and why generating a hypothesis is an important aspect of the scientific method. In the second activity, with bubble gum to capture their interest, students learn to design and conduct controlled experiments to answer their own questions about the amounts of sugar (or artificial sweetener) in bubble or chewing gum.

  20. Astronomer to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

  1. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  2. Training the translational scientist.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Gabriel, Sherine; Pariser, Anne; Feig, Peter

    2010-12-22

    A Clinical and Translational Science Awards Industry Forum titled "Promoting Efficient and Effective Collaborations Among Academia, Government, and Industry" was held in February 2010. A session at this forum was organized to address the training and skills needed to develop a biomedical scientific workforce that interfaces academia, government agencies, and industry to support the process of translating science into applicable means to improve health. By examining the requisite competencies and training resources for scientists in each of these sectors, opportunities for collaboration and adoption of new educational strategies were identified that could help to address barriers to translational research education and career development. PMID:21178132

  3. The Dismal Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dismal Scientist, provided by Dismal Sciences, is a web site aimed at college students interested in the US economy. The site provides a "quick summary of major economic releases, along with an economist's perspective on its implications" and a summary table of the main indicators. It also contains regional data for all 50 states, Washington D.C., and 257 metro areas which can be ranked by different criteria. Other features include historical and forecast information for various geographical level variables and an economic data series dictionary.

  4. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Angela Getz

    2008-11-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. Charlotte's Web is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's book defines vocabulary words and incorporates scientific facts concerning arachnids. However, some of the spider information in the book is not accurate. Therefore, Charlotte's Web can also be used to teach students to become better informed readers.

  5. Talking Science, Modeling Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anna O. Baldwin

    2006-07-01

    Do you want your students to share their investigation findings in a meaningful way? Or to communicate like real scientists do--beyond conducting investigations in the classroom? Fourth-grade students in the Upstate of South Carolina are doing just that as they log onto the Experimental Reflection Portal, or XRePort an online system that pairs students and teachers from different schools and allows them to "talk" about their common science investigations. In this way, students communicate their science knowledge and experience firsthand the benefits of the collaborative nature of science.

  6. CHIPPING AWAY AT THE MYSTERY OF DRUG RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chipping away at the mystery of drug responses John C. Rockett Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 2771...

  7. Mystery Material: Is it a solid or a liquid?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is an investigation of a "mystery material" where students have to determine whether the substance is a solid or a liquid. This activity can be done as part of an earth science or chemistry lesson.

  8. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

  9. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2012-04-23

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  10. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2014-05-06

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  11. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. ...

  12. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  13. Investigating Nature's Mysteries for Drug Development

    Cancer.gov

    More than half of the drugs approved to treat cancer come from a natural product or a natural product prototype. Scientists in NCI-Frederick's Natural Products Branch are exploring ways to harness chemicals produced by marine invertebrates, other animals, plants, and microbes for cancer drug discovery.

  14. Minerals in Martian meteorite illuminate magnetic mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-11-01

    Since magnetic anomalies on Mars were detected in Noachian-aged crust (about 4.4 billion years old) by the Mars Global Surveyor mission in the 1990s, scientists have been searching for their mineral origins. So far, meteorite samples from Mars have not yielded rocks with enough magnetic minerals to account for the anomalies.

  15. The Mystery of the Sparkling Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' reveals shiny, spherical objects embedded within the trench wall at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are highly intrigued by these objects and may further investigate them. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  16. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann

    2007-01-01

    With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or colliding compact objects in distant galaxies. The pieces of the puzzle are beginning to fall into place and yet the story isn't quite finished. I will frame the history of gamma-ray bursts as a mystery story and will end with a description of what we still don't know and what we'll have to do to get the next clues.

  17. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  18. The Cactus Code: A Problem Solving Environment for the Grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabrielle Allen; Werner Benger; Tom Goodale; Hans-christian Hege; Gerd Lanfermann; André Merzky; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf

    2000-01-01

    Cactus is an open source problem solving environment designed for scientists and engineers. Its modular structure facilitates parallel computation across different architectures and collaborative code development between different groups. The Cactus Code originated in the academic research community, where it has been developed and used over many years by a large international collaboration of physicists and computational scientists. We discuss

  19. The Accidental Scientist: Cooking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

  20. Ask a Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is able to attract many of the top scientists from around the world. It makes sense that they would also draw upon this collective acumen to help young people learn about what they do. Visitors can submit their own questions for these professionals or look at questions that have already been answered. First-time visitors can start with the Top Ten Questions to get started on their journey. There are actually sixty questions answered here, as there are six sections, including Animals, General Biology, Evolution, and Genetics. The questions answered here are a diverse lot, ranging from "Why is there no mammal with green fur?" to "Why is memory affected by age?" The answers are lucid, well-written, and quite thorough. The generally curious will not be disappointed by this site.

  1. Ask a Scientist!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Internet offers many opportunities to find quality answers to a host of important questions, ranging from the fields of the humanities to those in the hard sciences. One important resource that offers answers to a number of thorny questions is the Ask a Scientist! website created and maintained by the Centers for Materials Research at Cornell University. The site had its debut on September 17, 1998, when Professor Neil Ashcroft answered the timely question, "What is Jupiter made of?". Visitors to the site can browse or search for previously answered questions, and of course, they are also welcome to submit their own questions for consideration. Visitors will definitely want to view the "Frequently Viewed Questions", which feature responses to such favorites queries as "How can you tell if a diamond is real or fake?" or "How is glass made?"

  2. Mysterious object He2-90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have stumbled upon a mysterious object that is grudgingly yielding clues to its identity. A quick glance at the Hubble picture at top shows that this celestial body, called He2-90, looks like a young, dust-enshrouded star with narrow jets of material streaming from each side. But it's not. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star. But the Hubble observations suggest that it may not fit that classification, either. The Hubble astronomers now suspect that this enigmatic object may actually be a pair of aging stars masquerading as a single youngster. One member of the duo is a bloated red giant star shedding matter from its outer layers. This matter is then gravitationally captured in a rotating, pancake-shaped accretion disk around a compact partner, which is most likely a young white dwarf (the collapsed remnant of a sun-like star). The stars cannot be seen in the Hubble images because a lane of dust obscures them.

  3. An investigation into the Paulding Mystery Lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Jeremy P.; Norkus, William; Maurer, Michael; Sims, Douglas; Middlebrook, Christopher; Roggeman, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    The Paulding Mystery Lights are a purportedly unexplained optical phenomenon, occurring nightly, deep in the woods of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The Michigan Tech Student Chapter of the SPIE initiated a project in 2008 to understand the cause of the Paulding Lights. Previous investigations by skeptics attributed the lights to headlights without explicitly identifying a source location. Our team applied a number of straightforward techniques to identify and then verify the source location of the Paulding Light. Beginning with observation through a telescope, the team moved to using tools such as detailed topographical maps and more common tools such as Google Street View to identify a candidate source location. The candidate source location was then validated by first recreating the light using a vehicle parked in that location. Additional verification was achieved by examining the correlation between the occurrence of the light and the passing of cars at the source location. A spectrometer was also used to compare the visible spectrum of the light to automotive headlamps. Our findings, presented here, indicate that the source of the Paulding light is automobile traffic on a stretch of road about 7 km from the viewing location.

  4. Problem solving What is problem solving?

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    solving. There are problems all around us. · Much of our life is spent solving problems. Getting-defined problems. ­ Chess: After a few moves, there are too many possible moves and counter moves to consider all

  5. The Society for Amateur Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Society for Amateur Scientists created this website to present its goal "to create unique collaborations between world-class professionals and citizen scientists and to remove the roadblocks that prevent ordinary people from participating in extraordinary science." The website features The Citizen Scientist, a weekly publication presenting news and projects from amateur scientists. Students can learn about the educational program, LABRats. Photographers can submit interesting images to the Society' Gallery. With so many tools and resources, everyone interested in science should visit this website.

  6. The Secret Life of Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

  7. Epoetin-associated pure red cell aplasia in patients with chronic kidney disease: solving the mystery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katia Boven; John Knight; Fred Bader; J erome Rossert; Kai-Uwe Eckardt; Nicole Casadevall

    A substantial increase in the incidence of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) associated with recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) treatment occurred in 1998. The upsurge of antibody-mediated PRCA was almost exclusively associated with chronic kidney disease patients who received subcutaneous epoetin therapy and the formulation of epoetin-a distributed outside the USA (EPREX\\/ERYPO). A systematic programme of technical, immunological and epide- miological

  8. Solving the mystery of human sleep schedules one mutation at a time

    PubMed Central

    Hallows, William C.; Ptá?ek, Louis J.; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Sleep behavior remains one of the most enigmatic areas of life. The unanswered questions range from “why do we sleep?” to “how we can improve sleep in today's society?” Identification of mutations responsible for altered circadian regulation of human sleep lead to unique opportunities for probing these territories. In this review, we summarize causative circadian mutations found from familial genetic studies to date. We also describe how these mutations mechanistically affect circadian function and lead to altered sleep behaviors, including shifted or shortening of sleep patterns. In addition, we discuss how the investigation of mutations can not only expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the circadian clock and sleep duration, but also bridge the pathways between clock/sleep and other human physiological conditions and ailments such as metabolic regulation and migraine headaches. PMID:24001255

  9. MALDI and Related Methods: A Solved Problem or Still a Mystery?

    PubMed Central

    Knochenmuss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    MALDI ionization mechanisms remain a topic of controversy. Some of the major modern models are compared, with emphasis on those of the author. Primary formation, secondary reaction, and loss mechanisms are considered. PMID:24349925

  10. Man's Best Friend? Using Animal Bones to Solve an Archaeological Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth Scharf

    2008-01-01

    In this case, students learn how archaeology operates as an historical science by collecting and analyzing material evidence to make claims about the past. Assuming the role of zooarchaeologists, they evaluate a hypothetical case in which “Dr. Jasper Eraillure” shocks the world by claiming a canid skull he has found at a Neanderthal site is actually that of a domestic dog. Students analyze modern skulls from wild and domestic canids, and develop a set of criteria for determining whether the “unknown” canid skull belonged to a domestic dog. They further explore the reasons behind the divergence between wild and domestic dog populations and evaluate the potential impact of Dr. Eraillure’s assertions on our understanding of the past. The case was designed for an introductory course in archaeology, but could be adpated for use in an introductory biology course.

  11. Protoplanetary dust porosity and FU Orionis outbursts: Solving the mystery of Earth’s missing volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander; Ebel, Denton S.

    2014-07-01

    The Earth is known to be depleted in volatile lithophile elements in a fashion that defies easy explanation. We resolve this anomaly with a model that combines the porosity of collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks with heating from FU Orionis events that dramatically raise protoplanetary disk temperatures. The heating from an FU Orionis event alters the aerodynamical properties of the dust while evaporating the volatiles. This causes the dust to settle, abandoning those volatiles. The success of this model in explaining the elemental composition of the Earth is a strong argument in favor of highly porous collisionally grown dust grains in protoplanetary disks outside our Solar System. Further, it demonstrates how thermal (or condensation based) alterations of dust porosity, and hence aerodynamics, can be a strong factor in planet formation, leading to the onset of rapid gravitational instabilities in the dust disk and the subsequent collapse that forms planetesimals.

  12. Stereocontrol in dinuclear triple lithium-bridged titanium(IV) complexes: solving some stereochemical mysteries.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Markus; Isaak, Elisabeth; Moha, Verena; Raabe, Gerhard; Fröhlich, Roland

    2014-05-26

    Compounds 1?a-f-H2 form "monomeric" triscatecholate titanium(IV) complexes [Ti(1?a-f)3](2-), which in the presence of Li cations are in equilibrium with the triple lithium-bridged "dimers" [Li3(Ti(1?a-f)3)2](-). The equilibrium strongly depends on the donor ability of the solvent. Usually, in solvents with high donor ability, the stereochemically labile monomer is preferred, whereas in nondonor solvents, the dimer is the major species. In the latter, the stereochemistry at the complex units is "locked". The configuration at the titanium(IV) triscatecholates is influenced by addition of chiral ammonium countercations. In this case, the induced stereochemical information at the monomer is transferred to the dimer. Alternatively, the configuration at the metal complexes can be controlled by enantiomerically pure ester side chains. Due to the different orientation of the ester groups in the monomer or dimer, opposite configurations of the triscatecholates were observed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy for [Ti(1?c-e)3](2-) or [Li3(Ti(1?c-e)3)2](-). A surprising exception was found for the dimer [Li3(Ti(1?f)3)2](-). Herein, the dimer is the dominating species in weak donor (methanol), as well as strong donor (DMSO), solvents. This is due to the bulkiness of the ester substituent destabilizing the monomer. Due to the size of the substituent in [Li3(Ti(1?f)3)2](-) the esters have to adopt an unusual conformation in the dimer resulting in a stereocontrol of the small methyl group. Following this, opposite stereocontrol mechanisms were observed for the central metal-complex units of [Li3(Ti(1?c-e)3)2](-) or [Li3(Ti(1?f)3)2](-). PMID:24782405

  13. Role of Exposure Analysis in Solving the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur. PMID:17589972

  14. Mystery solved: discovery of a novel integrin ligand in the developing kidney.

    PubMed

    Miner, J H

    2001-07-23

    Mutant mice lacking the integrin alpha8 subunit exhibit variable defects in kidney development with most mutants missing both kidneys. Several lines of evidence indicate that the known extracellular matrix ligands for integrin alpha8beta1 are either dispensable for or not involved in alpha8beta1 signaling during kidney development. This suggests the presence of an unknown ligand. A novel alpha8beta1 ligand, nephronectin, has now been identified. Nephronectin is a new extracellular matrix protein associated with the Wolffian duct and the ureteric bud, epithelial structures with well-defined roles in kidney development. PMID:11470814

  15. Solving the Mystery of Mock Mummies: Using Scientific Inquiry Skills in an Integrated Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgopal, Meena; Cornwall, Shaun; Gill-Robinson, Heather; Reinhart, Damien S.

    2009-01-01

    When the nature of science (NOS) is reinforced, middle school students will be able to appreciate scientific inquiry processes and communication, as outlined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). To this end, the authors developed a mummy-making and dissection activity to help sixth- and seventh-grade students learn more about…

  16. What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150 year old mystery (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxon Acanthosoma chrysalis Mayer, 1844, described from Germany on a number of alleged parasites encysted in the peritoneal wall of the stomach of edible frogs, is revised and shown to be first instar larvae of blow flies (Calliphoridae). Based on the shape of mouthhooks and abdominal cuticular ...

  17. Solving the Mystery of Mock Mummies: Using Scientific Inquiry Skills in an Integrated Lesson

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Damien S. Reinhart

    2009-11-01

    When the nature of science (NOS) is reinforced, middle school students will be able to appreciate scientific inquiry processes and communication, as outlined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). To this end, the authors developed a mumm

  18. Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893 Torare River "chloromelanite" is an extremely close match texturally and mineralogically with the jadeitite jade gouge, including Nb-rich titanite—thus a match, but that (2) the axes are omphacitites that have a geologically similar origin (high pressure/low-temperature subduction channel) but do not share the jadeite+aegerine-rich pyroxene or Nb-Y rich accessory phases. This research clearly shows that natural history collections are important archives that contain samples of potentially important value for science and cultural research. Moreover, research like this that connects geology, archaeology, history and preserved collections can yield a story that makes science and collections tangible and interesting to a popular audience. References: Harlow et al. 2012, Eur. J. Mineral. 24, 391-399.

  19. Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Coble; Odile M. Loreille; Mark J. Wadhams; Suni M. Edson; Kerry Maynard; Carna E. Meyer; Harald Niederstätter; Cordula Berger; Burkhard Berger; Anthony B. Falsetti; Peter Gill; Walther Parson; Louis N. Finelli; Michael Hofreiter

    2009-01-01

    Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

  20. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard K. Coll; Neil Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety

  1. Deciphering the mystery of thalidomide teratogenicity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takumi; Handa, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Thalidomide was originally developed in 1954 as a sedative that was commonly used to ameliorate morning sickness. However, thalidomide exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy caused multiple birth defects (e.g. phocomelia and amelia), affecting ? 10,000 children worldwide in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Thalidomide is now recognized as a clinically effective, albeit strictly restricted, drug for the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma. Investigators have studied thalidomide teratogenicity for half a century, proposing over 30 hypotheses to account for its actions. Among these, the anti-angiogenesis and oxidative stress models have gained widespread support. Nonetheless, the precise molecular mechanisms and direct targets of thalidomide have not heretofore been elucidated. We developed ferrite-glycidyl methacrylate beads that enable magnetic separation and efficient purification of ligand-binding molecules; the beads were recently employed to identify cereblon as a primary target of thalidomide. Cereblon forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with DDB1, Cul4A, and Roc1, which is important for the expression of fibroblast growth factor 8, an essential regulator of limb development. Expression of a drug binding-deficient mutant of cereblon suppressed thalidomide-induced effects in zebrafish and chicks. This suggests that thalidomide downregulates fibroblast growth factor 8 expression and induces limb malformation by binding to wild-type cereblon, inhibiting the function of the associated E3 ubiquitin ligase. The present review summarizes the teratogenicity of thalidomide, including existing models for its mode of action, and discusses the identification of cereblon as a key molecule for deciphering the longstanding mystery of thalidomide teratogenicity. PMID:22348778

  2. The mysterious HI deficiency of NGC 3175

    E-print Network

    Michael Dahlem; Matthias Ehle; Stuart Ryder

    2001-03-06

    Australia Telescope Compact Array HI observations reveal the existence of 5.8x10^8 M_sun of HI gas in the central 7 kpc of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 3175. The detected HI and CO gas can explain why star formation, as traced by other emission processes, is going on in the inner part of its disk. On the other hand, the entire outer disk, beyond 3.5 kpc radius, shows no HI emission, has a very red colour and exhibits neither radio continuum nor H-alpha emission. This indicates that the outer part of NGC 3175 is quiescent, i.e. not forming stars at a measurable rate. Its HI deficiency and the small extent of the HI layer, which is confined to the boundaries of the optically visible disk, make NGC 3175 a peculiar spiral galaxy. No intergalactic HI gas in the NGC 3175 group was detected in our interferometric observations. Earlier Parkes telescope single dish HI observations put an upper limit on the amount of diffuse gas that might have been missed by the interferometer at 2x10^8 M_sun. On DSS plates no galaxy in the NGC 3175 group of galaxies (Garcia 1993) is close enough to it and none exhibits disturbances that could indicate a close interaction which might have led to the stripping of large parts of its HI gas. Thus, despite an extensive multi-wavelength investigation, the reason for the unusual absence of HI and star formation activity in the outer disk of NGC 3175 remains an intriguing mystery.

  3. Problem Solving Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-01

    This page provides a summary of five topics on problems solving: What is a Problem?, What is Problem Solving?, Problem Solving Strategies, Why Teach Problem Solving?, Organizing the Teaching of Problem Solving and a reference section. Users can read more detailed information by accessing the 'More Information' link under each heading.

  4. Advocacy is scientists' responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstadt, Gene

    In reading S. Fred Singer's comments in Forum (Eos, May 21, 1991) on the earlier letter by Kaula and Anderson on AGU's proper role in society (Eos, April 9, 1991), I find myself entirely in agreement with his admonition that AGU positions, in this case specifically on global warming, must add “a certain amount of political sophistication.” But while I cannot disagree with the view that geophysicists should confine their advice to matters in which they have expertise, I also wonder if any of us deserves criticism when, noting the difficulty political leaders have in connecting causes with effects, we yield occasionally to the temptation to stray beyond mere facts and spell out potentially unfavorable connections. Early linking of complex but subtly related phenomena is one of the areas in which we have some credibility, is it not?Even as scientists we are, after all, compelled to share destinies with the other passengers crammed into the stairwells of the national vehicle, a bus tailgating an oil tanker careening right and left at high speed down the global highway, driven by a crew of politicians drunk on paleozoic distillate and trained in the Alfred E. Newman College of Navigation, where the principal graduation requirement is an intense desire to sit in front and steer.

  5. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

  6. Students and Scientists Take a "Lichen" To Air Quality Assessment in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anthony P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project in which students in a number of areas in Ireland collect environmental data for use by scientists working to solve real-life problems. Reports on the follow-up survey to the study. (DDR)

  7. Dimensional Calculator for Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dimension Engine

    Teaching students how to convert units is straight-forward. Getting them to appreciate the power of including units in their calculations and analyses is far more difficult. Too many students fail to see dimensions as an integral part of an analysis but instead view it as an annoyance -- an added burden to be dealt with in addition to solving the program usually done using a separate unit conversion program. There are hundreds of online calculators and unit converters but this is the only site that integrates both. It automatically handles all unit conversion as part of its calculations. You just enter your input using any units - metric English or mixed and then enter your formula. The site knows about many geoscience specific units such as Darcys. The calculator tells you if your formula and/or input are dimensionally inconsistent greatly reducing mistakes and making it easier for students to begin to understand the advantages of including units in their calculations.

  8. Mars Rock Formation Poses Mystery-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, close-up image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' located on the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are studying the spherule, or small sphere, in the center of the image that appears to be protruding from the rock formation. This image measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and was taken on the 15th day of Opportunity's journey (Feb. 8, 2004).

  9. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.

  10. Anania Shirakatsi and "Pagan" Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardumyan, Gohar

    2014-10-01

    Anania Shirakatsi's approach to the views of "Pagan" scientists is discussed. He had special attitude to ancient science and its representatives. In his various works he criticizes their wrong views. Shirakatsi was especially good in distinguishing the correct and erroneous points of view by different scientists and he could chose the right approach and add his own one.

  11. Environmental Problems and the Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batisse, Michel

    1973-01-01

    Suggests that any environmental problem can be traced at biosphere, technosphere, sociosphere, and noosphere level. Scientists have generally ignored the latter two spheres in making scientific discoveries. New social ethics need to be recognized that are based on progress, and scientists must consider how these ethics are influenced by their…

  12. Donald F. Hornig, scientist who

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Donald F. Hornig, scientist who helped develop the atomic bomb, dies at 92 By Matt Schudel, was designed to produce an atomic bomb. Dr. Hornig led a team that developed a device called the "X unit, Published: January 23 Donald F. Hornig, who as a young scientist once "babysat" the world's first atomic

  13. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following...objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  14. 78 FR 39435 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Magritte: The Mystery of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1938'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...objects to be included in the exhibition ``Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1928,'' imported from abroad...

  15. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

    2004-06-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  16. The mysterious eruption of V838 Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Henden, A.; Kiyota, S.; Laney, D.; Marang, F.; Zwitter, T.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Desidera, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Giro, E.; Boschi, F.; Schwartz, M. B.

    2002-07-01

    V838 Mon is marking one of the most mysterious stellar outbursts on record. The spectral energy distribution of the progenitor resembles an under-luminous F main sequence star (at V=15.6 mag), that erupted into a cool supergiant following a complex and multi-maxima lightcurve (peaking at V=6.7 mag). The outburst spectrum show BaII, LiI and lines of several s-elements, with wide P-Cyg profiles and a moderate and retracing emission in the Balmer lines. A light-echo discovered expanding around the object helped to constrain the distance (d=790 +/- 30 pc), providing M_V=+4.45 in quiescence and M_V=-4.35 at optical maximum (somewhat dependent on the still uncertain EB-V=0.5 reddening). The general outburst trend is toward lower temperatures and larger luminosities, and continuing so at the time of writing. The object properties conflict with a classification within already existing categories: the progenitor was not on a post-AGB track and thus the similarities with the born-again AGB stars FG Sge, V605 Aql and Sakurai's object are limited to the cool giant spectrum at maximum; the cool spectrum, the moderate wind velocity (500 km s-1 and progressively reducing) and the monotonic decreasing of the low ionization condition argues against a classical nova scenario. The closest similarity is with a star that erupted into an M-type supergiant discovered in M 31 by Rich et al. (\\cite{Rich1989}), that became however much brighter by peaking at M_V=-9.95, and with V4332 Sgr that too erupted into an M-type giant (Martini et al. \\cite{Martini1999}) and that attained a lower luminosity, closer to that of V838 Mon. M 31-RedVar, V4332 Sgr and V838 Mon could be all manifestations of a new class of astronomical objects.

  17. The Mysterious Martian Mountains of Mitchel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image covers an 800 by 300 km (500 by 190 mi) area located deep within the boundary of the seasonal south polar frost cap of Mars. Centered at 70oS, 320oW, this view--taken in early spring when sunlight has just begun to shine on the region for the first time in many months--includes a bright region (diagonal from center-left to lower right) known for nearly two centuries as the 'Mountains of Mitchel.' This feature was named for Ormsby McKnight Mitchel (1809-1862), an astronomer at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, who discovered it while observing Mars through a telescope in 1846. Mitchel noticed that this area is typically 'left behind' as a bright peninsula when the rest of the polarcap recedes past this area later in the spring.

    Mitchel deduced that this area might be mountainous because it seemed analogous to the snow that is left on Earth's mountain ranges in late spring and into summer. Snow can remain on high peaks because the air temperature decreases with elevation (or altitude). MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations of this region show the bright 'Mountains of Mitchel' to be a somewhat elevated region of rough, heavily cratered southern highlands. However, the 'Mountains of Mitchel' do not appear to be mountains-there are other areas nearby at similar elevation that do not retain frost well into southern spring. Part of the Mountains of Mitchel feature includes a prominent, south-facing scarp (at center-left) that would tend to retain frost longer in the spring because it is somewhat protected from sunlight (which comes from the north). The persistence of frost on the Mountains of Mitchel remains mysterious, but new observations from the MGS MOC are helping to unravel the story. Thus far, it seems that the frost here--for whatever reason--tends to be brighter than frost in most other places within the polar cap. This brighter frost reflects sunlight and thus sublimes more slowly than adjacent, darker frost surfaces.

    This color picture was compiled from MOC red and blue wide angle images. North is up and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The surface does not appear to be white--as might be expected for frost--because of dust both on the surface and in the atmosphere, as well dark sand that was being exposed from beneath the retreating frost at the time that the picture was taken.

  18. The mystery of Morgellons disease: infection or delusion?

    PubMed

    Savely, Virginia R; Leitao, Mary M; Stricker, Raphael B

    2006-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder that was first described more than 300 years ago. The disease is characterized by fiber-like strands extruding from the skin in conjunction with various dermatologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this respect, Morgellons disease resembles and may be confused with delusional parasitosis. The association with Lyme disease and the apparent response to antibacterial therapy suggest that Morgellons disease may be linked to an undefined infectious process. Further clinical and molecular research is needed to unlock the mystery of Morgellons disease. PMID:16489838

  19. Solving with Seesaws

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AMPS GK-12 Program,

    Students use a simple seesaw to visualize solving a two- or three-step mathematics equation, while solving a basic structural engineering weight balance problem in the process. They solve two-step equations on a worksheet and attempt to solve the challenge of "balancing a beam" through hands-on problems. The use of sensor equipment for correct position monitoring aids students in balancing the structure, as well as balancing the equation as they solve it on paper.

  20. Martian Mysteries Is there any life on Mars right now?

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    the students what the picture is. Ask them which planet is Earth, then which is Mars. The Sun is at left (duhSlide 1 Martian Mysteries · Is there any life on Mars right now? · Was there ever life on Mars? · Can humans live on Mars? · How would YOU find the answers? NOTES: Ask the students what kind

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identifying a mysterious aquatic fern gametophyte

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identifying a mysterious aquatic fern gametophyte Fay-Wei Li � Benito C. Tan � because of its ribbon-like thallus. How- ever, its antheridia are remarkably fern-like in morphology. To corroborate the hypothesis that Su¨�wassertang is a fern gametophyte and to determine its closest relative, we

  2. Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Left, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to…

  3. WILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    WILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World Grades 6-12 encounterart #12 experience with your classroom lessons. Tour Overview Artifacts can tell us about life in the ancient world Unknown (Assyrian, 1000­500 BCE) Winged Guardian Spirit, from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud

  4. Stratospheric sulfate from El Chichon and the Mystery Volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, E.J.; Mason, A.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

    1983-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate was collected by high-altitude aircraft and balloons to assess the impacts of El Chichon and an unidentified volcano on the stratosphere. The Mystery Volcano placed about 0.85 Tg of sulfate in the northern hemisphere stratosphere. El Chicon injected about 7.6 Tg sulfate into the global stratosphere.

  5. Unzipping the mysteries of amyloid fiber formation Andrew D. Miranker*

    E-print Network

    Miranker, Andrew

    Unzipping the mysteries of amyloid fiber formation Andrew D. Miranker* Department of Molecular of nonamorphous, filamen- tous structures, termed amyloid fibers. Function and Pathology Two diverse groups share. Amyloid fibers are involved in a range of human conditions, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes

  6. Mystery Powders: An Introduction to Physical and Chemical Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leah Bulver

    In this classroom guided inquiry lesson, students will complete a serious of tests using five different mystery powders. Student will develop hypotheses, make observations, and draw conclusions about what each powder is and the physical and chemical reactions that occur when heat, water, iodine, and vinegar are added to each substance.

  7. The Mystery of Matter, World of the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, William G.

    This booklet is one in the "World of the Atome Series" for junior high school students and their teachers. It describes the fascinating story of the search for the key to the structure of matter. These topics are reviewed: the chemical atom of the 19th century, the planetary atom, the wave atom, inside the elementary particles, and the mystery of…

  8. THE STATE. COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA A look at the mystery

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    THE STATE. COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA A look at the mystery of Carolina gold I n 1827, a plantation in gold production. In the early days of the South Carolina gold rush, most of the gold was found tube, just like the gold in the rocks of South Carolina. Five hundred million years ago, what is now

  9. Mysterious Anti-Gravity and Dark-Essence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Je-An

    2013-12-01

    The need of anti-gravity and dark-essence in cosmology is the greatest scientific mystery in the 21st century. This paper presents a personal view of several relevant issues, including the long-standing cosmological constant problem, the newly emerging dark radiation issue, and the basic stability issue of the general-relativity limit in modified gravity.

  10. Lost treasures at UEA A mysterious collection of Kalahari Bushmen

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    remained a mystery. Items include painted ostrich egg shells used as water containers, bow and arrows, some The Broadview team reserves the right to make editorial changes to all submissions The eyes have it The Humane causes of land degradation, such as poverty," said Prof Stocking. "In my briefing papers I argued

  11. Exploring Mystery in Fifth Grade: A Journey of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Claudia; Martinez, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    An instructional framework that included the use of a touchstone text, literature circles, and independent reading and writing created a rich context for the study of mysteries in a fifth-grade classroom. Key points include a) the complexity of the touchstone text as a key factor in shaping the instructional goals in this genre study, and b) the…

  12. Use of the Mystery Motivator for a High School Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of one interdependent group contingency intervention, the mystery motivator, as it affected three students identified as exhibiting problem behaviors, as well as the effects on nonidentified students in a ninth-grade high school biology class. An A/B/A/B single-case design was used to evaluate the effects of the…

  13. Mystery Mud: Exploring Changes in States of Matter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2004-02-20

    Join a group of middle-school students on a visit to a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they experiment with mystery mud and learn about the relationships between magnetism, particle motion, and changes in the state of matter.

  14. Mystery Mud : Exploring Changes in States of Matter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Join a group of middle-school students on a visit to a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they experiment with mystery mud and learn about the relationships between magnetism, particle motion, and changes in the state of matter.

  15. The Mystery of the Cosmic Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    The Mystery of the Cosmic Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation Richard Conn Henry Henry A 20771. joshua.b.tyler@nasa.gov #12;­ 2 ­ ABSTRACT The diffuse cosmic background radiation in the GALEX celestial background radiation is observed over every wavelength range. In the microwave the results

  16. Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Lunar Mystery

    E-print Network

    LCROSS Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Lunar Mystery Earth's closest neighbor signatures detected in permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles by NASA's Lunar Prospector exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. The Lunar CRater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission

  17. The Biggest Bangs The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts,

    E-print Network

    Katz, Jonathan I.

    as it was happening, which had been the holy grail of gamma-ray burst astronomy for a quarter of a century. FromThe Biggest Bangs The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts, The Most Violent Explosions in The Universe J. I. Did a Gamma-Ray Burst Kill the Dinosaurs? Will a Burst Kill Us? #15; Glossary #15; Sources #15; Index

  18. The Biggest Bangs The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts,

    E-print Network

    Katz, Jonathan I.

    grail of gamma-ray burst astronomy for a quarter of a century. From the discovery of gamma-ray burstsThe Biggest Bangs The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts, The Most Violent Explosions in The Universe J. I a Gamma-Ray Burst Kill the Dinosaurs? Will a Burst Kill Us? · Glossary · Sources · Index viii #12;Chapter

  19. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  20. Scientists Check for Volcanic Activity

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Four scientists are busy reviewing seismic data, checking maps, and uploading activity updates in the USGS Volcano Hazards Program's Volcano Observatory operations room from the Menlo Park, California USGS campus....

  1. Developing Nurse Scientist Course Login

    Cancer.gov

    Privacy  |   Disclaimer  |   Help  |   Logout      Developing Nurse Scientist Course User Login / Registration Returning Users Email: Password: Having trouble logging in? New User Registration If you are entering the course for the first time, you must

  2. Looking out for future scientists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Proposals to reduce the number of students who do PhDs are misguided, writes Eve Marder, because they would exclude young scientists with qualities that do not show up in exam results and interviews. PMID:25291257

  3. American Physiological Society: Women Life Scientists Units

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Crafted by educators at the American Physiological Society, this set of twenty life sciences modules is designed "to increase students' exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach activities." Each module includes a brief biography of a female science role model and a set of problem-solving life sciences with a multidisciplinary focus. The scientists profiled here include Barbara McClintock, Alice Huang, Deborah Gordon, Dian Fossey, and Betsy Dresser. The activities include suggestions for teachers, assessment ideas, and handouts for students. The site also contains additional inks to educational activities designed for K-12 educators and students, and visitors can sign up to receive updates about new materials via RSS feed or email.

  4. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy C. Payne

    2006-11-01

    Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of "real" scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.

  5. Brightness Variations of Sun-like Stars: The Mystery Deepens - Astronomers facing Socratic "ignorance"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    An extensive study made with ESO's Very Large Telescope deepens a long-standing mystery in the study of stars similar to the Sun. Unusual year-long variations in the brightness of about one third of all Sun-like stars during the latter stages of their lives still remain unexplained. Over the past few decades, astronomers have offered many possible explanations, but the new, painstaking observations contradict them all and only deepen the mystery. The search for a suitable interpretation is on. "Astronomers are left in the dark, and for once, we do not enjoy it," says Christine Nicholls from Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia, lead author of a paper reporting the study. "We have obtained the most comprehensive set of observations to date for this class of Sun-like stars, and they clearly show that all the possible explanations for their unusual behaviour just fail." The mystery investigated by the team dates back to the 1930s and affects about a third of Sun-like stars in our Milky Way and other galaxies. All stars with masses similar to our Sun become, towards the end of their lives, red, cool and extremely large, just before retiring as white dwarfs. Also known as red giants, these elderly stars exhibit very strong periodic variations in their luminosity over timescales up to a couple of years. "Such variations are thought to be caused by what we call 'stellar pulsations'," says Nicholls. "Roughly speaking, the giant star swells and shrinks, becoming brighter and dimmer in a regular pattern. However, one third of these stars show an unexplained additional periodic variation, on even longer timescales - up to five years." In order to find out the origin of this secondary feature, the astronomers monitored 58 stars in our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud, over two and a half years. They acquired spectra using the high resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope and combined them with images from other telescopes [1], achieving an impressive collection of the properties of these variable stars. Outstanding sets of data like the one collected by Nicholls and her colleagues often offer guidance on how to solve a cosmic puzzle by narrowing down the plethora of possible explanations proposed by the theoreticians. In this case, however, the observations are incompatible with all the previously conceived models and re-open an issue that has been thoroughly debated. Thanks to this study, astronomers are now aware of their own "ignorance" - a genuine driver of the knowledge-seeking process, as the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates is said to have taught. "The newly gathered data show that pulsations are an extremely unlikely explanation for the additional variation," says team leader Peter Wood. "Another possible mechanism for producing luminosity variations in a star is to have the star itself move in a binary system. However, our observations are strongly incompatible with this hypothesis too." The team found from further analysis that whatever the cause of these unexplained variations is, it also causes the giant stars to eject mass either in clumps or as an expanding disc. "A Sherlock Holmes is needed to solve this very frustrating mystery," concludes Nicholls. Notes [1] Precise brightness measurements were made by the MACHO and OGLE collaborations, running on telescopes in Australia and Chile, respectively. The OGLE observations were made at the same time as the VLT observations. More information This research was presented in two papers: one appeared in the November issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ("Long Secondary Periods in Variable Red Giants", by C. P. Nicholls et al.), and the other has just been published in the Astrophysical Journal ("Evidence for mass ejection associated with long secondary periods in red giants", by P. R. Wood and C. P. Nicholls). The team is composed of Christine P. Nicholls and Peter R. Wood (Research School of Astronomy and Ast

  6. Cold Spring Harbor scientists determine mechanism of one of the most powerful tumor-suppressor proteins, Chd5

    Cancer.gov

    A team of cancer researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) has solved the mystery of how one of the most powerful of the body’s natural tumor-suppressing proteins, called Chd5, exerts its beneficial effects. The findings, published online in the journal Cell Reports, are important because Chd5 engages processes fundamental to cancer prevention. Conversely, when Chd5 is mutated or missing, an important door is opened to cancer initiation.

  7. PROBLEM SOLVING FOR ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    ? Self ­ Assessment Exercise: Each of the nine items presents two opposing statements: - If you feel to understand Them better. 4. I do not do a careful analysis of the I do a careful analysis of the solved solved examples presented. examples presented to see how the concept is applied. 5. When I look at a solved

  8. Solving quadratic Introduction

    E-print Network

    Vickers, James

    Solving quadratic equations 3.2 Introduction A quadratic equation is one which can be written. In this section we describe several ways in which quadratic equations can be solved. ' & $ % Prerequisites Before completing this Section you should be able to . . . recognise a quadratic equation solve a quadratic

  9. Mathematics Through Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Margaret Taplin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a student’s mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

  10. Solving Literal Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ball

    2012-09-14

    Learn how to solve equations and formulas for a specific variable Core Standard: A.CED.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. 1. Watch the following short videos NROC Video: Solving for a specific variable View the ...

  11. Solving Systems of Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ball

    2012-09-13

    Learn how to solve systems of linear equations by graphing, substitution, and elimination. As we discovered in our Pet Sitters Unit, systems of equations are a useful way to model and solve real-world situations in business. They are also useful in science and social science applications. This online unit will help you become an expert at solving systems of linear equations. 1) ...

  12. Who took the "x" out of expectancy-value theory? A psychological mystery, a substantive-methodological synergy, and a cross-national generalization.

    PubMed

    Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction. PMID:21750248

  13. Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews…

  14. Research Scientist and Staff Scientist Career Paths at SLAC Introduction

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    , as indicated in Figure 1. All levels ordinarily require a Ph.D. or its equivalent in research skill and subject scientific mission of the laboratory. There are four levels in the career path for Staff Scientists knowledge in the relevant scientific discipline and each level requires increasing professional achievement

  15. The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators

    ScienceCinema

    Brau, James E [University of Oregon

    2014-06-25

    The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

  16. Mastery, Mystery, and Misery: The Ideologies of Web Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Meeker

    2008-10-23

    A presentation on Jakob Nielson\\'s Alertbox from August 30, 2004. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20040830.html Jakob Nielson uses the titles mastery, mystery, and misery to describe three seperate approaches to web design. Mastery Mastery describes the ideology of empowering the user. The web designer does everything possible to give the user complete control over the website. For example, search engines are designed to put the ...

  17. The mysterious practice of petrol sniffing in isolated indigenous groups.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Sheree; Dingwall, Kylie

    2010-09-01

    The practice of petrol sniffing is a unique and poorly understood phenomenon that is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and social devastation in affected remote Indigenous communities. For these groups and for the wider community, much mystery has surrounded the practice and its effects. Here we introduce the epidemiology of petrol sniffing among Indigenous groups internationally, review its impact on the brain, behaviour and social functions and summarise related interventions. PMID:20854322

  18. The Unsolved Mysteries of Atmospheric Chemistry for High School Students and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    The grant "CAREER: New Molecular Markers of Asian Air Emissions - Anthropogenic Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds" (ATM-0239823) was funded by NSF from 2003-2008. The CAREER proposal described the integration of research and outreach education activities in the field of atmospheric chemistry, specifically atmospheric measurements and atmospheric transport. The primary objective of the research was to identify anthropogenic semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) that could be used as molecular markers for Asian air emissions and trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. The outreach education activity was integrated with the research by developing curriculum to introduce underrepresented minority high school students, and their teachers, to atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric measurements through Oregon State University's National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences funded Hydroville Curriculum Project (http://www.hydroville.org/iaq_resources). A curriculum was developed to allow students to assume the role of "Air Quality Scientist" and measure air temperature, air flow, relative humidity, CO, CO2, O3, and volatile organic compounds in out-door and in-door air. The students gained an understanding of atmospheric transport and compared measured concentrations to recommended guidelines. In addition, the outreach education activities included the development of the "Unsolved Mysteries of Human Health" website (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu/), including a specific module on the research conducted under the CAREER grant (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu /Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry-Overview). The PI of the CAREER proposal, Dr. Staci Massey Simonich, is now a full professor at Oregon State University. To date, she has published over 50 peer-review journal articles, as well as mentored 9 undergraduate students, 20 graduate students, 3 post-doctoral scholars, and 3 international visiting scientists in her laboratory.

  19. NewScientist.com: Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The NewScientist magazine archive features articles on a variety of science topics. The search engine accepts a keyword or title. Quick links to back issues are provided, and magazines can also be browsed by selecting one of ten predetermined subject categories.

  20. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  1. Predicting Peer Evaluation of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissler, Gary D.

    A sample of 103 government scientists was evaluated by panels of peers in regard to personnel action such as promotion. Analysis of information used by the panels and other data external to the process showed that peer ratings could be predicted accurately using only four variables: number of publications, honors and awards received, special…

  2. Membrane Scientist Los Angeles, CA

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Membrane Scientist Los Angeles, CA My client in Los Angeles is a young VC-funded startup resistance, and the flexibility to address specific water chemistries. They have recently received $61million processes Water analysis including ICP, ion chromatography, TOC Laboratory QA/QC SPC, DOE and Statistical

  3. Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The homepage of the Union of Concerned Scientists provides visitors with an overview of the science community's concern with environmental issues, energy policy, scientific integrity, and public health. Materials include news articles, reports, and suggestions for people who wish to become active in promoting these issues.

  4. Deborah K. Smith Senior Scientist

    E-print Network

    Smith, Deborah K.

    Deborah K. Smith Senior Scientist Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Publications: Jordan, T. H., H. W. Menard, and D.K. Smith, Density and size distribution of seamounts in the eastern Pacific inferred from wide-beam sounding data, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10508-10518, 1983. Kim, I. I., D. K. Smith, H

  5. Peter T. Cummings Principal Scientist

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    21 Peter T. Cummings Principal Scientist Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Oak Ridge National Laboratory (865) 241-4779 peter.cummings@vanderbilt.edu Education University of Melbourne, Australia publications) Simpson, M. L. and Cummings, P. T., "Fluctuations and Correlations in Physical and Biological

  6. Scientist Using Terrestrial Lidar Equipment

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Chris Soulard using the Terrestrial Lidar to scan study area in the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, AZ.  Note the bag of ice on the equipment.  High temperates can cause equipment to overheat, requiring scientists to be creative in protecting equipment....

  7. ASU Scientists Students and Teachers

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    -Ground Arthropods & Surveying local plant diversity Bruchid Beetles #12;Summer Internships Urbanization and Insects Teachers work with ASU scientists to learn: o How to collect and identify ground arthropods in the field with Research Tech, Richard Casaletta, to learn the arthropod protocol. #12;Summer Internship

  8. Bruce R. Ward Fisheries Scientist

    E-print Network

    1 Bruce R. Ward Fisheries Scientist Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, 2204 Main Mall 4714 Cell Phone 604 556 WARD Fax 604 660 1849 Bruce.Ward@gems8.gov.bc.ca Bruce Ward is a Fisheries Section (the previous Fisheries Research and Development Section), at the Fisheries Centre on the campus

  9. Materials Analysis: A Key to Unlocking the Mystery of the Columbia Tragedy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeaux, Brian M.; Collins, Thomas E.; Piascik, Robert S.; Russel, Richard W.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Shah, Sandeep R.; McDanels, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    Materials analyses of key forensic evidence helped unlock the mystery of the loss of space shuttle Columbia that disintegrated February 1, 2003 while returning from a 16-day research mission. Following an intensive four-month recovery effort by federal, state, and local emergency management and law officials, Columbia debris was collected, catalogued, and reassembled at the Kennedy Space Center. Engineers and scientists from the Materials and Processes (M&P) team formed by NASA supported Columbia reconstruction efforts, provided factual data through analysis, and conducted experiments to validate the root cause of the accident. Fracture surfaces and thermal effects of selected airframe debris were assessed, and process flows for both nondestructive and destructive sampling and evaluation of debris were developed. The team also assessed left hand (LH) airframe components that were believed to be associated with a structural breach of Columbia. Analytical data collected by the M&P team showed that a significant thermal event occurred at the left wing leading edge in the proximity of LH reinforced carbon carbon (RCC) panels 8 and 9. The analysis also showed exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,649 C, which would severely degrade the support structure, tiles, and RCC panel materials. The integrated failure analysis of wing leading edge debris and deposits strongly supported the hypothesis that a breach occurred at LH RCC panel 8.

  10. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis S. Sandrelli INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy (stefano.sandrelli@brera.inaf.it / Fax: 02 72001600 / Phone: +39 02 72320337) "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held both at the Perugia (2004) and the Genova Science Festival (2005), obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives in-charge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherd-moons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and water, represented by simple objects like apples, spinning tops and so on) to re-build the rings. The kids can buy the ingredients from different planets: every planet has ingredients in quantities which are proportionate to the real physical properties of that celestial object. After collecting the ingredients, they must carry them to the "The Red Giant" and indicate their best recipe to Mr Schioppanelli. Depending on the recipe, rings can be too strict or too luminous or too fast rotating and so on. The winning group is the one which prepares the best recipe to cook the rings in the smallest amount of time. After presentig this specific (and mysterious) case, we analyse the advantage- disadvantage ratio of such an activity, beeing as funny as dispersive.

  11. Profiles of Scientists and Engineers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-07

    The Science 360 Knowledge Network works to bring visitors "the latest wonders of science, engineering, technology and math." Among other things, the Network encourages young people to get involved in STEM careers, and these profiles are an important part of that mission. This site includes a dozen profiles of various individuals, including a virtual reality scientist, a biogeoscientist, and a marine biologist. Each short film features these scientists in their working environments. Each video is done with a bit of good humor, which makes the whole thing quite enjoyable. First-time visitors to the site shouldn't miss the profile of Yael Maguire, an electrical engineer who clearly has a great deal of fun on the job. After watching the videos, visitors can also sign up to receive notices when new profiles are added to the site.

  12. Ask-An-Earth-Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Hawaii, this educational Website covers topics in and beyond the fields of geology and geophysics. At the site, users may send (electronic) questions to 'real live scientists' regarding: Volcanoes and Igneous Rocks; Geochemistry, the Environment, and Pollution; Geophysics and General Geology; Earthquakes and Seismology; Hydrology and Water Quality; Natural Hazards; Minerals, Gems, Ores and Crystals; and Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Answers are thoughtful and content-rich, although many are specific to the Hawaiian Islands (as expected). To submit a question, users must select from a related topic area and then complete the online submission form. First-time users should begin by browsing previous questions and FAQs, however. This is a wonderful resource for students wishing to interact with established scientists, or for educators seeking clear and interesting explanations of natural phenomena.

  13. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  14. Science Explorations: Writing With Scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Writing with Scientists is a workshop that provides in-depth information about crafting a science report. In this workshop students are guided through a six step process for writing a scientific report. Excerpts from student reports are used as examples. Students are encouraged to have researched a topic prior to the workshop so that they are working on a specific report.

  15. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  16. Climate Kids: Renewable Energy Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this career-oriented interview, readers are introduced to a scientist who works primarily on wind energy. He explains the importance of wind farm placement planning. Images of architectural wind and a wind farm are included, along with a link to the Power Up game. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

  17. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  18. Checkers is solved.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Jonathan; Burch, Neil; Björnsson, Yngvi; Kishimoto, Akihiro; Müller, Martin; Lake, Robert; Lu, Paul; Sutphen, Steve

    2007-09-14

    The game of checkers has roughly 500 billion billion possible positions (5 x 10(20)). The task of solving the game, determining the final result in a game with no mistakes made by either player, is daunting. Since 1989, almost continuously, dozens of computers have been working on solving checkers, applying state-of-the-art artificial intelligence techniques to the proving process. This paper announces that checkers is now solved: Perfect play by both sides leads to a draw. This is the most challenging popular game to be solved to date, roughly one million times as complex as Connect Four. Artificial intelligence technology has been used to generate strong heuristic-based game-playing programs, such as Deep Blue for chess. Solving a game takes this to the next level by replacing the heuristics with perfection. PMID:17641166

  19. Building problem solving environments with the arches framework

    SciTech Connect

    Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

  20. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of observations is needed to help us understand the complex relationship that exists among the various components," Blair said. The explosion of a star is a catastrophic event. The blast rips the star apart and unleashes a roughly spherical shock wave that expands outward at more than 22 million mph like an interstellar tsunami. The shock wave spreads out into surrounding space, sweeping up any tenuous interstellar gas and dust into an expanding shell. The stellar ejecta from the explosion initially trail behind the shock wave. It eventually catches up with the inner edge of the shell and is heated to X-ray temperatures. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Hubble Optical Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps that form behind the shock wave. Sankrit and Blair compared their HST observations with those taken with ground-based telescopes to obtain a more accurate distance to the supernova remnant of about 13,000 light-years. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Spitzer Infrared Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. SST is sensitive enough to detect both the densest regions seen by HST and the entire expanding shock wave, a spherical cloud of material. Instruments on SST also reveal information about the chemical composition and physical environment of the expanding clouds of gas and dust ejected into space. This dust is similar to dust which was part of the cloud of dust and gas that formed the sun and planets in our solar system. Interview with Dr. William Blair Interview with Dr. William Blair The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas. The hottest gas, higher-energy X-rays, is located primarily in the regions directly behind the shock front. These regions also show up

  1. Space.com: Deep Impact Team Solves Blurry Photo Problem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article from Space.com describes how scientists from NASAâ??s Deep Impact mission intend to fix the spacecraftâ??s blurry vision problem by applying a mathematical process to the images after they have been transmitted to Earth. The author briefly descibes the process, called deconvolution, and discusses some challenges that the researchers will need to address. Readers can also learn more about the Deep Impact mission and its goal of learning about the makeup and nature of the mysterious nucleus of the comet Tempel 1. NASAâ??s Deep Impact mission was designed to uncover a cometâ??s innards by smashing a probe into Tempel 1. After being releases from the Flyby craft, the Impactor will position itself directly in front of the speeding comet for a head on collision. The impact is scheduled to occur at 1:52 a.m. EDT this July 4, 2005.

  2. The five mysteries of the mind, and their consequences.

    PubMed

    Doty, R W

    1998-10-01

    While Western man has recognized for almost 2500 years that mind derives exclusively from brain, clothing this fact with explanatory detail still proves elusive. First, is consciousness per se, created by processes demonstrably limited to certain, but still unspecified, neuronal arrangements and activities. Then there is perception, its ineffable qualia, and the fact that it arises from neuronal activity widely dispersed in space and time within networks of vast complexity. Voluntary control is equally dispersed as to neuronal participation, and nescient as to origin. An often overlooked mystery is the unity of mind and behavior that prevails despite the potential for bihemispheric duplication of processes and experience. Finally, there is memory, which while credibly within grasp of understanding as a synaptic alteration maintained via activation of the nuclear genome, still wholly defies comprehension when viewed as commanded recall of myriad, randomly selectable details of the past, a largely effortless and 'instantaneous' flood of memories. For two centuries science has endeavored to demonstrate how these mysteries proceed from physics and chemistry, as indeed they do; but viewed from this direction alone, mind is but the babbling of a robot, chained ineluctably to crude causality. In a bold and revolutionary stroke, Roger Sperry has conceived a more credible paradigm, that the totality of neuronal action, as a richly intercommunicating system, gives rise to effects transcendent to the individual physicochemical elements that compose it. A major achievement of this position is that it is immediately consonant with everyday human experience and belief. While neither Sperry's vision. nor the reduction of the mysteries to a dance of ions can yet be proven, the vast advantage of Sperry's thesis is that it again imbues human thought and action with responsibility, and opens morality to the light of science, while the long wait for certainty unfolds. PMID:9845053

  3. Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimnes, Karin A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to…

  4. The Mysteries of Aging: Is Diet a Contributing Factor?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Edward J. Masoro N:J. Masoro; Edward ORG:Univeristy of Texas Health Science Center REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD

    1996-12-15

    Of all the claims for nutrition as an influence on aging, only DR in laboratory rodents has been shown to globally slow senescence. Whether DR retards senescence in other classes of mammals (including humans) is not known; the high cost in resources to execute such studies in long-lived animals has up to now precluded definitive answers. However, even if it turns out that DR does not slow senescence in humans, research of this phenomenon in rodents is likely to yield information of value for the development of interventions that will lessen the deterioration which commonly occurs with advancing age in humans. Aging is still a mystery, but its dynamics are unfolding.

  5. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  6. USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek - Photo taken by Heidi Koontz, USGS Communications, Friday, Sept. 13. USGS scientist Ben Glass conducting current profiler measurements along Bear Creek near Bear Creek Lake in Morrison, Colo....

  7. The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Jahn, J.; Hummel, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a ommunity partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 10 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We gratefully acknowledge partial funding for the YES Program from a NASA EPO grant.

  8. The Young Engineers and Scientists Mentorship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Lin, C.; Clarac, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) Program is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA). It provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real-world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science and astronomy) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. YES has been highly successful during the past 12 years. All YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, and three scientific publications have resulted. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. We acknowledge funding from local charitable foundations and the NASA E/PO program.

  9. Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, T.

    1995-12-01

    In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

  10. 3/9/12 Astrophile: The rock that sprayed 'fairy dust' on moon -space -09 March 2012 -New Scientist 1/3www.newscientist.com/article/dn21574-astrophile-the-rock-that-sprayed-fairy-dust-on-moon.html?full

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    3/9/12 Astrophile: The rock that sprayed 'fairy dust' on moon - space - 09 March 2012 - New Scientist 1/3www.newscientist.com/article/dn21574-astrophile-the-rock-that-sprayed-fairy-dust-on-moon.html?full Magnetic mysteries of the moon (Image: Science/AAAS) A ophile is our weekl column on curious cosmic objects

  11. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

  12. Using Mystery Shopping to Compare the Service Quality of Banks in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Musa Pinar; Zeliha Eser; Sandy Strasser

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the service quality and performance of banks in Turkey. Specifically, by utilizing mystery (secret) shoppers as a benchmarking technique, the study compares the quality of services offered by different types of banks (state, private, and foreign banks) to identify the strong and weak service quality areas. Based on 351 evaluations by university students acting as mystery shoppers,

  13. Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

  14. Mystery Motivator as an Intervention To Promote Homework Completion and Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, Melissa M. R.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Madaus, Joseph; Bray, Melissa A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of the mystery motivator intervention as a means to remediate mathematics homework accuracy and completion problems in five fifth- grade students. Results indicated that the mystery motivator intervention was effective for all students on one or both outcome criteria. Additionally, both the teachers and students…

  15. Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Tom, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

  16. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

  17. Even More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Konicek-Moran

    2010-03-01

    What are the odds of a meteor hitting your house? What are "warm" clothes anyway? Do you get "more" sunlight from Daylight Saving Time? Everyone loves a good mystery and these unfold in the 15 stories presented in Even More Everyday Science Mysteries

  18. Even More Everyday Science Mysteries: Stories for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (e-book)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Konicek-Moran

    2010-06-02

    What are the odds of a meteor hitting your house? What are "warm" clothes anyway? Do you get "more" sunlight from Daylight Saving Time? Everyone loves a good mystery and these unfold in the 15 stories presented in Even More Everyday Science Mysteries, the

  19. American Behavioral Scientist 57(6) 796817

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    American Behavioral Scientist 57(6) 796­817 © 2013 SAGE Publications Reprints and permissions.1177/0002764213476846American Behavioral ScientistBoykoff © 2011 SAGE Publications Reprints and permission: http://www. sagepub Borenstein (2009) quoted climate scientist Ken Caldeira, who asserted, "To talk about global cooling

  20. Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

  1. SURGICAL SCIENTIST PROGRAM Department of Surgery

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    SURGICAL SCIENTIST PROGRAM Department of Surgery McGill University The purpose of the Surgical Scientist Program of the Department of Surgery is to develop surgical scientists who will be the future leaders in academic surgery both at McGill and in other university Departments of Surgery. Application

  2. Give Young Scientists a Break

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  3. New Scientist: Commercial Space Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article from New Scientist highlights the most recent actions that are bringing us closer to commercial space flight -- the granting of the first licence to a private company. The one-year license authorizes the launching of people up to 100 kilometers. Apparently, the company is competing with other companies to win a prize being offered by the X Prize Foundation, which will be awarded to "the first private group to send three people to the sub-orbital height of 100 kilometers twice in two weeks." The president of X Prize, Peter Diamandis, is quoted as saying he expects a winner by October 2004. So stay tuned!

  4. Mystery in a Jellabah: Cultural Worlds in Borges’s Hist Oria Universal De L A Infamia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Weiss

    \\u000a When we speak of the aesthetics of mystery, do we allow that mystery may differ from one culture to another? Is mystery the\\u000a same experience to someone Chinese, for instance, as it is to someone English? This is one question about the phenomenology\\u000a of mystery that this essay considers in the context of five short pieces by Jorge Luis Borges,

  5. NetSolve

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NetSolve is a project that aims to bring together disparate computational resources connected by computer networks. It is a RPC based client/agent/server system that allows one to remotely access both hardware and software components.

  6. Problem Solving with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Howard; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    A sequence is suggested for teachers working with parents in solving problems. Steps include: problem definition; problem analysis; generation of alternatives; establishment of criteria for selecting solutions; and evaluation and selection of solutions. (CB)

  7. Solving Linear Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-14

    This webpage includes six examples of solving linear equations using balancing. Students learn to "keep the equation balanced by making the same changes to both sides of the equal sign." Six examples of this mathematical process are included, each one being slightly more challenging than the last. Equations include more than one operation, variables, multiple terms on the same side, parentheses and fractions. The process for solving each is explained step by step.

  8. Waiting for Brandon: How Readers Respond to Small Mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Gerrig, Richard J.; Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    When readers experience narratives they often encounter small mysteries—questions that a text raises that are not immediately settled. In our experiments, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper names (e.g., “It’s just that Brandon hasn’t called in so long”). Resolved versions of the stories specified the functions those characters’ assumed in their narrative worlds with respect to the other characters (e.g., Brandon was identified as the speaker’s grandson); unresolved versions of the stories did not immediately provide that information. We predicted that characters whose functions were still unresolved would remain relatively accessible in the discourse representations. We tested that prediction in Experiments 1 and 2 by asking participants to indicate whether a name (e.g., Brandon) had appeared in the story. Participants responded most swiftly when the characters remained unresolved. In the latter experiments, we demonstrated that the presence of an unresolved character disrupted processing of information that followed that character’s introduction (Experiment 3) but not information that preceded that introduction (Experiment 4). These results support the general importance of providing a theoretical account of readers’ responses to narrative mysteries. PMID:20046984

  9. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions about Scientist and What Factors Affecting the Image of the Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Students' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze image of scientist from drawn picture of scientists using The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) by 5th grade students and to analyze where this image comes from students minds in changing Turkish educational perspective. Two hundred eighty seven…

  10. Science alliance: A scientist/teacher partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstrand, A. [National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Science Alliance, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, involves fifty NIH scientists, teachers in six elementary schools, and two school districts. The goals are to: (1) support teachers and schools as they develop science programs; (2) provide role models for students; (3) illustrate what scientists do; and (4) encourage a multidisciplinary approach to learning. Activities include classroom visits, workshops on hands-on science for teachers and scientists, a scientist training program, an electronic bulletin board, a workbook of activities that scientists have developed for classroom visits, and a newsletter. Aided by an annual evaluation, we have identified several elements critical to the success of Science Alliance. Teachers and scientists need a good personal relationship; good communications are fundamental. The responsibilities of participants must be clear, and both scientists and teachers need support and encouragement from their supervisors.

  11. Scientists at BNL and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have

    E-print Network

    are the mediators of the weak force responsible for the decay of radioactive nuclei. "Exploring the mystery of proton spin has been one of the key scientific research goals at RHIC," said Steven Vigdor, BNL's Associate Labo- ratory Director for Nuclear and Particle Physics. "Like many scientific mysteries, this one

  12. Professional Societies of Minority Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, K. G.

    2003-12-01

    This session will highlight professional organizations that serve minorities in physics, astronomy, and space science, such as the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), the National Society of Hispanic Physicists (NSHP), and the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS). These organizations represent and serve minority colleagues and students at both majority and minority-serving institutions. A panel of representatives from these organizations---as well as AAS members who are presently working with them---will discuss these groups' activities and will offer suggestions for how AAS members can better connect with their constituencies. The panel will also include representatives from APS and NASA who will discuss programmatic efforts being developed in partnership with these groups to better engage minority scientists in the research enterprise. Specific funding opportunities will also be presented, including support for minority outreach, undergraduate scholarships, and research grants.

  13. Scientists Turn Healthy Cells Cancerous

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    Biologists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research recently announced in the journal Nature that they have been able to genetically alter a healthy human cell to create a cancerous one. The discovery is being hailed as an important step forward towards the development of anti-cancer drugs. Previously, scientists have been able to turn normal cells cancerous by using chemicals and e-rays, but this is the first time it has been accomplished through genetic manipulation. This holds promise for a relatively new approach to treating cancer, one that attempts to remove the underlying genetic flaws that cause cancer instead of attacking both healthy and cancerous cells with present-day chemotherapy treatments. The sites listed provide information about this important new development in cancer research.

  14. Enigma of Runaway Stars Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Supernova Propels Companion Star through Interstellar Space The following success story is a classical illustration of scientific progress through concerted interplay of observation and theory. It concerns a 35-year old mystery which has now been solved by means of exciting observations of a strange double star. An added touch is the successive involvement of astronomers connected to the European Southern Observatory. For many years, astronomers have been puzzled by the fact that, among the thousands of very young, hot and heavy stars which have been observed in the Milky Way, there are some that move with exceptionally high velocities. In some cases, motions well above 100 km/sec, or ten times more than normal for such stars, have been measured. How is this possible? Which mechanism is responsible for the large amounts of energy needed to move such heavy bodies at such high speeds? Could it be that these stars are accelerated during the powerful explosion of a companion star as a supernova? Such a scenario was proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw [1], but until now, observational proof has been lacking. Now, however, strong supporting evidence for this mechanism has become available from observations obtained at the ESO La Silla observatory. The mysterious runaway stars OB-runaway stars [2] are heavy stars that travel through interstellar space with an anomalously high velocity. They have been known for several decades, but it has always been a problem to explain their high velocities. Although most OB-runaway stars are located at distances of several thousands of lightyears, their high velocity results in a measurable change in position on sky photos taken several years apart. The velocity component in the direction of the Earth can be measured very accurately from a spectrogram. From a combination of such observations, it is possible to measure the space velocity of OB-runaways. Bow shocks reveal runaway stars It has also been found that some OB-runaways display bow shocks of compressed matter, which look very much like the bow wave around a boat crossing the ocean. They are of the same physical nature as a bow shock created by a jet-fighter in the air. The explanation is similar: when an OB-runaway star plows through the interstellar medium (a very thin mixture of gas and dust particles) with supersonic velocity [3], interstellar matter is swept up in a bow shock. Stars of low velocity do not create bow shocks. Thus, the detection of a bow shock around a particular OB star indicates that it must have a supersonic velocity, thereby securely identifying it as a runaway star, even if its velocity has not been measured directly. Runaway stars come from stellar groups When a star's direction of motion in space is known, it is possible to reconstruct its previous path and, even more interestingly, to find the place where the star originally came from. It turns out that the paths of many OB-runaways can be traced back to socalled OB-associations , that is groups of 10 to 100 OB-type stars which are located in the spiral arms of our galaxy. About fifty OB-associations are known in the Milky Way. In fact, the majority of all known OB stars are members of an OB-association. Therefore, it is not very surprising that OB-runaway stars should also originate from OB-associations. This is also how they got their name: at some moment, they apparently left the association in which they were formed. The ejection mechanism But why were the OB-runaway stars kicked out of the OB-association and how did they achieve such high speeds? One possibility is that some OB stars in an OB-association are ejected due to strong gravitational effects at the time of close encounters between the members of the group. Complicated computer simulations show that this is in principle possible. Nevertheless, since many years, most astronomers think that a more likely scenario is that of violent supernova explosions, first proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw. Stellar evolution theory predicts that all OB stars will end their life in a supernova explosion. The he

  15. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  16. Pain Mystery Score Beliefs: A Comparison of Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Anthony Science

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the mysteriousness scores of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory in fibromyalgia. Methods. Two cohorts of patients, one with fibromyalgia (FM) and one with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), completed the Mystery Scale component of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory to determine whether subjects in the two diagnostic groups had significantly different scores on the Mystery Scale. Results. A total of 126 subjects (64 FM, 62 RA) completed all questionnaires. The FM group had a greater percentage of female subjects, more severe pain, more severe anxiety, more severe depression, and a higher perceived injustice score. When the RA and FM group scores for the Mystery Scale were adjusted for age, sex, pain severity, HADS scores, and perceived injustice scores, the FM group still had a higher Mystery Scale score. Discussion. Fibromyalgia is associated with a higher level of perception of mysteriousness in the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory than is seen with rheumatoid arthritis. This difference appears to be independent of levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and perceived injustice. This sense of mysteriousness may reflect a lack of understanding of pain in fibromyalgia as previously reported and may be an area to be addressed in therapy. PMID:25548570

  17. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  18. Solving Linear Inequalities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-07-02

    From Elizabeth Stapel at Purplemath, this module helps students understand how to solve linear inequalities with an introduction to the topic using both inequality notation and a graphic representation to express the inequality. This section also briefly covers set notation and interval notation. The next two pages of the site give elementary examples and advanced examples. The elementary examples are simple problems with solutions and an interactive widget on which students can try their knowledge. The advanced examples include real-world word problems in physics, finance, and chemistry that require students to identify and solve the linear inequality.

  19. Persistence in Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).

  20. Scientists Toast the Discovery of Vinyl Alcohol in Interstellar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, have discovered the complex organic molecule vinyl alcohol in an interstellar cloud of dust and gas near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The discovery of this long-sought compound could reveal tantalizing clues to the mysterious origin of complex organic molecules in space. Vinyl Alcohol and its fellow isomers "The discovery of vinyl alcohol is significant," said Barry Turner, a scientist at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Va., "because it gives us an important tool for understanding the formation of complex organic compounds in interstellar space. It may also help us better understand how life might arise elsewhere in the Cosmos." Vinyl alcohol is an important intermediary in many organic chemistry reactions on Earth, and the last of the three stable members of the C2H4O group of isomers (molecules with the same atoms, but in different arrangements) to be discovered in interstellar space. Turner and his colleague A. J. Apponi of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory in Tucson detected the vinyl alcohol in Sagittarius B -- a massive molecular cloud located some 26,000 light-years from Earth near the center of our Galaxy. The astronomers were able to detect the specific radio signature of vinyl alcohol during the observational period of May and June of 2001. Their results have been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Of the approximately 125 molecules detected in interstellar space, scientists believe that most are formed by gas-phase chemistry, in which smaller molecules (and occasionally atoms) manage to "lock horns" when they collide in space. This process, though efficient at creating simple molecules, cannot explain how vinyl alcohol and other complex chemicals are formed in detectable amounts. For many years now, scientists have been searching for the right mechanism to explain how the building blocks for vinyl alcohol and other chemicals are able to form the necessary chemical bonds to make larger molecules - those containing as many as six or more atoms. "It has been an ongoing quest to understand exactly how these more complex molecules form and become distributed throughout the interstellar medium," said Turner. Since the 1970s, scientists have speculated that molecules could form on the microscopic dust grains in interstellar clouds. These dust grains are thought to trap the fast-moving molecules. The surface of these grains would then act as a catalyst, similar to a car's catalytic converter, and enable the chemical reactions that form vinyl alcohol and the other complex molecules. The problem with this theory, however, is that the newly formed molecules would remain trapped on the dust grains at the low temperature characteristic of most of interstellar space, and the energy necessary to "knock them off" would also be strong enough to break the chemical bonds that formed them. "This last process has not been well understood," explained Turner. "The current theory explains well how molecules like vinyl alcohol could form, but it doesn't address how these new molecules are liberated from the grains where they are born." To better understand how this might be accomplished, the scientists considered the volatile and highly energetic region of space where these molecules were detected. Turner and others speculate that since this cloud lies near an area of young, energetic star formation, the energy from these stars could evaporate the icy surface layers of the grains. This would liberate the molecules from their chilly nurseries, depositing them into interstellar space where they can be detected by sensitive radio antennas on Earth. Astronomers are able to detect the faint radio signals that these molecules emit as they jump between quantum energy states in the act of rotating or vibrating. Turner cautions, however, that even though this discovery has shed new light on how certain h

  1. Satellite tagged walruses help scientists answer climate change questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of walruses abandon ice for Alaska shorehttp://www.usatoday.com/weather/environment/2007-10-05-alaska-walrus_N.htmIn a Warming Bering Sea, Whither the Walrus?http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5357899Walruses Prefer Right to Left Flipperhttp://dsc.discovery.com/news/afp/20031027/walrus.htmlToothwalkers: Giants of the Arctic Icehttp://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/toothwalkers/The Walrus and The Carpenterhttp://www.jabberwocky.com/carroll/walrus.htmlThis past April, scientists attached satellite tags to eight walruses in West Greenland in an effort to learn more about the effects of climate change. There is a definite connection between walruses, ice and climate and scientists hope that by continuing to track walruses via satellite more can be discovered. While the scientists tagged eight walruses, a few tags failed almost immediately but a few were sending signals through the summer. This past month the last working satellite tag stopped signaling. In addition to learning more about the effects of climate change, scientists involved in the study hoped to uncover where walruses migrate. Walruses need thick ice and as temperatures rise in the spring and summer they head north to colder climates, but the exact location of their summer hideaway has long been a mystery. The information gleaned from this study could also impact walrus hunting quotas. Walrus hunting is still allowed in Greenland and Canada where they are hunted for their ivory and meat. Scientists hope to gain information about the connection between walrus populations as well as to better understand what is necessary to maintain a sustainable population. Despite the early loss of some tags and the difficulties in tracking walruses, the team was pleased with the results and hopes to run the tagging experiments over a number of years. Dr. Born, a member of the team, added "When you look around the world, there are not a whole lot of walrus researchers, and I think one reason is that walruses are just such a difficult animal to study." The first link will take users to an article from BBC News which talks about the last of the satellite tagged walruses and the research accompanying the project. The second link leads to a piece from the USA Today which discusses how climate change may be affecting Alaskan walruses. In the third link users will find Alaska Public Radio's Annie Feidt's fine piece on climate change in the Bering Sea and its effects on walruses. The fourth link is from Discovery News and discusses the recent science behind determining whether walruses (as well as other creatures) are primarily righties or lefties. Moving on to the fifth link, users will be taken to PBS.org's complementary website to their Nature program "Toothwalkers: Giants of the Arctic Ice". Here visitors can watch walrus videos, peruse a plethora of walrus photos and learn more about their habitat, survival and even walruses in captivity. Finally, users can click on the last link to read and enjoy Lewis Carroll's "The Walrus and the Carpenter".

  2. Modelling biological complexity: a physical scientist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Peter V; Fowler, Philip W

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the modern approaches of complexity and self-organization to understanding dynamical systems and how these concepts can inform current interest in systems biology. From the perspective of a physical scientist, it is especially interesting to examine how the differing weights given to philosophies of science in the physical and biological sciences impact the application of the study of complexity. We briefly describe how the dynamics of the heart and circadian rhythms, canonical examples of systems biology, are modelled by sets of nonlinear coupled differential equations, which have to be solved numerically. A major difficulty with this approach is that all the parameters within these equations are not usually known. Coupled models that include biomolecular detail could help solve this problem. Coupling models across large ranges of length- and time-scales is central to describing complex systems and therefore to biology. Such coupling may be performed in at least two different ways, which we refer to as hierarchical and hybrid multiscale modelling. While limited progress has been made in the former case, the latter is only beginning to be addressed systematically. These modelling methods are expected to bring numerous benefits to biology, for example, the properties of a system could be studied over a wider range of length- and time-scales, a key aim of systems biology. Multiscale models couple behaviour at the molecular biological level to that at the cellular level, thereby providing a route for calculating many unknown parameters as well as investigating the effects at, for example, the cellular level, of small changes at the biomolecular level, such as a genetic mutation or the presence of a drug. The modelling and simulation of biomolecular systems is itself very computationally intensive; we describe a recently developed hybrid continuum-molecular model, HybridMD, and its associated molecular insertion algorithm, which point the way towards the integration of molecular and more coarse-grained representations of matter. The scope of such integrative approaches to complex systems research is circumscribed by the computational resources available. Computational grids should provide a step jump in the scale of these resources; we describe the tools that RealityGrid, a major UK e-Science project, has developed together with our experience of deploying complex models on nascent grids. We also discuss the prospects for mathematical approaches to reducing the dimensionality of complex networks in the search for universal systems-level properties, illustrating our approach with a description of the origin of life according to the RNA world view. PMID:16849185

  3. The Mystery of the ? CAS Type X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrejon, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently gamma Cas stood alone as the major exception to our understanding of the X-ray emission from massive stars. In the last years, however, a growing number of `gamma Cas-like' objects has been unveiled by X-ray telescopes suggesting the existence of an entire new class of X-ray sources. The nature of their X-ray emission remains a mystery. Two hypotheses have been put forward: accretion onto a degenerate companion (a White Dwarf) or, alternatively, the interaction of the circumstellar disk with the star's magnetic field. Both explanations challenge our current understanding of the structure and evolution of massive stars. To ascertain their true nature is, therefore, of great interest.

  4. Viscous flow interpretation of Comet Halley's mystery transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-de-Tejada, H.

    1989-08-01

    A study of the solar wind within Comet Halley's ionosheath is presented. It is shown that the plasma changes seen across the intermediate ('mystery') transition, located approximately half way between the bow shock and the cometopause along the Giotto trajectory, are similar to those occurring across an equivalent transition present within the Venus ionosheath. As in Venus, the observed plasma changes are consistent with those expected from the onset of friction phenomena between the shocked solar wind and the main body of ionospheric plasma. It is suggested that the intermediate transition on Comet Halley's ionosheath represents the outer boundary of a thick viscous boundary layer that develops from the nose of the cometopause and extends along the flanks of the ionosheath. On the basis of this interpretation it is concluded that the subsolar position of the cometopause may have reached about 340,000 km upstream from the nucleus at the time of the Giotto measurements.

  5. K2P potassium channels, mysterious and paradoxically exciting.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Steve A N

    2011-08-01

    New evidence reveals that the common electrolyte disorder hypokalemia can induce K2P1 channels that are normally selective for K+ to break the rules and conduct Na+. This defiant behavior leads to paradoxical depolarization of many cells in the heart, increasing the risk for lethal arrhythmia. The new research resolves a mystery uncovered 50 years ago and bestows an array of new riddles. Here, I discuss how K2P1 might achieve this alchemy--through stable residence of the K+ selectivity filter in a Na+-conductive state between its open and C-inactive configurations--and predict that other K+ channels and environmental stimuli will be discovered to produce the same excitatory misconduct. PMID:21868351

  6. K2P Potassium Channels, Mysterious and Paradoxically Exciting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steve A. N. Goldstein (University of Chicago; Department of Pediatrics and Institute for Molecular Pediatric Sciences REV)

    2011-08-02

    New evidence reveals that the common electrolyte disorder hypokalemia can induce K2P1 channels that are normally selective for K+ to break the rules and conduct Na+. This defiant behavior leads to paradoxical depolarization of many cells in the heart, increasing the risk for lethal arrhythmia. The new research resolves a mystery uncovered 50 years ago and bestows an array of new riddles. Here, I discuss how K2P1 might achieve this alchemy—through stable residence of the K+ selectivity filter in a Na+-conductive state between its open and C-inactive configurations—and predict that other K+ channels and environmental stimuli will be discovered to produce the same excitatory misconduct.

  7. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: an unresolved mystery

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Dalton, Jane E.; Kaye, Paul M.; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2014-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a cutaneous sequela of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), develops in some patients alongside but more commonly after apparent cure from VL. In view of the pivotal role of PKDL patients in the transmission of VL, here we review clinical, epidemiological, parasitological, and immunological perspectives of this disease, focusing on five hypotheses to explain the development of PKDL: (i) the role of antimonial drugs; (ii) UV-induced skin damage; (iii) reinfection; (iv) organ specific failure of memory T cell responses; and (v) genetic susceptibility of the host. This review will enable researchers and clinicians to explore the unresolved mystery of PKDL and provide a framework for future application of ‘omic’ approaches for the control and eventual elimination of VL. PMID:24388776

  8. Murder with Southern Hospitality: An Exhibition of Mississippi Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those people who still think of Mississippi as solely being the land of such authors as Faulkner and his ilk, this fine online exhibit offered by the University of Mississippi Libraries may expand their knowledge of Southern writers. The exhibit prominently features the book covers of mystery novels written by a host of Mississippians, including such authors as Newton Gayle, Nevada Barr, and Colonel William C. Falkner. Here they may peruse the cover art of such novels as "The White Rose of Memphis" and Elmore Leonard's "Tishomingo Blues". For those who wish to locate authors by their location, an interactive map of Mississippi makes this process rather simple. The site is rounded out by a complete bibliography, which includes links to each work's cover art.

  9. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J. E. [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States)] [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)] [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  10. Uncovering the Mystery of Gliding Motility in the Myxobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Beiyan; Zusman, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial gliding motility is the smooth movement of cells on solid surfaces unaided by flagella or pili. Many diverse groups of bacteria exhibit gliding, but the mechanism of gliding motility has remained a mystery since it was first observed more than a century ago. Recent studies on the motility of Myxococcus xanthus, a soil myxobacterium, suggest a likely mechanism for gliding in this organism. About forty M. xanthus genes were shown to be involved in gliding motility, and some of their protein products were labeled and localized within cells. These studies suggest that gliding motility in M. xanthus involves large multiprotein structural complexes, regulatory proteins, and cytoskeletal filaments. In this review, we summarize recent experiments that provide the basis for this emerging view of M. xanthus motility. We also discuss alternative models for gliding. PMID:21910630

  11. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  12. Problem Solving by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

  13. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  14. Solving the Hydrogen Atom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    After practicing with the particle-in-a-box problem, students solve the H atom symbolically using the derivatives feature in MathCad. The result is an expression for the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. Students will also prove that the radial part of the wavefunction is normalized and explore the concept of an orbital.

  15. Calculator Riddle Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmirs, Myra C.

    1993-01-01

    Calculator riddles can interest elementary students in math. Solving riddles where a numerical answer turned upside down reveals a word answer provides an amusing way to practice mathematical operations and learn about calculator functions. The paper explains how to create word riddles and includes student work pages. (SM)

  16. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  17. Problem Solving with Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterall, P.; Lewis, R.

    1985-01-01

    Documents the educational use of spreadsheets through a description of exploratory work which utilizes spreadsheets to achieve the objectives of Conway's Game of Life, a scientific method game for the development of problem-solving techniques. The implementation and classroom use of the spreadsheet programs are discussed. (MBR)

  18. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…

  19. Interactive insight problem solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

    2011-01-01

    Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In

  20. Cooperative Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , and Skeptic. When a student solves a homework or test problem, she has to be an executive manager, organizing to continually be skeptical, asking herself questions about each step -- "Am I sure that I am going in the right students to practice the different metacognitive actions individually. Students also have an opportunity

  1. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  2. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists

    PubMed Central

    Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D.; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L.; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K.

    2013-01-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists. PMID:23803301

  3. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists.

    PubMed

    Via, Allegra; Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K

    2013-09-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists. PMID:23803301

  4. The interface between the phonetic scientist and forensic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollien, Harry

    2003-10-01

    Many scientists find the interface with criminal/civil investigations and the resulting litigation quite challenging. The great variety found among such cases and their (sometimes) shockingly grim aspects, can be most daunting. Moreover, the aid these scientists can expect when attempting to learn their responsibilities (while good) tends to focus only on the roles they will play in the courts. The reality is that they also must serve in a second domain that of investigator/consultant to law enforcement personnel and attorneys. Since training, structure and guidelines are lacking in this area, the relevant problems must be addressed (and solved) directly by the scientist. To do so, he/she must (1) learn about the parallels between laboratory investigations and forensic investigations and organize links, (2) compensate for the differences between them, (3) organize scientific personnel for collaborations in support of the needs of the practitioners, (4) adapt laboratory procedures for forensic application, (5) establish criteria for these applications and (6) develop and articulate what can and cannot be expected of these procedures. Brief case reviews will be presented to illustrate each of these issues.

  5. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  6. The Secret Life of Scientists & Engineers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

  7. Jets Spout Far Closer to Black Hole Than Thought, Scientists Say

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, taking advantage of multiple unique views of black hole particle jets over the course of a year with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, have assembled a "picture" of the region that has revealed several key discoveries. They have found that the jets may be originating five times closer to the black hole than previously thought; they see in better detail how these jets change with time and distance from the black hole; and they could use this information as a new technique to measure black hole mass. Presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, the observation will ultimately help solve the mystery of the great cosmic contradiction, in which black holes, notorious for pulling matter in, somehow manage to also shoot matter away in particle jets moving close to the speed of light. The observation is of a familiar source named SS 433 -- a binary star system within our Galaxy in the constellation Aquila, the Eagle, about 16,000 light years away. The black hole and its companion are about two-thirds closer to each other than the planet Mercury is to the Sun. The jets shoot off at 175 million miles per hour, 26 percent of light speed. "The high-speed jets in nearby SS 433 may be caused by the same mechanisms as the powerful outflows in the most distant and much more massive black holes, such as quasars," said Laura Lopez, an undergraduate student at MIT and lead author on a paper about the result. "SS 433 provides a nice local laboratory to study the formation of and conditions in relativistic jets." Dr. Herman Marshall, Ms. Lopez's research supervisor, led the investigation. Matter from the companion star pours into the black hole via a swirling accretion disk, much like water down a drain. Black hole particles jets are thought to be produced as some of the matter encounters strong magnetic fields close to the black hole. SS 433 is angled in such a way that one jet is shooting away from us while the other is aimed slightly towards us. The black hole's companion star enters the picture here as it periodically eclipses parts of the jets. Scientists use the eclipse, called an occultation, as a tool to block one part of the jet so that they can study other parts more easily. Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, the MIT group measured many characteristics of the jets, forming the best view of a jet's structure ever obtained. No image was created, as in other Chandra observations. Rather, the scientists pieced together the scene through spectroscopy, the fingerprint of chemical elements that reveals temperature and velocity of matter in the jets. They determined the length of the X-ray-emitting portion of the jet (over one million miles, about five times the distance from the Earth to the Moon); the temperature range (dropping from about 100 million degrees Celsius to 10 million degrees farther out); the chemical abundances (iron, silicon, and more); and the jet opening angle. In a previous observation they measured the jet's density. With this information, the team could determine that the jet base was five times closer to the black hole than previously observed, with a base diameter of about 1,280 miles. Also, from a bit of geometry along with information on the size of the binary system from optical observations by a team led by Douglas Gies of Georgia State University, the MIT group determined that the size of the companion star that blocked the view of the receding jet is about nine times the size of the Sun. From that, they estimated that the black hole is 16 solar masses. (For many years scientists have speculated whether SS 433 contains a black hole or a neutron star. Today's announcement of a 16-solar-mass object confirms that it is indeed a black hole, too massive to be a neutron star.) "The uniqueness of SS 433 cannot be overstated," said Marshall. "SS 433 provides an excellent opportunity to study the origin, evolution, and long-term beha

  8. The soul of the scientist

    SciTech Connect

    DeBakey, M.E. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The author addresses the essense of scientific personnel as the animating and vital principle in people credited with the facilities of thought, action and emotion. Science pervades our lives and civilization. The author provides a view of the nature of science as a way of thinking and of solving problems. Science is presented as a highly organized, integrated, dynamic structure with diverse branches and widely disparate components that often combine for producing remarkable and unexpected benefits. Medical science is used to illustrate the humane goals of science. Modern medical issues and the Nation`s concern for reform in our health management systems are used to show the need for priorities and furthering the scientific education of the nation. 3 refs.

  9. How Things Work. Mystery Glow-Ball: When Is a Battery Not a Battery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the working mechanism of a commercial "Mystery Glow-Ball" by analyzing its electronic circuitry. Finds that the advertising for the ball is wrong; energy actually came from inserting a battery. (YP)

  10. Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect pest

    E-print Network

    Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect GilleN #12;What are compost teas? · Watery extracts (teas) made from placing compost in a mesh bag and soaking in water · Plant vs. animal (manure

  11. Roaming in the Dark: Deciphering the Mystery of NO3 --> NO + O2 Photolysis

    E-print Network

    Grubb, Michael Patrick

    2012-07-16

    remained a mystery, and no energetically accessible transition state has ever been calculated. Using velocity map ion imaging experiments to carefully study the stereochemistry of the product fragments combined with theoretical calculations performed...

  12. Solving Recurrences Andreas Klappenecker

    E-print Network

    Klappenecker, Andreas

    , a sequence solving the recurrence is given by (2,2x3,2x32 ,...)=(2x3k ) #12;Fibonacci Numbers The Fibonacci numbers satisfy the recurrence: f0 = 0 f1 = 1 fn = fn-1 + fn-2 for n 2 #12;Fibonacci Numbers The Fibonacci numbers satisfy the recurrence: f0 = 0 f1 = 1 f2 = f1 + f0 f3 = f2 + f1 f4 = f3 + f2 ... #12

  13. Clinical Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Christine; Nishino, Mizuki; Jagannathan, Jyothi; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Di Salvo, Donald; Krajewski, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    This review demonstrates the unique advantages of sonography in the oncologic setting. Although computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography are primary imaging modalities for evaluation of the oncologic patient, sonography is useful for evaluation of various conditions and clinical scenarios associated with cancer. The following article will illustrate the utility of sonography at a tertiary cancer center for diagnosis and problem solving. PMID:24371094

  14. "Who Was 'Shadow'?" The Computer Knows: Applying Grammar-Program Statistics in Content Analyses to Solve Mysteries about Authorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Barbara G.; Dick, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    Employs the statistics-documentation portion of a word-processing program's grammar-check feature together with qualitative analyses to determine that Henry Watterson, long-time editor of the "Louisville Courier-Journal," was probably the South's famed Civil War correspondent "Shadow." (TB)

  15. Hot Evolved Companions to Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars: Solving the Mystery of KOI-81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    The NASA Kepler Science Team recently announced the discovery of twotransiting binaries that have "planets" hotter than their host stars.These systems probably represent the first known examples of white dwarfsformed through mass loss and transfer among intermediate mass, closebinary stars. Here we propose to obtain COS FUV spectroscopy of one ofthese systems, KOI-81, in order to detect the hot companion in a part of the spectrum where it is relatively bright. The spectral flux and Doppler shift measurements will yield the temperatures, masses, radii, and compositions of both components. These observations will provide our first opportunity to explore this previously hidden stage of close binary evolution.

  16. Analyzing patterns in experts' approaches to solving experimental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?an?ula, Maja Poklinek; Planinši?, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    We report detailed observations of three pairs of expert scientists and a pair of advanced undergraduate students solving an experimental optics problem. Using a new method ("transition graphs") of visualizing sequences of logical steps, we were able to compare the groups and identify patterns that could not be found using previously existing methods. While the problem solving of undergraduates significantly differed from that of experts at the beginning of the process, it gradually became more similar to the expert problem solving. We mapped problem solving steps and their sequence to the elements of an approach to teaching and learning physics called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), and we speculate that the ISLE educational framework closely represents the actual work of physicists.

  17. VLBA Scientists Study Birth of Sunlike Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    Three teams of scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to learn tantalizing new details about how Sun-like stars are formed. Young stars, still growing by drawing in nearby gas, also spew some of that material back into their surroundings, like impatient infants that eat too quickly. The VLBA observations are giving astronomers new insights on both processes -- the accretion of material by the new stars and the outflows of material from them. "For the first time, we're actually seeing what happens right down next to the star in these young systems," said Mark Claussen, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Claussen and other researchers announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. Material attracted by a young star's gravitational pull forms a flat, orbiting disk, called an accretion disk, in which the material circles closer and closer to the star until finally drawn into it. At the same time, material is ejected in "jets" speeding from the poles of the accretion disk. "The VLBA is showing us the first images of the region close to the star where the material in these jets is accelerated and formed into the `beams' of the jet," Claussen said. "We don't understand the details of these processes well," Claussen said. "These VLBA research projects are beginning to help unravel the mysteries of how stars like the Sun form." The teams are observing clumps of water vapor that naturally amplify radio emissions to see details smaller than the orbit of Mercury in young stellar systems as well as track gas motions. The clumps of gas are called masers, and amplify radio emission in much the same way that a laser amplifies light emission. "These images are just fantastic," said Al Wootten of NRAO in Charlottesville, VA. The maser clumps or "spots," emitting radio waves at a specific wavelength, can be tracked as they move over time. In addition, by measuring the Doppler shift in the wavelength of these emissions, astronomers can determine the speed at which the gas is moving. In an object known as S106FIR, 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus, a team of Japanese and U.S. VLBA observers led by Ray Furuya, a graduate student from Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory, has tracked the motion of material outward in the jet. This object, embedded in a dense cloud of molecular gas, the material from which the star is forming, shows maser spots moving in two directions as the jets emerge from both poles of the accretion disk. "The water masers are the only way we can detect the outflow from this young star," Furuya said. The VLBA observations can discern details as small as half the distance from the Earth to the Sun. "We can see outflow on scales the size of our Solar System. We think this object is one of the youngest protostars known," Furuya said. In another object, dubbed IRAS 16293-2422, in the constellation Ophiuchus, astronomers believe the water masers clearly show the outflowing jets of a young star and may be tracing the accretion disk as well. The young star is one of a pair of stars in a binary system some 500 light-years distant. The water-vapor masers are seen around only one of the pair, however. "In this system, we see outflow in the jet and also an elliptical ring of masers that may be part of the accretion disk," said Wootten, leader of the team observing this object. "The VLBA is showing us details as small as the size of Mercury's orbit around the Sun, a great help in understanding the physics going on there," Wootten said. A team composed largely of astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, also used the VLBA to study water masers in a young stellar object 2,500 light-years away in Cepheus. This team sees maser spots moving in opposite directions away from the young star on scales of ten times the diameter of the solar system, pr

  18. Mathematics for Computer Scientists Venanzio Capretta

    E-print Network

    Capretta, Venanzio

    Mathematics for Computer Scientists G51MCS Venanzio Capretta www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~vxc/g51mcs/g51mcs.html venanzio.capretta@nottingham.ac.uk Computer Science Building, A07 Venanzio Capretta Mathematics Mathematics for Computer Scientists #12;What this module is about What are the topics of this module? Formal

  19. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  20. Educators' Views of Collaboration with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated educators' views of collaboration with scientists, a baseline for COSEE Great Lakes efforts in facilitating dynamic collaborative relationships between Great Lakes researchers and educators. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how are educators in the Great Lakes region involved in collaboration with scientists,…

  1. Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

    2011-12-01

    Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

  2. Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

  3. Robotics and Vision Scientist Evolution Robotics

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Robotics and Vision Scientist Evolution Robotics 1055 E. Colorado Bl., #410 Pasadena, California 91106 (626) 993-3300 09 May 2011 Evolution Robotics Employment Opportunity Profile · Title: Robotics and Vision Scientist · Reports to: VP of Research and Development The Company: Evolution Robotics, Inc

  4. LYNN M. SOSNOSKIE Assistant Project Scientist

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Brad

    LYNN M. SOSNOSKIE Assistant Project Scientist Department Plant Sciences University of California Present Post-Doctoral Assistant Project Scientist, University of California (Davis, CA) 2006-2011 Post.P. Herms. 2003. Seedbank changes following the adoption of glyphosate tolerant crops. Aspects of Applied

  5. How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2009-01-01

    The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are…

  6. Communicating Like a Scientist with Multimodal Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Mark; Kuhn, Mason

    2012-01-01

    If students are to accurately model how scientists use written communication, they must be given opportunities to use creative means to describe science in the classroom. Scientists often integrate pictures, diagrams, charts, and other modes within text and students should also be encouraged to use multiple modes of communication. This article…

  7. How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baden, Michael (MD, New York Police) [MD, New York Police

    2006-05-17

    Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

  8. Analyzing Prospective Teachers' Images of Scientists Using Positive, Negative and Stereotypical Images of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Wojnowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the…

  9. Real Science, Real Learning: Bridging the Gap Between Scientists, Educators and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Today as never before, America needs its citizens to be literate in science and technology. Not only must we only inspire a new generation of scientists and engineers and technologists, we must foster a society capable of meeting complex, 21st-century challenges. Unfortunately, the need for creative, flexible thinkers is growing at a time when our young students are lagging in science interest and performance. Over the past 17 years, the JASON Project has worked to link real science and scientists to the classroom. This link provide viable pipeline to creating the next generation scientists and researchers. Ultimately, JASON's mission is to improve the way science is taught by enabling students to learn directly from leading scientists. Through partnerships with agencies such as NOAA and NASA, JASON creates multimedia classroom products based on current scientific research. Broadcasts of science expeditions, hosted by leading researchers, are coupled with classroom materials that include interactive computer-based simulations, video- on-demand, inquiry-based experiments and activities, and print materials for students and teachers. A "gated" Web site hosts online resources and provides a secure platform to network with scientists and other classrooms in a nationwide community of learners. Each curriculum is organized around a specific theme for a comprehensive learning experience. It may be taught as a complete package, or individual components can be selected to teach specific, standards-based concepts. Such thematic units include: Disappearing Wetlands, Mysteries of Earth and Mars, and Monster Storms. All JASON curriculum units are grounded in "inquiry-based learning." The highly interactive curriculum will enable students to access current, real-world scientific research and employ the scientific method through reflection, investigation, identification of problems, sharing of data, and forming and testing hypotheses. JASON specializes in effectively applying technology in science education by designing animated interactive visualizations that promote student understanding of complex scientific concepts and systems (Rieber, 1990, 1996). JASON's experience in utilizing the power of simulation technology has been widely recognized for its effectiveness in exciting and engaging students in science learning by independent evaluations of JASON's multimedia science curriculum (Ba et al., 2001; Goldenberg et al., 2003). The data collected indicates that JASON's science products have had a positive impact on students' science learning, have positively influenced their perceptions of scientists and of becoming scientists, and have helped diverse students grasp a deeper understanding of complex scientific content, concepts and technologies.

  10. The benefits of mystery in nature on attention: assessing the impacts of presentation duration

    PubMed Central

    Szolosi, Andrew M.; Watson, Jason M.; Ruddell, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has provided prodigious evidence in support of the cognitive benefits that natural settings have over urban settings, all nature is not equal. Within nature, natural settings that contain mystery are often among the most preferred nature scenes. With the prospect of acquiring new information, scenes of this type could more effectively elicit a person's sense of fascination, enabling that person to rest the more effortful forms of attention. The present study examined the direct cognitive benefits that mystery in nature has on attention. Settings of this sort presumably evoke a form of attention that is undemanding or effortless. In order to investigate that notion, participants (n = 144) completed a Recognition Memory Task (RMT) that evaluated recognition performance based on the presence of mystery and presentation duration (300 ms, 1 s, 5 s, and 10 s). Results revealed that with additional viewing time, images perceived high in mystery achieved greater improvements in recognition performance when compared to those images perceived low in mystery. Tests for mediation showed that the effect mystery had on recognition performance occurred through perceptions of fascination. Implications of these and other findings are discussed in the context of Attention Restoration Theory. PMID:25505441

  11. Systematic Entomology (2008), 33, 548-551 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2008.00420.x What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150-year-old

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    -3113.2008.00420.x What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150-year-old mystery (Diptera: Calliphoridae) THOMAS PAPE1 encysted in the peritoneal wall of the stomach of edible frogs, is shown to be based on first instar larvae thought to be parasites embedded in the peritoneal side of the stomach wall of the edible frogs he

  12. Precise Heat Control: What Every Scientist Needs to Know About Pyrolytic Techniques to Solve Real Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devivar, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a material is greatly influenced by its thermal and chemical properties. Analytical pyrolysis, when coupled to a GC-MS system, is a powerful technique that can unlock the thermal and chemical properties of almost any substance and provide vital information. At NASA, we depend on precise thermal analysis instrumentation for understanding aerospace travel. Our analytical techniques allow us to test materials in the laboratory prior to an actual field test; whether the field test is miles up in the sky or miles underground, the properties of any involved material must be fully studied and understood in the laboratory.

  13. From scientific software libraries to problem-solving environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Rice; R. F. Boisvert

    1996-01-01

    As more scientists and engineers adopt computation as a primary tool, they will want more problem-solving help from easy-to-use, comprehensive software systems. A workshop discussed the long path to this vision of scientific software's future, and the roadblocks in the way. In order to understand the findings of the workshop, the paper presents some background on software libraries and problem

  14. The "mystery" of cutaneous sarcoidosis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Cardoso, J C; Chokoeva, A A; Verma, S B; Tana, C; Ananiev, J; Gulubova, M; Philipov, S; Kanazawa, N; Nenoff, P; Lotti, T; Wollina, U

    2014-01-01

    The reason why the cutaneous form of sarcoidosis is well known in the literature is because of its spectrum of manifestations granting it the fame of a Great Imitator. The mystery shrouding the pathogenesis of this rare cutaneous disease is still there (in spite of the fundamental progress of the various diagnostic methods in current day medicine). The production of the morphological substrate - the epithelioid cell granuloma - which is considered to be characteristic of skin sarcoidosis, could, however, also be the end result of a reaction to i) various specific infectious agents such as Leishmaniasis cutis, coccidioidomycosis, etc., ii) certain residual bacterial or other mycobacterial antigens which, at the moment of setting the diagnosis are - by definition - non-infectious but still immunogenic, as well as iii) different tumor antigens in lesional tissue or other location. Often, differentiating between sarcodiosis and a sarcoid-like reaction, based on the updated criteria for cutaneous sarcoidosis, is problematic to downright impossible. A future characterization of the genetic signature of the two conditions, as well as the implementation of additional mandatory panels for i) the identification of certain infectious or ii) non-infectious but immunogenic and iii) tumor antigens in the epithelioid cell granuloma (or in another location in the organism), could be a considerable contribution to the process of differentiating between the two above-mentioned conditions. This will create conditions for greater accuracy when setting the subsequent therapeutic approaches. PMID:25280023

  15. Hypothesis Testing through Field Investigation of Mystery Mounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Ely

    In this field exercise, students examine the mystery mounds and patterned ground on the top of Umptanum Ridge in central Washington. Groups of 3-4 students design and conduct a field investigation and write a single joint report. Each group formulates a testable hypothesis that addresses one of the proposed processes involved in forming or subsequently shaping the mounds. The groups design an experiment to test their hypothesis, collect the necessary field observations and measurements during a regular afternoon field lab period and write a scientific report that includes an introduction, statement of hypothesis, background information, methods, data, analysis and interpretations, discussion of uncertainties, conclusions, and references. One week later, reports are turned in and students form "jigsaw" discussion groups composed of one student from each field research group. Each student briefly summarizes their group's research hypothesis and results to the jigsaw group. The jigsaw groups then each develop a revised hypothesis based on these combined results and present that to the entire class. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills Addresses student misconceptions

  16. The Complex World of Adolescent Literacy: Myths, Motivations, and Mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Overby, Melanie; Tysvaer, Nicole; Morris, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Elizabeth Birr Moje, Melanie Overby, Nicole Tysvaer, and Karen Morris challenge some of the prevailing myths about adolescents and their choices related to reading. The reading practices of youth from one urban community are examined using mixed methods in an effort to define what, how often, and why adolescents choose to read. By focusing on what features of texts youth find motivating, the authors find that reading and writing frequently occur in a range of literacy contexts outside school. However, only reading novels on a regular basis outside of school is shown to have a positive relationship to academic achievement as measured by school grades. This article describes how adolescents read texts that are embedded in social networks, allowing them to build social capital. Conclusions are framed in terms of the mysteries that remain — namely, how to build on what motivates adolescents' literacy practices in order to both promote the building of their social selves and improve their academic outcomes. PMID:19756223

  17. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

  18. Movement mysteries unveiled: spatial ecology of juvenile green sea turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain, Autumn R.

    2013-01-01

    Locations of important foraging areas are not well defined for many marine species. Unraveling these mysteries is vital to develop conservation strategies for these species, many of which are threatened or endangered. Satellite-tracking is a tool that can reveal movement patterns at both broad and fine spatial scales, in all marine environments. This chapter presents records of the longest duration track of an individual juvenile green turtle (434 days) and highest number of tracking days in any juvenile green turtle study (5483 tracking days) published to date. In this chapter, we use spatial modeling techniques to describe movements and identify foraging areas for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) captured in a developmental habitat in south Texas, USA. Some green turtles established residency in the vicinity of their capture and release site, but most used a specific habitat feature (i.e., a jettied pass) to travel between the Gulf of Mexico and a nearby bay. Still others moved southward within the Gulf of Mexico into Mexican coastal waters, likely in response to decreasing water temperatures. These movements to waters off the coast of Mexico highlight the importance of international cooperation in restoration efforts undertaken on behalf of this imperiled species.

  19. Tosearchforcareeropportunities,gotowww.NewScientistJobs.com | NewScientist | 15 October 2011 15 October 2011 | NewScientist |

    E-print Network

    Densmore, Douglas

    such as scrapie and BSE. Conventional wisdom said that these diseases were caused by viruses or bacteria ­ agents photosynthesis now draws influential scientists and big money."Thing have heated up as our planet has heated up

  20. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...