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1

Modeling scintillator-photodiodes as detectors for megavoltage CT.  

PubMed

The use of cadmium tungstate (CdWO4) and cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] scintillation detectors is studied in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT). A model describing the signal acquired from a scintillation detector has been developed which contains two steps: (1) the calculation of the energy deposited in the crystal due to MeV photons using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code; and (2) the transport of the optical photons generated in the crystal voxels to photodiodes using the optical Monte Carlo code DETECT2000. The measured detector signals in single CdWO4 and CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals of base 0.275 x 0.8 cm2 and heights 0.4, 1, 1.2, 1.6 and 2 cm were, generally, in good agreement with the signals calculated with the model. A prototype detector array which contains 8 CdWO4 crystals, each 0.275 x 0.8 x 1 cm3, in contact with a 16-element array of photodiodes was built. The measured attenuation of a Cobalt-60 beam as a function of solid water thickness behaves linearly. The frequency dependent modulation transfer function [MTF(f)], noise power spectrum [NPS(f)], and detective quantum efficiency [DQE(f)] were measured for 1.25 MeV photons (in a Cobalt-60 beam). For 6 MV photons, only the MTF(f) was measured from a linear accelerator, where large pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in the output of the linear accelerator did not allow the measurement of the NPS(f). A two-step Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the detector's MTF(f), NPS(f) and DQE(f). The DQE(0) of the detector array was found to be 26% and 19% for 1.25 MeV and 6 MV photons, respectively. For 1.25 MeV photons, the maximum discrepancies between the measured and modeled MTF(f), relative NPS(f) and the DQE(f) were found to be 1.5%, 1.2%, and 1.9%, respectively. For the 6 MV beam, the maximum discrepancy between the modeled and the measured MTF(f) was found to be 2.5%. The modeling is sufficiently accurate for designing appropriate detectors for MVCT. PMID:15191313

Monajemi, T T; Steciw, S; Fallone, B G; Rathee, S

2004-05-01

2

Scintillator-photodiode linear arrays for X-ray inspection system  

SciTech Connect

The evaluations of the following performances of detectors for design of the radiographic system were carried out by mathematical simulation method and experimentally: sensitivity to absorbed energy, noise level, form of apparatus function for spatial resolution of detectors array. The results of calculations were used for designing of CdWO{sub 4}-Si arrays with optimal sizes of scintillator and photodiode for resolution ability. At the given stage the quality of radiation detectors was evaluated by spectroscopic methods. At the bias voltage on photodiode 24 V, the sensitivity of detectors has made up (0.95--1.00) {times} 10{sup {minus}21} C/eV, noise level -- (1.50--1.75) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} C together with electronic noise. Dynamic range at absorbed energy by separate detector is more than 10{sup 5}, what is sufficient to get required image contrast.

Ignatov, S.M.; Potapov, V.N.; Fedin, A.V.; Chirkin, V.M.; Urutskoev, L.I. [RECOM Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation). Kurchatov Inst.; Gostilo, V.V.; Kondrashov, V.V.; Sokolov, A.D. [Baltic Scientific Instruments, Riga (Latvia)

1998-12-31

3

Outlook for development of a scintielectron detector with improved energy resolution  

E-print Network

The development prospects have been considered of a scintillator-photodiode type detector with improved energy resolution attaining several per cent ($R=1-2%$). The main contributions to the scintielectron detector energy resolution have been analyzed theoretically and their theoretical and physical limits determined. Experimental data have been presented on properties of scintillators of promise confirming the possibilities to minimize each of the resolution components. New ways are proposed to optimize the detector statistical contribution and the scintillator intrinsic resolution. A special role of the latter is outlined as the critical factor for the spectrometric possibilities (threshold) of scintillation-photodiode type detector with improved energy resolution at energy values $E_{\\gamma}$ from $662 keV$ to $10 MeV$.

S. V. Naydenov; V. D. Ryzhikov

2002-02-25

4

Detectors  

DOEpatents

The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

5

New application of scintillator ZnSe(Te) in scintielectronic detectors for detection of neutrons, medical imaging, explosive detection, and NDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillators on the basis of AIIBVI compounds, such as ZnSe(Te), can be used for detection of secondary charged particles coming from nuclear reactions in which neutrons interact with target nuclei of atoms present in transparent materials of dispersion scintillation detectors matrices. Using unique properties of scintillator ZnSe(Te) we show possibility of increase detection efficiency for soft x-ray radiation (20 - 90 keV). The amorphous silicon flat panels and the photodiode arrays wide used for non-destructive testing and medical imaging (spatial resolution 20 - 400 mkm). By our estimations, using of such detectors in combination with thin film of ZnSe(Te) can increase efficiency of registration of x-ray radiation (for the source of 60-140kV) in 1,2 - 2 times. We obtained thin films (10-450mkm) of scintillator ZnSe(Te) on the different substrate materials and estimated the relative light yield of the layers deposited on the graphite and Al2O3 ceramic substrates and the bulk ZnSe(Te) crystal. Use of ZnSe(Te) in the low-energy "scintillator - photodiode" type detector allowed to increase accuracy of authentication of explosives (HEIMANN X-RAY INSPECTION SYSTEM EDtS10080). Using the dual energy digital radiography system prototype we obtained the x-ray images (60 projections of each object). These images are basic data for computer tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction of density and effective atomic number. The color identification palette provides clearly show variations of effective atomic number in biological and inorganic objects. So, for example, changes of calcium concentration in a bone. The research described in this publication was supported by STCU #4115 and NATO SfP-982823.

Ryzhikov, Volodymyr D.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Fedorov, Alexander G.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Kostioukevitch, Sergey A.

2008-08-01

6

Ultraviolet detectors Photon detectors  

E-print Network

such as silicon and gallium arsenide, are making strides in detecting UV radiation--from 400 nm to x-rays, as well and sul- fur dioxide in the iono- sphere, in space-based instrumentation for UV astronomy (see www photoelec- tric or photographic. Photographic detectors are used for imaging high-energy radiation because

7

Particle Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; Introduction; 1. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter; 2. Characteristic properties of detectors; 3. Units of radiation measurements and radiation sources; 4. Accelerators; 5. Main physical phenomena used for particle detection and basic counter types; 6. Historical track detectors; 7. Track detectors; 8. Calorimetry; 9. Particle identification; 10. Neutrino detectors; 11. Momentum measurement and muon detection; 12. Ageing and radiation effects; 13. Example of a general-purpose detector: Belle; 14. Electronics; 15. Data analysis; 16. Applications of particle detectors outside particle physics; 17. Glossary; 18. Solutions; 19. Resumé; Appendixes; Index.

Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris

2008-03-01

8

Particle Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; Introduction; 1. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter; 2. Characteristic properties of detectors; 3. Units of radiation measurements and radiation sources; 4. Accelerators; 5. Main physical phenomena used for particle detection and basic counter types; 6. Historical track detectors; 7. Track detectors; 8. Calorimetry; 9. Particle identification; 10. Neutrino detectors; 11. Momentum measurement and muon detection; 12. Ageing and radiation effects; 13. Example of a general-purpose detector: Belle; 14. Electronics; 15. Data analysis; 16. Applications of particle detectors outside particle physics; 17. Glossary; 18. Solutions; 19. Resumé; Appendixes; Index.

Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris

2011-09-01

9

Smoke Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

1979-01-01

10

Photon detectors  

SciTech Connect

J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

Va`vra, J.

1995-10-01

11

Pyroelectric detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multi-agency, long-term Global Change programs, and specifically NASA's Earth Observing system, will require some new and advanced photon detector technology which must be specifically tailored for long-term stability, broad spectral range, cooling constraints, and other parameters. Whereas MCT and GaAs alloy based photovoltaic detectors and detector arrays reach most impressive results to wavelengths as long as 12 microns when cooled to below 70 K, other materials, such as ferroelectrics and pyroelectrics, appear to offer special opportunities beyond 12 microns and above 70 K. These materials have found very broad use in a wide variety of room temperature applications. Little is known about these classes of materials at sub-room temperatures and no photon detector results have been reported. From the limited information available, researchers conclude that the room temperature values of D asterisk greater than or equal to 10(exp 9) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W may be improved by one to two orders of magnitude upon cooling to temperatures around 70 K. Improvements of up to one order of magnitude appear feasible for temperatures achievable by passive cooling. The flat detector response over a wavelength range reaching from the visible to beyond 50 microns, which is an intrinsic advantage of bolometric devices, makes for easy calibration. The fact that these materials have been developed for reduced temperature applications makes ferro- and pyroelectric materials most attractive candidates for serious exploration.

Haller, Eugene E.; Beeman, Jeffrey; Hansen, William L.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.

1990-01-01

12

MAMA Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work carried out under this grant led to fundamental discoveries and over one hundred publications in the scientific literature. Fundamental developments in instrumentation were made including all the instrumentation on the EUVE satellite, the invention of a whole new type of grazing instrument spectrometer and the development of fundamentally new photon counting detectors including the Wedge and Strip used on EUVE and many other missions and the Time Delay detector used on OREFUS and FUSE. The Wedge and Strip and Time Delay detectors were developed under this grant for less than two million dollars and have been used in numerous missions most recently for the FUSE mission. In addition, a fundamentally new type of diffuse spectrometer has been developed under this grant which has been used in instrumentation on the MMSAT spacecraft and the Lewis spacecraft. Plans are underway to use this instrumentation on several other missions as well.

Bowyer, Stuart

1998-01-01

13

Hydrogen detector  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

Kanegae, Naomichi (Mito, JP); Ikemoto, Ichiro (Mito, JP)

1980-01-01

14

Microwave detector  

DOEpatents

A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, Heiner W. (Moss Beach, CA); Cusson, Ronald Y. (Chapel Hill, NC); Johnson, Ray M. (San Ramon, CA)

1986-01-01

15

Microwave detector  

DOEpatents

A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

1985-02-08

16

Vertex detectors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10{sup {minus}13} s, among them the {tau} lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation.

Lueth, V.

1992-07-01

17

Detector Detail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game requires users to match the â??shower shapesâ? and the energies of particles produced in a particle collision. There is also a movie (or animated gif) in the Calorimetry section which allows students to see the workings of the detector. It is part of a collection of games that allows students to explore concepts in particle physics.

18

Radiation detector  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detector adapted to be used with a computerized tomographic apparatus, wherein filters prepared from a radiation-absorbing material are provided on the outside of a radiation-permeable window in the positions facing radiation-detecting cells. The filters compensate for differences between the radiation-detecting properties of the detection cells, thereby equalizing said radiation-detecting properties.

Rifu, T.

1984-10-16

19

Leak detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detector for sensing a leaking of fluid pressures is reported. The detector is characterized by an hermetically sealed housing confining therewithin a first normalized pressure, a connector for coupling the housing in direct communication with a suspected leak established within a substantially sealed body, an electrical circuit having a first or normalized configuration and including a pair of circuit completing electrical contacts and means mounting at least one contact of said pair of contacts on a flexible wall of the housing supporting the contact for movement from a first position along a linear path to a second position in response to an altering of the pressure confined within the housing for thereby altering the configuration of the circuit.

Sawyer, J. T. (inventor)

1975-01-01

20

Flame Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific Instruments, Inc. has now developed a second generation, commercially available instrument to detect flames in hazardous environments, typically refineries, chemical plants and offshore drilling platforms. The Model 74000 detector incorporates a sensing circuit that detects UV radiation in a 100 degree conical field of view extending as far as 250 feet from the instrument. It operates in a bandwidth that makes it virtually 'blind' to solar radiation while affording extremely high sensitivity to ultraviolet flame detection. A 'windowing' technique accurately discriminates between background UV radiation and ultraviolet emitted from an actual flame, hence the user is assured of no false alarms. Model 7410CP is a combination controller and annunciator panel designed to monitor and control as many as 24 flame detectors. *Model 74000 is no longer being manufactured.

1990-01-01

21

Neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

2011-04-05

22

Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water ?erenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

23

Thallium bromide radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation detectors have been fabricated from crystals of the semiconductor material thallium bromide (TlBr) and the performance of these detectors as room temperature photon spectrometers has been measured. These detectors exhibit improved energy resolution over previously reported TlBr detectors. These results indicate that TlBr is a very promising radiation detector material.

K. S. Shah; J. C. Lund; F. Olschner; L. Moy; M. R. Squillante

1989-01-01

24

Nuclear Radiation Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear radiation detectors are required in all the major fields of nuclear science and technology. They fall into two principal categories, single element detectors and imaging detectors. Single element detectors can be classified into four types, based upon their physical mode of operation. These are 1) Scintillation counters, 2) Gas ionization detectors, a) Ionization chambers, b) Proportional counters, c) Geiger-Mueller

G. A. Morton

1962-01-01

25

Oscillator detector  

SciTech Connect

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.

Potter, B.M.

1980-05-13

26

Nuclear radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detectors of nuclear radiation, such as gaseous detectors, scintillators, and semiconductors, are presented through their general properties and with their operating systems. The semiconductor detectors are studied with more details.

Luiz Alexandre Schuch; Daniel Jean Roger Nordemann

1990-01-01

27

The DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ detector is a large general purpose detector for the study of short-distance phenomena in high energy antiproton-proton collisions, now in operation at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The detector focusses upon the detection of electrons, muons, jets and missing transverse momentum. We describe the design and performance of the major elements of the detector, including the tracking chambers, transition

S. Abachi; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; I. Adam; S. Ahn; H. Aihara; G. Alvarez; G. A. Alves; N. Amos; W. Anderson; Yu. Antipov; S. H. Aronson; R. Astur; R. E. Avery; A. Baden; J. Balderston; B. Baldin; J. Bantly; E. Barasch; J. F. Bartlett; K. Bazizi; T. Behnke; V. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; G. Blazey; S. Blessing; A. Boehnlein; F. Borcherding; J. Borders; N. Bozko; A. Brandt; R. Brock; A. Bross; D. Buchholz; V. Burtovoy; J. M. Butler; O. Callot; D. Chakraborty; S. Chekulaev; J. Chen; L.-P. Chen; W. Chen; B. C. Choudhary; J. H. Christenson; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; W. G. Cobau; J. Cochran; W. E. Cooper; C. Cretsinger; D. Cullen-Vidal; M. Cummings; D. Cutts; O. I. Dahl; B. Daniels; K. de; M. Demarteau; K. Denisenko; N. Denisenko; D. Denisov; S. Denisov; W. Dharmaratna; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; R. Dixon; P. Draper; Y. Ducros; S. Durston-Johnson; D. Eartly; P. H. Eberhard; D. Edmunds; A. Efimov; J. Ellison; V. D. Elvira; R. Engelmann; O. Eroshin; V. Evdokimov; S. Fahey; G. Fanourakis; M. Fatyga; J. Featherly; S. Feher; D. Fein; T. Ferbel; D. Finley; G. Finocchiaro; H. E. Fisk; E. Flattum; G. E. Forden; M. Fortner; P. Franzini; S. Fuess; E. Gallas; C. S. Gao; T. L. Geld; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; B. Gibbard; V. Glebov; J. F. Glicenstein; B. Gobbi; M. Goforth; M. L. Good; F. Goozen; H. Gordon; N. Graf; P. D. Grannis; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; N. Grossman; P. Grudberg; J. A. Guida; J. M. Guida; W. Guryn; N. J. Hadley; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; V. Hagopian; R. E. Hall; S. Hansen; J. Hauptman; D. Hedin; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; T. Heuring; R. Hirosky; K. Hodel; J. S. Hoftun; J. R. Hubbard; T. Huehn; R. Huson; S. Igarashi; A. S. Ito; E. James; J. Jiang; K. Johns; C. R. Johnson; M. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; M. Jones; H. Jöstlein; C. K. Jung; S. Kahn; S. Kanekal; A. Kernan; L. Kerth; A. Kirunin; A. Klatchko; B. Klima; B. Klochkov; C. Klopfenstein; V. Klyukhin; V. Kochetkov; J. M. Kohli; W. Kononenko; J. Kotcher; I. Kotov; J. Kourlas; A. Kozelov; E. Kozlovsky; G. Krafczyk; K. Krempetz; M. R. Krishnaswamy; P. Kroon; S. Krzywdzinski; S. Kunori; S. Lami; G. Landsberg; R. E. Lanou; P. Laurens; J. Lee-Franzini; J. Li; R. Li; Q. Z. Li-Demarteau; J. G. R. Lima; S. L. Linn; J. Linnemann; R. Lipton; Y.-C. Liu; D. Lloyd-Owen; F. Lobkowicz; S. C. Loken; S. Lokos; L. Lueking; A. K. A. Maciel; R. J. Madaras; R. Madden; E. Malamud; Ph. Mangeot; I. Manning; B. Mansoulié; V. Manzella; H.-S. Mao; M. Marcin; L. Markosky; T. Marshall; H. J. Martin; M. I. Martin; P. S. Martin; M. Marx; B. May; A. Mayorov; R. McCarthy; J. McKinley; D. Mendoza; X.-C. Meng; K. W. Merritt; A. Milder; A. Mincer; N. K. Mondal; M. Montag; P. Mooney; M. Mudan; G. T. Mulholland; C. Murphy; F. Nang; M. Narain; V. S. Narasimham; H. A. Neal; P. Nemethy; D. Nesic; K. K. Ng; D. Norman; L. Oesch; V. Oguri; E. Oltman; N. Oshima; D. Owen; M. Pang; A. Para; C. H. Park; R. Partridge; M. Paterno; A. Peryshkin; M. Peters; B. Pi; H. Piekarz; Yu. Pischalnikov; D. Pizzuto; A. Pluquet; V. Podstavkov; B. G. Pope; H. B. Prosper; S. Protopopescu; Y.-K. Que; P. Z. Quintas; G. Rahal-Callot; R. Raja; S. Rajagopalan; M. V. S. Rao; L. Rasmussen; A. L. Read; T. Regan; S. Repond; V. Riadovikov; M. Rijssenbeek; N. A. Roe; P. Rubinov; J. Rutherfoord; A. Santoro; L. Sawyer; R. D. Schamberger; J. Sculli; W. Selove; M. Shea; A. Shkurenkov; M. Shupe; J. B. Singh; V. Sirotenko; W. Smart; A. Smith; D. Smith; R. P. Smith; G. R. Snow; S. Snyder; M. Sosebee; M. Souza; A. L. Spadafora; S. Stampke; R. Stephens; M. L. Stevenson; D. Stewart; F. Stocker; D. Stoyanova; H. Stredde; K. Streets; M. Strovink; A. Suhanov; A. Taketani; M. Tartaglia; J. D. Taylor; J. Teiger; G. Theodosiou; J. Thompson; S. Tisserant; T. G. Trippe; P. M. Tuts; R. van Berg; M. Vaz; P. R. Vishwanath; A. Volkov; A. Vorobiev; H. D. Wahl; D.-C. Wang; L.-Z. Wang; H. Weerts; W. A. Wenzel; A. White; J. T. White; J. Wightman; S. Willis; S. J. Wimpenny; Z. Wolf; J. Womersley; D. R. Wood; Y. Xia; D. Xiao; P. Xie; H. Xu; R. Yamada; P. Yamin; C. Yanagisawa; J. Yang; C. Yoshikawa; S. Youssef; J. Yu; R. Zeller; S. Zhang; Y. H. Zhou; Q. Zhu; Y.-S. Zhu; D. Zieminska; A. Zieminski; A. Zinchenko; A. Zylberstejn

1994-01-01

28

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

SciTech Connect

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.

Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

1988-01-01

29

Superconducting quantum detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of high-temperature superconductors spawned many potential applications, including optical detectors. Realizing viable superconducting detectors requires achieving performance superior to competing and more mature semiconductor detector technologies, and quantum detector technologies in particular. We review why quantum detectors are inherently more sensitive than thermal or bolometric detectors. This sensitivity advantage suggests that for operation at cryogenic temperatures, we should be developing only quantum superconducting detectors. Accordingly, we introduce and describe the structure and the operation of a superconducting quantum detector with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout circuit. The superconducting quantum detector, consisting of a superconducting loop, produces a photosignal in response to photoinduced changes in the superconducting condensate's kinetic inductance. The superconducting quantum detector is designed to operate only in the superconducting state and not in the resistive or transition states.

Bluzer, Nathan; Forrester, Martin G.

1994-03-01

30

Superconducting quantum detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) spawned many potential applications, including optical detectors. Realizing viable superconducting detectors requires achieving performance superior to competing and more mature semiconductor detector technologies, and quantum detector technologies in particular. We review why quantum detectors are inherently more sensitive than thermal or bolometric detectors. This sensitivity advantage suggests that for operation at cryogenic temperatures we should be developing only quantum superconducting detectors. Accordingly, we introduce and describe the structure and the operation of a superconducting quantum detector with a SQUID read-out circuit. The superconducting quantum detector, consisting of a superconducting loop, produces a photosignal in response to photoinduced changes in the condensate's kinetic inductance. The superconducting quantum detector is designed to operate only in the superconducting state and not in the resistive or transition states.

Bluzer, Nathan; Forrester, Martin G.

1993-11-01

31

Advanced UV Detectors and Detector Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gallium Nitride (GaN) with its wide energy bandgap of 3.4 eV holds excellent promise for solar blind UV detectors. We have successfully designed, fabricated and tested GaN p-i-n detectors and detector arrays. The detectors have a peak responsivity of 0.14A/W at 363 nm (3.42 eV) at room temperature. This corresponds to an internal quantum efficiency of 56%. The responsivity decreases by several orders of magnitude to 0.008 A/W at 400 nm (3.10 eV) giving the excellent visible rejection ratio needed for solar-blind applications.

Pankove, Jacques I.; Torvik, John

1998-01-01

32

The upgraded DØ detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; De, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; DeMaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.

2006-09-01

33

GADRAS Detector Response Function.  

SciTech Connect

The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

2014-11-01

34

Infrared Detector: Card Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes the physics of a simple infra-red detector. A simulation is used to illustrate energy level dependence and electron transitions in the detector. Discussion problems and comparison with other physical applications are included.

Zollman, Dean

35

Tin Can Radiation Detector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

Crull, John L.

1986-01-01

36

Segmented pyroelector detector  

DOEpatents

A pyroelectric detector is described which has increased voltage output and improved responsivity over equivalent size detectors. The device comprises a plurality of edge-type pyroelectric detectors which have a length which is much greater than the width of the segments between the edge-type electrodes. External circuitry connects the pyroelectric detector segments in parallel to provide a single output which maintains 50 ohm impedance characteristics.

Stotlar, S.C.; McLellan, E.J.

1981-01-21

37

Tevatron detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

38

NUV Detector Dark Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

Zheng, Wei

2010-09-01

39

NUV Detector Dark Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

Ely, Justin

2013-10-01

40

NUV Detector Dark Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

Cox, Colin

2011-10-01

41

NUV Detector Dark Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

Ely, Justin

2012-10-01

42

The upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

2006-01-01

43

Gamma ray detector shield  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

1985-08-26

44

Gamma ray detector shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

R. D. Ohlinger; H. W. Humphrey

1985-01-01

45

Electronics for pixel detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most modern HEP experiments use pixel detectors for vertex finding because these detectors provide clean and unambiguous position information even in a high multiplicity environment. At LHC three of the four main experiments will use pixel vertex detectors. There is also a strong development effort in the US centred around the proposed BTeV experiment. The chips being developed for these

M. Campbell

46

High-energy detector  

DOEpatents

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22

47

Intelligent Detector Design  

SciTech Connect

As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

2012-06-11

48

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

1991-01-01

49

Detectors (4/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

None

2011-10-06

50

Detectors (5/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

None

2011-10-06

51

History of infrared detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 ?m. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

Rogalski, A.

2012-09-01

52

LHCb detector performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

Lhcb Collaboration

2015-03-01

53

The CDFII Silicon Detector  

SciTech Connect

The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

Julia Thom

2004-07-23

54

ALFA Detector Control System  

E-print Network

ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

2015-01-01

55

ALFA Detector Control System  

E-print Network

ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

2015-01-01

56

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22

57

GRAVITY detector systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GRAVITY is a second generation instrument for the VLT Interferometer, designed to enhance the near-infrared astrometric and spectro-imaging capabilities of VLTI. It will combine the AO corrected beams of the four VLT telescopes. The GRAVITY instrument uses a total of five eAPD detectors, four of which are for wavefront sensing and one for the Fringe tracker. In addition two Hawaii2RG are used, one for the acquisition camera and one for the spectrometer. A compact bath cryostat is used for each WFS unit, one for each of the VLT Unit Telescopes. Both Hawaii2RG detectors have a cutoff wavelength of 2.5 microns. A new and unique element of GRAVITY is the use of infrared wavefront sensors. For this reason SELEX-Galileo has developed a new high speed avalanche photo diode detector for ESO. The SAPHIRA detector, which stands for Selex Avalanche Photodiodes for Highspeed Infra Red Applications, has been already evaluated by ESO. At a frame rate of 1 KHz, a read noise of less than one electron can be demonstrated. A more detailed presentation about the performance of the SPAHIRA detector will be given at this conference 1. Each SAPHIRA detector is installed in an LN2 bath cryostat. The detector stage, filter wheel and optics are mounted on the cold plate of the LN2 vessel and enclosed by a radiation shield. All seven detector systems are controlled and read out by the standard ESO NGC controller. The NGC is a controller platform which can be adapted and customized for all infrared and optical detectors. This paper will discuss specific controller modifications implemented to meet the special requirements of the GRAVITY detector systems and give an overview of the GRAVITY detector systems and their performance.

Mehrgan, Leander H.; Finger, Gert; Accardo, Matteo; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Stegmeier, Joerg; Eisenhauer, Frank

2014-07-01

58

Alkali ionization detector  

DOEpatents

A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

Hrizo, John (Monroeville, PA); Bauerle, James E. (Plum Borough, PA); Witkowski, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA)

1982-01-01

59

Arsenic activation neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

Jacobs, Eddy L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1981-01-01

60

Arsenic activation neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

Jacobs, E.L.

1980-01-28

61

The CLEO II detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new detector for data recording by the CLEO collaboration at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring is described. This detector has been designed to optimize studying e+ e- annihilation into hadronic matter at a total energy of 10 GeV. It consists of high precesion charged particle tracking chambers and an electromagnetic calorimeter together with systems for particle identification. The design

Y. Kubota; J. K. Nelson; D. Perticone; R. Poling; S. Schrenk; M. S. Alam; Z. H. Bian; D. Chen; I. J. Kim; W. C. Li; X. C. Lou; B. Nemati; C. R. Sun; P.-N. Wang; M. M. Zoeller; G. Crawford; R. Fulton; K. K. Gan; T. Jensen; H. Kagan; R. Kass; R. Malchow; F. Morrow; M. K. Sung; J. Whitmore; P. Wilson; F. Butler; X. Fu; G. Kalbfleisch; M. Lambrecht; P. Skubic; J. Snow; P.-L. Wang; D. Bortoletto; D. N. Brown; W. Y. Chen; J. Dominick; R. L. McIlwain; D. H. Miller; M. Modesitt; E. I. Shibata; S. F. Schaffner; I. P. J. Shipsey; W. M. Yao; M. Battle; H. Kroha; K. Sparks; E. H. Thorndike; C.-H. Wang; R. Stroynowski; M. Artuso; M. Goldberg; T. Haupt; R. Holmes; N. Horwitz; A. Jawahery; P. Lubrano; G. C. Moneti; Y. Rozen; P. Rubin; V. Sharma; T. Skwarnicki; S. Stone; M. Thulasidas; G. Zhu; S. E. Csorna; V. Jain; T. Letson; D. S. Akerib; B. Barish; M. Chadha; D. F. Cowen; G. Eigen; J. S. Miller; J. Urheim; A. J. Weinstein; R. J. Morrison; H. Nelson; J. Richman; H. Tajima; D. Schmidt; M. Witherell; A. Bean; I. Brock; M. Procario; M. Daoudi; W. T. Ford; D. R. Johnson; K. Lingel; M. Lohner; P. Rankin; J. G. Smith; J. Alexander; C. Bebek; K. Berkelman; D. Besson; E. Blucher; T. E. Browder; D. G. Cassel; E. Cheu; D. M. Coffman; R. Desalvo; P. S. Drell; R. Ehrlich; R. S. Galik; M. Garcia-Sciveres; B. Geiser; M. G. D. Gilchriese; B. Gittelman; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; K. Honschoid; C. Jones; J. Kandaswamy; N. Katayama; P. C. Kim; R. Kowalewski; D. L. Kreinick; G. S. Ludwig; J. Masui; J. Mevissen; N. B. Mistry; J. Mueller; R. Namjoshi; S. Nandi; C. R. Ng; E. Nordberg; C. O'Grady; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; M. Pisharody; D. Riley; M. Sapper; M. Selen; H. Worden; M. Worris; F. Würthwein; P. Avery; A. Freyberger; J. Rodriguez; J. Yelton; T. Bowcock; R. Giles; S. Henderson; K. Kinoshita; F. Pipkin; M. Saulnier; R. Wilson; J. Wolinski; D. Xiao; H. Yamamoto; A. J. Sadoff; R. Ammar; P. Baringer; D. Coppage; R. Davis; P. Haas; M. Kelly; N. Kwak; H. Lam; S. Ro

1992-01-01

62

Robust sequential detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of robust detection in a noise environment described by the mixture distribution model was considered. The approach to the problem involves three basic aspects: (1) selection of robust detectors, (2) use of sequential procedures; and (3) optimal signal selection. Two classes of sequential detectors, which are less sensitive to variations in the noise statistics, were robustized with respect

H. Saidi-Ashtiani

1977-01-01

63

Advanced far infrared detectors  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

Haller, E.E.

1993-05-01

64

Nanomechanical resonance detector  

DOEpatents

An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

2013-10-29

65

Si Biased Detector Si Biased Detector  

E-print Network

Direct and Alternating Current Earth Ground Terminal Protective Conductor Terminal Frame or chassis 16, 2013 Chapter 2 Description The Thorlabs DET10A is a biased, Silicon (Si) detector designed 12 V bias battery enclosed in rugged aluminum housing. The DET10A includes a removable 1" optical

Walker, D. Greg

66

The HERMES recoil detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.

2013-05-01

67

Barrier infrared detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1959, Lawson and co-workers publication triggered development of variable band gap Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) alloys providing an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Over the five decades, this material system has successfully fought off major challenges from different material systems, but despite that it has more competitors today than ever before. It is interesting however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. They may promise to be more manufacturable, but never to provide higher performance or, with the exception of thermal detectors, to operate at higher temperatures. In the last two decades a several new concepts of photodetectors to improve their performance have been proposed including trapping detectors, barrier detectors, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage detectors. This paper describes the present status of infrared barrier detectors. It is especially addressed to the group of III-V compounds including type-II superlattice materials, although HgCdTe barrier detectors are also included. It seems to be clear that certain of these solutions have merged as a real competitions of HgCdTe photodetectors.

Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

2014-06-01

68

Advanced superconducting optical detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated advanced superconducting optical and infrared detectors for their integration with superconductive active circuits. The detectors are based on ultra-thin NbN striplines. NbN is the material of choice for single photon optical and infrared detectors, as already demonstrated in the literature. The detectors so far proposed are based on conceptually simple, although difficult to realize, sub-micrometric meander type structures. Most applications of such detectors require some treatment of the signal generated, either as pulse shaping or signal amplification, to fully exploit the detection capabilities, such as sub-ns response time and proportional response. We have developed a room temperature process that, while preserving reasonable superconducting properties of NbN, allows a simple integration of the detectors in Nb-based circuits. Moreover we have developed a passivation technique, by using a protective AlN layer on top of the NbN one. The developed technology allows complex detector configurations, such as integrated RSFQ circuits or SQUID readout, to be relatively easily realized. The response of our NbN strip to photon irradiation will be presented.

Perez de Lara, D.; Ejrnaes, M.; Pagano, S.; Lisitskiy, M.; Esposito, E.; Nappi, C.; Cristiano, R.

2006-06-01

69

Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

Moseley, Harvey

2009-01-01

70

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

DOEpatents

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10

71

Modular optical detector system  

DOEpatents

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14

72

Inverter ratio failure detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (inventors)

1974-01-01

73

Improved CO [lidar detector  

SciTech Connect

A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

1999-07-18

74

Microwave Radiation Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

Lesh, J. R.

1984-01-01

75

Ultrafast neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector of very high temporal resolution is described. It may be used to measure distributions of neutrons produced by fusion reactions that persist for times as short as about 50 picoseconds.

Wang, C.L.

1985-06-19

76

Pendulum detector testing device  

DOEpatents

A detector testing device which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: 1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, 2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and 3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements.

Gonsalves, John M. (Modesto, CA)

1997-01-01

77

Pendulum detector testing device  

DOEpatents

A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs.

Gonsalves, J.M.

1997-09-30

78

Gaseous dark matter detectors  

E-print Network

Dark matter (DM) detectors with directional sensitivity have the potential of yielding an unambiguous positive observation of WIMPs as well as discriminating between galactic DM halo models. In this paper, we introduce the ...

Martoff, C. J.

79

Pocked surface neutron detector  

DOEpatents

The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-04-08

80

PHENIX detector overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PHENIX detector is designed to perform a broad study of A-A, p-A, and p-p collisions to investigate nuclear matter under extreme conditions. A wide variety of probes, sensitive to all timescales, are used to study systematic variations with species and energy as well as to measure the spin structure of the nucleon. Designing for the needs of the heavy-ion and polarized-proton programs has produced a detector with unparalleled capabilities. PHENIX measures electron and muon pairs, photons, and hadrons with excellent energy and momentum resolution. The detector consists of a large number of subsystems that are discussed in other papers in this volume. The overall design parameters of the detector are presented.

Adcox, K.; Adler, S. S.; Aizama, M.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akikawa, H.; Alexander, J.; Al-Jamel, A.; Allen, M.; Alley, G.; Amirikas, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Arai, Y.; Archuleta, J. B.; Archuleta, J. R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Aronson, S. H.; Autrey, D.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Baldisseri, A.; Banning, J.; Barish, K. N.; Barker, A. B.; Barnes, P. D.; Barrette, J.; Barta, F.; Bassalleck, B.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V. V.; Bazilevsky, A.; Begay, R.; Behrendt, J.; Belikov, S.; Belkin, R.; Bellaiche, F. G.; Belyaev, S. T.; Bennett, M. J.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhaganatula, S.; Biggs, J. C.; Bland, A. W.; Blume, C.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J. G.; Boose, S.; Borel, H.; Borland, D.; Bosze, E.; Botelho, S.; Bowers, J.; Britton, C.; Britton, L.; Brooks, M. L.; Brown, A. W.; Brown, D. S.; Bruner, N.; Bryan, W. L.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Burward-Hoy, J.; Butsyk, S. A.; Cafferty, M. M.; Carey, T. A.; Chai, J. S.; Chand, P.; Chang, J.; Chang, W. C.; Chappell, R. B.; Chavez, L. L.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christ, T.; Chujo, T.; Chung, M. S.; Chung, P.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D. J.; Cobigo, Y.; Cole, B. A.; Constantin, P.; Conway, R.; Cook, K. C.; Crook, D. W.; Cunitz, H.; Cunningham, R.; Cutshaw, M.; D'Enterria, D. G.; Dabrowski, C. M.; Danby, G.; Daniels, S.; Danmura, A.; David, G.; Debraine, A.; Delagrange, H.; Demoss, J.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dinesh, B. V.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Du Rietz, R.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Ebisu, K.; Echave, M. A.; Efremenko, Y. V.; El Chenawi, K.; Emery, M. S.; Engo, D.; Enokizono, A.; Enosawa, K.; En'yo, H.; Ericson, N.; Esumi, S.; Evseev, V. A.; Ewell, L.; Fackler, O.; Fellenstein, J.; Ferdousi, T.; Ferrierra, J.; Fields, D. E.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fox, B.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frank, S.; Franz, A.; Frantz, J. E.; Frawley, A. D.; Fried, J.; Freidberg, J. P.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Fung, S.-Y.; Gadrat, S.; Gannon, J.; Garpman, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T. F.; Gentry, R.; Ghosh, T. K.; Giannotti, P.; Glenn, A.; Godoi, A. L.; Gonin, M.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Greene, S. V.; Griffin, V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gupta, S. K.; Guryn, W.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, S.; Halliwell, J.; Hamagaki, H.; Hance, R. H.; Hansen, A. G.; Hara, H.; Harder, J.; Hart, G. W.; Hartouni, E. P.; Harvey, A.; Hawkins, L.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayashi, H.; Hayashi, N.; He, X.; Heine, N.; Heistermann, F.; Held, S.; Hemmick, T. K.; Heuser, J. M.; Hibino, M.; Hicks, J. S.; Higuchi, R.; Hill, J. C.; Hirano, T.; Ho, D. S.; Hoade, R.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Honaguchi, T.; Hunter, C. T.; Hurst, D. E.; Hutter, R.; Ichihara, T.; Ikonnikov, V. V.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M. S.; Davis Isenhower, L.; Donald Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Issah, M.; Ivanov, V. I.; Jacak, B. V.; Jackson, G.; Jackson, J.; Jaffe, D.; Jagadish, U.; Jang, W. Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Jia, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Johnson, J.; Johnson, S. C.; Jones, J. P.; Jones, K.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Kahn, S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kandasamy, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kann, M. R.; Kapoor, S. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karadjev, K. V.; Kashikhin, V.; Kato, S.; Katou, K.; Kehayias, H.-J.; Kelley, M. A.; Kelly, S.; Kennedy, M.; Khachaturov, B.; Khanzadeev, A. V.; Khomutnikov, A.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Kochetkov, V.; Koehler, D.; Kohama, T.; Komkov, B. G.; Kopytine, M. L.; Koseki, K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kotchetkov, D.; Koutcheryaev, Iou. A.; Kozlov, A.; Kozlov, V. S.; Kravtsov, P. A.; Kroon, P. J.; Kuberg, C. H.; Kudin, L. G.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Kuriatkov, V. V.; Kurita, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Labounty, J. J.; Lacey, R.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, V. A.; Lebedev, V. D.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M. J.; Lenz, M.; Lenz, W.; Li, X. H.; Li, Z.; Libby, B.; Libkind, M.; Liccardi, W.; Lim, D. J.; Lin, S.; Liu, M. X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lockner, E.; Longbotham, N.; Lopez, J. D.; Machnowski, R.; Maguire, C. F.; Mahon, J.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Manko, V. I.; Mao, Y.; Marino, S.; Mark, S. K.; Markacs, S.; Markushin, D. G.; Martinez, G.; Martinez, X. B.; Marx, M. D.; Masaike, A.; Matathias, F.; Matsumoto, T.; McGaughey, P. L.; McCain, M. C.; Mead, J.; Melnikov, E.; Melnikov, Y.; Meng, W. Z.; Merschmeyer, M.; Messer, F.; Messer, M.; Miake, Y.; Miftakhov, N. M.; Migluolio, S.; Milan, J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Minuzzo, K.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R. E.; Mishra, G. C.

2003-03-01

81

Fiber optic detector  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

82

Compact infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broadband IR detector integrated into compact package for pollution monitoring and weather prediction is small, highly responsive, and immune to high noise. Sensing material is transparent sheet metalized with reflecting coating and overcoated with black material on same side. Pulse produced by chopping of infrared source beam creates transient "thermal lens" that temporarily defocuses laser beam probe. Detector monitoring beam measures defocusing which parallels infrared intensity.

Gupta, A.; Hong, S.; Moacanin, J.

1981-01-01

83

The AMANDA Neutrino Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detector at the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effective area for TeV neutrinos of ~104m2, has been taking data since 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties, as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage 20-string detector AMANDA-II with ~800PMTs

R. Wischnewski; E. Andrés; P. Askebjer; S. Barwick; R. Bay; L. Bergström; A. Biron; J. Booth; O. Botner; A. Bouchta; S. Carius; M. Carlson; W. Chinowsky; D. Chirkin; D. Cowen; C. Costa; E. Dalberg; T. De Young; J. Edsjo; P. Ekström; A. Goobar; L. Gray; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; R. Hardtke; Y. He; G. Hill; P. Hulth; S. Hundertmark; J. Jacobsen; V. Kandhadai; A. Karle; J. Kim; H. Leich; M. Leuthold; P. Lindahl; T. Liss; I. Liubarsky; P. Loaiza; D. Lowder; P. Marciniewski; T. Miller; P. Miocinovic; P. Mock; R. Morse; M. Newcomer; P. Niessen; D. Nygren; C. Pérez de los Heros; R. Porrata; P. Price; G. Przybylski; W. Rhode; S. Richter; J. Rodriguez; P. Romenesko; D. Ross; H. Rubinstein; T. Schmidt; E. Schneider; R. Schwarz; U. Schwendicke; G. Smoot; M. Solarz; V. Sorin; C. Spiering; P. Steffen; R. Stokstad; O. Streicher; L. Thollander; T. Thon; S. Tilav; C. Walck; C. Wiebusch; K. Woschnagg; W. Wu; G. Yodh; S. Young

1999-01-01

84

Fiber optic detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, Judy K.; Ward, Thomas E.; Grey, Alan E.

1990-04-01

85

Semiconductor polycrystalline alpha detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to check possible novel neutron detectors based on composite semiconductor detectors containing nuclides with large cross sections for neutron, we tested their response to alpha particles. In the present paper we describe results obtained with composite samples made of hexagonal Boron Nitride particles bound with Polystyrene or Nylon-6. The samples were tested under 5.5 MeV alpha particle radiation

M. Schieber; M. Roth; A. Zuck; G. Marom; O. Khakhan; Z. B. Alfassi

2006-01-01

86

Gamma ray detector modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

87

Position Reconstruction in Scintillation Detectors  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Position Reconstruction in Scintillation Detectors Borexino is one of a new generation of position reconstruction for scintillator-based, unsegmented detectors, and the spatial resolutions that may the 201 #12;Chapter 5. Position Reconstruction in Scintillation Detectors 202 detector [55, 63

88

Subspace Detectors: Efficient Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The optimum detector for a known signal in white Gaussian background noise is the matched filter, also known as a correlation detector [Van Trees, 1968]. Correlation detectors offer exquisite sensitivity (high probability of detection at a fixed false alarm rate), but require perfect knowledge of the signal. The sensitivity of correlation detectors is increased by the availability of multichannel data, something common in seismic applications due to the prevalence of three-component stations and arrays. When the signal is imperfectly known, an extension of the correlation detector, the subspace detector, may be able to capture much of the performance of a matched filter [Harris, 2006]. In order to apply a subspace detector, the signal to be detected must be known to lie in a signal subspace of dimension d {ge} 1, which is defined by a set of d linearly-independent basis waveforms. The basis is constructed to span the range of signals anticipated to be emitted by a source of interest. Correlation detectors operate by computing a running correlation coefficient between a template waveform (the signal to be detected) and the data from a window sliding continuously along a data stream. The template waveform and the continuous data stream may be multichannel, as would be true for a three-component seismic station or an array. In such cases, the appropriate correlation operation computes the individual correlations channel-for-channel and sums the result (Figure 1). Both the waveform matching that occurs when a target signal is present and the cross-channel stacking provide processing gain. For a three-component station processing gain occurs from matching the time-history of the signals and their polarization structure. The projection operation that is at the heart of the subspace detector can be expensive to compute if implemented in a straightforward manner, i.e. with direct-form convolutions. The purpose of this report is to indicate how the projection can be computed efficiently for continuous multichannel seismic data. The speed of the calculation is significant as it may become desirable to deploy subspace detectors numbering in the thousands. One application contemplated for these detectors is as screens against signals from repeating sources such as mines or aftershocks of large earthquakes. With many tens of stations and potentially hundreds of sources to screen, efficient implementations are desirable. Speed, of course, can be achieved by procuring faster computers or special-purpose hardware. The approach we examine here is the development of two efficient algorithms that can make the calculations run faster on any machine. In the first section, we describe the subspace detector as we use it for the detection of repeating seismic events, defining terms and the parameterization used in succeeding sections. This section also reviews how the correlation computations central to the matched filter and subspace detectors can be implemented as a collection of convolution operations. Convolution algorithms using fast Fourier transforms, such as the overlap-add and overlap-save methods, have long been known as efficient implementations of discrete-time finite-impulse-response filters [e.g. Oppenheim and Schafer, 1975]. These may be extended in a straightforward manner to implement multichannel correlation detectors. In the second section, we describe how multichannel data can be multiplexed to compute the required convolutions with a single pair of FFT operations instead of a pair for each channel. This approach increases speed approximately twofold. Seismic data, almost invariably, are oversampled. This characteristic provides an opportunity for increased efficiency by decimating the data prior to performing the correlation calculations. In the third section, we describe a bandpass transformation of the data that allows a more aggressive decimation of the data without significant loss of fidelity in the correlation calculation. The transformation computes a complex-analytic representation for the template waveforms and the

Harris, D B; Paik, T

2006-07-26

89

The CLIC Vertex Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a measurement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t ? Wb will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit timing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC vertex detector. It comprises fast, low-power and small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) coupled to ultra-thin planar or active HV-CMOS sensors via low-mass interconnects. The power dissipation of the readout chips is reduced by means of power pulsing, allowing for a cooling system based on forced gas flow. This contribution reviews the requirements and design optimisation for the CLIC vertex detector and gives an overview of recent R&D achievements in the domains of sensors, readout and detector integration.

Dannheim, D.

2015-03-01

90

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2002-01-01

91

Handheld CZT radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

2004-08-24

92

Detector arrays in spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially dispersed spectra of ions, electrons or photons are traditionally measured by scanning the spectra across a narrow slit behind which is a detector. However, the efficiency increase offered by arrays of detectors is so large that their development is increasingly demanding the attention of spectrometer manufacturers. One-dimensional arrays of independent detectors (discrete electrode arrays) offer the highest data accumulation rate as detection can occur simultaneously at many sites, but a high resolution array of this type requires much associated electronics and this has limited the size and the market of such devices. The design and performance issues relating to discrete electrode arrays are discussed and a new high resolution array with all electronics integrated on a single silicon chip developed at Aberystwyth is described. A familiarity with silicon technology is not required by the reader. It is shown that integration brings not only advantages of scale but also of performance.

Birkinshaw, K.

93

Imaging MAMA detector systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems with 1024 x 1024 pixel formats have been produced for visible and UV wavelengths; the UV types employ 'solar blind' photocathodes whose detective quantum efficiencies are significantly higher than those of currently available CCDs operating at far-UV and EUV wavelengths. Attention is presently given to the configurations and performance capabilities of state-of-the-art MAMA detectors, with a view to the development requirements of the hybrid electronic circuits needed for forthcoming spacecraft-sensor applications. Gain, dark noise, uniformity, and dynamic range performance data are presented for the curved-channel 'chevron', 'Z-plate', and helical-channel high gain microchannel plate configurations that are currently under evaluation with MAMA detector systems.

Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Kasle, David B.

1990-07-01

94

Fissile material detector  

DOEpatents

A detector for fissile materials which provides for integrity monitoring of fissile materials and can be used for nondestructive assay to confirm the presence of a stable content of fissile material in items. The detector has a sample cavity large enough to enable assay of large items of arbitrary configuration, utilizes neutron sources fabricated in spatially extended shapes mounted on the endcaps of the sample cavity, incorporates a thermal neutron filter insert with reflector properties, and the electronics module includes a neutron multiplicity coincidence counter.

Ivanov, Alexander I. (Dubna, RU); Lushchikov, Vladislav I. (Dubna, RU); Shabalin, Eugeny P. (Dubna, RU); Maznyy, Nikita G. (Dubna, RU); Khvastunov, Michael M. (Dubna, RU); Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA)

2002-01-01

95

Cosmic ray detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on the MSFC emulsion laboratory microscopes in which mechanical modifications previously made were verified is reviewed, as is a design study of a large area hybrid electronic/emulsion chamber balloon flight detector system. This design is built upon the experience obtained with the highly successful MSFC/UAH hybrid instrument flown by the JACEE consortium. The design included overall system design and specification, design and fabrication of a prototype large light diffusion for Cerenkov charge detector or scintillator, design of a multiwire proportional counter array and design of the gondola or flight support system.

Gregory, John C.

1987-01-01

96

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

DOEpatents

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

97

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28

98

Mossbauer spectrometer radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mossbauer spectrometer with high efficiencies in both transmission and backscattering techniques is described. The device contains a sodium iodide crystal for detecting radiation caused by the Mossbauer effect, and two photomultipliers to collect the radiation detected by the crystal. When used in the transmission technique, the sample or scatterer is placed between the incident radiation source and the detector. When used in a backscattering technique, the detector is placed between the incident radiation source and the sample of scatterer such that the incident radiation will pass through a hole in the crystal and strike the sample. Diagrams of the instrument are provided.

Singh, J. J. (inventor)

1973-01-01

99

Radiation Detectors and Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of radiation detectors in the analysis of art objects represents a very special application in a true interdisciplinary field. Radiation detectors employed in this field detect, e.g., x-rays, ?-rays, ? particles, and protons. Analyzed materials range from stones, metals, over porcelain to paintings. The available nondestructive and noninvasive analytical methods cover a broad range of techniques. Hence, for the sake of brevity, this chapter will concentrate on few techniques: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced ?-ray Emission (PIGE).

Denker, Andrea

100

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

Anderson, D.F.

1984-01-31

101

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

102

The Upgraded D0 detector  

SciTech Connect

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U./Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco deQuito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS; ,

2005-07-01

103

The Upgraded D0 Detector  

E-print Network

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

2005-01-01

104

AA WalWal martmart ILCILC Detector ?Detector ?  

E-print Network

University #12;ILC Detectors, April 26, 2007 -- M. Demarteau Slide 2 Walmart ... Walmart evokes very that misconception #12;ILC Detectors, April 26, 2007 -- M. Demarteau Slide 3 Walmart ... Forbes Special Report March

Quigg, Chris

105

Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps, Detector Descriptions in GODL  

SciTech Connect

Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays. In addition to three built-in detector configurations, detector descriptions can also be read from files in the new GODL file format.

Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC

2005-07-06

106

Status of Virgo detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commissioning of the Virgo gravitational wave detector has restarted after several major hardware upgrades carried out during winter 2005. Now Virgo is fully operative and its sensitivity greatly improved and continually improving. A program of short scientific data taking has already started and Virgo is moving towards a period of continuous data taking, which should start at the end

F. Acernese; P. Amico; M. Alshourbagy; F. Antonucci; S. Aoudia; P. Astone; S. Avino; D. Babusci; G. Ballardin; F. Barone; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; F. Beauville; S. Bigotta; S. Birindelli; M. A. Bizouard; C. Boccara; F. Bondu; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; S. Braccini; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; D. Buskulic; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; F. Carbognani; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Cesarini; E. Chassande-Mottin; N. Christensen; C. Corda; A. Corsi; F. Cottone; A.-C. Clapson; F. Cleva; J.-P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; A. Dari; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; M. del Prete; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Virgilio; B. Dujardin; A. Eleuteri; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J.-D. Fournier; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; L. Gammaitoni; F. Garufi; E. Genin; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; G. Giordano; L. Giordano; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; G. Guidi; S. Hebri; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; S. Karkar; S. Kreckelbergh; P. La Penna; M. Laval; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; B. Lopez; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; G. Losurdo; J.-M. Mackowski; E. Majorana; C. N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; M. Mazzoni; L. Milano; F. Menzinger; C. Moins; J. Moreau; N. Morgado; B. Mours; F. Nocera; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; F. Piergiovanni; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; K. Qipiani; P. Rapagnani; V. Reita; A. Remillieux; F. Ricci; I. Ricciardi; P. Ruggi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; A. Spallicci; M. Tarallo; M. Tonelli; A. Toncelli; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; C. Tremola; G. Vajente; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; J.-Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Yvert

2007-01-01

107

The Friendship Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After years of using Rube Goldberg-inspired projects to teach concepts of simple machines, the author sought a comparable project to reinforce electricity lessons in his ninth-grade Science and Technology course. The Friendship Detector gives students a chance to design, test, and build a complex circuit with multiple switches and battery-powered…

Cox, Scott

2012-01-01

108

DUMAND as muon detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DUMAND detector offers the unique possibility of investigating cosmic ray muons with energies above 10 trillion eV. The facility, which is being constructed in Caucasus, is designed to record both vertical and horizontal muons, with an effective area more than 200 sq m. Problems associated with the extremely high energy muon spectrum are examined. The large number of muons

V. V. Borog; R. P. Kokoulin; A. A. Petrukhin; V. V. Shestakov; V. I. Iumatov

1977-01-01

109

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

DOEpatents

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

Myneni, G.R.

1999-08-03

110

Transition radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of transition radiation (TR) as a means of identifying high energy particles has now become a subject of intensive experimental investigations and applications. Our intention is first to study the physics of these phenomena and to describe ways of building detectors which can efficiently identify particles.

Boris Dolgoshein

1993-01-01

111

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, D.C.

1980-12-17

112

Gas Detectors, Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report contains annotated references on gas detectors compiled from the Defense Documentation Center's data bank. The range of the topics deals with detection of toxic propellants, odors, gas leaks, oxygen, etc. Included with the bibliographic reference are the corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, and title indexes. (Author/JR)

Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

113

Optical detector calibrator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

114

The Galileo Dust Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10-19 and 10-9 kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the Sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian

Eberhard Gruen; Hugo Fechtig; Martha S. Hanner; Jochen Kissel; Bertil-Anders Lindblad; Dietmar Linkert; Dieter Maas; Gregor E. Morfill; Herbert A. Zook

1992-01-01

115

A perceptual pitch detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pitch detector based on Licklider's (1979) duplex theory of pitch perception was implemented and tested on a variety of stimuli from human perceptual tests. It is believed that this approach accurately models how people perceive pitch. It is shown that it correctly identifies the pitch of complex harmonic and inharmonic stimuli and that it is robust in the face

Malcolm Slaney; Richard F. Lyon

1990-01-01

116

Directional gamma detector  

DOEpatents

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01

117

Smoke Detector Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

118

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

DOEpatents

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

1999-01-01

119

Carbon monoxide detector. [electrochemical gas detector for spacecraft use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensitive carbon monoxide detector, developed specifically for spacecraft use, is described. An instrument range of 0 to 60 ppm CO in air was devised. The fuel cell type detector is used as a highly sensitive electrolysis cell for electrochemically detecting gases. The concept of an electrochemical CO detector is discussed and the CO oxidation behavior in phosphoric and sulfuric acid electrolytes is reported.

Holleck, G. L.; Bradspies, J. L.; Brummer, S. B.; Nelsen, L. L.

1973-01-01

120

High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors  

DOEpatents

A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-16

121

Fundamental principles of particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

Fernow, R.C.

1988-01-01

122

ISS/IDS Detector Study  

SciTech Connect

This article summarises the results obtained by the detector working group of the 'International Scooping Study' (ISS) of a future neutrino oscillations facility. Special emphasis is put on far detectors, for which some of the main issues are identified. A detector R and D strategy in the context of the 'International Design Study' (IDS) for a neutrino factory is also presented.

Cervera-Villanueva, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, C.S.I.C.-Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

2008-02-21

123

Radiation detectors in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Single-photon-emitting or positron-emitting radionuclides employed in nuclear medicine are detected by using sophisticated imaging devices, whereas simpler detection devices are used to quantify activity for the following applications: measuring doses of radiopharmaceuticals, performing radiotracer bioassays, and monitoring and controlling radiation risk in the clinical environment. Detectors are categorized in terms of function, the physical state of the transducer, or the mode of operation. The performance of a detector is described by the parameters efficiency, energy resolution and discrimination, and dead time. A detector may be used to detect single events (pulse mode) or to measure the rate of energy deposition (current mode). Some detectors are operated as simple counting systems by using a single-channel pulse height analyzer to discriminate against background or other extraneous events. Other detectors are operated as spectrometers and use a multichannel analyzer to form an energy spectrum. The types of detectors encountered in nuclear medicine are gas-filled detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors. The ionization detector, Geiger-Müller detector, extremity and area monitor, dose calibrator, well counter, thyroid uptake probe, Anger scintillation camera, positron emission tomographic scanner, solid-state personnel dosimeter, and intraoperative probe are examples of detectors used in clinical nuclear medicine practice. PMID:10194791

Ranger, N T

1999-01-01

124

Evaluation of Interest Point Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different low-level feature detectors exist and it is widely agreed that the evaluation of detectors is important. In this paper we introduce two evaluation criteria for interest points: repeatability rate and information content. Repeatability rate evaluates the geometric stability under different transformations. Information content measures the distinctiveness of features. Different interest point detectors are compared using these two criteria.

Cordelia Schmid; Roger Mohr; Christian Bauckhage

2000-01-01

125

Semiconductor nuclear radiation detector studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a problem that arose with regard to the availability of germanium for lithium-drifted germanium detectors (Ge(Li) detectors), a comprehensive program was undertaken aimed toward the development of a method for the rapid specification of germanium quality for nuclear radiation detector use, and the determination of factors affecting germanium quality. Measurements on a large number of germanium crystals,

A. H. Sher

1974-01-01

126

Chemiluminescence detectors for liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

In this tutorial we describe the construction of chemiluminescence detectors for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprising the components required to deliver the chemiluminescence reagent, a coiled-tubing flow cell, photomultiplier tube and detector housing, and various options for data acquisition. We also discuss two state-of-the-art commercially available chemiluminescence detectors for HPLC and other flow analysis methodology. PMID:21425470

Adcock, Jacqui L; Terry, Jessica M; Barrow, Colin J; Barnett, Neil W; Olson, Don C; Francis, Paul S

2011-03-01

127

Space-qualified pyroelectric detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth horizon sensors utilizing pyroelectric detectors are finding increasing use in infrared horizon sensing systems. These detectors, like the earlier thermistor bolometer sensors, observe the Earth's carbon-dioxide emission in the 15 micron wavelength band. This paper describes the design, construction and performance of a pyroelectric detector suitable for use in horizon scanner systems. The procedures being developed to ensure the

George R. Rullman; Shankar B. Baliga; Alan P

1994-01-01

128

Semiconductor polycrystalline alpha detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to check possible novel neutron detectors based on composite semiconductor detectors containing nuclides with large cross sections for neutron, we tested their response to alpha particles. In the present paper we describe results obtained with composite samples made of hexagonal Boron Nitride particles bound with Polystyrene or Nylon-6. The samples were tested under 5.5 MeV alpha particle radiation emitted from 241Am source and 4.8MeV alpha particle of 226Ra source. Some of the responses of these composite detectors to thermal neutrons were already reported and here we shall show some newer results obtained with thermal neutrons, from a low intensity 241Am - 9Be and also from a medium intensity 252Cf source, which were thermalized using 10 cm thick paraffin. The Alpha detection experiments show that all the tested samples, regardless of the binder, show a well-defined peak around the 270 energy channel. There was very little polarization of the alpha radiation, since the amplitude of the alpha peak is reduced after ~ 2min from start of the irradiation, from 100% to 95% and it stayed stable at this level for another 10 minutes. The alpha spectrum detected from a PbI II single crystal is also shown for comparison. The neutron spectrum obtained by the composite BN samples showed an apparent peak around the 150 energy channel. The Signal to noise ratio for neutron detection from radionuclide shown here is about 2 only, whereas recent results to be published later, obtained with our composite BN detectors from a neutron beam of about 10 7 sec -1cm -2 is ~2 5. The 1.4 and 1.7 MeV alpha peaks resulting from the nuclear reaction of thermal neutrons with 10B of the boron nitride detector are not buried in the noise range. The capacitance noise requires small contact areas, therefore for large area detectors it is necessary to produce an electronic read-out device which can add up a multitude of small (less than 10sq.mm) pixilated contacts.

Schieber, M.; Roth, M.; Zuck, A.; Marom, G.; Khakhan, O.; Alfassi, Z. B.

2006-08-01

129

Underwater radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM); McKnight, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

130

Gated strip proportional detector  

DOEpatents

A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

1985-02-19

131

Gated strip proportional detector  

DOEpatents

A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

1987-01-01

132

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17

133

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01

134

Carbon nanotube terahertz detector.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) technologies are promising for diverse areas such as medicine, bioengineering, astronomy, environmental monitoring, and communications. However, despite decades of worldwide efforts, the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum still continues to be elusive for solid state technology. Here, we report on the development of a powerless, compact, broadband, flexible, large-area, and polarization-sensitive carbon nanotube THz detector that works at room temperature. The detector is sensitive throughout the entire range of the THz technology gap, with responsivities as high as ?2.5 V/W and polarization ratios as high as ?5:1. Complete thermoelectric and opto-thermal characterization together unambiguously reveal the photothermoelectric origin of the THz photosignal, triggered by plasmonic absorption and collective antenna effects, and suggest that judicious design of thermal management and quantum engineering of Seebeck coefficients will lead to further enhancement of device performance. PMID:24875576

He, Xiaowei; Fujimura, Naoki; Lloyd, J Meagan; Erickson, Kristopher J; Talin, A Alec; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Jiang, Qijia; Kawano, Yukio; Hauge, Robert H; Léonard, François; Kono, Junichiro

2014-07-01

135

Aerogel for FARICH detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our current experience in preparation of focusing aerogels for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detector. Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since 2004. We have obtained 2-3-4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30-45 mm. In 2012, the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process. The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype.

Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Gulevich, V. V.; Danilyuk, A. F.; Kononov, S. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Lopatin, S. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Ovtin, I. V.; Podgornov, N. A.; Porosev, V. V.; Predein, A. Yu.; Protsenko, R. S.

2014-12-01

136

Pulsed neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

Robertson, deceased, J. Craig (late of Albuquerque, NM); Rowland, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

1989-03-21

137

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

138

Portable Radiation Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, General Pneumatics Corporation's Western Research Center satisfied a NASA need for a non-clogging Joule-Thomson cryostat to provide very low temperature cooling for various sensors. This NASA-supported cryostat development played a key part in the development of more portable high-purity geranium gamma-ray detectors. Such are necessary to discern between the radionuclides in medical, fuel, weapon, and waste materials. The outcome of the SBIR project is a cryostat that can cool gamma-ray detectors, without vibration, using compressed gas that can be stored compactly and indefinitely in a standby mode. General Pneumatics also produces custom J-T cryostats for other government, commercial and medical applications.

1997-01-01

139

Stable glow discharge detector  

DOEpatents

A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

2004-05-18

140

How Metal Detectors Operate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, provides an explanation of how a metal detector functions. Most people take for granted this common piece of equipment, but the science behind its function is actually quite remarkable. Bartelt uses flash animations and diagrams to examine how these machines work. These animations show everything from the different pieces of the machine to the sine waves and magnetic fields employed by the detector. Without such a detailed outline, these concepts would be much more difficult to grasp, and the author makes the presentation accessible for almost any grade level. Because of this, this would be a wonderful activity for a physics, or even mathematics, course.

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

141

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOEpatents

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

142

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

DOEpatents

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

143

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

DOEpatents

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05

144

Ultrafast neutron detector  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a neutron detector (50) of very high temporal resolution that is particularly well suited for measuring the fusion reaction neutrons produced by laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets. The detector comprises a biased two-conductor traveling-wave transmission line (54, 56, 58, 68) having a uranium cathode (60) and a phosphor anode (62) as respective parts of the two conductors. A charge line and Auston switch assembly (70, 72, 74) launch an electric field pulse along the transmission line. Neutrons striking the uranium cathode at a location where the field pulse is passing, are enabled to strike the phosphor anode and produce light that is recorded on photographic film (64). The transmission line may be variously configured to achieve specific experimental goals.

Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01

145

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30

146

Terahertz sources and detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the support of the US Army Research Office we are developing terahertz sources and detectors suitable for use in the spectroscopy of chemical and biological materials as well as for use in imaging systems to detect concealed weapons. Our technology relies on nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks that have been developed for this application include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These components rely on planar Schottky diodes and integrated diode circuits and are therefore easy to assemble and robust. They require no mechanical tuners to achieve high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper will review the range of performance that has been achieved with these terahertz components and briefly discuss preliminary results achieved with a spectroscopy system and the development of sources for imaging systems.

Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David W.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Bishop, William L.; Kurtz, David S.; Hui, Kai

2005-05-01

147

Detectors for the space telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review of Space Telescope (ST) detectors is divided into two parts. The first part gives short summaries of detector programs carried out during the final planning stage (Phase B) of the ST and discusses such detectors as Photicon, the MAMA detectors, the CODACON, the University of Maryland ICCD, the Goddard Space Flight Center ICCD, and the 70 mm SEC TV sensor. The second part describes the detectors selected for the first ST flight, including the wide field/planetary camera, the faint object and high resolution spectrographs, and the high speed photometer.

Kelsall, T.

1978-01-01

148

Directional fast-neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A plurality of omnidirectional radiation detectors are arranged in a close packed symmetrical pattern to form a segmented detector. The output radiation counts from these detectors are arithmetically combined to provide the direction of a source of incident radiation. Directionality is achieved without the use of shielding to provide collimation and background reduction effects. Indeed, output counts from paired detectors are simply subtracted to yield a vector direction toward the radiation source. The counts from all of the detectors can be combined to yield an output signal functionally related to the radiation source strength.

Byrd, Roger C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

149

Laser beam methane detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument uses infrared absorption to determine methane concentration in liquid natural gas vapor. Two sensors measure intensity of 3.39 mm laser beam after it passes through gas; absorption is proportional to concentration of methane. Instrument is used in modeling spread of LNG clouds and as leak detector on LNG carriers and installations. Unit includes wheels for mobility and is both vertically and horizontally operable.

Hinkley, E. D., Jr.

1981-01-01

150

Detector limitations, STAR  

SciTech Connect

Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

Underwood, D. G.

1998-07-13

151

The AMANDA Neutrino Detector  

SciTech Connect

The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detectorat the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effectivearea for TeV neutrinos of similar to 10(4) m(2), has been taking datasince 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties,as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage20-string detector AMANDA-II with similar to 800 PMTs will be completedin spring 2000.

Wischnewski, R.; Andres, E.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.; Bay, R.; Bergstrom, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Cowen, D.; Costa, C.; Dalberg,E.; Deyoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren,A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; He, Y.; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.; Hundertmark,S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold,M.; Lindahl, P.; Liss, T.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; de, los, Heros, CP.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering,C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

1999-08-23

152

Gas bubble detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas bubble detector having a modulated IR source focused through a bandpass filter onto a venturi, formed in a sample tube, to illuminate the venturi with modulated filtered IR to detect the presence of gas bubbles as small as 0.01 cm or about 0.004 in diameter in liquid flowing through the venturi. Means are provided to determine the size of any detected bubble and to provide an alarm in the absence of liquid in the sample tube.

Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Burchfield, David E. (Inventor); Hagey, John M. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

153

Biological detector and method  

DOEpatents

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2014-04-15

154

Biological detector and method  

DOEpatents

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2013-02-26

155

Novel neutron detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new set of thermal neutron detectors has been developed as a near term 3He tube replacement. The zinc oxide scintillator is an ultrafast scintillator which can be doped to have performance equal to or superior to 3He tubes. Originally investigated in the early 1950s, this room temperature semiconductor has been evaluated as a thermal neutron scintillator. Zinc oxide can be doped with different nuclei to tune the band gap, improve optical clarity, and improve the thermal neutron detection efficiency. The effects of various dopant effects on the scintillation properties, materials properties, and crystal growth parameters have been analyzed. Two different growth modalities were investigated: bulk melt grown materials as well as thin film scintillators grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). MOCVD has shown significant advantages including precise thickness control, high dopant incorporation, and epitaxial coatings of neutron target nuclei. Detector designs were modeled and simulated to design an improved thermal neutron detector using doped ZnO layers, conformal coatings and light collection improvements including Bragg reflectors and photonic crystal structures. The detectors have been tested for crystalline quality by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy, for scintillation efficiency by photo-luminescence spectroscopy, and for neutron detection efficiency by alpha and neutron radiation tests. Lastly, a novel method for improving light collection efficiency has been investigated, the creation of a photonic crystal scintillator. Here, the flow of optical light photons is controlled through an engineered structure created with the scintillator materials. This work has resulted in a novel radiation detection material for the near term replacement of 3He tubes with performance characteristics equal to or superior to that of 3He.

Burgett, Eric Anthony

156

Semiconductor projectile impact detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semiconductor projectile impact detector is described for use in determining micrometeorite presence, as well as its flux and energy comprising a photovoltaic cell which generates a voltage according to the light and heat emitted by the micrometeorites upon impact. A counter and peak amplitude measuring device were used to indicate the number of particules which strike the surface of the cell as well as the kinetic energy of each of the particles.

Shriver, E. L. (inventor)

1977-01-01

157

Nanowire-based detector  

DOEpatents

Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

2014-06-24

158

Analog pixel array detectors.  

PubMed

X-ray pixel array detectors (PADs) are generally thought of as either digital photon counters (DPADs) or X-ray analog-integrating pixel array detectors (APADs). Experiences with APADs, which are especially well suited for X-ray imaging experiments where transient or high instantaneous flux events must be recorded, are reported. The design, characterization and experimental applications of several APAD designs developed at Cornell University are discussed. The simplest design is a ;flash' architecture, wherein successive integrated X-ray images, as short as several hundred nanoseconds in duration, are stored in the detector chips for later off-chip digitization. Radiography experiments using a prototype flash APAD are summarized. Another design has been implemented that combines flash capability with the ability to continuously stream X-ray images at slower (e.g. milliseconds) rates. Progress is described towards radiation-hardened APADs that can be tiled to cover a large area. A mixed-mode PAD, design by combining many of the attractive features of both APADs and DPADs, is also described. PMID:16495611

Ercan, A; Tate, M W; Gruner, S M

2006-03-01

159

Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, 10B + n ? ? + 7Li, with ? and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

2015-03-01

160

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOEpatents

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

1998-08-11

161

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOEpatents

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

Chu, Dahlon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Thelen, Jr., Donald C. (Bozeman, MT)

1998-01-01

162

Direct Detectors for Electron Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is interest in improving the detectors used to capture images in transmission electron microscopy. Detectors with an improved modulation transfer function at high spatial frequencies allow for higher resolution in images at lower magnification, which leads to an increased effective field of view. Detectors with improved detective quantum efficiency are important for low dose applications. One way in which these performance enhancements can be achieved is through direct detection, where primary electrons are converted directly into suitable electrical signals by the detector rather than relying on an indirect electron to photon conversion before detection. In this paper we present the characterisation of detector performance for a number of different direct detection technologies, and compare these technologies to traditional indirect detectors. Overall our results show that direct detection enables a significant improvement in all aspects of detector performance.

Clough, R. N.; Moldovan, G.; Kirkland, A. I.

2014-06-01

163

The STAR Vertex Position Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event "start time" needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ~100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ~1 cm.

Llope, W. J.; Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Asselta, K.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Butterworth, J.; Camarda, T.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H. J.; Dong, X.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Hammond, J.; Judd, E.; McDonald, D. L.; Perkins, C.; Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J.; Schambach, J. J.; Soja, R.; Xin, K.; Yang, C.

2014-09-01

164

areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS  

SciTech Connect

areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

Rivers, M. (UC)

2011-09-23

165

Detector Mount Design for IGRINS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

2014-06-01

166

Micro UV detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

2004-09-01

167

Micro-UV detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

2004-12-01

168

Flexible composite radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Orler, Edward B. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-12-05

169

Wire-inhomogeneity detector  

DOEpatents

A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

1982-08-31

170

High throughput microcantilever detector  

DOEpatents

In an improved uncoated microcantilever detector, the sample sites are placed on a separate semi-conducting substrate and the microcantilever element detects and measures the changes before and after a chemical interaction or hybridization of the sites by sensing differences of phase angle between an alternating voltage applied to the microcantilever element and vibration of the microcantilever element. In another embodiment of the invention, multiple sample sites are on a sample array wherein an array of microcantilever elements detect and measure the change before and after chemical interactions or hybridizations of the sample sites.

Thundat, Thomas G.; Ferrell, Thomas L.; Hansen, Karolyn M.; Tian, Fang

2004-07-20

171

Long wavelength infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long wavelength infrared detection is achieved by a detector made with layers of quantum well material bounded on each side by barrier material to form paired quantum wells, each quantum well having a single energy level. The width and depth of the paired quantum wells, and the spacing therebetween, are selected to split the single energy level with an upper energy level near the top of the energy wells. The spacing is selected for splitting the single energy level into two energy levels with a difference between levels sufficiently small for detection of infrared radiation of a desired wavelength.

Vasquez, Richard P. (inventor)

1993-01-01

172

Ionizing Radiation Detector  

DOEpatents

A CdZnTe (CZT) crystal provided with a native CdO dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals is disclosed. A two step process is provided for forming the dielectric coating which includes etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water after attaching electrical contacts to the crystal surface.

Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-11-18

173

Moderate temperature detector development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

P-side backside reflecting constant, photodiode characterization, and photodiode diffusion and G-R currents were investigated in an effort to develop an 8 m to 12 m infrared quantum detector using mercury cadmium telluride. Anodization, phosphorus implantation, and the graded band gap concept were approaches considered for backside formation. Variable thickness diodes were fabricated with a back surface anodic oxide to investigate the effect of this surface preparation on the diffusion limited zero bias impedance. A modeling technique was refined to thoroughly model diode characteristics. Values for the surface recombination velocity in the depletion region were obtained. These values were improved by implementing better surface damage removal techniques.

Marciniec, J. W.; Briggs, R. J.; Sood, A. K.

1981-01-01

174

Pyroelectric demodulating detector  

DOEpatents

A pyroelectric demodulating detector (also termed a pyroelectric demodulator) is disclosed which utilizes an electrical resistor stacked upon a pyroelectric element to demodulate an rf or microwave electrical input signal which is amplitude-modulated (AM). The pyroelectric demodulator, which can be formed as a hybrid or a monolithic device, has applications for use in AM radio receivers. Demodulation is performed by feeding the AM input signal into the resistor and converting the AM input signal into an AM heat signal which is conducted through the pyroelectric element and used to generate an electrical output signal containing AM information from the AM input signal.

Brocato, Robert W. (Sandia Park, NM)

2008-07-08

175

Photon detector system  

DOEpatents

A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

Ekstrom, Philip A. (Lexington, KY)

1981-01-01

176

PHENIX inner detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing, location and particle multiplicity of a PHENIX collision are determined by the Beam-Beam Counters (BBC), the Multiplicity/Vertex Detector (MVD) and the Zero-Degree Calorimeters (ZDC). The BBCs provide both the time of interaction and position of a collision from the flight time of prompt particles. The MVD provides a measure of event particle multiplicity, collision vertex position and fluctuations in charged particle distributions. The ZDCs provide information on the most grazing collisions. A Normalization Trigger Counter (NTC) is used to obtain absolute cross-section measurements for p-p collisions. The BBC, MVD and NTC are described below.

Allen, M.; Bennett, M. J.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J. B.; Boose, S.; Bosze, E.; Britton, C.; Chang, J.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Conway, R.; Cunningham, R.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Emery, M. S.; Enokizono, A.; Ericson, N.; Fox, B.; Fung, S.-Y.; Giannotti, P.; Hachiya, T.; Hansen, A. G.; Homma, K.; Jacak, B. V.; Jaffe, D.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, Y. G.; Kohama, T.; Kroon, P. J.; Lenz, W.; Longbotham, N.; Musrock, M.; Nakamura, T.; Ohnishi, H.; Ryu, S. S.; Sakaguchi, A.; Seto, R.; Shiina, T.; Simpson, M.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J. P.; van Hecke, H. W.; Walker, J. W.; White, S. N.; Willis, P.; Xu, N.; PHEN. I. X. Collaboration

2003-03-01

177

SNO+ Multipurpose Neutrino Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SNO+ proposes to fill the existing SNO detector with liquid scintillator. The unique location in SNOLAB, currently the worlds deepest international underground facility, will enable a variety of physics measurements from further studies of solar neutrinos (pep and CNO), to geo- and reactor neutrinos, to supernova neutrinos to the possibility of studying neutrinoless double beta decay. With the addition of ^150Nd to the liquid scintillator SNO+ is capable of a competitive next-generation search for this rare process. The physics potential and experimental sensitivities will be discussed.

Kraus, Christine

2008-10-01

178

LCFI vertex detector design studies  

SciTech Connect

A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies CCD detectors for quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

Milstene, C.; Sopczak, A.

2005-12-01

179

Scalar top study: Detector optimization  

SciTech Connect

A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies pixel detectors for heavy quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

Milstene, C.; /Fermilab; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

2006-09-01

180

Directivity function of muon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new concept of directivity function (DF) to describe directional sensitivity of a particle detector. DF is ? 3D function, describing the sensitivity of a detector to asymptotic directions of primary protons. It defines the contribution of primary protons, arriving from different asymptotic directions to the count rate of the detector. We develop the approach for computing the DF and derive it in particular case of SEVAN muon detector, located at mount Aragats, Armenia. Obtained data enable one to outline the region of solid angles, inside of which the arriving protons contribute a given percentage of count rate. In general, the DF can have the multi peak shape. It provides the most detailed and accurate description of directional sensitivity of a particle detector and we suggest that it is used in space research based on neutron and muon detectors.

Karapetyan, G. G.

2015-02-01

181

Radiation damage of germanium detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energetic particles can produce interstitial-vacancy pairs in a crystal by knocking the atoms from their normal positions. Detectors are unique among semiconductor devices in depending on very low concentrations of electrically active impurities, and also on efficient transport of holes and electrons over relatively large distances. Because the dense regions of damage produced by energetic particles may result in donors and/or acceptors, and also provide trapping sites for holes and electrons, detectors are very sensitive to radiation damage. In addition to these effects occurring within the detector, radiation may also change the characteristics of the exposed surfaces causing unpredictable effects on the detector leakage current. Radiation-induced surface degradation has rarely, if ever, been observed for germanium detectors. The possibility of minimizing hole trapping in charge collection by the use of a high-purity germanium coaxial detector configured with the p (+) contact on the coaxial periphery is discussed.

Pehl, R. H.

1978-01-01

182

Infrared detectors for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation and intended benefits for the use of infrared (IR) detectors for space applications are highlighted. The actual status of state-of-the-art IR detectors for space applications is presented based on some of AIM's currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength IR (SWIR) to the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) and very long-wavelength IR (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength IR (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP and the IR detectors for the Sentinel 3 SLSTR will be elaborated. Additionally, dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC, will be addressed.

Fick, Wolfgang; Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Haiml, Markus; Hanna, Stefan; Hübner, Dominique; Höhnemann, Holger; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Thöt, Richard

2013-12-01

183

Improved detectivity of pyroelectric detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High detectivity single-element SBN pyroelectric detectors were fabricated. The theory and technology developments related to improved detector performance were identified and formulated. Improved methods of material characterization, thinning, mounting, blackening and amplifier matching are discussed. Detectors with detectivities of 1.3 x 10 to the 9th power square root of Hz/watt at 1 Hz are reported. Factors limiting performance and recommendations for future work are discussed.

Marshall, D. E.; Gelpey, J. C.; Marciniec, J. W.; Chiang, A. M.; Maciolek, R. B.

1978-01-01

184

New passive helicopter detector  

SciTech Connect

Sandia has developed a new helicopter detector. The device relies on the correlation between the acoustic wave from the helicopter and the resulting coupled seismic wave. A significant feature of this approach is that the detector is completely passive; there is no radio frequency radiation. Intended for deployment as a perimeter sensor around a site, the unit offers a low nuisance/false alarm rate and a high probability of detection for a wide range of helicopters. Reliable detection occurs when the target is at high altitude and also very near the earth's surface. Detection ranges start at one kilometer for the small, four-place, civilian helicopter and approach five kilometers for heavier, military types. The system has two parts: a transducer package containing a microphone and a geophone and a digital processor. Development is underway for a model which will be AC powered and well suited to permanent facilities. A prototype unit using a lightweight, battery powered processor is being constructed for rapid-deployment applications. 6 figs.

Elliott, G.R.

1985-01-01

185

Barrier infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

186

The Galileo Dust Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10 exp -19 and 10 exp -9 kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, and to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian magnetosphere. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multicoincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 1 000 000 times higher than that of previous in situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 4.2 kg, consumes 2.4 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 24 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On December 29, 1989 the instrument was switched-on. After the instrument had been configured to flight conditions cruise science data collection started immediately. In the period to May 18, 1990 at least 168 dust impacts have been recorded. For 81 of these dust grains masses and impact speeds have been determined. First flux values are given.

Gruen, Eberhard; Fechtig, Hugo; Hanner, Martha S.; Kissel, Jochen; Lindblad, Bertil-Anders; Linkert, Dietmar; Maas, Dieter; Morfill, Gregor E.; Zook, Herbert A.

1992-01-01

187

Advanced Radiation Detector Development  

SciTech Connect

Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

The University of Michigan

1998-07-01

188

Chopper-stabilized phase detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase-detector circuit for binary-tracking loops and other binary-data acquisition systems minimizes effects of drift, gain imbalance, and voltage offset in detector circuitry. Input signal passes simultaneously through two channels where it is mixed with early and late codes that are alternately switched between channels. Code switching is synchronized with polarity switching of detector output of each channel so that each channel uses each detector for half time. Net result is that dc offset errors are canceled, and effect of gain imbalance is simply change in sensitivity.

Hopkins, P. M.

1978-01-01

189

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

190

Efficiencies of Quantum Optical Detectors  

E-print Network

We propose a definition for the efficiency that can be universally applied to all classes of quantum optical detectors. This definition is based on the maximum amount of optical loss that a physically plausible device can experience while still replicating the properties of a given detector. We prove that detector efficiency cannot be increased using linear optical processing. That is, given a set of detectors, as well as arbitrary linear optical elements and ancillary light sources, it is impossible to construct detection devices that would exhibit higher efficiencies than the initial set.

Daniel Hogg; Dominic W. Berry; A. I. Lvovsky

2014-12-15

191

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies  

SciTech Connect

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (>85%), high spatial resolution (<5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600 / in{sup 2}), low dead time (<4 {mu}s in{sup 2}), good timing resolution (<5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, <200 ps fwhm for time of flight), and good energy resolution (<100 keV fwhm), where these requirements are listed in decreasing order of importance. The ``high efficiency`` requirement also implies that the detector modules must pack together without inactive gaps. Several novel and emerging radiation detector technologies could improve the performance of PET detectors. Avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, metal channel dynode photomultiplier tubes, and new scintillators all have the potential to improve PET detectors significantly.

Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

1994-05-01

192

HERMES Recoil Detector Roberto Francisco Prez Benito  

E-print Network

Design Requirement Recoil Detector (RD) Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) Scintillating Fiber Tracker (SFT cell inside beam pipe #12;11 Silicon Strip Detector (SSD)Silicon Strip Detector (SSD)Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) 2 layers of double sided TIGRE sensors 16 TIGRE sensors operate in beam vacuum few cm close

193

MTF for color Bayer pattern detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model for calculating the Spatial Frequency Response (SFR) for Bayer pattern color detectors. The model is based on the color detector response to B\\/W scenes. When a Bayer color detector is compared to a B\\/W detector, SFR difference results from the interpolation process. This process exists only in the Bayer pattern detectors. In this work we ascribe

Elor Yotam; Pinsky Ephi; Yaacobi Ami

194

MTF for Bayer pattern color detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model for calculating the Spatial Frequency Response (SFR) for Bayer pattern color detectors. The model is based on the color detector response to B\\/W scenes. When a Bayer color detector is compared to a B\\/W detector, SFR difference results from the interpolation process. This process exists only in the Bayer pattern detectors. In this work we ascribe

Elor Yotam; Pinsky Ephi; Yaacobi Ami

2007-01-01

195

A low temperature gravitational radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The beginning design of an experiment is discussed for studying gravitational radiation by using massive detectors which are cooled to ultralow temperatures in order to improve the signal to noise ratios and the effective range and stability of the detectors. The gravitational detector, a low detection system, a cooled detector, magnetic support, superconducting shielding, and superconducting accelerometer detector are described.

Hamilton, W. O.

1971-01-01

196

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, D.F.

1980-10-29

197

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

Angel, S.M.

1987-02-27

198

Volatile chemical reagent detector  

DOEpatents

A device for detecting volatile chemical reagents based on fluorescence quenching analysis that is capable of detecting neutral electron acceptor molecules. The device includes a fluorescent material, a contact region, a light source, and an optical detector. The fluorescent material includes at least one polymer-surfactant complex. The polymer-surfactant complex is formed by combining a fluorescent ionic conjugated polymer with an oppositely charged surfactant. The polymer-surfactant complex may be formed in a polar solvent and included in the fluorescent material as a solution. Alternatively, the complex may be included in the fluorescent material as a thin film. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex in the fluorescent material allows the device to detect both neutral and ionic acceptor molecules. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex film allows the device and the fluorescent material to be reusable after exposing the fluorescent material to a vacuum for limited time.

Chen, Liaohai; McBranch, Duncan; Wang, Rong; Whitten, David

2004-08-24

199

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-12-15

200

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01

201

Sandia helicopter acoustic detector  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia Helicopter Acoustic Detector (SHAD) was developed to provide a low-cost alternative to radar for countering the helicopter threat at new DOE facilities. The main buildings of these new designs are generally hardened to provide significant delay to a helicopter-borne adversary team. Under these circumstances the sensor is only required to detect helicopters that are in their final landing phase and at close range (less than 75 m). This short-detection range allows the use of a fairly simple acoustic detection algorithm without making the system overly sensitive to wind noise, motor vehicles, and ventilation/heat exchange blowers. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program.

Arlowe, H.D.

1982-05-01

202

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

203

Event counting alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

1996-08-27

204

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

205

Porous material neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

2012-04-10

206

Temperature profile detector  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

Tokarz, R.D.

1983-10-11

207

Laser pulse detector  

DOEpatents

A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

Mashburn, Douglas N. (Knoxville, TN); Akerman, M. Alfred (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01

208

Detector Arrays For Infrared Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paper describes status of program for developing integrated infrared detectors for astronomy. Program covers variety of detectors, including extrinsic silicon, extrinsic germanium, and indium antimonide devices with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Paper notes for arrays to reach background noise limit in cryogenic telescope, continued reductions in readout noise and dark current needed.

Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

1988-01-01

209

The SPICE Detector at ISAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ancillary detector system for the TIGRESS HPGe array called SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons (SPICE) is currently under development. SPICE consists of a segmented electron detector, photon shield and a permanent magnetic lens. SPICE will enable in-beam electron spectroscopy and, in coupling to the TIGRESS HPGe array, coincident gamma-electron spectroscopy with stable and radioactive beams.

Garnsworthy, A. B.; Moukaddam, M.; Bolton, C.; Ketelhut, S.; Evitts, L. J.; Andreoiu, C.; Constable, M.; Hackman, G.; Henderson, R.; Svensson, C. E.

2013-12-01

210

Performance of the DELPHI detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

DELPHI (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is a detector for e+e? physics, designed to provide high granularity over a 4? solid angle, allowing an effective particle identification. It has been operating at the LEP (Large Electron-Positron) collider at CERN since 1989. This article reviews its performance.

P. Abreu; W. Adam; T. Adye; E. Agasi; I. Ajinenko; R. Aleksan; G. D. Alekseev; R. Alemany; P. P. Allport; S. Almehed; S. J. Alvsvaag; U. Amaldi; S. Amato; A. Andreazza; M. L. Andrieux; P. Antilogus; W. D. Apel; Y. Arnoud; B. Åsman; J. E. Augustin; A. Augustinus; P. Baillon; P. Bambade; F. Barao; R. Barate; G. Barbiellini; D. Y. Bardin; A. Baroncelli; O. Barring; J. A. Barrio; W. Bartl; M. J. Bates; M. Battaglia; M. Baubillier; J. Baudot; K. H. Becks; M. Begalli; P. Beilliere; Yu. Belokopytov; A. C. Benvenuti; M. Berggren; D. Bertrand; F. Bianchi; M. Bigi; M. S. Bilenky; P. Billoir; D. Bloch; M. Blume; S. Blyth; T. Bolognese; M. Bonesini; W. Bonivento; P. S. L. Booth; C. Bosio; S. Bosworth; O. Botner; B. Bouquet; C. Bourdarios; T. J. V. Bowcock; M. Bozzo; P. Branchini; K. D. Brand; T. Brenke; R. A. Brenner; C. Bricman; L. Brillault; R. C. A. Brown; P. Bruckman; J. M. Brunet; L. Bugge; T. Buran; T. Burgsmueller; P. Buschmann; A. Buys; S. Cabrera; M. Caccia; M. Calvi; A. J. Camacho Rozas; T. Camporesi; V. Canale; M. Canepa; K. Cankocak; F. Cao; F. Carena; P. Carrilho; L. Carroll; C. Caso; M. V. Castillo Gimenez; A. Cattai; F. R. Cavallo; L. Cerrito; V. Chabaud; Ph. Charpentier; L. Chaussard; J. Chauveau; P. Checchia; G. A. Chelkov; M. Chen; R. Chierici; P. Chliapnikov; P. Chochula; V. Chorowicz; J. Chudoba; V. Cindro; P. Collins; J. L. Contreras; R. Contri; E. Cortina; G. Cosme; F. Cossutti; H. B. Crawley; D. Crennell; G. Crosetti; J. Cuevas Maestro; S. Czellar; E. Dahl-Jensen; J. Dahm; B. Dalmagne; M. Dam; G. Damgaard; P. D. Dauncey; M. Davenport; W. Da Silva; C. Defoix; A. Deghorain; G. Della Ricca; P. Delpierre; N. Demaria; A. De Angelis; W. De Boer; S. De Brabandere; C. De Clercq; C. De La Vaissiere; B. De Lotto; A. De Min; L. De Paula; C. De Saint-Jean; H. Dijkstra; L. Di Ciaccio; F. Djama; J. Dolbeau; M. Donszelmann; K. Doroba; M. Dracos; J. Drees; K.-A. Drees; M. Dris; Y. Dufour; F. Dupont; D. Edsall; R. Ehret; G. Eigen; T. Ekelof; G. Ekspong; M. Elsing; J. P. Engel; N. Ershaidat; B. Erzen; M. Espirito Santo; V. Falaleev; E. Falk; D. Fassouliotis; M. Feindt; A. Fenyuk; A. Ferrer; T. A. Filippas; A. Firestone; P.-A. Fischer; H. Foeth; E. Fokitis; F. Fontanelli; F. Formenti; B. Franek; P. Frenkiel; D. C. Fries; A. G. Frodesen; R. Fruhwirth; F. Fulda-Quenzer; J. Fuster; A. Galloni; D. Gamba; M. Gandelman; C. Garcia; J. Garcia; C. Gaspar; U. Gasparini; Ph. Gavillet; E. N. Gazis; D. Gele; J. P. Gerber; L. Gerdyukov; M. Gibbs; R. Gokieli; B. Golob; G. Gopal; L. Gorn; M. Gorski; Yu. Gouz; V. Gracco; E. Graziani; G. Grosdidier; K. Grzelak; S. Gumenyuk; P. Gunnarsson; M. Gunther; J. Guy; F. Hahn; S. Hahn; Z. Hajduk; A. Hallgren; K. Hamacher; W. Hao; F. J. Harris; V. Hedberg; R. Henriques; J. J. Hernandez; P. Herquet; H. Herr; T. L. Hessing; E. Higon; H. J. Hilke; T. S. Hill; S. O. Holmgren; P. J. Holt; D. Holthuizen; S. Hoorelbeke; M. Houlden; J. Hrubec; K. Huet; K. Hultqvist; J. N. Jackson; R. Jacobsson; P. Jalocha; R. Janik; Ch. Jarlskog; G. Jarlskog; P. Jarry; B. Jean-Marie; E. K. Johansson; L. Jonsson; P. Jonsson; C. Joram; P. Juillot; M. Kaiser; F. Kapusta; K. Karafasoulis; M. Karlsson; E. Karvelas; A. Karyukhin; S. Katsanevas; E. C. Katsoufis; R. Keranen; B. A. Khomenko; N. N. Khovanski; B. King; N. J. Kjaer; H. Klein; A. Klovning; P. Kluit; B. Koene; P. Kokkinias; M. Koratzinos; C. Kourkoumelis; O. Kouznetsov; P.-H. Kramer; M. Krammer; C. Kreuter; I. Kronkvist; Z. Krumstein; W. Krupinski; P. Kubinec; W. Kucewicz; K. Kurvinen; C. Lacasta; I. Laktineh; S. Lamblot; J. W. Lamsa; L. Lanceri; P. Langefeld; V. Lapin; I. Last; J. P. Laugier; R. Lauhakangas; G. Leder; F. Ledroit; V. Lefebure; C. K. Legan; R. Leitner; Y. Lemoigne; J. Lemonne; G. Lenzen; V. Lepeltier; T. Lesiak; D. Liko; R. Lindner; A. Lipniacka; I. Lippi; B. Loerstad; J. G. Loken; J. M. Lopez; M. A. Lopez Aguera; D. Loukas; P. Lutz; L. Lyons; J. MacNaughton; G. Maehlum; A. Maio; V. Malychev; F. Mandl; J. Marco; B. Marechal; M. Margoni; J. C. Marin; C. Mariotti; A. Markou; T. Maron; C. Martinez-Rivero; F. Martinez-Vidal; S. Marti i Garcia; J. Masik; F. Matorras; C. Matteuzzi; G. Matthiae; M. Mazzucato; M. Mc Cubbin; R. Mc Kay; R. Mc Nulty; J. Medbo; C. Meroni; S. Meyer; W. T. Meyer; M. Michelotto; E. Migliore; L. Mirabito; W. A. Mitaroff; U. Mjoernmark; T. Moa; R. Moeller; K. Moenig; M. R. Monge; P. Morettini; H. Mueller; L. M. Mundim; W. J. Murray; B. Muryn; G. Myatt; F. Naraghi; F. L. Navarria; S. Navas; K. Nawrocki; P. Negri; W. Neumann; N. Neumeister; R. Nicolaidou; B. S. Nielsen; M. Nieuwenhuizen; V. Nikolaenko; P. Niss; A. Nomerotski; A. Normand; W. Oberschulte-Beckmann; V. Obraztsov; A. G. Olshevski; A. Onofre; R. Orava; K. Osterberg; A. Ouraou; P. Paganini; M. Paganoni; P. Pages; H. Palka; Th. D. Papadopoulou; K. Papageorgiou; L. Pape; C. Parkes; F. Parodi; A. Passeri; M. Pegoraro; L. Peralta

1996-01-01

211

ISO/LWS: Detector status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of the long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory is to perform spectrometry in the wavelength range 45 to 200 microns using two resolution modes. The resolution will be around 200 in the medium resolution mode while it will reach 10(exp 4) in the high resolution mode. The sensitivity of this instrument will be close to 10(exp -18) W/sq. root Hz. A schematic view of the focal plane unit is presented. The detectors divide the wavelength range into ten spectral channels. The spectral range and position of each detector is indicated. Each detector will cover approximately a spectral bandwidth sufficient to allow for a 50 percent redundancy in the case of detector failure. There are three types of detectors. SW1 is a Ge:Be photoconductor covering the 45 to 55 micron region. LW1, SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5 are unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductors which cover the 50 to 120 micron region. LW2, LW3, LW4, LW5 are uniaxially stressed Ge:GA photoconductors covering the range from 100 to 200 microns. The stress applied to each detector will be adjusted in order to get the peak response in the corresponding wavelength range, and to minimize the dark current of the shorter wavelength stressed detectors. Stressed and unstressed detectors are located alternatively in order to receive the first and second order of the diffracted beam.

Lenaour, C.; Delettrez, C.; Griffin, M.; Ade, P.; Robinson, D.; Vickers, D.

1989-01-01

212

Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

A. Buzulutskov

2015-03-29

213

Air cooling for Vertex Detectors  

E-print Network

The vertex detectors are crucial detectors for future linear e+e- colliders since they must give the most accurate location of any outgoing charged particles originating from the interaction point. The DEPFET collaboration is developing a new type of pixel sensors which provide very low noise and high spatial resolution. In order to precisely determine the track and vertex positions, multiple scattering in the detector has to be reduced by minimizing the material in the sensors, cooling, and support structures. A new method of cooling by blowing air over the sensors has been developed and tested. It is applied in the design and construction of the Belle-II detector and may be used in the new generation of vertex detectors for linear colliders.

Arantza Oyanguren

2012-02-28

214

Subminiature infrared detector translation stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

Bell, Alan D.

1989-01-01

215

Fundamentals of Gas Micropattern Detectors  

E-print Network

We performed a new series of systematic studies of gain and rate characteristics of several micropattern gaseous detectors. Extending earlier studies, these measurements were done at various pressures, gas mixtures, at a wide range of primary charges and also when the whole area of the detectors was irradiated with a high intensity x-ray beam. Several new effects were discovered, common to all tested detectors, which define fundamental limits of operation. The results of these studies allow us to identify several concrete ways of improving the performance of micropattern detectors and to suggest that in some applications RPCs may constitute a valid alternative. Being protected from damaging discharges by the resistive electrodes, these detectors feature high gain, high rate capability (10^5 Hz/mm^2), good position resolution (better than 30 micrometer) and excellent timing (50 ps sigma).

Peskov, Vladimir; Danielsson, M; Iacobaeus, C; Ostling, J; Wallmark, M

2001-01-01

216

24 CFR 242.74 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 242.74 Section 242.74 Housing...Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.74 Smoke detectors. Each occupied room must include such smoke detectors as are required by...

2010-04-01

217

21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350 Food...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a...

2010-04-01

218

14 CFR 125.173 - Fire detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire detectors. 125.173 Section 125.173 Aeronautics...Airworthiness Requirements § 125.173 Fire detectors. Fire detectors must be made and installed in a manner that...

2010-01-01

219

Acquisition System and Detector Interface for Power Pulsed Detectors  

E-print Network

A common DAQ system is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture based on giga-ethernet and 8b/10b serial links in order to transmit either slow control data, fast signals or read out data. A detector interface (DIF) is used to connect detectors to the DAQ system based on a single firmware shared among the collaboration but targeted on various physical implementations. The DIF allows to build, store and queue packets of data as well as to control the detectors providing USB and serial link connectivity. The overall architecture is foreseen to manage several hundreds of thousands channels.

Cornat, R

2015-01-01

220

Acquisition System and Detector Interface for Power Pulsed Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common DAQ system is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture based on giga-ethernet and 8b/10b serial links in order to transmit either slow control data, fast signals or read out data. A detector interface (DIF) is used to connect detectors to the DAQ system based on a single firmware shared among the collaboration but targeted on various physical implementations. The DIF allows to build, store and queue packets of data as well as to control the detectors providing USB and serial link connectivity. The overall architecture is foreseen to manage several hundreds of thousands channels.

Cornat, Rémi; On Behalf Of The Calice Colaboration

221

Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

222

Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

223

The ALICE detector at LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a dedicated detector designed to exploit the unique physics opportunities which will be offered by nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. ALICE has been conceived as a general-purpose detector, in which hadrons, electrons and photons produced in the interaction can be measured and identified. The detector is designed to cope with the highest particle densities anticipated in Pb?Pb interactions at the LHC (8000 per unit of rapidity). An acceptance of about two units of rapidity has been chosen, which has been calculated to be sufficient to define most of the variables sensitive to the onset of a phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. The baseline design of ALICE consists of a central (| ?| ? 0.9) detector covering the full azimuth, complemented by a multiplicity detector covering the forward rapidity region (up to ? = 4.8) and a zero degree calorimeter. The central detector will be embedded in large magnet with a weak field of 0.2 T, and will consist of a high-resolution inner tracking system, a cylindrical TPC, a particle identification array (time of flight or ring imaging Cherenkov detectors) and a single-arm electromagnetic calorimeter. Possible upgrades to this baseline design are currently under study, including a muon identification system and a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter.

Giubellino, P.; Alice Collaboration

1994-04-01

224

Modern detectors for radiation monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of using modern photon and neutron detectors for developing radiation monitors, specifically, LaBr3, Bi4Ge3O12, CdWO4, LiI, ZnO, Lu2SiO5(Ce), CdTe, and HgI2, microtubes from organic scintillators, nanomaterials, and detectors based on gaseous and solid-state electronic multipliers\\u000a are examined. A comparison is made of conventional detectors based on NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl), plastic scintillators, and 3He counters. The advantages of the

A. V. Shumakov; A. S. Sviridov; S. V. Kolesnikov

2011-01-01

225

SSC muon detector group report  

SciTech Connect

We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4..pi.. detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC.

Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

1986-01-01

226

ATLAS Forward Detectors and Physics  

E-print Network

In this communication I describe the ATLAS forward physics program and the detectors, LUCID, ZDC and ALFA that have been designed to meet this experimental challenge. In addition to their primary role in the determination of ATLAS luminosity these detectors - in conjunction with the main ATLAS detector - will be used to study soft QCD and diffractive physics in the initial low luminosity phase of ATLAS running. Finally, I will briefly describe the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) project that currently represents the future of the ATLAS forward physics program.

N. Soni

2010-06-28

227

The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector  

SciTech Connect

A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the detector in the radiation environment are discussed. The device has been taking colliding beams data since May of 1992, performing at its best design specifications and enhancing the physics program of CDF.

Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B. [and others

1993-09-01

228

Solid state neutron detector array  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors.

Seidel, John G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ruddy, Frank H. (Monroeville, PA); Brandt, Charles D. (Mount Lebanon, PA); Dulloo, Abdul R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lott, Randy G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sirianni, Ernest (Monroeville, PA); Wilson, Randall O. (Greensburg, PA)

1999-01-01

229

Seal system with integral detector  

DOEpatents

A seal system is disclosed for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials. The seal is tamper-indicating, indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to bypass the seal, is unique and cost effective. The seal system is comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

Fiarman, S.

1982-08-12

230

Advanced detectors and signal processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continued progress is reported toward development of a silicon on garnet technology which would allow fabrication of advanced detection and signal processing circuits on bubble memories. The first integrated detectors and propagation patterns have been designed and incorporated on a new mask set. In addition, annealing studies on spacer layers are performed. Based on those studies, a new double layer spacer is proposed which should reduce contamination of the silicon originating in the substrate. Finally, the magnetic sensitivity of uncontaminated detectors from the last lot of wafers is measured. The measured sensitivity is lower than anticipated but still higher than present magnetoresistive detectors.

Greve, D. W.; Rasky, P. H. L.; Kryder, M. H.

1986-01-01

231

Solid state neutron detector array  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors. 7 figs.

Seidel, J.G.; Ruddy, F.H.; Brandt, C.D.; Dulloo, A.R.; Lott, R.G.; Sirianni, E.; Wilson, R.O.

1999-08-17

232

NASA AMES infrared detector assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon: Gallium infrared detector assemblies were designed, fabricated, and tested using techniques representative of those employed for hybrid arrays to determine the suitability of this candidate technology for infrared astronomical detector array applications. Both the single channel assembly and the assembly using a 32 channel CMOS multiplexer are considered. The detector material was certified to have a boron background of less than 10 to the 13th power atoms/sq cm counter doped with phosphorus. The gallium concentration is 2 x 10 to the 16th power atoms/cu cm.

1979-01-01

233

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1993-01-01

234

Optical Flameout Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device has been developed which monitors the presence of a flame within a combustion chamber. The optical flameout detection system responds to gross changes in combustor light intensity which is monitored in two spectral bands. A photomultiplier tube makes optical measurements in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum and a silicon photodiode covers the visible region. The detectors, located outside the combustion chamber, receive the light energy radiated from the combustion process through fiber optic probes designed to operate in a high pressure environment. The optical fibers are aimed diagonally through the center of the injector at the combustion chamber wall downstream of the injector. The probe observes events occurring within a narrow conical-shaped field of view so that the system can quickly detect longitudinal movement of the flame front away from the injector. If a change in intensity of the flame is detected, the fuel supply to the combustion chamber is shut off limiting the amount of unburned fuel in the combustion chamber which could reignite.

Borg, Stephen E. (Inventor); West, James W. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert M. (Inventor); Harper, Samuel E., Jr. (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

235

SNAP Near Infrared Detectors  

E-print Network

The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will measure precisely the cosmological expansion history over both the acceleration and deceleration epochs and thereby constrain the nature of the dark energy that dominates our universe today. The SNAP focal plane contains equal areas of optical CCDs and NIR sensors and an integral field spectrograph. Having over 150 million pixels and a field-of-view of 0.34 square degrees, the SNAP NIR system will be the largest yet constructed. With sensitivity in the range 0.9-1.7 microns, it will detect Type Ia supernovae between z = 1 and 1.7 and will provide follow-up precision photometry for all supernovae. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-off tuned to 1.7 microns, will permit passive cooling at 140 K while maintaining noise below zodiacal levels. By dithering to remove the effects of intrapixel variations and by careful attention to other instrumental effects, we expect to control relative photometric accuracy below a few hundredths of a magnitude. Because SNAP continuously revisits the same fields we will be able to achieve outstanding statistical precision on the photometry of reference stars in these fields, allowing precise monitoring of our detectors. The capabilities of the NIR system for broadening the science reach of SNAP are discussed.

G. Tarle

2002-10-01

236

Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135°C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm Ø glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm Ø Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's "72-inch" BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

Mulholland, G. T.; Harigel, G. G.

2004-06-01

237

Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector  

SciTech Connect

In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135 deg. C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm O glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm O Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's '72-inch' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

Mulholland, G.T. [Applied Cryogenics Technology, Ovilla TX 75154 (United States); Harigel, G.G. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2004-06-23

238

Microwave hematoma detector  

DOEpatents

The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA)

2001-01-01

239

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-03-04

240

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector is designed comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient. 6 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1993-11-09

241

The detector control system of the LHCb RICH detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is dedicated to the study of b-quark properties. A key element of the LHCb detector is particle identification, a task performed by the ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) subsystem. Efficient particle identification over the full momentum range of 1 to 100 GeV\\/c requires an extensive system of detector control and monitoring. The

F. Fontanelli

2005-01-01

242

Reactor Monitoring with Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the use of neutrino detectors to monitor nuclear reactors is currently a very active field of research. While neutrino detectors located close to reactors have been used to provide information about the global performance of the reactors, a general improvement of the technique is needed in order to use it in a practical way to monitor the fissile contents of the fuel of the nuclear reactors or the thermal power delivered. I describe the current status of the Angra Neutrino Project, aimed to building a low-mass neutrino detector to monitor the Angra II reactor of the Brazilian nuclear power plant Almirante Alvaro Ramos in order to explore new approaches to reactor monitoring with neutrino detectors.

Casimiro Linares, Edgar

2011-09-01

243

Modulated voltage metastable ionization detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The output current from a metastable ionization detector (MID) is applied to a modulation voltage circuit. An adjustment is made to balance out the background current, and an output current, above background, is applied to an input of a strip chart recorder. For low level concentrations, i.e., low detected output current, the ionization potential will be at a maximum and the metastable ionization detector will operate at its most sensitive level. When the detected current from the metastable ionization detector increases above a predetermined threshold level, a voltage control circuit is activated which turns on a high voltage transistor which acts to reduce the ionization potential. The ionization potential applied to the metastable ionization detector is then varied so as to maintain the detected signal level constant. The variation in ionization potential is now related to the concentration of the constituent and a representative amplitude is applied to another input of said strip chart recorder.

Carle, G. C.; Kojiro, D. R.; Humphrey, D. E. (inventors)

1985-01-01

244

Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

Been, J. F.

1972-01-01

245

Complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An infrared detector having a hole barrier region adjacent to one side of an absorber region, an electron barrier region adjacent to the other side of the absorber region, and a semiconductor adjacent to the electron barrier.

Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

246

Long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

1993-02-02

247

Long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); McAtee, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Unruh, Wesley P. (Los Alamos, NM); Cucchiara, Alfred L. (Los Alamos, NM); Huchton, Roger L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

248

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

DOEpatents

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

249

GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS – CANDLE CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal is made to establish a low budget Gravitational Wave (GW) detector at CANDLE site that will use as a source synchrotron\\u000a radiation. The GW detector will work in MHz domain, with a possibility, to be improved, to work in kHz domain and lower. The\\u000a advantage of using CANDLE as light source is motivated with wide frequency range of

Avetis A. Sadoyan; Tatevik Navasardyan; Levon Sedrakyan

250

Radiation Hazard Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

1978-01-01

251

Industrial silicon detectors, advancements in planar technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years ago planar technology was first successfully applied to the manufacture of silicon detectors and this technique led to detectors with better performance than traditional surface barrier and diffused junction types. Today, these detectors are widely used in nuclear and high-energy physics research and are widely deployed in the industrial market as well. These silicon detectors are used in

Paul Burger; Marijke Keters; Olivier Evrard; Luc Van Buul

2008-01-01

252

InI nuclear radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor radiation detectors are fabricated on single crystal wafers of indium iodide and tested both as direct radiation detectors and as optical detectors coupled to a scintillator crystal. The initial performance of the devices is encouraging but some chemical instability of the crystals is observed. Improvements in the detector performance may be possible by enhancing the InI crystal purity and

M. R. Squillante; C. Zhou; J. Zhang; L. P. Moy; K. S. Shah

1993-01-01

253

Further characterization of IRAS doped silicon detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements made on several doped-silicon detectors are reported. Topics discussed include: Si:Sb detector, the effects of detector bias on dielectric relaxation; characterization of spontaneous noise and gamma-induced spikes and their circumvention; and the time response of two detectors to step changes in the background photon flux density. Several potential system programs are indicated.

1977-01-01

254

Analytical model for pixellated SPECT detector concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pixellated CZT detectors provide a new opportunity to improve the image quality of SPECT detector systems. Their performance has to he evaluated in terms of resolution and efficiency, in a similar way as done earlier for Nal detectors. We have developed an analytical model for spatial resolution and geometric efficiency of collimators specifically for pixellated CZT based detectors. We derive

Herfried Wieczorek; Andreas Goedicke; Ling Shao; Micheal Petrillo; J. Ye; J. Vesel

2004-01-01

255

Analytical model for SPECT detector concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pixellated cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT) detectors, providing higher spatial resolution and energy resolution than current gamma cameras, will improve the image quality of SPECT detector systems. Their performance has to be evaluated in terms of resolution, detector efficiency and image quality in a similar way as has been done earlier for NaI detectors. We have developed an analytical model for spatial

Herfried Wieczorek; Andreas Goedicke

2006-01-01

256

Using near detector(s) to predict the far detector events in NOvA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The NOvA experiment is designed to search for a non-vanishing mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} with unprecedented sensitivity and has the potential to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy and constrain CP-violation phase. NOvA will use two functionally identical detectors at near and far locations to eliminate sensitivity to modeling of neutrino flux and cross-sections. The near detector will measure neutrino rate to constrain backgrounds expected in the far detector which will search for appearance of electron neutrinos and/or anti-neutrinos using Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam. This report describes initial thoughts on how the available beams and detectors may be used to reach the NOvA goals.

Djurcic, Zelimir; /Argonne

2011-01-01

257

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

258

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

259

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

260

The HERMES Recoil Detector Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) Module and Assembly  

E-print Network

The HERMES Recoil Detector Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) Module and Assembly Charge Injection Test Scattering Chamber (1.5 mm thick Al) Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) Module Support Target Cell Photon Detector (3 layers tungsten / scintillators) Eight silicon strip detector (SSD) modules in two layers around

261

GaAs detectors for medical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray detectors for use with a scanning radiographic device have been developed based on the technique of compensated semi-insulating GaAs. The main detector feature is a linear current-voltage characteristic due to the use of Ohmic contacts. The detector consists of two identical detectors connected to power supplies with different polarities in order to minimize the detector leakage current. Testing of

G. I. Ayzenshtat; E. A. Babichev; S. E. Baru; V. R. Groshev; G. A. Savinov; O. P. Tolbanov; A. P. Vorobiev

2003-01-01

262

GaAs detectors for medical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray detectors for use with a scanning radiographic device have been developed based on the technique of compensated semi-insulating GaAs. The main detector feature is a linear current–voltage characteristic due to the use of Ohmic contacts. The detector consists of two identical detectors connected to power supplies with different polarities in order to minimize the detector leakage current.Testing of the

G. I. Ayzenshtat; E. A. Babichev; S. E. Baru; V. R. Groshev; G. A. Savinov; O. P. Tolbanov; A. P. Vorobiev

2003-01-01

263

Diamond detector for alpha-particle spectrometry.  

PubMed

An artificially grown high purity diamond was used as a detector for alpha-particle spectrometry. Diamond detectors can match the performance of silicon detectors employed in standard continuous air monitoring systems. Its radiation hardness and electronic properties make them ideal to work under extreme condition such as high temperature and ambient lights. A 50 ?m thickness single-crystal diamond detector has been compared with a 300 ?m passivated implanted planar silicon detector, under ambient conditions. PMID:24768983

Dueñas, J A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Martín Sánchez, A; Martel, I

2014-08-01

264

Advanced concepts for semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying the technologies of semiconductor device fabrication, new types of Si radiation detectors have been developed. These include low-noise detectors for energy spectroscopy as well as detectors for precise position measurement of radiation. The activities on smart sensors resulted in detectors with on-chip low-noise signal amplification. One of the most interesting ideas is a random-access pixel detector with charge

J. Kemmer

1990-01-01

265

Silicon single photon imaging detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-photon imaging detectors promise the ultimate in sensitivity by eliminating read noise. These devices could provide extraordinary benefits for photon-starved applications, e.g., imaging exoplanets, fast wavefront sensing, and probing the human body through transluminescence. Recent implementations are often in the form of sparse arrays that have less-than-unity fill factor. For imaging, fill factor is typically enhanced by using microlenses, at the expense of photometric and spatial information loss near the edges and corners of the pixels. Other challenges include afterpulsing and the potential for photon self-retriggering. Both effects produce spurious signal that can degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. This paper reviews development and potential application of single-photon-counting detectors, including highlights of initiatives in the Center for Detectors at the Rochester Institute of Technology and MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Current projects include single-photon-counting imaging detectors for the Thirty Meter Telescope, a future NASA terrestrial exoplanet mission, and imaging LIDAR detectors for planetary and Earth science space missions.

Figer, D. F.; Aull, B. F.; Schuette, D. R.; Hanold, B. J.; Kolb, K.; Lee, J.

2011-10-01

266

High precision thermal neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional position sensitive detectors are indispensable in neutron diffraction experiments for determination of molecular and crystal structures in biology, solid-state physics and polymer chemistry. Some performance characteristics of these detectors are elementary and obvious, such as the position resolution, number of resolution elements, neutron detection efficiency, counting rate and sensitivity to gamma-ray background. High performance detectors are distinguished by more subtle characteristics such as the stability of the response (efficiency) versus position, stability of the recorded neutron positions, dynamic range, blooming or halo effects. While relatively few of them are needed around the world, these high performance devices are sophisticated and fairly complex; their development requires very specialized efforts. In this context, we describe here a program of detector development, based on {sup 3}He filled proportional chambers, which has been underway for some years at Brookhaven. Fundamental approaches and practical considerations are outlined that have resulted in a series of high performance detectors with the best known position resolution, position stability, uniformity of reliability over time of this type.

Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; and Yu, B.

1994-10-01

267

High precision thermal neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional position sensitive detectors are indispensable in neutron diffraction experiments for determination of molecular and crystal structures in biology, solid-state physics and polymer chemistry. Some performance characteristics of these detectors are elementary and obvious, such as the position resolution, number of resolution elements, neutron detection efficiency, counting rate and sensitivity to gamma-ray background. High performance detectors are distinguished by more subtle characteristics such as the stability of the response (efficiency) versus position, stability of the recorded neutron positions, dynamic range, blooming or halo effects. While relatively few of them are needed around the world, these high performance devices are sophisticated and fairly complex, their development requires very specialized efforts. In this context, we describe here a program of detector development, based on {sup 3}He filled proportional chambers, which has been underway for some years at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Fundamental approaches and practical considerations are outlined that have resulted in a series of high performance detectors with the best known position resolution, position stability, uniformity of response and reliability over time, for devices of this type.

Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

268

Argon SDC detector cryogenic design  

SciTech Connect

A first cut at designing the cryogenic systems is resented. The point design or sample design presented includes flow-rate calculations, piping sizes, dewar elevations, etc. In summary, the analysis shows argon cooling is ample even with relatively small piping, headers, dewar elevations, etc. This will afford the designer considerable latitude to change the design as required to meet other system requirements. For example, dewar elevation above the detector and horizontal distance to the detector could be varied to meet hall-space requirements. The point design shows a simple system with only one argon supply-and-return pipe to the detector. No nitrogen cooling is required at the detector. No seals or piping (except for an open supply and return header) are required in the detector and a minimum, of baffling to director argon flow is required. No thermal insulation is required to protect modules from pre-amp heat. A simple temperature control technique for the argon loop using a single nitrogen dewar and heat exchanger is shown.

Slack, D.S.

1991-10-25

269

Near infrared detectors for SNAP  

SciTech Connect

Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

2006-05-23

270

Report on Advanced Detector Development  

SciTech Connect

Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

James K. Jewell

2012-09-01

271

Transition Radiation Detector in MACRO  

E-print Network

The MACRO detector is located in the Gran Sasso Laboratory. MACRO's overburden varies from 3150 to 7000 hg/cm^2. A transition radiation detector (TRD) has been added to the MACRO detector in order to measure the residual energy of muons entering MACRO, i.e. the energy they have after passing through the Gran Sasso's rock overburden. The TRD consists of three identical modules with a total horizontal area of 36 m^2. The results presented here are referred to single and double events in MACRO with one muon crossing one of the TRD modules. Our data show that double muons are more energetic than single ones, as predicted by the interaction models of primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere.

M. N. Mazziotta; for the MACRO Collaboration

1999-05-13

272

Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

Agouridis, Dimitrios C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01

273

Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in the field for stand-off frisking of suspects, and as supplemental security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an adjustable, audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object has been detected. An aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. A presentation of the detector's capabilities and limitations will be presented along with probability of detection (PD) data obtained using the latest prototype version.

Wilde, Norbert; Niederhaus, Steve; Lam, Hon; Lum, Chris

2002-08-01

274

Silicon Detector Letter of Intent  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

2010-05-26

275

High-efficiency photoionization detector  

SciTech Connect

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 +- 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20/sup 0/C.

Anderson, D.F.

1981-05-12

276

Improved Portable Ultrasonic Leak Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved portable ultrasonic leak detector features three interchangeable ultrasonic-transducer modules, each suited for operation in unique noncontact or contact mode. One module equipped with ultrasound-collecting horn for use in scanning to detect leaks from distance; horn provides directional sensitivity pattern with sensitivity multiplied by factor of about 6 in forward direction. Another module similar, does not include horn; this module used for scanning close to suspected leak, where proximity of leak more than offsets loss of sensitivity occasioned by lack of horn. Third module designed to be pressed against leaking vessel; includes rugged stainless-steel shell. Improved detectors perform significantly better, smaller, more rugged, and greater sensitivity.

Youngquist, Robert C.; Moerk, John S.; Haskell, William D.; Cox, Robert B.; Polk, Jimmy D.; Strobel, James P.; Luaces, Frank

1995-01-01

277

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (> 85%), high spatial resolution (< 5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600\\/in.2), low dead time (< 4 mus in.2), good timing resolution (< 5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, < 200 ps fwhm for time of flight), and good energy resolution (< 100 keV fwhm), where these

William W. Moses; Stephen E. Derenzo; Thomas F. Budinger

1994-01-01

278

RSSC RADIATION DETECTORS & SURVEY INSTRUMENTS 8/99 4-1 RADIATION DETECTORS AND SURVEY INSTRUMENTS  

E-print Network

RSSC RADIATION DETECTORS & SURVEY INSTRUMENTS 8/99 4-1 CHAPTER 4 RADIATION DETECTORS AND SURVEY........................................................................................................... 4-3 II. Use of Radiation Survey Instruments

Slatton, Clint

279

Construction of the CDF silicon vertex detector  

SciTech Connect

Technical details and methods used in constructing the CDF silicon vertex detector are presented. This description includes a discussion of the foam-carbon fiber composite structure used to silicon microstrip detectors and the procedure for achievement of 5 {mu}m detector alignment. The construction of the beryllium barrel structure, which houses the detector assemblies, is also described. In addition, the 10 {mu}m placement accuracy of the detectors in the barrel structure is discussed and the detector cooling and mounting systems are described. 12 refs.

Skarha, J.; Barnett, B.; Boswell, C.; Snider, F.; Spies, A.; Tseng, J.; Vejcik, S. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.; Gonzales, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Nelson, C.; Segler, S.; Shaw, T.; Tkaczyk, S.; Turner, K.; Wesson, T. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Carithers, W.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneider, O.; Wester

1992-04-01

280

Cardiac R-wave detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cardiac R wave detector obtains the systolic contraction signal of the human heart and uses it as a reference signal for the heart-assist pump cycle. It processes the electrocardiac signal /QRS wave complex/ of the natural heart in a sequence of operations which essentially elimates all components from the input signal except the R wave.

Gebben, V. D.

1968-01-01

281

An inexpensive vehicle speed detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-power minicomputer can plug into automobile cigarette lighter. It measures time it takes observed car to travel premeasured distance and provides immediate readout of speed. Potentially, detector could be manufactured for less than $200 per unit and would have very low maintenance cost.

Broussard, P., Jr.

1973-01-01

282

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

1988-11-15

283

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Mendez, Victor P. (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1988-01-01

284

Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

Gruber, C. L.

1977-01-01

285

Detector decoy quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

2009-04-01

286

The B AB AR detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B AB AR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e +e - B Factory operating at the ?(4 S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by d E/d x measurements in the tracking detectors and by a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Boucham, A.; Boutigny, D.; De Bonis, I.; Favier, J.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Jeremie, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Le Flour, T.; Lees, J. P.; Lieunard, S.; Petitpas, P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zachariadou, K.; Palano, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Reinertsen, P. L.; Stugu, B.; Abbott, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Amerman, L.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Clark, A. R.; Dardin, S.; Day, C.; Dow, S. F.; Fan, Q.; Gaponenko, I.; Gill, M. S.; Goozen, F. R.; Gowdy, S. J.; Gritsan, A.; Groysman, Y.; Hernikl, C.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Jared, R. C.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Karcher, A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kipnis, I.; Kluth, S.; Kral, J. F.; Lafever, R.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lewis, S. A.; Lionberger, C.; Liu, T.; Long, M.; Luo, L.; Lynch, G.; Luft, P.; Mandelli, E.; Marino, M.; Marks, K.; Matuk, C.; Meyer, A. B.; Minor, R.; Mokhtarani, A.; Momayezi, M.; Nyman, M.; Oddone, P. J.; Ohnemus, J.; Oshatz, D.; Patton, S.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Perazzo, A.; Peters, C.; Pope, W.; Pripstein, M.; Quarrie, D. R.; Rasson, J. E.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Stone, R.; Strother, P. D.; Telnov, A. V.; von der Lippe, H.; Weber, T. F.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zizka, G.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Hawkes, C. M.; Kirk, A.; Knowles, D. J.; O'Neale, S. W.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Koch, H.; Krug, J.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Andress, J. C.; Barlow, N. R.; Bhimji, W.; Chevalier, N.; Clark, P. J.; Cottingham, W. N.; De Groot, N.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; Mass, A.; McFall, J. D.; Wallom, D.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Camanzi, B.; Harrison, T. J.; McKemey, A. K.; Tinslay, J.; Antohin, E. I.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Bukin, D. A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kolachev, G. M.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Mikhailov, S. F.; Onuchin, A. P.; Salnikov, A. A.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Telnov, V. I.; Yushkov, A. N.; Booth, J.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Pier, S.; Stoker, D. P.; Zioulas, G.; Ahsan, A.; Arisaka, K.; Buchanan, C.; Chun, S.; Faccini, R.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Prell, S. A.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Raven, G.; Sharma, V.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hale, D.; Hart, P. A.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; May, J.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; Beringer, J.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D. E.; Eisner, A. M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W. S.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. N.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hanson, J. E.; Hitlin, D. G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Metzler, S.; Oyang, J.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Weaver, M.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Jayatilleke, S. M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P.; Broomer, B.; Erdos, E.; Fahey, S.; Ford, W. T.; Gaede, F.; van Hoek, W. C.; Johnson, D. R.; Michael, A. K.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Park, H.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Sen, S.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, D. L.; Blouw, J.; Harton, J. L.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Warner, D. W.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kocian, M. L.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Behr, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Ferrag, S.; Fouque, G.; Gastaldi, F.; Matricon, P.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Renard, C.; Roussot, E.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Di Lodovico, F.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Falbo, M.; Bozzi, C.; Dittongo, S.; Folegani, M.; Piemontese, L.; Ramusino, A. C.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Xie, Y.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Fabbricatore, P.; Farinon, S.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musenich, R.; Pallavicini, M.; Parodi, R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Priano, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Bartoldus, R.; Dignan, T.; Hamilton, R.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Fischer, P. A.; Lamsa, J.; McKay, R.; Meyer, W. T.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Albert, J. N.; Beigbeder, C.; Benkebil, M.; Breton, D.; Cizeron, R.; Du, S.; Grosdidier, G.; Hast, C.; Höcker, A.; Lacker, H. M.; LePeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.

2002-02-01

287

Direct detector for terahertz radiation  

DOEpatents

A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

2008-09-02

288

The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amongst its complement of particles and fields instruments, the Galileo spacecraft carries an Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) designed to measure the characteristics of particle populations important in determining the size, shape, and dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. To do this the EPD provides 4p angular coverage and spectral measurements for Z = 1 ions from 20 keV to 55 MeV,

D. J. Williams; R. W. McEntire; S. Jaskulek; B. Wilken

1992-01-01

289

Coal-rock interface detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coal-rock interface detector is presented which employs a radioactive source and radiation sensor. The source and sensor are separately and independently suspended and positioned against a mine surface of hydraulic pistons, which are biased from an air cushioned source of pressurized hydraulic fluid.

Rose, S. D.; Crouch, C. E.; Jones, E. W. (inventors)

1979-01-01

290

Methane Detector With Plastic Fresnel Lens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser detector for natural gas leaks modified by substitution of molded plastic lens for spherical mirror. By measuring relative attenuation at two wavelengths, detector used to check for methane escaping from pipelines above or below ground and from landfill.

Grant, W. B.

1986-01-01

291

Neutron coincidence detectors employing heterogeneous materials  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector relies upon optical separation of different scintillators to measure the total energy and/or number of neutrons from a neutron source. In pulse mode embodiments of the invention, neutrons are detected in a first detector which surrounds the neutron source and in a second detector surrounding the first detector. An electronic circuit insures that only events are measured which correspond to neutrons first detected in the first detector followed by subsequent detection in the second detector. In spectrometer embodiments of the invention, neutrons are thermalized in the second detector which is formed by a scintillator-moderator and neutron energy is measured from the summed signals from the first and second detectors.

Czirr, J. Bartley (Mapleton, UT); Jensen, Gary L. (Orem, UT)

1993-07-27

292

49 CFR 236.334 - Point detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.334 Point detector. Point detector shall be maintained so that when switch...

2013-10-01

293

49 CFR 236.334 - Point detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.334 Point detector. Point detector shall be maintained so that when switch...

2014-10-01

294

49 CFR 236.334 - Point detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.334 Point detector. Point detector shall be maintained so that when switch...

2010-10-01

295

49 CFR 236.334 - Point detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.334 Point detector. Point detector shall be maintained so that when switch...

2011-10-01

296

49 CFR 236.334 - Point detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.334 Point detector. Point detector shall be maintained so that when switch...

2012-10-01

297

Cosmic-ray-veto detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the cosmic-ray-induced neutron background, we are testing a cosmic-ray veto option with a neutron detector system that uses plastic scintillator slabs mounted on the outside of a H-3-tube detector. The scintillator slabs eliminate unwanted cosmic-ray events, enabling the detector to assay low-level plutonium samples, for which a low-background coincident signature is critical. This report describes the design and testing of the prototype cosmic-ray-veto detector system.

Miller, D. W.; Menlove, H. O.

1992-12-01

298

Trustworthiness of detectors in quantum key distribution with untrusted detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol has been demonstrated as a viable solution to detector side-channel attacks. Recently, to bridge the strong security of MDI-QKD with the high efficiency of conventional QKD, the detector-device-independent (DDI) QKD has been proposed. One crucial assumption made in DDI-QKD is that the untrusted Bell state measurement (BSM) located inside the receiver's laboratory cannot send any unwanted information to the outside. Here, we show that if the BSM is completely untrusted, a simple scheme would allow the BSM to send information to the outside. Combined with Trojan horse attacks, this scheme could allow an eavesdropper to gain information of the quantum key without being detected. To prevent the above attack, either countermeasures to Trojan horse attacks or some trustworthiness to the "untrusted" BSM device is required.

Qi, Bing

2015-02-01

299

New neutron detectors based on Micromegas technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of neutron detectors based on Micromegas technology is presented. An overview of the possible use of these detectors is summarized. A compact detector able to measure neutron flux in broad energy range inside a nuclear reactor is described.

S. Andriamonje; S. Aune; G. Bignan; C. Blandin; E. Ferrer; I. Giomataris; C. Jammes; J. Pancin

2004-01-01

300

Electromagnetic Flaw Detector Is Easier To Use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic flaw detector based on eddy-current principle. It nondestructively detects cracks, voids, and other flaws introducing electrical discontinuities into specimens of electrically conductive materials. Circuitry associated with this flaw detector simpler than older eddy-current flaw detectors. Unlike older eddy-current nondestructive testers, calibration ordinarily not needed, and readings interpreted with relative ease.

Clendenin, C. Gerald; Namkung, Min; Simpson, John W.; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz; Todhunter, Ronald G.

1994-01-01

301

Characterization of the ADII-33 diamond detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dosimetry characteristics of the ADII-33 diamond detector were investigated. Sensitivity, stability, bias voltage, hardening, dose rate, energy dependence, and spatial resolution were examined. Current generated in the detector was found to be proportional to the bias voltage applied to the detector with stability degrading as a function of the bias voltage. The average current increased with increasing bias voltage. The

Manuel Rodriguez; Sheridan Griffin; Larry Dewerd; Robert Jeraj

2007-01-01

302

A mobile antineutrino detector with plastic scintillators  

E-print Network

We propose a new type segmented antineutrino detector made of plastic scintillators for the nuclear safeguard application. A small prototype was built and tested to measure background events. A satisfactory unmanned field operation of the detector system was demonstrated. Besides, a detailed Monte Carlo simulation code was developed to estimate the antineutrino detection efficiency of the detector.

Yasuhiro Kuroda; Shugo Oguri; Yo Kato; Ryoko Nakata; Yoshizumi Inoue; Chikara Ito; Makoto Minowa

2012-06-28

303

Applying the helium ionization detector in chromatography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High noise levels and oversensitivity of helium detector make flame-ionization and thermal-conductivity detectors more suitable for chromotography. Deficiencies are eliminated by modifying helium device to operate in saturation rather than multiplication mode. Result is low background current, low noise, high stability, and high sensitivity. Detector analyzes halocarbons, hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and inorganics without requiring expensive research-grade helium.

Gibson, E. K.; Andrawes, F. F.; Brazell, R. S.

1981-01-01

304

Microwave and mm wave BARITT Doppler detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advantages of the BARITT Doppler detector and of the BARITT diode are stated and detector design rules and applications are discussed. BARITT device operation, some simplified design rules for various operating frequencies of a uniformly doped BARITT structure with abrupt junctions, and device operation as a Doppler detector in the X-band and at 22 GHz are considered. Superiority of the

J. R. East; H. Nguyen-Ba; G. I. Haddad

1976-01-01

305

A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

2007-01-01

306

Performance of the ALEPH detector at LEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the ALEPH detector at the LEP e+e? collider is reviewed. The accuracy of the tracking detectors to measure the impact parameter and momentum of charged tracks is specified. Calorimeters are used to measure photons and neutral hadrons, and the accuracy obtained in energy and angle is given. An essential property of the detector is its ability to

Damir Buskulic; David William Casper; I De Bonis; D. Decamp; P. Ghez; C. Goy; J.-P Lees; M.-N Minard; P. Odier; B. Pietrzyk; F. Ariztizabal; M. Chmeissani; J. M Crespo; I. Efthymiopoulos; E. Fernandez; M. Fernandez-Bosman; V. Gaitan; Ll. Garrido; M. Martinez; T S Mattison; S. Orteu; A. Pacheco; C. Padilla; Fabrizio Palla; A. Pascual; J. A Perlas; F. Sanchez; F. Teubert; F. Chiumarulo; A. Clemente; D. Creanza; M de Palma; A. Farilla; R. Ferorelli; Giuseppe Iaselli; G. Maggi; N. Marinelli; A. Mastrogiacomo; S. Natali; V. Negro; S. Nuzzo; M. Papagni; C. Pinto; A. Ranieri; G. Raso; F. Romano; F. Ruggieri; G. Selvaggi; L. Silvestris; P. Tempesta; G. Zito; Y. Chai; D. Huang; X. Huang; J. Lin; T. Wang; Y. Xie; D Xu; R Xu; J Zhang; L Zhang; W Zhao; H Albrecht; A Ball; R Benetta; F Bird; E Blucher; G Bonvicini; J Boudreau; T Charity; P. Coyle; P Coyle; H Drevermann; A Engelhardt; M Ferro-Luzzi; L Foà; Roger W Forty; M Frank; G Ganis; C Gay; M Girone; C Grab; R Grabit; J Griffiths; R Grub; R Hagelberg; J Harvey; B Ivesdal; R Jacobsen; Pierre Jarron; B Jost; M Kasemann; Gottfried Kellner; J Knobloch; A Lacourt; Pierre Lazeyras; Ivan Lehraus; B Lofstedt; T Lohse; D Lütze; M Maggi; A Marchioro; C Markou; E. B Martin; P Mato; J.-M Maugain; J May; H Meinhard; V Mertens; A. Miotto; R Miquel; P Palazzi; J. R Pater; P Perrodo; R Pintus; Ludwig F Pregernig; M Price; J.-F Pusztaszeri; F Ranjard; J Richstein; W Richter; Luigi Rolandi; Herbert Rotscheidt; W von Ruden; M Saich; Jean-Claude Santiard; P Schilly; D Schlatter; M Schmelling; G Stefanini; Hans Taureg; W Tejessy; I. R Tomalin; R Veenhof; A Venturi; H Verweij; H W Wachsmuth; H Wahl; S Wheeler; W Wiedenmann; T Wildish; W Witzeling; J Wotschack; Ziad J Ajaltouni; Maria Bardadin-Otwinowska; A Barres; C Boyer; M Brossard; R Chadelas; F Daudon; A Falvard; P Gay; C Guicheney; P Henrard; J Jousset; B Michel; J-C Montret; D Pallin; P Perret; F Podlyski; J Proriol; F Saadi; H Bertelsen; Tom Fearnley; F Hansen; J. B Hansen; J. D Hansen; P. H Hansen; S. D Johnson; A Lindahl; B Madsen; R Møllerud; B. S Nilsson; G Petersen; A Kyriakis; Errietta Simopoulou; I Siotis; Anna Vayaki; K Zachariadou; M Bercher; U Berthon; A Blondel; G R Bonneaud; J. C Brient; P Bourdon; A Busata; M Cerutti; J Doublet; G Fouque; C Lemoine; P Matricon; M Maubras; R Morano; J.-Y Parey; L Passalacqua; P Poilleux; A Rougé; C Roy; M Rumpf; R Tanaka; Andrea Valassi; M Verderi; H L Videau; C Violet; D. J Candlin; A. J Main; M. I Parsons; E Veitch; E Focardi; G Parrini; E Scarlini; M Corden; M C Delfino; C H Georgiopoulos; D. E Jaffe; D A Levinthal; M Anelli; A Antonelli; A Balla; G Bencivenni; G Bologna; R Bonini; F Bossi; P Campana; G Capon; M Carletti; F Cerutti; V Chiarella; G Corradi; B Dulach; G Felici; P Laurelli; G Mannocchi; F Murtas; G. P Murtas; M Pepe-Altarelli; P Picchi; S Salomone; M Santoni; P Colrain; I ten Have; I. G Knowles; J. G Lynch; W J Maitland; W. T Morton; C Raine; P Reeves; J. M Scarr; K Smith; M. G Smith; A. S Thompson; S Thorn; R. M Turnbull; U Becker; B Brandl; O Braun; R Geiges; C Geweniger; P Hanke; V Hepp; W Heyde; E. E Kluge; J Krause; Y Maumary; M Panter; A Putzer; B Rensch; M Schmidt; K Schmitt; A Stahl; H Stenzel; K Tittel; M Wunsch; G. J Barber; R Beuselinck; David M Binnie; W Cameron; M Cattaneo; D. J Colling; P. J Dorna; D. N Gentry; J. F Hassard; N Konstantinidis; D. G Miller; L Moneta; A Moutoussi; J Nash; D. G Payne; D. R Price; G San Martin; J. K Sedgbeer; A. G Wright; P Girtler; D Kuhn; G Rudolph; R Vogl; C. K Bowdery; T. J Brodbeck; A. J Finch; F Foster; G Hughes; D Jackson; N. R Keemer; M Nuttall; A Patel; T Sloan; S. W Snow; E. P Whelan; L. A. T Bauerdick; A M Greene; A. M Greene; K Kleinknecht; J Raab; B Renk; H. Schmidt; S. M Walther; R Wanke; B Wolf; A. M Bencheikh; C Benchouk; M Billaut; A Bonissent; D Calvet; J Carr; C Diaconu; F Etienne; Y Gally; D Nicod; P Payre; L Roos; D Rousseau; P Schwemling; M Talby; I Abt; K Ackermann; S Adlung; R Assmann; C Bauer; H Becker; W Blum; D Brown; P Cattaneo; B Dehning; H Dietl; F Dydak; H Fischer; A. W Halley; D Hauff; P Holl; K Jakobs; W Kothhuber; H Kroha; J Lauber; G Lütjens; G Lutz; W Männer; H.-G Moser; R Richter; J Schröder; A. S Schwarz; R Settles; H Seywerd; H Stieg; U. Stierlin; U Stierlin; R. St Denis; L Strüder; G Waltermann; P Weissbach; G Wolf; J.-N Albert; R Alemany; C Arnault; R Bernier; J Boucrot; O Callot; R Chase; A Cordier; M. Dialinas; A Ducorps; L Duflot; J.-F Grivaz; Ph Heusse; P Janot; Ph Jean; D. W Kim; F Le Diberder; J Lefrançois; A.-M Lutz; G Musolino; H. J Park; J.-P Richer; M.-H Schune; J.-J Veillet; I Videau; D Abbaneo; C Avanzini; G. Batignani; G Batignani; A Bechini; F Bosi; U Bottigli; C. Bradaschia; G Calderini; M Carpinelli; C Cerri; M. A Ciocci; V Ciulli; R Dell'Orso; R Fantechi; I Ferrante; F Fidecaro; F Forti; M. A. Giorgi; M. A Giorgi; A Gregorio; F Ligabue; R Lorenzini; A Lusiani; P. S Marrocchesi; A Messineo

1995-01-01

307

JOSEPHSON DETECTORS OF MILLIMETER ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION  

E-print Network

293 JOSEPHSON DETECTORS OF MILLIMETER ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION V. A. KULIKOV, N. N. KURDJUMOV, G. 2014 The possibility of construction of high sensitive detectors of electromagnetic radiation is devoted to detectors of electromagnetic radiation in the upper millimeter range, designed for use

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

Semiconductor nuclear radiation detector studies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a problem that arose with regard to the availability of ; germanium for lithium-drifted germanium detectors (Ge(Li) detectors), a ; comprehensive program was undertaken aimed toward the development of a method for ; the rapid specification of germanium quality for nuclear radiation detector use, ; and the determination of factors affecting germanium quality. Measurements on a ;

Sher

1974-01-01

309

Quantum Opportunities in Gravitational Wave Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Direct observation of gravitational waves should open a new window into the Universe. Gravitational wave detectors are the most sensitive position meters ever constructed. The quantum limit in gravitational wave detectors opens up a whole new field of study. Quantum opportunities in gravitational wave detectors include applications of quantum optics techniques and new tools for quantum measurement on truly macroscopic (human) scales.

Mavalvala, Negris (MIT) [MIT

2012-03-14

310

Robustized recursive estimators and adaptive partition detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robustized recursive estimators and adaptive partition detectors are investigated for a mixture distribution composed of a low variance noise component and an impulsive noise component. In such a noise environment, nonparametric detectors have significant advantages. Specifically, the m-interval partition detector, which is a generalization of the classic sign test, has shown great promise. To implement this test, a finite number

P. R. Kersten

1976-01-01

311

A Scintillation Detector for Fast Neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast neutron detector has been prepared by suspending ZnS phosphor powder in ``Bio-Plastic''. The detector can be easily prepared using only simple laboratory equipment. In the presence of the gamma rays from a Ra-Be source, the neutrons from the source can be counted using this detector with about one percent efficiency.

L. W. Seagondollar; K. A. Esch; L. M. CARTWRIGHTt

1954-01-01

312

Detector frontier: Theoretical expectations and dreams  

SciTech Connect

The new large detector systems are certain to shed new light on many aspects of nuclear structure. Some of these areas for future studies are discussed. In this contribution the author concentrates on several aspects of nuclear spectroscopy, that will be accessible by modern detector systems (e.g., {gamma}-ray crystal balls or new-generation particle detectors).

Nazarewicz, W.

1992-12-31

313

Uncooled multispectral detectors and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the basic design and essential properties of developed multispectral detectors. The presented detector concept on the basis of lithium tantalate (LiTaO(subscript 3)), a pyroelectric material, makes the parallel measurement possible in four spectral channels in the wavelength range of typically 1 - 25 micrometers . The detector consists of an optical unit with the beam splitter and

Volkmar Norkus; Guenter Hofmann; Christian Schiewe

1996-01-01

314

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (>85%), high spatial resolution (<5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600 \\/ in2), low dead time (<4 µs in2), good timing resolution (<5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, <200 ps fwhm for time of flight), and good energy resolution (<100 keV fwhm), where these requirements are listed in

William W. Moses; Stephen E. Derenzo; Thomas F. Budinger

1994-01-01

315

Subatomic Physics Detector Lab Design, construction and testing of particle detectors for  

E-print Network

Subatomic Physics Detector Lab Design, construction and testing of particle detectors for physics Two detector projects funded by NSERC nearing completion Trainees (since 2006): one postdoc Fabrication Lab at UM EE (C. Shafai) ­ Detector Lab at UM Physics (M. Gericke) Other local linkages: PET

Martin, Jeff

316

METHODS TO SUPPRESS POLARIZATION IN CHLORINE COMPENSATED CADMIUM TELLURIDE DETECTORS  

E-print Network

.cm) is achieved by means of chlorine compensation. However, the nuclear radiation detectors prepared radiation detectors prepared from insulating material appears a polarization effect, which is characterized radiation detector considerably reduced the interest on insulating materials, only the diamond detectors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector  

SciTech Connect

Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ? has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

2007-10-09

318

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

319

Plasma Panel Based Radiation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a gaseous micropattern radiation detector under current development. It has many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels (PDPs). It comprises a dense matrix of small, gas plasma discharge cells within a hermetically sealed panel. As in PDPs, it uses non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, refractory metal electrodes, and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing these devices primarily as thin, low-mass detectors with gas gaps from a few hundred microns to a few millimeters. The PPS is a high gain, inherently digital device with the potential for fast response times, fine position resolution (< 50 m RMS) and low cost. In this paper we report here on prototype PPS experimental results in detecting betas, protons and cosmic muons, and we extrapolate on the PPS potential for applications including detection of alphas, heavy-ions at low to medium energy, thermal neutrons and X-rays.

Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University; Ferretti, Claudio [University of Michigan; Bentefour, E [Ion Beam Applications; Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan

2013-01-01

320

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1996-06-11

321

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

Gray, K.E.

1988-07-28

322

The ATLAS Detector Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

2012-12-01

323

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

324

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

1994-05-03

325

Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

2009-10-23

326

Electro-optic Lightning Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, alignment, calibration, and field deployment of a solid-state lightning detector is described. The primary sensing component of the detector is a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) electro-optic crystal that is attached in series to a flat plate aluminum antenna; the antenna is exposed to the ambient thundercloud electric field. A semiconductor laser diode (lambda = 685 nm), polarizing optics, and the crystal are arranged in a Pockels cell configuration. Lightning-caused electric field changes are related to small changes in the transmission of laser light through the optical cell. Several hundred lightning electric field change excursions were recorded during five thunderstorms that occurred in the summer of 1998 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in northern Alabama.

Koshak, William J.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

1996-01-01

327

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01

328

Radiation Detector Materials: An Overview  

SciTech Connect

This review describes the current state of radiation detection material science, with particular emphasis on national security needs and the goal of identifying the challenges and opportunities that this area represents for the materials science community. Radiation detector materials physics is reviewed, which sets the stage for performance metrics that determine the relative merit of existing and new materials. Semiconductors and scintillators represent the two primary classes of radiation detector materials that are of interest. The state-of-the-art and limitations for each of these materials classes are presented, along with possible avenues of research. Novel materials that could overcome the need for single crystals will also be discussed. Finally, new methods of material discovery and development are put forward – the goal being to provide more predictive guidance and faster screening of candidate materials – and thus ultimately the faster development of superior radiation detection materials.

Milbrath, Brian D.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Bliss, Mary; Weber, William J.

2008-10-10

329

Germanium Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form. The advantages of the Si blocked impurity band (BIB) detector invented by M. D. Petroff and M. G. Stabelbroek are noted: smaller detection volume leading to a reduction of cosmic ray interference, extended wavelength response because of dopant wavefunction overlap, and photoconductive gain of unity. It is argued that the stated advantages of Si BIB detectors should be realizable for Ge BIB detectors. Information is given on detector development, subtrate choice and preparation, wafer polising, epitaxy, characterization of epi layers, and preliminary Ge BIB detector test results.

Haller, E. E.; Baumann, H.; Beeman, J. W.; Hansen, W. L.; Luke, P. N.; Lutz, M.; Rossington, C. S.; Wu, I. C.

1989-01-01

330

The Next Generation of Crystal Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystal detectors have been used widely for decades in high energy and nuclear physics experiments, medical instruments and homeland security applications. Novel crystal detectors are continuously being found. Future HEP experiments require bright and fast crystal detectors with excellent radiation hardness. Cost-effectiveness is also a crucial issue for crystal detectors to be used in a large volume. To face these new challenges a thorough R&D program is required to investigate and develop crystal detectors for future HEP experiments in all frontiers.

Zhu, Ren-Yuan

2015-02-01

331

The B AB AR detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e? B Factory operating at the ?(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located

B. Aubert; A. Bazan; A. Boucham; D. Boutigny; I. De Bonis; J. Favier; J.-M. Gaillard; A. Jeremie; Y. Karyotakis; T. Le Flour; J. P. Lees; S. Lieunard; P. Petitpas; P. Robbe; V. Tisserand; K. Zachariadou; A. Palano; G. P. Chen; J. C. Chen; N. D. Qi; G. Rong; P. Wang; Y. S. Zhu; G. Eigen; P. L. Reinertsen; B. Stugu; B. Abbott; G. S. Abrams; L. Amerman; A. W. Borgland; A. B. Breon; D. Brown; J. Button-Shafer; A. R. Clark; S. Dardin; C. Day; S. F. Dow; Q. Fan; I. Gaponenko; M. S. Gill; F. R. Goozen; S. J. Gowdy; A. Gritsan; Y. Groysman; C. Hernikl; R. G. Jacobsen; R. C. Jared; R. W. Kadel; J. Kadyk; A. Karcher; L. T. Kerth; I. Kipnis; S. Kluth; J. F. Kral; R. Lafever; C. LeClerc; M. E. Levi; S. A. Lewis; C. Lionberger; T. Liu; M. Long; L. Luo; G. Lynch; P. Luft; E. Mandelli; M. Marino; K. Marks; C. Matuk; A. B. Meyer; R. Minor; A. Mokhtarani; M. Momayezi; M. Nyman; P. J. Oddone; J. Ohnemus; D. Oshatz; S. Patton; M. Pedrali-Noy; A. Perazzo; C. Peters; W. Pope; M. Pripstein; D. R. Quarrie; J. E. Rasson; N. A. Roe; A. Romosan; M. T. Ronan; V. G. Shelkov; R. Stone; P. D. Strother; A. V. Telnov; H. von der Lippe; T. F. Weber; W. A. Wenzel; G. Zizka; P. G. Bright-Thomas; C. M. Hawkes; A. Kirk; D. J. Knowles; S. W. O'Neale; A. T. Watson; N. K. Watson; T. Deppermann; H. Koch; J. Krug; M. Kunze; B. Lewandowski; K. Peters; H. Schmuecker; M. Steinke; J. C. Andress; N. R. Barlow; W. Bhimji; N. Chevalier; P. J. Clark; W. N. Cottingham; N. De Groot; N. Dyce; B. Foster; A. Mass; J. D. McFall; D. Wallom; F. F. Wilson; K. Abe; C. Hearty; J. A. McKenna; D. Thiessen; B. Camanzi; T. J. Harrison; A. K. McKemey; J. Tinslay; E. I. Antohin; V. E. Blinov; A. D. Bukin; D. A. Bukin; A. R. Buzykaev; M. S. Dubrovin; V. B. Golubev; V. N. Ivanchenko; G. M. Kolachev; A. A. Korol; E. A. Kravchenko; S. F. Mikhailov; A. P. Onuchin; A. A. Salnikov; S. I. Serednyakov; Yu. I. Skovpen; V. I. Telnov; A. N. Yushkov; J. Booth; A. J. Lankford; M. Mandelkern; S. Pier; D. P. Stoker; G. Zioulas; A. Ahsan; K. Arisaka; C. Buchanan; S. Chun; R. Faccini; D. B. MacFarlane; S. A. Prell; Sh. Rahatlou; G. Raven; V. Sharma; S. Burke; D. Callahan; C. Campagnari; B. Dahmes; D. Hale; P. A. Hart; N. Kuznetsova; S. Kyre; S. L. Levy; O. Long; A. Lu; J. May; J. D. Richman; W. Verkerke; M. Witherell; S. Yellin; J. Beringer; J. DeWitt; D. E. Dorfan; A. M. Eisner; A. Frey; A. A. Grillo; M. Grothe; C. A. Heusch; R. P. Johnson; W. Kroeger; W. S. Lockman; T. Pulliam; W. Rowe; H. Sadrozinski; T. Schalk; R. E. Schmitz; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; E. N. Spencer; M. Turri; W. Walkowiak; M. Wilder; D. C. Williams; E. Chen; G. P. Dubois-Felsmann; A. Dvoretskii; J. E. Hanson; D. G. Hitlin; Yu. G. Kolomensky; S. Metzler; J. Oyang; F. C. Porter; A. Ryd; A. Samuel; M. Weaver; S. Yang; R. Y. Zhu; S. Devmal; T. L. Geld; S. Jayatilleke; G. Mancinelli; B. T. Meadows; M. D. Sokoloff; P. Bloom; B. Broomer; E. Erdos; S. Fahey; W. T. Ford; F. Gaede; W. C. van Hoek; D. R. Johnson; A. K. Michael; U. Nauenberg; A. Olivas; P. Rankin; J. Roy; S. Sen; J. G. Smith; D. L. Wagner; J. Blouw; J. L. Harton; M. Krishnamurthy; A. Soffer; W. H. Toki; D. W. Warner; R. J. Wilson; J. Zhang; T. Brandt; J. Brose; G. Dahlinger; M. Dickopp; R. S. Dubitzky; P. Eckstein; H. Futterschneider; M. L. Kocian; R. Krause; R. Müller-Pfefferkorn; K. R. Schubert; R. Schwierz; B. Spaan; L. Wilden; L. Behr; D. Bernard; G. R. Bonneaud; F. Brochard; J. Cohen-Tanugi; S. Ferrag; G. Fouque; F. Gastaldi; P. Matricon; P. Mora de Freitas; C. Renard; E. Roussot; S. T'Jampens; C. Thiebaux; G. Vasileiadis; M. Verderi; A. Anjomshoaa; R. Bernet; F. Di Lodovico; F. Muheim; S. Playfer; J. E. Swain; M. Falbo; C. Bozzi; S. Dittongo; M. Folegani; L. Piemontese; A. C. Ramusino; E. Treadwell; F. Anulli; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; D. Falciai; G. Finocchiaro; P. Patteri; I. M. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; Y. Xie; A. Zallo; S. Bagnasco; A. Buzzo; R. Contri; G. Crosetti; P. Fabbricatore; S. Farinon; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; S. Minutoli; M. R. Monge; R. Musenich; M. Pallavicini; R. Parodi; S. Passaggio; F. C. Pastore; C. Patrignani; M. G. Pia; C. Priano; E. Robutti; A. Santroni; R. Bartoldus; T. Dignan; U. Mallik; J. Cochran; H. B. Crawley; P. A. Fischer; J. Lamsa; R. McKay; W. T. Meyer; E. I. Rosenberg; J. Albert; C. Beigbeder; M. Benkebil; D. Breton; R. Cizeron; S. Du; G. Grosdidier; C. Hast; A. Höcker; H. M. Lacker; V. LePeltier; A. M. Lutz; S. Plaszczynski; M. H. Schune; S. Trincaz-Duvoid; K. Truong; A. Valassi; G. Wormser; O. Alford; D. Behne; R. M. Bionta; J. Bowman; V. Brigljevi?; A. Brooks; V. A. Dacosta; O. Fackler; D. Fujino; M. Harper; D. J. Lange; M. Mugge; T. G. O'Connor; H. Olson; L. Ott; E. Parker; B. Pedrotti; M. Roeben; X. Shi; K. van Bibber; T. J. Wenaus; D. M. Wright; C. R. Wuest; B. Yamamoto; M. Carroll; P. Cooke; J. R. Fry; E. Gabathuler; R. Gamet; M. George; M. Kay; S. McMahon

2002-01-01

332

Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss two approaches to obtain neutron detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, a uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focused through a pinhole, and streaked. Calculations show that 20-ps time resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated

C. L. Wang; R. Kalibjian; M. S. Singh; J. D. Wiedwald; D. E. Campbell; E. M. Campbell; M. D. Cable; W. R. Graves; R. A. Lerche; R. H. Price; D. G. Stearns; G. A. Mourou; S. G. Prussin

1985-01-01

333

Neutrino Factory Near Detector Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simulation with GENIE MC generator of the Neutrino Factory baseline near detector interaction rates for the purely leptonic process ??+e-??e+?- and for ??+N??-+X scattering in view of measuring the first one and suppressing the second one for neutrino flux estimation. A set of most sensitive measurable quantities are discussed and their selective power against experimental uncertainties is examined.

Karadzhov, Yordan

2010-03-01

334

Silicon single photon imaging detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-photon imaging detectors promise the ultimate in sensitivity by eliminating read noise. These devices could provide extraordinary benefits for photon-starved applications, e.g., imaging exoplanets, fast wavefront sensing, and probing the human body through transluminescence. Recent implementations are often in the form of sparse arrays that have less-than-unity fill factor. For imaging, fill factor is typically enhanced by using microlenses, at

D. F. Figer; B. F. Aull; D. R. Schuette; B. J. Hanold; K. Kolb; J. Lee

2011-01-01

335

Boron layer scintillation neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Neutron detection with layers of crystalline powder mixtures of a boron compound and of a scintillator, used in connection\\u000a with a photomultiplier, has been studied. Efficiency of 6% for incident thermal neutrons and almost complete insensitivity\\u000a to ? and cosmic rays is reached. Detector's geometry approaches that of an infinitely thin sheet. Pulses may be shaped so\\u000a as to have

E. Gatti; E. Germagnoli; A. Persano; E. Zimmer

1952-01-01

336

Composite polycrystalline semiconductor neutron detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite polycrystalline semiconductor detectors bound with different binders, both inorganic molten glasses, such as B 2O 3, PbO/B 2O 3, Bi 2O 3/PbO, and organic polymeric binders, such as isotactic polypropylene (iPP), polystyrene or nylon-6, and coated with different metal electrodes were tested at room temperature for ?-particles and very weak thermal neutron sources. The detector materials tested were natural occurring hexagonal BN and cubic LiF, where both are not containing enriched isotopes of 10B or 6Li. The radiation sources were 5.5 MeV ?'s from 241Am, 5.3 MeV from 210Po and also 4.8 MeV from 226Ra. Some of these detectors were also tested with thermal neutrons from very weak 227Ac 9Be, 241Am- 10Be sources and also from a weak 238Pu+ 9Be and somewhat stronger 252Cf sources. The neutrons were thermalized with paraffin. Despite very low signal to noise ratio of only ˜2, the neutrons could be counted by subtracting the noise from the signal.

Schieber, M.; Zuck, A.; Marom, G.; Khakhan, O.; Roth, M.; Alfassi, Z. B.

2007-08-01

337

Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) provide a promising solution to the problem of producing large format arrays of ultra sensitive detectors for astronomy. Traditionally KIDs have been constructed from superconducting quarter-wave resonant elements capacitively coupled to a co-planar feed line [1]. Photon detection is achieved by measuring the change in quasi-particle density caused by the splitting of Cooper pairs in the superconducting resonant element. This change in quasi-particle density alters the kinetic inductance, and hence the resonant frequency of the resonant element. This arrangement requires the quasi-particles generated by photon absorption to be concentrated at positions of high current density in the resonator. This is usually achieved through antenna coupling or quasi-particle trapping. For these detectors to work at wavelengths shorter than around 500 ?m where antenna coupling can introduce a significant loss of efficiency, then a direct absorption method needs to be considered. One solution to this problem is the Lumped Element KID (LEKID), which shows no current variation along its length and can be arranged into a photon absorbing area coupled to free space and therefore requiring no antennas or quasi-particle trapping. This paper outlines the relevant microwave theory of a LEKID, along with theoretical and measured performance for these devices.

Doyle, S.; Mauskopf, P.; Naylon, J.; Porch, A.; Duncombe, C.

2008-04-01

338

Pillar Structured Thermal Neutron Detector  

SciTech Connect

This work describes an innovative solid state device structure that leverages advanced semiconductor fabrication technology to produce an efficient device for thermal neutron detection which we have coined the 'Pillar Detector'. State-of-the-art thermal neutron detectors have shortcomings in simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low operating voltage while maintaining adequate fieldability performance. By using a three dimensional silicon PIN diode pillar array filled with isotopic {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B), a high efficiency device is theoretically possible. Here we review the design considerations for going from a 2-D to 3-D device and discuss the materials trade-offs. The relationship between the geometrical features and efficiency within our 3-D device is investigated by Monte Carlo radiation transport method coupled with finite element drift-diffusion carrier transport simulations. To benchmark our simulations and validate the predicted efficiency scaling, experimental results of a prototype device are illustrated. The fabricated pillar structures reported in this work are composed of 2 {micro}m diameter silicon pillars with a 2 {micro}m spacing and pillar height of 12 {micro}m. The pillar detector with a 12 {micro}m height achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 7.3% at a reverse bias of -2 V.

Nikolic, R; Conway, A; Reinhardt, C; Graff, R; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C

2008-06-10

339

Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

2001-02-01

340

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOEpatents

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

1996-08-20

341

Development of high efficiency neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

We have designed a novel neutron detector system using conventional {sup 3}He detector tubes and composites of polyethylene, and graphite. At this time the design consists entirely of MCNP simulations of different detector configurations and materials. These detectors are applicable to low-level passive and active neutron assay systems such as the passive add-a-source and the {sup 252}Cf shuffler. Monte Carlo simulations of these neutron detector designs achieved efficiencies of over 35% for assay chambers that can accommodate 55-gal. drums. Only slight increases in the number of detector tubes and helium pressure are required. The detectors also have reduced die-away times. Potential applications are coincident and multiplicity neutron counting for waste disposal and safeguards. We will present the general design philosophy, underlying physics, calculation mechanics, and results.

Pickrell, M.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1993-08-01

342

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOEpatents

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

1996-08-20

343

Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the concept of a superlinear threshold detector, a detector that has a higher probability to detect multiple photons if it receives them simultaneously rather than at separate times. Highly superlinear threshold detectors in quantum key distribution systems allow eavesdropping the full secret key without being revealed. Here, we generalize the detector control attack, and analyze how it performs against quantum key distribution systems with moderately superlinear detectors. We quantify the superlinearity in superconducting single-photon detectors based on earlier published data, and gated avalanche photodiode detectors based on our own measurements. The analysis shows that quantum key distribution systems using detector(s) of either type can be vulnerable to eavesdropping. The avalanche photodiode detector becomes superlinear toward the end of the gate. For systems expecting substantial loss, or for systems not monitoring loss, this would allow eavesdropping using trigger pulses containing less than 120 photons per pulse. Such an attack would be virtually impossible to catch with an optical power meter at the receiver entrance.

Lydersen, Lars; Maroey, Oystein; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); University Graduate Center, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 24, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-09-15

344

Detectors for Linear Colliders: Detector design for a Future Electron-Positron Collider (4/4)  

ScienceCinema

In this lecture I will discuss the issues related to the overall design and optimization of a detector for ILC and CLIC energies. I will concentrate on the two main detector concepts which are being developed in the context of the ILC. Here there has been much recent progress in developing realistic detector models and in understanding the physics performance of the overall detector concept. In addition, I will discuss the how the differences in the detector requirements for the ILC and CLIC impact the overall detector design.

None

2011-10-06

345

Efficiency of composite boron nitride neutron detectors in comparison with helium-3 detectors  

SciTech Connect

It has been clearly demonstrated that the composite boron nitride (BN) semiconductor polycrystalline bulk detectors with BN grains embedded in a polymer matrix operate as an effective detector of thermal neutrons even if they contain natural boron only. A reasonable signal to noise ratio has been achieved with detector thickness of about 1 mm. A Monte Carlo simulation of neutron reactions in the BN detector was done to estimate the thermal neutron detection efficiency. The result was compared with widely used {sup 3}He based detectors to prove advantages of BN detectors, which are especially promising for neutron imaging and for large area sensors.

Uher, J.; Pospisil, S.; Linhart, V.; Schieber, M. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Praha 2, Albertov (Czech Republic); Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2007-03-19

346

Trustworthiness of detectors in quantum key distribution with untrusted detectors  

E-print Network

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol has been demonstrated as a viable solution to detector side-channel attacks. One of the main advantages of MDI-QKD is that the security can be proved without making any assumptions about how the measurement device works. The price to pay is the relatively low secure key rate comparing with conventional quantum key distribution (QKD), such as the decoy-state BB84 protocol. Recently a new QKD protocol, aiming at bridging the strong security of MDI-QKD with the high efficiency of conventional QKD, has been proposed. In this protocol, the legitimate receiver employs a trusted linear optics network to encode information on photons received from an insecure quantum channel, and then performs a Bell state measurement (BSM) using untrusted detectors. One crucial assumption made in most of these studies is that the untrusted BSM located inside the receiver's laboratory cannot send any unwanted information to the outside. Here, we show that if the BSM is completely untrusted, a simple scheme would allow the BSM to send information to the outside. Combined with Trojan horse attacks, this scheme could allow Eve to gain information of the quantum key without being detected. To prevent the above attack, either countermeasures to Trojan horse attacks or some trustworthiness to the "untrusted" BSM device is required.

Bing Qi

2015-02-25

347

Nanocomposite scintillator, detector, and method  

DOEpatents

A compact includes a mixture of a solid binder and at least one nanopowder phosphor chosen from yttrium oxide, yttrium tantalate, barium fluoride, cesium fluoride, bismuth germanate, zinc gallate, calcium magnesium pyrosilicate, calcium molybdate, calcium chlorovanadate, barium titanium pyrophosphate, a metal tungstate, a cerium doped nanophosphor, a bismuth doped nanophosphor, a lead doped nanophosphor, a thallium doped sodium iodide, a doped cesium iodide, a rare earth doped pyrosilicate, or a lanthanide halide. The compact can be used in a radiation detector for detecting ionizing radiation.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); McKigney, Edward A. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-04-28

348

Neutrino Factory Near Detector Simulation  

SciTech Connect

We present a simulation with GENIE MC generator of the Neutrino Factory baseline near detector interaction rates for the purely leptonic process nu{sub m}u+e{sup -}->nu{sub e}+mu{sup -} and for nu{sub m}u+N->mu{sup -}+X scattering in view of measuring the first one and suppressing the second one for neutrino flux estimation. A set of most sensitive measurable quantities are discussed and their selective power against experimental uncertainties is examined.

Karadzhov, Yordan [Department of Atomic Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria)

2010-03-30

349

Detector challenges at the LHC.  

PubMed

The best way to study the existence of the Higgs boson, supersymmetry and grand unified theories, and perhaps the physics of dark matter and dark energy, is at the TeV scale. This is the energy scale that will be explored at the Large Hadron Collider. This machine will generate the energy and rate of collisions that might provide evidence of new fundamental physics. It also brings with it the formidable challenge of building detectors that can record a large variety of detailed measurements in the inhospitable environment close to the collisions points of the machine. PMID:17637659

Stapnes, Steinar

2007-07-19

350

Microgap ultra-violet detector  

DOEpatents

A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

1994-09-20

351

High gas flow alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

1996-05-07

352

Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

Leonard, F. L.

2012-03-01

353

HFI Bolometer Detectors Programmatic CDR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programmatic Critical Design Review (CDR) of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) Bolometer Detector on the Planck Surveyor is presented. The topics include: 1) Scientific Requirements and Goals; 2) Silicon Nitride Micromesh 'Spider-Web' Bolometers; 3) Sub-Orbital Heritage: BOOMERANG; 4) Noise stability demonstrated in BOOMERANG; 5) Instrument Partners; 6) Bolometer Environment on Planck/HFI; 7) Bolometer Modules; and 8) Mechanical Interface. Also included are the status of the receivables and delivery plans with Europe. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

Lange, Andrew E.

2002-01-01

354

Photoacoustic imaging using a conical axicon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic imaging with a scanning, fixed focus receiver gives images with high resolution, without the need for image reconstruction. For achieving high depth of field, a conically shaped piezoelectric ultrasound detector, the so called axicon-detector, is investigated. It is characterized by a sustained line of focus with a length that depends only on the geometry of the detector but not on the wavelength. Simulated and experimentally taken images of various objects reveal X-shaped artifacts due to the conical surface of the detector. To improve the image quality a frequency domain deconvolution can be applied, as the point spread function (PSF) of the detector is spatially invariant over the depth of field. The reduction of the artifacts works well for simulated images but is not functional for experimental data yet. Nevertheless, the detector gives images with precise shape and position of the investigated samples.

Gratt, S.; Passler, K.; Nuster, R.; Paltauf, G.

2009-07-01

355

HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many â?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability weâ??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDDâ??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detectorâ??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

2013-04-30

356

Gas Microstrip Detectors on Thin Plastic Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas microstrip detectors were built on two thin (100 ?m) plastic substrates, Tedlar and ion-implanted Upilex, and their performance characterized in the laboratory and during beam tests. Gas gain, energy resolution, spatial resolution, and timing resolution were obtained. A novel method of measuring electron drift velocity using the Upilex detectors and angled ionizing particle tracks determined a velocity of 36 +/- 2 mum/ns at 4 kV/cm for a 90-10 argon -isobutane gas mix. A detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the operation of the detectors was performed and the results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The simulation which included readout via fast electronics, was used to understand fundamental detector physics and predict the performance of gas microstrip detectors in the ATLAS inner tracker. The experimental and simulation results demonstrated the suitability of gas microstrip detectors for use in tracking at high-luminosity next-generation colliders and in medical physics imaging.

Stuart, Gregory Charles

357

Scintillation detectors of Alborz-I experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new air shower experiment of the Alborz Observatory, Alborz-I, located at the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, will be constructed in near future. An area of about 30×40 m2 will be covered by 20 plastic scintillation detectors (each with an area of 50×50 cm2). A series of experiments have been performed to optimize the height of light enclosures of the detectors for this array and the results have been compared to an extended code simulation of these detectors. Operational parameters of the detector obtained by this code are cross checked by the Geant4 simulation. There is a good agreement between the extended-code and Geant4 simulations. We also present further discussions on the detector characteristics, which can be applicable for all scintillation detectors with a similar configuration.

Pezeshkian, Yousef; Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Abbasian Motlagh, Mehdi; Rezaie, Masume

2015-02-01

358

Modular detector systems for nuclear medicine imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular detectors provide system design flexibility that makes possible the development of many imaging systems not possible through the use of more traditional approaches such as employing fixed ring configurations or large FOV (field-of-view) detectors. We have developed two such modular detector systems. The first is a small FOV modular gamma camera based on a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) and

Chin-Tu Chen; Chien-Min Kao; John N. Aarsvold; Qingguo Xie; R. A. Mintzer; Jefrey S. Souris

2004-01-01

359

High-performance, imaging, thermal neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing and planned spallation neutron sources require two-dimensional detectors for many experiments. Unlike the requirements for steady-state neutron sources, it is essential that these detectors possess good time resolution to determine neutron energy. A range of detectors based on gas proportional chambers, with low-noise encoding electronics, has been fabricated at this laboratory, with properties well suited for use at spallation

V. Radeka; N. A. Schaknowski; G. C. Smith; B. Yu

1998-01-01

360

Cosmic-Ray Detectors With Interdigitated Electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detectors measure both positions of incidence and energies of incident charged particles. Stack of detector wafers intercept cosmic ray. Measure positions of incidence to determine cosmic-ray trajectory and charge generated within them (proportional to cosmic-ray energy dissipated within them). Interdigital electrode pattern repeated over many rows and columns on tops of detector wafers in stack. Electrode pattern defines pixels within which points of incidence of incident cosmic rays located.

Cunningham, Thomas J.; Mazed, Mohammed; Holtzman, Melinda J.; Fossum, Eric R.

1995-01-01

361

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

1992-01-01

362

Large Format Detector Arrays for Astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in detector design and advances in fabrication techniques has resulted in devices which can reach fundamental sensitivity limits in many cases. Many pressing astrophysical questions require large arrays of such sensitive detectors. I will describe the state of far infrared through millimeter detector development at NASA/GSFC, the design and production of large format arrays, and the initial deployment of these powerful new tools.

Moseley, Harvey

2006-01-01

363

Alternative particle identification techniques to Cherenkov detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative particle identification methods to Cherenkov techniques are reviewed. Particular focus is given to recent advances in Transition Radiation Detectors (TRDs), improvements in dE/dx ionization loss by cluster counting, and Time of Flight (ToF) techniques. In each case several state of the art detectors are highlighted. For advances in ToF techniques, the status of fast photon detectors and electronics developments is summarized.

Harnew, Neville

2014-12-01

364

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller

2007-02-01

365

Development of a silicon carbide radiation detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation detection properties of semiconductor detectors made of 4H silicon carbide were evaluated. Both Schottky and p-n junction devices were tested. Exposure to alpha particles from a 238Pu source led to robust signals from the detectors. The resolution of the Schottky SiC detector was 5.8% (FWHM) at an energy of 294 keV, while that of the p-n junction was

F. H. Ruddy; A. R. Dulloo; J. G. Seidel; S. Seshadri; L. B. Rowland

1998-01-01

366

Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives and selected data are presented for the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Cosmic Ray Experiment (LSCRE) for the purpose of introducing an analysis of three of the separate detectors contained within in LSCRE package. The mica detector for measuring heavy solar wind, and the lexan stack and glass detectors for measuring energetic particles in space are discussed in terms of their deployment, exposure time, calibration, and data yield. Relevant articles on solar particles, interplanetary ions, and cosmic ray nuclei are also included.

Walker, R. M.

1974-01-01

367

Physics prospects with the upgraded CDF detector  

SciTech Connect

The CDF detector is being extensively upgraded for Fermilab Tevatron Run II, which is scheduled to begin in 1999. This talk describes the planned detector upgrades. The power of the upgraded detector is illustrated by showing the expected precision of several physics measurements that will be made with the Run II data: the top mass, the W mass, BR(t{yields}Wb), and the CP violation parameters sin(2{alpha}) and sin(2{beta}).

Hylen, J.; CDF Collaboration

1995-07-01

368

Low Temperature Detectors: Principles and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Despite the added cost and complexity of operating at sub-Kelvin temperatures, there are many measurement applications where the sensitivity and precision provided by low temperature detectors greatly outweigh any disadvantages. As a result, low temperature detectors are now finding wide application for measurements ranging from cosmology to homeland defense. In this tutorial I will introduce the basic operating principles and fundamental performance limits of several types of low temperature detectors.

Hilton, G. C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder CO (United States)

2009-12-16

369

The Ibis-Picsit detector onboard Integral  

Microsoft Academic Search

PICsIT is the high-energy detector layer of the IBIS Imager, composed of 4096 CsI(Tl) scintillator detectors 8.4 x 8.4x 300 mm in size with PhotoDiode readout. The detector operates in the 175 keV-20.4 MeV range and its data generation modes make it possible to collect information from single events and multiple coincident events. PICsIT is surrounded by the active BGO

C. Labanti; G. Di Cocco; G. Ferro; F. Gianotti; A. Mauri; E. Rossi; J. B. Stephen; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio

2003-01-01

370

ATLAS Inner Detector Event Data Model  

SciTech Connect

The data model for event reconstruction (EDM) in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment is presented. Different data classes represent evolving stages in the reconstruction data flow, and specific derived classes exist for the sub-detectors. The Inner Detector EDM also extends the data model for common tracking in ATLAS and is integrated into the modular design of the ATLAS high-level trigger and off-line software.

ATLAS; Akesson, F.; Costa, M.J.; Dobos, D.; Elsing, M.; Fleischmann, S.; Gaponenko, A.; Gnanvo, K.; Keener, P.T.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.; Siebel, M.; Wildauer, A.

2007-12-12

371

Status of the DEAP-3600 Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment, part of the DEAP/CLEAN program, is a single-phase liquid argon detector currently under construction at SNOLAB. The detector will contain 3600 kg of argon, giving it a target sensitivity of 10-46 cm^2 for spin-independent dark matter scattering on nucleons. I will discuss the highlights of our research and development efforts as well as the design and construction status of the full detector.

Sonley, Thomas

2012-03-01

372

Large Cryogenic Germanium Detector. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to investigate possible ways of increasing the size of cryogenic Ge detectors. This project identified two possible approaches to increasing the individual cryogenic Ge detector size. The first approach relies on using the existing technology for growing detector-grade (high-purity) germanium crystals of dislocation density 100-7000 cm{sup -2}. The second approach is to consider dislocation-free Ge crystals.

Mandic, Vuk

2013-02-13

373

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

1983-11-08

374

Field induced gap infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

Elliott, C. Thomas (inventor)

1990-01-01

375

Detector for Particle Surface Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method for detecting and quantizing particle fallout contamination particles which are collected on a transparent disk or other surface employs an optical detector, such as a CCD camera, to obtain images of the disk and a computer for analyzing the images. From the images, the computer detects, counts and sizes particles collected on the disk The computer also determines, through comparison to previously analyzed images, the particle fallout rate, and generates an alarm or other indication if the rate exceeds a maximum allowable value. The detector and disk are disposed in a housing having an aperture formed therein for defining the area on the surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout. A light source is provided for evenly illuminating the disk. A first drive motor slowly rotates the disk to increase the amount of its surface area which is exposed through the aperture to the particle fallout. A second motor is also provided for incrementally scanning the disk in a radial direction back and forth over the camera so that the camera eventually obtains images of the entire surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout.

Mogan, Paul A. (Inventor); Schwindt, Christian J. (Inventor); Mattson, Carl B. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

376

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

Voigtman, Edward G. (Gainesville, FL); Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jurgensen, Arthur R. (Gainesville, FL)

1983-01-01

377

A new passive helicopter detector  

SciTech Connect

Sandia has developed a new helicopter detector. The device relies on the correlation between the acoustic wave from the helicopter and the resulting coupled seismic wave. A significant feature of this approach is that the detector is completely passive; there is no radio frequency radiation. Intended for deployment as a perimeter sensor around a site, the unit offers a low nuisance/false alarm rate and a high probability of detection for a wide range of helicopters. Reliable detection occurs when the target is at high altitude and also very near the earth's surface. Detection ranges start at one kilometre for the small, four-place, civilian helicopter and approach five kilometres for heavier, military types. The system has two parts: a transducer package containing a microphone and a geophone and a digital processor. Development is underway for a model which will be AC powered and well suited to permanent facilities. A prototype unit using a lightweight, battery powered processor is being constructed for rapid-deployment applications.

Elliott, G.R.

1985-01-01

378

Multielement detector for gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a study to improve the capabilities of a gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma (GC- MIP) detector system, determine the feasibility of empirical formula determination for simple mixtures containing elements of interest to fossil fuel analysis and, subsequently, explore applications for analysis of the complex mixtures associated with fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that the GC-MIP system is useful as a specific-element detector that provides excellent elemental specificity for a number of elements of interest to the analysis of fossil fuels. It has reasonably good sensitivity for carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nickel, and better sensitivity for chlorine and fluorine. Sensitivity is poor for nitrogen and oxygen, however, probably because of undetected leaks or erosion of the plasma tube. The GC-MIP can also provide stoichiometric information about components of simple mixtures. If this powerful technique is to be available for complex mixtures, it will be necessary to greatly simplify the chromatograms by chemical fractionation. 38 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

1988-11-01

379

Recirculating cross-correlation detector  

DOEpatents

A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

1985-01-18

380

BF3 Neutron Detector Tests  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world; thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and detection capabilities are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the efficiency of BF3 tubes at a pressure of 800 torr. These measurements were made partially to validate models of the RPM system that have been modified to simulate the performance of BF3-filled tubes. While BF3 could be a potential replacement for 3He, there are limitations to its use in deployed systems.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2009-12-09

381

Recent Advances in Diamond Detectors  

E-print Network

With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2012, ATLAS and CMS are planning for detector upgrades for their innermost layers requiring radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is now planned for all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as an alternate sensor for use very close to the interaction region of the super LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences available. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10^16 protons/cm^2 showing that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one to extrapolate their performance as a function of dose.

W. Trischuk; the RD42 collaboration

2008-10-20

382

Direct digital conversion detector technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

1995-06-01

383

STJ detectors for protein detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has become an essential spectrometry for a research field of bioscience. However, the mass limit of the conventional TOF-MS spectrometer frequently prevent us from measuring the mass values for large biomolecules without chemical or enzymatic digestion. Overcoming the circumstance, a TOF-MS instrument with superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors (Super TOF-MS) were developed. The direct observation of the kinetic energy for each ion by Super TOF-MS leads to the two considerable capabilities: the observation of large proteins up to 1 MDa and the ionic charge-state discrimination of them, which are impossible with conventional ion detectors. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the these advantages of Super TOF-MS is a powerful tool at performing a fragment analysis of, for example, immunoglobulin G (IgG) which is a large protein playing a key role in an immune system.

Kobayashi, Y.; Ukibe, M.; Chiba-Kamoshida, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Shiki, S.; Suzuki, K.; Ohkubo, M.

2008-09-01

384

Metal detector depth estimation algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper looks at depth estimation techniques using electromagnetic induction (EMI) metal detectors. Four algorithms are considered. The first utilizes a vertical gradient sensor configuration. The second is a dual frequency approach. The third makes use of dipole and quadrapole receiver configurations. The fourth looks at coils of different sizes. Each algorithm is described along with its associated sensor. Two figures of merit ultimately define algorithm/sensor performance. The first is the depth of penetration obtainable. (That is, the maximum detection depth obtainable.) This describes the performance of the method to achieve detection of deep targets. The second is the achievable statistical depth resolution. This resolution describes the precision with which depth can be estimated. In this paper depth of penetration and statistical depth resolution are qualitatively determined for each sensor/algorithm. A scientific method is used to make these assessments. A field test was conducted using 2 lanes with emplaced UXO. The first lane contains 155 shells at increasing depths from 0" to 48". The second is more realistic containing objects of varying size. The first lane is used for algorithm training purposes, while the second is used for testing. The metal detectors used in this study are the: Geonics EM61, Geophex GEM5, Minelab STMR II, and the Vallon VMV16.

Marble, Jay; McMichael, Ian

2009-05-01

385

An introduction to blocked impurity band detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blocked impurity band detectors fabricated using standard silicon technologies offer the possibility of combining high sensitivity and high accuracy in a single detector operating in a low background environment. The solid state photomultiplier described by Petroff et al., which is a new type of blocked impurity band detector, offers even higher sensitivity as well as operation in the visible spectral region. The principle of operation and possible application of blocked impurity band detectors for stellar seismology and the search for extra-solar planets are described.

Geist, Jon

1988-01-01

386

Fast neutron dosemeter using pixelated detector Timepix.  

PubMed

A Timepix detector covered with polyethylene convertors of different thicknesses is presented as a fast neutron real-time dosemeter. The application of different weighting factors in connection with the position of a signal in a Timepix detector enables one to obtain an energy-dependent signal equal to neutron dose equivalents. A simulation of a Timepix detector covered with polyethylene convertors using monoenergetic neutrons is presented. The experimental set-up of a dosemeter was also produced. The first results of detector response using different fast neutron sources are presented. PMID:24277875

Bulanek, Boris; Ekendahl, Daniela; Prouza, Zdenek

2014-10-01

387

Silicon tracking detectors—historical overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor detectors have been known for more than 50 years, however their tracking capabilities, exhibiting spatial resolution in the 5-10 ?m range, began to be explored only in the beginning of the 1980s, when experimental physics began to search for detectors to measure short-living particles. The introduction of planar technology provided a boost to the industrial production and use of silicon strip detectors. The next essential step came with the development of a dedicated VLSI readout, which allowed for integration of detectors and electronics. Efforts towards obtaining two-dimensional detectors were initiated right from the beginning, with CCD devices being the subject of early investigation. A second line of development involved pixel devices with thick sensitive layers—they began to be successfully implemented in experiments towards the end of the 1990s. Radiation effects in detectors and electronics were recognized early, however it took many years to understand the physics of radiation damage—currently, we possess detectors and electronics capable of surviving doses of 10 Mrad and fluxes of 10 14 neutrons/cm 2, or higher. Nowadays, all particle physics spectrometers have inbuilt vertex detectors, which deliver excellent results. The application of silicon tracking detectors has expanded to nuclear physics, solid-state physics, astrophysics, biology and medicine.

Turala, M.

2005-04-01

388

Neutron detector characterization for SCINTIA array  

SciTech Connect

SCINTIA is a new detector array of organic scintillators under development at the Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). The present design of SCINTIA includes NE213, p-terphenyl and Li glass neutron detectors positioned in a spherical configuration around the target. The properties of a novel p-terphenyl neutron detector to be used with SCINTIA have been investigated using photon sources and neutrons from a time tagged {sup 252}Cf(sf) source. The results show that the p-terphenyl crystal has better energy resolution, increased proton light output and neutron efficiency when compared to a similar size NE213 equivalent neutron detector. (authors)

Matei, C.; Hambsch, F. J.; Oberstedt, S. [EC-JRC - Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

2011-07-01

389

Novel detectors for traceable THz power measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several novel types of detectors for the measurement of electromagnetic radiation in the THz spectral range are described. Firstly, detectors based on pyroelectric foil coated with different absorbers have been developed focusing on the following features: high accuracy due to well-characterized absorption, high sensitivity, large area absorbers and frequency and polarization independence. A three-dimensional design with five absorptions gave an overall absorption of more than 98 %. Secondly, detectors based on pyroelectric foils with thin metal layers were realized. An absorption of 50 % can be obtained if the thickness of the layers is carefully adjusted. According to electromagnetic theory this degree of absorption is independent of the polarization and frequency of the radiation in a wide range from at least 20 GHz to 5 THz. The third type of detector is based on a new type of volume absorber with a polished front surface and a gold-coated back side. It is the absorber of choice of the standard power detector for disseminating the spectral power responsivity scale. This standard detector allows the application of a physical model to calculate its spectral responsivity in the range from 1 THz to 5 THz if the detector has been calibrated at one single frequency. Finally, a THz detector calibration facility was set up and is now in operation at PTB to calibrate detectors from customers with an uncertainty as low as 1.7 %.

Müller, Ralf; Bohmeyer, Werner; Kehrt, Mathias; Lange, Karsten; Monte, Christian; Steiger, Andreas

2014-08-01

390

EVAPORATIVE LIGHT SCATTERING DETECTOR AS A MASS DETECTOR WITH MALLS FOR DETERMINATION OF PECTIN MOLECULAR WEIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method to calibrate and use an evaporative light scattering detector (ELS) as a mass detector for molecular weight determination of polysaccharides using a multi-angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) is shown. The calibration of the ELS was performed under isocratic conditions using conce...

391

Efficiency of composite boron nitride neutron detectors in comparison with helium-3 detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been clearly demonstrated that the composite boron nitride (BN) semiconductor polycrystalline bulk detectors with BN grains embedded in a polymer matrix operate as an effective detector of thermal neutrons even if they contain natural boron only. A reasonable signal to noise ratio has been achieved with detector thickness of about 1 mm. A Monte Carlo simulation of neutron

J. Uher; S. Pospisil; V. Linhart; M. Schieber

2007-01-01

392

Intravascular imaging with a storage phosphor detector.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to develop and test an intravascular positron imaging system based on a storage phosphor detector for imaging and detecting vulnerable plaques of human coronary arteries. The radiotracer F18-FDG accumulates in vulnerable plaques with inflammation of the overlying cap. The vulnerable plaques can, therefore, be imaged by recording positrons emitted from F18-FDG with a detector inserted into the artery. A prototype intravascular detector was constructed based on storage phosphor. The detector uses a flexible storage phosphor tube with 55 mm length, 2 mm diameter and 0.28 mm wall thickness. The intravascular detector is guided into the vessel using x-ray fluoroscopy and the accumulated x-ray signal must be erased prior to positron imaging. For this purpose, a light diffuser, 0.9 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length, was inserted into the detector tube. The light diffuser was connected to a laser source through a 2 m long optical fiber. The diffuser redirected the 0.38 W laser light to the inner surface of the phosphor detector to erase it. A heart phantom with 300 cm(3) volume and three coronary arteries with 3.2 mm diameter and with several plaques was constructed. FDG solution with 0.5 microCi cm(-3) activity concentration was filled in the heart and coronary arteries. The detector was inserted in a coronary artery and the signal from the plaques and surrounding background activity was recorded for 2 min. Then the phosphor detector was extracted and read out using a storage phosphor reader. The light diffuser erased the signal resulting from fluoroscopic exposure to level below that encountered during positron imaging. Vulnerable plaques with area activities higher than 1.2 nCi mm(-2) were visualized by the detector. This activity is a factor of 10-20 lower than that expected in human vulnerable plaques. The detector was able to image the internal surface of the coronary vessels with 50 mm length and 360 degrees circumference. Spatial resolution was 0.6-1.2 mm FWHM with a readout pixel resolution of 80 microm. The detector is flexible, reusable and easy to handle; it provides virtually real-time imaging. An intravascular imaging detector based on storage phosphor has shown a potential for imaging human coronary artery plaques. The detector provides the sensitivity, spatial resolution, flexibility and short imaging times necessary for clinical applications. Future research will decrease the detector diameter from 2 mm to 1 mm, and will apply the design to in vivo animal experiments. PMID:20427852

Shikhaliev, Polad M; Petrek, Peter; Matthews, Kenneth L; Fritz, Shannon G; Bujenovic, L Steven; Xu, Tong

2010-05-21

393

A high sensitivity THz detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel THz detector which uses the cantilever technology and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology to achieve a high sensitivity. The Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology is adopted to fabricate the detector, which comprise thermo-sensitive bi-material micro-cantilever, prism and optical readout system. The bi-material of Si3N4 and Al is used to fabricate the micro-cantilever because of the good absorption characteristic for THz of Si3N4 and the great difference in thermal expansion coefficient of the bi-material for the deformation of the micro-cantilever. In order to increase the deformation of micro-cantilever, the method of computer simulation is used to obtain the optimal structure of micro-cantilever and the thickness of Si3N4 and Al. The function of the glass prism is to make the incident light generate total reflection under certain conditions. The gold film is sputtering on the top of glass slide using the method of magnetron sputtering and it is necessary for the generation of SPR performance. The optical readout system can make the change of cantilever bending convert to the change of reflection luminous intensity proportionally. The heat on the micro-cantilever coming from the THz radiation can lose easily in the air, so the detector is placed vertically in a cylindrical vacuum chamber which is sealed with quartz glasses and polyethylene lamina at the two end surfaces respectively. The quartz glass is used for the incidence of visible polarized light and the polyethylene lamina for the THz radiation. In order to maintain the vacuum performance of the chamber, the mechanical pump and molecular pump are adopted. In static mode, THz radiation absorption raises the temperature of micro-cantilever, so it bends proportionally. The micro-cantilever bending changes the thicknesses of the gap between the micro-cantilever and the metallic thin film on the micro-prism. It will result in a shift of the SPR angle. Therefore, the surface plasmon excitation efficiency and therewith the measured at a fixed incident angle reflectance of a metallic film will be changed almost proportionally to the cantilever bending. Consequently, the radiation energy of THz can be determined via the metallic film reflectivity change. Finally, the technology of image processing is introduced in detail.

Su, Bo; Duan, Guoteng

2011-08-01

394

Amorphous Silicon Based Neutron Detector  

SciTech Connect

Various large-scale neutron sources already build or to be constructed, are important for materials research and life science research. For all these neutron sources, neutron detectors are very important aspect. However, there is a lack of a high-performance and low-cost neutron beam monitor that provides time and temporal resolution. The objective of this SBIR Phase I research, collaboratively performed by Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE), the University of Toledo (UT) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is to demonstrate the feasibility for amorphous silicon based neutron beam monitors that are pixilated, reliable, durable, fully packaged, and fabricated with high yield using low-cost method. During the Phase I effort, work as been focused in the following areas: 1) Deposition of high quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) at high deposition rate and with low device shunting; 2) Fabrication of Si/SiO2/metal/p/i/n/metal/n/i/p/metal/SiO2/ device for the detection of alpha particles which are daughter particles of neutrons through appropriate nuclear reactions; and 3) Testing of various devices fabricated for alpha and neutron detection; As the main results: · High quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films have been successfully deposited using VHF PECVD on various low-cost substrates; · Various single-junction and double junction detector devices have been fabricated; · The detector devices fabricated have been systematically tested and analyzed. · Some of the fabricated devices are found to successfully detect alpha particles. Further research is required to bring this Phase I work beyond the feasibility demonstration toward the final prototype devices. The success of this project will lead to a high-performance, low-cost, X-Y pixilated neutron beam monitor that could be used in all of the neutron facilities worldwide. In addition, the technologies developed here could be used to develop X-ray and neutron monitors that could be used in the future for security checks at the airports and other critical facilities. The project would lead to devices that could significantly enhance the performance of multi-billion dollar neutron source facilities in the US and bring our nation to the forefront of neutron beam sciences and technologies which have enormous impact to materials, life science and military research and applications.

Xu, Liwei

2004-12-12

395

Transition Radiation Detector to Search for Dark Matter in Space  

E-print Network

The AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector to Search for Dark Matter in Space The AMSThe AMS--0202 Transition Radiation DetectorTransition Radiation Detector to Search for Dark Matter in Spaceto Search.it On behalf of the AMS collaboration Transition Radiation DetectorTransition Radiation Detector Transition

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

396

Calibration of an MR-Compatible, CZT Detector Based  

E-print Network

method must Measure any misalignment between collimator and detector Identify energy peak and measure energy resolution for each detector pixel Correct for detector uniformity due to property variations of different detector pixels Identify and correct for malfunctioning detector pixels SPECT System Description

Arizona, University of

397

Two-color infrared detector  

DOEpatents

A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

2014-05-13

398

The PANDA Barrel DIRC detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt, will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. Efficient Particle Identification for a wide momentum range and the full solid angle is required for reconstructing the various physics channels of the PANDA program. Hadronic Particle Identification in the barrel region of the detector will be provided by a DIRC counter. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with important improvements, such as focusing optics and fast photon timing. Several of these improvements, including different radiator geometries and optics, were tested in particle beams at GSI and at CERN. The evolution of the conceptual design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the performance of complex prototypes in test beam campaigns will be discussed.

Hoek, M.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Lauth, W.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

2014-12-01

399

The NA62 RICH Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NA62 experiment is designed to measure the very rare kaon dacay K^+ rightarrow ?^+ ?bar? at the CERN SPS with a 10% accuracy. The Standard Model prediction for the branching ratio is (8.5 ± 07) × 10-11. One of the challenging aspect of the experiment is the suppression of the K+ ? ?+v? background at the 10-12 level. To satisfy this requirement a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH), able to separate pions from muons in the momentum range between 15 and 35 GeV/c, with a muon rejection factor better than 10-2, is needed. The RICH must also have a time resolution of about 100 ps to disentangle accidental time associations of beam particles with pions. The RICH will have a very long focal length (17 m) and will be filled with Ne gas at atmospheric pressure.

Cassese, A.

2014-06-01

400

High spatial resolution particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

2012-09-04

401

Alien liquid detector and control  

SciTech Connect

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

Potter, B.M.

1980-09-02

402

Radiation detectors: needs and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Important applications for x- and ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy are found in prospecting, materials characterization, environmental monitoring, the life sciences, and nuclear physics. The specific requirements vary for each application with varying degrees of emphasis on either spectrometer resolution, detection efficiency, or both. Since no one spectrometer is ideally suited to this wide range of needs, compromises are usually required. Gas and scintillation spectrometers have reached a level of maturity, and recent interest has concentrated on semiconductor spectrometers. Germanium detectors are showing continuing refinement and are the spectrometers of choice for high resolution applications. The new high-Z semiconductors, such as CdTe and HgI/sub 2/, have shown steady improvement but are limited in both resolution and size and will likely be used only in applications which require their unique properties.

Armantrout, G.A.

1981-01-01

403

Unitary scintillation detector and system  

DOEpatents

The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. 10 figs.

McElhaney, S.A.; Chiles, M.M.

1994-05-31

404

The Performance of LHCf Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cosmic ray physics, the uncertainty of the hadron interaction model causes systematic errors of air shower simulations in high-energy region. To solve the problem, the LHCf experiment measures energies and transverse momenta of neutral particles emitted in the forward region of 14 TeV p-p collision at CERN LHC. Two LHCf detectors, consisting of sampling and imaging calorimeters, are installed at zero degree collision angle at + 140 m from the interaction point 1 (IP1). The energy resolution is confirmed as to be <5% and the position resolution <0.2 mm for gamma-rays with energies from 100 GeV to 200 GeV by test beam results at the CERN SPS. Use of the Front Counter reduces the beam-gas background by a factor 50.

Kawade, K.; Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Faus, A.; Grandi, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Macina, D.; Mase, T.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Nakai, M.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A.-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Taki, K.; Tamura, T.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W. C.; Velasco, J.; Viciani, A.; Yoshida, K.

2010-06-01

405

Unitary scintillation detector and system  

DOEpatents

The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations.

McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

406

Ion chamber based neutron detectors  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

2014-12-16

407

Single nanowire photoconductive terahertz detectors.  

PubMed

Spectroscopy and imaging in the terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum has proven to provide important insights in fields as diverse as chemical analysis, materials characterization, security screening, and nondestructive testing. However, compact optoelectronics suited to the most powerful terahertz technique, time-domain spectroscopy, are lacking. Here, we implement single GaAs nanowires as microscopic coherent THz sensors and for the first time incorporated them into the pulsed time-domain technique. We also demonstrate the functionality of the single nanowire THz detector as a spectrometer by using it to measure the transmission spectrum of a 290 GHz low pass filter. Thus, nanowires are shown to be well suited for THz device applications and hold particular promise as near-field THz sensors. PMID:25490548

Peng, Kun; Parkinson, Patrick; Fu, Lan; Gao, Qiang; Jiang, Nian; Guo, Ya-Nan; Wang, Fan; Joyce, Hannah J; Boland, Jessica L; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Johnston, Michael B

2015-01-14

408

A Chemiluminescence Detector for Ozone Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ozone detector was built and evaluated for its applicability in smog chamber studies. The detection method is based on reaction of ozone with ethylene and measurement of resultant chemiluminescence. In the first phase of evaluation, the detector's response to ozone was studied as a function of several instrument parameters, and optimum…

Carroll, H.; And Others

409

FITPix --- fast interface for Timepix pixel detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semiconductor pixel detector Timepix contains an array of 256 × 256 square pixels with pitch 55 mum. In addition to high spatial granularity the single quantum counting detector Timepix can provide also energy or time information in each pixel. This device is a powerful tool for radiation and particle detection, imaging and tracking. A new readout interface for silicon

V. Kraus; M. Holik; J. Jakubek; M. Kroupa; P. Soukup; Z. Vykydal

2011-01-01

410

Personal alpha contamination simulator and detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulated radiation source and a compatible detector system are disclosed. The combination is useful in training for detecting alpha radiation contamination. A flexible, soft iron plate or first permanent magnet in the detector system responds to a second magnet that is employed to represent an alpha radiation source. Where the first permanent magnet is used, an iron member may

R. H. Insinger; A. H. Rodemann

1983-01-01

411

Personal alpha contamination simulator and detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulated radiation source and a compatible detector system are disclosed. The combination is useful in training for detecting alpha radiation contamination. A flexible, soft iron plate or first permanent magnet in the detector system responds to a second magnet that is employed to represent an alpha radiation source. Where the first permanent magnet is used, an iron member may

R. H. Insinger; A. H. Rodemann

1985-01-01

412

Plasmon Based Grating Gate Terahertz Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double quantum well grating gate detectors have recently emerged as a widely tunable detector of millimeter wave to THz radiation. A typical device consists of source and drain contacts along with a grating gate which both modulates the carrier density and couples in the free space radiation to the plasmon modes of the double quantum well heterostructure. In a resonant

E. A. Shaner

2005-01-01

413

Development of planar detectors with active edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

2011-12-01

414

Characterization of IRAS doped silicon detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented from a range of operating conditions which include background photo flux, operating temperature, and frequency. Each detector is equipped with a load resistor, a cryogenic field effect transistor preamplifier, and a temperature sensor. Data are also presented of detector signal, noise spectra, noise equivalent power, and spectral response.

1976-01-01

415

The Semiconductor Tracker Detector Control System  

E-print Network

, a hybrid and readout electronics. Stave = A unit consisting of several modules (10­12) with an independentThe Semiconductor Tracker Detector Control System Requirements Document Reference cmproj #12; ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Issue: Draft 1.0 Detector Control System Date: November 21, 1996 1

California at Santa Cruz, University of

416

Si:As BIB detector arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of the results obtained on arsenic-doped silicon blocked impurity band (BIB) detectors and arrays since the invention of the BIB concept a few years ago are presented. After a brief introduction and a description of the BIB concept, data will be given on single detector performance. Then different arrays that were fabricated will be described and test data presented.

Bharat, R.; Petroff, M. D.; Speer, J. J.; Stapelbroek, M. G.

1986-01-01

417

24 CFR 232.591 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occupied room must include at least one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector in proper working condition. If the room is occupied by hearing-impaired persons, the smoke detector must have an alarm system designed for hearing-impaired persons, unless the smoke alarm is...

2010-04-01

418

24 CFR 891.555 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...include at least one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector, in proper working...the unit. If the unit is occupied by hearing-impaired persons, smoke detectors must have an alarm system designed for hearing-impaired persons in each bedroom occupied by a hearing-impaired person. (b)...

2010-04-01

419

Recent developments in PET detector technology  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a tool for metabolic imaging that has been utilized since the earliest days of nuclear medicine. A key component of such imaging systems is the detector modules—an area of research and development with a long, rich history. Development of detectors for PET has often seen the migration of technologies, originally developed for high energy physics experiments, into prototype PET detectors. Of the many areas explored, some detector designs go on to be incorporated into prototype scanner systems and a few of these may go on to be seen in commercial scanners. There has been a steady, often very diverse development of prototype detectors, and the pace has accelerated with the increased use of PET in clinical studies (currently driven by PET/CT scanners) and the rapid proliferation of pre-clinical PET scanners for academic and commercial research applications. Most of these efforts are focused on scintillator-based detectors, although various alternatives continue to be considered. For example, wire chambers have been investigated many times over the years and more recently various solid-state devices have appeared in PET detector designs for very high spatial resolution applications. But even with scintillators, there have been a wide variety of designs and solutions investigated as developers search for solutions that offer very high spatial resolution, fast timing, high sensitivity and are yet cost effective. In this review, we will explore some of the recent developments in the quest for better PET detector technology. PMID:18695301

Lewellen, Tom K

2010-01-01

420

High accuracy gaseous x-ray detectors  

SciTech Connect

An outline is given of the design and operation of high accuracy position-sensitive x-ray detectors suitable for experiments using synchrotron radiation. They are based on the gas proportional detector, with position readout using a delay line; a detailed examination is made of factors which limit spatial resolution. Individual wire readout may be used for extremely high counting rates.

Smith, G.C.

1983-11-01

421

A robustness measure for the sign detector  

E-print Network

performance may be obtained when the noise is actually non-Gaussian and/or nonstationary [4, 5] Progress has also been made in investigating the effects of dependency on the nonparametric detector [6, 7] and detectors for dependent da, ta have been...

Liu, Wensheng

1991-01-01

422

Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) technology is one of emerging technologies that will change our life. A lot of attractive applications in security, medicine, biology, astronomy, and non-destructive materials testing have been demonstrated already. However, the realization of THz emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. As a result, THz radiation is resistant to the techniques commonly employed in these well established neighbouring bands. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of THz radiation detectors and focal plane arrays are discussed. Historical impressive progress in THz detector sensitivity in a period of more than half century is analyzed. More attention is put on the basic physical phenomena and the recent progress in both direct and heterodyne detectors. After short description of general classification of THz detectors, more details concern Schottky barrier diodes, pair braking detectors, hot electron mixers and field-effect transistor detectors, where links between THz devices and modern technologies such as micromachining are underlined. Also, the operational conditions of THz detectors and their upper performance limits are reviewed. Finally, recent advances in novel nanoelectronic materials and technologies are described. It is expected that applications of nanoscale materials and devices will open the door for further performance improvement in THz detectors.

Rogalski, A.; Sizov, F.

2011-09-01

423

Recent advances in compound semiconductor radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in compound semiconductor detectors are reviewed, highlighting the latest spectroscopic performance from devices fabricated from a range of wide bandgap materials. Cadmium zinc telluride and cadmium telluride continue to dominate the field, with a range of prototype imaging detectors under development, principally for nuclear medicine and X-ray astronomy applications. Improvements in material quality and supply plus metal–semiconductor contact

Paul J Sellin

2003-01-01

424

Characteristics of radiation detectors for diagnostic radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of X-rays for diagnosis has been significant since its discovery. A measurement of the X-ray dose is the main determinant for risk vs benefit of these examinations. Radiation detectors are important for dose measurement. A description of these detectors, including the most frequently used ionization chamber, aids in the understanding necessary for their use. Proper and accurate use

Larry A. DeWerd; Louis K. Wagner

1999-01-01

425

Resource Letter PD-1 on Particle Detectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to guide college physicists to literature on nuclear and sub-nuclear particle detectors. The paper contains a discussion of (1) interactions of particles with matter and (2) individual particle detectors, each section being followed by an annotated bibliography of selected reference materials. Rankings are given to the articles on the…

Trower, W. Peter

1970-01-01

426

CZT pixel detectors for improved SPECT imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

CZT pixel detectors show interesting capabilities for SPECT imaging. They combine a high energy resolution, good detection efficiency and a very good intrinsic spatial resolution. As these performances are superior to those obtained with scintillation detectors, a resulting improvement of image quality is expected. However, SPECT imaging performances are mostly limited by the collimation geometry and CZT based imagers cannot

Guillaume Montemont; Thomas Bordy; Veronique Rebuffel; Charlotte Robert; Loick Verger

2008-01-01

427

Underwater muon detection using a Cerenkov detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the results of measurements of the intensity of cosmic rays in the ocen at depths of up to 5 km using a detector registering individual muons from their Cerenkov radiation in natural water surrounding the detector. Based on the experimental results, an expression is obtained which relates the intensity of a vertical flux of cosmic muons to

V. M. Fedorov

1990-01-01

428

Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

2014-01-30

429

Green River Community College Cosmic Ray Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Washington Area Large scale Time coincidence Array (WALTA) researches high-energy cosmic ray and has placed particle detector arrays around the Seattle area to increase the accuracy of muon information. Green River Community College is one of the schools in collaboration with WALTA and offers its students under-graduate research by working with the particle detector arrays, data collecting and reporting.

Andrea Roma; Crissy Harrington; Mirela Isic; Andrew Adams; Ron Draper

2008-01-01

430

Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required.

M. Fitzsimmons; R. Pynn

1997-01-01

431

Metal Detectors and Feeling Safe at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that metal detectors bestow an organizational stigma to schools. One symptom of this is students' heightened level of fear at school. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and a matched-pair design, this study finds that metal detectors are negatively correlated with students' sense…

Gastic, Billie

2011-01-01

432

Use of track detectors in biomedical sciences.  

PubMed

The CR-39 track detectors have been applied to irradiate the Chinese hamster V79-753B cells for survival studies. The survival curves have given satisfactory results. Energies of the incoming as well as outgoing proton beams evaluated from the track diameters are found to be close to the values found separately by surface barrier detector (SSBD). PMID:11543206

Waheed, A; Majeed, A; Cera, F; Tiveron, P; Cherubini, R; Moschini, G; Khan, E U

1993-01-01

433

Preliminary results from the CMD-2 detector  

SciTech Connect

A new general-purpose detector CMD-2 (calorimetric magnetic detector has started experiments at the upgraded e{sup {plus}}e{sup {minus}} collider VEPP-2M (collider for electron-positron beams) at Novosibirsk. During early runs an integrated luminosity of about 400 inverse nanobarns has been collected in the center of mass energy range 400{endash}1030 MeV.

Khazin, B.I.; Akhmetshin, R.R.; Aksenov, G.A.; Anashkin, E.V.; Aulchenko, V.M.; Baibusinov, B.O.; Banzarov, V.S.; Barkov, L.M.; Baru, S.E.; Bashtovoi, N.S.; Bondar, A.E.; Eidelman, S.I.; Fedorenko, V.E.; Fedotovitch, G.V.; Grebeniuk, A.A.; Grigoriev, D.N.; Ivanov, P.M.; Koop, I.A.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Lelchuk, M.Yu.; Leontyev, L.A.; Lysenko, A.P.; Maksimov, A.V.; Merzlyakov, Yu.I.; Nomerotsky, A.B.; Okhapkin, V.S.; Perevedentsev, E.A.; Pivovarov, S.G.; Purlats, T.A.; Redin, S.I.; Root, N.I.; Ryskulov, N.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.; Shekhtman, A.I.; Shubin, M.A.; Shwartz, B.A.; Sidorov, V.A.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Smakhtin, V.P.; Snopkov, I.G.; Solodov, E.P.; Titov, V.M.; Vasserman, I.B.; Yudin, Yu.V.; Zavarzin, V.G.; Zhuravkov, I.V. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Brown, D.H.; Miller, J.P.; Roberts, B.L.; Worstell, W.A. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Thompson, J.A.; Yang, C.H. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Cushman, P.B.; Dhawan, S.K.; Hughes, V.W. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics

1992-12-31

434

Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

1972-01-01

435

The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BABAR detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O'Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.

2013-11-01

436

Nucleonic coal detector with independent, hydropneumatic suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a nucleonic, coal interface detector which measures the depth of coal on the roof and floor of a coal mine is presented. The nucleonic source and the nucleonic detector are on independent hydropneumatic suspensions to reduce the measurement errors due to air gap.

Jones, E. W.; Handy, K.

1977-01-01

437

The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and construction of the large Drift Chamber for the KLOE experiment at the Frascati ?-factory, DA?NE, are described. The relevant aspects of the various elements of the detector are reviewed together with a description of the track reconstruction program and of the calibration procedures. The performance of the detector based on measurements with cosmic rays and with e+e?

M. Adinolfi; F. Ambrosino; A. Andryakov; A. Antonelli; M. Antonelli; C. Bacci; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Bankamp; F. Bellini; G. Bencivenni; S. Bertolucci; C. Bini; C. Bloise; V. Bocci; F. Bossi; P. Branchini; S. A Bulychjov; G. Cabibbo; A. Calcaterra; R. Caloi; P. Campana; G. Capon; A. Cardini; M. Casarsa; V. Casavola; G. Cataldi; F. Ceradini; F. Cervelli; G. Chiefari; P. Ciambrone; E De Lucia; R De Sangro; P De Simone; S Dell'Agnello; A. Denig; A. Di Domenico; C. Di Donato; S Di Falco; A. Doria; E. Drago; G. Felici; A. Ferrari; M L. Ferrer; G. Finocchiaro; G. Fischer; C. Forti; A. Franceschi; P. Franzini; C. Gatti; P. Gauzzi; S. Giovannella; V. Golovatyuk; E. Gorini; F. Grancagnolo; E. Graziani; M. Incagli; L. Ingrosso; Y. Y. Jiang; W. Kluge; V. Kulikov; C. Kuo; F. Lacava; G. Lanfranchi; J. Lee-Franzini; T. Lomtadze; C. Luisi; M. Martemianov; M. Matsyuk; W. Mei; A. Menicucci; R. Messi; S. Moccia; M. Moulson; S. Müller; F. Murtas; M. Napolitano; A. Nedosekin; L. Pacciani; P. Pagès; M. Palutan; M. Panareo; L. Paoluzi; E. Pasqualucci; L. Passalacqua; M. Passaseo; A. Passeri; V. Patera; E. Petrolo; G. Petrucci; D. Picca; M. Piccolo; G. Pirozzi; M. Pollack; L. Pontecorvo; M. Primavera; E. Santovetti; G. Saracino; F. Schönleber; B. Sciascia; A. Sciubba; I. Sfiligoi; T. Spadaro; S. Spagnolo; E. Spiriti; U von Hagel; P. Valente; B. Valeriani; G. Venanzoni; S. Veneziano; A. Ventura

2002-01-01

438

Retro-prospective in IR optical detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation looks back over this last twenty years, the French activity in IR detectors. Photon and thermal detectors, cooled and uncooled focal plane arrays are considered. Two specific experiences are described on Automation Home IR Systems and Earth horizon IR sensing for Space Applications. The discussion is focussed on low cost devices and perspectives which are to be open

Daniel Esteve; Francis Bony; Christophe Escriba; E. Campo; Jean-Yves Fourniols

2004-01-01

439

New type of Cherenkov Imaging Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging Cherenkov counter is developed to measure the velocities of several secondary particles simultaneously over wide ranges in gamma. This detector, called the ORCID (Optical Readout Cherenkov Imaging Detector) distinguished from other CID's by its readout system, which uses a lens to refocus and reduce a mirror image onto an image intensifier. The image intensifier is in turn coupled

B. Robinson

1980-01-01

440

A New Type of Cherenkov Imaging Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging Cherenkov counter is being developed to measure the velocities of several secondary particles simultaneously over wide ranges in gamma (gamma ? E\\/m), 20 < gamma < 100, and in particle angles (200 mrad × 200 mrad per unit). This detector, called ORCID (Optical Readout Cherenkov Imaging Detector) is distinguished from other CID's by its readout system, which uses

Barry Robinson

1981-01-01

441

Looking at single photons using hybrid detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SLS detector group develops silicon hybrid detectors for X-ray applications used in synchrotron facilities all over the world. Both microstrip and pixel detectors with either single photon counting or charge integrating read out are being developed. Low noise charge integrating detectors can be operated in single photon regime, i.e. with low fluxes and high frame rates in order to detect on average less than one photon per cluster of 2×2 pixels. In this case, the analog signal read out for each single X-ray provides information about the energy of the photon. Moreover the signal from neighboring channels can be correlated in order to overcome or even take advantage of charge sharing. The linear charge collection model describing microstrip detectors and large pixels is unsuitable for the calibration of small pitch pixel detectors due to the large amount of charge sharing occurring also in the corner region. For this reason, the linear charge collection model is extended to the case of small pixels and tested with monochromatic X-ray data acquired using the 25 ?m pitch MÖNCH and the 75 ?m pitch JUNGFRAU detectors. The successful outcome of the calibration of the MÖNCH detector is proven by the high energy resolution of the spectrum obtained by accumulating the counts from more than 6000 channels after the correction of the gain mismatches using the proposed model.

Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

2015-01-01

442

Low background shielding of HPGe detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. Steel shielding with one of these detectors (relative efficiency 100%) was chosen to be rebuilt to decrease minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space

L. Trnková; P. Rulík

2009-01-01

443

Rejection of Surface Background in Thermal Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging aspect of the next generation detector for rare events searches (i.e. neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches) is the reduction of the background in the region of interest that can mimic the expected signals. In the field of thermal detectors, which have a leading role in rare events searches thanks to their excellent energy resolution and to the wide choice of absorber materials, the background coming from surface contaminations is frequently dominant. A background surface rejection detector is a scintillation-based approach for tagging this type of background. We discuss the innovative application of this technique in non-scintillating thermal detectors. We will report on the performances of the prototype bolometric detector, realized to prove the feasibility of this new technique.

Canonica, L.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Calvano, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Pavan, M.; Yeh, M.

2014-09-01

444

Performance of the ICARUS T600 detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICARUS detector is a liquid argon time projection chamber. It provides three dimensional imaging and calorimetry of ionizing particles over a large volume, with high granularity. This multipurpose detector opens up unique opportunities to look for phenomena beyond the Standard Model through the study of atmospheric, solar and supernova neutrinos, nucleon decay searches and neutrinos from the CERN to Gran Sasso beam. The ICARUS technology has reached maturity with the construction and test (during summer 2001) of a 600 ton detector, demonstrating the feasibility of building large mass devices relevant for non-accelerator physics. The collected data allow to assess the detector performance, i.e. the spatial reconstruction, calorimetry and particle identification, as well as the test of all technical aspects of the system (cryogenics, electronics, purification, etc). A summary of the detector performances and an overview of the general physics program of the ICARUS experiment is reported.

Navas-Concha, S.

2004-02-01

445

Novel photosensors for neutrino detectors and telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume and the photosensitive area of next generation detectors of the numerous rarely occurring phenomena will greatly exceed the sizes of the current experiments. These phenomena include cosmic neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, long-baseline neutrino beams from accelerators, geo-neutrinos, geo-reactor neutrinos, and hypothetic proton decays. Similar requirements hold for a new type of a large scanning device for homeland security and nuclear proliferation control, and for the future widely accessible medical imaging devices. Photon detectors are the most important component of such detectors. Existing photosensors are based on vacuum tubes and dynode electron multipliers that are essentially hand-made, expensive and nearly impossible to produce in large enough quantities. Silicon detectors are too small for experiments requiring a very large photosensitive area. Our laboratory is developing novel detectors with a large photosensitive area that can be mass-produced, similar to large flat panel TV displays.

Ferenc, Daniel; Lorenz, Eckart

2007-06-01

446

Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays  

DOEpatents

A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

2004-03-30

447

Wideband 1.064 micrometer detector evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of several candidate detectors for use as communications detectors in a 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometers laser communication system was evaluated. The results of communication system Bit Error Rate (BER) testing for the best detector of each type are summarized. Complete testing data of each type detector is presented. The 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometers communication system receiver test bed is described. The best communication system results for each detector type are included. Performance comparisons are made at 0.000001 BER, the specification level chosen for satellite laser communication links. The data is presented in two groups. The first indicates the best performance levels that can be expected on normal space laser communication system operation. The second cites the best performance levels which can be achieved by focusing the signal to diffraction limited spots on the photosensitive area.

Green, S. I.

1975-01-01

448

Temperature Stabilization Requirements for Unchopped Thermal Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The temperature stabilization requirements of unchopped thermistor bolometers and thermopile detectors are analyzed. The detector temperature, on which the bolometer output signal depends, is quite sensitive to changes in instrument temperature but relatively insensitive to changes in scene temperature. In contrast, the difference in temperature between detector and substrate (instrument), on which the thermopile signal depends, is equally sensitive to changes in instrument and scene temperature. Expressions for these dependencies are derived based on a simplified instrument model. It is shown that for a typical uncooled thermal imager, the temperature stabilization requirements for a bolometer are two orders of magnitude more stringent than those for a thermopile detector. Keywords: thermistor, bolometer, thermopile, detector, IR, thermal, temperature stabilization

Foote, Marc C.

2000-01-01

449

A novel electron tunneling infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pneumatic infrared detector, originally developed by Golay in the late 1940s, uses the thermal expansion of one cm(exp 3) of xenon at room temperature to detect the heat deposited by infrared radiation. This detector was limited by thermal fluctuations within a 10 Hz bandwidth, but suffered from long thermal time constants and a fragile structure. Nevertheless, it represents the most sensitive room temperature detector currently available in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR). Fabrication of this type of detector on smaller scales has been limited by the lack of a suitably sensitive transducer. Researchers designed a detector based on this principle, but which is constructed entirely from micromachined silicon, and uses a vacuum tunneling transducer to detect the expansion of the trapped gas. Because this detector is fabricated using micromachining techniques, miniaturization and integration into one and two-dimensional arrays is feasible. The extreme sensitivity of vacuum tunneling to changes in electrode separation will allow a prototype of this detector to operate in the limit of thermal fluctuations over a 10 kHz bandwidth. A calculation of the predicted response and noise of the prototype is presented with the general formalism of thermal detectors. At present, most of the components of the prototype have been fabricated and tested independently. In particular, a characterization of the micromachined electron tunneling transducer has been carried out. The measured noise in the tunnel current is within a decade of the limit imposed by shot noise, and well below the requirements for the operation of an infrared detector with the predicted sensitivity. Assembly and characterization of the prototype infrared detector will be carried out promptly.

Kenny, T. W.; Waltman, S. B.; Reynolds, J. K.; Kaiser, W. J.

1990-01-01

450

21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205 Section 870.4205...4205 Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect...

2010-04-01

451

SMALL AREA SILICON DIFFUSED JUNCTION X-RAY DETECTORS  

E-print Network

of guard-ring detectors with boron implanted and metalboron ion implanted and (b) palladium silicide P* contact detectors.boron ion implantation and (b) palladium silicide (PdgSi) P contact detectors.

Walton, J.T.

2010-01-01

452

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2014-10-01

453

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2013-10-01

454

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2010-10-01

455

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2011-10-01

456

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2012-10-01

457

Electron-Photon Coincidence Calibration Of Photon Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absolute and relative detector efficiencies measured. Apparatus uses coincidence-counting techniques to measure efficiency of ultraviolet or vacuum ultraviolet detector at very low radiation intensity. Crossed electron and atomic beams generate photons used to calibrate photon detector. Pulses from electron counter and photon detector(s) processed by standard coincidence-counting techniques. Used to calibrate other detectors or make absolute measurements of incident photon fluxes.

Srivastava, Santosh K.

1988-01-01

458

Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

459

Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector  

SciTech Connect

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 x 150 {micro}m{sup 2}. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

2008-12-01

460

New class of biological detectors for WIMPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) may constitute a large fraction of the matter in the Universe. There are excess events in the data of DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, CRESST-II, and recently CDMS-Si, which could be consistent with WIMP masses of approximately 10 GeV/c2. However, for MDM > 10 GeV/c2 null results of the CDMS-Ge, XENON, and LUX detectors may be in tension with the potential detections for certain dark matter scenarios and assuming a certain light response. We propose the use of a new class of biological dark matter (DM) detectors to further examine this light dark matter hypothesis, taking advantage of new signatures with low atomic number targets. Two types of biological DM detectors are discussed here: DNA-based detectors and enzymatic reactions (ER) based detectors. In the case of DNA-based detectors, we discuss a new implementation. In the case of ER detectors, there are four crucial phases of the detection process: (a) change of state due to energy deposited by a particle; (b) amplification due to the release of energy derived from the action of an enzyme on its substrate; (c) sustainable but nonexplosive enzymatic reaction; (d) self-termination due to the denaturation of the enzyme, when the temperature is raised. This paper provides information of how to design as well as optimize these four processes.

Drukier, A. K.; Cantor, Ch.; Chonofsky, M.; Church, G. M.; Fagaly, R. L.; Freese, K.; Lopez, A.; Sano, T.; Savage, C.; Wong, W. P.

2014-07-01

461

Muon Energy Calibration of the MINOS Detectors  

SciTech Connect

MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for conclusive evidence of neutrino oscillations and to measure the oscillation parameters precisely. MINOS comprises two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab and Soudan. The Calibration Detector at CERN is a third MINOS detector used as part of the detector response calibration programme. A correct energy calibration between these detectors is crucial for the accurate measurement of oscillation parameters. This thesis presents a calibration developed to produce a uniform response within a detector using cosmic muons. Reconstruction of tracks in cosmic ray data is discussed. This data is utilized to calculate calibration constants for each readout channel of the Calibration Detector. These constants have an average statistical error of 1.8%. The consistency of the constants is demonstrated both within a single run and between runs separated by a few days. Results are presented from applying the calibration to test beam particles measured by the Calibration Detector. The responses are calibrated to within 1.8% systematic error. The potential impact of the calibration on the measurement of oscillation parameters by MINOS is also investigated. Applying the calibration reduces the errors in the measured parameters by {approx} 10%, which is equivalent to increasing the amount of data by 20%.

Miyagawa, Paul S.

2004-09-01

462

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

463

TCT measurements with slim edge strip detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient current technique (TCT) measurements with focused laser light on miniature silicon strip detectors (n+-type strips on p-type bulk) with one inactive edge thinned to about 100 ?m using the Scribe-Cleave-Passivate (SCP) method are presented. Pulses of focused IR (?=1064 nm) laser light were directed to the surface of the detector and charge collection properties near the slim edge were investigated. Measurements before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons up to 1 MeV equivalent fluence of 1.5×1015 neq/cm2 showed that SCP thinning of detector edge does not influence its charge collection properties. TCT measurements were done also with focused red laser beam (?=640 nm) directed to the SCP processed side of the detector. The absorption length of red light in silicon is about 3 ?m so with this measurement information about the electric field at the edge can be obtained. Observations of laser induced signals indicate that the electric field distribution along the depth of the detector at the detector edge is different than in the detector bulk: electric field is higher near the strip side and lower at the back side. This is a consequence of negative surface charge caused by passivation of the cleaved edge with Al2O3. The difference between bulk and edge electric field distributions gets smaller after irradiation.

Mandi?, Igor; Cindro, Vladimir; Gorišek, Andrej; Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F.-W.; Christophersen, Marc; Phlips, Bernard

2014-07-01

464

Charge Effects on Gravitational Wave Detectors  

E-print Network

We show that the mean-square displacement of a charged oscillator due to the zero point oscillations of the radiation field is unique in the sense that it is very sensitive to the value of the bare mass of the charge. Thus, a controlled experiment using gravitational wave detectors could lead to a determination of the electron bare mass and shed some light on quantum electrodynamic theory. We also speculate that the irregular signals of non-gravitational origin often observed in gravitational wave bar detectors could be caused by stray charges and that such charges could also adversely affect LIGO and other such detectors

R. F. O'Connell

2001-05-14

465

Fiberoptic metal detector capable of profile detection  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel ferromagnetic polymeric metal detector system by using a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a newly developed ferromagnetic polymer as the magnetostrictive sensing device. This ferromagnetic polymeric metal detector system is simple to fabricate, small in size, and resistant to RF interference (which is common in typical electromagnetic type metal detectors). Metal detection is made possible by disrupting the magnetic flux density present on the magnetostrictive sensor. This paper discusses the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic polymers. In addition, the preliminary results of successful sensing of different geometrical metal shapes will be discussed. PMID:24357903

Hua, Wei-Shu; Hooks, Joshua R.; Erwin, Nicholas A.; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

2011-01-01

466

Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity.  

PubMed

Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared. PMID:25875225

Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming

2015-01-01

467

ISABELLE. Volume 4. Detector R and D  

SciTech Connect

Workshop participants were asked to assess the current status of detector R and D in terms of the specific needs for ISABELLE experiments: the demands of high particle rates, extremely selective triggers on complex and rare events, and the economics of large detector systems. The detailed results of working groups convened to consider specific areas of detector development are presented. The key points of this assessment, as regards the continuing R and D program for ISABELLE are summarized here. Twenty-six items from the volume were prepared separately for the data base, along with five items previously prepared. (GHT)

Not Available

1981-01-01

468

Fast-timing methods for semiconductor detectors  

SciTech Connect

The basic parameters are discussed which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

Spieler, H.

1982-03-01

469

Fan-less long range alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01

470

Use of Silicon Detectors in Medical Physics  

SciTech Connect

In this document I will review the characteristics and applications of silicon detectors in Medical Physics. I will cover the activities done by some research mexican groups working with silicon detectors (Silicon Strip and PIN detectors) as devices for digital imaging supported by some Monte Carlo simulations and X-ray units parameters valuation devices for quality control. In the end I will give some perspectives on the future of these scientific activities as important contributions in the development of the area of Medical Physics around the world.

Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel [Physics Department, Cinvestav, Mexico City (Mexico)

2006-09-25

471

Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber  

DOEpatents

An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wallace, Steven A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

472

Fan-less long range alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

1994-05-10

473

Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared. PMID:25875225

Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming

2015-01-01

474

Speed estimation using single loop detector outputs  

E-print Network

since this method is not applicable when there is not a double loop detector presented in the vicinity of each single loop detector station. 2.4.6 Catastrophe Theory Method The Catastrophe Theory was originated by French mathematician Rene Thom..., in addition to outputs of vehicle count and occupancy 14 data, individual vehicle speeds can be trapped through the dividend of the distance between those two single loops by the elapsed time (Nihan et al., 2002). Dual-loop detectors can also be used...

Ye, Zhirui

2008-10-10

475

Speed estimation using single loop detector outputs  

E-print Network

since this method is not applicable when there is not a double loop detector presented in the vicinity of each single loop detector station. 2.4.6 Catastrophe Theory Method The Catastrophe Theory was originated by French mathematician Rene Thom..., in addition to outputs of vehicle count and occupancy 14 data, individual vehicle speeds can be trapped through the dividend of the distance between those two single loops by the elapsed time (Nihan et al., 2002). Dual-loop detectors can also be used...

Ye, Zhirui

2009-05-15

476

MCP detector development for WSO-UV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrographs of WSO-UV cover the wavelength range of 102 - 310 nm. The essential requirements for the associated detectors are high quantum effciency, solar blindness, and single photon detection. To achieve this, we develop a microchannel plate detector in a sealed tube. We plan to use cesium activated gallium nitride as semitransparent photocathode, a stack of two microchannel plates and a cross strip anode with advanced readout electronics. Challenges are the degradation of the photocathode under atmospheric conditions and the sealing process. We present the detector concept, details of the transfer and sealing processes under UHV, and the current status.

Diebold, Sebastian; Barnstedt, Jürgen; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf; Ganz, Philipp; Hermanutz, Stephan; Kalkuhl, Christoph; Kappelmann, Norbert; Pfeifer, Marc; Schaadt, Daniel; Schanz, Thomas; Tanirah, Omar; Werner, Klaus

2012-09-01

477

Fast skin color detector for face extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Face detection is the first step for an automatic face recognition system. For color images, skin color filter is considered as an important method for removing non-face pixels. In the paper, we will propose a novel and efficient detector for skin color regions for face extraction. The detector processes the image in four steps: lighting compensation, skin color filter and mask refinement and fast patch identification. Experimental results show that our detector is more robust and efficient than other skin color filters.

Chen, Lihui; Grecos, Christos

2005-02-01

478

Progress of Belle II - detector and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress on the detector and accelerator in the Belle II experiment is presented. The B factories have successfully accumulated the experimental data at ? (4 S) and achieved the world highest sensitivity on the search for lepton flavor violating tau decays and other new physics searches. The Belle II experiment will obtain 50 times larger data samples compared to the Belle experiment and improve the detector sensitivity. The construction of the detector and accelerator is in progress. The commissioning will start in 2014 and the expected integrated luminosity is 50ab-1 by 2022.

Inami, Kenji

2014-08-01

479

Radiation detectors in medical and biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic definitions of imaging theory are given and their importance for detector development is demonstrated. Developments in two-dimensional and scanning radiographic systems are discussed. The substantial progress in non-invasive coronary angiography with synchrotron radiation is presented together with a comparison of the performance of a gaseous and a silicon detector. Synchrotron radiation is also applied in mammography. New modalities making use of coherence are discussed. Non-radiative methods competing with X-ray systems are also presented. Detectors for nuclear medicine and biological structure research are briefly mentioned.

Besch, H. J.

1998-12-01

480

CZT detector technology for medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades, the II–VI semiconductors CdTe and CdZnTe (CZT) has emerged as the material of choice for room temperature detection of hard X-rays and soft ?-rays. The techniques of growing the crystals, the design of the detectors, and the electronics used for reading out the detectors have been considerably improved over the last few years. CdTe/CZT materials find now applications in astrophysics, medical imaging and security applications. The paper discusses recent progress in CZT detector technology and outlines possible new application opportunities.

Iniewski, K.

2014-11-01