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Sample records for scintillator detector setup

  1. Scintillation detector for carbon-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, G. F.; Rogers, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    Detector consists of plastic, cylindrical double-wall scintillation cell, which is filled with gas to be analyzed. Thin, inner cell wall is isolated optically from outer (guard) scintillator wall by evaporated-aluminum coating. Bonding technique provides mechanical support to cell wall when device is exposed to high temperatures.

  2. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  3. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, S.A.; Chiles, M.M.

    1994-05-31

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. 10 figs.

  4. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations.

  5. Energy resolution of scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moszyński, M.; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Swiderski, L.; Grodzicka, M.; Iwanowska, J.; Sibczyński, P.; Szczęśniak, T.

    2016-01-01

    According to current knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be a fundamental limitation of energy resolution. A good energy resolution is of great importance for most applications of scintillation detectors. Thus, its limitations are discussed below; which arise from the non-proportional response of scintillators to gamma rays and electrons, being of crucial importance to the intrinsic energy resolution of crystals. The important influence of Landau fluctuations and the scattering of secondary electrons (δ-rays) on intrinsic resolution is pointed out here. The study on undoped NaI and CsI at liquid nitrogen temperature with a light readout by avalanche photodiodes strongly suggests that the non-proportionality of many crystals is not their intrinsic property and may be improved by selective co-doping. Finally, several observations that have been collected in the last 15 years on the influence of the slow components of light pulses on energy resolution suggest that more complex processes are taking place in the scintillators. This was observed with CsI(Tl), CsI(Na), ZnSe(Te), and undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and, finally, for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 °C. A common conclusion of these observations is that the highest energy resolution, and particularly intrinsic resolution measured with the scintillators, characterized by two or more components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of the components. In contrast, the slow components observed in many other crystals degrade the intrinsic resolution. In the limiting case, afterglow could also be considered as a very slow component that spoils the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all of the above observations by looking for their origin.

  6. Automatic setup of SCUBA-2 detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Kelly, Dennis; Holland, Wayne S.; MacIntosh, Michael J.; Lunney, David; Bintley, Dan; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Amiri, Mandana; Burger, Bryce; Halpern, Mark

    2008-07-01

    The detector arrays for the SCUBA-2 instrument consist of TES bolometers with superconducting amplifier and multiplexing circuits based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). The SCUBA-2 TES arrays and their multiplexed SQUID readouts need to be set-up carefully to achieve correct performance. Algorithms have been developed and implemented based on the first available commissioning grade detector, enabling the array to be set up and optimized automatically.

  7. Timing resolution of the FINUDA scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalena, B.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Santo, D.; Fiore, E. M.; Palomba, M.; Simonetti, G.; Andronenkov, A.; Pantaleo, A.; Paticchio, V.; Faso, D.

    2009-05-01

    Experimental characterizations of scintillation detectors timing performance of the internal (TOFINO) and external (TOFONE) scintillator barrels used in FINUDA experiment are presented. The measurements take advantage of detecting synchronous particle pairs produced in the reactions, namely e+e- pairs from Bhabha collisions between the primary beams and K+K- pairs from ?(1020) decay. The method used for synchronizing the multiple detectors constituting the scintillator barrels is also described as being carried out in two steps: a rough one online by the injection of laser light pulses flashing the scintillators all together, and a fine one offline exploiting the timing features of e+e- and K+K- pairs.

  8. Neutron position-sensitive scintillation detector

    DOEpatents

    Strauss, Michael G. (Downers Grove, IL); Brenner, Raul (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A device is provided for mapping one- and two-dimensional distributions of neutron-positions in a scintillation detector. The device consists of a lithium glass scintillator coupled by an air gap and a light coupler to an array of photomultipliers. The air gap concentrates light flashes from the scintillator, whereas the light coupler disperses this concentrated light to a predetermined fraction of the photomultiplier tube array.

  9. Large position sensitive plastic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annand, J. R. M.; Crawford, G. I.; Owens, R. O.

    1987-12-01

    Two large plastic scintillators are described, a 1 m square detector with 2 dimensional position sensitivity and a 1.8 0.2 m detector with position sensitivity along its length. Both scintillators are 0.1 m thick. Measurements of pulse height, timing and position resolution, performed using cosmic rays, are presented and the experimental pulse height response is compared with the predictions of Monte Carlo calculations.

  10. Status report on two new vertex detectors: The scintillation camera and the microchannel plate

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses two new visual detectors which have high interaction rates, 5-15 ..mu..m RMS spatial resolution, 3-4 hits/mm of track, and a single 2-dimensional view. The devices are both triggerable and ''live.'' Topics covered include the operating principle of the scintillation camera, optical considerations, major components of the scintillation camera (target module, image intensifier), the scintillation camera future, the microchannel plate (MCP) as a vertex detector, the MCP test setup, MCP test results, and the MCP future. A table is presented which lists the features of the MCP and the scintillation camera.

  11. Scintillation detectors of Alborz-I experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshkian, Yousef; Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Abbasian Motlagh, Mehdi; Rezaie, Masume

    2015-02-01

    A new air shower experiment of the Alborz Observatory, Alborz-I, located at the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, will be constructed in near future. An area of about 3040 m2 will be covered by 20 plastic scintillation detectors (each with an area of 5050 cm2). A series of experiments have been performed to optimize the height of light enclosures of the detectors for this array and the results have been compared to an extended code simulation of these detectors. Operational parameters of the detector obtained by this code are cross checked by the Geant4 simulation. There is a good agreement between the extended-code and Geant4 simulations. We also present further discussions on the detector characteristics, which can be applicable for all scintillation detectors with a similar configuration.

  12. Large volume flow-through scintillating detector

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russ E. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A large volume flow through radiation detector for use in large air flow situations such as incinerator stacks or building air systems comprises a plurality of flat plates made of a scintillating material arranged parallel to the air flow. Each scintillating plate has a light guide attached which transfers light generated inside the scintillating plate to an associated photomultiplier tube. The output of the photomultiplier tubes are connected to electronics which can record any radiation and provide an alarm if appropriate for the application.

  13. PMT calibration of a scintillation detector using primary scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D. C.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Yahlali, N.; Pérez, J.; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, H.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lopez-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Martínez Lema, G.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Seguí, L.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R.; White, J.; Monteiro, C. M. B.

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the calibration of PMTs in scintillation detectors, inducing single electron response on the PMT from primary scintillation produced by x-ray interaction. The results agree with those obtained by the commonly used single electron response (SER) method, which uses LED light pulses to induce the PMT SER. The use of the primary scintillation for PMT calibration will be convenient in situations where the PMT is already in situ, when it becomes difficult or even impossible to apply the SER method, e.g. in commercial sealed scintillator/PMT devices. Furthermore, we have experimentally investigated the possibility of fitting the high-charge tail of the PMT SER pulse-height distribution to an exponential function, inferring the PMT gain from the inverse of the exponent. The results of the exponential fit method agree with those obtained by the SER method for pulse-height distributions resulting from an average number of around 1.0 photoelectrons reaching the first dynode per light/scintillation pulse. The SER method has higher precision and, therefore, is used in a larger number of applications. Nevertheless, the exponential fit method will be useful in situations where the single photoelectron peak is under the background or noise peak and it may present an alternative, simple way, for relative gain calibration of PMT arrays as well as for monitoring the PMT gain variations.

  14. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  15. The design of the TASD (totally active scintillator detector) prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.

    2015-12-01

    Totally active and magnetic segmented scintillation neutrino detectors are developed for the nextgeneration accelerator neutrino experiments. Such detectors will incorporate scintillation modules with scintillation counters that form X and Y planes. A single counter is a 7 × 10 × 90 mm3 scintillation bar with gluedin wavelength-shifting fibers and micropixel avalanche photodiodes. The results of measurements of the parameters of these detectors are presented.

  16. Emulation workbench for position sensitive gaseous scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, L.; Margato, L. M. S.; Morozov, A.; Solovov, V.; Fraga, F. A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Position sensitive detectors based on gaseous scintillation proportional counters with Anger-type readout are being used in several research areas such as neutron detection, search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Design and optimization of such detectors are complex and time consuming tasks. Simulations, while being a powerful tool, strongly depend on the light transfer models and demand accurate knowledge of many parameters, which are often not available. Here we describe an alternative approach based on the experimental evaluation of a detector using an isotropic point-like light source with precisely controllable light emission properties, installed on a 3D positioning system. The results obtained with the developed setup at validation conditions, when the scattered light is strongly suppressed show good agreement with simulations.

  17. Current trends in scintillator detectors and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2001-10-23

    The last decade has seen a renaissance in inorganic scintillator development for gamma ray detection. Lead tungstate (PbWO4) has been developed for high energy physics experiments, and possesses exceptionally high density and radiation hardness, albeit with low luminous efficiency. Lutetium orthosilicate or LSO (Lu2SiO5:Ce) possesses a unique combination of high luminous efficiency, high density, and reasonably short decay time, and is now incorporated in commercial positron emission tomography (PET) cameras. There have been advances in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that limit energy resolution, and several recently discovered materials (such as LaBr3:Ce) possess energy resolution that approaches that of direct solid state detectors. Finally, there are indications that a neglected class of scintillator materials that exhibit near band-edge fluorescence could provide scintillators with sub-nanosecond decay times and high luminescent efficiency.

  18. Spectral response evaluation of plastic rod scintillators as position sensitive beta particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, A.; Peyvandi, R. G.; Sasanpour, M. T.; Askari, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a simple position sensitive detector based on rod plastic scintillators was developed for detection of beta particles. The detection setup consisted of a plastic-based rod detector (BC400) coupled to a PMT at one side. A Promethium-147 having about 7 mCi activity was used as a beta particle source. It was shown that the spectral response of this detector can provide useful information about the incident position of the beta particles.

  19. Scintillating fiber detector performance, detector geometries, trigger, and electronics issues for scintillating fiber tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1994-06-01

    Scintillating Fiber tracking technology has made great advances and has demonstrated great potential for high speed charged particle tracking and triggering. The small detector sizes and fast scintillation fluors available make them very promising for use at high luminosity experiments at today`s and tomorrow`s colliding and fixed target experiments where high rate capability is essential. This talk will discuss the current state of Scintillating fiber performance and current Visual Light Photon Counter (VLPC) characteristics. The primary topic will be some of the system design and integration issues which should be considered by anyone attempting to design a scintillating fiber tracking system which includes a high speed tracking trigger. Design. constraints placed upon the detector system by the electronics and mechanical sub-systems will be discussed. Seemingly simple and unrelated decisions can have far reaching effects on overall system performance. SDC and DO example system designs will be discussed.

  20. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  1. Nanocomposite scintillator, detector, and method

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; McKigney, Edward A.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Bennett, Bryan L.

    2009-04-28

    A compact includes a mixture of a solid binder and at least one nanopowder phosphor chosen from yttrium oxide, yttrium tantalate, barium fluoride, cesium fluoride, bismuth germanate, zinc gallate, calcium magnesium pyrosilicate, calcium molybdate, calcium chlorovanadate, barium titanium pyrophosphate, a metal tungstate, a cerium doped nanophosphor, a bismuth doped nanophosphor, a lead doped nanophosphor, a thallium doped sodium iodide, a doped cesium iodide, a rare earth doped pyrosilicate, or a lanthanide halide. The compact can be used in a radiation detector for detecting ionizing radiation.

  2. The ring shaped plastic scintillator detector STAR for forward angle reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, M.; Fuchs, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Leypoldt, J.

    1996-02-01

    The STAR-detector was built as one component of a 4?-detector setup for the test of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The STAR-detector will be employed to determine charged hadronic particle rates at small forward angles 1.7 ? ? ? 16.5 and to suppress atomic events. It consists of a scintillator plate and nine concentric scintillator rings with decreasing diameters. Each ring covers a polar angular range of ?? ? 1.85 and is realized by two half-rings with separate light readout. The optimized shape of the rings and the light guides was found through simulations with the Monte Carlo program SIMLIGHT.

  3. Neutron spectroscopy with scintillation detectors using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Jessica

    The purpose of this research was to study neutron spectroscopy using the EJ-299-33A plastic scintillator. This scintillator material provided a novel means of detection for fast neutrons, without the disadvantages of traditional liquid scintillation materials. EJ-299-33A provided a more durable option to these materials, making it less likely to be damaged during handling. Unlike liquid scintillators, this plastic scintillator was manufactured from a non-toxic material, making it safer to use, as well as easier to design detectors. The material was also manufactured with inherent pulse shape discrimination abilities, making it suitable for use in neutron detection. The neutron spectral unfolding technique was developed in two stages. Initial detector response function modeling was carried out through the use of the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The response functions were developed for a monoenergetic neutron flux. Wavelets were then applied to smooth the response function. The spectral unfolding technique was applied through polynomial fitting and optimization techniques in MATLAB. Verification of the unfolding technique was carried out through the use of experimentally determined response functions. These were measured on the neutron source based on the Van de Graff accelerator at the University of Kentucky. This machine provided a range of monoenergetic neutron beams between 0.1 MeV and 24 MeV, making it possible to measure the set of response functions of the EJ-299-33A plastic scintillator detector to neutrons of specific energies. The response of a plutonium-beryllium (PuBe) source was measured using the source available at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The neutron spectrum reconstruction was carried out using the experimentally measured response functions. Experimental data was collected in the list mode of the waveform digitizer. Post processing of this data focused on the pulse shape discrimination analysis of the recorded response functions to remove the effects of photons and allow for source characterization based solely on the neutron response. The unfolding technique was performed through polynomial fitting and optimization techniques in MATLAB, and provided an energy spectrum for the PuBe source.

  4. Temperature dependence of BCF plastic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2013-05-01

    We examined temperature dependence in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) made of BCF-60 or BCF-12 scintillating fiber coupled to optical fiber with cyanoacrylate. PSDs were subjected to a range of temperatures using a temperature-controlled water bath and irradiated at each temperature while either the dose was measured using a CCD camera or the spectral output was measured using a spectrometer. The spectrometer was used to examine the intensity and spectral distribution of scintillation light emitted by the PSDs, Cerenkov light generated within the PSD, and light transmitted through an isolated optical coupling. BCF-60 PSDs exhibited a 0.50% decrease and BCF-12 PSDs a 0.09% decrease in measured dose per C increase, relative to dose measured at 22 C. Spectrometry revealed that the total intensity of the light generated by BCF-60 and BCF-12 PSDs decreased by 0.32% and 0.13%, respectively, per C increase. The spectral distribution of the light changed slightly with temperature for both PSDs, accounting for the disparity between the change in measured dose and total light output. The generation of Cerenkov light was temperature independent. However, light transmitted through optical coupling between the scintillator and the optical fiber also exhibited temperature dependence.

  5. Scintillation detectors based on silicon microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoddi, P.; Mapelli, A.; Bagiacchi, P.; Gorini, B.; Haguenauer, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Murillo Garcia, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Veneziano, S.; Renaud, P.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic channels obtained by SU-8 photolithography and filled with liquid scintillators were recently demonstrated to be an interesting technology for the implementation of novel particle detectors. The main advantages of this approach are the intrinsic radiation resistance resulting from the simple microfluidic circulation of the active medium and the possibility to manufacture devices with high spatial resolution and low material budget using microfabrication techniques. Here we explore a different technological implementation of this concept, reporting on scintillating detectors based on silicon microfluidic channels. A process for manufacturing microfluidic devices on silicon substrates, featuring microchannel arrays suitable for light guiding, was developed. Such process can be in principle combined with standard CMOS processing and lead to a tight integration with the readout photodetectors and electronics in the future. Several devices were manufactured, featuring microchannel geometries differing in depth, width and pitch. A preliminary characterization of the prototypes was performed by means of a photomultiplier tube coupled to the microchannel ends, in order to detect the scintillation light produced upon irradiation with beta particles from a 90Sr source. The photoelectron spectra thus obtained were fitted with the expected output function in order to extract the light yield.

  6. Small inorganic scintillators as neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartle, C.M.; Haight, R.C.

    1998-12-01

    Small organic scintillators that exhibit pulse shape differences (PSD) in response to charged particles have been investigated as possible neutron detectors in the energy range from 1 to 200 MeV. Neutrons in this energy range can induce reactions such as (n,p) and (n,alpha) in these scintillators, and the cross sections for these reactions vary with energy. Pulse-height and PSD distributions were measured as a function of neutron energy for small crystals of NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) at the LANSCE-WNR pulsed spallation neutron source. PSD information indicating the relative numbers of protons and alphas produced can give information about the neutron spectrum in fast-neutron radiation fields such as those encountered in space exploration.

  7. Small Inorganic Scintillators as Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartle, C.M.; Haight, R.C.

    1998-05-12

    Small organic scintillators that exhibit pulse shape differences (PSD) in response to charged particles have been investigated as possible neutron detectors in the energy range from 1 to 200 MeV. Neutrons in this energy range can induce reactions such as (n,p) and (n,alpha) in these scintillators, and the cross sections for these reactions vary with energy. Pulse-height and PSD distributions were measured as a function of neutron energy for small crystals of NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) at the LANSCE-WNR pulsed spallation neutron source. PSD information indicating the relative numbers of protons and alphas produced can give information about the neutron spectrum in fast-neutron radiation fields such as those encountered in space exploration.

  8. Nonproportionality of Scintillator Detectors: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Stephen; Cherepy, Nerine; Hull, Giulia; Valentine, John; Moses, William; Choong, Woon-Seng

    2009-08-17

    On the basis of nonproportionality data obtained for several scintillators, we have developed a theory to describe the carrier dynamics to fit the light yield versus electron energy. The theory of Onsager was adapted to explain how the carriers form excitons or sequentially arrive at the activators to promote the ion to an excited state, and the theory of Birks was employed to allow for exciton-exciton annihilation. We then developed a second theory to deduce the degradation in resolution that results from nonproportionality by evoking Landau fluctuations, which are essentially variations in the deposited energy density that occur as the high energy electron travels along its trajectory. In general there is good agreement with the data, in terms of fitting the nonproportionality curves and reproducing the literature values of nonproportionality's contribution to the scintillator resolution. With the resurgence of interest in developing scintillator detectors that have good energy resolution, an improved understanding of nonproportionality has become a crucial matter since it presents the fundamental limit to the achievable resolution. In order to hasten an improved understanding of scintillator nonproportionality, we have constructed an instrument referred to as SLYNCI (Scintillator Light Yield Nonproportionality Compton Instrument). This is a second-generation instrument to the original device developed by Valentine and coworkers, wherein several new principles of operation have served to increase the data rate by an order of magnitude as discussed in detail in References. In the present article, the focus is on a theory to describe the measured electron response, which is the light yield as a function of the electron energy. To do this, we account for transport of carriers and excitons, in terms of how they transfer their energy to the activators with competition from nonradiative decay pathways. This work builds on the original work of Murray and coworkers, and on the understanding of excitons. We then provide a new theoretical framework from which the nonproportionality data is reduced to a measure of the degradation in resolution. We have utilized data obtained from SLYNCI to obtain accurate nonproportionality data on several scintillators, and have developed a theory to describe the carrier dynamics to fit the data for the light yield versus electron energy.

  9. Fundamental Limits of Scintillation Detector Timing Precision

    PubMed Central

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the primary factors that affect the timing precision of a scintillation detector. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to explore the dependence of the timing precision on the number of photoelectrons, the scintillator decay and rise times, the depth of interaction uncertainty, the time dispersion of the optical photons (modeled as an exponential decay), the photodetector rise time and transit time jitter, the leading-edge trigger level, and electronic noise. The Monte Carlo code was used to estimate the practical limits on the timing precision for an energy deposition of 511 keV in 3 mm 3 mm 30 mm Lu2SiO5:Ce and LaBr3:Ce crystals. The calculated timing precisions are consistent with the best experimental literature values. We then calculated the timing precision for 820 cases that sampled scintillator rise times from 0 to 1.0 ns, photon dispersion times from 0 to 0.2 ns, photodetector time jitters from 0 to 0.5 ns fwhm, and A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons per ns decay time. Since the timing precision R was found to depend on A?1/2 more than any other factor, we tabulated the parameter B, where R = BA?1/2. An empirical analytical formula was found that fit the tabulated values of B with an rms deviation of 2.2% of the value of B. The theoretical lower bound of the timing precision was calculated for the example of 0.5 ns rise time, 0.1 ns photon dispersion, and 0.2 ns fwhm photodetector time jitter. The lower bound was at most 15% lower than leading-edge timing discrimination for A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons/ns. A timing precision of 8 ps fwhm should be possible for an energy deposition of 511 keV using currently available photodetectors if a theoretically possible scintillator were developed that could produce 10,000 photoelectrons/ns. PMID:24874216

  10. Fundamental limits of scintillation detector timing precision.

    PubMed

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we review the primary factors that affect the timing precision of a scintillation detector. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to explore the dependence of the timing precision on the number of photoelectrons, the scintillator decay and rise times, the depth of interaction uncertainty, the time dispersion of the optical photons (modeled as an exponential decay), the photodetector rise time and transit time jitter, the leading-edge trigger level, and electronic noise. The Monte Carlo code was used to estimate the practical limits on the timing precision for an energy deposition of 511 keV in 3 mm 3 mm 30 mm Lu2SiO5:Ce and LaBr3:Ce crystals. The calculated timing precisions are consistent with the best experimental literature values. We then calculated the timing precision for 820 cases that sampled scintillator rise times from 0 to 1.0 ns, photon dispersion times from 0 to 0.2 ns, photodetector time jitters from 0 to 0.5 ns fwhm, and A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons per ns decay time. Since the timing precision R was found to depend on A(-1/2) more than any other factor, we tabulated the parameter B, where R = BA(-1/2). An empirical analytical formula was found that fit the tabulated values of B with an rms deviation of 2.2% of the value of B. The theoretical lower bound of the timing precision was calculated for the example of 0.5 ns rise time, 0.1 ns photon dispersion, and 0.2 ns fwhm photodetector time jitter. The lower bound was at most 15% lower than leading-edge timing discrimination for A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons ns(-1). A timing precision of 8 ps fwhm should be possible for an energy deposition of 511 keV using currently available photodetectors if a theoretically possible scintillator were developed that could produce 10,000 photoelectrons ns(-1). PMID:24874216

  11. Fundamental limits of scintillation detector timing precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we review the primary factors that affect the timing precision of a scintillation detector. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to explore the dependence of the timing precision on the number of photoelectrons, the scintillator decay and rise times, the depth of interaction uncertainty, the time dispersion of the optical photons (modeled as an exponential decay), the photodetector rise time and transit time jitter, the leading-edge trigger level, and electronic noise. The Monte Carlo code was used to estimate the practical limits on the timing precision for an energy deposition of 511 keV in 3 mm 3 mm 30 mm Lu2SiO5:Ce and LaBr3:Ce crystals. The calculated timing precisions are consistent with the best experimental literature values. We then calculated the timing precision for 820 cases that sampled scintillator rise times from 0 to 1.0 ns, photon dispersion times from 0 to 0.2 ns, photodetector time jitters from 0 to 0.5 ns fwhm, and A from 10 to 10?000 photoelectrons per ns decay time. Since the timing precision R was found to depend on A-1/2 more than any other factor, we tabulated the parameter B, where R = BA-1/2. An empirical analytical formula was found that fit the tabulated values of B with an rms deviation of 2.2% of the value of B. The theoretical lower bound of the timing precision was calculated for the example of 0.5 ns rise time, 0.1 ns photon dispersion, and 0.2 ns fwhm photodetector time jitter. The lower bound was at most 15% lower than leading-edge timing discrimination for A from 10 to 10?000 photoelectrons ns-1. A timing precision of 8 ps fwhm should be possible for an energy deposition of 511 keV using currently available photodetectors if a theoretically possible scintillator were developed that could produce 10?000 photoelectrons ns-1.

  12. Performance comparison of scintillators for alpha particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Yuki; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Izaki, Kenji; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Toui, Kohei; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio

    2014-11-01

    Scintillation detectors for alpha particles are often used in nuclear fuel facilities. Alpha particle detectors have also become important in the research field of radionuclide therapy using alpha emitters. ZnS(Ag) is the most often used scintillator for alpha particle detectors because its light output is high. However, the energy resolution of ZnS(Ag)-based scintillation detectors is poor because they are not transparent. A new ceramic sample, namely the cerium doped Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) scintillator, has been tested as alpha particle detector and its performances have been compared to that one of three different scintillating materials: ZnS(Ag), GAGG and a standard plastic scintillator. The different scintillating materials have been coupled to two different photodetectors, namely a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a Silicon Photo-multiplier (Si-PM): the performances of each detection system have been compared. Promising results as far as the energy resolution performances (10% with PMT and 14% with Si-PM) have been obtained in the case of GPS and GAGG samples. Considering the quantum efficiencies of the photodetectors under test and their relation to the emission wavelength of the different scintillators, the best results were achieved coupling the GPS with the PMT and the GAGG with the Si-PM

  13. Neutron detector using lithiated glass-scintillating particle composite

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven (Knoxville, TN); Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TX); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Im, Hee-Jung (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-09-01

    A neutron detector composed of a matrix of scintillating particles imbedded in a lithiated glass is disclosed. The neutron detector detects the neutrons by absorbing the neutron in the lithium-6 isotope which has been enriched from the natural isotopic ratio to a commercial ninety five percent. The utility of the detector is optimized by suitably selecting scintillating particle sizes in the range of the alpha and the triton. Nominal particle sizes are in the range of five to twenty five microns depending upon the specific scintillating particle selected.

  14. Spatial response characterization of He-4 scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Ryan P.; Steinberg, Noah; Murer, David; Ray, Heather; Jordan, Kelly A.

    2015-09-01

    The spatial response of pressurized helium-4 fast neutron scintillation detectors is characterized using collimated neutron source measurements and MCNPX-PoliMi simulations. A method for localizing the position of each detected event is also demonstrated using the two-sided photomultiplier readout. Results show that the position of particle interaction along the axis of the active volume has a measurable effect on the scintillation light response of the detector. An algorithm is presented that uses the probability distribution of relative interaction positions to perform source localization, further demonstrating the applicability of these detectors as tools for the detector of hidden shielded nuclear material.

  15. Rayleigh scattering of linear alkylbenzene in large liquid scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qian; Wurm, Michael; Zhang, Qingmin; Ding, Yayun; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang

    2015-07-01

    Rayleigh scattering poses an intrinsic limit for the transparency of organic liquid scintillators. This work focuses on the Rayleigh scattering length of linear alkylbenzene (LAB), which will be used as the solvent of the liquid scintillator in the central detector of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory. We investigate the anisotropy of the Rayleigh scattering in LAB, showing that the resulting Rayleigh scattering length will be significantly shorter than reported before. Given the same overall light attenuation, this will result in a more efficient transmission of photons through the scintillator, increasing the amount of light collected by the photosensors and thereby the energy resolution of the detector.

  16. Rayleigh scattering of linear alkylbenzene in large liquid scintillator detectors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qian; Wurm, Michael; Zhang, Qingmin; Ding, Yayun; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang

    2015-07-01

    Rayleigh scattering poses an intrinsic limit for the transparency of organic liquid scintillators. This work focuses on the Rayleigh scattering length of linear alkylbenzene (LAB), which will be used as the solvent of the liquid scintillator in the central detector of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory. We investigate the anisotropy of the Rayleigh scattering in LAB, showing that the resulting Rayleigh scattering length will be significantly shorter than reported before. Given the same overall light attenuation, this will result in a more efficient transmission of photons through the scintillator, increasing the amount of light collected by the photosensors and thereby the energy resolution of the detector. PMID:26233375

  17. A more rugged ZnS(Ag) alpha scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    McElhaney, S.A.; Ramsey, J.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Chiles, M.M. )

    1990-04-01

    Conventional alpha scintillation detectors comprise a phosphor-coated light-pipe covered by a thin aluminized Mylar layer. This opaque radiation entrance window serves as a shield against ambient light entering the detector with minimum alpha attenuation. Unfortunately, Mylar is extremely fragile and easily punctured or torn by sticks, stones, and screws encountered during regular radiation surveys. The authors have been developing an alpha scintillation detector more rugged and durable than conventional models. This paper presents the scintillator assembly, which consists of a mixture of silver-activated zinc sulfide (ZnS(Ag)) and clear epoxy. The ZnS(Ag) scintillation powder is mixed with a low-viscosity, optically transparent epoxy and poured into a glass-smooth mold of desired shape and size.

  18. Developing LAr scintillation light collection ideas in the Short Baseline Neutrino Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelc, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Scintillation light is becoming the most rapidly developing feature of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detectors due to its capability to enhance and expand their physics reach traditionally based on charge readout. The SBND detector, set to be built on the Booster Neutrino Beam Line at Fermilab, is in a unique position to test novel liquid argon scintillation light readout systems in a detector with physics neutrino events. The different ideas under consideration by the collaboration are described, including an array of PMTs detecting direct light, SiPM coupled lightguide bars and a setup which uses PMTs/SiPMS and wavelength shifter covered reflector foils, as well as their respective strengths and physics foci and the benchmarks used to compare them.

  19. Optimizing timing performance of silicon photomultiplier-based scintillation detectors

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Jung Yeol; Vinke, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    Precise timing resolution is crucial for applications requiring photon time-of-flight (ToF) information such as ToF positron emission tomography (PET). Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) for PET, with their high output capacitance, are known to require custom preamplifiers to optimize timing performance. In this paper, we describe simple alternative front-end electronics based on a commercial low-noise RF preamplifier and methods that have been implemented to achieve excellent timing resolution. Two radiation detectors with L(Y)SO scintillators coupled to Hamamatsu SiPMs (MPPC S1036233-050C) and front-end electronics based on an RF amplifier (MAR-3SM+), typically used for wireless applications that require minimal additional circuitry, have been fabricated. These detectors were used to detect annihilation photons from a Ge-68 source and the output signals were subsequently digitized by a high speed oscilloscope for offline processing. A coincident resolving time (CRT) of 147 3 ps FWHM and 186 3 ps FWHM with 3 3 5 mm3 and with 3 3 20 mm3 LYSO crystal elements were measured, respectively. With smaller 2 2 3 mm3 LSO crystals, a CRT of 125 2 ps FWHM was achieved with slight improvement to 121 3 ps at a lower temperature (15C). Finally, with the 20 mm length crystals, a degradation of timing resolution was observed for annihilation photon interactions that occur close to the photosensor compared to shallow depth-of-interaction (DOI). We conclude that commercial RF amplifiers optimized for noise, besides their ease of use, can produce excellent timing resolution comparable to best reported values acquired with custom readout electronics. On the other hand, as timing performance degrades with increasing photon DOI, a head-on detector configuration will produce better CRT than a side-irradiated setup for longer crystals. PMID:23369872

  20. Optimizing timing performance of silicon photomultiplier-based scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Jung Yeol; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S

    2013-02-21

    Precise timing resolution is crucial for applications requiring photon time-of-flight (ToF) information such as ToF positron emission tomography (PET). Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) for PET, with their high output capacitance, are known to require custom preamplifiers to optimize timing performance. In this paper, we describe simple alternative front-end electronics based on a commercial low-noise RF preamplifier and methods that have been implemented to achieve excellent timing resolution. Two radiation detectors with L(Y)SO scintillators coupled to Hamamatsu SiPMs (MPPC S10362-33-050C) and front-end electronics based on an RF amplifier (MAR-3SM+), typically used for wireless applications that require minimal additional circuitry, have been fabricated. These detectors were used to detect annihilation photons from a Ge-68 source and the output signals were subsequently digitized by a high speed oscilloscope for offline processing. A coincident resolving time (CRT) of 147 3ps FWHM and 186 3ps FWHM with 3נ3נ5mm(3)and with 3נ3נ20mm(3)LYSO crystal elements were measured, respectively. With smaller 2נ2נ3mm(3)LSO crystals, a CRT of 125 2ps FWHM was achieved with slight improvement to 121 3ps at a lower temperature (15 C). Finally, with the 20mm length crystals, a degradation of timing resolution was observed for annihilation photon interactions that occur close to the photosensor compared to shallow depth-of-interaction (DOI). We conclude that commercial RF amplifiers optimized for noise, besides their ease of use, can produce excellent timing resolution comparable to best reported values acquired with custom readout electronics. On the other hand, as timing performance degrades with increasing photon DOI, a head-on detector configuration will produce better CRT than a side-irradiated setup for longer crystals. PMID:23369872

  1. Optimizing timing performance of silicon photomultiplier-based scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Jung Yeol; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S.

    2013-02-01

    Precise timing resolution is crucial for applications requiring photon time-of-flight (ToF) information such as ToF positron emission tomography (PET). Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) for PET, with their high output capacitance, are known to require custom preamplifiers to optimize timing performance. In this paper, we describe simple alternative front-end electronics based on a commercial low-noise RF preamplifier and methods that have been implemented to achieve excellent timing resolution. Two radiation detectors with L(Y)SO scintillators coupled to Hamamatsu SiPMs (MPPC S10362-33-050C) and front-end electronics based on an RF amplifier (MAR-3SM+), typically used for wireless applications that require minimal additional circuitry, have been fabricated. These detectors were used to detect annihilation photons from a Ge-68 source and the output signals were subsequently digitized by a high speed oscilloscope for offline processing. A coincident resolving time (CRT) of 147 3 ps FWHM and 186 3 ps FWHM with 3 3 5 mm3 and with 3 3 20 mm3 LYSO crystal elements were measured, respectively. With smaller 2 2 3 mm3 LSO crystals, a CRT of 125 2 ps FWHM was achieved with slight improvement to 121 3 ps at a lower temperature (15 C). Finally, with the 20 mm length crystals, a degradation of timing resolution was observed for annihilation photon interactions that occur close to the photosensor compared to shallow depth-of-interaction (DOI). We conclude that commercial RF amplifiers optimized for noise, besides their ease of use, can produce excellent timing resolution comparable to best reported values acquired with custom readout electronics. On the other hand, as timing performance degrades with increasing photon DOI, a head-on detector configuration will produce better CRT than a side-irradiated setup for longer crystals.

  2. Design and Construction Elements for Scintillating Fibre Tracking Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Jason Ray

    In many nuclear and particle physics experiments, it is necessary to ascertain precise information about a particle's trajectory, or its position at specific locations (as a means for then determining angle or momentum). A common way to determine this information is by using a scintillating fibre tracker, a device that relies on scintillation light from ionizing charged particles (such as electrons or protons) within scintillating fibres, and guiding the produced scintillation light through standard fibre optics to determine which scintillating fibre detected the particle. This thesis discusses, and presents results for technical issues associated with designing and constructing such a detector: (1) adjacent scintillating fibre-to-fibre cross-talk, and (2) the effect on light transmission of the combination of different fibre-end finishes and clear-to-scintillating fibre optical couplants. These results will be directly incorporated into the construction of a scintillating fibre coordinate detector to be built for future experiments at Jefferson Lab's Hall A in Newport News, VA, USA.

  3. Scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    A scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector has been developed using a bundle of square cross-section plastic scintillator fiber optics, proximity focused onto an image intensified Charge Injection Device (CID) camera. Detector to beams of 15 MeV protons and relativistic Neon, Manganese, and Gold nuclei have been exposed and images of their tracks are obtained. This paper presents details of the detector technique, properties of the tracks obtained, and range measurements of 15 MeV protons stopping in the fiber bundle.

  4. Reactor neutrino experiments with a large liquid scintillator detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Lindner, Manfred; Merle, Alexander; Rolinec, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We discuss several new ideas for reactor neutrino oscillation experiments with a Large Liquid Scintillator Detector. We consider two different scenarios for a measurement of the small mixing angle ?13 with a mobile bar nue source: a nuclear-powered ship, such as a submarine or an icebreaker, and a land-based scenario with a mobile reactor. The former setup can achieve a sensitivity to sin 22?13lesssim0.004 at the 90% confidence level, while the latter performs only slightly better than Double Chooz. Furthermore, we study the precision that can be achieved for the solar parameters, sin 22?12 and ?m212, with a mobile reactor and with a conventional power station. With the mobile reactor, a precision slightly better than from current global fit data is possible, while with a power reactor, the accuracy can be reduced to less than 1%. Such a precision is crucial for testing theoretical models, e.g. quark-lepton complementarity.

  5. Investigation of Plastic Scintillator Detector Configurations for Neutron Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, Catalin; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Howard, J. A.; Cizewski, J. A.; O'Malley, P. D.; Pain, S. D.; Peters, W. A.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Jones, K. L.; Liddick, S. N.

    2007-10-01

    Plastic scintillation products are widely used for detecting nuclear radiation. Measurements of the response of plastic scintillator detectors to different radiations are important in the design phase of a detection system and as an initial input in Monte Carlo simulation codes. We performed test measurements of the light response, attenuation length, time and position resolution, and detection efficiency of Bicron BC408 plastic scintillator. Four plastic scintillator bars of dimensions 2.9x2.9x60 cm^3 and 5x5x200 cm^3 have been developed to be used in (d,n) and beta-delayed neutron studies. The detectors were constructed with different reflecting materials, optical couplings and photomultiplier tube assemblies. Measurements are compared with predictions from the Monte Carlo simulation code GEANT4. Details of the experimental configuration and results will be presented.

  6. Characterization and testing of EJ-309 and Stilbene scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-09-01

    A new neutron detector array (NEUANCE) is under development at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). After completion, NEUANCE will be installed in the central cavity of the 3.6? ?-ray detector array DANCE located at the Lujan Center of LANSCE. The detector system, with simultaneous neutron and -ray detection capability, will be used to study neutron-induced capture and session reactions. The response of a EJ-309 scintillation detector to ?-ray and neutron radiation was measured using the standard ?-ray and 252Cf sources. The light from the detector was collected using a Hamamatsu photomultiplier tube or a Silicon photomultiplier GEANT4 was used to understand the light output and the optical photon transport in the scintillation. The detector geometry and optimum parameters for the data acquisition system were determined based on the test results and the simulations.

  7. Smaller, Lower-Power Fast-Neutron Scintillation Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Jagdish; Blaes, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors that are smaller and less power-hungry than mainstream scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors are undergoing development. There are numerous applications for such detectors in monitoring fast-neutron fluxes from nuclear reactors, nuclear materials, and natural sources, both on Earth and in outer space. A particularly important terrestrial application for small, low-power, portable fast-neutron detectors lies in the requirement to scan for nuclear materials in cargo and baggage arriving at international transportation facilities. The present development of miniature, low-power scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors exploits recent advances in the fabrication of avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Basically, such a detector includes a plastic scintillator, typically between 300 and 400 m thick with very thin silver mirror coating on all its faces except the one bonded to an APD. All photons generated from scintillation are thus internally reflected and eventually directed to the APD. This design affords not only compactness but also tight optical coupling for utilization of a relatively large proportion of the scintillation light. The combination of this tight coupling and the avalanche-multiplication gain (typically between 750 and 1,000) of the APD is expected to have enough sensitivity to enable monitoring of a fast-neutron flux as small as 1,000 cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). Moreover, pulse-height analysis can be expected to provide information on the kinetic energies of incident neutrons. It has been estimated that a complete, fully developed fast-neutron detector of this type, would be characterized by linear dimensions of the order of 10 cm or less, a mass of no more than about 0.5 kg, and a power demand of no more than a few watts.

  8. Performance of photomultiplier tubes and sodium iodide scintillation detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) and scintillation detector systems incorporating 50.8 by 1.27 cm NaI (T l) crystals was investigated to determine the characteristics of the photomultiplier tubes and optimize the detector geometry for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory. Background information on performance characteristics of PMT's and NaI (T l) detectors is provided, procedures for measurement of relevant parameters are specified, and results of these measurements are presented.

  9. Scintillator-fiber charged particle track-imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    A scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector was developed using a bundle of square cross section plastic scintillator fiber optics, proximity focused onto an image intensified charge injection device (CID) camera. The tracks of charged particle penetrating into the scintillator fiber bundle are projected onto the CID camera and the imaging information is read out in video format. The detector was exposed to beams of 15 MeV protons and relativistic Neon, Manganese, and Gold nuclei and images of their tracks were obtained. Details of the detector technique, properties of the tracks obtained, and preliminary range measurements of 15 MeV protons stopping in the fiber bundle are presented.

  10. HVI-Test Setup for Debris Detector Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Waldemar; Romberg, Oliver; Wiedemann, Carsten; Putzar, Robin; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Vorsmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Risk assessment concerning impacting space debris or micrometeoroids with spacecraft or payloads can be performed by using environmental models such as MASTER (ESA) or ORDEM (NASA). The validation of such models is performed by comparison of simulated results with measured data. Such data can be obtained from ground-based or space-based radars or telescopes, or by analysis of space hardware (e.g. Hubble Space Telescope, Space Shuttle Windows), which are retrieved from orbit. An additional data source is in-situ impact detectors, which are purposed for the collection of space debris and micrometeoroids impact data. In comparison to the impact data gained by analysis of the retrieved surfaces, the detected data contains additional information regarding impact time and orbit. In the past, many such in-situ detectors have been developed, with different measurement methods for the identification and classification of impacting objects. However, existing detectors have a drawback in terms of data acquisition. Generally the detection area is small, limiting the collected data as the number of recorded impacts has a linear dependence to the exposed area. An innovative impact detector concept is currently under development at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) in Bremen, in order to increase the surface area while preserving the advantages offered by dedicated in-situ impact detectors. The Solar Generator based Impact Detector (SOLID) is not an add-on component on the spacecraft, making it different to all previous impact detectors. SOLID utilises existing subsystems of the spacecraft and adapts them for impact detection purposes. Solar generators require large panel surfaces in order to provide the spacecraft with sufficient energy. Therefore, the spacecraft solar panels provide a perfect opportunity for application as impact detectors. Employment of the SOLID method in several spacecraft in various orbits would serve to significantly increase the spatial coverage concerning space debris and micrometeoroids. In this way, the SOLID method will allow the generation of a large amount of impact data for environmental model validation. The ground verification of the SOLID method was performed at Fraunhofer EMI. For this purpose, a test model was developed. This paper focuses on the test methodology and development of the Hypervelocity Impact (HVI) test setup, including pretesting at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Bremen. Foreseen hardware and software for the automatic damage assessment of the detector after the impact are also presented.

  11. Novel Scintillation Detectors for Prompt Fission ?-Ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billnert, R.; Andreotti, E.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Hult, M.; Karlsson, J.; Marissens, G.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    In this work we present first results from measurements of prompt fission ?-rays from the spontaneous fission in 252Cf. New and accurate data on corresponding ?-rays from the reactions 235U(nth,f) and 239Pu(nth,f) are highly demanded for the modeling of new Generation-IV nuclear reactor systems. For these experiments we employed scintillation detectors made out of new materials (LaBr3, LaCl3 and CeBr3), whose properties were necessary to know in order to obtain reliable results. Hence, we have characterized these detectors. In all the important properties these detectors outshine sodium-iodine detectors that where used in the 1970s, when the existing data had been acquired. Our finding is that the new generation of scintillation detectors is indeed promising, as far as an improved precision of the demanded data is concerned.

  12. Scintillation fiber array detector for measurement of neutron beam profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong; Hong, Byungsik; Jo, Mihee; Lee, Kyong Sei; Sim, Kwang-Souk

    2009-10-01

    We built and tested a detector to measure the profile of fast-neutron beams delivered by the MC50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The core component of the detector is a 2×46 array of scintillation fibers. The light output of the scintillation fibers is transformed into a current signal by a 46-channel silicon photodiode and digitized by a current-mode signal processor. This scanning device was designed to cover a neutron beam area of 30×32 cm2. The detector was tested in a neutron beam delivered by the MC50 cyclotron at KIRAMS. We demonstrate that the detector can successfully measure the neutron beam profile at various beam currents from 10 to 20 μA. The proposed neutron beam profile detector will be useful, for example, in radiotherapy applications with neutron intensities above 107 Hz/cm2.

  13. Multilayer Scintillation Detector for Nuclear Physics Monitoring of Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batischev, A. G.; Aleksandrin, S. Yu.; Gurov, Yu. B.; Koldashov, S. V.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Mayorov, A. G.

    The physical characteristics of the multilayer scintillation spectrometer (MSS) for identification and energy measurement of cosmic electrons, positrons and nuclei are considered in this paper. This spectrometer is made on the basis of several plastic scintillator plates with various thick viewed by photomultipliers. Two upper layers are strips of orthogonal scintillators. The nuclei energy measurement range is 3 - 100 MeV/nucleon. Spectrometer is planning for space weather monitoring and investigation of solar-magnetospheric and geophysics effects on satellite. MSS time resolution is about 1 microsecond and it can measure the time profiles of fast processes in the Earth's magnetosphere. Spectrometer experimental characteristics were estimated by means of computer simulation. The ionization loss fluctuations, ion charge exchange during pass through detector and, especially, scintillation quenching effect (Bircs effect) were taken into account in calculations.

  14. Scintillation detectors in gamma spectral logging; geometry, absorption and calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich

    1980-01-01

    The theory for the evaluation of the effects of geometry in gamma ray absorption is developed for cylindrical scintillation detectors as applicable to borehole gamma spectrometry. The results of a laboratory experiment are shown for comparison. A calibration procedure to determine detector efficiency is given for application to borehole probes. It is shown that the response of a crystal can be separated in terms of geometric effects and instrumentation effects. It is also shown that approximating crystal detectors with point detectors in mathematical theory is grossly oversimplified. (USGS)

  15. Prototype of a scintillation detector involving APD photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzubenko, G. B.; Zhigareva, N. M.; Mikhaylov, K. R.; Romanov, D. V.; Stavinsky, A. V.; Stolin, V. L.; Polozov, P. A.; Prokudin, M. S.; Sharkov, G. B.

    2015-11-01

    A prototype of a new scintillation detector involving APD photodetectors is discussed. The prototype in question consists of a plastic scintillator 96 96 128 mm in size. Grooves into which a wavelength-shifting fiber is laid are made on lateral faces of the scintillator. A photodiode equipped with a special amplifier is arranged at the end of this fiber. The results of testing the detector prototype in a proton beam are presented. It is shown that the amplitude of the signal in the prototype changes substantially (by a factor of three to five) with the coordinate of a particle as it traverses the prototype. Thus, the proposed design is position-sensitive. Also, the neutron-detection efficiency was calculated with the aid of the GEANT3 code package.

  16. The design of the totally active scintillator detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Y. G.

    2015-11-01

    In the project of Advanced European Infrastructures for Detectors at Accelerators (AIDA), the Institute of Nuclear Research designed and tested the Totally Active Scintillator Detector (TASD). This paper reports the results of design of TASD prototype and outlines requirements for a test beam at CERN to test these, tentatively planned on the H8 beamline in the North Area, which is equipped with a large aperture magnet. TASD consists of 50 modules of plastic scintillators. Each module is instrumented with one X and one Y plane, with 90 scintillator bars per plane. The bar width, height and length are 1.0 cm, 0.7 cm and 90 cm respectively. The distance between modules can be varied from 0 to 2.5 cm. Other components such as active detectors or passive sheets of material can be inserted in these 2.5 cm gaps if required. The full detector depth can therefore be varied from 75 cm to 200 cm and in its compact form, it is 1 m3 in volume. The paper presents measurement results for the TASD elements that included in the prototype elements (measurement of crosscurrents, the light yield of scintillators, and the characteristics of photodiodes).

  17. A scintillating fission detector for neutron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Esch, Ernst I; Burgett, Eric A; May, Iain; Muenchausen, Ross E; Taw, Felicia; Tovesson, Fredrik K

    2010-01-01

    Neutron flux monitors are commonly used for a variety of nuclear physics applications. A scintillating neutron detector, consisting of a liquid scintillator loaded with fissionable material, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and shows a significant improvement in neutron sensitivity compared with a conventional fission chamber. Recent research on nanocomposite-based scintillators for gamma-ray detection indicates that this approach can be extended to load nanoparticles of fissionable material into a scintillating matrix, with up to three orders of magnitude higher loading than typical fission chambers. This will result in a rugged, cost-efficient detector with high efficiency, a short signal rise time, and the ability to be used in low neutron-flux environments. Initial efforts to utilize the luminescence of uranyl oxide to eliminate the need for wavelength-shifting dyes were unsuccessful. Excitation of uranyl compounds has been reported at wavelengths ranging from 266 nm to 532 nm. However, neither the 300 nm emission of toluene, nor the 350 nm emission of PPO, nor the 410 nm emission of POPOP resulted in significant excitation of and emission by uranyl oxide. As indicated by UV/visible spectroscopy, light emitted at these wavelengths was absorbed by the colored solution. {sup 235}U remains the most attractive candidate for a fissionable scintillator, due to its high fission cross-section and lack of a threshold fission energy, but all solutions containing molecular uranium compounds will be colored, most more highly than the U{sup 6+} compounds used here. Research is therefore continuing toward the fabrication of uranium nanoparticles, in which, due to Rayleigh scattering, the coloration should be less pronounced. The characterization of the thorium-loaded liquid scintillator and the fabrication of the 100 mL detectors for use at LANSCE demonstrated the feasibility of loading fissionable material into a liquid scintillator. Analysis of beam line experiments using the thorium-loaded scintillator is underway to determine the fission event rate in the detector, for comparison with a conventional fission chamber as well as with an unloaded liquid scintillator.

  18. Response and noise characteristics of small-sized inorganic and organic scintillation detectors measured with vacuum and solid-state photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Kurbatov, E. V.; Tarasov, V. A.; Andryushenko, L. A.; Boyarintsev, A. Yu.; Valtonen, E.

    2012-02-01

    Response and noise properties of scintillation detectors were investigated using a 137Cs radioactive source. The experimental setup consisted of a scintillator, photodetector, amplifier, and spectrometric analog-to-digital converter. Small-sized, cubic crystals were manufactured of stilbene, p-terphenyl and thallium-doped cesium iodide, as well as of a plastic scintillator material based on polystyrene. Vacuum and solid-state photomultipliers and a silicon PIN photodiode were used as photodetectors. The energy equivalent noise was determined for all used photodetectors. The response of various scintillators when using vacuum and semiconductor photomultipliers was found to be closely similar.

  19. Characterization of MRI-compatible PET detector modules by optical excitation of the scintillator material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jtkos, Balzs; Kolozsi, Zoltn; Lorincz, Emoke; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Barcsi, Attila; Erdei, Gbor

    2012-04-01

    In the field of biomedical imaging there is a strong interest in combining modalities of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI-compatible PET detector module has to be insensitive to the magnetic field that is why it needs to incorporate avalanche photodiodes (APD) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). We propose a new purely optical characterization method for these devices where no nuclear source is needed. In our method we use LED sources for both the direct illumination of silicon sensors and fluorescent excitation of the scintillator material. With this method we can measure the response characteristic and uniformity of pixels in sensor arrays as well as the optical cross-talk between neighboring pixels. In the same experimental setup we can also emulate the pulse response of the detector module (i.e. light-spread over the sensor array from a point source in the scintillator material). We present the detailed construction of the experimental setup and analyze the benefits and drawbacks of this method compared to the nuclear measurements. The viability of the idea is proven through the characterization of a SiPM array and a block detector module based on it.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of the data acquisition chain of scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Binda, F.; Ericsson, G.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Eriksson, J.; Skiba, M.; Conroy, S.; Weiszflog, M.

    2014-08-21

    The good performance of a detector can be strongly affected by the instrumentation used to acquire the data. The possibility of anticipating how the acquisition chain will affect the signal can help in finding the best solution among different set-ups. In this work we developed a Monte Carlo code that aims to simulate the effect of the various components of a digital Data Acquisition system (DAQ) applied to scintillation detectors. The components included in the model are: the scintillator, the photomultiplier tube (PMT), the signal cable and the digitizer. We benchmarked the code against real data acquired with a NE213 scintillator, comparing simulated and real signal pulses induced by gamma-ray interaction. Then we studied the dependence of the energy resolution of a pulse height spectrum (PHS) on the sampling frequency and the bit resolution of the digitizer. We found that exceeding some values of the sampling frequency and the bit resolution improves only marginally the performance of the system. The method can be applied for the study of various detector systems relevant for nuclear techniques, such as in fusion diagnostics.

  1. Boronated Scintillator Detector for Use in Space with Ionization Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britvich, G. I.; Chernichenko, S. K.; Demichev, M. A.; Gnezdilov, I. I.; Mukhin, V. I.; Soukhih, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Boronated Scintillator Detector (BSD) for use in space with ionization calorimeters was suggested. BSD improved e/h showers separation, which are initiated in the ionization calorimeter in interaction it with high energy particles. Improve the rejection is based on the hadron-induced showers tend to be accompanied by significantly more neutron activity than electromagnetic showers. The detector is composed of natural boron-loaded (5%) castable plastic scintillation plates. To collect light using wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers. The experiment showed that the photoelectron yield is ∼ 40 ph.el./MeV with using PMT EMI 9954KB. Simulation on GEANT4 was obtained neutron detection efficiency. The simulation was conducted in the assumption that neutrons have the spectrum 252Cf and fall plane-parallel on the entry surface of the detector.

  2. Fiber optic thermal/fast neutron and gamma ray scintillation detector

    DOEpatents

    Neal, John S.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2006-11-28

    A detector system that combines a .sup.6Li loaded glass fiber scintillation thermal neutron detector with a fast scintillation detector in a single layered structure. Detection of thermal and fast neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation is achieved in the unified detector structure. The fast scintillator replaces the polyethelene moderator layer adjacent the .sup.6Li loaded glass fiber panel of the neutron detector and acts as the moderator for the glass fibers. Fast neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays are detected in the fast scintillator. Thermal neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays are detected in the glass fiber scintillator.

  3. Study of silicon photosensor applicability for scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khilya, V. M.; Voronov, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present work is the creation a prototype of anticoincidence system AC for gamma-telescope GAMMA-400. The detectors of AC are developed on the basis of plastic scintillator and silicon photomultipliers. This work is focuses on research of applicability of silicon photomultipliers SiPM by company SensL, type 60000 with BC-408 plastics for the prototype of anticoincidence system detector ACtop. In frame of project the assembly for measuring of the SiPM characteristics such as the linearity, boundary of saturation, the time resolution was developed. The final stage of work was the integration of the prototype of anticoincidence detector.

  4. Performance of a long plastic scintillator detector for neutron studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celano, L.; Tagliente, G.; D'Erasmo, G.; Pantaleo, A.; Colonna, N.; Fiore, E. M.; Rui, R.

    1997-02-01

    We present the performance of a very long position-sensitive plastic scintillator detector, to be used in hypernuclei studies with the Finuda apparatus at the Da?ne accelerator of Frascati, Italy. The detector response to neutrons of 40 < E < 100 MeV was measured in a dedicated experiment at Triumf, Vancouver. By comparing the measured response functions with the results of a Geant-based simulation, we have estimated the detector efficiency as a function of energy, light output threshold and impact position.

  5. Applications for Large Solid Scintillator Detectors in Neutrino and Particle Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, Alan D.

    2012-08-01

    Applications for solid scintillator have expanded tremendously over the last decade due, in part, to the development of extruded plastic scintillator. In addition, the rapid development of new solid-state photo detectors over the last few years has further expanded the possibilities for this type of detector. This talk will review the state-of-the-art in solid scintillator detectors focusing on applications in neutrino physics, and will present some new possibilities for inorganic scintillator use in particle astrophysics experiments.

  6. New approaches in medical imaging using plastic scintillating detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P. V.; Anderson, J. A.; Antich, P. P.; Prior, J. O.; Zhang, Y.; Fernando, J.; Constantinescu, A.; Goomer, N. C.; Parkey, R. W.; Fenyves, E.; Chaney, R. C.; Srivastava, S. C.; Mausner, L. F.

    1993-06-01

    A small animal imaging camera was built in our laboratory, using-fast plastic scintillating detectors ( ? = 2-4 ns) and position sensitive photomultipliers (Hamamatsu) digitized using flash ADCs. Pinhole collimators were used for 125I imaging to achieve submillimeter resolution with scintillating plates of 28 mm radius and 1.5 mm thickness. A high resolution PET module was constructed with arrays of 1.0 mm diameter plastic scintillating fibers. The feasibility of high resolution imaging was demonstrated by the study of brain blood flow in a rat using 125I IMP in single photon detection mode and with 64Cu PTSM by using PET mode. Construction of single photon and positron emission tomographic imaging systems for small animals and subsequently for human imaging is in progress.

  7. Maximum likelihood positioning and energy correction for scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Christoph W; Salomon, André; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Lodomez, Sarah; Weissler, Björn; Solf, Torsten

    2016-02-21

    An algorithm for determining the crystal pixel and the gamma ray energy with scintillation detectors for PET is presented. The algorithm uses Likelihood Maximisation (ML) and therefore is inherently robust to missing data caused by defect or paralysed photo detector pixels. We tested the algorithm on a highly integrated MRI compatible small animal PET insert. The scintillation detector blocks of the PET gantry were built with the newly developed digital Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) technology from Philips Digital Photon Counting and LYSO pixel arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and length of 12 mm. Light sharing was used to readout the scintillation light from the [Formula: see text] scintillator pixel array with an [Formula: see text] SiPM array. For the performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm, we measured the scanner's spatial resolution, energy resolution, singles and prompt count rate performance, and image noise. These values were compared to corresponding values obtained with Center of Gravity (CoG) based positioning methods for different scintillation light trigger thresholds and also for different energy windows. While all positioning algorithms showed similar spatial resolution, a clear advantage for the ML method was observed when comparing the PET scanner's overall single and prompt detection efficiency, image noise, and energy resolution to the CoG based methods. Further, ML positioning reduces the dependence of image quality on scanner configuration parameters and was the only method that allowed achieving highest energy resolution, count rate performance and spatial resolution at the same time. PMID:26836394

  8. Maximum likelihood positioning and energy correction for scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, Christoph W.; Salomon, André; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Lodomez, Sarah; Weissler, Björn; Solf, Torsten

    2016-02-01

    An algorithm for determining the crystal pixel and the gamma ray energy with scintillation detectors for PET is presented. The algorithm uses Likelihood Maximisation (ML) and therefore is inherently robust to missing data caused by defect or paralysed photo detector pixels. We tested the algorithm on a highly integrated MRI compatible small animal PET insert. The scintillation detector blocks of the PET gantry were built with the newly developed digital Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) technology from Philips Digital Photon Counting and LYSO pixel arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and length of 12 mm. Light sharing was used to readout the scintillation light from the 30× 30 scintillator pixel array with an 8× 8 SiPM array. For the performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm, we measured the scanner’s spatial resolution, energy resolution, singles and prompt count rate performance, and image noise. These values were compared to corresponding values obtained with Center of Gravity (CoG) based positioning methods for different scintillation light trigger thresholds and also for different energy windows. While all positioning algorithms showed similar spatial resolution, a clear advantage for the ML method was observed when comparing the PET scanner’s overall single and prompt detection efficiency, image noise, and energy resolution to the CoG based methods. Further, ML positioning reduces the dependence of image quality on scanner configuration parameters and was the only method that allowed achieving highest energy resolution, count rate performance and spatial resolution at the same time.

  9. Direct photon-counting scintillation detector readout using an SSPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapels, Christopher J.; Squillante, Michael R.; Lawrence, William G.; Augustine, Frank L.; Christian, James F.

    2007-08-01

    Gamma-ray detector technologies, capable of providing adequate energy information, use photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or silicon avalanche photodiodes to detect the light pulse from a scintillation crystal. A new approach to detect the light from scintillation materials is to use an array of small photon counting detectors, or a "detector-on-a-chip" based on a novel "Solid-state Photomultiplier" (SSPM) concept. A CMOS SSPM coupled to a scintillation crystal uses an array of CMOS Geiger photodiode (GPD) pixels to collect light and produce a signal proportional to the energy of the radiation. Each pixel acts as a binary photon detector, but the summed output is an analog representation of the total photon intensity. We have successfully fabricated arrays of GPD pixels in a CMOS environment, which makes possible the production of miniaturized arrays integrated with the detector electronics in a small silicon chip. This detector technology allows for a substantial cost reduction while preserving the energy resolution needed for radiological measurements. In this work, we compare designs for the SSPM detector. One pixel design achieves maximum detection efficiency (DE) for 632-nm photons approaching 30% with a room temperature dark count rate (DCR) of less than 1 kHz for a 30-?m-diameter pixel. We characterize after pulsing and optical cross talk and discuss their effects on the performance of the SSPM. For 30-?m diameter, passively quenched CMOS GPD pixels, modeling suggests that a pixel spacing of approximately 90 ?m optimizes the SSPM performance with respect to DE and cross talk.

  10. Development of FOND: A scintillating fiber-optic neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holslin, Daniel; Baltgalvis, Janis; Polichar, Aaron; Shreve, David; Smith, Scott

    1998-11-01

    Science Applications International Corporation in San Diego has been developing and testing a plastic scintillating fiber-optic neutron detector (FOND) for various applications where detection of fast neutrons is required. The detector-converter component of the device is a fiber bundle constructed of plastic scintillating fibers each measuring 5 to 10 cm long and 100-500 ?m in diameter. Bundles ranged in size from 2.5 cm by 2.5 cm in cross section up to 10 cm by 10 cm. The bundle is coupled to a set of electro-optic intensifiers whose output is recorded by a CCD camera (standard and high speed) directly coupled to the intensifiers. The FOND has been advanced for several applications, including the identification and location of sources emitting fast neutrons (such as special nuclear material) and for measuring the solar neutron energy spectrum (in collaboration with the University of New Hampshire).

  11. Development of FOND: A scintillating fiber-optic neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Holslin, Daniel; Baltgalvis, Janis; Polichar, Aaron; Shreve, David; Smith, Scott

    1998-11-09

    Science Applications International Corporation in San Diego has been developing and testing a plastic scintillating fiber-optic neutron detector (FOND) for various applications where detection of fast neutrons is required. The detector-converter component of the device is a fiber bundle constructed of plastic scintillating fibers each measuring 5 to 10 cm long and 100-500 {mu}m in diameter. Bundles ranged in size from 2.5 cm by 2.5 cm in cross section up to 10 cm by 10 cm. The bundle is coupled to a set of electro-optic intensifiers whose output is recorded by a CCD camera (standard and high speed) directly coupled to the intensifiers. The FOND has been advanced for several applications, including the identification and location of sources emitting fast neutrons (such as special nuclear material) and for measuring the solar neutron energy spectrum (in collaboration with the University of New Hampshire)

  12. Fast response neutron scintillation detector for FIRE-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Y.; Nakai, M.; Watari, T.; Hosoda, H.; Takeda, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Norimatsu, T.; Shiraga, H.; Sarukura, N.; Azechi, H.

    2008-05-01

    We have been developing fast responding neutron detectors with a view to revealing the effect of additional laser heating in FIREX-I (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) by measuring the burn time with a time resolution under 100 ps at the relatively low neutron yield (about 106). The detector is constructed with a thin plastic-scintillaotor (BC-422), a micro-channel-plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) and a bundle optical fiber as a light-guide. The rise time of a neutron signal from the detector is measured to be 220 ps. The time-determination error for measuring burn time is estimated to be less than ± 46 ps from the data of characterization experiments measuring the transit time distribution of signals, and calculated values of Doppler broadening and the uncertainty of the scintillation time due to the thickness of the scintillator. In the future with more neutron yield, we will construct a scintillation-fiber-streak camera to detect burn history.

  13. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Moellenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Winter, J.; Lachenmaier, T.; Traunsteiner, C.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodan

    2010-05-15

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  14. Development of scintillation detectors based on avalanche microchannel photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britvitch, I.; Lorenz, E.; Olshevski, A.; Renker, D.; Sadygov, Z.; Scheuermann, R.; Stoykov, A.; Werner, A.; Zheleznykh, I.

    2007-02-01

    Avalanche Microchannel PhotoDiodes (AMPDs) are solid state photodetectors with high internal gain and a density of independent channels up to 10 4/mm 2. They are potential substitutes for photomultiplier tubes in a wide variety of applications in nuclear physics and nuclear medicine, especially when fine segmentation of the detectors and their operation in high magnetic fields is required. In this work, we study the performance of a detector based on a LYSO (2210 mm 3) scintillation crystal and AMPD at detection of 511 keV ?-quanta. The detector shows linear energy response, an energy resolution of 12%, and sub-nanosecond time resolution. These characteristics are encouraging for using AMPDs in detector systems of positron emission tomographs (PET) of the next generation.

  15. Design of a high resolution scintillator based SPECT detector (SPECTatress)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprez, Karel; van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Staelens, Steven

    2011-08-01

    SPECT scanners using multi-pinhole collimators benefit from compact detectors having a high spatial resolution. Such detectors can be placed closer to the collimator and perpendicular to the pinhole axis (thereby limiting DOI spatial resolution degradation). Current clinical gamma ray cameras have a large area and a poor spatial resolution.This proceeding describes the architecture of SPECTatress, a compact high resolution gamma camera. The main components (PMT and scintillator) are presented, a brief overview of the read-out electronics is given and a first measurement using the center-of-gravity (COG) event-positioning algorithm is shown.The result of this measurement indicates a good spatial resolution (1.75 mm FWHM) in the center of the detector. Further research has to be done on the event-positioning algorithm to extend the usable detector area and to enhance the spatial resolution.

  16. Position sensitive scintillator based detector improvements by means of an integrated front-end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, V.; Ferrando, N.; Martnez, J. D.; Lerche, Ch. W.; Monz, J. M.; Mateo, F.; Colom, R. J.; Gadea, R.; Sebasti, A.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2009-06-01

    PESIC is an integrated front-end for multianode photomultiplier based nuclear imaging devices. Its architecture has been designed to improve position sensitive detectors behavior by equalizing its response over its whole area. Its preamplying stage introduces two main benefits: digitally programmable gain adjustment for every photomultiplier output, and isolation from other front-end electronics by means of current buffers. This last feature allows to use different types of photomultipliers and optimizes front-end deadtime, reducing impact position dependent output delay. PESIC also includes an indirect measurement of the depth of interaction of the gamma ray inside the scintillator crystal, based on the width of its light distribution. Test measurements have been carried out in an experimental dual detector PET setup in order to quantify improvements obtained from integrated front-end calibration capabilities.

  17. Scintillator and solid-state neutron detectors and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carturan, Sara Maria; Marchi, Tommaso; Fanchini, Erica; De Vita, Raffaella; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Pappalardo, Alfio

    2014-10-01

    The application range of neutron detectors covers many topics, not only involving experimental research, but spanning tens of industrial, health, transport, cultural heritage fields of interest. Several studies focus on new scintillating materials where the light response, under fast and slow neutrons exposure, is triggered by proton recoil or by the presence of neutron capture materials as 10B, 6Li or 157Gd. Neutron monitors, where the robustness of silicon-based detectors can be fully exploited by coupling with suitable neutron absorber/converter materials, have recently proved their outstanding performances. Discrimination between neutron signals from other radiations, such as - or cosmic rays, is achieved through timing techniques or with pulse shape analysis. Furthermore, the choice of the detection/discrimination techniques depends on the type of application the detector will be used for. An example is Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) for cargo inspection or luggage control that are required to satisfy specific international standards for and neutron detection efficiencies. This paper is an overview of some of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) activities in the field of neutron detection, involving novel technologies. We will describe the most recent advances related to scintillators and silicon-based detectors coupled with thin films of suitable converters for neutron detection and we will discuss applications in the field of nuclear security.

  18. Time-based position estimation in monolithic scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabacchini, Valerio; Borghi, Giacomo; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray detectors based on bright monolithic scintillation crystals coupled to pixelated photodetectors are currently being considered for several applications in the medical imaging field. In a typical monolithic detector, both the light intensity and the time of arrival of the earliest scintillation photons can be recorded by each of the photosensor pixels every time a gamma interaction occurs. Generally, the time stamps are used to determine the gamma interaction time while the light intensities are used to estimate the 3D position of the interaction point. In this work we show that the spatio-temporal distribution of the time stamps also carries information on the location of the gamma interaction point and thus the time stamps can be used as explanatory variables for position estimation. We present a model for the spatial resolution obtainable when the interaction position is estimated using exclusively the time stamp of the first photon detected on each of the photosensor pixels. The model is shown to be in agreement with experimental measurements on a 16?mm????16?mm????10?mm LSO?:?Ce,0.2%Ca crystal coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array where a spatial resolution of 3?mm (root mean squared error) is obtained. Finally we discuss the effects of the main parameters such as scintillator rise and decay time, light output and photosensor single photon time resolution and pixel size.

  19. Time-based position estimation in monolithic scintillator detectors.

    PubMed

    Tabacchini, Valerio; Borghi, Giacomo; Schaart, Dennis R

    2015-07-21

    Gamma-ray detectors based on bright monolithic scintillation crystals coupled to pixelated photodetectors are currently being considered for several applications in the medical imaging field. In a typical monolithic detector, both the light intensity and the time of arrival of the earliest scintillation photons can be recorded by each of the photosensor pixels every time a gamma interaction occurs. Generally, the time stamps are used to determine the gamma interaction time while the light intensities are used to estimate the 3D position of the interaction point. In this work we show that the spatio-temporal distribution of the time stamps also carries information on the location of the gamma interaction point and thus the time stamps can be used as explanatory variables for position estimation. We present a model for the spatial resolution obtainable when the interaction position is estimated using exclusively the time stamp of the first photon detected on each of the photosensor pixels. The model is shown to be in agreement with experimental measurements on a 16?mm????16?mm????10?mm LSO?:?Ce,0.2%Ca crystal coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array where a spatial resolution of 3?mm (root mean squared error) is obtained. Finally we discuss the effects of the main parameters such as scintillator rise and decay time, light output and photosensor single photon time resolution and pixel size. PMID:26133784

  20. Neutron response function characterization of 4He scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Ryan P.; Rolison, Lucas M.; Lewis, Jason M.; Murer, David; Massey, Thomas N.; Enqvist, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A.

    2015-09-01

    Time-of-flight measurements were conducted to characterize the neutron energy response of pressurized 4He fast neutron scintillation detectors for the first time, using the Van de Graaff generator at Ohio University. The time-of-flight spectra and pulse height distributions were measured. This data was used to determine the light output response function, which was found to be linear at energies below 3.5 MeV. The intrinsic efficiency of the detector as a function of incident energy was also calculated: the average efficiency up to 10 MeV was 3.1%, with a maximum efficiency of 6.6% at 1.05 MeV. These results will enable development of neutron spectrum unfolding algorithms for neutron spectroscopy applications with these detectors.

  1. Numerical evaluation of the light transport properties of alternative He-3 neutron detectors using ceramic scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzu, A.; Takase, M.; Haruyama, M.; Kurata, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Kureta, M.; Nakamura, T.; Toh, K.; Sakasai, K.; Suzuki, H.; Soyama, K.; Seya, M.

    2015-10-01

    The light transport properties of scintillator light inside alternative He-3 neutron detectors using scintillator sheets have been investigated by a ray-tracing simulation code. The detector consists of a light-reflecting tube, a thin rectangular ceramic scintillator sheet laminated on a glass plate, and two photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) mounted at both ends of the detector tube. The flashes of light induced on the surface of the scintillator sheet via nuclear interaction between the scintillator and neutrons are detected by the two PMTs. The light output at both ends of various detectors in which the scintillator sheets are installed with several different arrangements were examined and evaluated in comparison with experimental results. The results derived from the simulation reveal that the light transport property is strongly dependent on the arrangement of the scintillator sheet inside the tube and the shape of the tube.

  2. Apparatus and method for temperature correction and expanded count rate of inorganic scintillation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Hsue, Sin Tao; Browne, Michael C.; Audia, Jeffrey M.

    2006-07-25

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for temperature correction and count rate expansion of inorganic scintillation detectors. A temperature sensor is attached to an inorganic scintillation detector. The inorganic scintillation detector, due to interaction with incident radiation, creates light pulse signals. A photoreceiver processes the light pulse signals to current signals. Temperature correction circuitry that uses a fast light component signal, a slow light component signal, and the temperature signal from the temperature sensor to corrected an inorganic scintillation detector signal output and expanded the count rate.

  3. Modeling scintillator-photodiodes as detectors for megavoltage CT.

    PubMed

    Monajemi, T T; Steciw, S; Fallone, B G; Rathee, S

    2004-05-01

    The use of cadmium tungstate (CdWO4) and cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] scintillation detectors is studied in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT). A model describing the signal acquired from a scintillation detector has been developed which contains two steps: (1) the calculation of the energy deposited in the crystal due to MeV photons using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code; and (2) the transport of the optical photons generated in the crystal voxels to photodiodes using the optical Monte Carlo code DETECT2000. The measured detector signals in single CdWO4 and CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals of base 0.275 x 0.8 cm2 and heights 0.4, 1, 1.2, 1.6 and 2 cm were, generally, in good agreement with the signals calculated with the model. A prototype detector array which contains 8 CdWO4 crystals, each 0.275 x 0.8 x 1 cm3, in contact with a 16-element array of photodiodes was built. The measured attenuation of a Cobalt-60 beam as a function of solid water thickness behaves linearly. The frequency dependent modulation transfer function [MTF(f)], noise power spectrum [NPS(f)], and detective quantum efficiency [DQE(f)] were measured for 1.25 MeV photons (in a Cobalt-60 beam). For 6 MV photons, only the MTF(f) was measured from a linear accelerator, where large pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in the output of the linear accelerator did not allow the measurement of the NPS(f). A two-step Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the detector's MTF(f), NPS(f) and DQE(f). The DQE(0) of the detector array was found to be 26% and 19% for 1.25 MeV and 6 MV photons, respectively. For 1.25 MeV photons, the maximum discrepancies between the measured and modeled MTF(f), relative NPS(f) and the DQE(f) were found to be 1.5%, 1.2%, and 1.9%, respectively. For the 6 MV beam, the maximum discrepancy between the modeled and the measured MTF(f) was found to be 2.5%. The modeling is sufficiently accurate for designing appropriate detectors for MVCT. PMID:15191313

  4. Absorption of scintillation light in a 100 l liquid xenon ?-ray detector and expected detector performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Doke, T.; Grassi, M.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Kikuchi, J.; Maki, A.; Mashimo, T.; Mihara, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mori, T.; Nicol, D.; Nishiguchi, H.; Ootani, W.; Ozone, K.; Papa, A.; Pazzi, R.; Ritt, S.; Sawada, R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Signorelli, G.; Suzuki, S.; Terasawa, K.; Yamashita, M.; Yamashita, S.; Yoshimura, T.; Yuri, Yu.

    2005-06-01

    An 800 l liquid xenon scintillation ?-ray detector is being developed for the MEG experiment which will search for ?+?e+? decay at the Paul Scherrer Institut. Absorption of scintillation light of xenon by impurities might possibly limit the performance of such a detector. We used a 100 l prototype with an active volume of 372372496 mm3 to study the scintillation light absorption. We have developed a method to evaluate the light absorption, separately from elastic scattering of light, by measuring cosmic rays and ? sources. By using a suitable purification technique, an absorption length longer than 100 cm has been achieved. The effects of the light absorption on the energy resolution are estimated by Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. Atmospheric Neutron Measurements using a Small Scintillator Based Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, Merlin; Pearce, Mark; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishizu, Sumito; Jackson, Miranda; Kamae, Tune; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kawano, Takafumi; Kiss, Mozsi; Moretti, Elena; Yanagida, Takayuki; Chauvin, Maxime; Mikhalev, Victor; Rydstrom, Stefan; Takahashi, Hiromitsu

    PoGOLino is a standalone scintillator-based neutron detector designed for balloon-borne missions. Its main purpose is to provide data of the neutron flux in 2 different energy ranges in the high altitude / high latitude region where the highest neutron flux in the atmosphere is found. Furthermore the influence of the Solar activity upon the neutron environment in this region is relatively strong. As a result both short and long term time fluctuations are strongest in this region. At high altitudes neutrons can form a source of background for balloon-borne scientific measurements. They can furthermore form a major source for single event upsets in electronics. A good understanding of the high altitude / high latitude neutron environment is therefore important. Measurements of the neutron environment in this region are however lacking. PoGOLino contains two 5 mm thick Lithium Calcium Aluminium Fluoride (LiCAF) scintillators used for neutron detection. The LiCAF crystals are sandwiched between 2 Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) scintillating crystals, which serve to veto signals produced by gamma-rays and charged particles. The veto system makes measurements of the neutron flux possible even in high radiation environments. One LiCAF detector is shielded with polyethylene while the second remains unshielded, making the detectors sensitive in different energy ranges. The choice of a scintillator crystals as the detection material ensures a high detection efficiency while keeping the instrument small, robust and light weight. The full standalone cylindrical instrument has a radius of 120 mm, a height of 670 mm and a total mass of 13 kg, making it suitable as a piggy back mission. PoGOLino was successfully launched on March 20th 2013 from the Esrange Space Center in Northern Sweden to an altitude of 30.9 km. A detailed description of the detector design is presented, along with results of of the flight. The neutron flux measured during flight is compared to predictions based on PLANETOCOSMICS and Geant4 simulations.

  6. Scintillating plastic optical fiber radiation detectors in high energy particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.D.

    1991-10-26

    We describe the application of scintillating optical fiber in instrumentation for high energy particle physics. The basic physics of the scintillation process in polymers is discussed first and then we outline the fundamentals of scintillating fiber technology. Fiber performance, optimization, and characterization measurements are given. Detector applications in the areas of particle tracking and particle energy determination are then described. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Simulation results of liquid and plastic scintillator detectors for reactor antineutrino detection - A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, V. K. S.; Pant, L. M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Datar, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    A simulation study of two kinds of scintillation detectors has been done using GEANT4. We compare plastic scintillator and liquid scintillator based designs for detecting electron antineutrinos emitted from the core of reactors. The motivation for this study is to set up an experiment at the research reactor facility at BARC for very short baseline neutrino oscillation study and remote reactor monitoring.

  8. Modular design of long narrow scintillating cells for ILC detector

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Maloney, J.; Rykalin, V.; Schellpfeffer, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    The experimental results for the narrow scintillating elements with effective area about 20 cm{sup 2} are reported. The elements were formed from the single piece of scintillator and were read out via wavelength shifting fibers with the MRS (Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor) photodiodes on both ends of each fiber. The formation of the cells from the piece of scintillator by using grooves is discussed. The cell performance was tested using the radioactive source by measuring the PMT current and a single rate after amplifier and discrimination with threshold at about three photo electrons in each channel and quad coincidences (double coincidences between sensors on each fiber and double coincidences between two neighboring fibers). This result is of high importance for large multi-channel systems, i.e. module may be used as an active element for calorimeter or muon system for the design of the future electron-positron linear collider detector because cell effective area can be smoothly enlarged or reduced (to 4 cm{sup 2} definitely).

  9. Performance characterization of a new high resolution PET scintillation detector

    PubMed Central

    Foudray, A M K; Olcott, P D

    2013-01-01

    Performance of a new high resolution PET detection concept is presented. In this new concept, annihilation radiation enters the scintillator detectors edge-on. Each detector module comprises two 8 8 LYSO scintillator arrays of 0.91 0.91 1 mm3 crystals coupled to two position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) mounted on a flex circuit. Appropriate crystal segmentation allows the recording of all three spatial coordinates of the interaction(s) simultaneously with submillimeter resolution. We report an average energy resolution of 14.6 1.7% for 511 keV photons at FWHM. Coincident time resolution was determined to be 2.98 0.13 ns FWHM on average. The coincidence point spread function (PSF) has an average FWHM of 0.837 0.049 mm (using a 500 ?m spherical source) and is uniform across the arrays. Both PSF and coincident time resolution degrade when Compton interactions are included in the data. Different blurring factors were evaluated theoretically, resulting in a calculated PSF of 0.793 mm, in good agreement with the measured value. PMID:20844332

  10. Fission-fragment detector for DANCE based on thin scintillating films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Roman, A. R.; Daum, J. K.; Springs, R. K.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Favalli, A.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Iliev, M. L.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    A fission-fragment detector based on thin scintillating films has been built to serve as a trigger/veto detector in neutron-induced fission measurements at DANCE. The fissile material is surrounded by scintillating films providing 4 π detection of the fission fragments. The scintillation photons were registered with silicon photomultipliers. A measurement of the 235U (n, f) reaction with this detector at DANCE revealed a correct time-of-flight spectrum and provided an estimate for the efficiency of the prototype detector of 11.6(7)%. Design and test measurements with the detector are described.

  11. (Effects of ionizing radiation on scintillators and other particle detectors)

    SciTech Connect

    Proudfoot, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is my task to summarise the great variety of topics (covering a refreshing mix of physics, chemistry and technology) presented at this conference, which has focused on the effects of ionising radiation on scintillators and other particle detectors. One of the reasons and the central interest of many of the participants was the use of such detectors in experiments at two future large hadron colliders: the Superconducting Super Collider to be operating outside of Dallas in the United States by the turn of the decade and its European counterpart the Large Hadron Collider to be operating outside of Geneva in Switzerland on a similar time scale. These accelerators are the apple of the high energy physicist's eye.'' Their goal is to uncover the elusive Higgs particle and thereby set the cornerstone in our current knowledge of elementary particle interactions. This is the Quest, and from this lofty height the presentations rapidly moved on to the specific questions of experimental science: how such an experiment is carried out; why radiation damage is an issue; how radiation damage affects detectors; which factors affect radiation damage characteristics; which factors are not affected by radiation damage; and how better detectors may be constructed. These were the substance of this conference.

  12. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Yiping; Yao Rutao; Ma Tianyu

    2008-12-15

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In addition, the new method can be generally applied to calibrating other types of detectors that use the similar dual-ended readout to acquire the radiation interaction position.

  13. Alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination in plastic scintillation using commercial scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Bagn, H; Tarancn, A; Rauret, G; Garca, J F

    2010-06-18

    Activity determination in different types of samples is a current need in many different fields. Simultaneously analysing alpha and beta emitters is now a routine option when using liquid scintillation (LS) and pulse shape discrimination. However, LS has an important drawback, the generation of mixed waste. Recently, several studies have shown the capability of plastic scintillation (PS) as an alternative to LS, but no research has been carried out to determine its capability for alpha/beta discrimination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape analysis (PSA). The results obtained show that PS pulses had lower energy than LS pulses. As a consequence, a lower detection efficiency, a shift to lower energies and a better discrimination of beta and a worst discrimination of alpha disintegrations was observed for PS. Colour quenching also produced a decrease in the energy of the particles, as well as the effects described above. It is clear that in PS, the discrimination capability was correlated with the energy of the particles detected. Taking into account the discrimination capabilities of PS, a protocol for the measurement and the calculation of alpha and beta activities in mixtures using PS and commercial scintillation detectors has been proposed. The new protocol was applied to the quantification of spiked river water samples containing a pair of radionuclides ((3)H-(241)Am or (90)Sr/(90)Y-(241)Am) in different activity proportions. The relative errors in all determinations were lower than 7%. These results demonstrate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape and to quantify mixtures without generating mixed waste. PMID:20685410

  14. A mathematical formalism for hyperspectral, multipoint plastic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Louis; Therriault-Proulx, Franois; Beddar, Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize and extend the mathematical formalism used with plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs). By doing so, we show the feasibility of multi-point PSD. The new formalism is based on the sole hypothesis that a PSD optical signal is a linear superposition of spectra. Two calibration scenarios were developed. Both involve solving a linear equation of the form Y = XB, but the process and input data depend on the information available on the detector system. Simulations were carried out to validate both scenarios and demonstrate the advantages of the new formalism. In this paper, we prove the following results. (1) Multi-point PSDs are feasible. Simulations have shown that six different spectra could be resolved accurately even in the presence of up to 10% Gaussian noise. (2) The new formalism leads to more precise PSD measurements. (3) By using the condition number of the measurement matrix, the ideal sets of calibration measurements can be identified. (4) By using principal component analysis it was possible to identify the best set of wavelength filters. We have shown through numerical simulations that multi-point detectors are feasible. This has potential for applications such as in vivo dose verification. Furthermore, our new formalism can be used to improve the robustness and ease of use of PSDs.

  15. Structural design of a high energy particle detector using liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Timothy John; /Minnesota U.

    1997-02-01

    This thesis presents a design for a 10,000 ton liquid scintillator neutrino detector being considered for the MINOS project at Fermilab. Details of designing, manufacturing, and assembling the active detector components are presented. The detector consists of 1080 magnetized steel absorber planes alternating with 1080 active detector planes. Each active plane is made up of plastic extrusions divided into nearly 400 cells for positional resolution. Life tests on the plastic extrusions determine their feasibility for containing the scintillator. The extrusions are sealed at the bottom, filled with liquid scintillator, and have an optical fiber running the entire length of each cell. The fibers terminate at the top of each extrusion in a manifold. An optical-fiber-light-guide connects the fibers in each manifold to a photo-detector. The photo-detector converts the light signals from the scintillator and optical fibers into electrical impulses for computer analysis.

  16. Optimum design calculations for detectors based on ZnSe(??,?) scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrunov, K.; Ryzhikov, V.; Gavrilyuk, V.; Naydenov, S.; Lysetska, O.; Litichevskyi, V.

    2013-06-01

    Light collection in scintillators ZnSe(X), where X is an isovalent dopant, was studied using Monte Carlo calculations. Optimum design was determined for detectors of "scintillatorSi-photodiode" type, which can involve either one scintillation element or scintillation layers of large area made of small-crystalline grains. The calculations were carried out both for determination of the optimum scintillator shape and for design optimization of light guides, on the surface of which the layer of small-crystalline grains is formed.

  17. Use of internal scintillator radioactivity to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bircher, Chad; Shao Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors that use a dual-ended-scintillator readout to measure depth-of-interaction (DOI) must have an accurate DOI function to provide the relationship between DOI and signal ratios to be used for detector calibration and recalibration. In a previous study, the authors used a novel and simple method to accurately and quickly measure DOI function by irradiating the detector with an external uniform flood source; however, as a practical concern, implementing external uniform flood sources in an assembled PET system is technically challenging and expensive. In the current study, therefore, the authors investigated whether the same method could be used to acquire DOI function from scintillator-generated (i.e., internal) radiation. The authors also developed a method for calibrating the energy scale necessary to select the events within the desired energy window. Methods: The authors measured the DOI function of a PET detector with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators. Radiation events originating from the scintillators' internal Lu-176 beta decay were used to measure DOI functions which were then compared with those measured from both an external uniform flood source and an electronically collimated external point source. The authors conducted these studies with several scintillators of differing geometries (1.5 x 1.5 and 2.0 x 2.0 mm{sup 2} cross-section area and 20, 30, and 40 mm length) and various surface finishes (mirror-finishing, saw-cut rough, and other finishes in between), and in a prototype array. Results: All measured results using internal and external radiation sources showed excellent agreement in DOI function measurement. The mean difference among DOI values for all scintillators measured from internal and external radiation sources was less than 1.0 mm for different scintillator geometries and various surface finishes. Conclusions: The internal radioactivity of LYSO scintillators can be used to accurately measure DOI function in PET detectors, regardless of scintillator geometry or surface finish. Because an external radiation source is not needed, this method of DOI function measurement can be practically applied to individual PET detectors as well as assembled systems.

  18. Use of internal scintillator radioactivity to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    PubMed Central

    Bircher, Chad; Shao, Yiping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors that use a dual-ended-scintillator readout to measure depth-of-interaction (DOI) must have an accurate DOI function to provide the relationship between DOI and signal ratios to be used for detector calibration and recalibration. In a previous study, the authors used a novel and simple method to accurately and quickly measure DOI function by irradiating the detector with an external uniform flood source; however, as a practical concern, implementing external uniform flood sources in an assembled PET system is technically challenging and expensive. In the current study, therefore, the authors investigated whether the same method could be used to acquire DOI function from scintillator-generated (i.e., internal) radiation. The authors also developed a method for calibrating the energy scale necessary to select the events within the desired energy window. Methods: The authors measured the DOI function of a PET detector with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators. Radiation events originating from the scintillators internal Lu-176 beta decay were used to measure DOI functions which were then compared with those measured from both an external uniform flood source and an electronically collimated external point source. The authors conducted these studies with several scintillators of differing geometries (1.5??1.5 and 2.0??2.0 mm2 cross-section area and 20, 30, and 40 mm length) and various surface finishes (mirror-finishing, saw-cut rough, and other finishes in between), and in a prototype array. Results: All measured results using internal and external radiation sources showed excellent agreement in DOI function measurement. The mean difference among DOI values for all scintillators measured from internal and external radiation sources was less than 1.0 mm for different scintillator geometries and various surface finishes. Conclusions: The internal radioactivity of LYSO scintillators can be used to accurately measure DOI function in PET detectors, regardless of scintillator geometry or surface finish. Because an external radiation source is not needed, this method of DOI function measurement can be practically applied to individual PET detectors as well as assembled systems. PMID:22320787

  19. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Grgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csige, L.

    2014-02-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2?. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ?E-E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and ? decay as a function of excitation energy.

  20. Two dimensional and linear scintillation detectors for fast neutron imaging comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikerov, V. I.; Koshelev, A. P.; Ozerov, O. V.; Sviridov, A. S.; Yurkov, D. I.

    2014-05-01

    The paper was aimed to compare performance capabilities of two types of scintillation detectors commonly used for fast neutron imaging: two dimensional and linear ones. Best-case values of quantum efficiency, spatial resolution and capacity were estimated for detectors with plastic converter-screen in case of 14 MeV neutrons. For that there were examined nuclear reactions produced in converter-screen by fast neutrons, spatial distributions of energy release of emerged charged particles and amplitude distributions of scintillations generated by these particles. The paper shows that the efficiency of the linear detector is essentially higher and this detector provides potentially better spatial resolution in comparison with the two dimensional detector. But, the two dimensional detector surpasses the linear one in capacity. The presented results can be used for designing radiographic fast neutron detectors with organic scintillators.

  1. Testing a new NIF neutron time-of-flight detector with a bibenzyl scintillator on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C.; Caggiano, J. A.; Carman, M. L.; Clancy, T. J.; Hatarik, R.; McNaney, J.; Zaitseva, N. P.

    2012-10-15

    A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector with a bibenzyl crystal as a scintillator has been designed and manufactured for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This detector will replace a nTOF20-Spec detector with an oxygenated xylene scintillator currently operational on the NIF to improve the areal-density measurements. In addition to areal density, the bibenzyl detector will measure the D-D and D-T neutron yield and the ion temperature of indirect- and direct-drive-implosion experiments. The design of the bibenzyl detector and results of tests on the OMEGA Laser System are presented.

  2. Testing a new NIF neutron time-of-flight detector with a bibenzyl scintillator on OMEGA.

    PubMed

    Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Knauer, J P; Pruyne, A; Romanofsky, M; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Stoeckl, C; Caggiano, J A; Carman, M L; Clancy, T J; Hatarik, R; McNaney, J; Zaitseva, N P

    2012-10-01

    A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector with a bibenzyl crystal as a scintillator has been designed and manufactured for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This detector will replace a nTOF20-Spec detector with an oxygenated xylene scintillator currently operational on the NIF to improve the areal-density measurements. In addition to areal density, the bibenzyl detector will measure the D-D and D-T neutron yield and the ion temperature of indirect- and direct-drive-implosion experiments. The design of the bibenzyl detector and results of tests on the OMEGA Laser System are presented. PMID:23126836

  3. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined detection of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Chiles, M.M.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1987-02-27

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation event count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  4. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN); Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blakeman, Edward D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  5. Wafer-scale pixelated scintillator and specially designed data acquisition system for fiber optic taper array-coupled digital x-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Ji; Lei, Yaohu; Wang, Ru; Ren, Jianping; Qiao, Jian; Niu, Hanben

    2015-09-01

    A digital x-ray detector scheme based on a pixelated scintillator coupled with a fiber optic (FOT) array is suitable for many high-resolution x-ray imaging applications. However, certain challenges need to be addressed for fabrication of wafer-scale uniform pixelated x-ray scintillators. In addition, difficulties associated with implementation of the data acquisition system for acquiring output image data from the multiple image sensors used in the detector also need to be addressed. In this paper, a 22 FOT array-coupled digital x-ray detector scheme using a 5-in. pixelated scintillator is proposed. A novel fabrication setup along with the corresponding processes for fabricating the wafer-scale pixelated scintillator and implementation of a specially designed embedded data acquisition system based on a single embedded micro-processer (ARM) and four field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chips are discussed in detail. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that this pixelated scintillator-based digital x-ray detector scheme with an active imaging area of about 100 mm100 mm shows considerable potential for use in high-resolution x-ray imaging.

  6. Detection of Extensive Cosmic Air Showers by Small Scintillation Detectors with Wavelength-Shifting Fibres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiola, Salvatore; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Riggi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    A set of three small scintillation detectors was employed to measure correlated events due to the passage of cosmic muons originating from extensive air showers. The coincidence rate between (any) two detectors was extracted as a function of their relative distance. The difference between the arrival times in three non-aligned detectors was used

  7. Detection of Extensive Cosmic Air Showers by Small Scintillation Detectors with Wavelength-Shifting Fibres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiola, Salvatore; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Riggi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    A set of three small scintillation detectors was employed to measure correlated events due to the passage of cosmic muons originating from extensive air showers. The coincidence rate between (any) two detectors was extracted as a function of their relative distance. The difference between the arrival times in three non-aligned detectors was used…

  8. Proton-induced radioactivity in NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactivity induced by protons in sodium iodide scintillation crystals were calculated and directly measured. These data are useful in determining trapped radiation and cosmic-ray induced, background-counting rates in spaceborne detectors.

  9. Scintillation Detector for the Measurement of Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Rays on the Super-TIGER Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Jason

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the design and construction of the scintillation detectors for the Super-TIGER experiment. Super-TIGER is a large-area (5.4sq m) balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the abundances of cosmic-ray nuclei between Z= 10 and Z=56. It is based on the successful TIGER experiment that flew in Antarctica in 2001 and 2003. Super-TIGER has three layers of scintillation detectors, two Cherenkov detectors and a scintillating fiber hodoscope. The scintillation detector employs four wavelength shifter bars surrounding the edges of the scintillator to collect the light from particles traversing the detector. PMTs are optically coupled at both ends of the bars for light collection. We report on laboratory performance of the scintillation counters using muons. In addition we discuss the design challenges and detector response over this broad charge range including the effect of scintilator saturation.

  10. Study of response of scintillation detector based on BaF2 crystals and nanoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenkov, O. I.; Yurevich, V. I.; Garibin, E. A.; Reyterov, V. M.; Gusev, P. E.; Krutov, M. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Veshchikov, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Fast and slow components of responses of scintillation detectors based on BaF2 crystals and nanoceramics with various activators are studied by the registration of annihilation gamma-quanta with an energy of 511 keV. A comparative analysis of the obtained results for the determination of promising scintillators for the development of detectors with high time and pulse height resolution is carried out.

  11. Lithium glass scintillator neutron detector as an improved alternative to the standard 3 he proportional counter

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2011-06-01

    Lithium glass scintillator made from 6Li-enriched substrate is a well known for its neutron detection capability. In spite of neutron interaction, cross section of 6Li happens to be lower than that of 3He. However, the neutron detection efficiency could be higher due to higher volume content of 6Li nuclear in the solid scintillator vs. gas filled proportional counter. At the same time, as lithium glass is sensitive to gamma and charge particle radiation, non-neutron radiation discrimination is required. Our detector is composed of two equal-size cylindrical Li(Ce) glass scintillators. The first one is high-sensitive to thermal neutrons GS-20 (6Li doped), the second one is GS-30 (7Li doped) type Scint-Gobain made lithium glass scintillator. Each of scintillators is coupled with R7400U Hamamatsu subminiature photomultiplier tube, and all assembly is fitted into NP100H 3He tube size. 6Li absorbs thermal neutrons releasing alpha particles and triton with 4.8 MeV total energy deposit inside the scintillator (equivalent to about ~1.3 MeV gamma energy depositions). Because 7Li isotope does not absorb thermal neutrons, and the physical properties of the two scintillators are virtually identical, the difference between these two scintillators could be used to provide neutron dose rate information. Results of study of neutron detector assembled of two Li(Ce) scintillators and NP100H moderator are presented

  12. Characterization of scintillator materials for fast-ion loss detectors in nuclear fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Ramos, M. C.; García López, J.; García-Muñoz, M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, M.; Carmona Gázquez, M.; Zurro, B.

    2014-08-01

    In fusion plasma reactors, fast ion generated by heating systems and fusion born particles must be well confined. The presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can lead to a significant loss of these ions, which may reduce drastically the heating efficiency and may cause damage to plasma facing components in the vacuum vessel. In order to understand the physics underlying the fast ion loss mechanism, scintillator based detectors have been installed in several fusion devices. In this work we present the absolute photon yield and its degradation with ion fluence in terms of the number of photons emitted per incident ion of several scintillators thin coatings: SrGa2S4:Eu2+ (TG-Green), Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (P46) and Y2O3:Eu3+ (P56) when irradiated with light ions of different masses (deuterium ions, protons and α-particles) at energies between approximately 575 keV and 3 MeV. The photon yield will be discussed in terms of the energy deposited by the particles into the scintillator. For that, the actual composition and thickness of the thin layers were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). A collimator with 1 mm of diameter, which defines the beam size for the experiments, placed at the entrance of the chamber. An electrically isolated sample holder biased to +300 V to collect the secondary electrons, connected to a digital current integrator (model 439 by Ortec) to measure the incident beam current. A home made device has been used to store the real-time evolution of the beam current in a computer file allowing the correction of the IL yields due to the current fluctuations. The target holder is a rectangle of 150 × 112 mm2 and can be tilted. The X and Y movements are controlled through stepping motors, which permits a fine control of the beam spot positioning as well as the study of several samples without venting the chamber. A silica optical fiber of 1 mm diameter fixed to the vacuum chamber, which collects the light from the scintillators. The solid angle subtended by the fiber is ∼2.2 × 10-5 sr. The final element is a compact and high sensitive spectrometer, QE6500 (Ocean Optics Inc.) with a 2D area detector which allow us to measure simultaneously in the range of 200-1100 nm with a spectral resolution ∼1-2 nm. The measured signals were analyzed and stored with the SpectraSuite software [6]. The absolute calibration of the optical system described above was carried out with a HL-2000-CAL Tungsten Halogen Calibration Standard light source which provides absolute intensity values (in μW/cm2/nm) at the fiber port at wavelengths from 360-1050 nm.The beam fluxes used to irradiate the phosphors were ∼ 1012 p/cm2s- for the IL yields determination, and up to ten times higher for the degradation analyses.The Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) measurements of the screens were accomplished in the same vacuum chamber using protons at 3 MeV and 5 MeV. Two different energies were employed due to the large difference between the thicknesses of the samples. The proton beam intensity was 10 nA and the beam size 1 mm of diameter. The analysis were performed with a Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) detector of 300 mm2, positioned at 150° and with a 10 μm thick aluminized mylar foil placed at the detector surface to avoid the light emitted by the scintillators. The RBS spectra were analyzed using the SIMNRA code [7].The scintillators investigated in this work were selected according to their availability, radiation hardness, fast response, and/or prior use in plasma diagnostics. In this paper, three different kinds of materials have been analyzed. The TG-Green (so called by the manufacturer, Sarnoff Corporation, USA) is a Eu doped SrGa2S4 powder substrate with density of 3.65 g/cm3, and presents an emission at 540 nm with a very short decay time.≈490 ns [8]. A TG-Green scintillator coating has been applied, for the first time, to a fusion plasma diagnostics for the detection of fast-particle losses on the AUG tokamak [9,10]. The same material supplied by other manufacturer (CIEMAT) has been used to compare the yields for both samples. We will refer to these screens as TGa and TGb for the corresponding to Sarnoff Co. and CIEMAT, respectively. The P46 is a rare earth oxide Y3Al5O12 (YAG) doped with Ce by 0.15% CeO2, manufactured by Proxitronic GmbH, Germany. The luminescence emission consists in a broad peak, centered at 550 nm with a stated decay time constant of 70 ns. [11]. The P46 has been widely applied to fusion plasma diagnostic and in particular to fast-ion loss detection on several devices such as TFTR and NSTX [12,13]. Finally, the P56 scintillator is a Eu doped Y2O3 powder substrate, Y2O3:Eu3+, manufactured by AST Corporation, England. Although this material has a high efficiency, its light emission has a long decay time of 2 ms [14], making the P56 unsuitable to follow the frequency of the MHD fluctuations.The samples were deposited using different processes directly by the manufacturers on 2 mm thick stainless steel plates. It is important to remind that reflections on the substrate may contribute to a luminescence enhancement of the thin scintillator screens. Therefore, the screens under study here as well as the experimental set-up were designed to mimic the real operation of a fast-ion loss detector.

  13. Rejection of Alpha Surface Background in Non-scintillating Bolometric Detectors: The ABSuRD Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; di Vacri, M. L.; Gorla, P.; Pavan, M.; Yeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their excellent energy resolution values and the vast choice of possible materials, bolometric detectors are currently widely used in the physics of rare events. A limiting aspect for bolometers rises from their inability to discriminate among radiation types or surface from bulk events. It has been demonstrated that the main limitation to sensitivity for purely bolometric detectors is represented by surface alpha contaminations, causing a continuous background that cannot be discriminated. A new scintillation-based technique for the rejection of surface alpha background in non-scintillating bolometric experiments is proposed in this work. The idea is to combine a scintillating and a high sensitivity photon detector with a non-scintillating absorber. We present results showing the possibility to reject events due to alpha decay at or nearby the surface of the crystal.

  14. Development of a thin scintillation films fission-fragment detector and a novel neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Daum, J. K.; Favalli, A.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Iliev, M. L.; Mosby, S.; Roman, A. R.; Springs, R. K.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    Investigation of prompt fission and neutron-capture ? rays from fissile actinide samples at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) requires use of a fission-fragment detector to provide a trigger or a veto signal. A fission-fragment detector based on thin scintillating films and silicon photomultipliers has been built to serve as a trigger/veto detector in neutron-induced fission measurements at DANCE. The fissile material is surrounded by scintillating films providing a 4? detection of the fission fragments. The scintillations were registered with silicon photomultipliers. A measurement of the 235U(n,f) reaction with this detector at DANCE revealed a correct time-of-flight spectrum and provided an estimate for the efficiency of the prototype detector of 11.6(7)%. Design and test measurements with the detector are described. A neutron source with fast timing has been built to help with detector-response measurements. The source is based on the neutron emission from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf and the same type of scintillating films and silicon photomultipliers. Overall time resolution of the source is 0.3 ns. Design of the source and test measurements with it are described. An example application of the source for determining the neutron/gamma pulse-shape discrimination by a stilbene crystal is given.

  15. An analytic technique for the estimation of the light yield of a scintillation detector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segreto, E.

    2013-10-01

    A simple model for the estimation of the light yield of a scintillation detector is developed under general assumptions and relying exclusively on the knowledge of its optical properties. The model allows one to easily incorporate effects related to Rayleigh scattering and absorption of the photons. The predictions of the model are benchmarked with the outcomes of Monte Carlo simulations of specific scintillation detectors. An accuracy at the level of few percent is achieved. The case of a real liquid argon based detector is explicitly treated and the predicted light yield is compared with the measured value.

  16. Development of a Compton camera for medical applications based on silicon strip and scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimmer, J.; Ley, J.-L.; Abellan, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P.; Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Freud, N.; Joly, B.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L.; Ltang, J. M.; Magne, M.; Mathez, H.; Maxim, V.; Montarou, G.; Morel, C.; Pinto, M.; Ray, C.; Reithinger, V.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y.

    2015-07-01

    A Compton camera is being developed for the purpose of ion-range monitoring during hadrontherapy via the detection of prompt-gamma rays. The system consists of a scintillating fiber beam tagging hodoscope, a stack of double sided silicon strip detectors (90902 mm3, 264 strips) as scatter detectors, as well as bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors (383530 mm3, 100 blocks) as absorbers. The individual components will be described, together with the status of their characterization.

  17. Continuous Scintillator Detector Blocks for Simultaneous Pet-Mr Imaging of the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Continuous scintillator detector blocks have several advantages over pixelated designs, presenting a larger active volume and a lower cost with comparable or better energy and spatial resolutions. In this paper we describe the operation of continuous detector blocks for positron emission tomography (PET) and their suitability for multimodality imaging operating inside a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. This detector technology is being used on a full-scale clinical scanner for human brain PET studies presently under development at Ciemat. Results will be presented on the laboratory characterization of monolithic scintillators coupled to APD matrices with ASIC readout, including images of point sources from a prototype dual-head demonstrator illustrating the potential of continuous scintillator detector blocks for high-resolution PET-MR imaging.

  18. Scintillation detector for escaping alphas and tritons in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, S. J.

    1986-08-01

    A diagnostic for escaping charged fusion products is presently being tested on tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). It consists of a 11-in. ZnS scintillator screen located inside a movable probe at the bottom of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The alphas or tritons hit the scintillator screen where they create visible light pulses which are fiber-optically coupled to photomultiplier tubes and/or an intensified video camera for recording and analysis.

  19. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    PubMed

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. PMID:24323770

  20. Combinatorial Screening of Advanced Scintillators for High Resolution X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shifan; Tao, Dejie; Lynch, Michael; Yuan, Xianglong; Li, Yiqun

    2008-05-12

    The lack of efficient scintillators is a major problem for developing powerful x-ray detectors that are widely used in homeland security, industrial and scientific research. Intematix has developed and applied a high throughput screening process and corresponding crystal growth technology to significantly speed up the discovery process for new efficient scintillators. As a result, Intematix has invented and fabricated three new scintillators both in powder and bulk forms, which possess promising properties such as better radiation hardness and better matching for silicon diode.

  1. Water-Equivalent Plastic Scintillation Detectors for High-Energy Photon and Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddar, Abdou-Samad

    1990-01-01

    A minimally perturbing plastic scintillation detector has been developed for the dosimetry of high-energy beams in radiotherapy. The detector system consists of two identical parallel sets of radiation resistant optical fiber bundles, each connected to independent photomultiplier tubes (PMT). One fiber bundle is connected to a miniature water-equivalent scintillator and so scintillation as well as Cerenkov light generated in the fibers is detected at its PMT. The other "background" bundle is not connected to the scintillator and so only Cerenkov is detected by its PMT. The background signal is subtracted to yield only the signal from the scintillator. The dose distribution in water is measured using these plastic scintillation detectors for different high -energy photon and electron beams. Excellent agreement is obtained when compared to ionization chambers and silicon diodes. The most important properties of the system are its high spatial resolution (0.003 cc) and its nearly water -equivalence. It is shown that they have better spatial resolution than ion chambers, require no replacement correction in phantoms, have less energy dependence than Si diodes in x-ray beams, have much less energy (or depth) dependence than ion chambers in electron fields, and less perturbation of either x-ray or electron beams than either Si diodes or ion chambers. Their other strength lies in their use for field mapping in water phantoms, or in-vivo insertions.

  2. Time and Amplitude Characteristics of Large Scintillation Detectors with SiPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplin, V. A.; Makliaev, E. F.; Melikyan, Yu. A.; Naumov, P. P.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Runtso, M. F.

    A large plastic scintillation detector system with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout has been developed as a prototype for future astroparticle experiments' detectors. A set of SiPM connected in parallel was used in order to enlarge the light collection effective area and thus enhance the detector's amplitude and timing performance. Here we report on the values of time resolution and scintillation detection efficiency of such a system for different types of SiPM as a function of the distance between the scintillation strip edge with photomultipliers attached to it, and the penetrating particle. Results of a special simulation study of the system's amplitude and timing performance as a function of the SiPM radiation aging are also presented.

  3. Principal Component Analysis for pulse-shape discrimination of scintillation radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the application of Principal Component analysis (PCA) for pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) of scintillation radiation detectors. The details of the method are described and the performance of the method is experimentally examined by discriminating between neutrons and gamma-rays with a liquid scintillation detector in a mixed radiation field. The performance of the method is also compared against that of the conventional charge-comparison method, demonstrating the superior performance of the method particularly at low light output range. PCA analysis has the important advantage of automatic extraction of the pulse-shape characteristics which makes the PSD method directly applicable to various scintillation detectors without the need for the adjustment of a PSD parameter.

  4. Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Quan Lin; Zhang Zhongbing; Ouyang Xiaoping; Liu Bin; Liu Jinliang

    2013-01-15

    To measure the intensity of flash X-ray sources directly, a novel scintillation detector with a fast time response and flat energy response is developed by combining film scintillators of doped ZnO crystal and fast organic scintillator together. Through compensation design, the dual-scintillator detector (DSD) achieved a flat energy response to X-rays from tens of keV to several MeV, and sub-nanosecond time response by coupling to ultrafast photo-electronic devices. A prototype detector was fabricated according to the theoretical design; it employed ZnO:In and EJ228 with thicknesses of 0.3 mm and 0.1 mm, respectively. The energy response of this detector was tested on monoenergetic X-ray and {gamma}-ray sources. The detector performs very well with a sensitivity fluctuation below 5% for 8 discrete energy points within the 40-250 keV energy region and for other energies of 662 keV and 1.25 MeV as well, showing good accordance with the theoretical design. Additionally, the detector works properly for the application to the flash X-ray radiation field absolute intensity measurement. This DSD may be very useful for the diagnosis of time-resolved dynamic physical processes of flash X-ray sources without knowing the exact energy spectrum.

  5. Characterizing the response of miniature scintillation detectors when irradiated with proton beams

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, Louis; Polf, Jerimy C.; Beaulieu, Luc; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Designing a plastic scintillation detector for proton radiation therapy requires careful consideration. Most plastic scintillators should not perturb a proton beam if they are sufficiently small but may exhibit some energy dependence due to quenching effect. In this work, we studied the factors that would affect the performance of such scintillation detectors. We performed Monte Carlo simulations of proton beams with energies between 50 and 250 MeV to study signal amplitude, water equivalence, spatial resolution, and quenching of light output. Implementation of the quenching effect in the Monte Carlo simulations was then compared with prior experimental data for validation. The signal amplitude of a plastic scintillating fiber detector was on the order of 300 photons per MeV of energy deposited in the detector, corresponding to a power of about 30 pW at a proton dose rate of 100 cGy/min. The signal amplitude could be increased by up to a factor of 2 with reflective coating. We also found that Cerenkov light was not a significant source of noise. Dose deposited in the plastic scintillator was within 2% of the dose deposited in a similar volume of water throughout the whole depth-dose curve for protons with energies higher than 50 MeV. A scintillation detector with a radius of 0.5 mm offers a sufficient spatial resolution for use with a proton beam of 100 MeV or more. The main disadvantage of plastic scintillators when irradiated by protons was the quenching effect, which reduced the amount of scintillation and resulted in dose underestimation by close to 30% at the Bragg peak for beams of 150 MeV or more. However, the level of quenching was nearly constant throughout the proximal half of the depth-dose curve for all proton energies considered. We therefore conclude that it is possible to construct an effective detector to overcome the problems traditionally encountered in proton dosimetry. Scintillation detectors could be used for surface or shallow measurements with a single calibration for a specific beam energy. For deeper measurements, Monte Carlo simulations can be used to generate depth-dependent correction factors. PMID:18364543

  6. Characterizing the response of miniature scintillation detectors when irradiated with proton beams.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Louis; Polf, Jerimy C; Beaulieu, Luc; Beddar, Sam

    2008-04-01

    Designing a plastic scintillation detector for proton radiation therapy requires careful consideration. Most of the plastic scintillators should not perturb a proton beam if they are sufficiently small but may exhibit some energy dependence due to the quenching effect. In this work, we studied the factors that would affect the performance of such scintillation detectors. We performed Monte Carlo simulations of proton beams with energies between 50 and 250 MeV to study signal amplitude, water equivalence, spatial resolution and quenching of light output. Implementation of the quenching effect in the Monte Carlo simulations was then compared with prior experimental data for validation. The signal amplitude of a plastic scintillating fiber detector was on the order of 300 photons per MeV of energy deposited in the detector, corresponding to a power of about 30 pW at a proton dose rate of 100 cGy min(-1). The signal amplitude could be increased by up to a factor of 2 with reflective coating. We also found that Cerenkov light was not a significant source of noise. Dose deposited in the plastic scintillator was within 2% of the dose deposited in a similar volume of water throughout the whole depth-dose curve for protons with energies higher than 50 MeV. A scintillation detector with a radius of 0.5 mm offers a sufficient spatial resolution for use with a proton beam of 100 MeV or more. The main disadvantage of plastic scintillators when irradiated by protons was the quenching effect, which reduced the amount of scintillation and resulted in dose underestimation by close to 30% at the Bragg peak for beams of 150 MeV or more. However, the level of quenching was nearly constant throughout the proximal half of the depth-dose curve for all proton energies considered. We therefore conclude that it is possible to construct an effective detector to overcome the problems traditionally encountered in proton dosimetry. Scintillation detectors could be used for surface or shallow measurements with a single calibration for specific beam energy. For deeper measurements, Monte Carlo simulations can be used to generate depth-dependent correction factors. PMID:18364543

  7. Neutron response characterization for an EJ299-33 plastic scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Chris C.; Febbraro, Michael; Massey, Thomas N.; Flaska, Marek; Becchetti, F. D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-09-01

    Organic scintillation detectors have shown promise as neutron detectors for characterizing special nuclear materials in various arms-control and homeland-security applications. Recent advances have yielded a new plastic scintillator - EJ299-33 - with pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD) capability. Plastic scintillators would have a much-expanded range of deployment relative to liquids and crystals. Here, we present a full characterization of pulse-height response to fission-energy neutrons for an EJ299-33 detector with 7.62-by-7.62-cm cylindrical active volume, and compare with an EJ309 liquid scintillator in the same assembly. Scintillation light-output relations, energy resolutions, and response matrices are presented for both detectors. A continuous-spectrum neutron source, obtained via the bombardment of 27Al with 7.44-MeV deuterons at the Edwards Accelerator Facility at Ohio University, was used for the measurement. A new procedure for evaluating and comparing PSD performance is presented which accounts for the effect of the light-output relation on the ability to detect low-energy neutrons. The EJ299-33 is shown to have considerable deficit in matrix condition, and in PSD figure of merit when compared to EJ309, especially when neutron energy is taken into account. Nevertheless the EJ299 is likely to bring a modest PSD capability into a array of field applications that are not accessible to liquids or crystals.

  8. Solution growth and scintillation properties of novel organic neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Glodo, Jarek; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Zaitseva, Natalia; Shah, Kanai S.

    2011-10-01

    Crystals of 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) were grown from a saturated xylene solution at 35 C. Lithium-salicylate (LiSal) was grown from water. Radioluminescence spectra of DPA and LiSal exhibit a broad emission band peaking at 425 and 467 nm, respectively. DPA crystals show high light yields of up to 20,000 ph/MeV and fast scintillation with a decay time of about 12 ns. LiSal has a light yield of about 3000 Ph/MeV and a scintillation decay time of about 18 ns. Effective n-? PSD was achieved with DPA using a Am/Be source.

  9. Beta ray spectroscopy based on a plastic scintillation detector/silicon surface barrier detector coincidence telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Y. S.; Hirning, C. R.; Yuen, P.; Aikens, M.

    1994-01-01

    Beta radiation is now recognized as a significant radiation safety problem and several international conferences have recently been devoted to the problems of mixed field beta/photon dosimetry. Conventional dosimetry applies algorithms to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) multi-element badges which attempt to extract dose information based on the comparison of TL signals from ``thick/thin'' and/or ``bare/filtered'' elements. These may be grossly innacurate due to inadequate or non-existant knowledge of the energy spectrum of both the beta radiation and the accompanying photon field, as well as other factors. In this paper, we discuss the operation of a beta-ray energy spectrometer based on a two element, E dE detector telescope intended to support dose algorithms with beta spectral information. Beta energies are measured via a 5 cm diameter 2 cm thick BC-404 plastic scintillator preceded by a single, 100 ?m thick, totally depleted, silicon dE detector. Photon events in the E detector are rejected by requiring a coincidence between the E and dE detectors. Photon rejection ratios vary from 225:1 at 1.25 MeV (60Co) to 360:1 at 0.36 MeV (133Ba). The spectrometer is capable of measuring electron energies from a lower energy coincidence threshold of approximately 125 keV to an upper limit of 3.5 MeV. This energy range spans the great majority of beta-emitting radionuclides in nuclear facilities.

  10. Observation of EAS Core with the Small Scintillation Detector at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuyama, H.; Kuramochi, Hiroshi; Obara, Hitoshi; Ono, Shunichi; Origasa, Satoru; Mochida, Akinori; Sakayama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Noboru

    2003-07-01

    We have observed the core structure of extensive air showers(EAS) that primary energy above 1016 eV. To measure the more detail and the correct density of the incident particles near EAS core, we installed 100 small scintillation detectors (using plastic scintillator : 15cm × 15cm × 2.5cm) that are placed on a lattice 10 × 10, and 40cm separation, at Taro Cosmic Ray Lab oratory, at autumn 2002. We report the detail of the small detector, and preliminary results.

  11. A scintillator based endcap KL and muon detector for the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aushev, T.; Besson, D. Z.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Katrenko, P.; Mizuk, R.; Pakhlova, G.; Pakhlov, P.; Rusinov, V.; Solovieva, E.; Tarkovsky, E.; Tikhomirov, I.; Uglov, T.

    2015-07-01

    A new KL0 and muon detector based on scintillators will be used for the endcap regions in the Belle II experiment, currently under construction. The increased luminosity of the e+e- SuperKEKB collider entails challenging detector requirements. We demonstrate that relatively inexpensive polystyrene scintillator strips with wavelength shifting fibers ensure a sufficient light yield at the Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) photodetector, are robust and provide improved physics performance for the Belle II experiment compared to its predecessor, Belle.

  12. Investigation of the PGNAA using the LaBr3 scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Favalli, A; Mehner, H-C; Ciriello, V; Pedersen, B

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission develops instrumentation for detection of hazardous materials. In relation to this a new experimental facility was constructed for research into methods applying the detection of characteristic gamma rays subsequent to neutron irradiation. This includes the detection of prompt gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering and neutron capture. For this purpose the device employs LaBr(3) scintillation detectors. The paper investigates the applicability of the LaBr(3) scintillation detector to PGNAA. PMID:19884018

  13. Search for fractionally charged particles in the Mont Blanc LSD scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Dadykin, V. L.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Khalchukov, F. F.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortchaguin, P. V.; Kortchaguin, V. B.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Malguin, A. S.; Marchetti, G.; Periale, L.; Ryassny, V. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vernetto, S.; Yakushev, V. F.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    1994-02-01

    An analysis of the events recorded by the Mont Blanc Neutrino Scintillation Detector was performed in order to search for fractionally charged particles with |Q| = 1/3and |Q| = 2/3. In a live time of 2378 days, the obtained 90% C. L. upper limits on the fluxes of fractionally charged particles in the core of our detector are ?(|Q| = 1/3) < 2. 3 10 -13cm-2s-1sr-1and ?(|Q| = 2/3) < 2. 7 10 -13cm-2s-1sr-1, the best available limits obtained by scintillation counters technique.

  14. Improvement of the time response of plastic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vries, J.; Schippers, J. M.; Lourens, W.

    1985-07-01

    The resolution of a typical time spectrometer has been improved by covering the scintillator surface with a combination of smooth and creased aluminum foil. A description is given of the computer simulations that helped us find this improvement. Experimental tests showed time resolutions ( 22Na-windows) of fwhm = 250 ps for a polished surface and fwhm = 200 ps for the optimized treatment.

  15. SENTIRADAn innovative personal radiation detector based on a scintillation detector and a silicon photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osovizky, A.; Ginzburg, D.; Manor, A.; Seif, R.; Ghelman, M.; Cohen-Zada, I.; Ellenbogen, M.; Bronfenmakher, V.; Pushkarsky, V.; Gonen, E.; Mazor, T.; Cohen, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The alarming personal radiation detector (PRD) is a device intended for Homeland Security (HLS) applications. This portable device is designed to be worn or carried by security personnel to detect photon-emitting radioactive materials for the purpose of crime prevention. PRD is required to meet the scope of specifications defined by various HLS standards for radiation detection. It is mandatory that the device be sensitive and simultaneously small, pocket-sized, of robust mechanical design and carriable on the user's body. To serve these specialized purposes and requirements, we developed the SENTIRAD, a new radiation detector designed to meet the performance criteria established for counterterrorist applications. SENTIRAD is the first commercially available PRD based on a CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal that is optically coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) serving as a light sensor. The rapidly developing technology of SiPM, a multipixel semiconductor photodiode that operates in Geiger mode, has been thoroughly investigated in previous studies. This paper presents the design considerations, constraints and radiological performance relating to the SENTIRAD radiation sensor.

  16. A Measurement of the Scintillation Light Yield in CD4 Using a Photosensitive GEM Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Azmoun, B.; Azmoun, B.; Caccavano, A.; Rumore, M.; Sinsheimer, J.; Smirnov, N.; Stoll, S.; Woody, C.

    2010-08-01

    The absolute photon yield of scintillation light produced by highly ionizing particles in pure CF{sub 4} has been measured using a photosensitive Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector. The detector consists of two standard GEMs and a CsI coated GEM which acts as a photocathode that is sensitive to the 160 nm scintillation light produced in CF{sub 4}. The light yield was determined in terms of the number of scintillation photons emitted into a 4{pi} solid angle produced per MeV of energy deposited in the gas by a 5.5 MeV alpha particle and found to be 314 {+-} 15 photons per MeV. The quantum yield was determined using a fitting method to determine the number of photoelectrons from the measured pulse height distribution, and by an independent method using the measured gain of the GEM detector. The effect of scintillation light in CF{sub 4} on the performance of Cherenkov detectors, such as the PHENIX Hadron Blind Detector (HBD) at RHIC, is also discussed.

  17. A fast microchannel plate-scintillator detector for velocity map imaging and imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Winter, B; King, S J; Brouard, M; Vallance, C

    2014-02-01

    The time resolution achievable using standard position-sensitive ion detectors, consisting of a chevron pair of microchannel plates coupled to a phosphor screen, is primarily limited by the emission lifetime of the phosphor, around 70 ns for the most commonly used P47 phosphor. We demonstrate that poly-para-phenylene laser dyes may be employed extremely effectively as scintillators, exhibiting higher brightness and much shorter decay lifetimes than P47. We provide an extensive characterisation of the properties of such scintillators, with a particular emphasis on applications in velocity-map imaging and microscope-mode imaging mass spectrometry. The most promising of the new scintillators exhibits an electron-to-photon conversion efficiency double that of P47, with an emission lifetime an order of magnitude shorter. The new scintillator screens are vacuum stable and show no signs of signal degradation even over longer periods of operation. PMID:24593353

  18. A fast microchannel plate-scintillator detector for velocity map imaging and imaging mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, B.; King, S. J.; Vallance, C.; Brouard, M.

    2014-02-15

    The time resolution achievable using standard position-sensitive ion detectors, consisting of a chevron pair of microchannel plates coupled to a phosphor screen, is primarily limited by the emission lifetime of the phosphor, around 70 ns for the most commonly used P47 phosphor. We demonstrate that poly-para-phenylene laser dyes may be employed extremely effectively as scintillators, exhibiting higher brightness and much shorter decay lifetimes than P47. We provide an extensive characterisation of the properties of such scintillators, with a particular emphasis on applications in velocity-map imaging and microscope-mode imaging mass spectrometry. The most promising of the new scintillators exhibits an electron-to-photon conversion efficiency double that of P47, with an emission lifetime an order of magnitude shorter. The new scintillator screens are vacuum stable and show no signs of signal degradation even over longer periods of operation.

  19. Expected performance of an ideal liquid argon neutrino detector with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorel, M.

    2014-10-01

    Scintillation light is used in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors to provide a trigger signal, veto information against cosmic rays, and absolute event timing. In this work, we discuss additional opportunities offered by detectors with enhanced sensitivity to scintillation light, that is with light collection efficiencies of about 10-3. We focus on two key detector performance indicators for neutrino oscillation physics: calorimetric neutrino energy reconstruction and neutrino/antineutrino separation in a non-magnetized detector. Our results are based on detailed simulations, with neutrino interactions modelled according to the GENIE event generator, while the charge and light responses of a large LAr ideal detector are described by the Geant4 and NEST simulation tools. A neutrino energy resolution as good as 3.3% RMS for 4 GeV electron neutrino charged-current interactions can in principle be obtained in a large detector of this type, by using both charge and light information. By exploiting muon capture in argon and scintillation light information to veto muon decay electrons, we also obtain muon neutrino identification efficiencies of about 50%, and muon antineutrino misidentification rates at the few percent level, for few-GeV neutrino interactions that are fully contained. We argue that the construction of large LAr detectors with sufficiently high light collection efficiencies is in principle possible.

  20. Integrated Operation of the G????-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope Scintillation Detector Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runtso, Mikhail

    In this paper the question of integrated operation of scintillation detector systems AC (anticoincidence system) and SDC (scintillation detector system of calorimeter) in the G????-400 gamma-ray telescope is discussed. The main problem is the presence of so-called backsplash current (BSC) of particles from massive telescope calorimeter when detecting of very high-energy gamma-rays is provided. BSC is a low energy particle flux, moving up from the calorimeter and producing triggering of the AC detector, imitating detection of a charged particle. It is offered to record all events accompanied by BSC that should not result in to overload of the gamma-ray telescope in frequency of triggering. As an indicator to the number of BSC particles in the AC detector we offer the value of energy release in the C3 scintillation detector placing between two parts of the calorimeter (KK1 and KK2). Using mathematical simulation, the threshold on energy release in the C3 detector equal to 280 GeV was determined, at which the losses of gamma-quanta number in events with BSC do not exceed 10%. When detecting protons there are also events with BSC, which will be accompanied by exceeding of the indicated threshold of energy release in the ?3 detector for proton energies above 30 GeV. However, counting rate for such protons will not exceed 200 Hz, that is reasonable for the GAMMA-400 data acquisition system.

  1. Development of a scintillation light detector for a cryogenic rare-event-search experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. J.; So, J. H.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, S. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. K.; Yoon, W. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    2015-06-01

    We developed a light detector to measure scintillation light from a crystal utilized in heat and light measurements at low temperatures for a rare-event-search experiment. A 2-in. Ge wafer was used as the light absorber, while a metallic magnetic calorimeter was employed to read out the temperature increase of the absorber. The light detector was tested at 25-100 mK using a cryogen-free adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The performance in terms of energy resolution, rise time and signal amplitude was measured using radioactive sources with a consideration of the absorption position on the wafer. The light detector was used to measure the scintillation light of a CaMoO4 crystal at mK temperatures. We also discuss for the potential application of this detector in a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment.

  2. Gamma-ray detector employing scintillators coupled to semiconductor drift photodetectors

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA)

    2003-01-01

    Radiation detectors according to one embodiment of the invention are implemented using scintillators combined with a semiconductor drift photodetectors wherein the components are specifically constructed in terms of their geometry, dimensions, and arrangement so that the scintillator decay time and drift time in the photodetector pairs are matched in order to achieve a greater signal-to-noise ratio. The detectors may include electronics for amplification of electrical signals produced by the silicon drift photodetector, the amplification having a shaping time optimized with respect to the decay time of the scintillator and time spread of the signal in the silicon drift photodetector to substantially maximize the ratio of the signal to the electronic noise.

  3. Improvement of the energy resolution of the scintillating detectors for the low background measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodk, R.; Bukov, M.; Bureov, H.; Cerna, C.; Fajt, L.; Jouve, J.; Kouba, P.; Marquet, Ch.; Piquemal, F.; P?idal, P.; Smolek, K.; pavorov, M.; tekl, I.

    2015-08-01

    The main goal of this project was the improvement of the energy resolution of the scintillating detectors. In order to obtain the required energy resolution at the level of 8 %, which corresponds to the half-life sensitivity of about 1.2 1026 years for the SuperNEMO experiment [1], an optimal ratio of concentrations of the activator (pTP) and the wavelength shifter (POPOP) in the purified polystyrene (PS) base had to be found. Furthermore, good optical properties and mainly the energy resolution for such improved detectors are comparable with properties for higher price plastic scintillators based on the polyvinyltoluene (PVT). In this contribution, the results of the measurement with the organic plastic scintillators with various composition are presented.

  4. In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: a comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jamil; Nakano, Tatsuya; Law, Sue; Elsey, Justin; McKenzie, David R; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2007-05-01

    The large dose gradients in brachytherapy necessitate a detector with a small active volume for accurate dosimetry. The dosimetric performance of a novel scintillation detector (BrachyFOD) is evaluated and compared to three commercially available detectors, a diamond detector, a MOSFET, and LiF TLDs. An 192Ir HDR brachytherapy source is used to measure the depth dependence, angular dependence, and temperature dependence of the detectors. Of the commercially available detectors, the diamond detector was found to be the most accurate, but has a large physical size. The TLDs cannot provide real time readings and have depth dependent sensitivity. The MOSFET used in this study was accurate to within 5% for distances of 20 to 50 mm from the 192Ir source in water but gave errors of 30%-40% for distances greater than 50 mm from the source. The BrachyFOD was found to be accurate to within 3% for distances of 10 to 100 mm from an HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source in water. It has an angular dependence of less than 2% and the background signal created by Cerenkov radiation and fluorescence of the plastic optical fiber is insignificant compared to the signal generated in the scintillator. Of the four detectors compared in this study the BrachyFOD has the most favorable combination of characteristics for dosimetry in HDR brachytherapy. PMID:17555257

  5. In vivo dosimeters for HDR brachytherapy: A comparison of a diamond detector, MOSFET, TLD, and scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Jamil; Nakano, Tatsuya; Law, Sue; Elsey, Justin; McKenzie, David R.; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2007-05-15

    The large dose gradients in brachytherapy necessitate a detector with a small active volume for accurate dosimetry. The dosimetric performance of a novel scintillation detector (BrachyFOD{sup TM}) is evaluated and compared to three commercially available detectors, a diamond detector, a MOSFET, and LiF TLDs. An {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source is used to measure the depth dependence, angular dependence, and temperature dependence of the detectors. Of the commercially available detectors, the diamond detector was found to be the most accurate, but has a large physical size. The TLDs cannot provide real time readings and have depth dependent sensitivity. The MOSFET used in this study was accurate to within 5% for distances of 20 to 50 mm from the {sup 192}Ir source in water but gave errors of 30%-40% for distances greater than 50 mm from the source. The BrachyFOD{sup TM} was found to be accurate to within 3% for distances of 10 to 100 mm from an HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source in water. It has an angular dependence of less than 2% and the background signal created by Cerenkov radiation and fluorescence of the plastic optical fiber is insignificant compared to the signal generated in the scintillator. Of the four detectors compared in this study the BrachyFOD{sup TM} has the most favorable combination of characteristics for dosimetry in HDR brachytherapy.

  6. A time-gating scintillation detector for the measurement of laser-induced fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sungman; Park, Sangsoon; Yea, Kwon-hae; Cha, Hyungki

    2009-06-15

    A time-gating scintillation detector, in which a fast high voltage switch is used for gating a channel photomultiplier, was developed for a measurement of laser-induced fast neutrons. The x rays generated from the intense femtosecond laser and the solid target interactions were suppressed selectively and a time-of-flight signal of a laser-generated fast neutron was measured effectively. The detector was used successfully to measure the neutron yield of a femtosecond, deuterated, polystyrene plasma.

  7. The research program of the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) in the Mont Blanc Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadykin, V. L.; Yakushev, V. F.; Korchagin, P. V.; Korchagin, V. B.; Malgin, A. S.; Ryassny, F. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Talochkin, V. P.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Badino, G.

    1985-01-01

    A massive (90 tons) liquid scintillation detector (LSD) has been running since October 1984 in the Mont Blanc Laboratory at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock. The research program of the experiment covers a variety of topics in particle physics and astrophysics. The performance of the detector, the main fields of research are presented and the preliminary results are discussed.

  8. An activated charcoal-based, liquid scintillation-analyzed airborne Rn detector

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, M.C.; Vanags, U.; Hess, C.T.

    1989-07-01

    An inexpensive, easy-to-use detector for measuring airborne /sup 222/Rn based on /sup 222/Rn diffusion and absorption in activated charcoal is presented. The detector uses chemical extraction and liquid scintillation for measurement of the /sup 222/Rn concentration, is designed to be insensitive to temperature and humidity effects, and obtains sensitivity levels of 675 CPM (Bq L-1)-1 (25 CPM (pCi L-1)-1) at room temperature.

  9. Wavelength-Shifting-Fiber Scintillation Detectors for Thermal Neutron Imaging at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Lowell; Diawara, Yacouba; Ellis, E Darren; Funk, Loren L; Hannan, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A; Wang, Cai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    We have developed wavelength-Shifting-fiber Scintillator Detector (SSD) with 0.3 m2 area per module. Each module has 154 x 7 pixels and a 5 mm x 50 mm pixel size. Our goal is to design a large area neutron detector offering higher detection efficiency and higher count-rate capability for Time-Of-Flight (TOF) neutron diffraction in Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A ZnS/6LiF scintillator combined with a novel fiber encoding scheme was used to record the neutron events. A channel read-out-card (CROC) based digital-signal processing electronics and position-determination algorithm was applied for neutron imaging. Neutron-gamma discrimination was carried out using pulse-shape discrimination (PSD). A sandwich flat-scintillator detector can have detection efficiency close to He-3 tubes (about 10 atm). A single layer flat-scintillator detector has count rate capability of 6,500 cps/cm2, which is acceptable for powder diffractometers at SNS.

  10. Optimization of scintillation-detector timing systems using Monte Carlo analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, D.M. )

    1994-02-01

    Monte Carlo analysis is used to model statistical noise associated with scintillation-detector photoelectron emissions and photomultiplier tube operation. Additionally, the impulse response of a photomultiplier tube, front-end amplifier, and constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) is modeled so the effects of front-end bandwidth and constant-fraction delay and fraction can be evaluated for timing-system optimizations. Such timing-system analysis is useful for detectors having low photo-electron-emission rates, including Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems. Monte Carlo timing resolution for a BGO / photomultiplier scintillation detector, CFD timing system is presented as a function of constant-fraction delay for 511-keV coincident gamma rays in the presence of Compton scatter. Monte Carlo results are in good agreement with measured results when a tri-exponential BGO scintillation model is used. Monte Carlo simulation is extended to include CFD energy-discrimination performance. Monte Carlo energy-discrimination performance is experimentally verified along with timing performance (Monte Carlo timing resolution of 3.22 ns FWHM versus measured resolution of 3.30 ns FWHM) for a front-end rise time of 10 ns (10--90%), CFD delay of 8 ns, and CFD fraction of 20%.

  11. Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.M.M.; Mackie, T.R.; Podgorsak, M.B.; Holmes, M.A.; Papanikolaou, N.; Reckwerdt, P.J.; Cygler, J.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Bielajew, A.F.; Schmidt, D.G.

    1994-07-30

    Accurate measurement of the electron dose distribution near an inhomogeneity is difficult with traditional dosimeters which themselves perturb the electron field. The authors tested the performance of a new high resolution, water-equivalent plastic scintillation detector which has ideal properties for this application. A plastic scintillation detector with a 1 mm diameter, 3 mm long cylindrical sensitive volume was used to measure the dose distributions behind standard benchmark inhomogeneities in water phantoms. The plastic scintillator material is more water equivalent than polystyrene in terms of its mass collision stopping power and mass scattering power. Measurements were performed for beams of electrons having initial energies of 6 and 18 MeV at depths from 0.2-4.2 cm behind the inhomogeneities. The detector reveals hot and cold spots behind heterogeneities at resolutions equivalent to typical film digitizer spot sizes. Plots of the dose distributions behind air, aluminum, lead, and formulations for cortical and inner bone-equivalent materials are presented. The plastic scintillation detector is suited for measuring the electron dose distribution near an inhomogeneity. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  12. A Scintillator tile-fiber preshower detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lami

    2004-08-12

    The front face of the CDF central calorimeter is being equipped with a new Preshower detector, based on scintillator tiles read out by WLS fibers. A light yield of about 40 pe/MIP at the tile exit was obtained, exceeding the design requirements.

  13. Neutron emission measurement at the HL-2A tokamak device with a liquid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xufei; Chen, Zhongjing; Peng, Xingyu; Yuan, Xi; Zhang, Xing; Gorini, Giuseppe; Cui, Zhiqiang; Du, Tengfei; Hu, Zhimeng; Li, Tao; Fan, Tieshuan; Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2014-10-01

    Neutron emission measurement at the HL-2A tokamak device with a liquid scintillation detector is described. The detector was placed at a location with little structure material in the field of view, and equipped with a gain monitoring system which could provide the possibility to evaluate the gain variation as well as to correct for the detector response. Time trace of the neutron emissivity was obtained and it was consistent with the result of a standard 235U fission chamber. During the plasma discharge the neutron yield could vary by about four orders of magnitude and the fluctuation of the detector gain was up to about 6%. Pulse height spectrum of the liquid scintillation detector was constructed and corrected with the aid of the gain monitoring system, and the correction was found to be essential for the assessment of the neutron energy spectrum. This successful measurement offered experience and confidence for the application of liquid scintillation detectors in the upcoming neutron camera system.

  14. Neutron emission measurement at the HL-2A tokamak device with a liquid scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xufei; Chen, Zhongjing; Peng, Xingyu; Yuan, Xi; Zhang, Xing; Cui, Zhiqiang; Du, Tengfei; Hu, Zhimeng; Li, Tao; Fan, Tieshuan Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Gorini, Giuseppe; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2014-10-15

    Neutron emission measurement at the HL-2A tokamak device with a liquid scintillation detector is described. The detector was placed at a location with little structure material in the field of view, and equipped with a gain monitoring system which could provide the possibility to evaluate the gain variation as well as to correct for the detector response. Time trace of the neutron emissivity was obtained and it was consistent with the result of a standard {sup 235}U fission chamber. During the plasma discharge the neutron yield could vary by about four orders of magnitude and the fluctuation of the detector gain was up to about 6%. Pulse height spectrum of the liquid scintillation detector was constructed and corrected with the aid of the gain monitoring system, and the correction was found to be essential for the assessment of the neutron energy spectrum. This successful measurement offered experience and confidence for the application of liquid scintillation detectors in the upcoming neutron camera system.

  15. Construction and performance of a dose-verification scintillation-fiber detector for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suhyun; Hong, Byungsik; Lee, Kyong Sei; Mulilo, Benard; Keun Park, Sung

    2013-10-01

    A multilayer scintillation-fiber detector has been developed for precision measurement of time-dependent dose verification in proton therapy. In order to achieve the time and position sensitivity required for the precision dose measurements, a prototype detector was constructed with double-clad 1-mm-thick scintillation fibers and 128-channel silicon photodiodes. The hole charges induced in each channel of the silicon photodiodes were amplified and processed with a charge-integration mode. The detector was tested with 45-MeV proton beams provided by the MC50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The detector response for a 45-MeV proton beam was agreed fairly well with the predicted by GEANT4 simulations. Furthermore, the quantitative accuracy appearing in the spatial distribution of the detector response measured for 20 s is in the order of 1%, whose accuracy is satisfactory to verify beam-induced dose in proton therapy. We anticipate that the detector composed of scintillation fibers and operating in the charge-integration mode allows us to perform quality measurement of dynamic therapeutic beams.

  16. Neutron emission measurement at the HL-2A tokamak device with a liquid scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xufei; Chen, Zhongjing; Peng, Xingyu; Yuan, Xi; Zhang, Xing; Gorini, Giuseppe; Cui, Zhiqiang; Du, Tengfei; Hu, Zhimeng; Li, Tao; Fan, Tieshuan; Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2014-10-01

    Neutron emission measurement at the HL-2A tokamak device with a liquid scintillation detector is described. The detector was placed at a location with little structure material in the field of view, and equipped with a gain monitoring system which could provide the possibility to evaluate the gain variation as well as to correct for the detector response. Time trace of the neutron emissivity was obtained and it was consistent with the result of a standard (235)U fission chamber. During the plasma discharge the neutron yield could vary by about four orders of magnitude and the fluctuation of the detector gain was up to about 6%. Pulse height spectrum of the liquid scintillation detector was constructed and corrected with the aid of the gain monitoring system, and the correction was found to be essential for the assessment of the neutron energy spectrum. This successful measurement offered experience and confidence for the application of liquid scintillation detectors in the upcoming neutron camera system. PMID:25362392

  17. Directional detection of fast neutrons by the Timepix pixel detector coupled to plastic scintillator with silicon photomultiplier array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, P.; Jakubek, J.; Uher, J.; Preston, R.

    2013-01-01

    Fast neutrons are conventionally detected by scintillators of large volume, low spatial resolution and poor, if any, directional sensitivity. In this paper we present a detection technique based on the tracking of protons recoiled by fast neutrons. In this approach we use the silicon pixel detector Timepix attached in contact planar geometry to a fast plastic scintillator. The protons recoiled by neutrons in the scintillator are detected by the pixel detector while scintillation light is sensed by a 4 4 array of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). Each photomultiplier is equipped with an independent amplifier and discriminator providing a fast trigger signal to the pixel detector. Variable threshold level allows adjustment of the trigger sensitivity. Single events in the pixel detector can be tagged and triggered by the scintillating detector. Position and energy sensitivity of the scintillator together with the position and the energy sensitivity of the pixel detector allow obtaining information about the position and the spectrum of the neutron source. The Timepix detector is operated with the FITPix readout interface and the Pixelman software package providing control, DAQ and online visualization. The assembled prototype has been tested with fast neutrons from a laboratory radioactive source (AmBe) and a Van de Graaff accelerator (D-T reaction). The detector architecture, comprising the Timepix device, the scintillator and the segmented SiPM, allows stacking several such units for increased detection efficiency and enhanced directional sensitivity.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of a very high resolution thermal neutron detector composed of glass scintillator microfibers.

    PubMed

    Song, Yushou; Conner, Joseph; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hayward, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    In order to develop a high spatial resolution (micron level) thermal neutron detector, a detector assembly composed of cerium doped lithium glass microfibers, each with a diameter of 1?m, is proposed, where the neutron absorption location is reconstructed from the observed charged particle products that result from neutron absorption. To suppress the cross talk of the scintillation light, each scintillating fiber is surrounded by air-filled glass capillaries with the same diameter as the fiber. This pattern is repeated to form a bulk microfiber detector. On one end, the surface of the detector is painted with a thin optical reflector to increase the light collection efficiency at the other end. Then the scintillation light emitted by any neutron interaction is transmitted to one end, magnified, and recorded by an intensified CCD camera. A simulation based on the Geant4 toolkit was developed to model this detector. All the relevant physics processes including neutron interaction, scintillation, and optical boundary behaviors are simulated. This simulation was first validated through measurements of neutron response from lithium glass cylinders. With good expected light collection, an algorithm based upon the features inherent to alpha and triton particle tracks is proposed to reconstruct the neutron reaction position in the glass fiber array. Given a 1?m fiber diameter and 0.1mm detector thickness, the neutron spatial resolution is expected to reach ??1?m with a Gaussian fit in each lateral dimension. The detection efficiency was estimated to be 3.7% for a glass fiber assembly with thickness of 0.1mm. When the detector thickness increases from 0.1mm to 1mm, the position resolution is not expected to vary much, while the detection efficiency is expected to increase by about a factor of ten. PMID:26708515

  19. Study of light transport inside scintillation crystals for PET detectors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Downie, Evan; Farrell, Thomas; Peng, Hao

    2013-04-01

    Scintillation crystal design is a critical component in positron emission tomography system development, which impacts a number of performance parameters including energy resolution, time resolution and spatial resolution. Our work aims to develop a generalized simulation tool to model the light transport inside scintillation crystals with good accuracy, taking into account surface treatments, reflectors, temporal dependence of scintillation decay, and comprehensive experimental validations. The simulation has been validated against both direct analytical calculation and experimental measurements. In this work, the studies were performed for a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal of 3320mm(3)dimension coupled to a Hamamatsu silicon photomultiplier, with respect to light output, rise-time slope, energy resolution and time resolution. Four crystal surface treatment and reflector configurations were investigated: GroundMetal, GroundPaint, PolishMetal and PolishPaint. The experiments were performed to validate the Monte Carlo simulation results. The results indicate that the best time resolution (0.960.05ns) and good energy resolution (10.60.4%) could be produced by using a polished surface with specular reflector, while the configuration of a polished surface with diffusive reflector produces the best energy resolution (10.20.9%). The results indicate that a polished surface with diffusive reflector achieves the best energy resolution (10.20.9%) for 511keV high energy photons, and a polished surface with specular reflector achieves the best time resolution (0.960.05ns) measured against a Hamamatsu fast photomultiplier tube. The ground surface treatment is not recommended for its inferior performance in terms of energy and time resolution. Possible explanations and future improvements to be made to the developed simulation tool are discussed. PMID:23470488

  20. Scintillator gamma-ray detectors with silicon photomultiplier readouts for high-energy astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Legere, Jason; Bancroft, Christopher; McConnell, Mark L.; Ryan, James M.; Schwadron, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    Space-based gamma-ray detectors for high-energy astronomy face strict constraints of mass, volume, and power, and must endure harsh operating environments. Scintillator materials have a long history of successful operation under these conditions, and new materials offer greatly improved performance in terms of efficiency, time response, and energy resolution. The use of scintillators in space remains constrained, however, by the mass, volume, and fragility of the associated light readout device, typically a vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT). Recently developed silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer gains and efficiencies similar to those of PMTs, but with greatly reduced mass and volume, high ruggedness, and no high-voltage requirements. We have therefore been investigating the use of SiPM readouts for scintillator gamma-ray detectors, with an emphasis on their suitability for space- and balloonbased instruments for high-energy astronomy. We present our most recent results, including spectroscopy measurements for lanthanum bromide scintillators with SiPM readouts, and pulse-shape discrimination using organic scintillators with SiPM readouts. We also describe potential applications of SiPM readouts to specific highenergy astronomy instrument concepts.

  1. TH-C-19A-11: Toward An Optimized Multi-Point Scintillation Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Duguay-Drouin, P; Delage, ME; Therriault-Proulx, F; Beddar, S; Beaulieu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to characterize a 2-points mPSDs' optical chain using a spectral analysis to help selecting the optimal components for the detector. Methods: Twenty different 2-points mPSD combinations were built using 4 plastic scintillators (BCF10, BCF12, BCF60, BC430; St-Gobain) and quantum dots (QDs). The scintillator is said to be proximal when near the photodetector, and distal otherwise. A 15m optical fiber (ESKA GH-4001) was coupled to the scintillating component and connected to a spectrometer (Shamrock, Andor and QEPro, OceanOptics). These scintillation components were irradiated at 125kVp; a spectrum for each scintillator was obtained by irradiation of individual scintillator and shielding the second component, thus talking into account light propagation in all components and interfaces. The combined total spectrum was also acquired and involved simultaneous irradiation of the two scintillators for each possible combination. The shape and intensity were characterized. Results: QDs in proximal position absorb almost all the light signal from distal plastic scintillators and emit in its own emission wavelength, with 100% of the signal in the QD range (625–700nm) for the combination BCF12/QD. However, discrimination is possible when QD is in distal position in combination with blue scintillators, total signal being 73% in the blue range (400-550nm) and 27% in QD range. Similar results are obtained with the orange scintillator (BC430). For optimal signal intensity, BCF12 should always be in proximal position, e.g. having 50% more intensity when coupled with BCF60 in distal position (BCF12/BCF60) compared to the BCF60/BCF12 combination. Conclusion: Different combinations of plastic scintillators and QD were built and their emission spectra were studied. We established a preferential order for the scintillating components in the context of an optimized 2-points mPSD. In short, the components with higher wavelength emission spectrum should be distal and lower wavelength in the proximal position.

  2. A newly developed wrapping method for scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhl, L.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csatlós, M.; Algora, A.; Gulyás, J.; Kalinka, G.; Kertész, Zs I.; Timár, J.

    2016-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer, the European Low-Energy Neutron Spectrometer (ELENS), has been constructed to study exotic nuclei in inverse kinematics experiments. The spectrometer consisting of scintillator bars can be used in the neutron energy range of 100 keV to 10 MeV. To increase the light collection efficiency a special wrapping method was developed for each bars of ELENS. By using the specially heat treated reflector foil 15-20% better light collection is available. The development of wrapping process, the results of the test experiments are also presented.

  3. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm{sup 3} and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm{sup 2}. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a {+-}0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping parameter between in-plane and cross-plane measurements. This is primarily due to the directional difference in penumbral width measured by the FC65 chamber, which can more than double in profiles obtained with the detector stem parallel compared to perpendicular to the scan direction. For the more symmetric CC13 chamber the variation was only 3% between in-plane and cross-plane measurements. Conclusions: The authors have shown that the detector response varies with detector type, depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. In-plane vs cross-plane scanning can require calculation of a direction dependent response function. The effect of a 10% overall variation in the response function, for an ionization chamber, translates to a small deviation in the penumbra from that of the Edge detector measured profile when deconvolved. Due to the uncertainties introduced by deconvolution the Edge detector would be preferable in obtaining an approximation of the true profile, particularly for field sizes where the energy dependence of the diode can be neglected. However, an averaged response function could be utilized to provide a good approximation of the true profile for large ionization chambers and for larger fields for which diode detectors are not recommended.

  4. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm3 and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm2. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 1010 cm2 field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a 0.7 mm variation in the 80%20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping parameter between in-plane and cross-plane measurements. This is primarily due to the directional difference in penumbral width measured by the FC65 chamber, which can more than double in profiles obtained with the detector stem parallel compared to perpendicular to the scan direction. For the more symmetric CC13 chamber the variation was only 3% between in-plane and cross-plane measurements. Conclusions: The authors have shown that the detector response varies with detector type, depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. In-plane vs cross-plane scanning can require calculation of a direction dependent response function. The effect of a 10% overall variation in the response function, for an ionization chamber, translates to a small deviation in the penumbra from that of the Edge detector measured profile when deconvolved. Due to the uncertainties introduced by deconvolution the Edge detector would be preferable in obtaining an approximation of the true profile, particularly for field sizes where the energy dependence of the diode can be neglected. However, an averaged response function could be utilized to provide a good approximation of the true profile for large ionization chambers and for larger fields for which diode detectors are not recommended. PMID:20229856

  5. Development of the dual scintillator sheet and Phoswich detector for simultaneous Alpha- and Beta-rays measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B.K.; Kim, G.H.; Park, C.H.; Jung, Y.H.; Jung, C.H.; Lee, K.W.; Han, M.J.

    2007-07-01

    Thin sheet type of ZnS(Ag)/plastic dual scintillator for simultaneous counting of alpha- and beta-particles using a organic and inorganic scintillator widely used in the radiation measurement was manufactured, which could be applicable in the contamination monitoring systems. Counting materials were manufactured by solidification of the scintillator solution which mixed scintillator, solvent, and polymer. Prepared dual scintillator is a counting material which can simultaneously measure the alpha- and beta-particles. It was divided into two parts : an inorganic scintillator layer for alpha-particle detection and an organic one for beta-particle detection. The organic layer was composed of 2,5-diphenyloxazole [PPO] and 1,4,-bis[5-phenyl(oxazolyl)benzene] [POPOP] acting as the scintillator and polysulfone acting as the polymer. The inorganic layer was composed of ZnS(Ag) as scintillator and polysulfone as paste. The ZnS(Ag) scintillator layer was printed onto the organic layer using screen printing method. To estimate the detection ability of the prepared counting materials, alpha-particle emitting nuclide, Am-241, and beta emitting nuclide, Sr/Y-90, were used. The scintillations produced by interaction between radiation and scintillator were measured by photomultiplier tube. The overall counting results reveal that the developed detector is efficient for simultaneous counting of alpha- and beta-particles. For application test, the dual scintillator was fabricated with a Phoswich detector for monitoring the in-pipe alpha and beta contamination. To deploy inside a pipe, two types of Phoswich detectors, sheets and cylinders, were prepared. For in-pipe monitoring, it was found that the cylindrical type was excellent. In the study, polymer composite counting material and Phoswich detectors were prepared using organic and inorganic scintillator for detecting different radiations. In the future, it will be applied to the contamination monitoring system for nuclear decommissioning sites, waste treatment sites, and similar areas. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of Large Volume SrI2(Eu) Scintillator Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, B W; Cherepy, N J; Drury, O B; Thelin, P A; Fisher, S E; Magyar, A F; Payne, S A; Burger, A; Boatner, L A; Ramey, J O; Shah, K S; Hawrami, R

    2010-11-18

    There is an ever increasing demand for gamma-ray detectors which can achieve good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and room-temperature operation. We are working to address each of these requirements through the development of large volume SrI{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator detectors. In this work, we have evaluated a variety of SrI{sub 2} crystals with volumes >10 cm{sup 3}. The goal of this research was to examine the causes of energy resolution degradation for larger detectors and to determine what can be done to mitigate these effects. Testing both packaged and unpackaged detectors, we have consistently achieved better resolution with the packaged detectors. Using a collimated gamma-ray source, it was determined that better energy resolution for the packaged detectors is correlated with better light collection uniformity. A number of packaged detectors were fabricated and tested and the best spectroscopic performance was achieved for a 3% Eu doped crystal with an energy resolution of 2.93% FWHM at 662keV. Simulations of SrI{sub 2}(Eu) crystals were also performed to better understand the light transport physics in scintillators and are reported. This study has important implications for the development of SrI{sub 2}(Eu) detectors for national security purposes.

  7. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  8. Fast scintillation detectors for high-energy X-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Shunji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Haruki, Rie; Shibuya, Kengo; Koshimizu, Masanori

    2012-03-01

    We have developed fast scintillation detectors for nuclear resonant scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation and a nuclear excited level existing in >30 keV. A fast x-ray detector using an organic-inorganic perovskite scintillator of phenethylamine lead bromide (PhE-PbBr4) had a dominant light emission with a fast decay time of 9.9 ns. An x-ray detector equipped with a 0.9-mm-thick PhE-PbBr4 crystal (size: 8 7 mm2) was used to detect nuclear resonant scattering in 61Ni (the first excited level: 67.41 keV; half-life: 5.3 ns). We could successfully record the decaying gamma rays emitted from 61Ni with a relatively high detection efficiency of 24%. A lead-doped plastic scintillator (NE142, Pb 5 wt% doped) had been known to have a faster decay time of 1.7 ns. Following a test of a single NE142 detector, a four-channel NE142 detector was fabricated and successfully applied to the synchrotron-radiation based Mssbauer spectroscopy experiment on 61Ni.

  9. Searching for dark matter annihilation to monoenergetic neutrinos with liquid scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, J.; Sandick, P.

    2015-06-22

    We consider searches for dark matter annihilation to monoenergetic neutrinos in the core of the Sun. We find that liquid scintillation neutrino detectors have enhanced sensitivity to this class of dark matter models, due to the energy and angular resolution possible for electron neutrinos and antineutrinos that scatter via charged-current interactions. In particular we find that KamLAND, utilizing existing data, could provide better sensitivity to such models than any current direct detection experiment for m{sub X}≲15 Gev. KamLAND’s sensitivity is signal-limited, and future liquid scintillation or liquid argon detectors with similar energy and angular resolution, but with larger exposure, will provide significantly better sensitivity. These detectors may be particularly powerful probes of dark matter with mass O(10) GeV.

  10. Searching for dark matter annihilation to monoenergetic neutrinos with liquid scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, J.; Sandick, P.

    2015-06-01

    We consider searches for dark matter annihilation to monoenergetic neutrinos in the core of the Sun. We find that liquid scintillation neutrino detectors have enhanced sensitivity to this class of dark matter models, due to the energy and angular resolution possible for electron neutrinos and antineutrinos that scatter via charged-current interactions. In particular we find that KamLAND, utilizing existing data, could provide better sensitivity to such models than any current direct detection experiment for mX lesssim 15 Gev. KamLAND's sensitivity is signal-limited, and future liquid scintillation or liquid argon detectors with similar energy and angular resolution, but with larger exposure, will provide significantly better sensitivity. These detectors may be particularly powerful probes of dark matter with mass Script O(10) GeV.

  11. Particle discrimination using a high-pressure xenon gas scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, David Alan

    This work presents results on the study of the scintillation of high-pressure Xenon gas irradiated by various sources. Noble gases such as Xenon give off characteristic scintillation light when irradiated. The goal of the study was to develop a characteristic based on the scintillation time response of Xenon gas that would reliably discriminate between events from different types of primary radiation (neutron or gamma). A reliable discrimination characteristic would enable the development of room temperature, gas phase detectors for use in the search for Galactic Dark Matter. The surprising result of the present work was that a reliable discrimination characteristic existed for distinguishing x-ray, gamma ray, and alpha particle events. Results for neutrons were negative. This was due to several factors: Ionization tracks in xenon generally form two roughly cylindrical regions. A region near the center of the track, called the core, has very dense ionization. An outer region, called the penumbra, has sparse ionization. In Xenon, recombination of ions and the subsequent scintillation from the penumbra region happens slowly and can be easily distinguished from scintillation that happens in the core region. Nuclear recoils resulting from neutron collisions that give recoil energies in the same range as that predicted for WIMP-nuclear collisions are of such low energy that they do not produce a significant penumbra region in Xenon gas. As such, the scintillation time response for these events is similar to that of high-energy gamma rays. Other results of the present work include: The amount of energy deposited in the gas needed to produce a scintillation photon was measured for gamma rays and was found to be in agreement with results from other experiments. Low-energy gamma rays appeared to produce more scintillation photons for an equal amount of energy deposited than high-energy gamma rays. The decay of the singlet and triplet molecular states of xenon was observed and the lifetimes of these states were measured. The singlet state lifetime was found to be independent of pressure while the triplet state lifetime was dependent on pressure. The lifetimes were measured and compared to previous results. A better understanding of the ionization, recombination, and scintillation processes of gaseous Xenon was achieved. Argon gas has been proposed as an alternative to Xenon gas for use in a high-pressure gas scintillation detector due to its lower mass and its property of forming a core ionization region that is much less dense than the core region of xenon. This substitution may allow for a reliable discrimination characteristic to be developed.

  12. A region segmentation based algorithm for building a crystal position lookup table in a scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Yun, Ming-Kai; Liu, Shuang-Quan; Fan, Xin; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chai, Pei; Shan, Bao-Ci

    2015-03-01

    In a scintillation detector, scintillation crystals are typically made into a 2-dimensional modular array. The location of incident gamma-ray needs be calibrated due to spatial response nonlinearity. Generally, position histograms-the characteristic flood response of scintillation detectors-are used for position calibration. In this paper, a position calibration method based on a crystal position lookup table which maps the inaccurate location calculated by Anger logic to the exact hitting crystal position has been proposed. Firstly, the position histogram is preprocessed, such as noise reduction and image enhancement. Then the processed position histogram is segmented into disconnected regions, and crystal marking points are labeled by finding the centroids of regions. Finally, crystal boundaries are determined and the crystal position lookup table is generated. The scheme is evaluated by the whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and breast dedicated single photon emission computed tomography scanner developed by the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results demonstrate that the algorithm is accurate, efficient, robust and applicable to any configurations of scintillation detector. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81101175) and XIE Jia-Lin Foundation of Institute of High Energy Physics (Y3546360U2)

  13. A new columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator for iQID detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ling; Miller, Brian W.; Barber, H. Bradford; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2014-09-01

    A 1650 μm thick columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator for upgrading iQID detectors, which is a high-resolution photon-counting gamma-ray and x-ray detector recently developed at the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging (CGRI), has been studied in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and depth-of-interaction effects. To facilitate these studies, a new frame-parsing algorithm for processing raw event data is also proposed that has more degrees of freedom in data processing and can discriminate against a special kind of noise present in some low-cost intensifiers. The results show that in comparison with a 450 μm-thickness columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator, the 1650 μm thick CsI(Tl) scintillator provides more than twice the sensitivity at the expense of some spatial resolution degradation. The depth-of-interaction study also shows that event size and amplitude vary with scintillator thickness, which can assist in future detector simulations and 3D-interactionposition estimation.

  14. A New Columnar CsI(Tl) Scintillator for iQID detectors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ling; Miller, Brian W.; Barber, H. Bradford; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    A 1650 ?m thick columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator for upgrading iQID detectors, which is a high-resolution photon-counting gamma-ray and x-ray detector recently developed at the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging (CGRI), has been studied in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and depth-of-interaction effects. To facilitate these studies, a new frame-parsing algorithm for processing raw event data is also proposed that has more degrees of freedom in data processing and can discriminate against a special kind of noise present in some low-cost intensifiers. The results show that in comparison with a 450 ?m-thickness columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator, the 1650 ?m thick CsI(Tl) scintillator provides more than twice the sensitivity at the expense of some spatial resolution degradation. The depth-of-interaction study also shows that event size and amplitude vary with scintillator thickness, which can assist in future detector simulations and 3D-interaction-position estimation. PMID:26146444

  15. Timing resolution of scintillation-detector systems: a Monte Carlo analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Woon-Seng

    2010-01-01

    Recent advancements in fast scintillating materials and fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have stimulated renewed interest in time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET). It is well known that the improvement in the timing resolution in PET can significantly reduce the noise variance in the reconstructed image resulting in improved image quality. In order to evaluate the timing performance of scintillation detectors used in TOF PET, we use a Monte Carlo analysis to model the physical processes (crystal geometry, crystal surface finish, scintillator rise time, scintillator decay time, photoelectron yield, PMT transit time spread, PMT single-electron response, amplifier response, and time pick-off method) that can contribute to the timing resolution of scintillation-detector systems. In the Monte Carlo analysis, the photoelectron emissions are modeled by a rate function, which is used to generate the photoelectron time points. The rate function, which is simulated using Geant4, represents the combined intrinsic light emissions of the scintillator and the subsequent light transport through the crystal. The PMT output signal is determined by the superposition of the PMT single-electron response resulting from the photoelectron emissions. The transit time spread and the single-electron gain variation of the PMT are modeled in the analysis. Three practical time pick-off methods are considered in the analysis. Statistically, the best timing resolution is achieved with the first photoelectron timing. The calculated timing resolution suggests that a leading edge discriminator gives better timing performance than a constant fraction discriminator and produces comparable results when a 2-threshold or 3-threshold discriminator is used. For a typical PMT, the effect of detector noise on the timing resolution is negligible. The calculated timing resolution is found to improve with increasing mean photoelectron yield, decreasing scintillator decay time, and decreasing transit time spread. However, only substantial improvement in the timing resolution is obtained with improved transit time spread if the first photoelectron timing is less than the transit time spread. While the calculated timing performance does not seem to be affected by the pixel size of the crystal, it improves for an etched crystal compared to a polished crystal. In addition, the calculated timing resolution degrades with increasing crystal length. These observations can be explained by studying the initial photoelectron rate. Experimental measurements provide reasonably good agreement with the calculated timing resolution. The Monte Carlo analysis developed in this work will allow us to optimize the scintillation detectors for timing and to understand the physical factors limiting their performance. PMID:19820267

  16. The timing resolution of scintillation-detector systems: Monte Carlo analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, Woon-Seng

    2009-11-01

    Recent advancements in fast scintillating materials and fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have stimulated renewed interest in time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET). It is well known that the improvement in the timing resolution in PET can significantly reduce the noise variance in the reconstructed image resulting in improved image quality. In order to evaluate the timing performance of scintillation detectors used in TOF PET, we use Monte Carlo analysis to model the physical processes (crystal geometry, crystal surface finish, scintillator rise time, scintillator decay time, photoelectron yield, PMT transit time spread, PMT single-electron response, amplifier response and time pick-off method) that can contribute to the timing resolution of scintillation-detector systems. In the Monte Carlo analysis, the photoelectron emissions are modeled by a rate function, which is used to generate the photoelectron time points. The rate function, which is simulated using Geant4, represents the combined intrinsic light emissions of the scintillator and the subsequent light transport through the crystal. The PMT output signal is determined by the superposition of the PMT single-electron response resulting from the photoelectron emissions. The transit time spread and the single-electron gain variation of the PMT are modeled in the analysis. Three practical time pick-off methods are considered in the analysis. Statistically, the best timing resolution is achieved with the first photoelectron timing. The calculated timing resolution suggests that a leading edge discriminator gives better timing performance than a constant fraction discriminator and produces comparable results when a two-threshold or three-threshold discriminator is used. For a typical PMT, the effect of detector noise on the timing resolution is negligible. The calculated timing resolution is found to improve with increasing mean photoelectron yield, decreasing scintillator decay time and decreasing transit time spread. However, only substantial improvement in the timing resolution is obtained with improved transit time spread if the first photoelectron timing is less than the transit time spread. While the calculated timing performance does not seem to be affected by the pixel size of the crystal, it improves for an etched crystal compared to a polished crystal. In addition, the calculated timing resolution degrades with increasing crystal length. These observations can be explained by studying the initial photoelectron rate. Experimental measurements provide reasonably good agreement with the calculated timing resolution. The Monte Carlo analysis developed in this work will allow us to optimize the scintillation detectors for timing and to understand the physical factors limiting their performance.

  17. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  18. Development of compact radiation detectors based on MAPD photodiodes with Lutetium Fine Silicate and stilbene scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, F.; Ahmadov, G.; Abdullaev, X.; Garibov, A.; Guliyev, E.; Khorev, S.; Madatov, R.; Muxtarov, R.; Naghiyev, J.; Sadigov, A.; Sadygov, Z.; Suleymanov, S.; Zerrouk, F.

    2015-02-01

    Results of gamma-ray measurements taken with Lutetium Fine Silicate (LFS) scintillators and Micro-Pixel Avalanche Photodiodes (MAPD) are presented in the energy range of 59.6 keV to 834.8 keV . Dependences of energy resolution on gamma-ray energy are studied. Results of several measurements are discussed to assess the performance of gamma ray source identification of the developed detector. The alpha particle and neutron detection performance of LFS and stilbene scintillators coupled to micro-pixel avalanche photodiode are discussed as well.

  19. Characterizing the response of a scintillator-based detector to single electrons.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiahan; LeBeau, James M

    2016-02-01

    Here we report the response of a high angle annular dark field scintillator-based detector to single electrons. We demonstrate that care must be taken when determining the single electron intensity as significant discrepancies can occur when quantifying STEM images with different methods. To account for the detector response, we first image the detector using very low beam currents (?8fA), and subsequently model the interval between consecutive single electrons events. We find that single electrons striking the detector present a wide distribution of intensities, which we show is not described by a simple function. Further, we present a method to accurately account for the electrons within the incident probe when conducting quantitative imaging. The role detector settings play on determining the single electron intensity is also explored. Finally, we extend our analysis to describe the response of the detector to multiple electron events within the dwell interval of each pixel. PMID:26624510

  20. Detector block based on arrays of 144 SiPMs and monolithic scintillators: A performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzlez, A. J.; Conde, P.; Iborra, A.; Aguilar, A.; Bellido, P.; Garca-Olcina, R.; Hernndez, L.; Moliner, L.; Rigla, J. P.; Rodrguez-lvarez, M. J.; Snchez, F.; Seimetz, M.; Soriano, A.; Torres, J.; Vidal, L. F.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a detector block composed by a monolithic LYSO scintillator coupled to a custom made 1212 SiPMs array. The design is mainly focused to applications such as Positron Emission Tomography. The readout electronics is based on 3 identical and scalable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). We have determined the main performance of the detector block namely spatial, energy, and time resolution but also the system capability to determine the photon depth of interaction, for different crystal surface treatments. Intrinsic detector spatial resolution values as good as 1.7 mm FWHM and energies of 15% for black painted crystals were measured.

  1. Measurement of 238U muonic x-rays with a germanium detector setup

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, Ernst I; Jason, Andrew; Miyadera, Haruo; Hoteling, Nathan J; Heffner, Robert H; Adelmann, Andreas; Stocki, Trevor; Mitchell, Lee

    2009-01-01

    In the field of nuclear non-proliferation muon interactions with materials are of great interest. This paper describes an experiment conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland where a muon beam is stopped in a uranium target. The muons produce characteristic muonic x-rays. Muons will penetrate shielding easily and the produced characteristic x-rays can be used for positive isotope identification. Furthermore, the x-rays for uranium isotopes lie in the energy range of 6-7 MeV, which allows them to have an almost optimal mean free path in heavy shielding such as lead or steel. A measurement was conducted at PSI to prove the feasibility of detecting muonic x-rays from a large sample of depleted uranium (several kilograms) with a germanium detector. In this paper, the experimental setup and analysis of the measurement itself is presented.

  2. SU-E-T-423: TrueBeam Small Field Dosimetry Using Commercial Plastic Scintillation and Other Stereotactic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pino, R; Therriault-Proulx, F; Wang, X; Yang, J; Beddar, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To perform dose profile and output factor (OF) measurements with the Exradin W1 plastic scintillation detector (PSD) for small fields made by the high-definition multi-leaf collimator (MLC) on the TrueBeam STx system and to compare them to values measured with an IBA CC01 ionization chamber and a Sun Nuclear Edge detector diode for 6 MV photon beams. Methods: The Exradin W1 is a new small volume near-water equivalent and energy independent PSD manufactured by Standard Imaging, Inc. All measurements were performed in an IBA Blue Phantom water tank. Square MLC-shaped fields with sides ranging from 0.5 cm to 2 cm and jawshaped fields with sides ranging from 1 cm to 40 cm were measured using an SAD setup at 10 cm depth. Dose profile and percent depth dose (PDD) measurements were also taken under the same conditions for MLC fields 0.5×0.5 and 1×1 cm2 in size with jaws at 2×2cm2. The CC01 and W1 were vertically mounted. Results: OFs measured with the W1 for jaw only square fields were consistent with the ones measured with a Farmers PTW TN33013 ion chamber (1.8% maximum deviation). OF and penumbra measurement results are presented below. PDDs measured for all detectors are within 1.5% for the 0.5×0.5 cm2 and within 1% for the 1×1 cm2 MLC fields.Output factors:MLC size W1 CC01 EDGE0.5cm 0.555 0.541 0.5851.0cm 0.716 0.702 0.7331.5cm 0.779 0.761 0.7772.0cm 0.804 0.785 0.796Penumbras (mm):MLC size W1 CC01 EDGE0.5cm 2.7 2.9 2.51.0cm 3.0 3.4 2. Conclusion: OFs measured for small MLC fields were consistent with the ones measured with the other stereotactic detectors. Measured penumbras are consistent with detector size. The Exradin W1 PSD is an excellent choice for characterizing MLC-shaped small beam dosimetry used for stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiation therapy. Sam Beddar would like to disclose a NIH/NCI SBIR Phase II grant (2R44CA153824-02A1) with Standard Imaging, Title: “Water-Equivalent Plastic Scintillation Detectors for Small Field Radiotherapy”.

  3. A Neutron Detector Constructed Using Shards of ^6Li-loaded Glass Scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Steven; Czirr, Bart; Rees, Lawrence

    2012-10-01

    Because of a global shortage of ^3He, an essential component of many neutron detectors, much work is currently being done to develop new neutron detectors based on alternative materials for homeland security applications. One of the possible replacements for ^3He is Ce^3+-activated, ^6Li-loaded glass scintillator. Although this material has been widely used in neutron detectors for over half a century, its relatively high gamma sensitivity has made it unattractive for use in radiation portal monitors. We have tested a new technique for reducing the gamma sensitivity of a neutron detector based on ^6Li glass. Our prototype neutron detector consists of small (about 1 mm^3) shards of ^6Li-loaded glass scintillator embedded in optical epoxy. Mineral oil is placed behind the glass and epoxy for moderation. Our tests indicate that this detector can achieve a gamma sensitivity that is at least 100 times lower than a comparable neutron detector constructed using a thin sheet of ^6Li glass. Modeling performed using the particle transport codes MCNP and PENELOPE suggests that the gamma sensitivity of the glass shards is lower because more high-energy Compton electrons escape them before depositing their full energy.

  4. Double β experiments with the help of scintillation and HPGe detectors at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Brudanin, V. B.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; d'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Dossovitskiyj, A. E.; Galashov, E. N.; Grinyov, B. V.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovtun, G. P.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Kudovbenko, V. M.; Laubenstein, M.; Mikhlin, A. L.; Nagornaya, L. L.; Nagorny, S. S.; Nagornyi, P. G.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Prosperi, D.; Polischuk, O. G.; Shcherban, A. P.; Shlegel, V. N.; Solopikhin, D. A.; Stenin, Y. G.; Suhonen, J.; Tolmachev, A. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Virich, V. D.; Vyshnevskyi, I. M.; Yavetskiy, R. P.; Yurchenko, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    A search for double beta decay of 64,70Zn, 180,186W was carried out by using low background ZnWO4 crystal scintillators, while a CeCl3 scintillation detector was applied to investigate 2β processes in 136,138,142Ce. A search for 2β decay of 96,104Ru, 156,158Dy, 190,198Pt and study of 2ν2β decay of 100Mo to the first excited 0+ level of 100Ru were realized by ultra-low background HPGe γ spectrometry. Moreover, CdWO4 crystal scintillators from enriched 106Cd and 116Cd isotopes were developed to search for 2β decay of 106Cd and 116Cd. Finally, experiments aimed to investigate 96,104Ru and 116Cd are in progress and a new phase of the experiment to search for 2β processes in 106Cd is in preparation.

  5. Coincidence system for standardization of radionuclides using a 4pi plastic scintillator detector.

    PubMed

    Baccarelli, Ada M; Dias, Mauro S; Koskinas, Marina F

    2003-02-01

    A coincidence system using a plastic scintillator detector in 4pi geometry has been developed and applied for the standardization of radionuclides. The scintillator shape and dimensions have been optimized for maximum charge particle detection efficiency, while keeping background low and a nearly constant gamma-ray efficiency for different points from the radioactive source. The gamma-ray events were measured with a NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. The electronic system for processing pulses consisted of logic gates and delay modules feeding a time-to-amplitude converter with output to a multichannel analyzer. The alpha detection efficiency measured with 241Am was around 95% and the beta detection efficiency for 60Co was around 67%. Activity measurements of 241Am and 60Co were performed and the results showed good agreement when compared with a conventional coincidence system employing a 4pi proportional counter. PMID:12573324

  6. Prompt directional detection of galactic supernova by combining large liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, V.; Chirac, T.; Lasserre, T.; Volpe, C.; Cribier, M.; Durero, M.; Gaffiot, J.; Houdy, T.; Letourneau, A.; Mention, G.; Pequignot, M.; Sibille, V.; Vivier, M.

    2015-08-01

    Core-collapse supernovae produce an intense burst of electron antineutrinos in the few-tens-of-MeV range. Several Large Liquid Scintillator-based Detectors (LLSD) are currently operated worldwide, being very effective for low energy antineutrino detection through the Inverse Beta Decay (IBD) process. In this article, we develop a procedure for the prompt extraction of the supernova location by revisiting the details of IBD kinematics over the broad energy range of supernova neutrinos. Combining all current scintillator-based detector, we show that one can locate a canonical supernova at 10 kpc with an accuracy of 45 degrees (68% C.L.). After the addition of the next generation of scintillator-based detectors, the accuracy could reach 12 degrees (68% C.L.), therefore reaching the performances of the large water ?erenkov neutrino detectors. We also discuss a possible improvement of the SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS) inter-experiment network with the implementation of a directionality information in each experiment. Finally, we discuss the possibility to constrain the neutrino energy spectrum as well as the mass of the newly born neutron star with the LLSD data.

  7. Iterative Monte Carlo simulation with the Compton kinematics-based GEB in a plastic scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chankyu; Kim, Yewon; Moon, Myungkook; Cho, Gyuseong

    2015-09-01

    Plastic scintillators have been used for gamma ray detection in the fields of dosimetry and homeland security because of their desired characteristics such as a fast decay time, a low production cost, availability in a large-scale, and a tissue-equivalence. Gaussian energy broadening (GEB) in MCNP simulation is an effective treatment for tallies to calculate the broadened response function of a detector similarly to measured spectra. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a photopeak has been generally used to compute input parameters required for the GEB treatment. However, it is hard to find the photopeak in measured gamma spectra with plastic scintillators so that computation of the input parameters for the GEB has to be taken with another way. In this study, an iterative method for the GEB treated MCNP simulation to calculate the response function of a plastic scintillator is suggested. Instead of the photopeak, Compton maximum and Compton edge were used to estimate energy broadening in the measured spectra and to determine the GEB parameters. In a demonstration with a CsI(Tl) scintillator, the proposed iterative simulation showed the similar gamma spectra to the existing method using photopeaks. The proposed method was then applied to a polystyrene scintillator, and the simulation result were in agreement with the measured spectra with only a little iteration.

  8. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombigit, L.; Yussup, N.; Mohd, Ibrahim, Maslina; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2015-04-01

    A digital n/? pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation & Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/? PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  9. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    SciTech Connect

    Lombigit, L. Yussup, N. Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2015-04-29

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  10. Design And Performance Of Optical Detectors Fabrication Setup Using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)

    SciTech Connect

    Aboulfotouh, N.; Moharm, B.; El Magd, A. Abou; Atta, M.; Badr, Y.

    2009-09-27

    PLD system was used in the preparation of nano structured thin layers to be used as optical detectors. Our home made on--axis PLD setup utilizes XeCl excimer laser (308 nm, Pulse duration of 7 ns, repetition rate of 200 Hz). The laser energy is kept at 8 mj, and the vacuum chamber has been pumped to a background pressure of 10{sup -5} mbar. The films can be grown at different substrate temperatures in the range of 25-400 deg. C. The substrate temperature was always kept below 400 deg. C by using advanced temperature control system. The target-to-substrate distance was variable from 2 to 6 cm. SiO{sub 2} was used as substrates because of its low refractive index and high transparency in the UV, visible and near infrared ranges of spectra. LIPS technique has been used for plasma diagnoses during film deposition, using a double monochromator provided with photon detector. Homogenous thin films in the order of 20-200 nm thickness were obtained. Moreover, both amorphous and crystalline thin films can be obtained by adjusting the substrate temperature, target--substrate distance, type of substrate and finally pressure of ambient gas.

  11. Organic scintillation detector response simulation using non-analog MCNPX-PoliMi

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.; Larsen, E. W.

    2012-07-01

    Organic liquid scintillation detectors are valuable for the detection of special nuclear material since they are capable of detecting both neutrons and gamma rays. Scintillators can also provide energy information which is helpful in identification and characterization of the source. In order to design scintillation based measurement systems appropriate simulation tools are needed. MCNPX-PoliMi is capable of simulating scintillation detector response; however, simulations have traditionally been run in analog mode which leads to long computation times. In this paper, non-analog MCNPX-PoliMi mode which uses variance reduction techniques is applied and tested. The non-analog MCNPX-PoliMi simulation test cases use source biasing, geometry splitting and a combination of both variance reduction techniques to efficiently simulate pulse height distribution and then time-of-flight for a heavily shielded case with a {sup 252}Cf source. An improvement factor (I), is calculated for distributions in each of the three cases above to analyze the effectiveness of the non-analog MCNPX-PoliMi simulations in reducing computation time. It is found that of the three cases, the last case which uses a combination of source biasing and geometry splitting shows the most improvement in simulation run time for the same desired variance. For pulse height distributions speedup ranging from a factor 5 to 25 is observed, while for time-of-flights the speedup factors range from 3 to 10. (authors)

  12. Reflection properties of scintillator-septum candidates for a pixelated MeV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Mihye; Star-Lack, Josh; Janecek, Martin; Abel, Eric; Shedlock, Daniel; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    In order to predict and improve the performance of pixelated detectors, it is important to understand the optical properties of the basic unit of the scintillating structure in the detector. To measure one of the essential optical properties, reflectance, we have used a device composed of a laser and photodiode array. We have also developed an analytical model of the optical phenomena based on Snell's law and the Fresnel equations to simply analyze measured results and reflectance parameters at the interface. The computed and experimentally measured results typically have good agreement, validating the analytical model and measurements. The optical parameters are used as inputs to GEANT4 [1]. The simulations are then leveraged to optimize an imager design before a prototype is built. The optical reflectance was measured by using relatively inexpensive samples. A sample has scintillator, glue, and septum (reflector) layers, and each sample has a different scintillator surface (polished/rough) and/or reflector [ESR film/aluminum-sputtered (coated) ESR film] condition. A high-refractive-index hemisphere was attached on the top surface of a sample to increase the maximum incidence angle at the scintillator-glue interface from 27 to 52. The sample including ESR film demonstrated average reflectance approximately 1.3 times higher than that from the sample with aluminum-sputtered ESR film as a reflector, and the polished surface condition showed higher reflectance than the rough-cut surface condition.

  13. Scintillating-fiber imaging detector for 14-MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ress, D.; Lerche, R.A.; Ellis, R.J.; Heaton, G.W.; Nelson, M.B.; Mant, G.; Lehr, D.E.

    1994-07-25

    The authors have created a detector to image the neutrons emitted by imploded inertial-confinement fusion targets. The 14-MeV neutrons, which are produced by deuterium-tritium fusion events in the target, pass through an aperture to create an image on the detector. The neutron radiation is converted to blue light (430 nm) with a 20-cm-square array of plastic scintillating fibers. Each fiber is 10-cm long with a 1-mm-square cross section; approximately 35-thousand fibers make up the array. The resulting blue-light image is reduced and amplified by a sequence of fiber-optic tapers and image intensifiers, then acquired by a CCD camera. The fiber-optic readout system was tested optically for overall throughput the resolution. The authors plan to characterize the scintillator array reusing an ion-beam neutron source as well as DT-fusion neutrons emitted by inertial confinement targets. Characterization experiments will measure the light-production efficiency, spatial resolution, and neutron scattering within the detector. Several neutron images of laser-fusion targets have been obtained with the detector. Several neutron images of laser-fusion targets have been obtained with the detector. They describe the detector and their characterization methods, present characterization results, and give examples of the neutron images.

  14. Neutron-sensing scintillating glass optical fiber detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, M.; Reeder, P.L.; Craig, R.A.

    1994-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed and tested the highest-transmission neutron-sensing glass fibers reported in the open literature to date. By developing glass compositions specifically for fiber drawing and by using superior oxidationstate controls and rapid quenching, PNL produces, fiber with useful lengths in excess of 200 cm. These long fibers can be used in detectors. Test results on the fibers used as a form-fitting detector around a small storage container containing neutron and gamma ray sources are reported. Excellent neutron-gamma ray discrimination has been achieved. These neutron-sensing glass optical fibers provide for new methods for monitoring the inventory of, preventing the diversion of, and detecting the unauthorized transport of sensitive nuclear materials. As such, it represents a significant potential element in countering the threat of nuclear terrorism.

  15. Response matrices of NE213 scintillation detectors for neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Guldbakke, S.; Klein, H.; Meister, A.; Scheler, U.; Unholzer, S.; Pulpan, J.; Tichy, M.

    1994-12-31

    Four NE213 detectors of different size have been calibrated at the accelerator facility of the PTB. The response functions were experimentally determined for 33 neutron energies between 1 MeV and 16 MeV and compared with Monte Carlo simulations using the NRESP7 code. The light output functions for recoil protons were found to be significantly different for all detectors even if they were of the same size. The neutron fluence determined on the basis of the response functions calculated with the corresponding light output functions agreed to better than {+-}2% with reference values if energy independent adjustment factors between 0.98 and 1.03 were applied. The response matrices required for the unfolding of neutron induced pulse height spectra were therefore calculated with the NRESP7 code taking into account the adjustment factors. Similarly, the response matrices for photons were calculated with the EGS4 code, but without any adjustment. Finally, the DIFBAS code was applied for the unfolding of pure neutron- and photon-induced pulse height spectra. The resulting spectral fluences are in reasonable agreement with the results obtained by time-of-flight measurements and by spectrometry with a Ge detector.

  16. Investigation of the dynamic range of calorimeter scintillation detector for space gamma-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runtso, M. F.; Naumov, P. Yu; Naumov, P. P.; Solodovnikov, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    An arrangement of the GAMMA-400 space gamma-ray telescope that currently is under the ground testing, suggests implementation of fast two-layer calorimeter scintillation detector system S3 with large dynamic range for electromagnetic showers detection in the main operation mode of the device. The S3 constructive features are demonstrated. The experimental method and basic diagram of the ground prototype dynamic range investigation are described.

  17. The 1000ton liquid scintillation detector project at Kamioka (Kam-LAND)

    SciTech Connect

    Suekane, F.

    1997-05-20

    We are constructing 1,000ton liquid scintillation detector at the old Kamiokande cave in order to detect low energy (anti)neutrinos from various sources. The main physics target of this experiment is to measure the neutrino oscillation parameter; {delta}m{sup 2} down to 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2} by detecting reactor antineutrinos coming from 150 to 200 km away. An outline of this experiment is explained in this paper.

  18. The measurement of beta asymmetries at UNISOR/NOF using external plastic scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantica, P. F.; Kern, B. D.; Zimmerman, B. E.; Walters, W. B.; Rikovska, J.; Stone, N. J.

    1992-11-01

    The performance of two external plastic scintillator detectors has been tested in an off-line mode using a source of106Ru Fe at UNISOR/NOF. The measurement of beta asymmetries at various temperatures has resulted in the reproduction of the previously-determined magnetic dipole moment for the 1+ ground state of106Rh and in addition the conclusion that the sign of this moment is positive.

  19. Performance comparison of four compact room-temperature detectors two cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor detectors, a LaCl3(Ce) scintillator, and an NaI(Tl) scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Hartwell

    2004-10-01

    The performance characteristics of four compact, room-temperature detectors two scintillators and two semiconductor detectors have been studied. All are commercially-available detectors. The two scintillators were a 13mmX13mm lanthanum chloride [LaCl3(Ce)] detector and a 25mmX25mm sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] detector. The two semiconductor detectors were a 10X10X3 mm3 cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector with a coplanar gridded anode and a 5X5X5 mm3 CZT detector with an extended cathode. The efficiency, resolution, and peak shape performance of these devices are compared in this work. Since LaCl3(Ce) is a relatively new commercial scintillator material, additional information on the performance of this detector is presented. Specifically, we discuss the impact of naturally-occurring radioactive 138La on the background spectra measured with this scintillator. Additionally, two of the three LaCl3(Ce) crystals that we obtained commercially were internally contaminated with an alpha particle-emitting radionuclide which we have identified as 227Ac+daughters. This contamination had a profound impact on the usefulness of these two detectors.

  20. Using handheld plastic scintillator detectors to triage individuals exposed to a radiological dispersal device.

    PubMed

    Manger, R P; Hertel, N E; Burgett, E A; Ansari, A

    2012-06-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, people could become internally contaminated by inhaling dispersed radioactive particles. A rapid method to screen individuals who are internally contaminated is desirable. Such initial screening can help in prompt identification of those who are highly contaminated and in prioritising individuals for further and more definitive evaluation such as laboratory testing. The use of handheld plastic scintillators to rapidly screen those exposed to an RDD with gamma-emitting radionuclides was investigated in this study. The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code was used to model two commercially available plastic scintillation detectors in conjunction with anthropomorphic phantom models to determine the detector response to inhaled radionuclides. Biokinetic models were used to simulate an inhaled radionuclide and its progression through the anthropomorphic phantoms up to 30 d after intake. The objective of the study was to see if internal contamination levels equivalent to 250 mSv committed effective dose equivalent could be detected using these instruments. Five radionuclides were examined: (60)Co, (137)Cs, (192)Ir, (131)I and (241)Am. The results demonstrate that all of the radionuclides except (241)Am could be detected when placing either one of the two plastic scintillator detector systems on the posterior right torso of the contaminated individuals. PMID:22128361

  1. Advances in CMOS Solid-state Photomultipliers for Scintillation Detector Applications

    PubMed Central

    Christian, James F.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Johnson, Erik B.; McClish, Mickel; Dokhale, Purushotthom; Shah, Kanai S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Chapman, Eric; Augustine, Frank L.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) are a compact, lightweight, potentially low-cost alternative to a photomultiplier tube for a variety of scintillation detector applications, including digital-dosimeter and medical-imaging applications. Manufacturing SSPMs with a commercial CMOS process provides the ability for rapid prototyping, and facilitates production to reduce the cost. RMD designs CMOS SSPM devices that are fabricated by commercial foundries. This work describes the characterization and performance of these devices for scintillation detector applications. This work also describes the terms contributing to device noise in terms of the excess noise of the SSPM, the binomial statistics governing the number of pixels triggered by a scintillation event, and the background, or thermal, count rate. The fluctuations associated with these terms limit the resolution of the signal pulse amplitude. We explore the use of pixel-level signal conditioning, and characterize the performance of a prototype SSPM device that preserves the digital nature of the signal. In addition, we explore designs of position-sensitive SSPM detectors for medical imaging applications, and characterize their performance. PMID:25540471

  2. Using handheld plastic scintillator detectors to triage individuals exposed to a radiological dispersal device

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, Ryan P; Hertel, Nolan; Burgett, E.; Ansari, A.

    2011-01-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, people could become internally contaminated by inhaling dispersed radioactive particles. A rapid method to screen individuals who are internally contaminated is desirable. Such initial screening can help in prompt identification of those who are highly contaminated and in prioritizing individuals for further and more definitive evaluation such as laboratory testing. The use of handheld plastic scintillators to rapidly screen those exposed to an RDD with gamma-emitting radionuclides was investigated in this study. The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code was used to model two commercially available plastic scintillation detectors in conjunction with anthropomorphic phantom models to determine the detector response to inhaled radionuclides. Biokinetic models were used to simulate an inhaled radionuclide and its progression through the anthropomorphic phantoms up to 30 d after intake. The objective of the study was to see if internal contamination levels equivalent to 250 mSv committed effective dose equivalent could be detected using these instruments. Five radionuclides were examined: {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 131}I and {sup 241}Am. The results demonstrate that all of the radionuclides except {sup 241}Am could be detected when placing either one of the two plastic scintillator detector systems on the posterior right torso of the contaminated individuals.

  3. Scintillator based detector for fast-ion losses induced by magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Zohm, H.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2009-05-15

    A scintillator based detector for fast-ion losses has been designed and installed on the ASDEX upgrade (AUG) tokamak [A. Herrmann and O. Gruber, Fusion Sci. Technol. 44, 569 (2003)]. The detector resolves in time the energy and pitch angle of fast-ion losses induced by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluctuations. The use of a novel scintillator material with a very short decay time and high quantum efficiency allows to identify the MHD fluctuations responsible for the ion losses through Fourier analysis. A Faraday cup (secondary scintillator plate) has been embedded behind the scintillator plate for an absolute calibration of the detector. The detector is mounted on a manipulator to vary its radial position with respect to the plasma. A thermocouple on the inner side of the graphite protection enables the safety search for the most adequate radial position. To align the scintillator light pattern with the light detectors a system composed by a lens and a vacuum-compatible halogen lamp has been allocated within the detector head. In this paper, the design of the scintillator probe, as well as the new technique used to analyze the data through spectrograms will be described. A last section is devoted to discuss the diagnosis prospects of this method for ITER [M. Shimada et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, S1 (2007)].

  4. Development and characterization of scintillation based detectors for the use in radiological early warning networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, P.; Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.

    2016-02-01

    To detect radiological incidents, all members of the European Union have installed nationwide radiological early warning networks. Most of the installed detector systems supply only dosimetric information. Novel spectrometry systems are considered to be good candidates for a new detector generation for environmental radiation monitoring because they will supply both nuclide-specific information and ambient dose equivalent rate values. Four different detector types were chosen and compared with each other (LaBr3, CeBr3, SrI2 scintillation detectors, and CdZnTe, a semiconductor detector). As a first step, the inherent background of these detectors was measured in the low background underground laboratory UDO II of PTB. As a second step, the relative detection sensitivity between the various detectors was determined at different energies. Finally, the detectors were exposed to a 4π-radiation field of radon progeny in PTB's radon chamber. The obtained results show that the investigated detectors are well suited for environmental radiation monitoring.

  5. A New scintillator tile / fiber preshower detector for the CDF central calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinaro, Michele; Artikov, A.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Byrum, K.; Chang, S.; Chlachidze, G.; Goulianos, K.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, M.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lami, S.; Lindgren, M.; Lytken, E.; Miller, R.; Nodulman, L.; Pauletta, G.; Penzo, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Roser, R.; /Argonne /Dubna, JINR /Fermilab /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Michigan State U. /INFN, Siena /Rockefeller U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Udine /Tsukuba U.

    2004-11-01

    A detector designed to measure early particle showers has been installed in front of the central CDF calorimeter at the Tevatron. This new preshower detector is based on scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength-shifting fibers read out by multianode photomultipliers and has a total of 3,072 readout channels. The replacement of the old gas detector was required due to an expected increase in instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider in the next few years. Calorimeter coverage, jet energy resolution, and electron and photon identification are among the expected improvements. The final detector design, together with the R&D studies that led to the choice of scintillator and fiber, mechanical assembly, and quality control are presented. The detector was installed in the fall 2004 Tevatron shutdown and is expected to start collecting colliding beam data by the end of 2004. First measurements indicate a light yield of 12 photoelectrons/MIP, a more than two-fold increase over the design goals.

  6. Mass composition sensitivity of combined arrays of water cherenkov and scintillation detectors in the EeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Javier G.; Engel, Ralph; Roth, Markus

    2016-02-01

    We consider an array of scintillation detectors combined with an array of water Cherenkov detectors designed to simultaneously measure the cosmic-ray primary mass composition and energy spectrum at energies around 1EeV. In this work we investigate the sensitivity to primary mass composition of such combined arrays. The water Cherenkov detectors are arranged in a triangular grid with fixed 750m spacing and the configuration of the scintillation detectors is changed to study the impact of different configurations on the sensitivity to mass composition. We show that the performance for composition determination can be compared favorably to that of fluorescence measurements after the difference in duty cycles is considered.

  7. Identification of prompt fission ?-rays with lanthanum-chloride scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Billnert, R.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Karlsson, J.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the employment of LaCl3:Ce scintillation detectors for the identification of prompt fission ?-rays from ?-radiation in contrast to other reactions. We present the properties of cylindrical 1.5 in.1.5 in. detectors in terms of intrinsic activity, energy resolution, intrinsic full peak efficiency and intrinsic timing resolution. In addition, we show results from the measurement of ?-rays emitted in coincidence with the spontaneous fission of 252Cf, which lead us to the conclusion that the properties of the detectors used in this work, in particular the good timing resolution and a reasonably good energy resolution, are more than just sufficient for the assessment of prompt ?-heat in future nuclear reactors as requested by the OECD. Hence, in our opinion, LaCl3:Ce detectors, compared to those made out of LaBr3:Ce crystals, represent an appropriate and quasi low-cost choice for the above mentioned applications.

  8. Surface Performance of a Big Liquid Scintillation Detector for Measuring Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Dongming; Zhang, Chao; Gray, Fred

    2011-10-01

    Characterizing neutron background is extremely important to the success of rare event physics research such as neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter search. We developed a neutron detector that is built with an aluminum tube filled with 12 liter liquid scintillators. The detector is about one meter in length and five inches in diameter. The inner surface of the detector is painted with specular reflector and there are two 5'' PMTs (Hamamatsu H4144) attached at both ends. The detector is well calibrated with cosmic muons and radioactive sources. Good neutron/gamma discrimination is found from few MeV to 20MeVs. We report the measured result for room neutrons at the surface. This project is supported by NSF PHY-0758120 and 0919278.

  9. High spatial resolution radiation detectors based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon and scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, T

    1995-05-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) as a large-area thin film semiconductor with ease of doping and low-cost fabrication capability has given a new impetus to the field of imaging sensors; its high radiation resistance also makes it a good material for radiation detectors. In addition, large-area microelectronics based on a-Si:H or polysilicon can be made with full integration of peripheral circuits, including readout switches and shift registers on the same substrate. Thin a-Si:H p-i-n photodiodes coupled to suitable scintillators are shown to be suitable for detecting charged particles, electrons, and X-rays. The response speed of CsI/a-Si:H diode combinations to individual particulate radiation is limited by the scintillation light decay since the charge collection time of the diode is very short (< 10ns). The reverse current of the detector is analyzed in term of contact injection, thermal generation, field enhanced emission (Poole-Frenkel effect), and edge leakage. A good collection efficiency for a diode is obtained by optimizing the p layer of the diode thickness and composition. The CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an a-Si:H photodiode detector shows a capability for detecting minimum ionizing particles with S/N {approximately}20. In such an arrangement a p-i-n diode is operated in a photovoltaic mode (reverse bias). In addition, a p-i-n diode can also work as a photoconductor under forward bias and produces a gain yield of 3--8 for shaping times of 1 {micro}s. The mechanism of the formation of structured CsI scintillator layers is analyzed. Initial nucleation in the deposited layer is sensitive to the type of substrate medium, with imperfections generally catalyzing nucleation. Therefore, the microgeometry of a patterned substrate has a significant effect on the structure of the CsI growth.

  10. Hard x-ray and gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy using scintillators coupled to silicon drift detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, P.; Eckhard, R.; Fiorini, C.; Gola, A.; Longoni, A.; Niculae, A.; Peloso, R.; Soltau, H.; Strder, L.

    2008-07-01

    Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) are used as low-capacitance photon detectors for the optical light emitted by scintillators. The scintillator crystal is directly coupled to the SDD entrance window. The entrance window's transmittance can be optimized for the scintillator characteristic by deposition of a wavelength-selective anti-reflective coating. Compared to conventional photomultiplier tubes the SDD readout offers improved energy resolution and avoids the practical problems of incompatibility with magnetic fields, instrument volume and requirement of high voltage. A compact imaging spectrometer for hard X-rays and ?-rays has been developed by coupling a large area (29 26 mm2) monolithic SDD array with 77 hexagonal cells to a single non-structured CsI-scintillator of equal size. The scintillation light generated by the absorption of an energetic photon is seen by a number of detector cells and the position of the photon interaction is reconstructed by the centroid method. The measured spatial resolution of the system (<= 500 ?m) is considerably smaller than the SDD cell size (3.2 mm) and in the order required at the focal plane of high energy missions. The energy information is obtained by summing the detector cell signals. Compared to direct converting pixelated detectors, e.g. CdTe with equal position resolution the scintillator-SDD combination requires a considerably lower number of readout channels. In addition it has the advantages of comprehensive material experience, existing technologies, proven long term stability, and practically unlimited availability of high quality material.

  11. Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration.

    PubMed

    Beddar, A S; Mackie, T R; Attix, F H

    1992-10-01

    A minimally perturbing plastic scintillation detector has been developed for the dosimetry of high-energy beams in radiotherapy. The detector system consists of two identical parallel sets of radiation-resistant optical fibre bundles, each connected to independent photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). One fibre bundle is connected to a miniature water equivalent plastic scintillator and so scintillation as well as Cerenkov light generated in the fibres is detected at its PMT. The other 'background' bundle is not connected to the scintillator and so only Cerenkov light is detected by its PMT. The background signal is subtracted to yield only the signal from the scintillator. The water-equivalence of plastic scintillation detectors is studied for photon and electron beams in the radiotherapy range. Application of Burlin cavity theory shows that the energy dependence of such detectors is expected to be better than the commonly used systems (ionization chambers, LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters, film and Si diodes). It is also shown that they are not affected by temperature variations and exhibit much less radiation damage than either photon or electron diode detectors. PMID:1438554

  12. Investigations of surface coatings to reduce memory effect in plastic scintillator detectors used for radioxenon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blckberg, L.; Fay, A.; Jgi, I.; Biegalski, S.; Boman, M.; Elmgren, K.; Fritioff, T.; Johansson, A.; Mrtensson, L.; Nielsen, F.; Ringbom, A.; Rooth, M.; Sjstrand, H.; Klintenberg, M.

    2011-11-01

    In this work Al2O3 and SiO2 coatings are tested as Xe diffusion barriers on plastic scintillator substrates. The motivation is improved beta-gamma coincidence detection systems, used to measure atmospheric radioxenon within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. One major drawback with the current setup of these systems is that the radioxenon tends to diffuse into the plastic scintillator material responsible for the beta detection, resulting in an unwanted memory effect. Here, coatings with thicknesses between 20 and 900 nm have been deposited onto plastic scintillators, and investigated using two different experimental techniques. The results show that all tested coatings reduce the Xe diffusion into the plastic. The reduction is observed to increase with coating thickness for both coating materials. The 425 nm Al2O3 coating is the most successful one, presenting a diffusion reduction of a factor 100, compared to uncoated plastic. In terms of memory effect reduction this coating is thus a viable solution to the problem in question.

  13. Passively scattered proton beam entrance dosimetry with a plastic scintillation detector

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, Landon; Holmes, Charles; Sahoo, Narayan; Beddar, Sam

    2015-01-01

    We tested the feasibility of using plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) for proton entrance dosimetry. A PSD built with BCF-12 scintillating fiber was used to measure the absolute entrance dose of a passively scattered proton beam for energies ranging from 140 MeV to 250 MeV, and for a range of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) widths at 2 energies, to quantify the effect of ionization quenching on the response of the detector and to determine the necessity of Cerenkov radiation correction in proton beams. The overall accuracy and precision of the PSD was evaluated by measuring lateral beam profiles and comparing the results with profiles measured using film. The PSD under-responded owing to ionization quenching, exhibiting approximately a 7% loss of signal at the highest energy studied (250 MeV) and a 10% loss of signal at the lowest energy studied (140 MeV). For a given nominal energy, varying the SOBP width did not significantly alter the response of the PSD. Cerenkov radiation contributed negligibly to the PSD signal and can be safely ignored without introducing more than 1% error in the measured dose. Profiles measured with the PSD and film agreed to within the uncertainty of the detector, demonstrating good relative accuracy. Although correction factors were necessary to account for ionization quenching, the magnitude of the correction varied minimally over a broad range of energies; PSDs therefore represent a practical detector for proton entrance dosimetry. PMID:25591037

  14. Temperature sensitivity of a Bonner-sphere LiI(Eu) scintillation neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    West, L.; Lemley, E.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Neutron spectroscopy with Bonner spheres involves a sequence of measurements with a LiI(Eu) scintillation detector with several moderating spheres. The measured quantity is the count rate of the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}H reaction, using either a net or gross integral over a preset limited range of the pulse-height distribution to discriminate against the ever-present gamma radiation in neutron environments. Unfolding codes utilize these count rates to produce neutron fluence spectra. The accuracy of the measured count rate depends, among other things, on the overall stability of the detector and electronics system. Elevated temperatures may alter count rates measured with scintillation radiation detectors because of increased thermoionic emission of the cathode and dynodes at higher temperatures. Field measurements with Bonner spheres in operating nuclear power reactor containment buildings often encounter temperatures as high as 50 C ({approximately}120 F). Hence, the effect of higher temperatures on the {sup 6}LiI(Eu) crystal and photomultiplier tube of the Bonner sphere has been investigated and documented. The nominal temperature sensitivity of the 4-mm LiI(Eu) detector is {approximately}0.12%/{degree}C between 25 and 50 C. On an absolute scale, the difference in count rate within a 25C range translates to an {approximately}4% error, according to the measurements presented.

  15. Arrays of Segmented, Tapered Light Guides for Use with Large, Planar Scintillation Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Vaigneur, Keith; Stolin, Alexander V.; Jaliparthi, Gangadhar

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic imaging techniques can potentially improve detection and diagnosis of cancer in women with radiodense and/or fibrocystic breasts. Our group has previously developed a high-resolution positron emission tomography imaging and biopsy device (PEM-PET) to detect and guide the biopsy of suspicious breast lesions. Initial testing revealed that the imaging field-of-view (FOV) of the scanner was smaller than the physical size of the detector’s active area, which could hinder sampling of breast areas close to the chest wall. The purpose of this work was to utilize segmented, tapered light guides for optically coupling the scintillator arrays to arrays of position-sensitive photomultipliers to increase both the active FOV and identification of individual scintillator elements. Testing of the new system revealed that the optics of these structures made it possible to discern detector elements from the complete active area of the detector face. In the previous system the top and bottom rows and left and right columns were not identifiable. Additionally, use of the new light guides increased the contrast of individual detector elements by up to 129%. Improved element identification led to a spatial resolution increase by approximately 12%. Due to attenuation of light in the light guides the detector energy resolution decreased from 18.5% to 19.1%. Overall, these improvements should increase the field-of-view and spatial resolution of the dedicated breast-PET system. PMID:26538685

  16. A Geant Study of the Scintillating Optical Fiber (SOFCAL) Cosmic Ray Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munroe, Ray B., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Recent energy measurements by balloon-borne passive emulsion chambers indicate that the flux ratios of protons to helium nuclei and of protons to all heavy nuclei decrease as the primary cosmic ray energy per nucleon increases above approx. 200 GeV/n, and suggest a "break" in the proton spectrum between 200 GeV and 5 TeV. However, these passive emulsion chambers are limited to a lower energy threshold of approx. 5 TeV/n, and cannot fully explore this energy regime. Because cosmic ray flux and composition details may be significant to acceleration models, a hybrid detector system called the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL) has been designed and flown. SOFCAL incorporates both conventional passive emulsion chambers and an active calorimeter utilizing scintillating plastic fibers as detectors. These complementary types of detectors allow the balloon-borne SOFCAL experiment to measure the proton and helium spectra from approx. 400 GeV/n to approx. 20 TeV. The fundamental purpose of this study is to use the GEANT simulation package to model the hadronic and electromagnetic shower evolution of cosmic rays incident on the SOFCAL detector. This allows the interpretation of SOFCAL data in terms of charges and primary energies of cosmic rays, thus allowing the determinations of cosmic ray flux and composition as functions of primary energy.

  17. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Giuliani, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.; Tenconi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers) consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% - 35%) and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  18. Passively scattered proton beam entrance dosimetry with a plastic scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, Landon; Holmes, Charles; Sahoo, Narayan; Beddar, Sam

    2015-02-01

    We tested the feasibility of using plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) for proton entrance dosimetry. A PSD built with BCF-12 scintillating fiber was used to measure the absolute entrance dose of a passively scattered proton beam for energies ranging from 140 to 250?MeV, and for a range of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) widths at two energies, to quantify the effect of ionization quenching on the response of the detector and to determine the necessity of Cerenkov radiation correction in proton beams. The overall accuracy and precision of the PSD was evaluated by measuring lateral beam profiles and comparing the results with profiles measured using film. The PSD under-responded owing to ionization quenching, exhibiting approximately a 7% loss of signal at the highest energy studied (250?MeV) and a 10% loss of signal at the lowest energy studied (140?MeV). For a given nominal energy, varying the SOBP width did not significantly alter the response of the PSD. Cerenkov radiation contributed negligibly to the PSD signal and can be safely ignored without introducing more than 1% error in the measured dose. Profiles measured with the PSD and film agreed to within the uncertainty of the detector, demonstrating good relative accuracy. Although correction factors were necessary to account for ionization quenching, the magnitude of the correction varied minimally over a broad range of energies; PSDs therefore represent a practical detector for proton entrance dosimetry.

  19. Development of a fast radiation detector based on barium fluoride scintillation crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hetong; School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, XJTU, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi ; Zhang, Zichuan; Weng, Xiufeng; Liu, Junhong; Zhang, Kan; Li, Gang; Guan, Xingyin

    2013-07-15

    Barium fluoride (BaF{sub 2}) is an inorganic scintillation material used for the detection of X/gamma radiation due to its relatively high density, equivalent atomic number, radiation hardness, and high luminescence. BaF{sub 2} has a potential capacity to be used in gamma ray timing experiments due to the prompt decay emission components. It is known that the light output from BaF{sub 2} has three decay components: two prompt of those at approximately 195 nm and 220 nm with a decay constant around 600-800 ps and a more intense, slow component at approximately 310 nm with a decay constant around 630 ns which hinders fast timing experiments. We report here the development of a fast radiation detector based on a BaF{sub 2} scintillation crystal employing a special optical filter device, a multiple reflection multi-path ultraviolet region short-wavelength pass light guides (MRMP-short pass filter) by using selective reflection technique, for which the intensity of the slow component is reduced to less than 1%. The methods used for this study provide a novel way to design radiation detector by utilizing scintillation crystal with several emission bands.

  20. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qian; Han, Junbo; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang

    2015-11-01

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/?{E{(MeV)}} required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments.

  1. Limits on low-energy neutrino fluxes with the Mont Blanc liquid scintillator detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Dadykin, V. L.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Khalchukov, F. F.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortchaguin, P. V.; Kortchaguin, V. B.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Malguin, A. S.; Periale, L.; Ryassny, V. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Vernetto, S.; Yakushev, V. F.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    1992-11-01

    The LSD liquid scintillation detector has been operating since 1985 as an underground neutrino observatory in the Mont Blanc Laboratory with the main objective of detecting antineutrino bursts from collapsing stars. In August 1988 the construction of an additional lead and borex paraffin shield considerably reduced the radioactive background and increased the sensitivity of the apparatus. In this way the search for steady fluxes of low-energy neutrinos of different flavours through their interactions with free protons and carbon nuclei of the scintillator was made possible. No evidence for a galactic collapse was observed during the whole period of measurement. The corresponding 90% c.l. upper limit on the galactic collapses rate is 0.45 y -1 for a burst duration of ?T ? 10 s. After analysing the last 3 years data, the following 90% c.l. upper limits on the steady neutrino and antineutrino fluxes were obtained:

  2. Characterizations of BC501A and BC537 liquid scintillator detectors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianguo; Lai, Caifeng; Ye, Bangjiao; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xinwei; Jiang, Li

    2015-10-01

    Two 2?2? liquid scintillator detectors BC537 and BC501A have been characterized for their responses and efficiencies to ?-ray detection. Light output resolution and response functions were derived by least-squares minimization of a simulated response function, fitted to experimental data. The ?-ray response matrix and detection efficiency were simulated with Monte Carlo (MC) methods and validated. For photon energies below 2.4 MeVee, the resolution, as well as the efficiency, of BC501A is better than BC537 scintillator. The situation is reversed when the energy is higher than 2.4 MeVee. BC537 has higher ?-ray detection efficiency than BC501A if the impinging photon energy is more than 2 MeV due to different ratios of C to H/D atoms. PMID:26123107

  3. Plastic scintillator-based radiation detector for mobile radiation detection system against nuclear/radiological terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Jang, Sung Soon; Kim, Jung Soo; Yoon, Wan-Ki; Jun, In Sub; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2009-06-01

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear or radioactive materials has become a serious world wide problem. Due to operational constraints of radiation detection system for such nuclear security application, a radiation detector with large effective area is needed to maximize its sensitivity. This paper suggests a new method of using plastic scintillation detector as a cost-effective mobile radiation detection system. Monte Carlo simulation code, MCNPX, has been used to analyze spectral distribution available from the plastic detector and to derive algorithmic process with a view to discriminating targeted sources from ambient background radiation. Theoretical results in present work showed that the targeted sources which might be used for nuclear/radiological terrorism could be discriminated from Nationally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) or background.

  4. Scintillator Pad Detector: Very Front End Electronics. Design and Pre-Series

    SciTech Connect

    Luengo, S.; Riera, J.; Tortella, S.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Gascon, D.; Comerma, A.; Garrido, L.

    2006-10-27

    The SPD (Scintillator Pad Detector) is a part of LHCb calorimeter which is designed to distinguish electrons and photons for this first level trigger. This detector is a plastic scintillator layer, divided in about 6000 cells of different size to obtain better granularity near the beam. Charged particles will produce, and photons will not, ionisation on the scintillator. This ionisation generates a light pulse that is collected by a Wavelength Shifting (WLS) fibre that is twisted inside the scintillator cell. The light is transmitted through a clear fibre to the readout system. For cost reduction, these 6000 cells are divided in groups using a MAPMT of 64 channels for receiving information in the readout system. The signal outing the SPD PMTs is rather unpredictable as a result of the low photostatistics, 20-30 photoelectrons per MIP, and the response of the WLS fibre, which has low decay time. Then, the signal processing must be performed by first integrating the total charge and later subtracting to avoid pile-up. The SPD Readout system is performed by an ASIC which integrates the signal, makes the pile-up compensation, and compares the level obtained to a programmable threshold (distinguishing electrons and photons), an FPGA which programmes the ASIC thresholds and pile-up subtraction and finally LVDS serializers, in order to send information to the first level trigger system. The design of the VFE unit takes into account not only mechanical constraints, as a result of the little space for the readout electronics but also the radiation quote expected in the environment and the distance between the VFE electronics and the racks were information is sent.

  5. Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Neal, John S; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Beck, P; Burger, Arnold; Rowe, E; Bhattacharya, P.

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  6. Advances in the growth of alkaline-Earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; Neal, J. S.; Cherepy, N. J.; Beck, P. R.; Payne, S. A.; Burger, A.; Rowe, E.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2014-09-01

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystalgrowth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  7. A lead-scintillating-fiber calorimeter for the small angle region of the AMY detector at TRISTAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Sahu, S. K.; Takashimizu, N.; Behari, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Matsumoto, S.; Murakami, A.

    1997-02-01

    We report on an electromagnetic calorimeter for the extremely forward region of the AMY detector at the TRISTAN e + e - collider. The calorimeter has a lead-scintillating-fiber sandwich structure and photodiode readout. It has been installed as a part of the AMY detector and successfully operated.

  8. Characterizing energy dependence and count rate performance of a dual scintillator fiber-optic detector for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerner, Matthew R. Stepusin, Elliott J.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage (kV) x-rays pose a significant challenge for radiation dosimetry. In the kV energy range, even small differences in material composition can result in significant variations in the absorbed energy between soft tissue and the detector. In addition, the use of electronic systems in light detection has demonstrated measurement losses at high photon fluence rates incident to the detector. This study investigated the feasibility of using a novel dual scintillator detector and whether its response to changes in beam energy from scatter and hardening is readily quantified. The detector incorporates a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and a gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, which has a higher sensitivity to scatter x-rays. Methods: The detector was constructed by coupling two scintillators: (1) small cylindrical plastic scintillator, 500 μm in diameter and 2 mm in length, and (2) 100 micron sheet of gadolinium oxysulfide 500 μm in diameter, each to a 2 m long optical fiber, which acts as a light guide to transmit scintillation photons from the sensitive element to a photomultiplier tube. Count rate linearity data were obtained from a wide range of exposure rates delivered from a radiological x-ray tube by adjusting the tube current. The data were fitted to a nonparalyzable dead time model to characterize the time response. The true counting rate was related to the reference free air dose air rate measured with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} Radcal{sup ®} thimble chamber as described in AAPM Report No. 111. Secondary electron and photon spectra were evaluated using Monte Carlo techniques to analyze ionization quenching and photon energy-absorption characteristics from free-in-air and in phantom measurements. The depth/energy dependence of the detector was characterized using a computed tomography dose index QA phantom consisting of nested adult head and body segments. The phantom provided up to 32 cm of acrylic with a compatible 0.6 cm{sup 3} calibrated ionization chamber to measure the reference air kerma. Results: Each detector exhibited counting losses of 5% when irradiated at a dose rate of 26.3 mGy/s (Gadolinium) and 324.3 mGy/s (plastic). The dead time of the gadolinium oxysulfide detector was determined to be 48 ns, while the dead time of the plastic scintillating detector was unable to accurately be calculated due to poor counting statistics from low detected count rates. Noticeable depth/energy dependence was observed for the plastic scintillator for depths greater than 16 cm of acrylic that was not present for measurements using the gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, leading us to believe that quenching may play a larger role in the depth dependence of the plastic scintillator than the incident x-ray energy spectrum. When properly corrected for dead time effects, the energy response of the gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator is consistent with the plastic scintillator. Using the integrated dual detector method was superior to each detector individually as the depth-dependent measure of dose was correctable to less than 8% between 100 and 135 kV. Conclusions: The dual scintillator fiber-optic detector accommodates a methodology for energy dependent corrections of the plastic scintillator, improving the overall accuracy of the dosimeter across the range of diagnostic energies.

  9. A Minor Modification of Leading Edge Discriminator Circuitry with a Delay Line for Baseline Restoration of Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N

    2003-05-27

    Multi-channel neutron time-of-flight detector arrays LaNSA, T-ion, Medusa, and Mandala, have been used for neutron spectroscopy in inertial confinement fusion experiments. These multi-channel neutron detector arrays consist of many identical scintillation detectors (842 {approx} 1024 channel), data acquisition electronics (discriminators, time-to digital converters, and controller). Each detector element is operated in neutron counting mode. Time-of-flight of individual detected neutrons are recorded by time to digital converters. The energy of each detected neutrons is determined from its time-of-flight. The accurate time measurement ({Delta}t {approx} 0.5 ns) and straightforward statistical features of the data obtained with these systems provides good integrity and reliability. The elements detector used in these systems are organic scintillators coupled with photo multiplier tubes. A scintillation detector operated in particle-counting mode requires finite recovery time after each detection event. The recovery time is determined by the time responses of scintillators, photo multiplier tubes, and the dead times of following discriminators and time-to digital converters. The harsh gamma ray background environment of fast ignitor experiments requires detectors that have fast recovery times. In high intensity laser experiments (I > 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}), strong gamma ray bursts are produced by relativistic laser plasma interactions. Prior to the neutron signal, these strong gamma ray bursts hit the detectors and interfere with the detection of following neutron signals. In these situations, the recovery time of the system after preceding gamma ray bursts is determined mainly by the base line shift of the PMT signal (due to slower decay components of scintillators ''after glow''). Discriminators cannot detect following signal pulses until the proceeding burst decays below its threshold voltage. The base line shift caused by the after glow prolongs the recovery time of the discriminators. Typical organic scintillators have slow decay component with 300 {approx} 600 nsec.

  10. ANTS a simulation package for secondary scintillation Anger-camera type detector in thermal neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Defendi, I.; Engels, R.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Guerard, B.; Jurkovic, M.; Kemmerling, G.; Manzin, G.; Margato, L. M. S.; Niko, H.; Pereira, L.; Petrillo, C.; Peyaud, A.; Piscitelli, F.; Raspino, D.; Rhodes, N. J.; Sacchetti, F.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Van Esch, P.; Zeitelhack, K.

    2012-08-01

    A custom and fully interactive simulation package ANTS (Anger-camera type Neutron detector: Toolkit for Simulations) has been developed to optimize the design and operation conditions of secondary scintillation Anger-camera type gaseous detectors for thermal neutron imaging. The simulation code accounts for all physical processes related to the neutron capture, energy deposition pattern, drift of electrons of the primary ionization and secondary scintillation. The photons are traced considering the wavelength-resolved refraction and transmission of the output window. Photo-detection accounts for the wavelength-resolved quantum efficiency, angular response, area sensitivity, gain and single-photoelectron spectra of the photomultipliers (PMTs). The package allows for several geometrical shapes of the PMT photocathode (round, hexagonal and square) and offers a flexible PMT array configuration: up to 100 PMTs in a custom arrangement with the square or hexagonal packing. Several read-out patterns of the PMT array are implemented. Reconstruction of the neutron capture position (projection on the plane of the light emission) is performed using the center of gravity, maximum likelihood or weighted least squares algorithm. Simulation results reproduce well the preliminary results obtained with a small-scale detector prototype. ANTS executables can be downloaded from http://coimbra.lip.pt/~andrei/.

  11. Online calibration of neutrino liquid scintillator detectors above 10 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Gromov, M. B.; Shamarin, A. F.

    2016-02-01

    Online calibration of neutrino liquid scintillator detector at energies above 10 MeV is very important for study of such rare process as supernova and for correct calculation of backgrounds if spectral properties is the focus of researches. The traditional procedure implies the usage of radioactive sources with well-known spectral properties but such approach is limited by available radioactive sources, upper possible energies (∼10-11 MeV) and dangerous for ultra low background environment of modern detectors. The approach we propose is based on simulation of events with controllable UV double LED pulser. The LED's main wavelength fits the scintillator excitation wavelength. This technique allows to simulate physical events within the detector in very wide energy range from a few hundred keV to about 50 MeV. Additional studies like pile-up analysis can be performed due to double-LEDs scheme which generates two delayed signals with different adjustable amplitudes. The delay time is also adjustable parameter.

  12. A scintillating plastic fiber tracking detector for neutron and proton imaging and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Castaneda, C. M.; Holslin, D.; Macri, J. R.; McConnell, M. L.; Romero, J. L.; Wunderer, C. B.

    1999-02-01

    We report on a prototype detector system designed to perform imaging and spectroscopy on 20-250MeV neutrons. The detection techniques employed can be applied to measurements in a variety of disciplines including solar and atmospheric physics, radiation therapy and nuclear materials monitoring. The detector measures the energy and direction of neutrons by detecting double neutron-proton scatters and recording images of the ionization tracks of the recoil protons in a densely packed bundle of scintillating plastic fibers stacked in orthogonal layers. The scintillation tracks are detected and imaged by photomultipliers and image intensifier/CCD camera optics. By tracking the recoil protons from individual neutrons, the kinematics of the scatter are determined. This directional information results in a high signal-to-noise measurement. The self-triggering and track imaging features of a prototype for tracking in two dimensions are demonstrated in calibrations with 14-65MeV neutrons, 20-67.5MeV protons, and with cosmic-ray muons. Preliminary results of phantom imaging measurements using a proton beam are also presented. We discuss several applications for this detector technique and outline future development work.

  13. Can scintillation detectors with low spectral resolution accurately determine radionuclides content of building materials?

    PubMed

    Kovler, K; Prilutskiy, Z; Antropov, S; Antropova, N; Bozhko, V; Alfassi, Z B; Lavi, N

    2013-07-01

    The current paper makes an attempt to check whether the scintillation NaI(Tl) detectors, in spite of their poor energy resolution, can determine accurately the content of NORM in building materials. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were measured using two types of detectors: (a) NaI(Tl) spectrometer equipped with the special software based on the matrix method of least squares, and (b) high-purity germanium spectrometer. Synthetic compositions with activity concentrations varying in a wide range, from 1/5 to 5 times median activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides available in the earth crust and the samples of popular building materials, such as concrete, pumice and gypsum, were tested, while the density of the tested samples changed in a wide range (from 860 up to 2,410 kg/m(3)). The results obtained in the NaI(Tl) system were similar to those obtained with the HPGe spectrometer, mostly within the uncertainty range. This comparison shows that scintillation spectrometers equipped with a special software aimed to compensate for the lower spectral resolution of NaI(Tl) detectors can be successfully used for the radiation control of mass construction products. PMID:23542118

  14. Fission signal detection using helium-4 gas fast neutron scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J. M. Kelley, R. P.; Jordan, K. A.; Murer, D.

    2014-07-07

    We demonstrate the unambiguous detection of the fission neutron signal produced in natural uranium during active neutron interrogation using a deuterium-deuterium fusion neutron generator and a high pressure {sup 4}He gas fast neutron scintillation detector. The energy deposition by individual neutrons is quantified, and energy discrimination is used to differentiate the induced fission neutrons from the mono-energetic interrogation neutrons. The detector can discriminate between different incident neutron energies using pulse height discrimination of the slow scintillation component of the elastic scattering interaction between a neutron and the {sup 4}He atom. Energy histograms resulting from this data show the buildup of a detected fission neutron signal at higher energies. The detector is shown here to detect a unique fission neutron signal from a natural uranium sample during active interrogation with a (d, d) neutron generator. This signal path has a direct application to the detection of shielded nuclear material in cargo and air containers. It allows for continuous interrogation and detection while greatly minimizing the potential for false alarms.

  15. Neutron light output response and resolution functions in EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, Andreas; Lawrence, Christopher C.; Wieger, Brian M.; Pozzi, Sara A.; Massey, Thomas N.

    2013-07-01

    Neutron light output response functions and detector resolution functions were measured at Ohio University's tandem Van de Graaff generator for three cylindrical EJ-309 liquid scintillator cells, having dimensions 12.7(?)-by-12.7, 7.6-by-7.6, and 7.6-by-5.1 cm. A 7.44 MeV deuteron beam was used on an 27Al target generating a continuous spectrum over the energy range from a few hundred keV to over 10 MeV. The light output response functions are determined using an exponential fit. Detector resolution functions are obtained for the 12.7-by-12.7 and 7.6-by-7.6 cm detectors. It is demonstrated that the dependence on detector size is important for the light output response functions, but not to the same extent for the resolution function, even when photomultiplier tubes, detector material, and other detector characteristics are carefully matched.

  16. Monte Carlo code G3sim for simulation of plastic scintillator detectors with wavelength shifter fiber readout

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, P. K.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2012-04-15

    A detailed description of a compact Monte Carlo simulation code ''G3sim'' for studying the performance of a plastic scintillator detector with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout is presented. G3sim was developed for optimizing the design of new scintillator detectors used in the GRAPES-3 extensive air shower experiment. Propagation of the blue photons produced by the passage of relativistic charged particles in the scintillator is treated by incorporating the absorption, total internal, and diffuse reflections. Capture of blue photons by the WLS fibers and subsequent re-emission of longer wavelength green photons is appropriately treated. The trapping and propagation of green photons inside the WLS fiber is treated using the laws of optics for meridional and skew rays. Propagation time of each photon is taken into account for the generation of the electrical signal at the photomultiplier. A comparison of the results from G3sim with the performance of a prototype scintillator detector showed an excellent agreement between the simulated and measured properties. The simulation results can be parametrized in terms of exponential functions providing a deeper insight into the functioning of these versatile detectors. G3sim can be used to aid the design and optimize the performance of scintillator detectors prior to actual fabrication that may result in a considerable saving of time, labor, and money spent.

  17. Monte Carlo code G3sim for simulation of plastic scintillator detectors with wavelength shifter fiber readout.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, P K; Dugad, S R; Gupta, S K

    2012-04-01

    A detailed description of a compact Monte Carlo simulation code "G3sim" for studying the performance of a plastic scintillator detector with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout is presented. G3sim was developed for optimizing the design of new scintillator detectors used in the GRAPES-3 extensive air shower experiment. Propagation of the blue photons produced by the passage of relativistic charged particles in the scintillator is treated by incorporating the absorption, total internal, and diffuse reflections. Capture of blue photons by the WLS fibers and subsequent re-emission of longer wavelength green photons is appropriately treated. The trapping and propagation of green photons inside the WLS fiber is treated using the laws of optics for meridional and skew rays. Propagation time of each photon is taken into account for the generation of the electrical signal at the photomultiplier. A comparison of the results from G3sim with the performance of a prototype scintillator detector showed an excellent agreement between the simulated and measured properties. The simulation results can be parametrized in terms of exponential functions providing a deeper insight into the functioning of these versatile detectors. G3sim can be used to aid the design and optimize the performance of scintillator detectors prior to actual fabrication that may result in a considerable saving of time, labor, and money spent. PMID:22559526

  18. Monte Carlo code G3sim for simulation of plastic scintillator detectors with wavelength shifter fiber readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, P. K.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed description of a compact Monte Carlo simulation code "G3sim" for studying the performance of a plastic scintillator detector with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout is presented. G3sim was developed for optimizing the design of new scintillator detectors used in the GRAPES-3 extensive air shower experiment. Propagation of the blue photons produced by the passage of relativistic charged particles in the scintillator is treated by incorporating the absorption, total internal, and diffuse reflections. Capture of blue photons by the WLS fibers and subsequent re-emission of longer wavelength green photons is appropriately treated. The trapping and propagation of green photons inside the WLS fiber is treated using the laws of optics for meridional and skew rays. Propagation time of each photon is taken into account for the generation of the electrical signal at the photomultiplier. A comparison of the results from G3sim with the performance of a prototype scintillator detector showed an excellent agreement between the simulated and measured properties. The simulation results can be parametrized in terms of exponential functions providing a deeper insight into the functioning of these versatile detectors. G3sim can be used to aid the design and optimize the performance of scintillator detectors prior to actual fabrication that may result in a considerable saving of time, labor, and money spent.

  19. Data acquisition system for the Large Scintillating Neutrino Detector at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.; Cohen, I. ); Homann, B.; Smith, D. ); Strossman, W.; VanDalen, G.J. ); Weaver, L.S.; Evans, D.; Vernon, W. ); Band, A.; Burman, R.; Chang, T.; Federspiel, F.; Foreman, W.; Gomulka, S.; H

    1992-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the Large Scintillating Neutrino Detector (LSND) is described. The system collects time and charge information in real time from 1600 photomultiplier tubes and passes the data in intelligent-trigger selected time windows to analysis computers, where events are reconstructed and analyzed as candidates for a variety of neutrino-related physics processes. The system is composed of fourteen VME crates linked to a Silicon Graphics, Inc. 4D/480'' multiprocessor computer through multiple, parallel Ethernets, and a collection of contemporary high-performance workstations.

  20. Alignment of the Near Detector scintillator modules using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Ospanov, Rustem; Lang, Karol; /Texas U.

    2008-05-01

    The authors describe the procedures and the results of the first alignment of the Near Detector. Using 15.5 million cosmic ray muon tracks, collected from October, 2004 through early january, 2005, they derive the effective transverse positions of the calorimeter scintillator modules. The residuals from straight line fits indicate that the current alignment has achieved better than 1 mm precision. They estimate the size of the remaining misalignment and using tracks recorded with a magnetic field test the effect of the magnetic field on the alignment.

  1. Performance of 64-Multi-Anode Photomultiplier and Scintillating Fiber for the CALET Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, T.; Torii, S.; Tamura, T.; Anraku, K.; CALET Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    We report results of a performance test of a 64-multi-ano de photomultiplier (MA-PMT) and scintillating fibers (SF) to be used for the imaging calorimeter of the CALET detector. The required dynamic range of the calorimeter is a few thousand, from a minimum ionizing particle to large number of particles created by a cascade shower. MA-PMT (HAMAMATSU R5900) with 8 dyno de stages, instead of original 12 dyno de stages, is manufactured to extend the dynamic range. Results of the linearity tests and the light yield measurements are presented.

  2. Neutron detector based on Particles of 6Li glass scintillator dispersed in organic lightguide matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianakiev, K. D.; Hehlen, M. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Favalli, A.; Iliev, M. L.; Lin, T. C.; Bennett, B. L.; Barker, M. T.

    2015-06-01

    Most 3He replacement neutron detector technologies today have overlapping neutron-gamma pulse-height distributions, which limits their usefulness and performance. Different techniques are used to mitigate this shortcoming, including Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) or threshold settings that suppress all gammas as well as much of the neutrons. As a result, count rates are limited and dead times are high when PSD is used, and the detection efficiency for neutron events is reduced due to the high threshold. This is a problem in most applications where the neutron-gamma separation of 3He detectors had been essential. This challenge is especially severe for neutron coincidence and multiplicity measurements that have numerous conflicting requirements such as high detection efficiency, short die-away time, short dead time, and high stability. 6Li-glass scintillators have excellent light output and a single peak distribution, but they are difficult to implement because of their gamma sensitivity. The idea of reducing the gamma sensitivity of 6Li-glass scintillators by embedding small glass particles in an organic light-guide medium was first presented by L.M. Bollinger in the early 60s but, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reduced to practice. We present a proof of principle detector design and experimental data that develop this concept to a large-area neutron detector. This is achieved by using a multi-component optical medium (6Li glass particles attached to a glass supporting structure and a mineral oil light guide) which matches the indices of refraction and minimizes the absorption of the 395 nm scintillator light. The detector design comprises a 10 in. long tube with dual end readout with about 3% volume density of 6Li glass particles installed. The presented experimental data with various neutron and gamma sources show the desired wide gap between the neutron and gamma pulse height distributions, resulting in a true plateau in the counting characteristics similar to that of 3He detectors.

  3. Predicting the sensitivity of the beryllium/scintillator layer neutron detector using Monte Carlo and experimental response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Styron, J. D. Cooper, G. W.; Carpenter, Ken; Bonura, M. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Hahn, K. D.; Chandler, G. A.; Nelson, A. J.; Torres, J. A.; McWatters, B. R.

    2014-11-15

    A methodology for obtaining empirical curves relating absolute measured scintillation light output to beta energy deposited is presented. Output signals were measured from thin plastic scintillator using NIST traceable beta and gamma sources and MCNP5 was used to model the energy deposition from each source. Combining the experimental and calculated results gives the desired empirical relationships. To validate, the sensitivity of a beryllium/scintillator-layer neutron activation detector was predicted and then exposed to a known neutron fluence from a Deuterium-Deuterium fusion plasma (DD). The predicted and the measured sensitivity were in statistical agreement.

  4. Predicting the sensitivity of the beryllium/scintillator layer neutron detector using Monte Carlo and experimental response functions.

    PubMed

    Styron, J D; Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Hahn, K D; Chandler, G A; Nelson, A J; Torres, J A; McWatters, B R; Carpenter, Ken; Bonura, M A

    2014-11-01

    A methodology for obtaining empirical curves relating absolute measured scintillation light output to beta energy deposited is presented. Output signals were measured from thin plastic scintillator using NIST traceable beta and gamma sources and MCNP5 was used to model the energy deposition from each source. Combining the experimental and calculated results gives the desired empirical relationships. To validate, the sensitivity of a beryllium/scintillator-layer neutron activation detector was predicted and then exposed to a known neutron fluence from a Deuterium-Deuterium fusion plasma (DD). The predicted and the measured sensitivity were in statistical agreement. PMID:25430363

  5. Double {beta} experiments with the help of scintillation and HPGe detectors at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A.; Konovalov, S. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Belli, P.; D'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Kudovbenko, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vyshnevskyi, I. M.; Yurchenko, S. S.; Brudanin, V. B.; and others

    2011-12-16

    A search for double beta decay of {sup 64,70}Zn, {sup 180,186}W was carried out by using low background ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators, while a CeCl{sub 3} scintillation detector was applied to investigate 2{beta} processes in {sup 136,138,142}Ce. A search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 96,104}Ru, {sup 156,158}Dy, {sup 190,198}Pt and study of 2{nu}2{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the first excited 0{sup +} level of {sup 100}Ru were realized by ultra-low background HPGe {gamma} spectrometry. Moreover, CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators from enriched {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd isotopes were developed to search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd. Finally, experiments aimed to investigate {sup 96,104}Ru and {sup 116}Cd are in progress and a new phase of the experiment to search for 2{beta} processes in {sup 106}Cd is in preparation.

  6. Development of Scintillator Detectors for Fast-Ignition Experiments and Down-Scattered Neutron Measurements on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Sangster, T. C.; Marshall, K. L.; Shoup, M. J., III; Buczek, T.; Pruyne, A.; Fox, M.; Duffy, T.; Moran, M. J.; Lauck, R.

    2009-11-01

    A small signal must be recorded after very large DT or hard x-ray signals in a neutron time-of-flight detector to measure down-scattered neutrons in cryogenic DT implosions or to measure neutron yield in the presence of hard x-ray background from an ultrahigh-intensity laser. Several detectors with plastic and liquid scintillators were developed and tested at the Omega/Omega EP Laser Facility in cryogenic DT implosions and integrated fast-ignition experiments. A gated photomultiplier tube was used to eliminate large DT or hard x-ray signals. The liquid scintillator consists of 0.4% PPO, 0.04% MSB dissolved in xylene and saturated with oxygen. The afterglow (long decay constant) with this scintillator is 100x less than conventional scintillators. This is an essential property to mitigate the residual scintillator signal in down-scattered neutron measurements and fast-ignition experiments. Detector designs and responses with the different scintillators will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC52-08NA28302, DE-FC02-04ER54789, and DE-FG02-05ER54839.

  7. Measurement of the spectral fluence rate of reference neutron sources with a liquid scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Zimbal, A

    2007-01-01

    Reference neutron sources such as (241)AmBe(alpha,n) and (252)Cf are commonly used to calibrate neutron detectors for radiation protection purposes. The calibration factors of these detectors depend on the spectral distribution of the neutron fluence from the source. Differences between the spectral fluence of the neutron source and the ISO-recommended reference spectra might be caused by the properties of the individual source. The spectral neutron fluence rates of different reference neutron sources used at PTB were measured with a liquid scintillation detector (NE213), using maximum entropy unfolding and a new, experimentally determined detector response matrix. The detector response matrix was determined by means of the time-of-flight technique at a pulsed neutron source with a broad energy distribution realised at the PTB accelerator facility. The results of the measurements of the reference sources are compared with the ISO-recommended reference spectra. For the PTB (241)AmBe(alpha,n) reference source, the spectral neutron fluence was determined by means of a high-resolution (3)He semiconductor sandwich spectrometer in 1982. These measurements were the basis for the ISO recommendations. The current measurements confirm the high-energy part (E(n) > 2 MeV) of this spectrum and demonstrate the suitability of this new method for high-resolution spectrometry of broad neutron spectra. PMID:17553863

  8. Improving photoelectron counting and particle identification in scintillation detectors with Bayesian techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi-Ronquest, M.; Amaudruz, P.-A.; Batygov, M.; Beltran, B.; Bodmer, M.; Boulay, M. G.; Broerman, B.; Buck, B.; Butcher, A.; Cai, B.; Caldwell, T.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cleveland, B.; Coakley, K.; Dering, K.; Duncan, F. A.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, R.; Gastler, D.; Giuliani, F.; Gold, M.; Golovko, V. V.; Gorel, P.; Graham, K.; Grace, E.; Guerrero, N.; Guiseppe, V.; Hallin, A. L.; Harvey, P.; Hearns, C.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Hofgartner, J.; Jaditz, S.; Jillings, C. J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Kelsey, J.; Klein, J. R.; Ku?niak, M.; LaTorre, A.; Lawson, I.; Li, O.; Lidgard, J. J.; Liimatainen, P.; Linden, S.; McFarlane, K.; McKinsey, D. N.; MacMullin, S.; Mastbaum, A.; Mathew, R.; McDonald, A. B.; Mei, D.-M.; Monroe, J.; Muir, A.; Nantais, C.; Nicolics, K.; Nikkel, J. A.; Noble, T.; O'Dwyer, E.; Olsen, K.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Ouellet, C.; Palladino, K.; Pasuthip, P.; Perumpilly, G.; Pollmann, T.; Rau, P.; Retire, F.; Rielage, K.; Schnee, R.; Seibert, S.; Skensved, P.; Sonley, T.; Vzquez-Juregui, E.; Veloce, L.; Walding, J.; Wang, B.; Wang, J.; Ward, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-05-01

    Many current and future dark matter and neutrino detectors are designed to measure scintillation light with a large array of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The energy resolution and particle identification capabilities of these detectors depend in part on the ability to accurately identify individual photoelectrons in PMT waveforms despite large variability in pulse amplitudes and pulse pileup. We describe a Bayesian technique that can identify the times of individual photoelectrons in a sampled PMT waveform without deconvolution, even when pileup is present. To demonstrate the technique, we apply it to the general problem of particle identification in single-phase liquid argon dark matter detectors. Using the output of the Bayesian photoelectron counting algorithm described in this paper, we construct several test statistics for rejection of backgrounds for dark matter searches in argon. Compared to simpler methods based on either observed charge or peak finding, the photoelectron counting technique improves both energy resolution and particle identification of low energy events in calibration data from the DEAP-1 detector and simulation of the larger MiniCLEAN dark matter detector.

  9. The time-walk of analog constant fraction discriminators using very fast scintillator detectors with linear and non-linear energy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rgis, J.-M.; Rudigier, M.; Jolie, J.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, C.; Pascovici, G.; Warr, N.

    2012-08-01

    The electronic ?-? fast timing technique allows for direct nuclear lifetime determination down to the few picoseconds region by measuring the time difference between two coincident ?-ray transitions. Using high resolution ultra-fast LaBr3(Ce) scintillator detectors in combination with the recently developed mirror symmetric centroid difference method, nuclear lifetimes are measured with a time resolving power of around 5 ps. The essence of the method is to calibrate the energy dependent position (centroid) of the prompt response function of the setup which is obtained for simultaneously occurring events. This time-walk of the prompt response function induced by the analog constant fraction discriminator has been determined by systematic measurements using different photomultiplier tubes and timing adjustments of the constant fraction discriminator. We propose a universal calibration function which describes the time-walk or the combined ?-? time-walk characteristics, respectively, for either a linear or a non-linear amplitude versus energy dependency of the scintillator detector output pulses.

  10. Unfolding the fast neutron spectra of a BC501A liquid scintillation detector using GRAVEL method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, YongHao; Chen, XiMeng; Lei, JiaRong; An, Li; Zhang, XiaoDong; Shao, JianXiong; Zheng, Pu; Wang, XinHua

    2014-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of the neutron energy spectra is useful in basic research and applications. The overall procedure of measuring and unfolding the fast neutron energy spectra with BC501A liquid scintillation detector is described. The recoil proton spectrum of 241Am-Be neutrons was obtained experimentally. With the NRESP7 code, the response matrix of detector was simulated. Combining the recoil proton spectrum and response matrix, the unfolding of neutron spectra was performed by GRAVEL iterative algorithm. A MatLab program based on the GRAVEL method was developed. The continuous neutron spectrum of 241Am-Be source and monoenergetic neutron spectrum of D-T source have been unfolded successfully and are in good agreement with their standard reference spectra. The unfolded 241Am-Be spectrum are more accurate than the spectra unfolded by artificial neural networks in recent years.

  11. Digital discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in organic scintillation detectors using moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xufei; Zhang, Xing; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Zhang, Guohui; Fan, Tieshuan; Yuan, Guoliang; Yang, Jinwei; Yang, Qingwei

    2012-09-01

    Digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray events in an organic scintillator has been investigated by moment analysis. Signals induced by an americium-beryllium (Am/Be) isotropic neutron source in a stilbene crystal detector have been sampled with a flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) of 1 GSamples/s sampling rate and 10-bit vertical resolution. Neutrons and gamma-rays have been successfully discriminated with a threshold corresponding to gamma-ray energy about 217 keV. Moment analysis has also been verified against the results assessed by a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. It is shown that the classification of neutrons and gamma-rays afforded by moment analysis is consistent with that achieved by digital TOF measurement. This method has been applied to analyze the data acquired from the stilbene crystal detector in mixed radiation field of the HL-2A tokamak deuterium plasma discharges and the results are described.

  12. Digital discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in organic scintillation detectors using moment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Xufei; Zhang Xing; Yuan Xi; Chen Jinxiang; Li Xiangqing; Zhang Guohui; Fan Tieshuan; Yuan Guoliang; Yang Jinwei; Yang Qingwei

    2012-09-15

    Digital discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray events in an organic scintillator has been investigated by moment analysis. Signals induced by an americium-beryllium (Am/Be) isotropic neutron source in a stilbene crystal detector have been sampled with a flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) of 1 GSamples/s sampling rate and 10-bit vertical resolution. Neutrons and gamma-rays have been successfully discriminated with a threshold corresponding to gamma-ray energy about 217 keV. Moment analysis has also been verified against the results assessed by a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. It is shown that the classification of neutrons and gamma-rays afforded by moment analysis is consistent with that achieved by digital TOF measurement. This method has been applied to analyze the data acquired from the stilbene crystal detector in mixed radiation field of the HL-2A tokamak deuterium plasma discharges and the results are described.

  13. Neutron energy spectrum measurements with a compact liquid scintillation detector on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, X.; Zhang, X.; Xie, X.; Gorini, G.; Chen, Z.; Peng, X.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Fan, T.; Zhong, G.; Hu, L.; Wan, B.

    2013-07-01

    A neutron detector based on EJ301 liquid scintillator has been employed at EAST to measure the neutron energy spectrum for D-D fusion plasma. The detector was carefully characterized in different quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields generated by a 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. In recent experimental campaigns, due to the low neutron yield at EAST, a new shielding device was designed and located as close as possible to the tokamak to enhance the count rate of the spectrometer. The fluence of neutrons and ?-rays was measured with the liquid neutron spectrometer and was consistent with 3He proportional counter and NaI(Tl) ?-ray spectrometer measurements. Plasma ion temperature values were deduced from the neutron spectrum in discharges with lower hybrid wave injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. Scattered neutron spectra were simulated by the Monte Carlo transport Code, and they were well verified by the pulse height measurements at low energies.

  14. Simulations of neutron and proton detection for a 4? plastic scintillator detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic, Tomislav; Simicevic, N.; Trezeciak, R.; Ullrich, H.

    1997-02-01

    Neutron detection efficiencies for a 4 (pi) plastic scintillator detector were calculated with the Monte Carlo code of Cecil et al for various threshold of 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 20 MeVee, assuming an isotropic distribution of neutrons emerging form the center of the target. A good agreement between the data obtained from the reaction (pi) +4He yields pppn with 120 MeV pions and efficiency calculations has been found. Proton reaction losses for 15, 20 and 35 cm thick plastic detectors were calculated using the GEANT code for proton energies up to 150 MeV. Reaction losses were extracted from the simulated spectra. Our correction curve for proton reaction losses gives slightly higher values than the data of Measday and Serre and the calculation of Janni.

  15. Active neutron methods for nuclear safeguards applications using Helium-4 gas scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jason M.

    Active neutron methods use a neutron source to interrogate fissionable material. In this work a 4He gas scintillation fast neutron detection system is used to measure neutrons created by the interrogation. Three new applications of this method are developed: spent nuclear fuel assay, fission rate measurement, and special nuclear material detection. Three active neutron methods are included in this thesis. First a non-destructive plutonium assay technique called Multispectral Active Neutron Interrogation Analysis is developed. It is based on interrogating fuel with neutrons at several different energies. The induced fission rates at each interrogation energy are compared with results from a neutron transport model of the irradiation geometry in a system of equations to iteratively solve the inverse problem for isotopic composition. The model is shown to converge on the correct composition for a material with 3 different fissionable components, a representative neutron absorber, and any neutron transparent material such as oxygen in a variety of geometries. Next an experimental fission rate measurement technique is developed using 4He gas scintillation fast neutron detector. Several unique features of this detector allow it to detect and provide energy information on fast neutrons with excellent gamma discrimination efficiency. The detector can measure induced fission rate by energetically differentiating between interrogation neutrons and higher energy fission neutrons. The detector response to a mono-energetic deuterium-deuterium fusion neutron generator and a 252Cf source are compared to examine the difference in detected energy range. Finally we demonstrate a special nuclear material detection technique by detecting an unambiguous fission neutron signal produced in natural uranium during active neutron interrogation using a deuterium-deuterium neutron generator and a high pressure 4He gas fast neutron scintillation detector. Energy histograms resulting from this data show the buildup of a detected fission neutron signal at higher energies. This signal path has a direct application to the determination of induced fission rate and the detection of shielded nuclear material in cargo and air containers. It allows for continuous interrogation and detection.

  16. SU-E-T-553: Characterization of Plastic Scintillator Detectors for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H; Lin, H; Darafsheh, A; Finlay, J; Both, S; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize basic performance of plastic scintillator detectors (PSD) designed for dosimetry of radiation therapy. Methods: The Exradin W1 Scintillator is a plastic scintillating fiber-based detector designed for highly accurate measurement of small radiotherapy fields used in patient plan verification and machine commissioning and QA procedures. The Cerenkov emissions were corrected using spectral separation. The optical signal was converted to electronic signal with a photodiode. We measured its dosimetry performance, including percentage depth dose, output factor, dose and dose rate linear response. We compared the dosimetry results with reference ion chamber measurements. Results: The dosimetry results of PSD agree well with reference ion chamber measurements. For percentage depth dose, the differences between PSD and ion chamber results are on average 1.7±1.1% and 0.8±0.8% with a maximum of 3.5% and 2.7% for 6MV and 15MV beams, respectively. For the output factors, PSD measurements are within 2% from ion chamber results. The dose linear response is within 1% when dose is larger than 20 MU for both 6 MV and 15 MV. The dose rate linear response is within 1% for the entire dose rate used (100 MU/min to 600MU/min). Conclusions: The current design of PSD is feasible for the dosimtry measurement in radiation therapy. This combination of PSD and photodiode system could be extended to multichannel array detection of dose distribution. It might as well be used as range verification in proton therapy. The work is partially supported by: DOD (W81XWH-09-2-0174) and American Cancer Society (IRG-78-002-28)

  17. Toward 3D dosimetry of intensity modulated radiation therapy treatments with plastic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, M.; Gingras, L.; Archambault, L.; Beddar, S.; Beaulieu, L.

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we present a novel two Dimensional Plastic Scintillation Detector (2D-PSD) array designed to measure dose distributions generated by high energy photon beams from medical linear accelerators. This study aim to demonstrate that the dose distribution in the irradiated volume is not modified by the presence of several hundred plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs). The 2D-PSD consists of 781 PSDs inserted in a plastic water slab. The dose distributions measured with the 2D-PSD were compared to calculations from a treatment planning system (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical Systems) and with measurements taken with an ionization chambers array (MatriXX Evolution, IBA Dosimetry). Furthermore, a clinical head and neck IMRT plan was delivered on the 2D-PSD. A good agreement is obtained between the measured and planned dose distributions. The results show that the 2D arrangement presented in this work is water equivalent and transparent to x-ray radiation. As a consequence, our design could be extended to multiple detection planes, opening the possibility for 3D dosimetry with PSDs.

  18. Performance assessment of a 2D array of plastic scintillation detectors for IMRT quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, Mathieu; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2013-07-01

    The purposes of this work are to assess the performance of a 2D plastic scintillation detectors array prototype for quality assurance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to determine its sensitivity and specificity to positioning errors of one multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf and one MLC leaf bank by applying the principles of signal detection theory. Ten treatment plans (step-and-shoot delivery) and one volumetric modulated arc therapy plan were measured and compared to calculations from two treatment-planning systems (TPSs) and to radiochromic films. The averages gamma passing rates per beam found for the step-and-shoot plans were 95.8% for the criteria (3%, 2 mm), 97.8% for the criteria (4%, 2 mm), and 98.1% for the criteria (3%, 3 mm) when measurements were compared to TPS calculations. The receiver operating characteristic curves for the one leaf errors and one leaf bank errors were determined from simulations (theoretical upper limits) and measurements. This work concludes that arrays of plastic scintillation detectors could be used for IMRT quality assurance in clinics. The use of signal detection theory could improve the quality of dosimetric verifications in radiation therapy by providing optimal discrimination criteria for the detection of different classes of errors.

  19. Thin-film-based scintillators for hard x-ray microimaging detectors: the ScinTAX Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, A.; Cecilia, A.; Douissard, P.-A.; Dupré, K.; Wesemann, V.; Baumbach, T.; Couchaud, M.; Rochet, X.; Riesemeier, H.; Radtke, M.; Martin, T.

    2014-09-01

    The project ScinTAX developed novel thin scintillating films for the application in high performance X-ray imaging and subsequent introduced new X-ray detectors to the market. To achieve this aim lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) scintillators doped with different activators were grown successfully by liquid phase epitaxy. The high density of LSO (7.4 g/cm3), the effective atomic number (65.2) and the high light yield make this scintillator highly applicable for indirect X-ray detection in which the ionizing radiation is converted into visible light and then registered by a digital detector. A modular indirect detection system has been developed to fully exploit the potential of this thin film scintillator for radiographic and tomographic imaging. The system is compatible for high-resolution imaging with moderate dose as well as adaptable to intense high-dose applications where radiation hard microimaging detectors are required. This proceedings article shall review the achieved performances and technical details on this high-resolution detector system which is now available. A selected example application demonstrates the great potential of the optimized detector system for hard X-ray microimaging, i.e. either to improve image contrast due to the availability of efficient thin crystal films or to reduce the dose to the sample.

  20. Response characterization for an EJ315 deuterated organic-liquid scintillation detector for neutron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Chris C.; Enqvist, Andreas; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Howard, A. M.; Kolata, J. J.; Becchetti, F. D.

    2013-11-01

    Organic liquid scintillation detectors have shown promise as neutron detectors for characterizing special nuclear materials in various arms-control applications. Deuterated liquids, such as EJ315, are attractive for spectroscopy applications because the backward-peaked n-d scattering results in enhanced coupling between incident neutron energy and resulting pulse height. This will likely allow better spectrum unfolding. In this work, we present a measured neutron response matrix for a three-by-two-in. cylindrical EJ315 detector, and compare to the hydrogen-based liquid EJ309 in an otherwise identical assembly. We also present measured light-output relations for both detectors. A continuous-spectrum neutron source, obtained with the bombardment of 11B with 5.5-MeV deuterons at the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Notre Dame, was used for the measurement. Detected neutrons were sorted via time of flight into 100-keV energy groups, over the energy range from 0.5 to 15 MeV. The resulting response matrix represents a detailed characterization of pulse-height response to neutrons over that energy range. To the authors' knowledge, a measured response matrix and light-output relation for EJ315 have not been reported, and published characterizations of the similar NE230 are of less detail over this energy range. Matrix-condition analysis indicates an advantage for EJ315 over EJ309 in the number of independent parameters available in inversion procedures.

  1. [Effects of ionizing radiation on scintillators and other particle detectors]. Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    Proudfoot, J.

    1992-09-01

    It is my task to summarise the great variety of topics (covering a refreshing mix of physics, chemistry and technology) presented at this conference, which has focused on the effects of ionising radiation on scintillators and other particle detectors. One of the reasons and the central interest of many of the participants was the use of such detectors in experiments at two future large hadron colliders: the Superconducting Super Collider to be operating outside of Dallas in the United States by the turn of the decade and its European counterpart the Large Hadron Collider to be operating outside of Geneva in Switzerland on a similar time scale. These accelerators are the ``apple of the high energy physicist`s eye.`` Their goal is to uncover the elusive Higgs particle and thereby set the cornerstone in our current knowledge of elementary particle interactions. This is the Quest, and from this lofty height the presentations rapidly moved on to the specific questions of experimental science: how such an experiment is carried out; why radiation damage is an issue; how radiation damage affects detectors; which factors affect radiation damage characteristics; which factors are not affected by radiation damage; and how better detectors may be constructed. These were the substance of this conference.

  2. High-pressure plastic scintillation detector for measuring radiogenic gases in flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schell, W. R.; Vives-Batlle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.

    1999-02-01

    Radioactive gases are emitted into the atmosphere from nuclear electric power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, from hospitals discarding xenon used in diagnostic medicine, as well as from nuclear weapons tests. A high-pressure plastic scintillation detector was constructed to measure atmospheric levels of such radioactive gases by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electron decays. Operational tests and calibrations were made that permit integration of the flow detectors into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification system (GASP). The equipment developed can be used for measuring fission gases released from nuclear reactor sources and/or as part of monitoring equipment for enforcing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The detector is being used routinely for in-line gas separation efficiency measurements, at the elevated operational pressures used for the high-pressure swing analysis system (2070 kPa) and at flow rates of 5-15 l/min [1, 2]. This paper presents the design features, operational methods, calibration, and detector applications.

  3. Present status of sensitive detector of reactor's antineutrinos using scintillating detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajt, L.; Belov, V.; Burešová, H.; Egorov, V. G.; Fomina, M.; Kuznetsov, A.; Mamedov, F.; Ponomarev, D.; Přidal, P.; Rozova, I.; Špavorová, M.; Štekl, I.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-08-01

    In 2011, the reanalysis of the reactor antineutrinos spectra led to the formulation of the Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly (RAA) [1], which indicates the discrepancy between measured and expected antineutrino fluxes on short baselines. This discrepancy appears to favor the existence of the fourth "sterile" neutrino with |Δm2|>1 eV2. To confirm or reject this hypothesis a high sensitive antineutrino detector located close to the reactor is required. In addition to that such a detector could be used to online monitor the isotopic composition of the reactor core and to prevent illegal production and removal of239Pu, which is the essential part of nuclear weapons. Detector DANSSino [2] already proved that even a compact antineutrino detector (˜ 1 m3) based on polystyrene is capable of antineutrino detection in the close vicinity of a reactor core (˜ 10 m) with signal to background ratio about one. As a common activity between JINR Dubna and IEAP CTU a new prototype of detector (called S3) has been proposed and is under construction. The construction design, selected results of Monte Carlo simulations and results of benchmark tests are presented.

  4. A PET detector prototype based on digital SiPMs and GAGG scintillators.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Florian R; Shimazoe, Kenji; Somlai-Schweiger, Ian; Ziegler, Sibylle I

    2015-02-21

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) are interesting light sensors for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The detector signal of analog SiPMs is the total charge of all fired cells. Energy and time information have to be determined with dedicated readout electronics. Philips Digital Photon Counting has developed a SiPM with added electronics on cell level delivering a digital value of the time stamp and number of fired cells. These so called Digital Photon Counters (DPC) are fully digital devices. In this study, the feasibility of using DPCs in combination with LYSO (Lutetium Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate) and GAGG (Gadolinium Aluminum Gallium Garnet) scintillators for PET is tested. Each DPC module has 64 channels with 3.2 3.8775 mm(2), comprising 3200 cells each. GAGG is a recently developed scintillator (Zeff = 54, 6.63 g cm(-3), 520 nm peak emission, 46?000 photons MeV(-1), 88 ns (92%) and 230 ns (8%) decay times, non-hygroscopic, chemically and mechanically stable). Individual crystals of 2 2 6 mm(3) were coupled onto each DPC pixel. LYSO coupled to the DPC results in a coincidence time resolution (CTR) of 171 ps FWHM and an energy resolution of 12.6% FWHM at 511 keV. Using GAGG, coincidence timing is 310 ps FWHM and energy resolution is 8.5% FWHM. A PET detector prototype with 2 DPCs equipped with a GAGG array matching the pixel size (3.2 3.8775 8 mm(3)) was assembled. To emulate a ring of 10 modules, objects are rotated in the field of view. CTR of the PET is 619 ps and energy resolution is 9.2% FWHM. The iterative MLEM reconstruction is based on system matrices calculated with an analytical detector response function model. A phantom with rods of different diameters filled with (18)F was used for tomographic tests. PMID:25633017

  5. A PET detector prototype based on digital SiPMs and GAGG scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Florian R.; Shimazoe, Kenji; Somlai-Schweiger, Ian; Ziegler, Sibylle I.

    2015-02-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) are interesting light sensors for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The detector signal of analog SiPMs is the total charge of all fired cells. Energy and time information have to be determined with dedicated readout electronics. Philips Digital Photon Counting has developed a SiPM with added electronics on cell level delivering a digital value of the time stamp and number of fired cells. These so called Digital Photon Counters (DPC) are fully digital devices. In this study, the feasibility of using DPCs in combination with LYSO (Lutetium Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate) and GAGG (Gadolinium Aluminum Gallium Garnet) scintillators for PET is tested. Each DPC module has 64 channels with 3.2 3.8775 mm2, comprising 3200 cells each. GAGG is a recently developed scintillator (Zeff = 54, 6.63 g cm-3, 520 nm peak emission, 46?000 photons MeV-1, 88 ns (92%) and 230 ns (8%) decay times, non-hygroscopic, chemically and mechanically stable). Individual crystals of 2 2 6 mm3 were coupled onto each DPC pixel. LYSO coupled to the DPC results in a coincidence time resolution (CTR) of 171 ps FWHM and an energy resolution of 12.6% FWHM at 511 keV. Using GAGG, coincidence timing is 310 ps FWHM and energy resolution is 8.5% FWHM. A PET detector prototype with 2 DPCs equipped with a GAGG array matching the pixel size (3.2 3.8775 8 mm3) was assembled. To emulate a ring of 10 modules, objects are rotated in the field of view. CTR of the PET is 619 ps and energy resolution is 9.2% FWHM. The iterative MLEM reconstruction is based on system matrices calculated with an analytical detector response function model. A phantom with rods of different diameters filled with 18F was used for tomographic tests.

  6. On method of muon spectrum measurements by the scintillation detectors of a large thickness T4t sub o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryazhskaya, O. G.

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for the study of muon spectrum are presented. The direct ones include the muon energy measurements by magnetic spectrometers. The indirect ones deal with the reconstruction of the muon spectrum from the spectrum of secondary particles obtained by burst or calorimeter technique. The burst technique is based on the measurement of the number of cascade particles, mainly in the cascade maximum, by the detectors of small thickness T sub 0. The calorimeter method consist in determination of the cascade energy with help of the cascade curve shape. The multilayer detectors are used for this purpose. They are usually comprised of proportional counters, X-ray emulsion chambers or scintillation counters with the target material placed between them. The scintillation detectors of a large thickness measures the total cascade energy directly and the detector works as a true calorimeter. When the total energy is detected, the cascade spectrum differs from the muon one.

  7. Detectors on base of scintillation structures for registration of volumetric activities of gaseous and liquid media gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadilin, V. V.; Yurov, V. N.; Ryabeva, E. V.; Samossadny, V. T.; Lupar, E. E.; Trofimov, Yu A.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Chebishev, S. B.; Nebolsin, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this research is the development and prototyping of the ionizing radiation detectors for the diagnosis of the physical processes used for monitoring the radiation situation at the thermal or fast neutrons reactors. In this article we present the experimental verification of applicability of the scintillation detectors based on LaBr3(Ce) and YAlO3(Ce). The experimental studies of the gamma-ray detection with several designs of the crystal scintillation detectors in gas and liquid are considered. It was shown that the measurement range in the liquid medium at the duration of one measurement of 100 seconds for 137Cs equals from 3.79·102 Bq/l to 1.08·108 Bq/l for detector prototype based on YAlO3(Ce).

  8. Real-time scintillation array dosimetry for radiotherapy: The advantages of photomultiplier detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Paul Z. Y.; Suchowerska, Natalka; Abolfathi, Peter; McKenzie, David R.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In this paper, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) array dosimetry system has been developed and tested for the real-time readout of multiple scintillation signals from fiber optic dosimeters. It provides array dosimetry with the advantages in sensitivity provided by a PMT, but without the need for a separate PMT for each detector element. Methods: The PMT array system consisted of a multianode PMT, a multichannel data acquisition system, housing and optic fiber connections suitable for clinical use. The reproducibility, channel uniformity, channel crosstalk, acquisition speed, and sensitivity of the PMT array were quantified using a constant light source. Its performance was compared to other readout systems used in scintillation dosimetry. An in vivo HDR brachytherapy treatment was used as an example of a clinical application of the dosimetry system to the measurement of dose at multiple sites in the rectum. The PMT array system was also tested in the pulsed beam of a linear accelerator to test its response speed and its application with two separate methods of Cerenkov background removal. Results: The PMT array dosimetry system was highly reproducible with a measurement uncertainty of 0.13% for a 10 s acquisition period. Optical crosstalk between neighboring channels was accounted for by omitting every second channel. A mathematical procedure was used to account for the crosstalk in next-neighbor channels. The speed and sensitivity of the PMT array system were found be superior to CCD cameras, allowing for measurement of more rapid changes in dose rate. This was further demonstrated by measuring the dose delivered by individual photon pulses of a linear accelerator beam. Conclusions: The PMT array system has advantages over CCD camera-based systems for the readout of scintillation light. It provided a more sensitive, more accurate, and faster response to meet the demands of future developments in treatment delivery.

  9. Fiber optic thermal/fast neutron and gamma ray scintillation detector

    DOEpatents

    Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN); Mihalczo, John T (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-10-30

    A system for detecting fissile and fissionable material originating external to the system includes: a .sup.6Li loaded glass fiber scintillator for detecting thermal neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays; a fast scintillator for detecting fast neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays, the fast scintillator conjoined with the glass fiber scintillator such that the fast scintillator moderates fast neutrons prior to their detection as thermal neutrons by the glass fiber scintillator; and a coincidence detection system for processing the time distributions of arriving signals from the scintillators.

  10. Measurement of the integral characteristics of radiation fields of medium-energy nucleons by plastic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Yu. M.; Polushin, V. B.; Serezhnikov, S. V.

    1991-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the fluences of neutrons and protons with energies above 10-20 MeV and the corresponding dose equivalents by two plastic scintillation detectors of different sizes with an accuracy of 20%, and also a method for determining the total dose equivalent of neutrons and protons by one detector with an accuracy of 40% in mixed fields of hadrons behind the proton accelerator shielding.

  11. Tomographic analysis of neutron and gamma pulse shape distributions from liquid scintillation detectors at Joint European Torus.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, L; Conroy, S; Gorini, G; Horton, L; Murari, A; Popovichev, S; Syme, D B

    2014-02-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D)/Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. Neutrons produced in these plasmas are measured using various types of neutron detectors and spectrometers. Two of these instruments on JET make use of organic liquid scintillator detectors. The neutron emission profile monitor implements 19 liquid scintillation counters to detect the 2.45 MeV neutron emission from D plasmas. A new compact neutron spectrometer is operational at JET since 2010 to measure the neutron energy spectra from both D and DT plasmas. Liquid scintillation detectors are sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation but give light responses of different decay time such that pulse shape discrimination techniques can be applied to identify the neutron contribution of interest from the data. The most common technique consists of integrating the radiation pulse shapes within different ranges of their rising and/or trailing edges. In this article, a step forward in this type of analysis is presented. The method applies a tomographic analysis of the 3-dimensional neutron and gamma pulse shape and pulse height distribution data obtained from liquid scintillation detectors such that n/? discrimination can be improved to lower energies and additional information can be gained on neutron contributions to the gamma events and vice versa. PMID:24593359

  12. Tomographic analysis of neutron and gamma pulse shape distributions from liquid scintillation detectors at Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomelli, L.; Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano ; Conroy, S.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala ; Gorini, G.; Horton, L.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, D. B.

    2014-02-15

    The Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D)/Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. Neutrons produced in these plasmas are measured using various types of neutron detectors and spectrometers. Two of these instruments on JET make use of organic liquid scintillator detectors. The neutron emission profile monitor implements 19 liquid scintillation counters to detect the 2.45 MeV neutron emission from D plasmas. A new compact neutron spectrometer is operational at JET since 2010 to measure the neutron energy spectra from both D and DT plasmas. Liquid scintillation detectors are sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation but give light responses of different decay time such that pulse shape discrimination techniques can be applied to identify the neutron contribution of interest from the data. The most common technique consists of integrating the radiation pulse shapes within different ranges of their rising and/or trailing edges. In this article, a step forward in this type of analysis is presented. The method applies a tomographic analysis of the 3-dimensional neutron and gamma pulse shape and pulse height distribution data obtained from liquid scintillation detectors such that n/γ discrimination can be improved to lower energies and additional information can be gained on neutron contributions to the gamma events and vice versa.

  13. A quantitative PGNAA study for use in aqueous solution measurements using Am-Be neutron source and BGO scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Ahmadi, P.; Doost-Mohammadi, V.

    2016-02-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system including an Am-Be neutron source and BGO scintillation detector are used for quantitative analysis of bulk samples. Both Monte Carlo-simulated and experimental data are considered as input data libraries for two different procedures based on neural network and least squares methods. The results confirm the feasibility and precision of the proposed methods.

  14. Development of Lanthanum Bromide and Lanthanum Chloride Scintillator Detectors for Hard X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Budden, B. S.; Case, G. L.; Cherry, M. L.; Macri, J. R.; McConnell, M. L.; Ryan, J. M.

    2006-09-01

    Advanced scintillator materials such as LaBr3:Ce and LaCl3:Ce hold great promise for future hard X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysics missions due to their high density, high light output, good linearity, and fast decay times. Of particular importance for future space-based imaging instruments, such as coded-aperture telescopes, are the precise spatial location of individual gamma-ray interactions and the susceptibility of the material to radiation damage. We have investigated the position and energy resolution achievable within LaBr3:Ce and LaCl3:Ce crystals (both monolithic and pixellated) using a variety of readout techniques, including position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, multi-anode photomultiplier tubes, and orthogonal layers of wavelength-shifting fibers. We have also exposed LaBr3:Ce and LaCl3:Ce detectors to high-energy proton irradiation in order to study any radiation damage and activation. We present the results of these tests and discuss the applicability of such advanced scintillators to future high-energy imaging astrophysics missions.

  15. Radiation hardness of plastic scintillators for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jivan, H.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Erasmus, R.; Liao, S.; Madhuku, M.; Peters, G.; Sekonya, K.; Solvyanov, O.

    2015-10-01

    The radiation damage in polyvinyl toluene based plastic scintillator EJ200 obtained from ELJEN technology was investigated. This forms part of a comparative study conducted to aid in the upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector during which the Gap scintillators will be replaced. Samples subjected to 6 MeV proton irradiation using the tandem accelerator of iThemba LABS, were irradiated with doses of approximately 0.8 MGy, 8 MGy, 25 MGy and 80 MGy. The optical properties were investigated using transmission spectroscopy and light yield analysis whilst structural damage was assessed using Raman spectroscopy. Findings indicate that for the dose of 0.8 MGy, no structural damage occurs and light loss can be attributed to a breakdown in the light transfer between base and fluor dopants. For doses of 8 MGy to 80 MGy, structural damage leads to possible hydrogen loss in the benzene ring of the PVT base which forms free radicals. This results in an additional absorptive component causing increased transmission loss and light yield loss with increasing dose.

  16. Studies on the Module Structure for the NOvA Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotman, Michael James

    This thesis contains studies pertinent to the construction of modules for the detectors of the NOvA experiment. The tensile strength of acrylic and epoxy adhesives used in construction of the detector was studied over time and with various surface preparations. Aging in oil or in air in a hot box as well as sanding and corona discharge surface treatments were examined. All materials used in the detector were studied to determine if interaction would occur with and degrade the pseudocumene liquid scintillator. Following the appearance of cracking manifold covers in installed modules, studies were done to determine the cause and mitigation of these cracks. Manifold covers that had been pressurized during a seal check during module construction were examined for the formation of cracks. Internal cracks were visible on the majority of manifold covers tested at 1.4 bar with the original containment units. It was found that reducing the pressure testing of the modules from 1.4 bar to 0.7 bar and increasing the rigidity of the pressure test containment units eliminated the formation of visible cracks in the manifold covers.

  17. Fast neutron measurement at Soudan Mine using a large liquid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Mei, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing neutron background is extremely important to the success of rare-event physics searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches. Measuring the energy spectrum of fast neutrons for an underground laboratory is difficult and it requires intensive R&D for a given technology. EJ-301 liquid scintillator(known also as NE-213) is implemented as the target for a 12 liter neutron detector fabricated at the University of South Dakota. The light output response to atmospheric neutrons from a few MeV up to ~ 70 MeV has been calibrated for this detector. The detector has been taking data at Soudan Mine for over two years. We report the measured muon-induced neutrons in this paper. This work is supported in part by NSF PHY-0758120, PHYS-0919278, PHYS-0758120, PHYS-1242640, DOE grant DE-FG02-10ER46709, the Office of Research at the University of South Dakota and a 2010 research center support by the State of South Dakota.

  18. Measurement of loss of DT fusion products using scintillator detectors in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Marsala, R.J.; Palladino, R.W.; Zweben, S.J.; Tuszewski, M.

    1995-03-01

    A poloidal array of MeV ion loss probes previously used to measure DD fusion product loss has been upgraded to measure the loss of alpha particles from DT plasmas in TFTR. The following improvements to the system have been made in preparation for the use of tritium in TFTR: (1) relocation of detectors to a neutronshielded enclosure in the basement to reduce neutron-induced background signals; (2) replacement of ZnS:Cu (P31) scintillators in the probes with the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}0{sub 12}:Ce(P46) variety to minimize damage and assure linearity at the fluxes anticipated from DT plasmas; and (3) shielding of the fiber optic bundles which carry the fight from the probes to the detectors to reduce neutron- and gamma-induced light within them. In addition to the above preparations, the probes have been absolutely calibrated for alpha particles by using the Van de Graaf accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Alpha particle losses from DT plasmas have been observed, and losses at the detector 901 below the midplane are consistent with first orbit loss.

  19. Toward a Real-Time In Vivo Dosimetry System Using Plastic Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina M.; Poenisch, Falk; Beaulieu, Luc; Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew; Beddar, Sam

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: In the present study, we have presented and validated a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) system designed for real-time multiprobe in vivo measurements. Methods and Materials: The PSDs were built with a dose-sensitive volume of 0.4 mm{sup 3}. The PSDs were assembled into modular detector patches, each containing five closely packed PSDs. Continuous dose readings were performed every 150 ms, with a gap between consecutive readings of <0.3 ms. We first studied the effect of electron multiplication. We then assessed system performance in acrylic and anthropomorphic pelvic phantoms. Results: The PSDs were compatible with clinical rectal balloons and were easily inserted into the anthropomorphic phantom. With an electron multiplication average gain factor of 40, a twofold increase in the signal/noise ratio was observed, making near real-time dosimetry feasible. Under calibration conditions, the PSDs agreed with the ion chamber measurements to 0.08%. Precision, evaluated as a function of the total dose delivered, ranged from 2.3% at 2 cGy to 0.4% at 200 cGy. Conclusion: Real-time PSD measurements are highly accurate and precise. These PSDs can be mounted onto rectal balloons, transforming these clinical devices into in vivo dose detectors without modifying current clinical practice. Real-time monitoring of the dose delivered near the rectum during prostate radiotherapy should help radiation oncologists protect this sensitive normal structure.

  20. Mass characterization of MaPMT tubes for the LHCb scintillator pad detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graugs, Eugeni; Comerma, Albert; Garrido, Llus; Gascn, David; Garra, Jordi; Graciani, Ricardo; Picatoste, Eduard; Aguil, Ernest; Vilass-Cardona, Xavier; Gaspar de Valenzuela, lvaro; Bohner, Gerard; Bonnefoy, Romeo; Borras, David; Cornat, Remi; Crouau, Michel; Deschamps, Olivier; Jacquet, Philippe; Lecoq, Jacques; Monteil, Stephane; Perret, Pascal; Reinmuth, Guy

    2007-03-01

    The final choice as the photomultiplier solution for both the LHCb Pre-Shower (PS) and the Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) are the R7600-00-M64MOD Hamamatsu 64 channel photomultiplier tubes (MaPMT). A total of 220 units have been purchased to the manufacturer and around 100 units, the part corresponding to the SPD, have been characterized at the photon detection test bench facility in the University of Barcelona (UB) high energy physics group laboratory. There, the crucial features of the tubes such as linearity, gain, channel cross-talk and anode uniformity of response have been measured to ensure the compliance with the specifications agreed with the manufacturer.

  1. Time and position sensitive single photon detector for scintillator read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schssler, S.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Schmidt, L. Ph H.; Tittelmeier, K.; Czasch, A.; Dangendorf, V.; Jagutzki, O.

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a photon counting detector system for combined neutron and ? radiography which can determine position, time and intensity of a secondary photon flash created by a high-energy particle or photon within a scintillator screen. The system is based on a micro-channel plate photomultiplier concept utilizing image charge coupling to a position- and time-sensitive read-out anode placed outside the vacuum tube in air, aided by a standard photomultiplier and very fast pulse-height analyzing electronics. Due to the low dead time of all system components it can cope with the high throughput demands of a proposed combined fast neutron and dual discrete energy ? radiography method (FNDDER). We show tests with different types of delay-line read-out anodes and present a novel pulse-height-to-time converter circuit with its potential to discriminate ? energies for the projected FNDDER devices for an automated cargo container inspection system (ACCIS).

  2. Discriminating Neutron-Gamma Waveforms from Novel Scintillation Detectors using Digital Pulse Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, T.; Lakshmi, S.; Chowdhury, P.; Glodo, J.; Shah, K.

    2011-04-01

    In this research, we report the results of neutron-? pulse shape discrimination studies performed with digital signal processing techniques. Two novel scintillator crystals, Cs2LiLaBr6 (CLLB) and Cs2LiYCl6 (CLYC), (provided by Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc.), which have different pulse shapes for neutron and ?-ray detection, were used to detect neutrons and ?-rays from a PuBe source enclosed in paraffin. Following digitization of the pulse waveforms with a 1 GHz Lecroy Digital Oscilloscope, a pulse shape discrimination algorithm was explored through custom C++ programs integrated within the ROOT analysis software developed at CERN. The selection of integration windows was optimized to provide the greatest separation between the two signals. The latest results for the CLYC and CLLB crystal will be presented and the neutron-? discrimination capabilities of the two detectors will be compared.

  3. The effect of anomalous neutron events: new data from the scintillation neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubenko, A.P.; Shepetov, A.L.; Chernichenko, S.K.; Sveshnikova, L.G.; Vassil'chenko, V.G.

    Experiments with the new generation of neutron detectors --- the boron-containing scintillators placed inside a standard NM64 type neutron supermonitor --- have shown, that the peculiar high-multiplicity neutron events with anomalously prolonged temporal distributions of neutron intensity, which have been observed earlier in a set of neutron monitor installations, are connected with an overload of the gas ionization counters the monitors have been traditionally build on. The new data permit to state, that this overload is caused by production of a multitude of low-energy neutrons in the core region of extensive air showers with the energies above the knee of primary cosmic ray spectrum --- the effect, which is incompatible with the standard models of EAS development.

  4. A large area plastic scintillator detector array for fast neutron measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, P. C.; Chakrabarty, D. R.; Datar, V. M.; Kumar, Suresh; Mirgule, E. T.; Mitra, A.; Nanal, V.; Kujur, R.

    2009-01-01

    A large area plastic scintillator detector array ( 11 m2) has been set up for fast neutron spectroscopy at the BARC-TIFR Pelletron laboratory, Mumbai. The energy, time and position response has been measured for electrons using radioactive sources and for monoenergetic neutrons using the 7Li (p,n1)7Be*(0.429 MeV) reaction at proton energies between 6.3 and 19 MeV. A Monte Carlo simulation of the energy dependent efficiency of the array for neutron detection is in agreement with the 7Li (p,n1) measurements. The array has been used to measure the neutron spectrum, in the energy range of 4-12 MeV, in the reaction C12+Nb93 at E(C12)=40 MeV. This is in reasonable agreement with a statistical model calculation.

  5. Energy resolution of small scintillation detectors with SiPM light readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzicka, M.; Moszy?ski, M.; Szcz??niak, T.; Kapusta, M.; Szaw?owski, M.; Wolski, D.

    2013-02-01

    The development of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) with a large number of APD cells and improved linearity of the pulse height response prompted interest in their application to gamma spectrometry with scintillators. Hamamatsu MPPC sensors equipped with 3600 and 14400 APD cells were chosen in our study because of their well pronounced single photoelectron spectra, which allowed us to precisely measure the photoelectron numbers (PHE) or fired APD cells and then to discuss, in a quantitative manner, the obtainable energy resolution. The studied detectors were first characterized in direct detection of laser light pulses and then in gamma spectroscopy with LFS and CsI:Tl crystals. In the study with the laser light pulses the linearity of the MPPC response versus a light pulse intensity monitored with PMT was measured. Two different methods were used for an evaluation of the MPPC response expressed in the number of photoelectrons (PHE) generated by light illumination. The direct method (PHEdir), based on the comparison of the light peak position to that of the single photoelectron peak, determined the upper limit of the PHE. The lower limit of the PHE was derived from an analysis of the measured pulse height resolution under the assumption of Poisson statistics and MPPC excess noise factor (ENF) of 1. Furthermore, the ENF of the MPPC is discussed with respect to the contributions of device dead time, optical cross-talk and after-pulses to the results obtained. In the scintillation tests, measurements of energy resolution and non-proportionality of the light yield were performed with LFS and CsI:Tl crystals, and both types of 3 3 mm MPPC detectors were used for light readout. The results are discussed in a quantitative manner based on the measured PHE.

  6. Analytical calculation of the lower bound on timing resolution for PET scintillation detectors comprising high-aspect-ratio crystal elements.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joshua W; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S

    2015-07-01

    Excellent timing resolution is required to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain available from the incorporation of time-of-flight (ToF) information in image reconstruction for positron emission tomography (PET). As the detector's timing resolution improves, so does SNR, reconstructed image quality, and accuracy. This directly impacts the challenging detection and quantification tasks in the clinic. The recognition of these benefits has spurred efforts within the molecular imaging community to determine to what extent the timing resolution of scintillation detectors can be improved and develop near-term solutions for advancing ToF-PET. Presented in this work, is a method for calculating the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) on timing resolution for scintillation detectors with long crystal elements, where the influence of the variation in optical path length of scintillation light on achievable timing resolution is non-negligible. The presented formalism incorporates an accurate, analytical probability density function (PDF) of optical transit time within the crystal to obtain a purely mathematical expression of the CRLB with high-aspect-ratio (HAR) scintillation detectors. This approach enables the statistical limit on timing resolution performance to be analytically expressed for clinically-relevant PET scintillation detectors without requiring Monte Carlo simulation-generated photon transport time distributions. The analytically calculated optical transport PDF was compared with detailed light transport simulations, and excellent agreement was found between the two. The coincidence timing resolution (CTR) between two 3 × 3 × 20 mm(3) LYSO:Ce crystals coupled to analogue SiPMs was experimentally measured to be 162 ± 1 ps FWHM, approaching the analytically calculated lower bound within 6.5%. PMID:26083559

  7. Development of SiPM-based scintillator tile detectors for a multi-layer fast neutron tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, R.; Jakubek, J.; Prokopovich, D.; Uher, J.

    2012-10-01

    We are developing thin tile scintillator detectors with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout for use in a multi-layer fast-neutron tracker. The tracker is based on interleaved Timepix and plastic scintillator layers. The thin 15 15 2 mm plastic scintillators require suitable optical readout in order to detect and measure the energy lost by energetic protons that have been recoiled by fast neutrons. Our first prototype used dual SiPMs, coupled to opposite edges of the scintillator tile using light-guides. An alternative readout geometry was designed in an effort to increase the fraction of scintillation light detected by the SiPMs. The new prototype uses a larger SiPM array to cover the entire top face of the tile. This paper details the comparative performance of the two prototype designs. A deuterium-tritium (DT) fast-neutron source was used to compare the relative light collection efficiency of the two designs. A collimated UV light source was scanned across the detector face to map the uniformity. The new prototype was found to have 9.5 times better light collection efficiency over the original design. Both prototypes exhibit spatial non-uniformity in their response. Methods of correcting this non-uniformity are discussed.

  8. Characterization of plastic scintillators using magnetic resonance techniques for the upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter in the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelwan, C.; Jivan, H.; Joubert, D.; Keartland, J.; Liao, S.; Peters, G.; Sideras-Haddad, E.

    2015-10-01

    In this study we look at radiation damage and its adverse effects on plastic scintillators housed within the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS detector. The study focuses on determining how the interaction of ionizing radiation with plastic scintillators effects their efficacy and desired properties such as high light output and fast decay time. Plastic scintillators form an integral part of the ATLAS trigger system and their optimal functionality is paramount to the success of ATLAS. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provides insight into the electronic structure of the plastics and can characterize the damage caused by ionizing radiation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations will be performed in order to simulate the EPR signal. Preliminary EPR results investigate four different types of plastic scintillators. These include three polyvinyl-toluene based Eljen technologies: EJ200, EJ208 and EJ260, and one polystyrene based Dubna sample. It has been observed that the Dubna sample, identical on the current scintillator used in the ATLAS detector, undergoes more structural damage when compared to the Eljen samples.

  9. KLauS: an ASIC for silicon photomultiplier readout and its application in a setup for production testing of scintillating tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggl, K.; Dorn, M.; Hagdorn, R.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.; Shen, W.

    2014-02-01

    KLauS is an ASIC produced in the AMS 0.35 ?m SiGe process to read out the charge signals from silicon photomultipliers. Developed as an analog front-end for future calorimeters with high granularity as pursued by the AHCAL concept in the CALICE collaboration, the ASIC is designed to measure the charge signal of the sensors in a large dynamic range and with low electronic noise contributions. In order to tune the operation voltage of each sensor individually, an 8-bit DAC to tune the voltage at the input terminal within a range of 2V is implemented. Using an integrated fast comparator with low jitter, the time information can be measured with sub-nanosecond resolution. The low power consumption of the ASIC can be further decreased using power gating techniques. Future versions of KLauS are under development and will incorporate an ADC with a resolution of up to 12-bits and blocks for digital data transmission. The chip is used in a setup for mass testing and characterization of scintillator tiles for the AHCAL test beam program.

  10. On the use of a single-fiber multipoint plastic scintillation detector for 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Therriault-Proulx, Franois; Beddar, Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to prove the feasibility of using a single-fiber multipoint plastic scintillation detector (mPSD) as an in vivo verification tool during 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatments. Methods: A three-point detector was built and inserted inside a catheter-positioning template placed in a water phantom. A hyperspectral approach was implemented to discriminate the different optical signals composing the light output at the exit of the single collection optical fiber. The mPSD was tested with different source-to-detector positions, ranging from 1 to 5 cm radially and over 10.5 cm along the longitudinal axis of the detector, and with various integration times. Several strategies for improving the accuracy of the detector were investigated. The device's accuracy in detecting source position was also tested. Results: Good agreement with the expected doses was obtained for all of the scintillating elements, with average relative differences from the expected values of 3.4 2.1%, 3.0 0.7%, and 4.5 1.0% for scintillating elements from the distal to the proximal. A dose threshold of 3 cGy improved the general accuracy of the detector. An integration time of 3 s offered a good trade-off between precision and temporal resolution. Finally, the mPSD measured the radioactive source positioning uncertainty to be no more than 0.32 0.06 mm. The accuracy and precision of the detector were improved by a dose-weighted function combining the three measurement points and known details about the geometry of the detector construction. Conclusions: The use of a mPSD for high-dose-rate brachytherapy dosimetry is feasible. This detector shows great promise for development of in vivo applications for real-time verification of treatment delivery. PMID:23718599

  11. GIOVE: a new detector setup for high sensitivity germanium spectroscopy at shallow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Hakenmller, J.; Laubenstein, M.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Simgen, H.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development and construction of the high-purity germanium spectrometer setup GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto), recently built and now operated at the shallow underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Heidelberg. Particular attention was paid to the design of a novel passive and active shield, aiming at efficient rejection of environmental and muon induced radiation backgrounds. The achieved sensitivity level of ? 100 \\upmu Bq kg^{-1} for primordial radionuclides from U and Th in typical ? ray sample screening measurements is unique among instruments located at comparably shallow depths and can compete with instruments at far deeper underground sites.

  12. A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2014-01-01

    The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors. PMID:24517746

  13. A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qin; Skaar, Johannes; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2014-01-15

    The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors.

  14. A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2014-01-01

    The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors.

  15. A position sensitive gamma-ray scintillator detector with enhanced spatial resolution, linearity, and field of view.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Pardo, Csar; Goel, Namita; Engert, Tobias; Gerl, Juergen; Isaka, Masahiro; Kojouharov, Ivan; Schaffner, Henning

    2009-12-01

    The performance of a position sensitive gamma-ray scintillator detector (PSD) is described. This PSD is based on a lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal read out by a crossed-wire anode position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The main difference with respect to similar existing devices is the individual multi-anode readout (IMAR) approach that is followed here. This method allows to exploit better the intrinsic characteristics of the PSPMT, thus yielding better linearity, improved spatial resolution, and a larger field of view. The new detector is intended for the characterization of 3-D position sensitive germanium detectors. PMID:19628451

  16. Analytical calculation of the lower bound on timing resolution for PET scintillation detectors comprising high-aspect-ratio crystal elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Joshua W.; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-07-01

    Excellent timing resolution is required to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain available from the incorporation of time-of-flight (ToF) information in image reconstruction for positron emission tomography (PET). As the detector’s timing resolution improves, so does SNR, reconstructed image quality, and accuracy. This directly impacts the challenging detection and quantification tasks in the clinic. The recognition of these benefits has spurred efforts within the molecular imaging community to determine to what extent the timing resolution of scintillation detectors can be improved and develop near-term solutions for advancing ToF-PET. Presented in this work, is a method for calculating the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) on timing resolution for scintillation detectors with long crystal elements, where the influence of the variation in optical path length of scintillation light on achievable timing resolution is non-negligible. The presented formalism incorporates an accurate, analytical probability density function (PDF) of optical transit time within the crystal to obtain a purely mathematical expression of the CRLB with high-aspect-ratio (HAR) scintillation detectors. This approach enables the statistical limit on timing resolution performance to be analytically expressed for clinically-relevant PET scintillation detectors without requiring Monte Carlo simulation-generated photon transport time distributions. The analytically calculated optical transport PDF was compared with detailed light transport simulations, and excellent agreement was found between the two. The coincidence timing resolution (CTR) between two 3× 3× 20 mm3 LYSO:Ce crystals coupled to analogue SiPMs was experimentally measured to be 162+/- 1 ps FWHM, approaching the analytically calculated lower bound within 6.5%.

  17. Local coordination state of rare earth in eutectic scintillators for neutron detector applications.

    PubMed

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yanagida, Takayuki; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Ina, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Kawaguti, Noriaki; Fukuda, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Atomic distribution in phosphors for neutron detection has not been fully elucidated, although their ionization efficiency is strongly dependent on the state of the rare earth in the matrix. In this work, we examine optical properties of Eu-doped 80LiF-20CaF2 eutectics for neutron detector applications based on the Eu distribution. At low concentrations, aggregation of Eu cations is observed, whereas homogeneous atomic dispersion in the CaF2 layer, to substitute Ca(2+) ions, is observed in the eutectics at high concentrations. Eu LIII edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis suggests that neutron responses do not depend on the amount of Eu(2+) ions. However, transparency, which depends on an ordered lamellar structure, is found to be important for a high light yield in neutron detection. The results confirm the effectiveness of the basic idea concerning the separation of radiation absorbers and activators in particle radiation scintillation and present potential for further improvement of novel bulk detectors. PMID:26292726

  18. Conceptual design for a scintillating-fiber neutron detector for fusion reactor plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailor, W. C.; Barnes, C. W.; Chrien, R. E.; Wurden, G. A.

    A conceptual design for a 'pointing' neutron detector that is capable of delivering 10(exp 4) -10(exp 5) Hz countrate of T(D,n) events from triton burnup at a deuterium-burning tokamak is described. The detector consists of collimated bundles of scintillating fibers that are separated by metal or polyethylene. These bundles in turn are set into a larger collimator that has some of the bundles set in 'unplugged' holes and others in 'plugged' holes whose countrate difference gives the net countrate. It is computed that the use of a 6 MeV(sub ee) (electron equivalent) discriminator will allow 14-MeV neutron countrates of 2x10(exp 4) Hz in a DD machine or 3 MHz in a DT machine, while effectively rejecting the gamma background. The efficiency-area product for 14-MeV neutrons will be approximatly 0.014 cm(sup 2). The angular resolution is computed to be 4.5(degree) HWHM for a 35 cm long collimator.

  19. Conceptual design for a scintillating-fiber neutron detector for fusion reactor plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailor, W. C.; Barnes, Cris W.; Chrien, R. E.; Wurden, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual design for a ``pointing'' neutron detector that is capable of delivering 104-105 Hz countrate of T(D,n) events from triton burnup at a deuterium-burning tokamak is described. The detector consists of collimated bundles of scintillating fibers that are separated by metal or polyethylene. These bundles in turn are set into a larger collimator that has some of the bundles set in ``unplugged'' holes and others in ``plugged'' holes whose countrate difference gives the net countrate. It is computed that the use of a 6 MeVee (electron equivalent) discriminator will allow 14 MeV neutron countrates of 2104 Hz in a DD machine or 3 MHz in a DT machine, while effectively rejecting the gamma background. The efficiency-area product for 14 MeV neutrons will be 0.014 cm2. The angular resolution is computed to be 4.5 HWHM for a 35-cm-long collimator.

  20. Local coordination state of rare earth in eutectic scintillators for neutron detector applications

    PubMed Central

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yanagida, Takayuki; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Ina, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Kawaguti, Noriaki; Fukuda, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Atomic distribution in phosphors for neutron detection has not been fully elucidated, although their ionization efficiency is strongly dependent on the state of the rare earth in the matrix. In this work, we examine optical properties of Eu-doped 80LiF-20CaF2 eutectics for neutron detector applications based on the Eu distribution. At low concentrations, aggregation of Eu cations is observed, whereas homogeneous atomic dispersion in the CaF2 layer, to substitute Ca2+ ions, is observed in the eutectics at high concentrations. Eu LIII edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis suggests that neutron responses do not depend on the amount of Eu2+ ions. However, transparency, which depends on an ordered lamellar structure, is found to be important for a high light yield in neutron detection. The results confirm the effectiveness of the basic idea concerning the separation of radiation absorbers and activators in particle radiation scintillation and present potential for further improvement of novel bulk detectors. PMID:26292726

  1. The First Tests of a Large-Area Light Detector Equipped with Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Scintillating Bolometers for the LUMINEU Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, D.; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Hassel, C.; Hengstler, D.; Kempf, S.; Loidl, M.; Navick, X. F.; Rodrigues, M.

    2016-02-01

    Future rare-event searches using scintillating crystals need very low background levels for high sensitivity; however, unresolved pile-up can limit this. We present the design and fabrication of large-area photon detectors based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), optimized for fast rise times to resolve close pile-up. The first prototypes have been characterized using Fe-55 X-rays and ZnMoO4 crystal scintillation light. A fast intrinsic rise time of 25-30 \\upmu s has been measured and has been compared to the 250 \\upmu s scintillation light pulse rise time constant. The difference indicates that the scintillation process limits the light pulse rise time. The fast rise time allows for a reduction of background due to close pile-up events as well as the study of the inherent crystal scintillation process. MMC-based photon detectors are shown to be a promising tool for scintillating crystal based rare event searches.

  2. A position-sensitive tubular scintillator-based detector as an alternative to a 3He-gas-based detector for neutron-scattering instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Katagiri, M.; Toh, K.; Honda, K.; Suzuki, H.; Ebine, M.; Birumachi, A.; Sakasai, K.; Soyama, K.

    2014-03-01

    A position-sensitive tubular scintillator-based neutron detector is proposed as an alternative to a 3He-gas-based detector. The detector has a neutron-detecting element constructed from rolled ZnS/6LiF scintillator screens that sandwich wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibre coils (SFC element). Multiple SFC elements are enclosed in an aluminium tube in a row to form a one-dimensional position-sensitive neutron detector. The design of the WLS fibre coil, which was determined by performing basic experiments, comprised two 0.75-mm-diameter WLS fibres wound in parallel at a pitch of 1.5 mm. A 64-element detector with a pixel size of 22 mm20 mm (widthlength) successfully demonstrated the detection principle. The tubular shape of the new detector is similar to the usual 25-mm-diameter 3He tube, making this an alternative detector with the potential to be installed in a vacuum tank for inelastic-neutron-scattering instruments.

  3. Use of a large time-compensated scintillation detector in neutron time-of-flight measurements

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Charles D.

    1979-01-01

    A scintillator for neutron time-of-flight measurements is positioned at a desired angle with respect to the neutron beam, and as a function of the energy thereof, such that the sum of the transit times of the neutrons and photons in the scintillator are substantially independent of the points of scintillations within the scintillator. Extrapolated zero timing is employed rather than the usual constant fraction timing. As a result, a substantially larger scintillator can be employed that substantially increases the data rate and shortens the experiment time.

  4. Monte Carlo investigations of megavoltage cone-beam CT using thick, segmented scintillating detectors for soft tissue visualization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Antonuk, Larry E; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Sawant, Amit; Du, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MY CBCT) is a highly promising technique for providing volumetric patient position information in the radiation treatment room. Such information has the potential to greatly assist in registering the patient to the planned treatment position, helping to ensure accurate delivery of the high energy therapy beam to the tumor volume while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Presently, CBCT systems using conventional MV active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), which are commonly used in portal imaging, require a relatively large amount of dose to create images that are clinically useful. This is due to the fact that the phosphor screen detector employed in conventional MV AMFPIs utilizes only ~2% of the incident radiation (for a 6 MV x-ray spectrum). Fortunately, thick, segmented scintillating detectors can overcome this limitation, and the first prototype imager has demonstrated highly promising performance for projection imaging at low doses. It is therefore of definite interest to examine the potential performance of such thick, segmented scintillating detectors for MV CBCT. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation energy deposition were used to examine reconstructed images of cylindrical CT contrast phantoms, embedded with tissue-equivalent objects. The phantoms were scanned at 6 MV using segmented detectors having various design parameters (i.e., detector thickness, as well as scintillator and septal wall materials). Due to constraints imposed by the nature of this study, the size of the phantoms was limited to ~6 cm. For such phantoms, the simulation results suggest that a 40 mm thick, segmented CsI detector with low density septal walls can delineate electron density differences of ~2.3% and 1.3% at doses of 1.54 and 3.08 cGy, respectively. In addition, it was found that segmented detectors with greater thickness, higher density scintillator material, or lower density septal walls exhibit higher contrast-to-noise performance. Finally, the performance of various segmented detectors obtained at a relatively low dose (1.54 cGy) was compared to that of a phosphor screen similar to that employed in conventional MV AMFPIs. This comparison indicates that, for a phosphor screen to achieve the same contrast-to-noise performance as the segmented detectors, ~18 to 59 times more dose is required, depending on the configuration of the segmented detectors. PMID:18293571

  5. Estimation of Fano factor in inorganic scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H.; Fastje, David; Clarkson, Eric; Furenlid, Lars; Bousselham, Abdelkader; Shah, Kanai S.; Glodo, Jarek

    2016-01-01

    The Fano factor of an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Correlation between the outputs of two photomultiplier tubes on opposite faces of a scintillation crystal was used to estimate the Fano factor of photoelectrons and scintillation photons. Correlations between the integrals of the detector outputs were used to estimate the photoelectron and photon Fano factor for YAP:Ce, SrI2:Eu and CsI:Na scintillator crystals. At 662 keV, SrI2:Eu was found to be sub-Poisson, while CsI:Na and YAP:Ce were found to be super-Poisson. An experiment setup inspired from the Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiment was used to measure the correlations as a function of time between the outputs of two photomultiplier tubes looking at the same scintillation event. A model of the scintillation and the detection processes was used to generate simulated detector outputs as a function of time for different values of Fano factor. The simulated outputs from the model for different Fano factors was compared to the experimentally measured detector outputs to estimate the Fano factor of the scintillation photons for YAP:Ce, LaBr3:Ce scintillator crystals. At 662 keV, LaBr3:Ce was found to be sub-Poisson, while YAP:Ce was found to be close to Poisson.

  6. Development and characterization of a 2D scintillation detector for quality assurance in scanned carbon ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborini, A.; Raffaele, L.; Mirandola, A.; Molinelli, S.; Viviani, C.; Spampinato, S.; Ciocca, M.

    2016-04-01

    At the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO Foundation), a two-dimensional high resolution scintillating dosimetry system has been developed and tested for daily Quality Assurance measurements (QA) in carbon ion radiotherapy with active scanning technique, for both single pencil beams and scanned fields produced by a synchrotron accelerator. The detector consists of a thin plane organic scintillator (25×25 cm2, 2 mm thick) coupled with a high spatial resolution CCD camera (0.25 mm) in a light-tight box. A dedicated Labview software was developed for image acquisition triggered with the beam extraction, data post-processing and analysis. The scintillator system was preliminary characterized in terms of short-term reproducibility (found to be within±0.5%), linearity with the number of particles (linear fit χ2 = 0.996) and dependence on particle flux (measured to be < 1.5 %). The detector was then tested for single beam spot measurements (Full Width at Half Maximum and position) and for 6×6 cm2 reference scanned field (determination of homogeneity) for carbon ions with energy from 115 MeV/u up to 400 MeV/u. No major differences in the investigated beam parameters measured with scintillator system and the radiochromic EBT3 reference films were observed. The system allows therefore real-time monitoring of the carbon ion beam relevant parameters, with a significant daily time saving with respect to films currently used. The results of this study show the suitability of the scintillation detector for daily QA in a carbon ion facility with an active beam delivery system.

  7. Determination of the energy dependence of the BC-408 plastic scintillation detector in medium energy x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ycel, H.; ubuku, ?.; Uyar, E.; Engin, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The energy dependence of the response of BC-408 plastic scintillator (PS), an approximately water-equivalent material, has been investigated by employing standardized x-ray beams. IEC RQA and ISO N series x-ray beam qualities, in the range of 40-100?kVp, were calibrated using a PTW-type ionization chamber. The energy response of a thick BC-408 PS detector was measured using the multichannel pulse height analysis method. The response of BC-408 PS increased gradually with increasing energy in the energy range of 40-80?kVp and then showed a flat behavior at about 80 to 120?kVp. This might be due to the self-attenuation of scintillation light by the scintillator itself and may also be partly due to the ionization quenching, leading to a reduction in the intensity of the light output from the scintillator. The results indicated that the sensitivity drop in BC-408 PS material at lower photon energies may be overcome by adding some high-Z elements to its polyvinyltoluene (PVT) base. The material modification may compensate for the drop in the response at lower photon energies. Thus plastic scintillation dosimetry is potentially suitable for applications in diagnostic radiology.

  8. Dosimetric performance and array assessment of plastic scintillation detectors for stereotactic radiosurgery quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Jean-Christophe; Theriault, Dany; Guillot, Mathieu; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: To compare the performance of plastic scintillation detectors (PSD) for quality assurance (QA) in stereotactic radiosurgery conditions to a microion-chamber (IC), Gafchromic EBT2 films, 60 008 shielded photon diode (SD) and unshielded diodes (UD), and assess a new 2D crosshair array prototype adapted to small field dosimetry. Methods: The PSD consists of a 1 mm diameter by 1 mm long scintillating fiber (BCF-60, Saint-Gobain, Inc.) coupled to a polymethyl-methacrylate optical fiber (Eska premier, Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Output factors (S{sub c,p}) for apertures used in radiosurgery ranging from 4 to 40 mm in diameter have been measured. The PSD crosshair array (PSDCA) is a water equivalent device made up of 49 PSDs contained in a 1.63 cm radius area. Dose profiles measurements were taken for radiosurgery fields using the PSDCA and were compared to other dosimeters. Moreover, a typical stereotactic radiosurgery treatment using four noncoplanar arcs was delivered on a spherical phantom in which UD, IC, or PSD was placed. Using the Xknife planning system (Integra Radionics Burlington, MA), 15 Gy was prescribed at the isocenter, where each detector was positioned. Results: Output Factors measured by the PSD have a mean difference of 1.3% with Gafchromic EBT2 when normalized to a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field, and 1.0% when compared with UD measurements normalized to the 35 mm diameter cone. Dose profiles taken with the PSD crosshair array agreed with other single detectors dose profiles in spite of the presence of the 49 PSDs. Gamma values comparing 1D dose profiles obtained with PSD crosshair array with Gafchromic EBT2 and UD measured profiles shows 98.3% and 100.0%, respectively, of detector passing the gamma acceptance criteria of 0.3 mm and 2%. The dose measured by the PSD for a complete stereotactic radiosurgery treatment is comparable to the planned dose corrected for its SD-based S{sub c,p} within 1.4% and 0.7% for 5 and 35 mm diameter cone, respectively. Furthermore, volume averaging of the IC can be observed for the 5 mm aperture where it differs by as much as 9.1% compared to the PSD measurement. The angular dependency of the UD is also observed, unveiled by an under-response around 2.5% of both 5 and 35 mm apertures. Conclusions: Output Factors and dose profiles measurements performed, respectively, with the PSD and the PSDCA were in agreement with those obtained with the UD and EBT2 films. For stereotactic radiosurgery treatment verification, the PSD gives accurate results compared to the planning system and the IC once the latter is corrected to compensate for the averaging effect of the IC. The PSD provides precise results when used as a single detector or in a dense array, resulting in a great potential for stereotactic radiosurgery QA measurements.

  9. Neutron Energy Spectra in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Reactor Measured with a Liquid Scintillation Detector with Bismuth Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Katsuhei

    2003-06-01

    A liquid scintillation spectrometer whose detector was composed of a NE213 liquid scintillator covered with a bismuth shield was constructed to estimate energy spectra of low intensity and relatively low energy neutrons around a nuclear reactor. A response matrix used for unfolding the pulse-height distributions was obtained from the matrices representing modulations of neutron energy spectra by the bismuth shield and response functions of the liquid scintillation detector. Measurements of reactor neutrons were carried out with the aid of the pulse-shape discrimination method in the vicinity of the Kinki University Reactor, UTR-KINKI. It became clear from the experiments that the pulse-height distributions by fission neutrons could be successfully obtained by the scintillation spectrometer constructed here in spite of the measurements in the low n/γratio fields around nuclear facility and neutron energy spectra could be determined by the unfolding technique with the response matrix in the energy range from about 1 MeV to tens of MeV.

  10. New gas detector setup for on-axis STIM tomography experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. C.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Fonte, P.; Beasley, D. G.; Alves, L. C.; da Silva, R. C.

    2013-07-01

    A gas flow ionization chamber for use with on-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy tomography (STIM-T) has been developed. The entrance window is composed of a square silicon nitride membrane 100 nm thick and 1 mm2 in area. The use of this type of window does not add significantly to the energy resolution with the MeV H+ or He+ particles used in STIM, and proved to be resistant to high proton fluence in the irradiated spot. The ability of such detector to withstand direct beam hit with acceptable energy resolution makes it suitable for on-axis STIM-T, in this respect outperforming the more standard Si PIN diodes, which performance is known to degrade above fluences of ?1010-1012 cm-2. The present in-line design while allowing easy mounting of the detector to the existing target chamber, has the peculiarity of providing a practical way of replacing the Si3N4 membrane in case it brakes while operating. The concept of gas ionization chamber under development is expected to become ideal for on-axis STIM-T experiments due to its low ageing during operation, and anticipated attainable speed and energy resolution.

  11. Construction and performance of one- and two-dimensional large position-sensitive liquid and plastic scintillation detectors an application to a neutron polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, H.; Okamura, H.; Ishida, S.; Hatanaka, K.; Noro, T.

    1992-09-01

    Large one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive neutron detectors have been developed. Their shapes are a long block and a square and their sizes are 100107.5 cm 3 and 10010010 cm 3 for one- and two-dimensional detectors, respectively. Both liquid and plastic scintillators are employed as detector materials. Position resolutions are examined by using monoenergetic neutron beams with energies of 61.6 MeV. The obtained position resolutions in FWHM are 3-5 cm and 4-14 cm for one- and two-dimensional detectors, respectively. Position resolutions are poor near the corner of the two-dimensional detector irrespective of scintillator materials. Scintillation light responses have been compared with predictions of Monte Carlo calculations. Neutron polarimeters at an intermediate energy have been developed by utilizing the position sensitivity of these detectors.

  12. A Monte Carlo study of an energy-weighted algorithm for radionuclide analysis with a plastic scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wook-Geun; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Choi, Chang-Il; Park, Chang Soo; Kim, Hong-Suk; Min, Chul Hee

    2015-07-01

    Nuisance and false alarms due to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) are major problems facing radiation portal monitors (RPMs) for the screening of illicit radioactive materials in airports and ports. Based on energy-weighted counts, we suggest an algorithm that distinguishes radioactive nuclides with a plastic scintillation detector that has poor energy resolution. Our simulation study, using a Monte Carlo method, demonstrated that man-made radionuclides can be separated from NORM by using a conventional RPM. PMID:25836977

  13. Determination of mass attenuation coefficients of some boron ores at 59.54keV by using scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Demir, Faruk

    2010-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of the 59.54keV radiation of (241)Am point source in boron ores such as tincal, ulexite and colemanite were determined experimentally by a scintillation detector and theoretically. Since boron ores contain boron, hydrogen, and a lot of elements, they may be used as shielding against neutrons and gammas simultaneously, e.g. for shielding (241)Am/Be neutron sources, as they emit both gammas and neutrons. PMID:19800806

  14. A new type of thermal-neutron detector based on ZnS(Ag)/LiF scintillator and avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, V. N.; Sadykov, R. A.; Trunov, D. N.; Litvin, V. S.; Aksenov, S. N.; Stolyarov, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    A high-efficiency thermal-neutron detector based on ZnS(Ag)/LiF scintillator is described, which employs a new technique of signal pick-up with the aid of a light guide and avalanche photodiodes instead of optical fibers and photomultipliers. Results of tests on the RADEX pulsed neutron source are presented, in which neutron diffraction patterns of test objects have been obtained.

  15. Proton beam characterisation of a prototype thin-tile plastic scintillator detector with SiPM readout for use in fast-neutron tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, R.; Jakubek, J.; Prokopovich, D.; Uher, J.

    2012-02-01

    We present details of the construction and characterisation of a prototype thin-tile plastic scintillation detector for use in a multi-layer Fast Neutron Tracker. Scintillation light is read out using solid-state silicon photomultiplier detectors (SiPMs). The Tracker consists of alternating scintillator and Timepix detector layers. The scintillator tile provides a hydrogen-rich target, in which impinging fast neutrons produce recoil protons. The energies lost by protons in the plastic scintillator are measured and recoil protons exiting the scintillator are tracked in the Timepix detector. The combination of signals from the scintillator and Timepix provides information to reconstruct the energy or direction of the impinging neutron, using calculations based on the kinematics of the elastic neutron scattering. Three prototype scintillation detectors were constructed, using either a pair of 3 3 mm sensitive area SPMMicro3035 SiPMs from SensL or a pair of MAPD-3n SiPMs from Zecotek. The detector performances were characterised using a mono-energetic proton beam. An absolute energy calibration was measured at 3, 4 and 5 MeV proton energies with good linearity. The best measured energy resolution was 29.8% at 5 MeV. Spatial uniformity was assessed by measuring the response across the detector face. Finally, the tile detector's ability to provide a trigger for Timepix acquisition in the stack configuration was demonstrated for single and double neutron recoil events using a DT neutron source. The SiPM-based design was found to be well-suited for the application of the multi-layer fast neutron tracker.

  16. High efficiency plastic scintillator detector with wavelength-shifting fiber readout for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. A.; Deering, P. L.; Hartman, R. C.; Johnson, T. E.; Nebel, T. R.; Ormes, J. F.; Thompson, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the design and performance studies of the scintillator tile detectors for the anti-coincidence detector (ACD) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), scheduled for launch in early 2008. The scintillator tile detectors utilize wavelength-shifting fibers and have dual-photomultiplier-tube readout. The design requires highly efficient and uniform detection of singly charged relativistic particles over the tile area and must meet all requirements for a launch, as well as operation in a space environment. We present here the design of three basic types of tiles used in the ACD, ranging in size from 450 to 2500 cm2, all 1 cm thick, with different shapes, and with photoelectron yield of 20 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle at normal tile incidence, uniform over the tile area. Some tiles require flexible clear fiber cables up to 1.5 m long to deliver scintillator light to remotely located photomultiplier tubes.

  17. Comparative testing of various flow-cell detectors fabricated using CaF{sub 2} solid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, T.; Ohashi, H.; Hamada, Y.; Jamsranjav, E.

    2015-03-15

    A monitoring system based on a flow-cell detector was developed for measuring the tritium concentration in water. The flow-cell detector was fabricated using a granular CaF{sub 2} solid scintillator. This system does not use a liquid scintillation counting system and does not generate radioactive organic liquid waste. Moreover, continuous real-time measurements are possible, in contrast to a liquid scintillation counting system, which requires batch measurements. For further development of the system, four flow-cell detectors were fabricated. They included a single 3-mm-diameter cell, three 3-mm-diameter cells in series, a single 5-mm-diameter cell, and three 5-mm-diameter cells in series. Continuously flowing water containing tritium at various concentrations was passed through the flow cells, and tritium count were measured for 600 and 10000 s. Investigating the relation between the count rate and concentration, the three 5-mm-diameter cells were most sensitive, with a linear relation maintained down to approximately 2 Bq/ml and 10 Bq/ml for 10000- and 600-s measurements, respectively. (authors)

  18. Study of annual modulation at Soudan Mine using a liquid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Mei, Dongming

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of annual modulation is believed to be one of signatures induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs) through elastic scattering off nucleus in the target for direct dark matter searches. Both DAMA and CoGeNT experiments have claimed the discovery of dark matter in terms of annual modulation while many other experiments have ruled out the entire claimed region. However, the sources that caused the annual modulation in DAMA and CoGeNT are till mysterious. A 12-liter liquid scintillation detector has been running at Soudan Mine (1.95 km.w.e) for several years. Using this detector, muon and muon-induced neutron fluxes at Soudan Mine are measured to be (1 . 65 +/- 0 . 02(sta .) +/- 0 . 1(sys .)) × 10-7 cm-2 s-1 (Eμ > 1 GeV) and (2 . 23 +/- 0 . 52(sta .) +/- 0 . 99(sys .)) ×10-9 cm-2 s-1 (En > 20 MeV), respectively. Data analysis for three years shows a clear annual modulation pattern (E > 10 MeV) caused by cosmic-ray muons with an amplitude of ~ 2%. The annual modulation caused by radon has also been observed in the energy region below 10 MeV. We demonstrate the sources of annual modulation in different energy region and explain how background-induced annual modulation may mimic dark matter signature. This work is supported by NSF in part by the NSF PHY-0758120 and 1242640, DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709, and the State of South Dakota.

  19. The CUORE Cryostat: A 1-Ton Scale Setup for Bolometric Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligi, C.; Alduino, C.; Alessandria, F.; Biassoni, M.; Bucci, C.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cappelli, L.; Chott, N. I.; Copello, S.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dell'Oro, S.; Drobizhev, A.; Franceschi, M. A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Napolitano, T.; Nucciotti, A.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J.; Pagliarone, C.; Pattavina, L.; Rusconi, C.; Santone, D.; Singh, V.; Taffarello, L.; Terranova, F.; Uttaro, S.

    2015-12-01

    The cryogenic underground observatory for rare events (CUORE) is a 1-ton scale bolometric experiment whose detector consists of an array of 988 TeO_2 crystals arranged in a cylindrical compact structure of 19 towers. This will be the largest bolometric mass ever operated. The experiment will work at a temperature around or below 10 mK. CUORE cryostat consists of a cryogen-free system based on pulse tubes and a custom high power dilution refrigerator, designed to match these specifications. The cryostat has been commissioned in 2014 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories and reached a record temperature of 6 mK on a cubic meter scale. In this paper, we present results of CUORE commissioning runs. Details on the thermal characteristics and cryogenic performances of the system will be also given.

  20. Radiopurity of a CeBr3 crystal used as scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutter, Guillaume; Hult, Mikael; Billnert, Robert; Oberstedt, Andreas; Oberstedt, Stephan; Andreotti, Erica; Marissens, Gerd; Rosengrd, Ulf; Tzika, Faidra

    2013-03-01

    Cerium bromide (CeBr3) has recently been shown to exhibit several properties making it a suitable material as a scintillation detector in nuclear physics applications. The intrinsic activity of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in a 38.1 mm38.1 mm (diameterheight) crystal of CeBr3 was investigated. The measurements were carried out in the HADES underground laboratory located 225 m underground. Two primordial radionuclides were detected; 227Ac (and its daughters) with massic activity of 0.300.02 Bq/kg and 138La with massic activity of 7.41.0 mBq/kg. Two activation products were also detected; 139Ce and 82Br. Their massic activities (assuming a homogeneous distribution in the crystal) just before taking the CeBr3 crystal underground were 4.30.3 mBq/kg and 184 mBq/kg correspondingly. None of the other common primordial radionuclides (40K, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, and 235U) were detected and their detection limits were below 2 mBq/kg except for 238U for which the upper limit was 135 mBq/kg and 210Pb with an upper limit of 600 mBq/kg.

  1. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Clinical Trials of a Urethral Dose Measurement System in Brachytherapy Using Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowerska, Natalka; Jackson, Michael; Lambert, Jamil; Yin, Yong Bai; Hruby, George; McKenzie, David R.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To report on the clinical feasibility of a novel scintillation detector system with fiberoptic readout that measures the urethral dose during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The clinical trial enrolled 24 patients receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment to the prostate. After the first 14 patients, three improvements were made to the dosimeter system design to improve clinical reliability: a dosimeter self-checking facility; a radiopaque marker to determine the position of the dosimeter, and a more robust optical extension fiber. Results: Improvements to the system design allowed for accurate dose measurements to be made in vivo. A maximum measured dose departure of 9% from the calculated dose was observed after dosimeter design improvements. Conclusions: Departures of the measured from the calculated dose, after improvements to the dosimetry system, arise primarily from small changes in patient anatomy. Therefore, we recommend that patient response be correlated with the measured in vivo dose rather than with the calculated dose.

  3. Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: A comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Mathieu; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The purposes of this work were: (1) To determine if a spectral method can accurately correct the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) for situations where the Cerenkov light is dominant over the scintillation light and (2) to develop a procedural guideline for accurately determining the calibration factors of PSDs. Methods: The authors demonstrate, by using the equations of the spectral method, that the condition for accurately correcting the effect of Cerenkov light is that the ratio of the two calibration factors must be equal to the ratio of the Cerenkov light measured within the two different spectral regions used for analysis. Based on this proof, the authors propose two new procedures to determine the calibration factors of PSDs, which were designed to respect this condition. A PSD that consists of a cylindrical polystyrene scintillating fiber (1.6 mm{sup 3}) coupled to a plastic optical fiber was calibrated by using these new procedures and the two reference procedures described in the literature. To validate the extracted calibration factors, relative dose profiles and output factors for a 6 MV photon beam from a medical linac were measured with the PSD and an ionization chamber. Emphasis was placed on situations where the Cerenkov light is dominant over the scintillation light and on situations dissimilar to the calibration conditions. Results: The authors found that the accuracy of the spectral method depends on the procedure used to determine the calibration factors of the PSD and on the attenuation properties of the optical fiber used. The results from the relative dose profile measurements showed that the spectral method can correct the Cerenkov light effect with an accuracy level of 1%. The results obtained also indicate that PSDs measure output factors that are lower than those measured with ionization chambers for square field sizes larger than 25x25 cm{sup 2}, in general agreement with previously published Monte Carlo results. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the spectral method can be used to accurately correct the Cerenkov light effect in PSDs. The authors confirmed the importance of maximizing the difference of Cerenkov light production between calibration measurements. The authors also found that the attenuation of the optical fiber, which is assumed to be constant in the original formulation of the spectral method, may cause a variation of the calibration factors in some experimental setups.

  4. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  5. A large-area two-dimensional scintillator detector with a wavelength-shifting fibre readout for a time-of-flight single-crystal neutron diffractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Hosoya, T.; Toh, K.; Oikawa, K.; Sakasai, K.; Ebine, M.; Birumachi, A.; Soyama, K.; Katagiri, M.

    2012-09-01

    A two-dimensional scintillator-based neutron detector that has a neutron-sensitive area of 256256 mm2 with a pixel size of 4 mm was developed. The detector was designed to be compact and modular with the smallest dead area for the SENJU time-of-flight Laue single-crystal diffractometer to be constructed in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japanese Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The detector employed wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibres to collect scintillation light generated in a neutron-sensitive scintillator. The 64 WLS fibres with a diameter of 1 mm were regularly spaced at a pitch of 4 mm both in the x and y directions to produce a detector with a large neutron-sensitive area and a small number of electronics channels. Two ZnS/10B2O3 scintillator screens with an optimised scintillator thickness sandwiched the cross-arranged WLS fibre arrays to ensure a high detection efficiency for thermal neutrons. The prototype detector exhibited a detector efficiency of 401%(meanSD) for 1.6 neutrons and a 60Co gamma-ray sensitivity of 6.00.110-6, which fulfilled the required detector specifications for SENJU.

  6. Development of a new scintillation-trigger detector for the MTV experiment using aluminum-metallized film tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yuko; Ozaki, Sachi; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Tatsuru; Murata, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    A new type of trigger-scintillation counter array designed for the MTV experiment at TRIUMF-ISAC has been developed, using aluminum-metallized film tape for wrapping. The MTV experiment aims to perform the finest precision test of time reversal symmetry in nuclear beta decay. In that purpose, we search non-zero T-Violating transverse polarization of electrons emitted from polarized Li-8 nuclei. It uses a cylindrical drift chamber (CDC) as the main electron-tracking detector. The trigger-scintillation counter consists of 12-segmented 1 mm thick 300 mm long thin plastic scintillation counters. This counter is placed inside the CDC to generate a trigger signal. The required assembling precision of +-0.5 mm was a tricky point when we tried to use conventional total reflection mode. Indeed, produce an air-layer surrounding the scintillating bar to keep good light transmission was the main issue. For this reason, we tried to use a new wrapping material made of metallized-aluminum tape, which has a good mirror-like reflecting surface on both sides of the tape. Through this report, we will compare detection efficiency and light attenuation between conventional and new wrapping materials.

  7. Sub-200 ps CRT in monolithic scintillator PET detectors using digital SiPM arrays and maximum likelihood interaction time estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Herman T.; Borghi, Giacomo; Seifert, Stefan; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2013-05-01

    Digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM) arrays have favorable characteristics for application in monolithic scintillator detectors for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (PET). To fully exploit these benefits, a maximum likelihood interaction time estimation (MLITE) method was developed to derive the time of interaction from the multiple time stamps obtained per scintillation event. MLITE was compared to several deterministic methods. Timing measurements were performed with monolithic scintillator detectors based on novel dSiPM arrays and LSO:Ce,0.2%Ca crystals of 16 16 10 mm3, 16 16 20 mm3, 24 24 10 mm3, and 24 24 20 mm3. The best coincidence resolving times (CRTs) for pairs of identical detectors were obtained with MLITE and measured 157 ps, 185 ps, 161 ps, and 184 ps full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM), respectively. For comparison, a small reference detector, consisting of a 3 3 5 mm3 LSO:Ce,0.2%Ca crystal coupled to a single pixel of a dSiPM array, was measured to have a CRT as low as 120 ps FWHM. The results of this work indicate that the influence of the optical transport of the scintillation photons on the timing performance of monolithic scintillator detectors can at least partially be corrected for by utilizing the information contained in the spatio-temporal distribution of the collection of time stamps registered per scintillation event.

  8. Digital pulse shape discrimination methods for n-γ separation in an EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Bo; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Chen, Liang; Ge, Hong-Lin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ju, Yong-Qin; Zhang, Yan-Bin; Li, Yan-Yan; Xu, Xiao-Wei

    2015-11-01

    A digital pulse shape discrimination system based on a programmable module NI-5772 has been established and tested with an EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector. The module was operated by running programs developed in LabVIEW, with a sampling frequency up to 1.6 GS/s. Standard gamma sources 22Na, 137Cs and 60Co were used to calibrate the EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector, and the gamma response function was obtained. Digital algorithms for the charge comparison method and zero-crossing method have been developed. The experimental results show that both digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms can discriminate neutrons from γ-rays. Moreover, the zero-crossing method shows better n-γ discrimination at 80 keVee and lower, whereas the charge comparison method gives better results at higher thresholds. In addition, the figure-of-merit (FOM) for detectors of two different dimensions were extracted at 9 energy thresholds, and it was found that the smaller detector presented better n-γ separation for fission neutrons. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91226107, 11305229) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA03030300)

  9. A fast UV-LED QRdriver for calibration system for SiPM based scintillator HCAL detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, I.; Kvasni?ka, J.

    2014-03-01

    We report on latest version of the calibration and monitoring system developed for the scintillator tile hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) for the ILC. System is based on original fast (3.5 ns pulse width) and precise LED driver board called QMB. One UV-LED can illuminate 72 scintillating tiles with SiPM. Distribution of the light pulses uses notched fibres, developed at our laboratory. All parts of the system are continually upgraded to get better results. The system is flexible to all necessary monitoring and calibration of SiPM detector tasks. It has high dynamic range of precise a few nanosecond pulses. Low intensity LED pulses are needed to obtain SiPM single photoelectron spectra. A routine monitoring of all SiPMs during the test beam operations is achieved with mid-range a fixed-intensity light pulse. The full SiPM response function is cross-checked by varying the light intensity from zero to the saturation level. In calibration systems we developed, we concentrate especially on the aspect a high dynamic range of precise a few nanosecond pulses. Calibration system has been tested with 2.2 m long slab of engineering AHCAL prototype, which uses 864 SiPM embedded in 3 by 3 cm scintillator tiles and represents a part of the biggest foreseen detector using SiPMs.

  10. Measurements of the proton light output function of the organic liquid scintillator NE213 in several detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, N. P.; Adams, J. M.; Bond, D. S.; Croft, S.; Jarvis, O. N.; Watkins, N.

    2002-01-01

    When using an organic liquid scintillator such as NE213 for neutron spectrometry, the light output as a function of proton energy is needed in order to unfold the neutron spectrum from the scintillator's pulse height distribution. We have measured this function for several detectors over the range 1.5-16 MeV approximately, using monoenergetic neutrons from the Harwell 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Results were obtained for a wide variety of sizes and shapes of the scintillator cell, and were found to be essentially in agreement within errors. The results were also compared with those of several other workers (amongst whom there is considerable disagreement). Below 10 MeV, there is excellent agreement with one worker and moderate or poor agreement with others; above 10 MeV, agreement is moderate in all cases. We conclude that workers wishing to unfold neutron spectra from NE213 pulse height distributions would be advised to make measurements with their own particular detector configuration, rather than use published functions.

  11. Validating plastic scintillation detectors for photon dosimetry in the radiologic energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, Francois; Archambault, Louis; Plamondon, Mathieu; and others

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: Photon dosimetry in the kilovolt (kV) energy range represents a major challenge for diagnostic and interventional radiology and superficial therapy. Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) are potentially good candidates for this task. This study proposes a simple way to obtain accurate correction factors to compensate for the response of PSDs to photon energies between 80 and 150 kVp. The performance of PSDs is also investigated to determine their potential usefulness in the diagnostic energy range. Methods: A 1-mm-diameter, 10-mm-long PSD was irradiated by a Therapax SXT 150 unit using five different beam qualities made of tube potentials ranging from 80 to 150 kVp and filtration thickness ranging from 0.8 to 0.2 mmAl + 1.0 mmCu. The light emitted by the detector was collected using an 8-m-long optical fiber and a polychromatic photodiode, which converted the scintillation photons to an electrical current. The PSD response was compared with the reference free air dose rate measured with a calibrated Farmer NE2571 ionization chamber. PSD measurements were corrected using spectra-weighted corrections, accounting for mass energy-absorption coefficient differences between the sensitive volumes of the ionization chamber and the PSD, as suggested by large cavity theory (LCT). Beam spectra were obtained from x-ray simulation software and validated experimentally using a CdTe spectrometer. Correction factors were also obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Percent depth dose (PDD) measurements were compensated for beam hardening using the LCT correction method. These PDD measurements were compared with uncorrected PSD data, PDD measurements obtained using Gafchromic films, Monte Carlo simulations, and previous data. Results: For each beam quality used, the authors observed an increase of the energy response with effective energy when no correction was applied to the PSD response. Using the LCT correction, the PSD response was almost energy independent, with a residual 2.1% coefficient of variation (COV) over the 80-150-kVp energy range. Monte Carlo corrections reduced the COV to 1.4% over this energy range. All PDD measurements were in good agreement with one another except for the uncorrected PSD data, in which an over-response was observed with depth (13% at 10 cm with a 100 kVp beam), showing that beam hardening had a non-negligible effect on the PSD response. A correction based on LCT compensated very well for this effect, reducing the over-response to 3%.Conclusion: In the diagnostic energy range, PSDs show high-energy dependence, which can be corrected using spectra-weighted mass energy-absorption coefficients, showing no considerable sign of quenching between these energies. Correction factors obtained by Monte Carlo simulations confirm that the approximations made by LCT corrections are valid. Thus, PSDs could be useful for real-time dosimetry in radiology applications.

  12. Investigation of the influence of an inner gas bubble on the response of a liquid scintillation detector to ?-rays and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xufei, Xie; Xing, Zhang; Xi, Yuan; Tieshuan, Fan; Jinxiang, Chen; Xiangqing, Li

    2013-09-01

    The influence of an inert gas bubble inside EJ301 cylindrical cell on the response of the liquid scintillation detector to ?-rays and neutrons has been investigated. It is found experimentally that the response of the detector to radiation varies with the detector placement styles. The explanation proposed in this article is that this variation arises from the change of the light transmission process induced by the motion of the inner gas bubble. This assertion has been supported by the simulations of both radiation energy deposition and light transmission process inside the detector with the GEANT4 code. For the recommended detector placement style when the detector is placed horizontally, the variation of the response is smaller than 1.56%, which will increase to about 22% when the detector is placed facing down and the bubble lies between the scintillator and photomultiplier tube.

  13. Study of scintillation, fluorescence and scattering in mineral oil for the MiniBooNE neutrino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Bruce C.; Brice, Stephen; Hawker, Eric; Maza, Shannon; Meyer, Hans-Otto; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Tayloe, Rex; Tanaka, Hirohisa A.; Toptygin, Dmitri; /Fermilab /Western Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Princeton U. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2004-11-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector at Fermilab (FNAL) is filled with 250,000 gallons of pure mineral oil. The principal signal for MiniBooNE is light observed in a prompt Cherenkov cone. Scattering and fluorescence modify our detection of this light. Scintillation is also created by ionization in the oil. Studies of fluorescence of this oil have been carried out over a wide spectrum of exciting light and time resolved fluorescence with a narrower range of excitation. Polarized scattering measurements have been carried out at longer wavelengths. Time resolved and spectrally resolved scintillation has been studied with a 200 MeV Proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Results of these studies will be reported.

  14. Application of a BC501A Liquid Scintillation Detector with a Gain Stabilization System on the EAST Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xingyu; Chen, Zhongjing; Du, Tengfei; Hu, Zhimeng; Ge, Lijian; Chen, Jinxiang; Li, Xiangqing; Fan, Tieshuan

    2016-01-01

    A 2 2 BC501A liquid scintillation detector with a gain stabilization system is developed and applied to neutron and ?-ray measurement on the EAST tokamak. Energy calibration of a liquid scintillator using a fast coincidence method is presented and compared with the Monte Carlo simulation. Determination of the proton light output function of the BC501A is presented. Results from dedicated experiments with an Am-Be neutron source, ? source and quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams, and from measurements on EAST tokamak are presented and discussed. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB106004 and 2012GB101003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91226102)

  15. Directional neutron detectors for use with 14 MeV neutrons :fiber scintillation methods for directional neutron detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.; Peel, Justin D.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2005-10-01

    Current Joint Test Assembly (JTA) neutron monitors rely on knock-on proton type detectors that are susceptible to X-rays and low energy gamma rays. We investigated two novel plastic scintillating fiber directional neutron detector prototypes. One prototype used a fiber selected such that the fiber width was less than 2.1mm which is the range of a proton in plastic. The difference in the distribution of recoil proton energy deposited in the fiber was used to determine the incident neutron direction. The second prototype measured both the recoil proton energy and direction. The neutron direction was determined from the kinematics of single neutron-proton scatters. This report describes the development and performance of these detectors.

  16. SHIELDING AND DETECTOR RESPONSE CALCULATIONS PERTAINING TO CATEGORY 1 QUANTITIES OF PLUTONIUM AND HAND-HELD PLASTIC SCINTILLATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, A.

    2013-06-07

    Nuclear facilities sometimes use hand-held plastic scintillator detectors to detect attempts to divert special nuclear material in situations where portal monitors are impractical. MCNP calculations have been performed to determine the neutron and gamma radiation field arising from a Category I quantity of weapons-grade plutonium in various shielding configurations. The shields considered were composed of combinations of lead and high-density polyethylene such that the mass of the plutonium plus shield was 22.7 kilograms. Monte-Carlo techniques were also used to determine the detector response to each of the shielding configurations. The detector response calculations were verified using field measurements of high-, medium-, and low- energy gamma-ray sources as well as a Cf-252 neutron source.

  17. Software for Control and Measuring Instrumentation of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-telescope Fast Scintillator Detector System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, P. P.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Runtso, M. F.; Solodovnikov, A. A.

    Currently, the final stage of the ground tests for the technological detector of the high-energy gamma-ray telescope (GRT) GAMMA-400 are finished. The new space GRT will accept the gamma-rays with energy more than 400 MeV and is aimed to open our eyes for so-called "dark matter" problem in the Universe. The high-speed scintillation detectors system (SDS) is used one of the main GRT particle detectors and the good ground test measurements will let the future space mission to get the reliable data. This paper describes the software and hardware of the laboratory control and calibration systems for physical measurements of GRT STDS properties.

  18. Development of an optical fiber type detector using a Eu:LiCaAlF6 scintillator for neutron monitoring in boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Kawabata, Yuya; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritani, Akira; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a small neutron detector probe as a thermal neutron flux monitor for boron neutron capture therapy. The detector consists of an optical fiber and a small Eu:LiCaAlF6 scintillator. In order to improve neutron-gamma ray discrimination capability, we use the small-size scintillator, whose size is controlled to be smaller than fast electron range produced by gamma-rays and larger than the range of charged particles induced by 6Li(n,t) reactions. We confirmed the improved neutron-gamma ray discrimination capability by comparing the detector responses between a small-size scintillator and a slab one. We also evaluated the neutron sensitivity of the fabricated optical fiber type neutron detector to be 210-4 cm2.

  19. Recent progress of MPPC-based scintillation detectors in high precision X-ray and gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Fujita, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Kurei, Y.; Tsujikawa, T.; Oshima, T.; Taya, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Ogata, H.; Okochi, H.; Ohsuka, S.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, S.

    2015-06-01

    The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) is a promising light sensor for various applications, not only in physics experiments but also in nuclear medicine, industry, and even high-energy astrophysics. In this paper, we present the current status and most recent progress of the MPPC-based scintillation detectors, such as (1) a high-precision X-ray and gamma-ray spectral image sensor, (2) next-generation PET detectors with MRI, TOF, and DOI measurement capabilities, and (3) a compact gamma camera for environmental radiation surveys. We first present a new method of fabricating a Ce:GAGG scintillator plate (1 or 2 mm thick) with ultra-fine resolution (0.2 mm/pixel), cut using a dicing saw to create 50 μm wide micro-grooves. When the plate is optically coupled with a large-area MPPC array, excellent spatial resolution of 0.48 mm (FWHM) and energy resolution of 14% (FWHM) are obtained for 122 keV gamma rays. Hence, the detector can act as a convenient "multi-color" imaging device that can potentially be used for future SPECT and photon-counting CT. We then show a prototype system for a high-resolution MPPC-based PET scanner that can realize ≃1 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution, even under a strong magnetic field of 4.7 T. We develop a front-end ASIC intended for future TOF-PET scanner with a 16-channel readout that achieves a coincidence time resolution of 489 ps (FWHM). A novel design for a module with DOI-measurement capability for gamma rays is also presented by measuring the pulse height ratio of double-sided MPPCs coupled at both ends of scintillation crystal block. Finally, we present the concept of a two-plane Compton camera consisting of Ce:GAGG scintillator arrays coupled with thin MPPC arrays. As a result of the thin and compact features of the MPPC device, the camera not only achieves a small size (14×14×15 cm3) and light weight (1.9 kg) but also excellent sensitivity, compared to the conventional PMT-based pinhole camera used in Fukushima. Finally, we briefly describe a new product recently developed in conjunction with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. that offers improved sensitivity and angular resolution of Δθ ~ 8 ° (FWHM) at 662 keV, by incorporating DOI-segmented scintillator arrays.

  20. Analysis of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized 4He fast neutron detector using pulse shape fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, R. P.; Murer, D.; Ray, H.; Jordan, K. A.

    2015-03-01

    An empirical investigation of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized 4He gas fast neutron detector was conducted using pulse shape fitting. Scintillation signals from neutron interactions were measured and averaged to produce a single generic neutron pulse shape from both a 252Cf spontaneous fission source and a (d,d) neutron generator. An expression for light output over time was then developed by treating the decay of helium excited states in the same manner as the decay of radioactive isotopes. This pulse shape expression was fitted to the measured neutron pulse shape using a least-squares optimization algorithm, allowing an empirical analysis of the mechanism of scintillation inside the 4He detector. A further understanding of this mechanism in the 4He detector will advance the use of this system as a neutron spectrometer. For 252Cf neutrons, the triplet and singlet time constants were found to be 970 ns and 686 ns, respectively. For neutrons from the (d,d) generator, the time constants were found to be 884 ns and 636 ns. Differences were noted in the magnitude of these parameters compared to previously published data, however the general relationships were noted to be the same and checked with expected trends from theory. Of the excited helium states produced from a 252Cf neutron interaction, 76% were found to be born as triplet states, similar to the result from the neutron generator of 71%. The two sources yielded similar pulse shapes despite having very different neutron energy spectra, validating the robustness of the fits across various neutron energies.

  1. Analysis of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized {sup 4}He fast neutron detector using pulse shape fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.P. Ray, H.; Jordan, K.A.; Murer, D.

    2015-03-15

    An empirical investigation of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized {sup 4}He gas fast neutron detector was conducted using pulse shape fitting. Scintillation signals from neutron interactions were measured and averaged to produce a single generic neutron pulse shape from both a {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source and a (d,d) neutron generator. An expression for light output over time was then developed by treating the decay of helium excited states in the same manner as the decay of radioactive isotopes. This pulse shape expression was fitted to the measured neutron pulse shape using a least-squares optimization algorithm, allowing an empirical analysis of the mechanism of scintillation inside the {sup 4}He detector. A further understanding of this mechanism in the {sup 4}He detector will advance the use of this system as a neutron spectrometer. For {sup 252}Cf neutrons, the triplet and singlet time constants were found to be 970 ns and 686 ns, respectively. For neutrons from the (d,d) generator, the time constants were found to be 884 ns and 636 ns. Differences were noted in the magnitude of these parameters compared to previously published data, however the general relationships were noted to be the same and checked with expected trends from theory. Of the excited helium states produced from a {sup 252}Cf neutron interaction, 76% were found to be born as triplet states, similar to the result from the neutron generator of 71%. The two sources yielded similar pulse shapes despite having very different neutron energy spectra, validating the robustness of the fits across various neutron energies.

  2. Investigation of depth-of-interaction (DOI) effects in single- and dual-layer block detectors by the use of light sharing in scintillators.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2012-01-01

    In block detectors for PET scanners that use different lengths of slits in scintillators to share light among photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), a position histogram is distorted when the depth of interaction (DOI) of the gamma photons is near the PMTs (DOI effect). However, it remains unclear whether a DOI effect is observed for block detectors that use light sharing in scintillators. To investigate the effect, I tested the effect for single- and dual-layer block detectors. In the single-layer block detector, Ce doped Gd?SiO? (GSO) crystals of 1.9 1.9 15 mm (0.5 mol% Ce) were used. In the dual-layer block detector, GSO crystals of a 1.9 1.9 6 mm (1.5 mol% Ce) were used for the front layer and GSO crystals of 1.9 1.9 9 mm (0.5 mol% Ce) for the back layer. These scintillators were arranged to form an 8 8 matrix with multi-layer optical film inserted partly between the scintillators for obtaining an optimized position response with use of two dual-PMTs. Position histograms and energy responses were measured for these block detectors at three different DOI positions, and the flood histograms were obtained. The results indicated that DOI effects are observed in both block detectors, but the dual-layer block showed more severe distortion in the position histogram as well as larger energy variations. We conclude that, in the block detectors that use light sharing in the scintillators, the DOI effect is an important factor for the performance of the detectors, especially for DOI block detectors. PMID:21927889

  3. A scintillator-based online detector for the angularly resolved measurement of laser-accelerated proton spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Metzkes, J.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Stiller, N.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.; Karsch, L.; Schuerer, M.; Pawelke, J.; Richter, C.

    2012-12-15

    In recent years, a new generation of high repetition rate ({approx}10 Hz), high power ({approx}100 TW) laser systems has stimulated intense research on laser-driven sources for fast protons. Considering experimental instrumentation, this development requires online diagnostics for protons to be added to the established offline detection tools such as solid state track detectors or radiochromic films. In this article, we present the design and characterization of a scintillator-based online detector that gives access to the angularly resolved proton distribution along one spatial dimension and resolves 10 different proton energy ranges. Conceived as an online detector for key parameters in laser-proton acceleration, such as the maximum proton energy and the angular distribution, the detector features a spatial resolution of {approx}1.3 mm and a spectral resolution better than 1.5 MeV for a maximum proton energy above 12 MeV in the current design. Regarding its areas of application, we consider the detector a useful complement to radiochromic films and Thomson parabola spectrometers, capable to give immediate feedback on the experimental performance. The detector was characterized at an electrostatic Van de Graaff tandetron accelerator and tested in a laser-proton acceleration experiment, proving its suitability as a diagnostic device for laser-accelerated protons.

  4. Results of low energy background measurements with the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) of the Mont Blanc Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G. F.; Castagnoli, C.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vernetto, S.; Dadykin, V. L.

    1985-01-01

    The 90 tons liquid scintillation detector (LSD) is fully running since October 1984, at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock underground. The main goal is to search for neutrino bursts from collapsing stars. The experiment is very sensitive to detect low energy particles and has a very good signature to gamma-rays from (n,p) reaction which follows the upsilon e + p yields n + e sup + neutrino capture. The analysis of data is presented and the preliminary results on low energy measurements are discussed.

  5. Response of a plastic scintillator detector to light ions with energies up to hundreds of MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyarenko, P. V.; Doroshkevitch, E. A.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Gavrilov, V. B.; Khassanov, F. M.; Shuvalov, S. M.; Shvartsman, B. B.; Stavinsky, A. V.; Vlassov, A. V.

    1985-09-01

    The response of a 20 cm thick plastic scintillator detector to p, d, t and 3He ions has been measured as a function of the energy of the ions from several tens to several hundreds of MeV. It was observed that in this energy region the specific luminescence depends not only on ionization loss but also on the charge of the ion. A simple expression can be used for the approximation of the specific luminescence of light ions with energies from about 1 MeV up to several hundreds of MeV.

  6. A comparative study of the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators for the upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, S.; Erasmus, R.; Jivan, H.; Pelwan, C.; Peters, G.; Sideras-Haddad, E.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of radiation on the light transmittance of plastic scintillators was studied experimentally. The high optical transmittance property of plastic scintillators makes them essential in the effective functioning of the Tile calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN. This significant role played by the scintillators makes this research imperative in the movement towards the upgrade of the tile calorimeter. The radiation damage of polyvinyl toluene (PVT) based plastic scintillators was studied, namely, EJ-200, EJ-208 and EJ-260, all manufactured and provided to us by ELJEN technology. In addition, in order to compare to scintillator brands actually in use at the ATLAS detector currently, two polystyrene (PS) based scintillators and an additional PVT based scintillator were also scrutinized in this study, namely, Dubna, Protvino and Bicron, respectively. All the samples were irradiated using a 6 MeV proton beam at different doses at iThemba LABS Gauteng. The radiation process was planned and mimicked by doing simulations using a SRIM program. In addition, transmission spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples of each grade were obtained, observed and analyzed.

  7. Resarch investigation on dense scintillation glass for use in total absorption nuclear cascade detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Three approaches to the development of a high density scintillation glass were investigated: They include the increase of density of glass systems containing cerium - the only systems which were known to show scintillation, the testing of a novel silicate glass system containing significant concentrations of silver produced by ion exchange and never tested previously, and the hot pressing of a diphasic compact of low density scintillation glass with high density passive glass. In first two cases, while ultraviolet excited fluorescence was maintained in the glasses showing high density, scintillation response to high energy particles was not retained in the case of the cerium containing glasses or developed in the case of the silver containing glasses. In the case of the compacts, the extremely long path length caused by the multiple internal reflections which occur in such a body resulted in attenuation even with glasses of high specific transmission. It is not clear why the scintillation efficiency is not maintained in the higher density cerium containing glasses.

  8. Characterization of a GEM-based scintillation detector with He-CF4 gas mixture in clinical proton beams.

    PubMed

    Nichiporov, D; Coutinho, L; Klyachko, A V

    2016-04-21

    Accurate, high-spatial resolution dosimetry in proton therapy is a time consuming task, and may be challenging in the case of small fields, due to the lack of adequate instrumentation. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel dose imaging detector with high spatial resolution and tissue equivalent response to dose in the Bragg peak, suitable for beam commissioning and quality assurance measurements. A scintillation gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector based on a double GEM amplification structure with optical readout was filled with a He/CF4 gas mixture and evaluated in pristine and modulated proton beams of several penetration ranges. The detector's performance was characterized in terms of linearity in dose rate, spatial resolution, short- and long-term stability and tissue-equivalence of response at different energies. Depth-dose profiles measured with the GEM detector in the 115-205 MeV energy range were compared with the profiles measured under similar conditions using the PinPoint 3D small-volume ion chamber. The GEM detector filled with a He-based mixture has a nearly tissue equivalent response in the proton beam and may become an attractive and efficient tool for high-resolution 2D and 3D dose imaging in proton dosimetry, and especially in small-field applications. PMID:26992243

  9. Single channel beta-gamma coincidence system for radioxenon measurement using well-type HPGe and plastic scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Feng; Jiang, Wengang; Li, Xuesong; He, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jiamei; Yu, Gongshuo

    2013-11-01

    In order to improve detection sensitivity for radioxenon isotopes, a new single channel beta-gamma coincidence system has been developed. The system combines a well-type High-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector to measure gamma or X radiation and a plastic scintillator detector to obtain electron radiation. A 133Xe sample has been produced and the radioactive concentration was determined with length-compensated method based on three internal gas proportional counters. The performance of system has been checked by measuring 133Xe sample with and without coincidence. The coincidence detection efficiency of 81 keV gamma-ray from decay of 133Xe was calibrated to be 0.34 (12.4%), and the Minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the beta-gamma coincidence system for 133Xe was determined to be 1.8 mBq after one day of measurement.

  10. Monte Carlo study of the energy and angular dependence of the response of plastic scintillation detectors in photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lilie L. W.; Klein, David; Beddar, A. Sam

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: By using Monte Carlo simulations, the authors investigated the energy and angular dependence of the response of plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) in photon beams. Methods: Three PSDs were modeled in this study: A plastic scintillator (BC-400) and a scintillating fiber (BCF-12), both attached by a plastic-core optical fiber stem, and a plastic scintillator (BC-400) attached by an air-core optical fiber stem with a silica tube coated with silver. The authors then calculated, with low statistical uncertainty, the energy and angular dependences of the PSDs' responses in a water phantom. For energy dependence, the response of the detectors is calculated as the detector dose per unit water dose. The perturbation caused by the optical fiber stem connected to the PSD to guide the optical light to a photodetector was studied in simulations using different optical fiber materials. Results: For the energy dependence of the PSDs in photon beams, the PSDs with plastic-core fiber have excellent energy independence within about 0.5% at photon energies ranging from 300 keV (monoenergetic) to 18 MV (linac beam). The PSD with an air-core optical fiber with a silica tube also has good energy independence within 1% in the same photon energy range. For the angular dependence, the relative response of all the three modeled PSDs is within 2% for all the angles in a 6 MV photon beam. This is also true in a 300 keV monoenergetic photon beam for PSDs with plastic-core fiber. For the PSD with an air-core fiber with a silica tube in the 300 keV beam, the relative response varies within 1% for most of the angles, except in the case when the fiber stem is pointing right to the radiation source in which case the PSD may over-response by more than 10%. Conclusions: At {+-}1% level, no beam energy correction is necessary for the response of all three PSDs modeled in this study in the photon energy ranges from 200 keV (monoenergetic) to 18 MV (linac beam). The PSD would be even closer to water equivalent if there is a silica tube around the sensitive volume. The angular dependence of the response of the three PSDs in a 6 MV photon beam is not of concern at 2% level.

  11. Radiation detector developments in medical applications: inorganic scintillators in positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Carel W E

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a number of new gamma-ray scintillators are commercially available. These scintillators are either derived from known scintillators, e.g. Lu1-xYxAlO3: Ce (LuYAP) from LuAlO3:Ce and Lu(2(1-x))Y2xSiO5:Ce (LYSO) from Lu2SiO5:Ce or are the result of new discoveries, e.g. LaCl3:Ce and LaBr3:Ce. The first two materials are primarily of interest because of the relatively high detection efficiency and fast response; LYSO has found application in time-of-flight (TOF) positron-emission tomography (TOF PET) and the LuYAP-LYSO combination is used in small-animal PET. The halide scintillators have an excellent energy resolution of approximately 3% at 662 keV and they have a relatively high light yield. LaBr3:Ce is being studied for application in TOF PET. At the same time, the search for and research on new scintillator materials are going on. For example, LuI3:Ce is a new material with a very high light yield (approximately 90,000 photons MeV(-1)). Other examples of new materials are (C6H13NH3)2PbI4 and (C3H7NH3)2PbBr4, organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, of which the former has a very fast sub-nanosecond response. The new scintillators show great promise for new developments in medical applications, in particular, for PET systems. PMID:18321877

  12. Comparison of calculation results of neutron detection efficiency for models with silicon semiconductor detector and plastic scintillator for GAMMA-400 telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedenko, G.; Zin, Thant; Kadilin, V.; Gavrikov, I.; Tyurin, E.; Isakov, S.

    2013-02-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were performed for two models of neutron detector. The first model of the neutron detector includes the layer of polyethylene as a moderator, boron as a target for (n, α) reaction and silicon as a detector of α-particles. The second model consists of polyethylene layers alternating with layers of plastic-boron scintillators. Calculations were performed for parallel neutron flux with evaporation spectrum. The calculation results of neutron detection efficiency for two proposed models were analyzed and compared. The high neutron detection efficiency is attained by using a plastic-boron scintillator. Using natural boron the 10% of detection efficiency is attained and in the case of enriched boron more than 15% of detection efficiency is attained when the detector thickness is 4 cm. The model using silicon detectors provides the detection efficiency about 4%.

  13. Low-energy neutron detector based upon lithium lanthanide borate scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Czirr, John B. (Mapleton, UT)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting neutrons includes a cerium activated scintillation crystal containing .sup.10 B, with the scintillation crystal emitting light in response to .alpha. particles emitted from the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.)Li* reaction. The apparatus also includes a gamma scintillator positioned adjacent the crystal and which generates light in response to gamma rays emitted from the decay of Li*. The apparatus further includes a first and a second light-to-electronic signal converter each positioned to respectively receive light from the crystal and the gamma scintillator, and each respectively outputting first and second electronic signals representative of .alpha. particles from the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.)Li* reaction and gamma rays from the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.)Li* reaction. The apparatus includes a coincidence circuit connected to receive the first and second signals and which generates a coincidence signal when the first and second signals coincide. The apparatus also includes a data analyzer for receiving an additional signal from at least one of the first and second converters, and for operating in response to the coincidence signal.

  14. The neutron detectors based on oxide scintillators for control of fissionable radioactive substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, V. D.; Grinyov, B. V.; Onyshchenko, G. M.; Piven, L. A.; Lysetska, O. K.; Opolonin, O. D.; Kostioukevitch, S. A.; Smith, C. F.

    2014-09-01

    A large-area X-ray CMOS image sensor (LXCIS) is widely used in mammography, non-destructive inspection, and animal CT. For LXCIS, in spite of weakness such as low spatial and energy resolution, a Indirect method using scintillator like CsI(Tl) or Gd2O2S is still well-used because of low cost and easy manufacture. A photo-diode for X-ray imaging has large area about 50 ~ 200 um as compared with vision image sensors. That is because X-ray has feature of straight and very small light emission of a scintillator. Moreover, notwithstanding several structure like columnar, the scintillator still emit a diffusible light. This diffusible light from scintillator can make spatial crosstalk in X-ray photodiode array because of a large incidence angle. Moreover, comparing with vision image sensors, X-ray sensor doesn't have micro lens for gathering the photons to photo-diode. In this study, we simulated the affection of spatial crosstalk in X-ray sensor by comparing optical sensor. Additionally, the chip, which was fabricated in 0.18 um 1P5M process by Hynix in Korea, was tested to know the effect of spatial crosstalk by changing design parameters. From these works, we found out that spatial crosstalk is affected by pixel pitch, incident angle of photons, and micro lens on each pixels.

  15. Optimization of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory Digital Data Acquisition System for use with fast scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, C. J.; Liddick, S. N.; Larson, N. R.; Suchyta, S.; Tompkins, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    The Digital Data Acquisition System (DDAS) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) has expanded to instrument arrays composed of fast-scintillator detectors. The expansion has motivated the development of software designed to optimize the time- and energy-resolving capabilities of the system, which is a collection of 16-channel FPGA-programmable modules running 12- and 14-bit ADCs with sampling frequencies of 100 and 250 MSPS, respectively. Using the techniques described herein, the time resolution of the DDAS electronics has been substantially improved. For signal amplitudes occupying < 10 % the full range of the ADC, the time resolution of the DDAS electronics, measured online, has been reduced to < 100 ps and < 40 ps for 100 MSPS and 250 MSPS modules, respectively. A time resolution of ? 350 ps, at 511 keV, between two 38 mm38 mm lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detectors, equipped with Hamamatsu R6231 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), has also been realized. Similar optimization techniques applied to the DDAS energy-extraction algorithms have yielded energy resolutions below 2% at 1.33 MeV for both the 100 and 250 MSPS digitizers using the same LaBr3 detectors. The techniques described in this work are broadly applicable to other digital acquisition systems that are capable of recording the digitized raw detector signals.

  16. A count-rate model for PET scanners using pixelated Anger-logic detectors with different scintillators.

    PubMed

    Surti, S; Karp, J S

    2005-12-01

    A high count-rate simulation (HCRSim) model has been developed so that all results are derived from fundamental physics principles. Originally developed to study the behaviour of continuous sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors, this model is now applied to PET scanners based on pixelated Anger-logic detectors using lanthanum bromide (LaBr(3)), gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) and lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) scintillators. This simulation has been used to study the effect on scanner deadtime and pulse pileup at high activity levels due to the scintillator stopping power (mu), decay time (tau) and energy resolution. Simulations were performed for a uniform 20 cm diameter x 70 cm long cylinder (NEMA NU2-2001 standard) in a whole-body scanner with an 85 cm ring diameter and a 25 cm axial field-of-view. Our results for these whole-body scanners demonstrate the potential of a pixelated Anger-logic detector and the relationship of its performance with the scanner NEC rate. Faster signal decay and short coincidence timing window lead to a reduction in deadtime and randoms fraction in the LaBr(3) and LSO scanners compared to GSO. The excellent energy resolution of LaBr(3) leads to the lowest scatter fraction for all scanners and helps compensate for reduced sensitivity compared to the GSO and LSO scanners, leading to the highest NEC values at high activity concentrations. The LSO scanner has the highest sensitivity of all the scanner designs investigated here, therefore leading to the highest peak NEC value but at a lower activity concentration than that of LaBr(3). PMID:16306662

  17. XMASS detector calibration using a neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, K.

    2016-02-01

    XMASS-I, the first phase of the XMASS implementation, is dedicated to direct dark matter detection using 832 kg of liquid xenon as target material. To understand the detector response to nuclear recoils, we performed a neutron calibration using a 252Cf source. In this presentation, we discuss the calibration setup and result. In particular we present the obtained scintillation decay time and scintillation efficiency. The MC reproducibility is also shown.

  18. Proton transfer bis-benzazole fluors and their use in scintillator detectors

    DOEpatents

    Kauffman, J.M.

    1994-03-29

    A novel class of proton transfer, bis-benzazole, fluorescent compounds, i.e., fluors, is disclosed. The novel fluors include substituted or unsubstituted 1,4-bis(2-benzazolyl)-2-hydroxybenzenes and 1,4-bis(2-benzazolyl)-2-amidobenzenes wherein the benzazolyl group may be benzoxazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzothiazolyl, and the like. The benzazolyl groups may be substituted with one or more alkyl groups to improve solubility in organic matrix materials such as solvents, monomers, resins, polymers, and the like. The novel fluors may be used in the manufacture of fluorescent coatings, objects, scintillators, light sources and the like. The novel fluors are particularly useful for radiation-hard, solid scintillators for the detection and measurement of high energy particles and radiation.

  19. Proton transfer bis-benzazole fluors and their use in scintillator detectors

    DOEpatents

    Kauffman, Joel M. (Wayne, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A novel class of proton transfer, bis-benzazole, fluorescent compounds, i.e., fluors, is disclosed. The novel fluors include substituted or unsubstituted 1,4-bis(2-benzazolyl)-2-hydroxybenzenes and 1,4-bis(2-benzazolyl)-2-amidobenzenes wherein the benzazolyl group may be benzoxazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzothiazolyl, and the like. The benzazolyl groups may be substituted with one or more alkyl groups to improve solubility in organic matrix materials such as solvents, monomers, resins, polymers, and the like. The novel fluors may be used in the manufacture of fluorescent coatings, objects, scintillators, light sources and the like. The novel fluors are particularly useful for radiation-hard, solid scintillators for the detection and measurement of high energy particles and radiation.

  20. Scintillation properties of undoped CdS for ionizing radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Koshimizu, Masanori; Okada, Go

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, nondoped CdS crystal with a size of 5 × 5 × 0.5 mm3 was investigated on the optical and scintillation properties. The optical transmittance was 70% at wavelength longer than 500 nm, and the absorption edge was around 490 nm. The photoluminescence emission peak appeared around 490 nm under 340 nm excitation with 6.6 ns fast decay time. In X-ray induced radioluminescence spectrum over the temperature range of 7–300 K, it showed four emission bands around 490, 500–540 with several peaks, 600, and 750 nm. Temperature dependences of each emission band were different. The scintillation decay time was reproduced by two exponential decay components of 8 and 67 ns, and that for X-ray induced afterglow was approximately 0.1% at 20 ms after switching of the X-ray irradiation.

  1. Development of a scintillation-fiber detector for real-time particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, D.; Bonanno, D. L.; Longhitano, F.; Pugliatti, C.; Russo, G. V.; Aiello, S.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Russo, M.; Sipala, V.; Stancampiano, C.; Reito, S.

    2013-04-01

    The prototype of the OFFSET (Optical Fiber Folded Scintillating Extended Tracker) tracker is presented. It exploits a novel system for particle tracking, designed to achieve real-time imaging, large detection areas, and a high spatial resolution especially suitable for use in medical diagnostics. The main results regarding the system architecture have been used as a demonstration of the technique which has been patented by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The prototype of this tracker, presented in this paper, has a 20 × 20 cm2 sensitive area, consisting of two crossed ribbons of 500 micron square scintillating fibers. The track position information is extracted in real time in an innovative way, using a reduced number of read-out channels to obtain very large detection area with moderate enough costs and complexity. The performance of the tracker was investigated using beta sources, cosmic rays, and a 62 MeV proton beam.

  2. Simple gas scintillation proportional counter soft x-ray detector for laboratory usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Favata, Fabio; Inzerillo, Giuseppe; Mirabello, Filippo

    1994-09-01

    We describe a simple Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter for laboratory usage built at the G.S. Vaiana Observatory in Palermo. Its spectral resolution (about a factor 2 better than traditional Gas Proportional Counters), the easy realization and its relatively moderate cost make it a valid alternative to Gas Flow Proportional Counters for the detection of soft X-rays when an improved energy resolution is required.

  3. Plastic scintillation dosimetry: Optimal selection of scintillating fibers and scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, Louis; Arsenault, Jean; Gingras, Luc; Sam Beddar, A.; Roy, Rene; Beaulieu, Luc

    2005-07-15

    Scintillation dosimetry is a promising avenue for evaluating dose patterns delivered by intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans or for the small fields involved in stereotactic radiosurgery. However, the increase in signal has been the goal for many authors. In this paper, a comparison is made between plastic scintillating fibers and plastic scintillator. The collection of scintillation light was measured experimentally for four commercial models of scintillating fibers (BCF-12, BCF-60, SCSF-78, SCSF-3HF) and two models of plastic scintillators (BC-400, BC-408). The emission spectra of all six scintillators were obtained by using an optical spectrum analyzer and they were compared with theoretical behavior. For scintillation in the blue region, the signal intensity of a singly clad scintillating fiber (BCF-12) was 120% of that of the plastic scintillator (BC-400). For the multiclad fiber (SCSF-78), the signal reached 144% of that of the plastic scintillator. The intensity of the green scintillating fibers was lower than that of the plastic scintillator: 47% for the singly clad fiber (BCF-60) and 77% for the multiclad fiber (SCSF-3HF). The collected light was studied as a function of the scintillator length and radius for a cylindrical probe. We found that symmetric detectors with nearly the same spatial resolution in each direction (2 mm in diameter by 3 mm in length) could be made with a signal equivalent to those of the more commonly used asymmetric scintillators. With augmentation of the signal-to-noise ratio in consideration, this paper presents a series of comparisons that should provide insight into selection of a scintillator type and volume for development of a medical dosimeter.

  4. A multi-purposed detector with silicon photomultiplier readout of scintillating fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, A.; Barchetti, F.; Gray, F.; Ripiccini, E.; Rutar, G.

    2015-07-01

    Today, high position and timing resolutions can be simultaneously achieved using scintillating fibers coupled to silicon photomultipliers. In the framework of the MEGII experiment (MEG upgrade) which searches for the μ+ →e+ γ decay we are developing an active muon stopping target of 250 μm square scintillating fibers coupled to silicon photomultipliers. This tool should provide an unique way to continuously monitor the beam (detecting the stopped muons) at the highest muon beam intensities in the world, and to measure the muon decay vertex (detecting the outgoing positron). A similar technology will also be applicable to the Mu3e experiment which searches for the μ+ →e+e-e+ decay. In this experiment a timing hodoscope, which complements the silicon tracker, will be made by few layers of 250 μm square or round scintillating fibers, providing timing measurements with a resolution < 1 ns. In this work we report the results obtained with the current prototypes showing that spatial resolutions at a level of 70 μm and timing resolutions of the order of 350 ps can be reached with a detection efficiency ≥ 90 %.

  5. Impact of the Fano Factor on Position and Energy Estimation in Scintillation Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H.; Jha, Abhinav K.; Clarkson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Fano factor for an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Light from various scintillation crystals have been reported to have Fano factors from sub-Poisson (Fano factor < 1) to super-Poisson (Fano factor > 1). For a given mean, a smaller Fano factor implies a smaller variance and thus less noise. We investigated if lower noise in the scintillation light will result in better spatial and energy resolutions. The impact of Fano factor on the estimation of position of interaction and energy deposited in simple gamma-camera geometries is estimated by two methods - calculating the Cramr-Rao bound and estimating the variance of a maximum likelihood estimator. The methods are consistent with each other and indicate that when estimating the position of interaction and energy deposited by a gamma-ray photon, the Fano factor of a scintillator does not affect the spatial resolution. A smaller Fano factor results in a better energy resolution. PMID:26523069

  6. SU-E-T-476: Quality Assurance for Gamma Knife Perfexion Using the Exradin W1 Plastic Scintillation Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Pino, R; Therriault-Proulx, F; Yang, J; Beddar, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To perform dose profile and output factor measurements for the Exradin W1 plastic scintillation detector (PSD) for the Gamma Knife Perfexion (GKP) collimators in a Lucy phantom and to compare these values to an Exradin A16 ion chamber, EBT3 radiochromic film and treatment planning system (TPS) data. Methods: We used the Exradin W1 PSD which has a small volume, near-water equivalent sensitive element. It has also been shown to be energy independent. This new detector is manufactured and distributed by Standard Imaging, Inc. Measurements were performed for all three collimators (4 mm, 8 mm and 16 mm) for the GKP. The Lucy phantom with the PSD inserted was moved in small steps to acquire profiles in all three directions. EBT3 film was inserted in the Lucy phantom and exposed to a single shot for each collimator. Relative output factors were measured using the three detectors while profiles acquired with the PSD were compared to the ones measured with EBT3 radiochromic film. Results: Measured output factors relative to the largest collimator are as followsCollimator PS EBT3 A1616mm 1.000 1.000 1.0008mm 0.892 0.881 0.8834mm 0.795 0.793 0.727 The nominal (vendor) OFs for GKP are 1.000, 0.900, and 0.814, for collimators 16 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm, respectively. There is excellent agreement between all profiles measured with the PSD and EBT3 as well as with the TPS data provided by the vendor. Conclusion: Output factors measured with the W1 were consistent with the ones measured with EBT3 and A16 ion chamber. Measured profiles are in excellent agreement. The W1 detector seems well suited for beam QA for Gamma Knife due to its dosimetric characteristics. Sam Beddar would like to disclose a NIH/NCI SBIR Phase II grant (2R44CA153824-02A1) with Standard Imaging, Title: “Water-Equivalent Plastic Scintillation Detectors for Small Field Radiotherapy”.

  7. Cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS flat panel detector: Visibility of simulated microcalcifications

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To measure and investigate the improvement of microcalcification (MC) visibility in cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (Dexela 2923, Perkin Elmer). Methods: Aluminum wires and calcium carbonate grains of various sizes were embedded in a paraffin cylinder to simulate imaging of calcifications in a breast. Phantoms were imaged with a benchtop experimental cone beam CT system at various exposure levels. In addition to the Dexela detector, a high pitch (50 μm), thin (150 μm) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (C7921CA-09, Hamamatsu Corporation, Hamamatsu City, Japan) and a widely used low pitch (194 μm), thick (600 μm) scintillator aSi/CsI flat panel detector (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems) were also used in scanning for comparison. The images were independently reviewed by six readers (imaging physicists). The MC visibility was quantified as the fraction of visible MCs and measured as a function of the estimated mean glandular dose (MGD) level for various MC sizes and detectors. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) were also measured and compared for the three detectors used. Results: The authors have demonstrated that the use of a high pitch (75 μm) CMOS detector coupled with a thick (500 μm) CsI scintillator helped make the smaller 150–160, 160–180, and 180–200 μm MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 10.8, 9, and 10.8 mGy, respectively. It also made the larger 200–212 and 212–224 μm MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 7.2 mGy. No performance improvement was observed for 224–250 μm or larger size groups. With the higher spatial resolution of the Dexela detector based system, the apparent dimensions and shapes of MCs were more accurately rendered. The results show that with the aforementioned detector, a 73% visibility could be achieved in imaging 160–180 μm MCs as compared to 28% visibility achieved by the low pitch (194 μm) aSi/CsI flat panel detector. The measurements confirm that the Hamamatsu detector has the highest MTF, followed by the Dexel detector, and then the Varian detector. However, the Dexela detector, with its thick (500 μm) CsI scintillator and low noise level, has the highest DQE at all frequencies, followed by the Varian detector, and then the Hamamatsu detector. The findings on the MC visibility correlated well with the differences in MTFs, noise power spectra, and DQEs measured for these three detectors. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated that the use of the CMOS type Dexela detector with its high pitch (75 μm) and thick (500 μm) CsI scintillator could help improve the MC visibility. However, the improvement depended on the exposure level and the MC size. For imaging larger MCs or scanning at high exposure levels, there was little advantage in using the Dexela detector as compared to the aSi type Varian detector. These findings correlate well with the higher measured DQEs of the Dexela detector, especially at higher frequencies. PMID:24089917

  8. Cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 ?m), thick (500 ?m) scintillator CMOS flat panel detector: Visibility of simulated microcalcifications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To measure and investigate the improvement of microcalcification (MC) visibility in cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 ?m), thick (500 ?m) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (Dexela 2923, Perkin Elmer).Methods: Aluminum wires and calcium carbonate grains of various sizes were embedded in a paraffin cylinder to simulate imaging of calcifications in a breast. Phantoms were imaged with a benchtop experimental cone beam CT system at various exposure levels. In addition to the Dexela detector, a high pitch (50 ?m), thin (150 ?m) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (C7921CA-09, Hamamatsu Corporation, Hamamatsu City, Japan) and a widely used low pitch (194 ?m), thick (600 ?m) scintillator aSi/CsI flat panel detector (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems) were also used in scanning for comparison. The images were independently reviewed by six readers (imaging physicists). The MC visibility was quantified as the fraction of visible MCs and measured as a function of the estimated mean glandular dose (MGD) level for various MC sizes and detectors. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) were also measured and compared for the three detectors used.Results: The authors have demonstrated that the use of a high pitch (75 ?m) CMOS detector coupled with a thick (500 ?m) CsI scintillator helped make the smaller 150160, 160180, and 180200 ?m MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 10.8, 9, and 10.8 mGy, respectively. It also made the larger 200212 and 212224 ?m MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 7.2 mGy. No performance improvement was observed for 224250 ?m or larger size groups. With the higher spatial resolution of the Dexela detector based system, the apparent dimensions and shapes of MCs were more accurately rendered. The results show that with the aforementioned detector, a 73% visibility could be achieved in imaging 160180 ?m MCs as compared to 28% visibility achieved by the low pitch (194 ?m) aSi/CsI flat panel detector. The measurements confirm that the Hamamatsu detector has the highest MTF, followed by the Dexel detector, and then the Varian detector. However, the Dexela detector, with its thick (500 ?m) CsI scintillator and low noise level, has the highest DQE at all frequencies, followed by the Varian detector, and then the Hamamatsu detector. The findings on the MC visibility correlated well with the differences in MTFs, noise power spectra, and DQEs measured for these three detectors.Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated that the use of the CMOS type Dexela detector with its high pitch (75 ?m) and thick (500 ?m) CsI scintillator could help improve the MC visibility. However, the improvement depended on the exposure level and the MC size. For imaging larger MCs or scanning at high exposure levels, there was little advantage in using the Dexela detector as compared to the aSi type Varian detector. These findings correlate well with the higher measured DQEs of the Dexela detector, especially at higher frequencies.

  9. Plastic scintillator detectors for the study of transfer and breakup reactions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.R.; Bantel, M.; Chan, Y.D.; Gazes, S.M.; Kamermans, R.; Albiston, C.; Wald, S.; Stokstad, R.G.

    1984-10-01

    The detection of light particles associated with projectile like fragments can be used to separate transfer and breakup reactions provided the detectors cover a large solid angle. Three detection systems are described: (1) a ..pi.. detector in the shape of a cube, 20 cm on a side, (2) a X-Y position sensitive ..delta..E-E detector having an area of 20 x 20 cm/sup 2/, and (3) a multi-element detector consisting of eight position sensitive strips. The latter two detectors are of the phoswich type having the thin element of NE102 (tau = 2.5 ns) and the thick element of NE115 (tau = 225 ns). The performance characteristics of the three detectors are described. 6 references, 13 figures.

  10. Plastic scintillator detectors for the study of transfer and breakup reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H. R.; Bantel, M.; Chan, Y. D.; Gazes, S. M.; Kamermans, R.; Albiston, C.; Wald, S.; Stokstad, R. G.

    1984-10-01

    The detection of light particles associated with projectile like fragments can be used to separate transfer and breakup reactions provided the detectors cover a large solid angle. Three detection systems are described: (1) 4-pi detector in the shape of a cube, 20 cm on a side, (2) a X-Y position sensitive (delta) E-E detector having an area of 20 x 20 cm, and (3) a multielement detector consisting of eight position sensitive strips. The latter two detectors are of the phoswich type having the thin element of NE102 (tau = 2.5 ns) and the thick element of NE115 (tau = 225 ns). The performance characteristics of the three detectors are described.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the dosimetric accuracy of the in vivo plastic scintillation detector OARtrac system for prostate cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Zeringue, Clint; Wootton, Landon S.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A promising, new, in vivo prostate dosimetry system has been developed for clinical radiation therapy. This work outlines the preliminary end-to-end testing of the accuracy and precision of the new OARtrac scintillation dosimetry system. We tested 94 calibrated plastic scintillation detector (PSD) probes before their final integration into endorectal balloon assemblies. These probes had been calibrated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Dosimetry Laboratory (MDADL). We used a complete clinical OARtrac system including the PSD probes, charge coupled device (CCD camera) monitoring system, and the manufacturer’s integrated software package. The PSD probes were irradiated at 6 MV in a Solid Water® phantom. Irradiations were performed with a 6 MV linear accelerator using anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior (AP/PA) matched fields to a maximum dose of 200 cGy in a 100 cm source-axis distance (SAD geometry. As a whole, the OARtrac system has good accuracy with a mean error of 0.01% and an error spread of ± 5.4% at the 95% confidence interval. These results reflect the PSD probes’ accuracy before their final insertion into endorectal balloons. Future work will test the dosimetric effects of mounting the PSD probes within the endorectal balloon assemblies. PMID:24732073

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the dosimetric accuracy of the in vivo plastic scintillation detector OARtrac system for prostate cancer treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Zeringue, Clint; Wootton, Landon S.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Beddar, Sam

    2014-05-01

    A promising, new, in vivo prostate dosimetry system has been developed for clinical radiation therapy. This work outlines the preliminary end-to-end testing of the accuracy and precision of the new OARtrac scintillation dosimetry system. We tested 94 calibrated plastic scintillation detector (PSD) probes before their final integration into endorectal balloon assemblies. These probes had been calibrated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Dosimetry Laboratory. We used a complete clinical OARtrac system including the PSD probes, charge coupled device camera monitoring system, and the manufacturer's integrated software package. The PSD probes were irradiated at 6 MV in a Solid Water phantom. Irradiations were performed with a 6 MV linear accelerator using anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior matched fields to a maximum dose of 200 cGy in a 100 cm source-axis distance geometry. As a whole, the OARtrac system has good accuracy with a mean error of 0.01% and an error spread of 5.4% at the 95% confidence interval. These results reflect the PSD probes accuracy before their final insertion into endorectal balloons. Future work will test the dosimetric effects of mounting the PSD probes within the endorectal balloon assemblies.

  13. Homestake tracking spectrometer: a one-mile deep 1400-ton liquid-scintillation nucleon-decay detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, M.L.; Davidson, I.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Marshall, E.; Steinberg, R.I.; Cleveland, B.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lowenstein, D.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a proposed nucleon decay detector able to demonstrate the existence of nucleon decay for lifetimes up to 5 x 10/sup 32/ yr. The proposed instrument is a self-vetoed completely-active 1400-ton liquid scintillation Tracking Spectrometer to be located in the Homestake Mine at a depth of 4200 mwe, where the cosmic ray muon flux is only 1100/m/sup 2//yr, more than 10/sup 7/ times lower than the flux at the earth's surface. Based on computer simulations and laboratory measurements, the Tracking Spectrometer will have a spatial resolution of +- 15 cm (0.32 radiation lengths); energy resolution of +- 4.2%; and time resolution of +-1.3 ns. Because liquid scintillator responds to total ionization energy, all neutrinoless nucleon decay modes will produce a sharp (+- 4.2%) total energy peak at approximately 938 MeV, thereby allowing clear separation of nucleon decay events from atmospheric neutrino and other backgrounds. The instrument will be about equally sensitive to most nucleon decay modes. It will be able to identify most of the likely decay modes (including n ..-->.. ..nu.. + K/sub s//sup 0/ as suggested by supersymmetric grand unified theories), as well as determine the charge of lepton secondaries and the polarization of secondary muons.

  14. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  15. Experimental response function of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for gamma photons and tomographic measurements for defect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Karamjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B. S.

    2011-02-01

    The response function of gamma detector is an important factor for spectrum analysis because some photons and secondary electrons may escape the detector volume before fully depositing their energy, of course destroys the ideal delta function response. An inverse matrix approach, for unfolding of observed pulse-height distribution to a true photon spectrum, is used for construction of experimental response function by formulating a 40 40 matrix with bin mesh ( E1/2) of 0.025 (MeV) 1/2 for the present measurements. A tomographic scanner system, operating in a non-destructive and non-invasive way, is also presented for inspection of density variation in any object. The incoherent scattered intensity of 662 keV gamma photons, obtained by unfolding (deconvolution) the experimental pulse-height distribution of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, provides the desired information. The method is quite sensitive, for showing inclusion of medium Z (atomic number) material (iron) in low Z material (aluminium) and detecting a void of 2 mm in size for iron block, to investigate the inhomogeneities in the object. Also, the grey scale images (using "MATLAB") are shown to visualise the presence of defects/inclusion in metal samples.

  16. Real-time in vivo rectal wall dosimetry using plastic scintillation detectors for patients with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, Landon; Kudchadker, Rajat; Lee, Andrew; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    We designed and constructed an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) to monitor dose to the rectal wall in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Five patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board–approved protocol for twice weekly in vivo dose monitoring with our system, resulting in a total of 142 in vivo dose measurements. PSDs were attached to the surface of endorectal balloons used for prostate immobilization to place the PSDs in contact with the rectal wall. Absorbed dose was measured in real time and the total measured dose was compared with the dose calculated by the treatment planning system on the daily CT image dataset. The mean difference between measured and calculated doses for the entire patient population was −0.4% (standard deviation 2.8%). The mean difference between daily measured and calculated doses for each patient ranged from −3.3% to 3.3% (standard deviation ranged from 5.6% to 7.1% for 4 patients and was 14.0% for the last, for whom optimal positioning of the detector was difficult owing to the patient’s large size). Patients tolerated the detectors well and the treatment workflow was not compromised. Overall, PSDs performed well as in vivo dosimeters, providing excellent accuracy, real-time measurement, and reusability. PMID:24434775

  17. Real-time in vivo rectal wall dosimetry using plastic scintillation detectors for patients with prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, Landon; Kudchadker, Rajat; Lee, Andrew; Beddar, Sam

    2014-02-01

    We designed and constructed an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) to monitor dose to the rectal wall in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Five patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol for twice weekly in vivo dose monitoring with our system, resulting in a total of 142 in vivo dose measurements. PSDs were attached to the surface of endorectal balloons used for prostate immobilization to place the PSDs in contact with the rectal wall. Absorbed dose was measured in real time and the total measured dose was compared with the dose calculated by the treatment planning system on the daily computed tomographic image dataset. The mean difference between measured and calculated doses for the entire patient population was -0.4% (standard deviation 2.8%). The mean difference between daily measured and calculated doses for each patient ranged from -3.3% to 3.3% (standard deviation ranged from 5.6% to 7.1% for four patients and was 14.0% for the last, for whom optimal positioning of the detector was difficult owing to the patient's large size). Patients tolerated the detectors well and the treatment workflow was not compromised. Overall, PSDs performed well as in vivo dosimeters, providing excellent accuracy, real-time measurement and reusability.

  18. Effect of scintillator crystal geometry and surface finishing on depth of interaction resolution in PET detectors: Monte Carlo simulation and experimental results using silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, Sarah; Reznik, Alla; Rowlands, John A.; Taghibakhsh, Farhad

    2010-04-01

    Resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) systems benefits from information about depth of interaction (DOI) within scintillation crystals, particularly in small bore scanners or parallel plate detectors. In this investigation, the ability of the dual-ended readout detector module configuration to resolve DOI and crystal index was evaluated for a variety of detector pitches and light guide thicknesses to validate the dual-ended readout method. Experimental results with oneto- one coupling between saw-cut 2mm pitch LYSO scintillation crystals and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) achieved 2.1 mm DOI resolution. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate the effect of larger detector pitches and varied light guide thickness on the crystal index identification accuracy and DOI resolution for a pixilated crystal array in dual-ended readout configuration. It is reported that the accuracy in identifying a 2 mm scintillation crystal was >80% for detector pitches < 6 mm and that DOI resolution was < 2 mm for all detector pitches and light guide thicknesses.

  19. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Measurement of the neutron spectrum of a Pu-C source with a liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Song-Lin; Huang, Han-Xiong; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Li, Xia; Bao, Jie; Nie, Yang-Bo; Zhong, Qi-Ping; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Kong, Xiang-Zhong

    2009-05-01

    The neutron response function for a BC501A liquid scintillator (LS) has been measured using a series of monoenergetic neutrons produced by the p-T reaction. The proton energies were chosen such as to produce neutrons in the energy range of 1 to 20 MeV. The principles of the technique of unfolding a neutron energy spectrum by using the measured neutron response function and the measured Pulse Height (PH) spectrum is briefly described. The PH spectrum of neutrons from the Pu-C source, which will be used for the calibration of the reactor antineutrino detectors for the Daya Bay neutrino experiment, was measured and analyzed to get the neutron energy spectrum. Simultaneously the neutron energy spectrum of an Am-Be source was measured and compared with other measurements as a check of the result for the Pu-C source. Finally, an error analysis and a discussion of the results are given.

  20. Implementation of gamma-ray spectrometry in two real-time water monitors using NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvad, M

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the implementation of gamma-ray spectrometry in two real-time water monitors using 2 in. 2 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors is described. These monitors collect the water from the river through a pump and it is analyzed in a vessel, which is shielded with Pb. The full calibration of the monitors was performed experimentally, except for the efficiency curve, which was set using validated Monte Carlo simulations with the EGS5 code system. After the calibration, the monitors permitted the identification and quantification of the involved isotopes in a possible radioactive increment and made it possible to discard possible leaks in the nuclear plants. As an example, a radiological increment during rain is used to show the advantages of gamma-ray spectrometry. To study the capabilities of the monitor, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I, (137)Cs and (40)K are presented for different integration times. PMID:23827508

  1. Characterization of a scintillating mini-detector for time-of-flight positron emission tomography with depth-of-interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Pappalardo, Alfio; Garibaldi, Franco

    2012-08-01

    By exploiting a suitable treatment of the scintillator surfaces, along with silicon photomultiplier photodetectors and specific algorithms for raw data analysis, we achieved a remarkable tradeoff between energy, time, and depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution, thus supporting the feasibility of a prostate time-of-flight positron emission tomography probe, magnetic resonance imaging compatible, with the required features and performance. In numbers this means a detector element of 1.5 mm 1.5 mm 10 mm, promising to achieve at the same time energy resolution around 11.5%, coincidence resolving time around 300 ps corresponding to a space resolution <5 cm along the line of response, and DOI resolution even below 1 mm. We stress that such a time resolution allows to increase significantly the noise equivalent counting rate, and consequently improve the image quality and the lesion detection capability.

  2. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2016-02-01

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x–y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5–82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial template model used.

  3. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L

    2016-02-01

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x-y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5-82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial template model used. PMID:26794058

  4. An empirical formula to calculate the full energy peak efficiency of scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Mohamed S; Abd-Elzaher, Mohamed; Thabet, Abouzeid A; El-khatib, Ahmed M

    2013-04-01

    This work provides an empirical formula to calculate the FEPE for different detectors using the effective solid angle ratio derived from experimental measurements. The full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) curves of the (2?(*)2?) NaI(Tl) detector at different seven axial distances from the detector were depicted in a wide energy range from 59.53 to 1408keV using standard point sources. The distinction was based on the effects of the source energy and the source-to-detector distance. A good agreement was noticed between the measured and calculated efficiency values for the source-to-detector distances at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50cm. PMID:23353091

  5. Pulse height tests of a large diameter fast LaBr?:Ce scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Khiari, F Z; Maslehuddin, M; Gondal, M A; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Ukashat, M S; Ilyas, A M; Liadi, F A; Isab, A A; Khateeb-ur Rehman; Raashid, M; Dastageer, M A

    2015-10-01

    The pulse height response of a large diameter fast 100 mm 100 mm LaBr3:Ce detector was measured for 0.1-10 MeV gamma-rays. The detector has a claimed time resolution of 608 ps for 511 keV gamma rays, but has relatively poor energy resolution due to the characteristics of its fast photomultiplier. The detector pulse height response was measured for gamma rays from cobalt, cesium, and bismuth radioisotope sources as well as prompt gamma rays from thermal neutron capture in water samples contaminated with mercury (3.1 wt%), boron (2.5 wt%), cadmium (0.25 wt%), chromium (52 wt%), and nickel (22 wt%) compounds. The energy resolution of the detector was determined from full width at half maximum (FWHM) of element-characteristic gamma ray peaks in the pulse height spectrum associated with the element present in the contaminated water sample. The measured energy resolution of the 100 mm 100 mm detector varies from 12.70.2% to 1.90.1% for 0.1 to 10 MeV gamma rays, respectively. The graph showing the energy resolution ?E/E(%) versus 1/?E? was fitted with a linear function to study the detector light collection from the slope of the curve. The slope of the present 100 mm 100 mm detector is almost twice as large as the slope of a similar curve of previously published data for a 89 mm 203 mm LaBr3:Ce detector. This indicates almost two times poorer light collection in the 100 mm 100 mm detector as compared to the other detector. PMID:26207950

  6. Co-doping of CeBr3 scintillator detectors for energy resolution enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarati, F. G. A.; Alekhin, M. S.; Krmer, K. W.; Dorenbos, P.

    2014-01-01

    CeBr3 gamma-ray spectrometers are preferable to LaBr3:Ce ones for low-count-rate experiments because of their low intrinsic activity and consequently increased detection sensitivity. A drawback of CeBr3 is a nonoptimum energy resolution, i.e. 4% at 662 keV. Here we demonstrate that aliovalent co-doping techniques are effective to enhance the CeBr3 energy resolution to at least 3%. Such an enhancement is achieved because of a more proportional energy response of the scintillation.

  7. Cosmic Ray Measurements by Scintillators with Metal Resistor Semiconductor Avalanche Photo Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Akindinov, Alexandre; Mal'kevich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    An educational set-up for cosmic ray physics experiments is described. The detector is based on scintillator tiles with a readout through metal resistor semiconductor (MRS) avalanche photo diode (APD) arrays. Typical measurements of the cosmic angular distribution at sea level and a study of the East-West asymmetry obtained by such a device are…

  8. Cosmic Ray Measurements by Scintillators with Metal Resistor Semiconductor Avalanche Photo Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Akindinov, Alexandre; Mal'kevich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    An educational set-up for cosmic ray physics experiments is described. The detector is based on scintillator tiles with a readout through metal resistor semiconductor (MRS) avalanche photo diode (APD) arrays. Typical measurements of the cosmic angular distribution at sea level and a study of the East-West asymmetry obtained by such a device are

  9. Mathematical method for optimal digitization and discrimination of scintillation detectors' pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, H. I.

    2015-12-01

    The crystal identification and particle identification require applying pulse shape discrimination (PSD) methods to differentiate between two or more types of scintillation pulses according to their decay times. The sampling rate and the number of used samples of scintillation pulses significantly affect the performance and the complexity of the PSD. Despite their importance, there is no method in the literature, to the best of our knowledge, regarding how to optimally select these parameters. This paper introduces a mathematical analysis of the frequency spectra to determine the most discriminated frequency band of any two different pulse-types. The proposed analysis showed that the most discriminated frequency band depends on the two decay times of the pulse-types. Based on this analysis, a digitization criterion is proposed to determine the optimum sampling rate, number of used samples and the cutoff frequency of the anti-aliasing filter. Furthermore, determining the most discriminated frequency band reduces the number of needed frequency components and provides the highest discrimination performance with the lowest number of required computations. The proposed digitization criterion is applied on two pulse-types with different decay times (20 ns and 40 ns) and shows that the most discriminated frequency is 8 MHz . It also recommends using 32 MHz sampling rate, 8 samples and an anti-aliasing filter with 10 MHz cutoff frequency for these two pulse-types.

  10. Fast scintillation timing detector using proportional-mode avalanche photodiode for nuclear resonant scattering experiments in high-energy synchrotron X-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Keisuke; Kishimoto, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    To obtain both a high count rate of >107 s-1 and a detection efficiency sufficient for high-energy X-rays of >30 keV, we propose a scintillation timing detector using a proportional-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) for synchrotron radiation nuclear resonant scattering. We here present results obtained with a prototype detector using a lead-loaded plastic scintillator (EJ-256) mounted on a proportional-mode Si-APD (active area size: 3 mm in diameter). The detector was operated at ‒35 °C for a better signal-to-noise ratio. Using synchrotron X-rays of 67.41 keV, which is the same energy as the first excited level of 61Ni, we successfully measured pulse-height and time spectra of the scintillation light. A good time resolution of 0.50±0.06 ns (full width at half-maximum) was obtained for 67.41 keV X-rays with a scintillator 3 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of cubic SrI2(Eu) scintillators for use in array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Sakuragi, S.; Yamasaki, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Strontium iodide (SrI2(Eu)) is a promising spectroscopic detector for use in both nuclear security and medical imaging owing to its excellent energy resolution and low internal background radiation. A cubic form is preferable when coupling with a silicon-based photosensor in order to build an array detector for use in applications such as Compton cameras. Here, cubic SrI2(Eu) crystals with 10 mm sides were fabricated and evaluated. The cubic SrI2(Eu) samples coupled to an avalanche photodiode exhibited an energy resolution of approximately 3.6% at 662 keV when using a shaping time of 3 μs. An increase in light output and an improvement of energy resolution were also observed at lower temperatures. The excellent energy resolution of these devices indicates that these crystals are promising potential detectors for use in Compton cameras and other imaging detectors.

  12. A thermal neutron mini-detector with SiPM and scintillating fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, M.; Cosentino, L.; Greco, G.; Guardo, G.; Montereali, R. M.; Pappalardo, A.; Scirè, C.; Scirè, S.; Vincenti, M. A.; Finocchiaro, P.

    2011-10-01

    We developed and tested a simple prototype of thermal neutron detector suitable for inexpensive deployment in the decommissioning and storage of radioactive waste, as well as for mapping the flux in the out-of-core regions of fission reactors. Though the prototype version we tested provides the neutron rate by subtracting the gamma background measured with a twin detector insensitive to neutrons, a simple geometrical improvement can strongly reduce the gamma contribution.

  13. A method to correct for temperature dependence and measure simultaneously dose and temperature using a plastic scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2015-10-21

    Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) work well for radiation dosimetry. However, they show some temperature dependence, and a priori knowledge of the temperature surrounding the PSD is required to correct for this dependence. We present a novel approach to correct PSD response values for temperature changes instantaneously and without the need for prior knowledge of the temperature value. In addition to rendering the detector temperature-independent, this approach allows for actual temperature measurement using solely the PSD apparatus. With a temperature-controlled water tank, the temperature was varied from room temperature to more than 40 C and the PSD was used to measure the dose delivered from a cobalt-60 photon beam unit to within an average of 0.72% from the expected value. The temperature was measured during each acquisition with the PSD and a thermocouple and values were within 1 C of each other. The depth-dose curve of a 6 MV photon beam was also measured under warm non-stable conditions and this curve agreed to within an average of??-0.98% from the curve obtained at room temperature. The feasibility of rendering PSDs temperature-independent was demonstrated with our approach, which also enabled simultaneous measurement of both dose and temperature. This novel approach improves both the robustness and versatility of PSDs. PMID:26407188

  14. Development of a novel multi-point plastic scintillation detector with a single optical transmission line for radiation dose measurement*

    PubMed Central

    Therriault-Proulx, Franois; Archambault, Louis; Beaulieu, Luc; Beddar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to develop a novel multi-point plastic scintillation detector (mPSD) capable of measuring the dose accurately at multiple positions simultaneously using a single optical transmission line. Methods A 2-point mPSD used a band-pass approach that included splitters, color filters, and an EMCCD camera. The 3-point mPSD was based on a new full-spectrum approach, in which a spectrograph was coupled to a CCD camera. Irradiations of the mPSDs and of an ion chamber were performed with a 6-MV photon beam at various depths and lateral positions in a water tank. Results For the 2-point mPSD, the average relative differences between mPSD and ion chamber measurements for the depth-dose were 2.41.6% and 1.30.8% for BCF-60 and BCF-12, respectively. For the 3-point mPSD, the average relative differences over all conditions were 2.31.1%, 1.60.4%, and 0.320.19% for BCF-60, BCF-12, and BCF-10, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates the practical feasibility of mPSDs. This type of detector could be very useful for pre-treatment quality assurance applications as well as an accurate tool for real-time in vivo dosimetry. PMID:23060069

  15. Development of a novel multi-point plastic scintillation detector with a single optical transmission line for radiation dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Therriault-Proulx, Franois; Archambault, Louis; Beaulieu, Luc; Beddar, Sam

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a novel multi-point plastic scintillation detector (mPSD) capable of measuring the dose accurately at multiple positions simultaneously using a single optical transmission line. A 2-point mPSD used a band-pass approach that included splitters, color filters and an EMCCD camera. The 3-point mPSD was based on a new full-spectrum approach, in which a spectrograph was coupled to a CCD camera. Irradiations of the mPSDs and of an ion chamber were performed with a 6 MV photon beam at various depths and lateral positions in a water tank. For the 2-point mPSD, the average relative differences between mPSD and ion chamber measurements for the depth-dose were 2.41.6% and 1.30.8% for BCF-60 and BCF-12, respectively. For the 3-point mPSD, the average relative differences over all conditions were 2.31.1%, 1.60.4% and 0.320.19% for BCF-60, BCF-12 and BCF-10, respectively. This study demonstrates the practical feasibility of mPSDs. This type of detector could be very useful for pre-treatment quality assurance applications as well as an accurate tool for real-time in vivo dosimetry. US Patent pending.

  16. A method to correct for temperature dependence and measure simultaneously dose and temperature using a plastic scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2015-10-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) work well for radiation dosimetry. However, they show some temperature dependence, and a priori knowledge of the temperature surrounding the PSD is required to correct for this dependence. We present a novel approach to correct PSD response values for temperature changes instantaneously and without the need for prior knowledge of the temperature value. In addition to rendering the detector temperature-independent, this approach allows for actual temperature measurement using solely the PSD apparatus. With a temperature-controlled water tank, the temperature was varied from room temperature to more than 40 C and the PSD was used to measure the dose delivered from a cobalt-60 photon beam unit to within an average of 0.72% from the expected value. The temperature was measured during each acquisition with the PSD and a thermocouple and values were within 1 C of each other. The depth-dose curve of a 6 MV photon beam was also measured under warm non-stable conditions and this curve agreed to within an average of??-0.98% from the curve obtained at room temperature. The feasibility of rendering PSDs temperature-independent was demonstrated with our approach, which also enabled simultaneous measurement of both dose and temperature. This novel approach improves both the robustness and versatility of PSDs.

  17. Development of a scintillating-fiber beam detector for the MUSE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Erez O.; Piasetzky, Eli; Shamai, Yair; Pilip, Nikolay

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the design, simulation, and prototyping of a scintillating-fiber (SciFi) beam hodoscope that enables real-time particle identification, momentum and position determination, and flux counting in a low-momentum mixed beam of pions, electrons and muons for the MUon-proton Scattering Experiment (MUSE) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland. The experimental demands and conceptual design are discussed, including the mixing scheme used to suppress cross-talk between adjacent fibers. A comparison between different types of fibers is given. The timing resolution for 1 plane of SciFis is 0.40 ± 0.05 ns, and for 2 fiber planes in coincidence, it is 0.27 ± 0.03 ns. The detection efficiency when at least two planes are required to fire is 98%.

  18. Particle identification method in the CsI(Tl) scintillator used for the CHIMERA /4? detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderighi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Basssini, R.; Berceanu, I.; Blicharska, J.; Boiano, C.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bruno, M.; Cal, C.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, Sl.; D'Agostino, M.; D'Andrea, M.; Dayras, R.; de Filippo, E.; Fichera, F.; Geraci, E.; Giustolisi, F.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guardone, N.; Guazzoni, P.; Guinet, D.; Iacono-Manno, C. M.; Kowalski, S.; La Guidara, E.; Lanchais, A. L.; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzan, G.; Le Neindre, N.; Li, S.; Maiolino, C.; Majka, Z.; Manfredi, G.; Nicotra, D.; Paduszynski, T.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Petrovici, C. M.; Piasecki, E.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Pop, A.; Porto, F.; Rivet, M. F.; Rosato, E.; Sacc, G.; Sechi, G.; Simion, V.; Sperduto, M. L.; Steckmeyer, J. C.; Trifir, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Urso, S.; Vannini, G.; Vigilante, M.; Wilczynski, J.; Wu, H.; Xiao, Z.; Zetta, L.; Zipper, W.

    2002-08-01

    The charged particle identification obtained by the analysis of signals coming from the CsI(Tl) detectors of the CHIMERA 4 ? heavy-ion detector is presented. A simple double-gate integration method, with the use of the cyclotron radiofrequency as reference time, results in low thresholds for isotopic particle identification. The dependence of the identification quality on the gate generation timing is discussed. Isotopic identification of light ions up to Beryllium is clearly seen. For the first time also the identification of Z=5 particles is observed. The identification of neutrons interacting with CsI(Tl) by ( n, ?) and ( n, ?) reactions is also discussed.

  19. Registration of reactor neutrinos with the highly segmented plastic scintillator detector DANSSino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, V.; Brudanin, V.; Danilov, M.; Egorov, V.; Fomina, M.; Kobyakin, A.; Rusinov, V.; Shirchenko, M.; Shitov, Yu; Starostin, A.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2013-05-01

    DANSSino is a simplified pilot version of a solid-state detector of reactor antineutrino (it is being created within the DANSS project and will be installed close to an industrial nuclear power reactor). Numerous tests performed under a 3 GWth reactor of the Kalinin NPP at a distance of 11 m from the core demonstrate operability of the chosen design and reveal the main sources of the background. In spite of its small size (20 20 100 cm3), the pilot detector turned out to be quite sensitive to reactor neutrinos, detecting about 70 IBD events per day with the signal-to-background ratio about unity.

  20. Determination of the quenching correction factors for plastic scintillation detectors in therapeutic high-energy proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. L. W.; Perles, L. A.; Archambault, L.; Sahoo, N.; Mirkovic, D.; Beddar, S.

    2012-12-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) have many advantages over other detectors in small field dosimetry due to their high spatial resolution, excellent water equivalence and instantaneous readout. However, in proton beams, the PSDs undergo a quenching effect which makes the signal level reduced significantly when the detector is close to the Bragg peak where the linear energy transfer (LET) for protons is very high. This study measures the quenching correction factor (QCF) for a PSD in clinical passive-scattering proton beams and investigates the feasibility of using PSDs in depth-dose measurements in proton beams. A polystyrene-based PSD (BCF-12, ?0.5 mm 4 mm) was used to measure the depth-dose curves in a water phantom for monoenergetic unmodulated proton beams of nominal energies 100, 180 and 250 MeV. A Markus plane-parallel ion chamber was also used to get the dose distributions for the same proton beams. From these results, the QCF as a function of depth was derived for these proton beams. Next, the LET depth distributions for these proton beams were calculated by using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code, based on the experimentally validated nozzle models for these passive-scattering proton beams. Then the relationship between the QCF and the proton LET could be derived as an empirical formula. Finally, the obtained empirical formula was applied to the PSD measurements to get the corrected depth-dose curves and they were compared to the ion chamber measurements. A linear relationship between the QCF and LET, i.e. Birks' formula, was obtained for the proton beams studied. The result is in agreement with the literature. The PSD measurements after the quenching corrections agree with ion chamber measurements within 5%. PSDs are good dosimeters for proton beam measurement if the quenching effect is corrected appropriately.

  1. ScintSim1: A new Monte Carlo simulation code for transport of optical photons in 2D arrays of scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Zarrini-Monfared, Zinat; Karbasi, Sareh; Zamani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) arrays of thick segmented scintillators are of interest as X-ray detectors for both 2D and 3D image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Their detection process involves ionizing radiation energy deposition followed by production and transport of optical photons. Only a very limited number of optical Monte Carlo simulation models exist, which has limited the number of modeling studies that have considered both stages of the detection process. We present ScintSim1, an in-house optical Monte Carlo simulation code for 2D arrays of scintillation crystals, developed in the MATLAB programming environment. The code was rewritten and revised based on an existing program for single-element detectors, with the additional capability to model 2D arrays of elements with configurable dimensions, material, etc., The code generates and follows each optical photon history through the detector element (and, in case of cross-talk, the surrounding ones) until it reaches a configurable receptor, or is attenuated. The new model was verified by testing against relevant theoretically known behaviors or quantities and the results of a validated single-element model. For both sets of comparisons, the discrepancies in the calculated quantities were all <1%. The results validate the accuracy of the new code, which is a useful tool in scintillation detector optimization. PMID:24600168

  2. ScintSim1: A new Monte Carlo simulation code for transport of optical photons in 2D arrays of scintillation detectors

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Zarrini-Monfared, Zinat; Karbasi, Sareh; Zamani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) arrays of thick segmented scintillators are of interest as X-ray detectors for both 2D and 3D image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Their detection process involves ionizing radiation energy deposition followed by production and transport of optical photons. Only a very limited number of optical Monte Carlo simulation models exist, which has limited the number of modeling studies that have considered both stages of the detection process. We present ScintSim1, an in-house optical Monte Carlo simulation code for 2D arrays of scintillation crystals, developed in the MATLAB programming environment. The code was rewritten and revised based on an existing program for single-element detectors, with the additional capability to model 2D arrays of elements with configurable dimensions, material, etc., The code generates and follows each optical photon history through the detector element (and, in case of cross-talk, the surrounding ones) until it reaches a configurable receptor, or is attenuated. The new model was verified by testing against relevant theoretically known behaviors or quantities and the results of a validated single-element model. For both sets of comparisons, the discrepancies in the calculated quantities were all <1%. The results validate the accuracy of the new code, which is a useful tool in scintillation detector optimization. PMID:24600168

  3. Study of a Li doped CsI scintillator crystal as a neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madi Filho, T.; Pereira, M. C. C.; Berretta, J. R.; Cárdenas, J. P. N.

    2015-07-01

    The radiation monitoring system is an important requirement in the premises of a nuclear reactor. A variety of types of radiation (neutrons. gamma. beta and fission products) exist in a reactor. associated to the broad energy spectrum of these radiations. implying the need of detectors to be used in the reactor system and security. as well as radiation monitoring. As the neutron sources are associated to gamma radiation. it is necessary that the neutron detecting system may be capable to discriminate the gamma interference. In our work environment. there are two Nuclear Research Reactors and a neutron irradiator with two AmBe sources (592GBq of Am. each). These conditions warrant the development of new types of detectors. Due to the absence of charge in the neutron. it is necessary to use a converter material that generates radiations capable to produce signals in the detector. Materials with high cross section. like Li or B. are used for this purpose. The CsIcrystal doped with 6Li has been studied. The concentration of the lithium doping element (Li) studied was 10-3M. The detector test was done using an AmBe source (37GBq) and gamma sources. The crystal was coupled to a photomultiplier.

  4. A study of the pulse profiles from EAS nuon scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, P. R.; Connor, P. J.; Mann, D. M.; Nash, W. F.; O'Connell, B.; Strutt, R. B.

    A storage oscilloscope recording system has been operated at the Haverah Park Extensive Air Shower detector array in order to investigate the time-spread of muons in EAS. The recorded data is categorized to pulse shape. About 8% of the recorded pulses show a distinct structure effect which is not explainable in terms of instrumental sampling or currently predicted EAS effects.

  5. SCINTILLA: A European project for the development of scintillation detectors and new technologies for nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemberti, A.; Battaglieri, M.; Botta, E.; Devita, R.; Fanchini, E.; Firpo, G.

    2014-06-01

    Europe monitors transits using radiation detectors to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The SCINTILLA project aims to develop a toolbox of innovative technologies designed to address different usage cases. This article will review the scope, approach, results of the first benchmark campaign and future plans of the SCINTILLA project.

  6. Digital processing of signals from LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Podolyak, Zs; Regan, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the results of digital signal processing of LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The photomultiplier (PMT) output signals from two cylindrical LaBr3(Ce) detectors (1.5'' diameter and 2'' tall) were directly digitized with an ultrafast digitizer (sampling rate up to 4 GSample/s and 10-bits resolution) and the energy and timing information were extracted through offline analysis of the pulses. It is shown that at high sampling rates (4 GS/s) a simple integration of pulses is sufficient to reproduce the analogue energy resolution of the detectors (3.5% at 662 keV energy) and by employing a digital version of constant-fraction discrimination (CFD) timing a time resolution of 240 ps (FWHM) is achieved at the energy lines of 60Co. The effects of pulse sampling rate were studied, indicating a degradation of the performance of the detectors with reducing the pulse sampling rate. In particular, it was found that at sampling rates below 1 GS/s, the digital timing can be limited by the aliasing error. By using an anti-aliasing filter, a time resolution of 375 ps (FWHM) and an energy resolution of 3.5% at 662 keV were achieved with a sampling rate of 500 MS/s.

  7. Study of the response of plastic scintillation detectors in small-field 6 MV photon beams by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lilie L. W.; Beddar, Sam

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the response of plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) in a 6 MV photon beam of various field sizes using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Three PSDs were simulated: A BC-400 and a BCF-12, each attached to a plastic-core optical fiber, and a BC-400 attached to an air-core optical fiber. PSD response was calculated as the detector dose per unit water dose for field sizes ranging from 10x10 down to 0.5x0.5 cm{sup 2} for both perpendicular and parallel orientations of the detectors to an incident beam. Similar calculations were performed for a CC01 compact chamber. The off-axis dose profiles were calculated in the 0.5x0.5 cm{sup 2} photon beam and were compared to the dose profile calculated for the CC01 chamber and that calculated in water without any detector. The angular dependence of the PSDs' responses in a small photon beam was studied. Results: In the perpendicular orientation, the response of the BCF-12 PSD varied by only 0.5% as the field size decreased from 10x10 to 0.5x0.5 cm{sup 2}, while the response of BC-400 PSD attached to a plastic-core fiber varied by more than 3% at the smallest field size because of its longer sensitive region. In the parallel orientation, the response of both PSDs attached to a plastic-core fiber varied by less than 0.4% for the same range of field sizes. For the PSD attached to an air-core fiber, the response varied, at most, by 2% for both orientations. Conclusions: The responses of all the PSDs investigated in this work can have a variation of only 1%-2% irrespective of field size and orientation of the detector if the length of the sensitive region is not more than 2 mm long and the optical fiber stems are prevented from pointing directly to the incident source.

  8. SU-C-BRD-06: Results From a 5 Patient in Vivo Rectal Wall Dosimetry Study Using Plastic Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, L; Kudchadker, R; Lee, A; Beddar, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance characteristics of plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) in an in vivo environment for external beam radiation, and to establish the usefulness and ease of implementation of a PSD based in vivo dosimetry system for routine clinical use. Methods: A five patient IRB approved in vivo dosimetry study was performed. Five patients with prostate cancer were enrolled and PSDs were used to monitor rectal wall dose and verify the delivered dose for approximately two fractions each week over the course of their treatment (approximately fourteen fractions), resulting in a total of 142 in vivo measurements. A set of two PSDs was fabricated for each patient. At each monitored fraction the PSDs were attached to the anterior surface of an endorectal balloon used to immobilize the patient's prostate during treatment. A CT scan was acquired with a CTon- rails linear accelerator to localize the detectors and to calculate the dose expected to be delivered to the detectors. Each PSD acquired data in 10 second intervals for the duration of the treatment. The deviation between expected and measured cumulative dose was calculated for each detector for each fraction, and averaged over each patient and the patient population as a whole. Results: The average difference between expected dose and measured dose ranged from -3.3% to 3.3% for individual patients, with standard deviations between 5.6% and 7.1% for four of the patients. The average difference for the entire population was -0.4% with a standard deviation of 2.8%. The detectors were well tolerated by the patients and the system did not interrupt the clinical workflow. Conclusion: PSDs perform well as in vivo dosimeters, exhibiting good accuracy and precision. This, combined with the practicability of using such a system, positions the PSD as a strong candidate for clinical in vivo dosimetry in the future. This work supported in part by the National Cancer Institute through an R01 grant (CA120198-01A2) and by the American Legion Auxiliary through the American Auxiliary Fellowship in Cancer Research.

  9. Direct observation of avalanche scintillations in a THGEM-based two-phase Ar avalanche detector using Geiger-mode APD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Grebenuk, A.; Sokolov, A.; Akimov, D.; Alexandrov, I.; Breskin, A.

    2010-08-01

    A novel concept of optical signal recording in cryogenic two-phase avalanche detectors, with Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APD) measuring avalanche-scintillation photons in a thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM), has been studied in view of its potential applications in rare-event experiments. The effective detection of avalanche scintillations in THGEM holes has been demonstrated in two-phase Ar with a bare G-APD without wavelength shifter, i.e. insensitive to VUV emission of Ar. At gas-avalanche gain of 400 and under 70 viewing-angle, the G-APD yielded 640 photoelectrons (pe) per 60 keV X-ray converted in liquid Ar; this corresponds to 0.7 pe per initial (prior to multiplication) electron. The avalanche-scintillation light yield measured by the G-APD was about 0.7 pe per avalanche electron, extrapolated to 4? acceptance. The avalanche scintillations observed occurred presumably in the near infrared (NIR) where G-APDs may have high sensitivity. The measured scintillation yield is similar to that observed by others in the VUV. Other related topics discussed in this work are the G-APD's single-pixel and quenching resistor characteristics at cryogenic temperatures.

  10. Scintillation properties of strontium iodide doped with europium for high-energy astrophysical detectors: nonproportionality as a function of temperature and at high gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea, Rose Schmitt; Parsons, Ann M.; Groza, Mike; Caudel, David; Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Burger, Arnold; Stassun, Keivan G.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Strontium iodide doped with europium [SrI2(Eu2+)] is a new scintillator material being developed as an alternative to lanthanum bromide doped with cerium [LaBr(Ce)] for use in high-energy astrophysical detectors. As with all scintillators, the issue of nonproportionality is important because it affects the energy resolution of the detector. We investigate how the nonproportionality of SrI2(Eu) changes as a function of temperature from 16 to 60C by heating the SrI2(Eu) scintillator separate from the photomultiplier tube. In a separate experiment, we also investigate the nonproportionality at high energies (up to 6 MeV) of SrI2(Eu) at a testing facility located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We find that the nonproportionality increases nearly monotonically as the temperature of the SrI2(Eu) scintillator is increased, although there is evidence of nonmonotonic behavior near 40C, perhaps due to electric charge carriers trapping in the material. We also find that within the energy range of 662 keV to 6.1 MeV, the change in the nonproportionality of SrI2(Eu) is 1.5 to 2%.

  11. Verification of proton range, position, and intensity in IMPT with a 3D liquid scintillator detector system

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, L.; Poenisch, F.; Sahoo, N.; Robertson, D.; Lee, A.; Gillin, M. T.; Mohan, R.; Beddar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) using spot scanned proton beams relies on the delivery of a large number of beamlets to shape the dose distribution in a highly conformal manner. The authors have developed a 3D system based on liquid scintillator to measure the spatial location, intensity, and depth of penetration (energy) of the proton beamlets in near real-time. Methods: The detector system consists of a 20??20??20 cc liquid scintillator (LS) material in a light tight enclosure connected to a CCD camera. This camera has a field of view of 25.7 by 19.3 cm and a pixel size of 0.4 mm. While the LS is irradiated, the camera continuously acquires images of the light distribution produced inside the LS. Irradiations were made with proton pencil beams produced with a spot-scanning nozzle. Pencil beams with nominal ranges in water between 9.5 and 17.6 cm were scanned to irradiate an area of 10??10 cm square on the surface of the LS phantom. Image frames were acquired at 50 ms per frame. Results: The signal to noise ratio of a typical Bragg peak was about 170. Proton range measured from the light distribution produced in the LS was accurate to within 0.3 mm on average. The largest deviation seen between the nominal and measured range was 0.6 mm. Lateral position of the measured pencil beam was accurate to within 0.4 mm on average. The largest deviation seen between the nominal and measured lateral position was 0.8 mm; however, the accuracy of this measurement could be improved by correcting light scattering artifacts. Intensity of single proton spots were measured with precision ranging from 3?% for the smallest spot intensity (0.005 MU) to 0.5?% for the largest spot (0.04 MU). Conclusions: Our LS detector system has been shown to be capable of fast, submillimeter spatial localization of proton spots delivered in a 3D volume. This system could be used for beam range, intensity and position verification in IMPT. PMID:22380355

  12. Measuring output factors of small fields formed by collimator jaws and multileaf collimator using plastic scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, David M.; Tailor, Ramesh C.; Archambault, Louis; Wang, Lilie; Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Beddar, A. Sam

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: As the practice of using high-energy photon beams to create therapeutic radiation fields of subcentimeter dimensions (as in intensity-modulated radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery) grows, so too does the need for accurate verification of beam output at these small fields in which standard practices of dose verification break down. This study investigates small-field output factors measured using a small plastic scintillation detector (PSD), as well as a 0.01 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber. Specifically, output factors were measured with both detectors using small fields that were defined by either the X-Y collimator jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC). Methods: A PSD of 0.5 mm diameter and 2 mm length was irradiated with 6 and 18 MV linac beams. The PSD was positioned vertically at a source-to-axis distance of 100 cm, at 10 cm depth in a water phantom, and irradiated with fields ranging in size from 0.5x0.5 to 10x10 cm{sup 2}. The field sizes were defined either by the collimator jaws alone or by a MLC alone. The MLC fields were constructed in two ways: with the closed leaves (i.e., those leaves that were not opened to define the square field) meeting at either the field center line or at a 4 cm offset from the center line. Scintillation light was recorded using a CCD camera and an estimation of error in the median-filtered signals was made using the bootstrapping technique. Measurements were made using a CC01 ionization chamber under conditions identical to those used for the PSD. Results: Output factors measured by the PSD showed close agreement with those measured using the ionization chamber for field sizes of 2.0x2.0 cm{sup 2} and above. At smaller field sizes, the PSD obtained output factors as much as 15% higher than those found using the ionization chamber by 0.6x0.6 cm{sup 2} jaw-defined fields. Output factors measured with no offset of the closed MLC leaves were as much as 20% higher than those measured using a 4 cm leaf offset. Conclusions: The authors' results suggest that PSDs provide a useful and possibly superior alternative to existing dosimetry systems for small fields, as they are inherently less susceptible to volume-averaging and perturbation effects than larger, air-filled ionization chambers. Therefore, PSDs may provide more accurate small-field output factor determination, regardless of the collimation mechanism.

  13. Verification of proton range, position, and intensity in IMPT with a 3D liquid scintillator detector system

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, L.; Poenisch, F.; Sahoo, N.; Robertson, D.; Lee, A.; Gillin, M. T.; Mohan, R.; Beddar, S.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) using spot scanned proton beams relies on the delivery of a large number of beamlets to shape the dose distribution in a highly conformal manner. The authors have developed a 3D system based on liquid scintillator to measure the spatial location, intensity, and depth of penetration (energy) of the proton beamlets in near real-time. Methods: The detector system consists of a 20 x 20 x 20 cc liquid scintillator (LS) material in a light tight enclosure connected to a CCD camera. This camera has a field of view of 25.7 by 19.3 cm and a pixel size of 0.4 mm. While the LS is irradiated, the camera continuously acquires images of the light distribution produced inside the LS. Irradiations were made with proton pencil beams produced with a spot-scanning nozzle. Pencil beams with nominal ranges in water between 9.5 and 17.6 cm were scanned to irradiate an area of 10 x 10 cm square on the surface of the LS phantom. Image frames were acquired at 50 ms per frame. Results: The signal to noise ratio of a typical Bragg peak was about 170. Proton range measured from the light distribution produced in the LS was accurate to within 0.3 mm on average. The largest deviation seen between the nominal and measured range was 0.6 mm. Lateral position of the measured pencil beam was accurate to within 0.4 mm on average. The largest deviation seen between the nominal and measured lateral position was 0.8 mm; however, the accuracy of this measurement could be improved by correcting light scattering artifacts. Intensity of single proton spots were measured with precision ranging from 3 % for the smallest spot intensity (0.005 MU) to 0.5 % for the largest spot (0.04 MU). Conclusions: Our LS detector system has been shown to be capable of fast, submillimeter spatial localization of proton spots delivered in a 3D volume. This system could be used for beam range, intensity and position verification in IMPT.

  14. Background rejection capabilities of a Compton imaging telescope setup with a DSSD Ge planar detector and AGATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doncel, M.; Quintana, B.; Gadea, A.; Recchia, F.; Farnea, E.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we show the first Monte Carlo results about the performance of the Ge array which we propose for the DESPEC experiment at FAIR, when the background algorithm developed for AGATA is applied. The main objective of our study is to characterize the capabilities of the ?-spectroscopy system, made up of AGATA detectors in a semi-spherical distribution covering a 1? solid angle and a set of planar Ge detectors in a daisy configuration, to discriminate between ? sources placed at different locations.

  15. Miniature gamma detector based on inorganic scintillator and SiPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikova, A. K.; Dubinin, F. A.; Kantserov, V. A.; Orlov, A. D.; Pereyma, D. U.; Shmurak, S. Z.; Zhukov, K. I.

    2016-02-01

    The miniature gamma counter based on a cylindrical LaBr3(Ce) crystal (5 mm diameter and 10 mm length) and SensL FC30035 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is introduced. The main counter characteristics such as relative efficiency, LaBr3(Ce) self-radioactivity and energy resolution are presented. Capability of using such detector for gamma spectrometry applications is discussed.

  16. Calibration of scintillation counters of the upgraded calorimeter of the IHEP-JINR Neutrino Detector for time of flight particle identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyatov, S. A.; Krasnoperov, A. V.; Nefedov, Yu. A.; Popov, B. A.; Tereshchenko, V. V.; Bozhko, N. I.; Vovenko, A. S.; Goryachev, V. N.; Salomatin, Yu. I.; Sen'ko, V. A.; Sidorov, A. V.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, specific features of operation of the calorimeter of the IHEP-JINR Neutrino Detector on the basis of liquid scintillation counters upgraded for time of flight particle identification are described. Data acquisition system, algorithms of response reconstruction, and calibration of calorimeter counters are described in detail. Estimate of time and spatial resolution of counters is obtained on tracks of vertical cosmic muons. The averaged time resolution is ? = 1.2 ns, and the coordinate resolution is ? = 13 cm.

  17. TU-F-BRE-01: A High Resolution Micro Fiber Scintillator Detector Optimized for SRS and SBRT in Vivo Real Time Treatment Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Izaguirre, E; Rangaraj, D; Price, S; Knewtson, T; Loyalka, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have built a high resolution real time scintillating fiber detector prototype to determine in real time the accuracy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments when only a fraction of the planned dose was delivered. The motivation of this work is to enhance dose delivery accuracy and to achieve error free radiosurgery. Methods: A high density array of scintillating fibers and a high speed photo detectors array were integrated to implement a high resolution real time dosimeter that can sample with high resolution pulsed SRS and SBRT beams cross sections. The high efficiency of the developed system allows to read each linac pulse in real time and to compute the accumulated dose and dose errors when only a fraction of the beam was delivered. The fibers are highly packed in a substrate that is directly coupled to two 128 pixel arrays with a pitch matching the fiber spacing to achieve accurate spatial localization. The small cross section of the fiber array allows stacking multiple fiber arrays to measure independent angular profiles that are digitally processed in parallel for real time dosimetry. Results: We implemented a high density array detector prototype with a pitch of 0.5 mm, readout speed of 1.2 msec, and a response time of 0.5 usec. The fast reading speed has the capability to determining the dose in flattening free filter beams. The detector can be installed in transmission mode at the output port of a micro-MLC. Treatment deviations smaller than 3% are detected when less than 1/100 of the planned dose was delivered. Conclusions: We built a prototype of a high resolution fiber scintillator array detector for SRS and SBRT in vivo dosimetry. Results show that the developed detector has the potential to assure error free SRS and SBRT treatments.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation studies on scintillation detectors and image reconstruction of brain-phantom tumors in TOFPET.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nagendra Nath

    2009-10-01

    This study presents Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) results of detection efficiencies, spatial resolutions and resolving powers of a time-of-flight (TOF) PET detector systems. Cerium activated Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (Lu(2)SiO(5): Ce in short LSO), Barium Fluoride (BaF(2)) and BriLanCe 380 (Cerium doped Lanthanum tri-Bromide, in short LaBr(3)) scintillation crystals are studied in view of their good time and energy resolutions and shorter decay times. The results of MCS based on GEANT show that spatial resolution, detection efficiency and resolving power of LSO are better than those of BaF(2) and LaBr(3), although it possesses inferior time and energy resolutions. Instead of the conventional position reconstruction method, newly established image reconstruction (talked about in the previous work) method is applied to produce high-tech images. Validation is a momentous step to ensure that this imaging method fulfills all purposes of motivation discussed by reconstructing images of two tumors in a brain phantom. PMID:20098551

  19. Achieving a Linear Dose Rate Response in Pulse-Mode Silicon Photodiode Scintillation Detectors Over a Wide Range of Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Lewis

    2014-02-01

    We are developing a new dose calibrator for nuclear pharmacies that can measure radioactivity in a vial or syringe without handling it directly or removing it from its transport shield pig. The calibrator's detector comprises twin opposing scintillating crystals coupled to Si photodiodes and current-amplifying trans-resistance amplifiers. Such a scheme is inherently linear with respect to dose rate over a wide range of radiation intensities, but accuracy at low activity levels may be impaired, beyond the effects of meager photon statistics, by baseline fluctuation and drift inevitably present in high-gain, current-mode photodiode amplifiers. The work described here is motivated by our desire to enhance accuracy at low excitations while maintaining linearity at high excitations. Thus, we are also evaluating a novel pulse-mode analog signal processing scheme that employs a linear threshold discriminator to virtually eliminate baseline fluctuation and drift. We will show the results of a side-by-side comparison of current-mode versus pulse-mode signal processing schemes, including perturbing factors affecting linearity and accuracy at very low and very high excitations. Bench testing over a wide range of excitations is done using a Poisson random pulse generator plus an LED light source to simulate excitations up to 106 detected counts per second without the need to handle and store large amounts of radioactive material.

  20. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for parallel-plate chambers in electron beams using a plastic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Gingras, Luc; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the overall perturbation factor P{sub Q} in megavoltage electron beams for NACP-02 and Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6, 12, and 18 MeV clinical electron beams. The authors also measured depth-dose curves using the NACP-02 and PTW Roos chambers. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the NACP-02 and Roos chambers increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results were in good agreement with the results of Monte Carlo simulations reported by other investigators. The authors also found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed inside the air cavity reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: A PSD can be used to experimentally extract perturbation factors for ionization chambers. The dosimetry protocol recommendations indicating that the point of measurement be placed on the inside face of the front window appear to be incorrect for parallel-plate chambers and result in errors in the R{sub 50} of approximately 0.4 mm at 6 MeV, 1.0 mm at 12 MeV, and 1.2 mm at 18 MeV.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation studies on scintillation detectors and image reconstruction of brain-phantom tumors in TOFPET

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Nagendra Nath

    2009-01-01

    This study presents Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) results of detection efficiencies, spatial resolutions and resolving powers of a time-of-flight (TOF) PET detector systems. Cerium activated Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (Lu2SiO5: Ce in short LSO), Barium Fluoride (BaF2) and BriLanCe 380 (Cerium doped Lanthanum tri-Bromide, in short LaBr3) scintillation crystals are studied in view of their good time and energy resolutions and shorter decay times. The results of MCS based on GEANT show that spatial resolution, detection efficiency and resolving power of LSO are better than those of BaF2 and LaBr3, although it possesses inferior time and energy resolutions. Instead of the conventional position reconstruction method, newly established image reconstruction (talked about in the previous work) method is applied to produce high-tech images. Validation is a momentous step to ensure that this imaging method fulfills all purposes of motivation discussed by reconstructing images of two tumors in a brain phantom. PMID:20098551

  2. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for parallel-plate chambers in electron beams using a plastic scintillation detector

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Frédéric; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Gingras, Luc; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the overall perturbation factor PQ in megavoltage electron beams for NACP-02 and Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6, 12, and 18 MeV clinical electron beams. The authors also measured depth-dose curves using the NACP-02 and PTW Roos chambers. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the NACP-02 and Roos chambers increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results were in good agreement with the results of Monte Carlo simulations reported by other investigators. The authors also found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed inside the air cavity reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: A PSD can be used to experimentally extract perturbation factors for ionization chambers. The dosimetry protocol recommendations indicating that the point of measurement be placed on the inside face of the front window appear to be incorrect for parallel-plate chambers and result in errors in the R50 of approximately 0.4 mm at 6 MeV, 1.0 mm at 12 MeV, and 1.2 mm at 18 MeV. PMID:20879593

  3. SU-F-BRE-07: Experimental Validation of a Lung SBRT Technique Using a Novel, True Volumetric Plenoptic-Plastic-Scintillator Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Goulet, M; Rilling, M; Gingras, L; Beaulieu, L; Archambault, L; Beddar, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Lung SBRT is being used by an increasing number of clinics, including our center which recently treated its first patient. In order to validate this technique, the 3D dose distribution of the SBRT plan was measured using a previously developed 3D detector based on plenoptic camera and plastic scintillator technology. The excellent agreement between the detector measurement and the expected dose from the treatment planning system Pinnacle{sup 3} shows great promise and amply justify the development of the technique. Methods: The SBRT treatment comprised 8 non-coplanar 6MV photon fields with a mean field size of 12 cm{sup 2} at isocentre and a total prescription dose of 12Gy per fraction for a total of 48Gy. The 3D detector was composed of a 10×10×10 cm{sup 2} EJ-260 water-equivalent plastic scintillator embedded inside a truncated cylindrical acrylic phantom of 10cm radius. The scintillation light was recorded using a static R5 light-field camera and the 3D dose was reconstructed at a 2mm resolution in all 3 dimensions using an iterative backprojection algorithm. Results: The whole 3D dose distribution was recorded at a rate of one acquisition per second. The mean absolute dose difference between the detector and Pinnacle{sup 3} was 1.3% over the region with more than 10% of the maximum dose. 3D gamma tests performed over the same region yield passing rates of 98.8% and 96.6% with criteria of 3%/1mm and 2%/1mm, respectively. Conclusion: Experimental results showed that our beam modeling and treatment planning system calculation was adequate for the safe administration of small field/high dose techniques such as SBRT. Moreover, because of the real-time capability of the detector, further validation of small field rotational, dynamic or gated technique can be monitored or verified by this system.

  4. Mapping large areas of radioactively contaminated land with a self adapted, handheld, GPS coupled, scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Paridaens, Johan

    2008-03-01

    In Belgium, during several decennia, a phosphate plant discharged radium chloride containing waste water into two small rivers. One of those is part of a hydrographically very complex ecosystem with lots of small tributaries and hundreds of hectares of flooding zones. Hence, the river banks and large parts of these flooding zones have become contaminated with radium, heavy metals and chlorides. During a foot campaign, using a home made portable data logging system, consisting of a commercial 2.5 kg NaI detector, a computer mouse sized GPS, and a small pocket PC, the radioactive contamination of about 600 ha of sometimes very rough terrain was measured and mapped. The resulting very detailed radium contamination maps shed a whole new light on the water flow patterns of the ecosystem. The apparatus can also be used for efficiently guiding sampling campaigns for investigating other types of contamination. The ground maps are also compared to existing maps from helicopter measurements, evaluating strengths and weaknesses from both methods. PMID:17904702

  5. Search for Neutrino Oscillations Using a Liquid Scintillator Detector in a Muon Neutrino Beam at LAMPF.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying-Chiang

    1987-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of neutrino oscillation, a search for the exclusive mode, (nu)(,(mu)) (--->) (nu)(,e), was performed at LAMPF. The. reactions studied were: (nu)(,(mu)) + C (--->) (mu)('-) + X ; (mu)('-) (--->) e('-) + (nu)(,e) + (nu)(,(mu)), and (nu)(,e) + C (--->) e('-) + X (if (nu)(,(mu)) (--->) (nu)(,e)). The detector was located at an effective distance of 20 m from the water target. The beam was composed primarily of muon-neutrinos from pion decay, and the neutrino flux (of mean energy 150 MeV). was computed to be 6.2 x 10('5) (nu) / cm('2) -sec for 20 (mu)A of proton beam on our target. We saw no evidence for oscillations, and were able to. set upper limits sin('2)(2(THETA)) (LESSTHEQ) 8.8 x 10('-3) (90% C.L.) (in the limit of large (DELTA)m('2)) and (DELTA)m('2)sin(2(THETA)) (LESSTHEQ) 0.59 eV('2) (in the limit of small (DELTA)m('2)).

  6. Direct and indirect signal detection of 122 keV photons with a novel detector combining a pnCCD and a CsI(Tl) scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, D. M.; Huth, M.; Hartmann, R.; Abboud, A.; Send, S.; Conka-Nurdan, T.; Shokr, M.; Pietsch, U.; Strüder, L.

    2016-01-01

    By combining a low noise fully depleted pnCCD detector with a CsI(Tl) scintillator, an energy-dispersive area detector can be realized with a high quantum efficiency (QE) in the range from below 1 keV to above 100 keV. In direct detection mode the pnCCD exhibits a relative energy resolution of 1% at 122 keV and spatial resolution of less than 75 μm, the pixel size of the pnCCD. In the indirect detection mode, i.e. conversion of the incoming X-rays in the scintillator, the measured energy resolution was about 9-13% at 122 keV, depending on the depth of interaction in the scintillator, while the position resolution, extracted with the help of simulations, was 30 μm only. We show simulated data for incident photons of 122 keV and compare the various interaction processes and relevant physical parameters to experimental results obtained with a radioactive 57Co source.

  7. Investigation of crystal surface finish and geometry on single LYSO scintillator detector performance for depth-of-interaction measurement with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Chad; Shao, Yiping

    2012-11-01

    Depth of Interaction (DOI) information can improve quality of reconstructed images acquired from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), especially in high resolution and compact scanners dedicated for breast, brain, or small animal imaging applications. Additionally, clinical scanners with time of flight capability can also benefit from DOI information. One of the most promising methods of determining DOI in a crystal involves reading the signal from two ends of a scintillation crystal, and calculating the signal ratio between the two detectors. This method is known to deliver a better DOI resolution with rough crystals compared to highly polished crystals. However, what is still not well studied is how much of a tradeoff is involved between spatial, energy, temporal, and DOI resolutions as a function of the crystal surface treatment and geometry with the use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as the photo detectors. This study investigates the effects of different crystal surface finishes and geometries on energy, timing and DOI resolutions at different crystal depths. The results show that for LYSO scintillators of 1.51.520 mm3 and 2220 mm3 with their surfaces finished from 0.5 to 30 ?m roughness, almost the same energy and coincidence timing resolutions were maintained, around 15% and 2.4 ns, respectively across different crystal depths, while the DOI resolutions were steadily improved from worse than 5 mm to better than 2 mm. They demonstrate that crystal roughness, with proper surface preparing, does not have a significant effect on the energy and coincidence timing resolutions in the crystals examined, and there does not appear to be a tradeoff between improving DOI resolution and degrading other detector performances. These results will be valuable to guide the selection of crystal surface conditions for developing a DOI measurable PET detector with a full array of LYSO scintillators coupled to SiPM arrays.

  8. Optimizing light collection from extractive scintillating resin in flow-cell detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meldrum, Amy Catherine

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the changes in light collection efficiency for flow cell detector as various parameters are altered to find the optimum flow cell configuration. Columns with inner diameters of 0.16 cm, 0.48 cm, 0.79 cm, and 1.11 cm were packed with synthesized nonporous, un-functionalized beads to measure their detection efficiencies for solutions containing 210Po, 14C, or 90Sr/ 90Y. The average diameter of the beads used in the experiments was 147 microm +/- 33 microm. The highest detection efficiency for 210Po was 15.3 +/- 3.9% with the 1.11 cm diameter column. The 1.11 cm diameter column also yielded the highest detection efficiency of 29.6 +/- 0.8% for 14C. When filled with a 90Sr/ 90Y solution, the 0.79 cm diameter column had the highest detection efficiency of 100 +/- 7.0%. However, for both 14C and 90Sr/90Y, the 0.48 cm, 0.79 cm, and 1.11 cm diameter columns had detection efficiencies within 1-sigma of each other. To investigate the effects of various parameters on the light collection efficiency and detection efficiency, models were built using GATE (GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emissions) to simulate the columns. Bead diameter, column inner diameter, and source location were varied within the simulations, for beads that were arranged in a body-centered-cubic (BCC) configuration. The highest detection efficiency for 210Po was a point source located within each bead approximately 100 +/- 1.3 %, regardless of column inner diameter or bead diameter. The same was found to be true for both 14C and 90Sr/90Y, wherein the point source configuration yielded the highest detection efficiencies of 93.1 +/- 0.3% and 98.9 +/- 0.2%, respectively, which were approximately equal regardless of bead or column size. These results suggest that if a porous resin were to be synthesized such that the radionuclide of interest could be trapped within a bead, high detection efficiencies could be achieved even with a column with a small inner diameter.

  9. Development of a compact and fast response detector using an Yb:Lu2O3 scintillator for lifetime sensitive positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Y.; Kuroda, R.; Tanaka, M.; Oshima, N.; O'Rourke, B. E.; Suzuki, R.; Toyokawa, H.; Watanabe, K.; Yanagida, T.; Yagi, H.; Yanagitani, T.

    2014-05-01

    We propose a method for obtaining three-dimensional imaging measurements of the defect distribution inside industrial materials by measuring positron lifetimes, in addition to using the imaging technique of positron emission tomography. A compact and fast response detector that uses an Yb3+-doped Lu2O3 scintillator and a photomultiplier tube was developed and tested. Yb3+ charge transfer luminescence exhibits a fast response in the ultraviolet and visible regions. The first measurement of the positron lifetime for a bulk material using an Yb:Lu2O3 scintillator was carried out. The lifetime of positrons created inside an yttria-stabilized zirconia block via pair production produced by ultrashort photon pulses was successfully measured.

  10. Thin film scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Warren; McKinney, George; Tzolov, Marian

    2015-03-01

    Scintillating materials convert energy flux (particles or electromagnetic waves) into light with spectral characteristic matching a subsequent light detector. Commercial scintillators such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) are commonly used. These are inefficient at lower energies due to the conductive coating present on their top surface, which is needed to avoid charging. We hypothesize that nano-structured thin film scintillators will outperform the commercial scintillators at low electron energies. We have developed alternative thin film scintillators, zinc tungstate and zinc oxide, which show promise for higher sensitivity to lower energy electrons since they are inherently conductive. Zinc tungstate films exhibit photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 74%. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was applied in transmission and reflection geometries. The comparison between the thin films and the YAG and YAP commercial scintillators shows much higher light output from the zinc tungstate and zinc oxide at electron energies less than 5 keV. Our films were integrated in a backscattered electron detector. This detector delivers better images than an identical detector with commercial YAG scintillator at low electron energies. Dr. Nicholas Barbi from PulseTor LLC, Dr. Anura Goonewardene, NSF Grants: #0806660, #1058829, #0923047.

  11. BC404 scintillators as gamma locators studied via Geant4 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corts, M. L.; Hoischen, R.; Eisenhauer, K.; Gerl, J.; Pietralla, N.

    2014-05-01

    In many applications in industry and academia, an accurate determination of the direction from where gamma rays are emitted is either needed or desirable. Ion-beam therapy treatments, the search for orphan sources, and homeland security applications are examples of fields that can benefit from directional sensitivity to gamma-radiation. Scintillation detectors are a good option for these types of applications as they have relatively low cost, are easy to handle and can be produced in a large range of different sizes. In this work a Geant4 simulation was developed to study the directional sensitivity of different BC404 scintillator geometries and arrangements. The simulation includes all the physical processes relevant for gamma detection in a scintillator. In particular, the creation and propagation of optical photons inside the scintillator was included. A simplified photomultiplier tube model was also simulated. The physical principle exploited is the angular dependence of the shape of the energy spectrum obtained from thin scintillator layers when irradiated from different angles. After an experimental confirmation of the working principle of the device and a check of the simulation, the possibilities and limitations of directional sensitivity to gamma radiation using scintillator layers was tested. For this purpose, point-like sources of typical energies expected in ion-beam therapy were used. Optimal scintillator thicknesses for different energies were determined and the setup efficiencies calculated. The use of arrays of scintillators to reconstruct the direction of incoming gamma rays was also studied. For this case, a spherical source emitting Bremsstrahlung radiation was used together with a setup consisting of scintillator layers. The capability of this setup to identify the center of the extended source was studied together with its angular resolution.

  12. Tracking Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krammer, Manfred; Mitaroff, Winfried

    Tracking detectors are devices to measure and reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles. They are developed for and used by physics experiments in the fields of nuclear physics, particle physics, and astro-particle physics. To understand and analyze the physics processes under study at these experiments the reconstruction and precise determination of the particles flight path is important. From these particle tracks, parameters such as the particle momentum, the particle type, its origin, etc., can be deduced. Several detector technologies have been invented and are being constantly improved. The most important ones are the various types of gas detectors, detectors based on semiconductor material, and scintillating detectors. In a realistic experiment, several tracking (and other) devices are arranged to a complex set-up. Charged particle tracks are reconstructed by making use of all available information from all tracking detectors. The actual reconstruction of events from raw measurements is a nontrivial task involving pattern recognition, track and vertex fitting. The performance of both hardware and software must be optimized for the benefit of follow-on physics analyses.

  13. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvad, M

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from (137)Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I and (137)Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times. PMID:24607535

  14. Taheri-Saramad x-ray detector (TSXD): A novel high spatial resolution x-ray imager based on ZnO nano scintillator wires in polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, A. Saramad, S.; Ghalenoei, S.; Setayeshi, S.

    2014-01-15

    A novel x-ray imager based on ZnO nanowires is designed and fabricated. The proposed architecture is based on scintillation properties of ZnO nanostructures in a polycarbonate track-etched membrane. Because of higher refractive index of ZnO nanowire compared to the membrane, the nanowire acts as an optical fiber that prevents the generated optical photons to spread inside the detector. This effect improves the spatial resolution of the imager. The detection quantum efficiency and spatial resolution of the fabricated imager are 11% and <6.8 ?m, respectively.

  15. 950 keV X-Band Linac For Material Recognition Using Two-Fold Scintillator Detector As A Concept Of Dual-Energy X-Ray System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kiwoo; Natsui, Takuya; Hirai, Shunsuke; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Eiko

    2011-06-01

    One of the advantages of applying X-band linear accelerator (Linac) is the compact size of the whole system. That shows us the possibility of on-site system such as the custom inspection system in an airport. As X-ray source, we have developed X-band Linac and achieved maximum X-ray energy 950 keV using the low power magnetron (250 kW) in 2 {mu}s pulse length. The whole size of the Linac system is 1x1x1 m{sup 3}. That is realized by introducing X-band system. In addition, we have designed two-fold scintillator detector in dual energy X-ray concept. Monte carlo N-particle transport (MCNP) code was used to make up sensor part of the design with two scintillators, CsI and CdWO4. The custom inspection system is composed of two equipments: 950 keV X-band Linac and two-fold scintillator and they are operated simulating real situation such as baggage check in an airport. We will show you the results of experiment which was performed with metal samples: iron and lead as targets in several conditions.

  16. Real-time, digital pulse-shape discrimination in non-hazardous fast liquid scintillation detectors: Prospects for safety and security

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, M. J.; Aspinall, M. D.; Cave, F. D.; Lavietes, A. D.

    2011-07-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) in fast, organic scintillation detectors is a long-established technique used to separate neutrons and {gamma} rays in mixed radiation fields. In the analogue domain the method can achieve separation in real time, but all knowledge of the pulses themselves is lost thereby preventing the possibility of any post- or repeated analysis. Also, it is typically reliant on electronic systems that are largely obsolete and which require significant experience to set up. In the digital domain, PSD is often more flexible but significant post-processing has usually been necessary to obtain neutron/{gamma}-ray separation. Moreover, the scintillation media on which the technique relies usually have a low flash point and are thus deemed hazardous. This complicates the ease with which they are used in industrial applications. In this paper, results obtained with a new portable digital pulse-shape discrimination instrument are described. This instrument provides real-time, digital neutron/{gamma} separation whilst preserving the synchronization with the time-of-arrival for each event, and realizing throughputs of 3 x 10{sup 6} events per second. Furthermore, this system has been tested with a scintillation medium that is non-flammable and not hazardous. (authors)

  17. Detector blur associated with MeV radiographic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Stuart A.; Lutz, Stephen S.; Smalley, Duane D.; Brown, Kristina K.; Danielson, Jeremy; Haines, Todd J.; Howe, Russell A.; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Morgan, Dane; Schultz, Larry J.

    2015-08-01

    We are investigating scintillator performance in radiographic imaging systems at x-ray endpoint energies of 0.4 and 2.3 MeV in single-pulse x-ray machines. The effect of scene magnification and geometric setup will be examined along with differences between the detector response of radiation and optical scatter. Previous discussion has reviewed energy absorption and efficiency of various imaging scintillators with a 2.3 MeV x-ray source. The focal point of our study is to characterize scintillator blur to refine system models. Typical detector geometries utilize thin tiled LYSO:Ce (cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate) assembled in a composite mosaic. Properties of individual tiles are being studied to understand system resolution effects present in the experimental setup. Comparison of two different experiments with different geometric configurations is examined. Results are then compared to different scene magnifications generated in a Monte-Carlo simulation.

  18. Modeling of low-energy charged particles passage through GAMMA-400 gamma-telescope thermal insulation and two- layer plastic scintillation detectors used as anticoincidence shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasovikov, E. N.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Kheymits, M. D.; Yurkin, Yu T.

    2016-02-01

    The results of low-energy charged particles passage through GAMMA-400 gamma- telescope thermal insulation and two-layer plastic scintillation detectors used as anticoincidence shield are presented. An existing GEANT4 GAMMA-400 model is used. Effects of thermal insulation on charged particle passage are investigated. These results will be used to testing the effect of low-energy charged particles flux on GAMMA-400 gamma-quanta registration capabilities. Sufficiently large energy deposition in two-layer plastic anticoincidence scintillation detectors might interfere with high-energy particle registration and identification. However, GAMMA-400 detection capabilities are not affected by this, as the energy deposition in the lower layer of S3 is less than 1.5 MeV in all simulated cases. This value is less than threshold for high energy particles identification start (2.5 MeV). It makes impossible to incorrectly identify a low-energy charged particle energy deposition as backsplash from a high-energy gamma-quantum.

  19. Direct Deposition of Microcolumnar Scintillator on CMOS SSPM Array: Toward a Photon Counting Detector for X-Ray/Gamma Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Prekas, G.; Breen, M.; Sabet, H.; Bhandari, H.; Derderian, G.; Robertson, F. Jr; Stapels, C. J.; Christian, J.; Cool, S.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2011-12-13

    We are developing a modular, low-cost, photon-counting detector based on a scintillator coupled to a solid-state photodetector. A working prototype was successfully developed by depositing CsI:Tl directly onto a CMOS SSPM array designed by RMD and custom-fabricated by a commercial foundry. The device comprised a 6x6 array of 1.5x1.5 mm{sup 2} macro-pixels, each containing a 36x36 array of resistively coupled micro-pixels, that was subjected to vapor deposition of columnar CsI:Tl. Direct deposition eliminates the gap between the scintillator and SSPM and creates a better optical bond than does index-matching grease. This paper compares the performance of SSPMs with directly deposited CsI:Tl, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and light spread, against devices using monolithic single crystals or pixelated single crystals coupled to the SSPM. Due to the reduction in light scattering and optical losses in the interface, the directly deposited CsI:Tl demonstrated significantly better position sensitivity, with at least a factor of 2 increase in SNR compared to a single crystal. These data indicate that a photodetector with substantially smaller macro-pixel dimensions than used here could be used to implement a low-energy X-ray/gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy detector, particularly for applications where high resolution is of prime importance.

  20. An indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain for low dose x-ray imaging: SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Dan; Rowlands, J. A.; Egami, N.; Takiguchi, Y.; Nanba, M.; Honda, Y.; Ohkawa, Y.; Kubota, M.; Tanioka, K.; Suzuki, K.; Kawai, T.

    2008-03-01

    An indirect flat-imager with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging with high resolution. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI (Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor). The charge image created by HARP is read out by electron beams generated by the FEA. The proposed detector is called SAPHIRE (Scintillator Avalanche Photoconductor with HIgh Resolution Emitter readout). The avalanche gain of HARP depends on both a-Se thickness and applied electric field E Se. At E Se of > 80 V/?m, the avalanche gain can enhance the signal at low dose (e.g. fluoroscopy) and make the detector x-ray quantum noise limited down to a single x-ray photon. At high exposure (e.g. radiography), the avalanche gain can be turned off by decreasing E Se to < 70 V/?m. In this paper the imaging characteristics of the FEA readout method, including the spatial resolution and noise, were investigated experimentally using a prototype optical HARP-FEA image sensor. The potential x-ray imaging performance of SAPHIRE, especially the aspect of programmable gain to ensure wide dynamic range and x-ray quantum noise limited performance at the lowest exposure in fluoroscopy, was investigated.

  1. A comparison of digital zero-crossing and charge-comparison methods for neutron/γ-ray discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhostin, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we have compared the performances of the digital zero-crossing and charge-comparison methods for n/γ discrimination with liquid scintillation detectors at low light outputs. The measurements were performed with a 2″×2″ cylindrical liquid scintillation detector of type BC501A whose outputs were sampled by means of a fast waveform digitizer with 10-bit resolution, 4 GS/s sampling rate and one volt input range. Different light output ranges were measured by operating the photomultiplier tube at different voltages and a new recursive algorithm was developed to implement the digital zero-crossing method. The results of our study demonstrate the superior performance of the digital zero-crossing method at low light outputs when a large dynamic range is measured. However, when the input range of the digitizer is used to measure a narrow range of light outputs, the charge-comparison method slightly outperforms the zero-crossing method. The results are discussed in regard to the effects of the quantization noise and the noise filtration performance of the zero-crossing filter.

  2. A direct method for evaluating the concentration of boric acid in a fuel pool using scintillation detectors for joint-multiplicity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikova, Dina; Axell, Kåre; Pázsit, Imre; Nordlund, Anders; Sarwar, Rashed

    2013-06-01

    The present investigations are aimed at the development of a direct passive non-intrusive method for determining the concentration of boric acid in a spent fuel pool using scintillation detectors with the purpose of correcting joint-multiplicity measurement results. The method utilizes a modified relation between two gamma lines with energy of 480 keV and 2.23 MeV, respectively. The gamma line at 480 keV belongs to the thermal neutron capture in boron. The 2.23 MeV gamma line characterizes the capture of thermal neutrons in hydrogen. Thus, the relation between them can reveal the concentration of the boron in the fuel pool. In order to test this method, first MCNPX and MCNP-PoliMi simulations were performed. Then, based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations, the method was verified by an experimental study with a 241Am-Be source and EJ-309 scintillation detectors. The concentration of boron in water varied from 1550 ppm to 4000 ppm. The results of these tests are provided in the paper and they show that the spectral ratio between these two lines can in principle be used to determine the boron content.

  3. Photofraction of a 5 cm x 2 cm BGO scintillator. [bismuth germanate crystal for use in cosmic gamma ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, P. P.; Forrest, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The photofraction of a 5.1 cm x 2.0 cm bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator was measured over a gamma-ray energy range of 0.2 to 6.1 MeV. Several methods, used to minimize the effect of room scattering on the measurement, are discussed. These include a gamma-gamma coincidence technique, a beta-gamma coincidence technique, and the use of sources calibrated with a standard 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm sodium iodide scintillator.

  4. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder; Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    2003-04-22

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  5. Evaluation of a setup for pNRA at LIBAF for applications in geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysiuk, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Ros, L.; Abdel, N.; Elfman, M.; Nilsson, E. J. C.; Pallon, J.

    2014-08-01

    A new setup for photon tagged nuclear reaction analysis pNRA is being developed at Lund's ion beam analysis facility LIBAF. Particle induced gamma ray emission PIGE and nuclear reaction analysis NRA are two methods that have been extensively used for light isotope measurement in ion beam analysis IBA. There is an abundance of nuclear reactions between light elements and MeV protons, deuterons and alpha particles. This means that in principle all elements from lithium all the way up to chlorine can be analyzed using those techniques. Detection limits can be improved for some elements, if those two methods are fused together into pNRA. The new setup for pNRA will benefit from advances in detector technology that occurred during the last 20 years. A LaBr3 scintillator detector and an annular double sided silicon strip detector DSSSD are used in coincidence to detect a gamma and a charged particle respectively. Both detectors are connected to a VME based data acquisition system. Of primary interest in this work is the analysis of isotopic ratios of light elements in geological samples, which are usually thick with a complex matrix. This setup can be for instance used to measure isotopic fractionation of oxygen and boron. We will present the setup and discuss its capabilities.

  6. New preshower detector for the DIRAC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentia, M.; Aogaki, S.; Dumitriu, D.; Fluerasu, D.; Gugiu, M.; Yazkov, V.

    2015-09-01

    The Preshower (PSh) detector [1] is a component of the DIRAC setup [2]. It is designed to identify and reject the huge e-e+ pairs background in the ?? and K? pairs measurement produced in a hadronic atom ionization process. In the high energy region used for kaon detection, the small Nitrogen Cherenkov detector has low electron rejection efficiency. To increase the overall efficiency, a new two-layer scintillator Preshower detector has been developed and built. The new Preshower-Cherenkov combination ensures an electron rejection efficiency better than 99% in the momentum range 1-7 GeV/c.

  7. Searching for Galactic hidden gas through interstellar scintillation: results from a test with the NTT-SOFI detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, F.; Moniez, M.; Ansari, R.; Rahvar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Stars twinkle because their light propagates through the atmosphere. The same phenomenon is expected at a longer time scale when the light of remote stars crosses an interstellar molecular cloud, but it has never been observed at optical wavelength. In a favorable case, the light of a background star can be subject to stochastic fluctuations on the order of a few percent at a characteristic time scale of a few minutes. Our ultimate aim is to discover or exclude these scintillation effects to estimate the contribution of molecular hydrogen to the Galactic baryonic hidden mass. This feasibility study is a pathfinder toward an observational strategy to search for scintillation, probing the sensitivity of future surveys and estimating the background level. Methods: We searched for scintillation induced by molecular gas in visible dark nebulae as well as by hypothetical halo clumpuscules of cool molecular hydrogen (H2-He) during two nights. We took long series of 10 s infrared exposures with the ESO-NTT telescope toward stellar populations located behind visible nebulae and toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We therefore searched for stars exhibiting stochastic flux variations similar to what is expected from the scintillation effect. According to our simulations of the scintillation process, this search should allow one to detect (stochastic) transverse gradients of column density in cool Galactic molecular clouds of order of ~ 3 10-5 g/cm2/10 000 km. Results: We found one light-curve that is compatible with a strong scintillation effect through a turbulent structure characterized by a diffusion radius Rdiff < 100 km in the B68 nebula. Complementary observations are needed to clarify the status of this candidate, and no firm conclusion can be established from this single observation. We can also infer limits on the existence of turbulent dense cores (of number density n > 109 cm-3) within the dark nebulae. Because no candidate is found toward the SMC, we are also able to establish upper limits on the contribution of gas clumpuscules to the Galactic halo mass. Conclusions: The limits set by this test do not seriously constrain the known models, but we show that the short time-scale monitoring for a few 106 star hour in the visible band with a >4 m telescope and a fast readout camera should allow one to quantify the contribution of turbulent molecular gas to the Galactic halo. The LSST (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope) is perfectly suited for this search. This work is based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  8. Integrated readout of organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/6LiF for segmented antineutrino detectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Monahan, James; Bowden, Nathaniel S.

    2010-11-01

    Antineutrino detection using inverse beta decay conversion has demonstrated the capability to measure nuclear reactor power and fissile material content for nuclear safeguards. Current efforts focus on aboveground deployment scenarios, for which highly efficient capture and identification of neutrons is needed to measure the anticipated antineutrino event rates in an elevated background environment. In this submission, we report on initial characterization of a new scintillation-based segmented design that uses layers of ZnS:Ag/{sup 6}LiF and an integrated readout technique to capture and identify neutrons created in the inverse beta decay reaction. Laboratory studies with multiple organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/{sup 6}LiF configurations reliably identify {sup 6}Li neutron captures in 60 cm-long segments using pulse shape discrimination.

  9. Integrated readout of organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/6LiF for segmented antineutrino detectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Monahan, James; Bowden, Nathaniel S.

    2010-10-01

    Antineutrino detection using inverse beta decay conversion has demonstrated the capability to measure nuclear reactor power and fissile material content for nuclear safeguards. Current efforts focus on aboveground deployment scenarios, for which highly efficient capture and identification of neutrons is needed to measure the anticipated antineutrino event rates in an elevated background environment. In this submission, we report on initial characterization of a new scintillation-based segmented design that uses layers of ZnS:Ag/{sup 6}LiF and an integrated readout technique to capture and identify neutrons created in the inverse beta decay reaction. Laboratory studies with multiple organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/{sup 6}LiF configurations reliably identify {sup 6}Li neutron captures in 60 cm-long segments using pulse shape discrimination.

  10. Joint measurement of the atmospheric muon flux through the Puy de Dôme volcano with plastic scintillators and Resistive Plate Chambers detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, F.; Anastasio, A.; Bross, A.; Béné, S.; Boivin, P.; Bonechi, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cimmino, L.; Combaret, Ch.; D'Alessandro, R.; Durand, S.; Fehr, F.; Français, V.; Garufi, F.; Gailler, L.; Labazuy, Ph.; Laktineh, I.; Lénat, J.-F.; Masone, V.; Miallier, D.; Mirabito, L.; Morel, L.; Mori, N.; Niess, V.; Noli, P.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Portal, A.; Rubinov, P.; Saracino, G.; Scarlini, E.; Strolin, P.; Vulpescu, B.

    2015-11-01

    The muographic imaging of volcanoes relies on the measured transmittance of the atmospheric muon flux through the target. An important bias affecting the result comes from background contamination mimicking a higher transmittance. The MU-RAY and TOMUVOL collaborations measured independently in 2013 the atmospheric muon flux transmitted through the Puy de Dôme volcano using their early prototype detectors, based on plastic scintillators and on Glass Resistive Plate Chambers, respectively. These detectors had three (MU-RAY) or four (TOMUVOL) detection layers of 1 m2 each, tens (MU-RAY) or hundreds (TOMUVOL) of nanosecond time resolution, a few millimeter position resolution, an energy threshold of few hundreds MeV, and no particle identification capabilities. The prototypes were deployed about 1.3 km away from the summit, where they measured, behind rock depths larger than 1000 m, remnant fluxes of 1.83±0.50(syst)±0.07(stat) m-2 d-1 deg-2 (MU-RAY) and 1.95±0.16(syst)±0.05(stat) m-2 d-1 deg-2 (TOMUVOL), that roughly correspond to the expected flux of high-energy atmospheric muons crossing 600 meters water equivalent (mwe) at 18° elevation. This implies that imaging depths larger than 500 mwe from 1 km away using such prototype detectors suffer from an overwhelming background. These measurements confirm that a new generation of detectors with higher momentum threshold, time-of-flight measurement, and/or particle identification is needed. The MU-RAY and TOMUVOL collaborations expect shortly to operate improved detectors, suitable for a robust muographic imaging of kilometer-scale volcanoes.

  11. Assessment of photon detectors for a handheld gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer using Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. B.; McClish, M.; Achtzehn, T.; Andrews, H. R.; Baginski, M. J.; Best, D. J.; Budden, B. S.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Dallmann, N. A.; Dathy, C.; Frank, J. M.; Graham, S. A.; Ing, H.; Stonehill, L. C.

    2013-07-01

    The coupling of Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillator to silicon photon converters has been evaluated with the goal of investigating replacements for the traditional photomultiplier tube (PMT) in small handheld spectrometers. Energy spectra produced under irradiation by a range of gamma-ray and neutron sources were collected with CLYC mounted to several avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, and silicon photomultipliers. The performance for both gamma rays and neutrons was compared to that obtained by coupling CLYC to PMTs. None of the silicon devices evaluated provide comparable performance to that of a PMT with CLYC. This is attributed to the photon-detection efficiency of the silicon detectors over the wavelength range of CLYC emissions, as well as the noise characteristics of the devices.

  12. Organic liquid scintillation detectors for on-the-fly neutron/gamma alarming and radionuclide identification in a pedestrian radiation portal monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Ruch, Marc L.; Poitrasson-Riviere, Alexis; Sagadevan, Athena; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara

    2015-07-01

    We present new experimental results from a radiation portal monitor based on the use of organic liquid scintillators. The system was tested as part of a 3He-free radiation portal monitor testing campaign at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, in February 2014. The radiation portal monitor was subjected to a wide range of test conditions described in ANSI N42.35, including a variety of gamma-ray sources and a 20,000 n/s 252Cf source. A false alarm test tested whether radiation portal monitors ever alarmed in the presence of only natural background. The University of Michigan Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Group's system triggered zero false alarms in 2739 trials. It consistently alarmed on a variety of gamma-ray sources travelling at 1.2 m/s at a 70 cm source to detector distance. The neutron source was detected at speeds up to 3 m/s and in configurations with up to 8 cm of high density polyethylene shielding. The success of on-the-fly radionuclide identification varied with the gamma-ray source measured as well as with which of two radionuclide identification methods was used. Both methods used a least squares comparison between the measured pulse height distributions to library spectra to pick the best match. The methods varied in how the pulse height distributions were modified prior to the least squares comparison. Correct identification rates were as high as 100% for highly enriched uranium, but as low as 50% for 241Am. Both radionuclide identification algorithms produced mixed results, but the concept of using liquid scintillation detectors for gamma-ray and neutron alarming in radiation portal monitor was validated.

  13. Photonic crystal scintillators and methods of manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Ricardo D.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Cortes-Concepcion, Jose

    2015-08-11

    Photonic crystal scintillators and their methods of manufacture are provided. Exemplary methods of manufacture include using a highly-ordered porous anodic alumina membrane as a pattern transfer mask for either the etching of underlying material or for the deposition of additional material onto the surface of a scintillator. Exemplary detectors utilizing such photonic crystal scintillators are also provided.

  14. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOEpatents

    McCollum, T.; Spector, G.B.

    1994-03-29

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected is described. 11 figures.

  15. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOEpatents

    McCollum, Tom (Sterling, VA); Spector, Garry B. (Fairfax, VA)

    1994-01-01

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected.

  16. Compact gamma-ray detection system for space applications based on photodiodes and CsI(TI) scintillation crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graue, Roland; Stuffler, Timo; Goebel, Thomas

    1996-10-01

    For the measurement of astronomical gamma ray radiation in the energy range 50 keV to several MeV usually photomultiplier tubes (PMT) with scintillation crystals are used. However, due to the internal detection mechanism high voltage and single photon counting are required leading to heavy and structurally unpractical systems. Even APD's (avalanche photodiodes) do not circumvent the problem of the high voltage. Recent improvements in the performance of semiconductor detectors allow the use of large area and low noise pin photodiodes as innovative scintillation detectors with 40 - 100 V operating voltage only. Tl-doped CsI as scintillation crystal with a superior light yield has not only a much higher photon output compared to the light yield of pure CsI and BGO crystals which are used for the gamma ray detection with PMTs, but has also a perfect matching of spectral properties of the photodiode. This paper presents a comprehensive comparison with conventional PMT scintillation detector systems and the development activities of full size breadboards with such a photodiode/CsI(Tl) detector set-up. The relevant functional performance test results have shown the high technical maturity of this detector system and the principal feasibility for the application either in the INTEGRAL spectrometer and imager anticoincidence shield (ACS) or in image central detector system. The dedicated ACS configuration design featuring optimized mass budget combined with high gamma ray stopping efficiency is figured.

  17. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOEpatents

    McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  18. Optimization of the Neutron Detector Design Based on the 6LiF/ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Screens for the GAMMA-400 Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnezdilov, I. I.; Dedenko, G. L.; Ibragimov, R. F.; Idalov, V. A.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplun, A. A.; Klemetiev, A. V.; Mukhin, V. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Turin, E. M.; Zaripov, R. N.

    The Neutron Detector (ND) is a new detector sub-system for the future GAMMA-400 space observatory. It aims to complement the instrument's GAMMA-400 electromagnetic calorimeter (CsI(Tl), total depth is 25.0 X0) in identifying cosmic-ray electrons from ? 100 MeV up to 3 TeV. Such electrons are of significant scientific interest, but their identification is complicated by the overwhelmingly more abundant hadronic cosmic rays, hence making significant hadronic rejection power of paramount importance. Particle showers initiated by nuclei in the GAMMA-400 calorimeter have a profile different from an electron-induced electromagnetic cascade, and the hadron rejection power deriving from this difference can be significantly enhanced by making use of the thermal neutron activity at late (>100 ns) times relative to the start of the shower. Indeed hadron-induced showers tend to be accompanied by significantly more neutron activity than electromagnetic showers. In the described ND for capturing thermalized neutrons applied isotope 6Li, which is part of the scintillation screen 6LiF/ZnS(Ag). ND placed are under the electromagnetic calorimeter. The results GEANT4 simulation of the ND shows that ND has high neutron detection efficiency.

  19. Scintillator materials containing lanthanum fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    An improved radiation detector containing a crystalline mixture of LaF[sub 3] and CeF[sub 3] as the scintillator element is disclosed. Scintillators made with from 25% to 99.5% LaF[sub 3] and the remainder CeF[sub 3] have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is equal to or superior to other known scintillator materials, and which may be processed from natural starting materials containing both rare earth elements. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in positron emission tomography. 2 figures.

  20. Scintillator materials containing lanthanum fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    An improved radiation detector containing a crystalline mixture of LaF.sub.3 and CeF.sub.3 as the scintillator element is disclosed. Scintillators made with from 25% to 99.5% LaF.sub.3 and the remainder CeF.sub.3 have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is equal to or superior to other known scintillator materials, and which may be processed from natural starting materials containing both rare earth elements. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in positron emission tomography.

  1. A new water-equivalent 2D plastic scintillation detectors array for the dosimetry of megavoltage energy photon beams in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Gingras, Luc

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to present a new 2D plastic scintillation detectors array (2D-PSDA) designed for the dosimetry of megavoltage (MV) energy photon beams in radiation therapy and to characterize its basic performance. Methods: We developed a 2D detector array consisting of 781 plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) inserted into a plane of a water-equivalent phantom. The PSDs were distributed on a 26 x 26 cm{sup 2} grid, with an interdetector spacing of 10 mm, except for two perpendicular lines centered on the detection plane, where the spacing was 5 mm. Each PSD was made of a 1 mm diameter by 3 mm long cylindrical polystyrene scintillating fiber coupled to a clear nonscintillating plastic optical fiber. All of the light signals emitted by the PSDs were read simultaneously with an optical system at a rate of one measurement per second. We characterized the performance of the optical system, the angular dependency of the device, and the perturbation of dose distributions caused by the hundreds of PSDs inserted into the phantom. We also evaluated the capacity of the system to monitor complex multileaf collimator (MLC) sequences such as those encountered in step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. We compared our results with calculations performed by a treatment planning system and with measurements taken with a 2D ionization chamber array and with a radiochromic film. Results: The detector array that we developed allowed us to measure doses with an average precision of better than 1% for cumulated doses equal to or greater than 6.3 cGy. Our results showed that the dose distributions produced by the 6-MV photon beam are not perturbed (within {+-}1.1%) by the presence of the hundreds of PSDs located into the phantom. The results also showed that the variations in the beam incidences have little effect on the dose response of the device. For all incidences tested, the passing rates of the gamma tests between the 2D-PSDA and the treatment planning system were higher than 97.5% when the standard clinical tolerances of 3% or 3 mm were used. Excellent agreement was obtained between the doses measured and calculated when we used the 2D-PSDA for monitoring a MLC sequence from a step-and-shoot IMRT plan. Conclusions: We demonstrated the feasibility of using a large number of PSDs in a new 2D-PSDA for the dosimetry of MV energy photon beams in radiation therapy. The excellent precision, accuracy, and low angular dependence of the device indicate that such a prototype could potentially be used as a high-accuracy quality assurance tool for IMRT and arc therapy patient plan verification. The homogeneity and water-equivalence of the prototype we built suggest that this technology could be extended to multiple detection planes by arranging the fibers into more complex orientations, opening the possibility for 3D dosimetry with PSDs.

  2. Measurement of the {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux with the KamLAND liquid scintillator detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ichimura, K.; Ikeda, H.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Morikawa, T.; Nagai, N.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, M.; Narita, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.

    2011-09-15

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate from {sup 8}B solar neutrinos based on a 123 kton-day exposure of KamLAND. The background-subtracted electron recoil rate, above a 5.5-MeV analysis threshold is 1.49 {+-} 0.14(stat) {+-} 0.17(syst) events per kton-day. Interpreted as due to a pure electron flavor flux with a {sup 8}B neutrino spectrum, this corresponds to a spectrum integrated flux of 2.77 {+-} 0.26(stat) {+-} 0.32(syst) x10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis threshold is driven by {sup 208}Tl present in the liquid scintillator, and the main source of systematic uncertainty is due to background from cosmogenic {sup 11}Be. The measured rate is consistent with existing measurements and with standard solar model predictions which include matter-enhanced neutrino oscillation.

  3. Tests of a Fast Plastic Scintillator for High-Precision Half-Life Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffoley, A. T.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Leach, K. G.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Rand, E. T.; Svensson, C. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Thomas, J. C.; Ball, G.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Orce, J. N.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.; Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.

    2013-03-01

    A fast plastic scintillator detector is evaluated for possible use in an ongoing program of high-precision half-life measurements of short lived ? emitters. Using data taken at TRI-UMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator Facility with a radioactive 26Na beam, a detailed investigation of potential systematic effects with this new detector setup is being performed. The technique will then be applied to other ?-decay half-life measurements including the superallowed Fermi ? emitters 10C, 14O, and T = 1/2 decay of 15O.

  4. A microplate solid scintillation counter as a radioactivity detector for high performance liquid chromatography in drug metabolism: validation and applications.

    PubMed

    Bruin, Gerard J; Waldmeier, Felix; Boernsen, K Olaf; Pfaar, Ulrike; Gross, Gerhard; Zollinger, Markus

    2006-11-10

    Sensitive radioactivity detection following high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation remains a challenge in many drug metabolism studies with radiolabeled compounds. In this work, solid scintillation counting (SSC) after fraction collection into 96-well plates was evaluated as an off-line radioactivity detection method, in comparison with conventional liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The impact of counting time and biological matrix on the quantification of radiolabeled metabolites and parent drug in samples from animal and human absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies was investigated. Three different approaches were used to test whether reliable quantification by off-line SSC detection, which requires an approximately constant counting yield during the entire chromatographic run, can be realized: (i) the measurement of radioactivity-spiked biological blank samples without HPLC separation as an extreme case of biological background, (ii) the measurement of radioactivity-spiked HPLC fractions of biological blank samples and (iii) the comparison of radiochromatograms obtained by off-line SSC and LSC of real samples from ADME studies with radiolabeled compounds. Situations in which variations in SSC yield during an HPLC run are likely to lead to significant errors in quantitation were identified and are discussed. However, examples from a number of animal or human ADME studies showed that in the majority of cases off-line SSC provides very similar quantitative data, compared with the reference method of off-line LSC radioactivity detection. Approaches for validation of the off-line SSC approach in critical cases are discussed. The main advantages of off-line SSC, compared with off-line LSC, are lower detection limits and a substantially higher throughput. Several applications of off-line SSC detection in ADME studies are shown. PMID:16970958

  5. A technique for verifying the input response function of neutron time-of-flight scintillation detectors using cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Bonura, M. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Styron, J. D.; Ruiz, C. L. Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G.; Hahn, K. D.; Torres, J. A.

    2014-11-15

    An accurate interpretation of DD or DT fusion neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) signals from current mode detectors employed at the Z-facility at Sandia National Laboratories requires that the instrument response functions (IRF’s) be deconvolved from the measured nTOF signals. A calibration facility that produces detectable sub-ns radiation pulses is typically used to measure the IRF of such detectors. This work, however, reports on a simple method that utilizes cosmic radiation to measure the IRF of nTOF detectors, operated in pulse-counting mode. The characterizing metrics reported here are the throughput delay and full-width-at-half-maximum. This simple approach yields consistent IRF results with the same detectors calibrated in 2007 at a LINAC bremsstrahlung accelerator (Idaho State University). In particular, the IRF metrics from these two approaches and their dependence on the photomultipliers bias agree to within a few per cent. This information may thus be used to verify if the IRF for a given nTOF detector employed at Z has changed since its original current-mode calibration and warrants re-measurement.

  6. A technique for verifying the input response function of neutron time-of-flight scintillation detectors using cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Bonura, M A; Ruiz, C L; Fehl, D L; Cooper, G W; Chandler, G; Hahn, K D; Nelson, A J; Styron, J D; Torres, J A

    2014-11-01

    An accurate interpretation of DD or DT fusion neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) signals from current mode detectors employed at the Z-facility at Sandia National Laboratories requires that the instrument response functions (IRF's) be deconvolved from the measured nTOF signals. A calibration facility that produces detectable sub-ns radiation pulses is typically used to measure the IRF of such detectors. This work, however, reports on a simple method that utilizes cosmic radiation to measure the IRF of nTOF detectors, operated in pulse-counting mode. The characterizing metrics reported here are the throughput delay and full-width-at-half-maximum. This simple approach yields consistent IRF results with the same detectors calibrated in 2007 at a LINAC bremsstrahlung accelerator (Idaho State University). In particular, the IRF metrics from these two approaches and their dependence on the photomultipliers bias agree to within a few per cent. This information may thus be used to verify if the IRF for a given nTOF detector employed at Z has changed since its original current-mode calibration and warrants re-measurement. PMID:25430209

  7. Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain: Fundamental feasibility investigation for SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Wei; Li Dan; Reznik, Alla; Lui, B.J.M.; Hunt, D.C.; Rowlands, J.A.; Ohkawa, Yuji; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2005-09-15

    An indirect flat-panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI(Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor). The final electronic image is read out using an active matrix array of thin film transistors (TFT). We call the proposed detector SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager). The advantage of the SHARP-AMFPI is its programmable gain, which can be turned on during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise, and turned off during high dose radiography to avoid pixel saturation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important design considerations for SHARP-AMFPI such as avalanche gain, which depends on both the thickness d{sub Se} and the applied electric field E{sub Se} of the HARP layer. To determine the optimal design parameter and operational conditions for HARP, we measured the E{sub Se} dependence of both avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency of an 8 {mu}m HARP layer. The results were used in a physical model of HARP as well as a linear cascaded model of the FPI to determine the following x-ray imaging properties in both the avalanche and nonavalanche modes as a function of E{sub Se}: (1) total gain (which is the product of avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency); (2) linearity; (3) dynamic range; (4) gain nonuniformity resulting from thickness nonuniformity; and (5) effects of direct x-ray interaction in HARP. Our results showed that a HARP layer thickness of 8 {mu}m can provide adequate avalanche gain and sufficient dynamic range for x-ray imaging applications to permit quantum limited operation over the range of exposures needed for radiography and fluoroscopy.

  8. A compact and high sensitivity positron detector using dual-layer thin GSO scintillators for a small animal PET blood sampling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kanai, Yasukazu; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Minato, Kotaro; Shimizu, Keiji; Senda, Michio; Hatazawa, Jun

    2010-07-01

    For quantitative measurements of small animals such as mice or rats, a compact and high sensitivity continuous blood sampling detector is required because their blood sampling volume is limited. For this purpose we have developed and tested a new positron detector. The positron detector uses a pair of dual-layer thin gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times. The front layer detects the positron and the background gamma photons, and the back layer detects the background gamma photons. By subtracting the count rate of the latter from that of the former, the count rate of the positrons can be estimated. The GSO for the front layer has a Ce concentration of 1.5 mol% (decay time of 35 ns), and that for the back layer has a Ce concentration of 0.5 mol% (decay time of 60 ns). By using the pulse shape analysis, the count rate of these two GSOs can be discriminated. The thickness is 0.5 mm, which is thick enough to detect positrons while minimizing the detection of the background gamma photons. These two types of thin GSOs were optically coupled to each other and connected to a metal photomultiplier tube (PMT) through triangular light guides. The signal from the PMT was digitized by 100 MHz free-running A-D converters in the data acquisition system and digitally integrated at two different integration times for the pulse shape analysis. We obtained good separation of the pulse shape distributions of these two GSOs. The energy threshold level was decreased to 80 keV, increasing the sensitivity of the detector. The sensitivity of a small diameter plastic tube was 8.6% and 24% for the F-18 and C-11 positrons, respectively. The count rate performance was linear up to ~50 kcps. The background counts from the gamma photons could be precisely corrected. The time-activity curve (TAC) of the rat artery blood was successfully obtained and showed a good correlation with that measured using a well counter. With these results, we confirmed that the developed blood sampling detector is promising for quantitative measurement for an animal positron emission tomography system.

  9. SU-E-T-298: Small Field Total Scatter Factors Using a Commercial Scintillator Detector: Calibration Parameters Are Not Independent of Field Size

    SciTech Connect

    Jornet, N; Carrasco de Fez, P; Jordi, O; Latorre-Musoll, A; Eudaldo, T; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Ribas Morales, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy in total scatter factor (Sc,p) determination for small fields using commercial plastic scintillator detector (PSD). The manufacturer's spectral discrimination method to subtract Cerenkov light from the signal is discussed. Methods: Sc,p for field sizes ranging from 0.5 to 10 cm were measured using PSD Exradin (Standard Imaging) connected to two channel electrometer measuring the signals in two different spectral regions to subtract the Cerenkov signal from the PSD signal. A Pinpoint ionisation chamber 31006 (PTW) and a non-shielded semiconductor detector EFD (Scanditronix) were used for comparison. Measures were performed for a 6 MV X-ray beam. The Sc,p are measured at 10 cm depth in water for a SSD=100 cm and normalized to a 10'10 cm{sup 2} field size at the isocenter. All detectors were placed with their symmetry axis parallel to the beam axis.We followed the manufacturer's recommended calibration methodology to subtract the Cerenkov contribution to the signal as well as a modified method using smaller field sizes. The Sc,p calculated by using both calibration methodologies were compared. Results: Sc,p measured with the semiconductor and the PinPoint detectors agree, within 1.5%, for field sizes between 10'10 and 1'1 cm{sup 2}. Sc,p measured with the PSD using the manufacturer's calibration methodology were systematically 4% higher than those measured with the semiconductor detector for field sizes smaller than 5'5 cm{sup 2}. By using a modified calibration methodology for smalls fields and keeping the manufacturer calibration methodology for fields larger than 5'5cm{sup 2} field Sc,p matched semiconductor results within 2% field sizes larger than 1.5 cm. Conclusion: The calibration methodology proposed by the manufacturer is not appropriate for dose measurements in small fields. The calibration parameters are not independent of the incident radiation spectrum for this PSD. This work was partially financed by grant 2012 of Barcelona board of the AECC.

  10. A compact and high sensitivity positron detector using dual-layer thin GSO scintillators for a small animal PET blood sampling system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kanai, Yasukazu; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Minato, Kotaro; Shimizu, Keiji; Senda, Michio; Hatazawa, Jun

    2010-07-01

    For quantitative measurements of small animals such as mice or rats, a compact and high sensitivity continuous blood sampling detector is required because their blood sampling volume is limited. For this purpose we have developed and tested a new positron detector. The positron detector uses a pair of dual-layer thin gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times. The front layer detects the positron and the background gamma photons, and the back layer detects the background gamma photons. By subtracting the count rate of the latter from that of the former, the count rate of the positrons can be estimated. The GSO for the front layer has a Ce concentration of 1.5 mol% (decay time of 35 ns), and that for the back layer has a Ce concentration of 0.5 mol% (decay time of 60 ns). By using the pulse shape analysis, the count rate of these two GSOs can be discriminated. The thickness is 0.5 mm, which is thick enough to detect positrons while minimizing the detection of the background gamma photons. These two types of thin GSOs were optically coupled to each other and connected to a metal photomultiplier tube (PMT) through triangular light guides. The signal from the PMT was digitized by 100 MHz free-running A-D converters in the data acquisition system and digitally integrated at two different integration times for the pulse shape analysis. We obtained good separation of the pulse shape distributions of these two GSOs. The energy threshold level was decreased to 80 keV, increasing the sensitivity of the detector. The sensitivity of a small diameter plastic tube was 8.6% and 24% for the F-18 and C-11 positrons, respectively. The count rate performance was linear up to approximately 50 kcps. The background counts from the gamma photons could be precisely corrected. The time-activity curve (TAC) of the rat artery blood was successfully obtained and showed a good correlation with that measured using a well counter. With these results, we confirmed that the developed blood sampling detector is promising for quantitative measurement for an animal positron emission tomography system. PMID:20551500

  11. Material identification in x-ray microscopy and micro CT using multi-layer, multi-color scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Modgil, Dimple; Rigie, David S; Wang, Yuxin; Xiao, Xianghui; Vargas, Phillip A; La Rivire, Patrick J

    2015-10-21

    We demonstrate that a dual-layer, dual-color scintillator construct for microscopic CT, originally proposed to increase sensitivity in synchrotron imaging, can also be used to perform material quantification and classification when coupled with polychromatic illumination. We consider two different approaches to data handling: (1) a data-domain material decomposition whose estimation performance can be characterized by the Cramer-Rao lower bound formalism but which requires careful calibration and (2) an image-domain material classification approach that is more robust to calibration errors. The data-domain analysis indicates that useful levels of SNR (>5) could be achieved in one second or less at typical bending magnet fluxes for relatively large amounts of contrast (several mm path length, such as in a fluid flow experiment) and at typical undulator fluxes for small amount of contrast (tens of microns path length, such as an angiography experiment). The tools introduced could of course be used to study and optimize parameters for a wider range of potential applications. The image domain approach was analyzed in terms of its ability to distinguish different elemental stains by characterizing the angle between the lines traced out in a two-dimensional space of effective attenuation coefficient in the front and back layer images. This approach was implemented at a synchrotron and the results were consistent with simulation predictions. PMID:26422059

  12. Material identification in x-ray microscopy and micro CT using multi-layer, multi-color scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modgil, Dimple; Rigie, David S.; Wang, Yuxin; Xiao, Xianghui; Vargas, Phillip A.; La Rivire, Patrick J.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that a dual-layer, dual-color scintillator construct for microscopic CT, originally proposed to increase sensitivity in synchrotron imaging, can also be used to perform material quantification and classification when coupled with polychromatic illumination. We consider two different approaches to data handling: (1) a data-domain material decomposition whose estimation performance can be characterized by the Cramer-Rao lower bound formalism but which requires careful calibration and (2) an image-domain material classification approach that is more robust to calibration errors. The data-domain analysis indicates that useful levels of SNR (>5) could be achieved in one second or less at typical bending magnet fluxes for relatively large amounts of contrast (several mm path length, such as in a fluid flow experiment) and at typical undulator fluxes for small amount of contrast (tens of microns path length, such as an angiography experiment). The tools introduced could of course be used to study and optimize parameters for a wider range of potential applications. The image domain approach was analyzed in terms of its ability to distinguish different elemental stains by characterizing the angle between the lines traced out in a two-dimensional space of effective attenuation coefficient in the front and back layer images. This approach was implemented at a synchrotron and the results were consistent with simulation predictions.

  13. Evaluation the nonlinear response function of a 3 x 3 in NaI scintillation detector for PGNAA applications.

    PubMed

    Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Panjeh, Hamed; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza

    2007-08-01

    Response functions of the 3 x 3 in NaI detector, which is mainly used in PGNAA applications, have been calculated by using MCNP-4C code. Calculated results are compared with measured data by using standard gamma-ray sources and prompt gamma-rays from pure element samples to check their accuracy. Prompt gamma-rays from pure element samples were used for this determination in the range from 1.942 to 10.829 MeV by use of (241)Am-Be neutron source and gamma-rays from radioisotope sources were used in the range from 0.081 to 4.438 MeV. Through the precise modeling of the detector structure, the agreement between both results has been improved. A surprising result is that in the PGNAA method the agreement between the MCNP simulation and experiment will be better by using a suitable neutron shield for NaI detector in order to prevent the activation of NaI (Tl) and a proper gamma-shield to attenuate the high-rate 4.438 MeV gamma-ray, (241)Am-Be gamma-ray component. PMID:17485218

  14. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  15. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  16. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  17. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  18. A new experimental setup established for low-energy nuclear astrophysics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. Z.; Xu, S. W.; He, J. J.; Hu, J.; Rolfs, C. E.; Zhang, N. T.; Ma, S. B.; Zhang, L. Y.; Hou, S. Q.; Yu, X. Q.; Ma, X. W.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental setup for low-energy nuclear astrophysics studies has been recently established at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Lanzhou, China. The driver machine is a 320 kV high voltage platform, which can provide intense currents of proton, alpha and many heavy ion beams. The energy of a proton beam was calibrated against the nominal platform high voltage by using a well-known resonant reaction of 11B(p,?)12C and a non-resonant reaction 12C(p,?)13N. The accuracy was achieved to be better than 0.5 keV. The detection system consists of a Clover-type high-purity germanium detector, a silicon detector and a plastic scintillator. The performance of the detectors was tested by several experiments. The astrophysical S-factors of the 7Li(p,?)8Be and 7Li(p,?)3He reactions were measured with this new setup, and our data agree with the values found in the literature. In addition, the upgrade of our driver machine and experimental setup has been discussed. As a future goal, a fascinating National Deep Underground Laboratory in China, the deepest underground laboratory all over the world, is prospected.

  19. Separation and quantification of 238U, 232Th and rare earths in monazite samples by ion chromatography coupled with on-line flow scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Borai, E H; Mady, A S

    2002-10-01

    An alternative procedure has been described for efficient separation and quantitative determination of uranium (U), thorium (Th) and rare earth elements (REEs) in monazite mineral by high performance ion chromatographic system (IC). Different variables affecting the distribution coefficient, the retention and hence separation efficiency such as eluent flow rate and concentrations of HCI and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 containing the mobile phase were studied. The developed separation protocol of U, Th and REEs was optimized using an Ion Pac CS5 separation column followed by post-column derivatization reaction with Arsenaso III and UV-VIS spectrophotometric detection. Comparative evaluation of U, Th and REEs concentration in monazite mineral was demonstrated using two different on-line detection modes including flow through cell scintillation detector (FSD) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Response of the FSD was found to be linear over the full range of activities investigated (4-100 Bq). The lower limits of detection (LLD) for the investigated radionuclides were 3.0+0.1 Bq for 238U and 6.0 +/- 0.1 Bq for 232Th. The detection of 238U and 232Th by FSD shows good agreement with the corresponding determination by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The content of ThO2 and U3O8 in monazite sample were found to be 4.7 +/- 0.1% and 0.42 +/- 0.04% using UV-VIS detector and 4.3 +/- 0.1% and 0.45 +/- 0.1% using FSD, respectively. PMID:12361323

  20. Multilayer passive shielding of scintillation detectors based on BGO, NaI(Tl), and stilbene crystals operating in intense neutron fields with an energy of 14.1 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Valkovic, V.; Grozdanov, D. N.; Zontikov, A. O.; Ivanov, I. Zh.; Kopatch, Yu. N.; Krylov, A. R.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Ruskov, I. N.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Skoy, V. R.; Shvetsov, V. N.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the issues related to choosing the optimum type of passive shielding of scintillation detectors based on BGO, NaI(Tl), and stilbene crystals from the direct penetration of neutron radiation with an energy of 14.1 MeV that was emitted isotropically into a solid angle of 4π. A series of experimental measurements of the count-rate suppression factor that may be obtained for the indicated detectors through the use of various shielding filters comprising iron, lead, and borated polyethylene layers with a total thickness not exceeding 50 cm are conducted.

  1. Method of making a scintillator waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder, Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  2. Liquid Scintillator Development for KamLAND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Toshiyuki

    2001-10-01

    KamLAND(Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector) is a one kiloton liquid scintillator neutrino detector. Its principal goal is to investigate neutrino oscillations by studying the flux and the energy spectra of antineutrinos produced by Japanese commercial nuclear reactors. Good performance in terms of the light output, transparency and particle identification and etc. are necessary for the KamLAND. We tested the various kinds of liquid scintillator and selected one based on mineral oil. The various properties of that were tested. I will describe the KamLAND liquid scintillator and results of those studies.

  3. Scintillation Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Zane W.

    Scintillators find wide use in radiation detection as the detecting medium for gamma/X-rays, and charged and neutral particles. Since the first notice in 1895 by Roentgen of the production of light by X-rays on a barium platinocyanide screen, and Thomas Edison's work over the following 2 years resulting in the discovery of calcium tungstate as a superior fluoroscopy screen, much research and experimentation have been undertaken to discover and elucidate the properties of new scintillators. Scintillators with high density and high atomic number are prized for the detection of gamma rays above 1 MeV; lower atomic number, lower-density materials find use for detecting beta particles and heavy charged particles; hydrogenous scintillators find use in fast-neutron detection; and boron-, lithium-, and gadolinium-containing scintillators are used for slow-neutron detection. This chapter provides the practitioner with an overview of the general characteristics of scintillators, including the variation of probability of interaction with density and atomic number, the characteristics of the light pulse, a list and characteristics of commonly available scintillators and their approximate cost, and recommendations regarding the choice of material for a few specific applications. This chapter does not pretend to present an exhaustive list of scintillators and applications.

  4. A comparative study of small field total scatter factors and dose profiles using plastic scintillation detectors and other stereotactic dosimeters: The case of the CyberKnife

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, J.; Beliveau-Nadeau, D.; Chung, E.; Seuntjens, J.; Theriault, D.; Archambault, L.; Beddar, S.; Beaulieu, L.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Small-field dosimetry is challenging, and the main limitations of most dosimeters are insufficient spatial resolution, water nonequivalence, and energy dependence. The purpose of this study was to compare plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) to several commercial stereotactic dosimeters by measuring total scatter factors and dose profiles on a CyberKnife system. Methods: Two PSDs were developed, having sensitive volumes of 0.196 and 0.785 mm{sup 3}, and compared with other detectors. The spectral discrimination method was applied to subtract Cerenkov light from the signal. Both PSDs were compared to four commercial stereotactic dosimeters by measuring total scatter factors, namely, an IBA dosimetry stereotactic field diode (SFD), a PTW 60008 silicon diode, a PTW 60012 silicon diode, and a microLion. The measured total scatter factors were further compared with those of two independent Monte Carlo studies. For the dose profiles, two commercial detectors were used for the comparison, i.e., a PTW 60012 silicon diode and Gafchromics EBT2. Total scatter factors for a CyberKnife system were measured in circular fields with diameters from 5 to 60 mm. Dose profiles were measured for the 5- and 60-mm cones. The measurements were performed in a water tank at a 1.5-cm depth and an 80-cm source-axis distance. Results: The total scatter factors measured using all the detectors agreed within 1% with the Monte Carlo values for cones of 20 mm or greater in diameter. For cones of 10-20 mm in diameter, the PTW 60008 silicon diode was the only dosimeter whose measurements did not agree within 1% with the Monte Carlo values. For smaller fields (<10 mm), each dosimeter type showed different behaviors. The silicon diodes over-responded because of their water nonequivalence; the microLion and 1.0-mm PSD under-responded because of a volume-averaging effect; and the 0.5-mm PSD was the only detector within the uncertainties of the Monte Carlo simulations for all the cones. The PSDs, the PTW 60012 silicon diode, and the Gafchromics EBT2 agreed within 2% and 0.2 mm (gamma evaluation) for the measured dose profiles except in the tail of the 60-mm cone. Conclusions: Silicon diodes can be used to accurately measure small-field dose profiles but not to measure total scatter factors, whereas PSDs can be used to accurately measure both. The authors' measurements show that the use of a 1.0-mm PSD resulted in a negligible volume-averaging effect (under-response of Almost-Equal-To 1%) down to a field size of 5 mm. Therefore, PSDs are strong candidates to become reference radiosurgery detectors for beam characterization and quality assurance measurements.

  5. hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}: a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo method for modeling indirect x-ray detectors with columnar scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2012-04-01

    The computational modeling of medical imaging systems often requires obtaining a large number of simulated images with low statistical uncertainty which translates into prohibitive computing times. We describe a novel hybrid approach for Monte Carlo simulations that maximizes utilization of CPUs and GPUs in modern workstations. We apply the method to the modeling of indirect x-ray detectors using a new and improved version of the code \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}, an open source software tool used for the Monte Carlo simulations of indirect x-ray imagers. We first describe a GPU implementation of the physics and geometry models in fast\\scriptsize{{DETECT}}2 (the optical transport model) and a serial CPU version of the same code. We discuss its new features like on-the-fly column geometry and columnar crosstalk in relation to the \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} code, and point out areas where our model provides more flexibility for the modeling of realistic columnar structures in large area detectors. Second, we modify \\scriptsize{{PENELOPE}} (the open source software package that handles the x-ray and electron transport in \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}) to allow direct output of location and energy deposited during x-ray and electron interactions occurring within the scintillator. This information is then handled by optical transport routines in fast\\scriptsize{{DETECT}}2. A load balancer dynamically allocates optical transport showers to the GPU and CPU computing cores. Our hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} approach achieves a significant speed-up factor of 627 when compared to \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} and of 35 when compared to the same code running only in a CPU instead of a GPU. Using hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}, we successfully hide hours of optical transport time by running it in parallel with the x-ray and electron transport, thus shifting the computational bottleneck from optical to x-ray transport. The new code requires much less memory than \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} and, as a result, allows us to efficiently simulate large area detectors.

  6. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  7. Liquid Scintillator Production for the NOvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mufson, S.; Baugh, B.; Bower, C.; Coan, T.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Karty, J.; Mason, P.; Messier, M. D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Proudfoot, M.

    2015-04-15

    The NOvA collaboration blended and delivered 8.8 kt (2.72M gal) of liquid scintillator as the active detector medium to its near and far detectors. The composition of this scintillator was speci#12;cally developed to satisfy NOvA's performance requirements. A rigorous set of quality control procedures was put in place to verify that the incoming components and the blended scintillator met these requirements. The scintillator was blended commercially in Hammond, IN. The scintillator was shipped to the NOvA detectors using dedicated stainless steel tanker trailers cleaned to food grade.

  8. Liquid Scintillator Production for the NOvA Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mufson, S.; Baugh, B.; Bower, C.; Coan, T.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Karty, J.; Mason, P.; Messier, M. D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; et al

    2015-04-15

    The NOvA collaboration blended and delivered 8.8 kt (2.72M gal) of liquid scintillator as the active detector medium to its near and far detectors. The composition of this scintillator was specifically developed to satisfy NOvA's performance requirements. A rigorous set of quality control procedures was put in place to verify that the incoming components and the blended scintillator met these requirements. The scintillator was blended commercially in Hammond, IN. The scintillator was shipped to the NOvA detectors using dedicated stainless steel tanker trailers cleaned to food grade.

  9. Liquid scintillator production for the NOvA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mufson, S.; Baugh, B.; Bower, C.; Coan, T. E.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Karty, J. A.; Mason, P.; Messier, M. D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Proudfoot, M.

    2015-11-01

    The NOvA collaboration blended and delivered 8.8 kt (2.72M gal) of liquid scintillator as the active detector medium to its near and far detectors. The composition of this scintillator was specifically developed to satisfy NOvA's performance requirements. A rigorous set of quality control procedures was put in place to verify that the incoming components and the blended scintillator met these requirements. The scintillator was blended commercially in Hammond, IN. The scintillator was shipped to the NOvA detectors using dedicated stainless steel tanker trailers cleaned to food grade.

  10. Scintillation modeling.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fremouw, E. J.; Rino, C. L.

    1972-01-01

    Results of a quantitative attempt to model the scintillation-producing ionospheric irregularities. An empirical model of rms electron-density fluctuation and transverse scale size was employed for this purpose. On the basis of an analysis of diurnal-variation curves for scintillation, it is concluded that in most instances the model will produce better than order-of-magnitude estimates of the strength of scintillation to be expected under average ionospheric conditions. However, a number of significant limitations to the model are noted.

  11. Reconstruction algorithm for point source neutron imaging through finite thickness scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Tang, V.; McCarrick, J.; Moran, S.

    2012-11-01

    A new inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) is proposed to remove unwanted effects in fast neutron imaging which result from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as an input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). The inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. Algorithm details as well as numerical results using MCNP simulated images are presented. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique should also be applicable to high energy gamma or x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  12. AMoRE: Collaboration for searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the isotope of {sup 100}Mo with the aid of {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} as a cryogenic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Khanbekov, N. D.

    2013-09-15

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo based Rare process Experiment) Collaboration is planning to employ {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} single crystals as a cryogenic Scintillation detector for studying the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the isotope {sup 100}Mo. A simultaneous readout of phonon and scintillation signals is performed in order to suppress the intrinsic background. The planned sensitivity of the experiment that would employ 100 kg of {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} over five years of data accumulation would be T{sub 1/2}{sup 0{nu}} = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 26} yr, which corresponds to values of the effective Majorana neutrino mass in the range of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket m{sub {nu}} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {approx} 0.02-0.06 eV.

  13. Counting of ultraintense laser-driven neutrons from the pulse height of time-of-flight detector includes ultrafast timing plastic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, A.

    2016-02-01

    The scintillation process is one of the most important methods available for neutron detection and spectroscopy. The radioactive isotopes used in calibration of the scintillators cannot provide the required accurate measurement of their response. Here, a comprehensive study including a simple model to calculate the scintillation response of plastic scintillators to high fluxes of neutrons produced by the ultraintense lasers is presented. The number of recoiled protons due to elastic scattering by the neutrons incident on a plastic scintillator is calculated at any neutron energy over the energy range 0.3 < E < 30 MeV. The specific energy loss, the light energy, and the range of the recoiled protons are calculated over the same energy range. As well, the current peak of the electrical signal produced by a photomultiplier tube coupled to the scintillator is given as a function of the neutron energy. Counting of the neutrons incident on the scintillator from the current peak is computed depending on the neutron energy over the energy range 0.3 < E < 30 MeV. The calculated spectra are compared with those obtained from calibration for the available experimental data.

  14. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  15. Measurement of prompt fission neutron spectrum using a gamma tag double time-of-flight setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Ezekiel

    Current uncertainties in the prompt fission neutron spectrum have a significant effect of up to 4% on keff for reactor criticality and safety calculations. Therefore, a method was developed at RPI to improve the accuracy of the measurement of the prompt fission neutron spectrum. This method involves using an array of BaF2 gamma detectors to tag that a fission event has occurred, and a double time-of-flight setup to obtain the prompt fission neutron spectrum as a function of incident neutron energy. The gamma tagging method improves upon conventional fission chambers by allowing for much larger sample sizes to be utilized while not suffering from effects of discriminator level on the shape of the prompt fission neutron spectrum. A coincidence requirement on an array of 4 BaF2 gamma detectors is used to determine the timing of the fission event. Furthermore, a method is under development for the use of thin plastic scintillators for measurement of the prompt fission neutron spectrum with low energies. Measurements with spontaneous fission of . {252} Cf show good agreement with previous datasets and current evaluations as well as providing accurate data down to 50 keV with the plastic scintillator detector. Preliminary incident neutron beam analysis was performed with 238U and shows good agreement with the current evaluations demonstrating the feasibility of the gamma tagging method for in beam prompt fission neutron spectrum measurements of various isotopes.

  16. An experimental setup combining a highly sensitive detector for reaction products with a mass-selected cluster source and a low-temperature STM for advanced nanocatalysis measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanni, S.; At-Mansour, K.; Hugentobler, M.; Brune, H.; Harbich, W.

    2011-07-01

    We report on a home-built detector for catalytic reaction measurements offering good gas isolation from the surrounding ultrahigh vacuum components, high sensitivity for reaction products and a fast response time of 10 ms enabling dynamic studies correlated to reactant gas pulses. The device is mounted in ultrahigh vacuum and combined with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope and a source for the deposition of mass-selected clusters. This combination allows for a direct correlation between surface morphology and catalytic properties of model catalysts. The performances of the new detector are illustrated by measurements on two model systems. Thermal desorption spectroscopy of CO carried out on morphologically well characterized Pt on TiO2(110)-(1 1) reveals several desorption features, which can be attributed to different surface sites. Catalytic CO oxidation performed by alternatingly pulsing isotopic CO and O2 on a Pt film on yttria stabilized zirconia reveals the CO or O rich temperature regimes. The CO2 production rate correlated with either one of the reactants can perfectly be reproduced by a kinetic reaction model giving access to the respective adsorption energies.

  17. Development and Test of a Neutron Imaging Setup at the PGAA Instrument at FRM II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sllradl, S.; Mhlbauer, M. J.; Kudejova, P.; Trler, A.

    We report on the developments of a neutron tomography setup at the instrument for prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) at the Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum(MLZ). The recent developments are driven by the idea of combining the spatial information obtained with neutron tomography with the elemental information determined with PGAA, i.e. to further combine both techniques to an investigative technique called prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI).At the PGAA instrument, a cold neutron flux of up to 6 x 1010 cm-2 s-1 (thermal equivalent) is available in the focus of an elliptically tapered neutron guide. In the reported experiments, the divergence of the neutron beam was investigated, the resolution of the installed detector system tested, and a proof-of-principle tomography experiment performed. In our study a formerly used camera box was upgraded with a better camera and an optical resolution of 8 line pairs/mm was achieved. The divergence of the neutron beam was measured by a systematic scan along the beam axis. Based on the acquired data, a neutron imaging setup with a L/D ratio of 200 was installed. The resolution of the setup was testedin combination with a gadolinium test target and different scintillator screens. The test target was irradiated at two positions to determine the maximum resolution and the resolution at the actual sample position. The performance of the installed tomography setup was demonstrated bya tomography experiment of an electric amplifier tube.

  18. Wide-Dynamic-Range ''Neutron Bang Time'' Detector on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Zuegel, J. D.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Lerche, R. A.

    2002-10-30

    A simple, low-cost ''neutron bang time'' (NBT) detector has been implemented on the OMEGA laser system to measure the average time of neutron emission from inertial confinement fusion targets. This detector uses fast plastic scintillators coupled to photomultiplier tubes. A fast digital real-time oscilloscope records the signals. Absolute timing accuracies of better than 100 ps are achieved over a wide dynamic range (107 < YN < 1011) for both D2 (2.45-MeV) and DT (14-MeV) neutrons using a two-channel setup. Instrument characterization and comparison of the timing accuracy with a streak camera-based neutron burn history diagnostic are presented.

  19. LORA: A scintillator array for LOFAR to measure extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Frieswijk, W.; Hrandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; van den Akker, M.

    2014-12-01

    The measurement of the radio emission from extensive air showers, induced by high-energy cosmic rays, is one of the key science projects of the LOFAR radio telescope. The LOfar Radboud air shower Array (LORA) has been installed in the core of LOFAR in the Netherlands. The main purpose of LORA is to measure the properties of air showers and to trigger the read-out of the LOFAR radio antennas to register extensive air showers. The experimental set-up of the array of scintillation detectors and its performance are described.

  20. Development of a low-level setup for gamma spectroscopy: Application for nuclear astrophysics using reverse kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genard, G.; Nuttens, V. E.; Bouchat, V.; Terwagne, G.

    2010-05-01

    It is more and more necessary to improve the sensitivity of gamma-ray spectroscopy systems, especially in nuclear astrophysics. In the case of radiative proton capture reactions, one means is to avoid the reactions on the target impurities by using reverse kinematics. This technique is possible with the LARN accelerator and can provide very clean cross-section measurements. For that purpose, a hydrogen standard has been carried out by means of ion implantation in silicon. In addition, a low-level setup has been put in place on a new beam line of the accelerator. A high efficiency and high resolution germanium detector is used conjointly with a double shielding. A passive lead castle shielding system is used to reduce the natural radioactivity and an active shielding consisting of an anti-cosmic veto is provided by an anticoincidence between the plastic scintillator and the gamma-ray detector. The setup allows a reduction of 70% of the background interference and provides an approximately 200 fold sensitivity gain of between 600 and 3000 keV. Some other developments have also been carried out to optimize the setup. The entire setup and the reverse kinematics have been validated by measuring the cross-section of the 13C(p,?)14N and 15N(p,?)16O reactions that present some astrophysical interest.