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1

Detectors  

DOEpatents

The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

2

New application of scintillator ZnSe(Te) in scintielectronic detectors for detection of neutrons, medical imaging, explosive detection, and NDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillators on the basis of AIIBVI compounds, such as ZnSe(Te), can be used for detection of secondary charged particles coming from nuclear reactions in which neutrons interact with target nuclei of atoms present in transparent materials of dispersion scintillation detectors matrices. Using unique properties of scintillator ZnSe(Te) we show possibility of increase detection efficiency for soft x-ray radiation (20 - 90 keV). The amorphous silicon flat panels and the photodiode arrays wide used for non-destructive testing and medical imaging (spatial resolution 20 - 400 mkm). By our estimations, using of such detectors in combination with thin film of ZnSe(Te) can increase efficiency of registration of x-ray radiation (for the source of 60-140kV) in 1,2 - 2 times. We obtained thin films (10-450mkm) of scintillator ZnSe(Te) on the different substrate materials and estimated the relative light yield of the layers deposited on the graphite and Al2O3 ceramic substrates and the bulk ZnSe(Te) crystal. Use of ZnSe(Te) in the low-energy "scintillator - photodiode" type detector allowed to increase accuracy of authentication of explosives (HEIMANN X-RAY INSPECTION SYSTEM EDtS10080). Using the dual energy digital radiography system prototype we obtained the x-ray images (60 projections of each object). These images are basic data for computer tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction of density and effective atomic number. The color identification palette provides clearly show variations of effective atomic number in biological and inorganic objects. So, for example, changes of calcium concentration in a bone. The research described in this publication was supported by STCU #4115 and NATO SfP-982823.

Ryzhikov, Volodymyr D.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Fedorov, Alexander G.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Kostioukevitch, Sergey A.

2008-08-01

3

Detector Directory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication presents a collection of information gathered on fire detectors during the study, 'Evaluation of Fire Detection Technology.' The work is organized into a summary table of fire detector devices, a listing of manufacturers and suppliers and ...

K. R. Mniszewski T. E. Waterman S. W. Harpe

1978-01-01

4

Smoke Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

1979-01-01

5

Infrared Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography contains unclassified and unlimited citations on Infrared Detectors. These citations are studies and analyses pertaining to detection techniques, equipment, refrigeration systems, instrumentation, sensitivity, reliability, design, measure...

1974-01-01

6

Vapor Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector eliminates need for removing covers to take samples. Detector is canister consisting of screw-in base and clear plastic tube that contains two colors of silica gel. Monoethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide vapors are visually monitored with canister containing color-changing gels.

Waddell, H. M.; Garrard, G. C.; Houston, D. W.

1982-01-01

7

Optical Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

8

Gaseous Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

Titov, Maxim

9

Pyroelectric detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multi-agency, long-term Global Change programs, and specifically NASA's Earth Observing system, will require some new and advanced photon detector technology which must be specifically tailored for long-term stability, broad spectral range, cooling constraints, and other parameters. Whereas MCT and GaAs alloy based photovoltaic detectors and detector arrays reach most impressive results to wavelengths as long as 12 microns when cooled to below 70 K, other materials, such as ferroelectrics and pyroelectrics, appear to offer special opportunities beyond 12 microns and above 70 K. These materials have found very broad use in a wide variety of room temperature applications. Little is known about these classes of materials at sub-room temperatures and no photon detector results have been reported. From the limited information available, researchers conclude that the room temperature values of D asterisk greater than or equal to 10(exp 9) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W may be improved by one to two orders of magnitude upon cooling to temperatures around 70 K. Improvements of up to one order of magnitude appear feasible for temperatures achievable by passive cooling. The flat detector response over a wavelength range reaching from the visible to beyond 50 microns, which is an intrinsic advantage of bolometric devices, makes for easy calibration. The fact that these materials have been developed for reduced temperature applications makes ferro- and pyroelectric materials most attractive candidates for serious exploration.

Haller, Eugene E.; Beeman, Jeffrey; Hansen, William L.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.

1990-01-01

10

MAMA Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work carried out under this grant led to fundamental discoveries and over one hundred publications in the scientific literature. Fundamental developments in instrumentation were made including all the instrumentation on the EUVE satellite, the invention of a whole new type of grazing instrument spectrometer and the development of fundamentally new photon counting detectors including the Wedge and Strip used on EUVE and many other missions and the Time Delay detector used on OREFUS and FUSE. The Wedge and Strip and Time Delay detectors were developed under this grant for less than two million dollars and have been used in numerous missions most recently for the FUSE mission. In addition, a fundamentally new type of diffuse spectrometer has been developed under this grant which has been used in instrumentation on the MMSAT spacecraft and the Lewis spacecraft. Plans are underway to use this instrumentation on several other missions as well.

Bowyer, Stuart

1998-01-01

11

Microwave detector  

DOEpatents

A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

1985-02-08

12

Vertex detectors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10{sup {minus}13} s, among them the {tau} lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation.

Lueth, V.

1992-07-01

13

Neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Jardret, Vincent D. (Powell, TN) [Powell, TN

2009-04-07

14

Neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

2011-04-05

15

Flame Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific Instruments, Inc. has now developed a second generation, commercially available instrument to detect flames in hazardous environments, typically refineries, chemical plants and offshore drilling platforms. The Model 74000 detector incorporates a sensing circuit that detects UV radiation in a 100 degree conical field of view extending as far as 250 feet from the instrument. It operates in a bandwidth that makes it virtually 'blind' to solar radiation while affording extremely high sensitivity to ultraviolet flame detection. A 'windowing' technique accurately discriminates between background UV radiation and ultraviolet emitted from an actual flame, hence the user is assured of no false alarms. Model 7410CP is a combination controller and annunciator panel designed to monitor and control as many as 24 flame detectors. *Model 74000 is no longer being manufactured.

1990-01-01

16

Oscillator detector  

SciTech Connect

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.

Potter, B.M.

1980-05-13

17

National Detector Dog Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Detector Dog Manual covers background information, procedures, health care, and training related to detector dog activities. The procedures have a national focus to guide detector dog activities, and they are supplemental to general operation...

2004-01-01

18

Study on Silicon detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm(sup 2)), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined ...

G. Gervino M. Boero C. Manfredotti M. Icardi A. Gabutti

1990-01-01

19

Detector simulation needs for detector designers  

SciTech Connect

Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

Hanson, G.G.

1987-11-01

20

Solid state neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of crystalline silicon diodes for operation as cold to thermal neutron detectors are reviewed. Recent advances in both detector technology and VLSI readout electronics open up new possibilities for these devices. Neutron test measurements carried out on two prototype detectors are reported together with the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of detector operation.

C. Petrillo; F. Sacchetti; O. Toker; N. J Rhodes

1996-01-01

21

Advanced UV Detectors and Detector Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gallium Nitride (GaN) with its wide energy bandgap of 3.4 eV holds excellent promise for solar blind UV detectors. We have successfully designed, fabricated and tested GaN p-i-n detectors and detector arrays. The detectors have a peak responsivity of 0.14A/W at 363 nm (3.42 eV) at room temperature. This corresponds to an internal quantum efficiency of 56%. The responsivity decreases by several orders of magnitude to 0.008 A/W at 400 nm (3.10 eV) giving the excellent visible rejection ratio needed for solar-blind applications.

Pankove, Jacques I.; Torvik, John

1998-01-01

22

The MINOS detectors  

SciTech Connect

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized iron/scintillator calorimeters. The Far Detector has been operational for cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from July of 2003, the Near Detector from September 2004, and the NuMI beam started in early 2005. This poster presents details of the two detectors.

Habig, A.; Grashorn, E.W.; /Minnesota U., Duluth

2005-07-01

23

Tin Can Radiation Detector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

Crull, John L.

1986-01-01

24

500 MHz neutron detector  

SciTech Connect

A {sup 10}B-loaded scintillation detector was built for neutron transmission measurements at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center. The efficiency of the detector is nearly 100% for neutron energies from 0 to 1 keV. The neutron moderation time in the scintillator is about 250 ns and is energy independent. The detector and data processing system are designed to handle an instantaneous rate as high as 500 MHz. The active area of the detector is 40 cm in diameter.

Yen, Yi-Fen; Bowman, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Matsuda, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

1993-12-01

25

NUV Detector Dark Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

Cox, Colin

2010-07-01

26

NUV Detector Dark Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.;

Ely, Justin

2012-07-01

27

NUV Detector Dark Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.;

Ely, Justin

2011-07-01

28

NUV Detector Dark Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

Zheng, Wei

2009-07-01

29

The MINOS Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized

A. Habig; E. W. Grashorn

2005-01-01

30

Optical detectors for spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modes of operation of photoconductive and photoemissive array detectors are described, and their performance characteristics compared and contrasted, with emphasis on their suitability for use as detectors for optical spectroscopy. The prospects for future developments of the array detectors are discussed.

Timothy, J. G.

1983-01-01

31

Tevatron detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

32

The upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

2006-01-01

33

Gamma ray detector shield  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

1985-08-26

34

Disc detector assembly  

SciTech Connect

A miniature, nonevacuated, detector refrigerator assembly for use in infrared imaging systems is described. The assembly incorporates a miniature Joule-Thomson laminar refrigerator which serves as the substrate for the detector subassembly, electrical leads, as well as the primary structural element of the assembly. The detector subassembly is positioned on the cold region of the refrigerator, surrounded by insulating material and capped by an optical window or filter as required. As a result, the detector is cooled while the contact pads used for connection to external devices are at the ambient temperature. A piece of high thermally conductive material may be placed in the vicinity of the detector subassembly so that during operation gases in the chamber surrounding the detector assembly will preferentially condense thereon rather than on the detector subassembly.

Jungkman, D.L.; Coda, R.C.; Nicholson, P.N.

1984-12-18

35

High-energy detector  

DOEpatents

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22

36

"5. There are several types of smoke detector including point ionization smoke detectors point optical smoke detectors optical beam detectors and aspirating systems.Types of heat detector include point fixed heat detectors point rate of heat rise detectors combined detectors and beam-type heat detectors. Flame detectors may be used in applications where both smoke and heat detectors are unsuitable. Types of flame detector include ultraviolet flame detectors and infrared flame detectors. a. Compare the different types of fire detection devices"  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: "5. There are several types of smoke detector including point ionization smoke detectors point optical smoke detectors optical beam detectors and aspirating systems.Types of heat detector include point fixed heat detectors point rate of heat rise detectors combined detectors and beam-type heat detectors. Flame detectors may be used in applications where both smoke and heat detectors are unsuitable. Types of flame detector include ultraviolet flame detectors and infrared flame detectors. a. Compare the different types of fire detection devices" ?

37

Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

Soler, F. J. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2011-10-06

38

3D silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant process in 3D detectors has taken place since Sherwood parker proposed the 3D silicon detector in 1997. The 3D detector was conceived as a method to overcome the radiation induced reduction in carrier lifetime in heavily irradiated silicon detectors via the use of advanced MEMS device fabrication techniques. This paper reviews the state of the art in 3D detectors. Work performed within the major fabrication institutes will be discussed, including modifications to the original design to reduce complexity and increase device yield. Characterization of 3D detectors up to the maximum radiation fluence expected at the high luminosity LHC operation will be presented. Results from both strip and pixel devices will be shown using characterization methods that include 90-Sr betas, focused laser and high-energy pions.

Bates, R. L.

2012-08-01

39

The DØ detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DØ detector is a large general purpose detector for the study of short-distance phenomena in high energy antiproton-proton collisions, now in operation at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The detector focusses upon the detection of electrons, muons, jets and missing transverse momentum. We describe the design and performance of the major elements of the detector, including the tracking chambers, transition radiation detector, liquid argon calorimetry and muon detection. The associated electronics, triggering systems and data acquisition systems are presented. The global mechanical, high voltage, and experiment monitoring and control systems which support the detector are described. We also discuss the design and implementation of software and software support systems that are specific to DØ.

Abachi, S.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, W.; Antipov, Yu.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Barasch, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Behnke, T.; Bezzubov, V.; Bhat, P. C.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Bozko, N.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoy, V.; Butler, J. M.; Callot, O.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekulaev, S.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Daniels, B.; De, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Eartly, D.; Eberhard, P. H.; Edmunds, D.; Efimov, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eroshin, O.; Evdokimov, V.; Fahey, S.; Fanourakis, G.; Fatyga, M.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finley, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Gao, C. S.; Geld, T. L.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Good, M. L.; Goozen, F.; Gordon, H.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hodel, K.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hubbard, J. R.; Huehn, T.; Huson, R.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jiang, J.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C. R.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kanekal, S.; Kernan, A.; Kerth, L.; Kirunin, A.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V.; Kochetkov, V.; Kohli, J. M.; Kononenko, W.; Kotcher, J.; Kotov, I.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A.; Kozlovsky, E.; Krafczyk, G.; Krempetz, K.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Kroon, P.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lanou, R. E.; Laurens, P.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Li, J.; Li, R.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G. R.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.-C.; Lloyd-Owen, D.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lokos, S.; Lueking, L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Malamud, E.; Mangeot, Ph.; Manning, I.; Mansoulié, B.; Manzella, V.; Mao, H.-S.; Marcin, M.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, H. J.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, P. S.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A.; McCarthy, R.; McKinley, J.; Mendoza, D.; Meng, X.-C.; Merritt, K. W.; Milder, A.; Mincer, A.; Mondal, N. K.; Montag, M.; Mooney, P.; Mudan, M.; Mulholland, G. T.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Nemethy, P.; Neši?, D.; Ng, K. K.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Partridge, R.; Paterno, M.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Pi, B.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Pizzuto, D.; Pluquet, A.; Podstavkov, V.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Que, Y.-K.; Quintas, P. Z.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rao, M. V. S.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Regan, T.; Repond, S.; Riadovikov, V.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Sculli, J.; Selove, W.; Shea, M.; Shkurenkov, A.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, R. P.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stampke, S.; Stephens, R.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stocker, F.; Stoyanova, D.; Stredde, H.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Suhanov, A.; Taketani, A.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, J. D.; Teiger, J.; Theodosiou, G.; Thompson, J.; Tisserant, S.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Van Berg, R.; Vaz, M.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Volkov, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, D.-C.; Wang, L.-Z.; Weerts, H.; Wenzel, W. A.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wolf, Z.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xie, P.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.-J.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Zeller, R.; Zhang, S.; Zhou, Y. H.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Y.-S.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Zylberstejn, A.; DØ Collaboration

1994-01-01

40

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

1991-01-01

41

Detectors (4/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

None

2011-10-06

42

Detectors (5/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

None

2011-10-06

43

Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

1978-01-01

44

Hybrid photon detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron–hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance

C. D’Ambrosio; H. Leutz

2003-01-01

45

Smoke Detectors and Legislation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, one of a series for use in public education, provides an in-depth review of the current status of state and local smoke detector legislation. First, for the community considering a smoke detector law or ordinance, six decision points are discussed: which residential occupancy sub-classes will be affected; what the time factors are for…

National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

46

Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

Lee, R. D.

1982-01-01

47

Infrared Detector Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, part of the Spectroscopy Lab Suite, simulates optical transitions in a pumped infrared detector. In this simulated experiment, impurity states are initially populated with visible light. Infrared radiation can then then be detected by de-populating the impurity levels, causing the material to glow. The energy levels and transitions in this material detector can be changed.

Group, Kansas S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2004-03-05

48

BESII detector simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Monte Carlo program based on GEANT3 has been developed for BESII detector simulation. The organization of the program is outlined, and the digitization procedure for simulating the response of various sub-detectors is described. Comparisons with data show that the performance of the program is generally satisfactory.

M. Ablikim; J. Z. Bai; Y. Ban; J. G. Bian; X. Cai; J. F. Chang; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; H. X. Chen; J. C. Chen; Jin Chen; Jun Chen; M. L. Chen; Y. B. Chen; B. S. Cheng; S. P. Chi; Y. P. Chu; X. Z. Cui; H. L. Dai; Y. S. Dai; Z. Y. Deng; L. Y. Dong; Q. F. Dong; S. X. Du; Z. Z. Du; J. Fang; S. S. Fang; C. D. Fu; H. Y. Fu; C. S. Gao; Y. N. Gao; M. Y. Gong; W. X. Gong; S. D. Gu; Y. N. Guo; Y. Q. Guo; Z. J. Guo; F. A. Harris; K. L. He; M. He; X. He; Y. K. Heng; H. M. Hu; T. Hu; G. S. Huang; X. P. Huang; X. T. Huang; X. B. Ji; C. H. Jiang; X. S. Jiang; D. P. Jin; S. Jin; Y. Jin; Y. F. Lai; C. G. Li; F. Li; G. Li; H. H. Li; J. Li; Q. J. Li; R. Y. Li; S. M. Li; W. D. Li; W. G. Li; X. L. Li; X. Q. Li; Y. L. Li; Y. F. Liang; H. B. Liao; C. X. Liu; F. Liu; Fang Liu; H. H. Liu; H. M. Liu; J. Liu; J. P. Liu; R. G. Liu; Z. A. Liu; Z. X. Liu; F. Lu; G. R. Lu; H. J. Lu; J. G. Lu; C. L. Luo; L. X. Luo; X. L. Luo; F. C. Ma; H. L. Ma; J. M. Ma; L. L. Ma; Q. M. Ma; X. B. Ma; X. Y. Ma; Z. P. Mao; X. H. Mo; J. Nie; Z. D. Nie; S. L. Olsen; H. P. Peng; N. D. Qi; C. D. Qian; H. Qin; J. F. Qiu; Z. Y. Ren; G. Rong; L. Y. Shan; L. Shang; D. L. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; F. Shi; X. Shi; H. S. Sun; J. F. Sun; S. S. Sun; Y. Z. Sun; Z. J. Sun; X. Tang; N. Tao; Y. R. Tian; G. L. Tong; G. S. Varner; D. Y. Wang; J. Z. Wang; K. Wang; L. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; S. Z. Wang; W. F. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Z. Wang; Zheng Wang; C. L. Wei; D. H. Wei; N. Wu; Y. M. Wu; X. M. Xia; X. X. Xie; B. Xin; G. F. Xu; H. Xu; S. T. Xue; M. L. Yan; F. Yang; H. X. Yang; J. Yang; Y. X. Yang; M. Ye; Y. X. Ye; L. H. Yi; Z. Y. Yi; C. S. Yu; G. W. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; J. M. Yuan; Y. Yuan; S. L. Zang; Y. Zeng; Yu Zeng; B. X. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; J. Zhang; Q. J. Zhang; S. Q. Zhang; X. M. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Y. Y. Zhang; Yiyun Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Q. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; J. B. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; M. G. Zhao; P. P. Zhao; W. R. Zhao; X. J. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; H. Q. Zheng; J. P. Zheng; L. S. Zheng; Z. P. Zheng; X. C. Zhong; B. Q. Zhou; G. M. Zhou; L. Zhou; N. F. Zhou; K. J. Zhu; Q. M. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; Yingchun Zhu; Z. A. Zhu; B. A. Zhuang; X. A. Zhuang; B. S. Zou

2005-01-01

49

Borner Ball Neutron Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Bonner Ball Neutron Detector measures neutron radiation. Neutrons are uncharged atomic particles that have the ability to penetrate living tissues, harming human beings in space. The Bonner Ball Neutron Detector is one of three radiation experiments during Expedition Two. The others are the Phantom Torso and Dosimetric Mapping.

2002-01-01

50

Superconducting detectors in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation detectors based on superconducting phenomena are becoming increasingly important for observational astronomy. Recent developments in this important field, together with relevant background, are described here. After a general introduction to superconductivity and the field of superconductor-based radiation sensors, the main detector types are examined with regard to their physical form, operating principles and principal advantages. All major forms of superconducting detectors used in contemporary research such as tunnelling detectors, mixers, hot-electron bolometers and transition edge sensitive devices are discussed with an emphasis on how more recent developments are overcoming the shortcomings of the previous device generations. Also, discussed are new ideas in superconducting detector technology that may find applications in the coming years.

Rahman, F.

2006-08-01

51

Type II pyroelectric detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type II pyroelectric detectors are very easy to make lithographically without the need to produce thin crystal plates, i.e. without involving delicate grinding and polishing processes. They are capable of giving a good detectivity for a very small target area and are thus good candidates for linear 1-D detectors-arrays with as many as 1000 elements. The theory is more complicated than for type I detectors (i.e. face-electrode or edge-electrode detectors), and is only outlined in this paper. The signal does not arise from surface bound-charges, since the electrodes are parallel to the spontaneous polarization direction, but from volume bound charges and a gradient of temperature. For type I detectors a uniform temperature of the pyroelectric material is generally assumed. The electric field lines in the pyroelectric material are ellipses instead of straight lines, and tertiary pyroelectricity is involved as well as primary and secondary ones.

Hadni, A.

1987-01-01

52

Advances in Tracking Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking detectors are of vital importance for most experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. They are used to determine the charge, momentum, and energy of traversing particles and to allow quark-flavor identification through the reconstruction of secondary vertices. Gaseous and semiconductor detectors are the two main types of tracking detectors; other, more exotic ones are fiber or transition radiation tracking devices. These detectors originated with cloud and bubble chambers in the 1950s and wire chambers in the 1970s, which dominated the field until the 1980s, when silicon sensors were developed. Today, silicon strip and pixel sensors, time-projection chambers, gas electron multipliers, and micromegas define the field. More advanced detector types are described in this review, with an emphasis on application examples and future plans.

Hartmann, Frank; Kaminski, Jochen

2011-11-01

53

Infrared thermal detectors versus photon detectors: I. Pixel performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of the performance of IR thermal detectors as compared to photon detectors are presented. Due to fundamental different types of noise, these two classes of detectors have different dependencies of detectivities on wavelength and temperature. The photon detectors are favored at long wavelength IR and lower operating temperatures. The thermal detectors are favored at very long wavelength spectral range. The comparative studies of the thermal detectors with HgCdTe photodiodes, doped silicon detectors and quantum well IR photodetectors are carried out. In comparison with Kruse's paper these studies are re-examined taking into account updated theories of different types of detectors. The considerations are made for different background levels.

Rogalski, Antoni

1997-08-01

54

The HERMES recoil detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.

2013-05-01

55

Barrier infrared detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1959, Lawson and co-workers publication triggered development of variable band gap Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) alloys providing an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Over the five decades, this material system has successfully fought off major challenges from different material systems, but despite that it has more competitors today than ever before. It is interesting however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. They may promise to be more manufacturable, but never to provide higher performance or, with the exception of thermal detectors, to operate at higher temperatures. In the last two decades a several new concepts of photodetectors to improve their performance have been proposed including trapping detectors, barrier detectors, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage detectors. This paper describes the present status of infrared barrier detectors. It is especially addressed to the group of III-V compounds including type-II superlattice materials, although HgCdTe barrier detectors are also included. It seems to be clear that certain of these solutions have merged as a real competitions of HgCdTe photodetectors.

Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

2014-06-01

56

Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

2012-02-01

57

Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

Moseley, Harvey

2009-01-01

58

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

DOEpatents

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10

59

LHC detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

Dan Green

2003-09-15

60

Ultrafast neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector of very high temporal resolution is described. It may be used to measure distributions of neutrons produced by fusion reactions that persist for times as short as about 50 picoseconds.

Wang, C.L.

1985-06-19

61

Modular optical detector system  

DOEpatents

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14

62

Pocked surface neutron detector  

DOEpatents

The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-04-08

63

Neutron detectors at IPNS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The heart of each time-of-flight neutron scattering instrument is its complement of detectors and the associated encoding and counting electronics. Currently there are ten fully-scheduled neutron scattering instruments in operation at IPNS, with three mor...

R. K. Crawford J. R. Haumann G. E. Ostrowski

1990-01-01

64

Far Ultraviolet Detector Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of the NBS program in which special photodiodes for the far ultraviolet spectral region (5-254 nm) are made available as transfer standards. These detectors are calibrated in terms of quantum efficiency (photoelectrons per incident ...

L. R. Canfield N. Swanson

1986-01-01

65

Electronic Nerve Agent Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A personal field chemical warfare nerve agent detector has therein a transducer having two microchemical cantilever oscillators. One of the cantilever oscillators has deposited, as an end-mass, a chemically selective substance on the cantilever. The nerve...

E. S. Kolesar

1983-01-01

66

Improved CO [lidar detector  

SciTech Connect

A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

1999-07-18

67

Detector limitations, STAR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC) were in place, these factors would not seriously li...

D. G. Underwood

1998-01-01

68

Lightning Current Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightning Current Detector (LCD) was developed to monitor the magnitude of lightning strikes. Information it supplies is useful in evaluating lightning protection designs for such systems as telephone cables, radio broadcast towers, power transmission equipment and oil well towers.

1981-01-01

69

Superconducting Nuclear Particle Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using thin superconducting films as nuclear particle detectors. The results of experiments show conclusively that such devices can be used to detect such radiation. The diffusion of energy from electrons...

D. E. Spiel R. W. Boom E. C. Crittenden

1967-01-01

70

Pendulum detector testing device  

DOEpatents

A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs.

Gonsalves, J.M.

1997-09-30

71

Pendulum detector testing device  

DOEpatents

A detector testing device which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: 1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, 2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and 3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements.

Gonsalves, John M. (Modesto, CA)

1997-01-01

72

GEM Detectors for Compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the small-area tracking of the COMPASS experiment, GEM detectors with an active area of 31 × 31 cm2 are employed. These detectors use three cascaded GEM foils with asymmetric voltage sharing and Ar:CO2 (70/30) as detector gas. The GEMs have a non-uniformity in gain of less than ±15% and achieve an efficiency of 99.0 ± 0.1% and a spatial resolution of 46 ± 3 ?m for minimum-ionizing particles at nominal gain of ~ 8000. The narrow charge correlation (?rat< 0.1) between the orthogonal coordinates of the 2D projective readout improves the reconstruction capability for multiple hits. High rate tolerance and low discharge probability make the GEM detectors well suited for operation in intense muon and hadron beams.

Simon, Frank; Friedrich, Jan; Grube, Boris; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan; Altunbas, Cem; Kappler, Steffen; Ketzer, Bernhard; Placci, Alfredo; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio

2002-11-01

73

Liquid capillary scintillation detectors  

SciTech Connect

The authors have been developing liquid-in-capillary detectors for tracking applications in high energy physics experiments. The detectors consist of glass capillaries of low refractive index filled with liquids of sufficiently high refractive index to produce an efficient waveguides. This paper describes recent work in which scintillating core liquids were prepared from the solvent 1-phenylnaphthalene and single solutes of selected fluorescent dyes.

Puseljic, D.; Baumbaugh, B.; Ditmire, T.; Kennedy, C.; Ruchti, R.; Ryan, J. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (USA). Dept. of Physics); Baumbaugh, A.; Knickerbocker, K. (Collimated Holes, Inc., Campbell, CA (USA)); Ellis, J.; Mead, R.; Swanson, D. (Collimated Holes, Inc., Campbell, CA (USA))

1990-04-01

74

Improved gaseous leak detector  

DOEpatents

In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the nonlinear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

Juravic, F.E. Jr.

1983-10-06

75

Fiber optic detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, Judy K.; Ward, Thomas E.; Grey, Alan E.

1990-04-01

76

Silicon microstrip detectors  

SciTech Connect

The main scope of this laboratory is to give the students an introduction of some special characteristics of silicon microstrip detectors. The students will perform some exercises using different instruments to appreciate the properties of these detectors, especially its great position resolution. An overview of different instruments such as an oscilloscope, wave function generator as others will be also given as important devices in any experimental laboratory.

Montano, Luis M. [Physics Department, Cinvestav, Mexico City (Mexico)

2006-09-25

77

Gaseous leak detector  

DOEpatents

In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the non linear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

Juravic, Jr., Frank E. (Aurora, IL)

1988-01-01

78

Off-center efficiency of HPGe detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamma ray detection efficiency of two HPGe detectors for off-center points was measured both on the detector's cap and outside the detector's cap. It was found that similar to measurements on the detector symmetry axis, for off-center measurements including those outside the detector cap also, the detector could be treated as an effective point detector. The virtual point detector

O. Presler; O. Peled; U. German; Y. Leichter; Z. B. Alfassi

2002-01-01

79

The outer detector of Borexino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of the Borexino Outer Detector is described. It is a large water Cherenkov detector for identifying cosmic muons, penetrating the whole detector system. The Outer Detector is important for tagging cosmic muon generated background events in Borexino. Here, we present the muon identification efficiency and show the capability of muon tracking reconstruction.

Göger-Neff, M.; Lewke, T.; Oberauer, L.; Wurm, M.

2014-05-01

80

Sensitivities of Selected Chemical Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document includes an assessment of the sensitivity of three chemical agent detectors. The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD), the Automatic Chemical Agent Detector Alarm (ACADA) and the AP2C detector made by the Proengin Corporation are the three d...

E. L. Berger

2000-01-01

81

Subspace Detectors: Efficient Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The optimum detector for a known signal in white Gaussian background noise is the matched filter, also known as a correlation detector [Van Trees, 1968]. Correlation detectors offer exquisite sensitivity (high probability of detection at a fixed false alarm rate), but require perfect knowledge of the signal. The sensitivity of correlation detectors is increased by the availability of multichannel data, something common in seismic applications due to the prevalence of three-component stations and arrays. When the signal is imperfectly known, an extension of the correlation detector, the subspace detector, may be able to capture much of the performance of a matched filter [Harris, 2006]. In order to apply a subspace detector, the signal to be detected must be known to lie in a signal subspace of dimension d {ge} 1, which is defined by a set of d linearly-independent basis waveforms. The basis is constructed to span the range of signals anticipated to be emitted by a source of interest. Correlation detectors operate by computing a running correlation coefficient between a template waveform (the signal to be detected) and the data from a window sliding continuously along a data stream. The template waveform and the continuous data stream may be multichannel, as would be true for a three-component seismic station or an array. In such cases, the appropriate correlation operation computes the individual correlations channel-for-channel and sums the result (Figure 1). Both the waveform matching that occurs when a target signal is present and the cross-channel stacking provide processing gain. For a three-component station processing gain occurs from matching the time-history of the signals and their polarization structure. The projection operation that is at the heart of the subspace detector can be expensive to compute if implemented in a straightforward manner, i.e. with direct-form convolutions. The purpose of this report is to indicate how the projection can be computed efficiently for continuous multichannel seismic data. The speed of the calculation is significant as it may become desirable to deploy subspace detectors numbering in the thousands. One application contemplated for these detectors is as screens against signals from repeating sources such as mines or aftershocks of large earthquakes. With many tens of stations and potentially hundreds of sources to screen, efficient implementations are desirable. Speed, of course, can be achieved by procuring faster computers or special-purpose hardware. The approach we examine here is the development of two efficient algorithms that can make the calculations run faster on any machine. In the first section, we describe the subspace detector as we use it for the detection of repeating seismic events, defining terms and the parameterization used in succeeding sections. This section also reviews how the correlation computations central to the matched filter and subspace detectors can be implemented as a collection of convolution operations. Convolution algorithms using fast Fourier transforms, such as the overlap-add and overlap-save methods, have long been known as efficient implementations of discrete-time finite-impulse-response filters [e.g. Oppenheim and Schafer, 1975]. These may be extended in a straightforward manner to implement multichannel correlation detectors. In the second section, we describe how multichannel data can be multiplexed to compute the required convolutions with a single pair of FFT operations instead of a pair for each channel. This approach increases speed approximately twofold. Seismic data, almost invariably, are oversampled. This characteristic provides an opportunity for increased efficiency by decimating the data prior to performing the correlation calculations. In the third section, we describe a bandpass transformation of the data that allows a more aggressive decimation of the data without significant loss of fidelity in the correlation calculation. The transformation computes a complex-analytic representation for the template waveforms and the

Harris, D B; Paik, T

2006-07-26

82

Development of lightning current detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightning current detector to record the maximum current amplitude of a lightning strike to the 150 meter weather tower at KSC was developed. The principle of operation of the detector is discussed, materials chosen to build the detector are described, and calibration tests performed on the detector are given. Field results of the detectors from two separate lightning strikes to the tower are included.

Livermore, S.

1976-01-01

83

Sparse detector sensor model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the development of a modularized system level model of a sensor whose detector dimensions may be small with respect to the distance between adjacent detectors. The effects of individual system components and characteristics such as target to background properties, collection optics, detectors, and classifiers will be modeled. These individual effects will then be combined to provide an overall system performance model. The model will facilitate design trade offs for Unattended Ground Sensors. The size and power restrictions of these sensors often preclude these sensors from being effective in high resolution applications such as target identification. Consequently, existing imager performance models are not directly applicable. However, these systems are well suited for applications such as broad scale classifications or differentiations between targets such as humans, animals or small vehicles. Furthermore, these sensors do not have to be spaced closely together to be effective in these applications. Therefore, the demand for these sensors is increasing for both the military and homeland security.

Robinson, Aaron L.; Halford, Carl E.; Perry, Edward; Wyatt, Thomas

2008-05-01

84

Gamma-Ray Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra obtained from detectors capable of energy discrimination are discussed. Gamma-ray spectra generally are in the form of detector response versus discrete channel number. The methods considered for gamma-ray spectroscopy are somewhat general and can be applied to other types of spectroscopy. The general objective of spectroscopy is to obtain, at a minimum, the qualitative identification of the source (e.g., source energies or nuclides present). However, most spectroscopy applications seek quantitative information also, as expressed by, e.g., the source strength or the nuclide concentration. Various different methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis are summarized, and an illustrative example is provided. A review of detectors used for gamma-ray spectroscopy is included.

Dunn, William L.; McGregor, Douglas S.

85

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2002-01-01

86

Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-{mu}m (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps.

Cooke, B.J.

1993-06-01

87

Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-[mu]m (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps.

Cooke, B.J.

1993-06-01

88

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

SciTech Connect

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal. 3 figs.

Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

1980-04-01

89

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

SciTech Connect

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

1980-04-01

90

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

SciTech Connect

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

91

Semiconductor neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB); Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA); Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM); Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM)

2011-03-08

92

Cosmic ray detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on the MSFC emulsion laboratory microscopes in which mechanical modifications previously made were verified is reviewed, as is a design study of a large area hybrid electronic/emulsion chamber balloon flight detector system. This design is built upon the experience obtained with the highly successful MSFC/UAH hybrid instrument flown by the JACEE consortium. The design included overall system design and specification, design and fabrication of a prototype large light diffusion for Cerenkov charge detector or scintillator, design of a multiwire proportional counter array and design of the gondola or flight support system.

Gregory, John C.

1987-01-01

93

Glow discharge detector  

DOEpatents

A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

2002-01-01

94

Intelligent Detector Design  

SciTech Connect

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx} 30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

Graf, N.; Cassell, R.; Johnson, T.; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Magill, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; /Argonne

2007-02-13

95

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28

96

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

97

Fissile material detector  

DOEpatents

A detector for fissile materials which provides for integrity monitoring of fissile materials and can be used for nondestructive assay to confirm the presence of a stable content of fissile material in items. The detector has a sample cavity large enough to enable assay of large items of arbitrary configuration, utilizes neutron sources fabricated in spatially extended shapes mounted on the endcaps of the sample cavity, incorporates a thermal neutron filter insert with reflector properties, and the electronics module includes a neutron multiplicity coincidence counter.

Ivanov, Alexander I. (Dubna, RU); Lushchikov, Vladislav I. (Dubna, RU); Shabalin, Eugeny P. (Dubna, RU); Maznyy, Nikita G. (Dubna, RU); Khvastunov, Michael M. (Dubna, RU); Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA)

2002-01-01

98

Smoke Detector Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

99

AIRWATCH: the fast detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EERC) with energy greater than 10(superscript 20) eV has opened a new research branch of astrophysics on both observational and interpretative point of views. Together with the EECR one has also to consider the neutrino component which, independently on its primary or secondary origin, can reach comparable energies. These particles can be detected through the giant showers (EAS) produced in the Earth atmosphere and the induced fluorescent molecular nitrogen emission. Observing the EECR 'signals' is very difficult; we need forefront technology or new developments. The main reason is that their flux is very weak, typically of the order of a few events/year/1000 km(superscript 2) per EECR of E approximately equals 10(superscript 20) eV. The proposed Airwatch mission, base don a single orbiting telescope which can measure both intensity and direction of the EAS, impose new concepts for the detectors; single photon sensitivity, fast response of the order of few microseconds with sampling times of tenths of nanoseconds, low noise and good S/N ratio, large area, adaptability to a curved surface. Fortunately the spatial resolution requirements are somehow relaxed. The peculiar characteristics of this application are such that no available detectors satisfies completely the requirements. Therefore the final detector has to be the result of a R and D program dedicated to the specific problem. In this paper we survey a number of possible detectors and identify their characteristics versus the Airwatch mission requirements.

Gregorio, Anna; Stalio, Roberto; Alippi, Ezio; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bosisio, Luciano; Bruno, Pietro; Cosentino, Rosario; di Benedetto, Rosario; Fontanelli, Flavio; Giannini, Gianrossano; Gracco, Valerio; Lenti, Anna; Petrolini, Alessandro; Sannino, Mario; Scarsi, Livio; Scuderi, Salvatore; Trampus, Paolo; Vacchi, Andrea

1998-11-01

100

Leak detector uses ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Probe located on outer wall of vacuum-jacketed fluid lines detects leaks on inner wall. Probe picks up and amplifies vibrations that occur when gas rushes through leak and converts them to audible signal or CRT display. System is considerably simpler to use than helium leak detectors and allows rapid checks to be made as part of routine maintenance.

Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.; Keir, A. R.

1978-01-01

101

Gas Detectors, Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report contains annotated references on gas detectors compiled from the Defense Documentation Center's data bank. The range of the topics deals with detection of toxic propellants, odors, gas leaks, oxygen, etc. Included with the bibliographic reference are the corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, and title indexes. (Author/JR)

Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

102

Choosing a Motion Detector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

Ballard, David M.

1990-01-01

103

New UV Detector Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BOLD (Blind to the Optical Light Detectors) is an international initiative dedicated to the development of novel imaging detectors for UV solar observations. It relies on the properties of wide-bandgap semiconductor materials (in particular diamond and Al-Ganitrides). This investigation is proposed in view of the Solar Orbiter UV instruments, for which the expected benefits of the new sensors, visible blindness and radiation hardness, will be highly valuable. Despite various advances in the technology of imaging detectors over the last few decades, the present UV imagers based on silicon CCDs or microchannel plates exhibit limitations which are inherent to their actual material and technology. Yet the utmost spatial resolution, fast temporal cadence, sensitivity, and photometric accuracy will all be decisive for forthcoming solar space missions. The advent of imagers made of large wide-bandgap semiconductors would surmount many present weaknesses. This would open up new scientific prospects and, by simplifying their design, would even make the instruments cheaper. As for the Solar Orbiter, the aspiration for wide-bandgap semiconductor-based UV detectors is still more desirable because the spacecraft will approach the Sun where heat and radiation fluxes are high. We describe the motivations leading to such new developments, and present a programme to achieve revolutionary flight cameras within the Solar Orbiter schedule.

Hochedez, J.-F.; Schuhle, U.; Lemaire, P.

104

MPD Detector at NICA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this article is to give information about the new accelerator complex NICA at JINR, Dubna and especially, to provide overview of the MultiPurpose Detector (MPD) and its subdetectors. The current results of the MPD performance for dileptons, hyperons, hypernuclei and phi-meson are presented.

Yordanova, L.; Vasendina, V.

2014-04-01

105

Ionizations scintillation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few references are made to factors which affect the energy resolution of proportional scintillation. The coupling of proportional or primary scintillation devices to photoionization detectors (PIPS chamber) is considered, both in the gas and liquid phases, and using the data available some information is given concerning its expected characteristics of energy, position and time resolution.

Policarpo, A. J. P. L.

106

Refrigerant leak detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative leak detector visually demonstrates refrigerant loss from precision volume of large refrigeration system over established period of time from single test point. Mechanical unit is less costly than electronic "sniffers" and is more reliable due to absence of electronic circuits that are susceptible to drift.

Byrne, E. J.

1979-01-01

107

Directional gamma detector  

DOEpatents

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01

108

Porous material neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one

Yacouba Diawara; Menyhert Kocsis

2012-01-01

109

Status of Virgo detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commissioning of the Virgo gravitational wave detector has restarted after several major hardware upgrades carried out during winter 2005. Now Virgo is fully operative and its sensitivity greatly improved and continually improving. A program of short scientific data taking has already started and Virgo is moving towards a period of continuous data taking, which should start at the end

F. Acernese; P. Amico; M. Alshourbagy; F. Antonucci; S. Aoudia; P. Astone; S. Avino; D. Babusci; G. Ballardin; F. Barone; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; F. Beauville; S. Bigotta; S. Birindelli; M. A. Bizouard; C. Boccara; F. Bondu; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; S. Braccini; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; D. Buskulic; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; F. Carbognani; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Cesarini; E. Chassande-Mottin; N. Christensen; C. Corda; A. Corsi; F. Cottone; A.-C. Clapson; F. Cleva; J.-P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; A. Dari; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; M. del Prete; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Virgilio; B. Dujardin; A. Eleuteri; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J.-D. Fournier; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; L. Gammaitoni; F. Garufi; E. Genin; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; G. Giordano; L. Giordano; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; G. Guidi; S. Hebri; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; S. Karkar; S. Kreckelbergh; P. La Penna; M. Laval; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; B. Lopez; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; G. Losurdo; J.-M. Mackowski; E. Majorana; C. N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; M. Mazzoni; L. Milano; F. Menzinger; C. Moins; J. Moreau; N. Morgado; B. Mours; F. Nocera; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; F. Piergiovanni; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; K. Qipiani; P. Rapagnani; V. Reita; A. Remillieux; F. Ricci; I. Ricciardi; P. Ruggi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; A. Spallicci; M. Tarallo; M. Tonelli; A. Toncelli; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; C. Tremola; G. Vajente; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; J.-Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Yvert

2007-01-01

110

Neutron detector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neutron detector unit and system comprising an ion chamber and self-; powered portions wherein signals from the ion chamber and self-powered portions ; are compared and the calibration of the ion chamber portion adjusted accordingly ; is described. (26 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures) (Official Gazette);

Neissel

1973-01-01

111

Alkali metal ionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode

James E. Bauerle; William H. Reed; Edgar Berkey

1978-01-01

112

Radon gas detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a radon gas detector. It comprises: a housing having an interior chamber, the interior chamber being completely closed to ambient light, the interior chamber being divided into an environment connecting chamber and a radiation ascertaining chamber; radiation sensitive means mounted between the environment connecting chamber and the radiation ascertaining chamber; air movement means mounted in connection with

P. A. Madnick; R. W. Sherwood

1990-01-01

113

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

DOEpatents

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

Myneni, G.R.

1999-08-03

114

Time Planar HPGe Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The time resolution of the planar HPGe detectors was investigated with small value of the dead layer of (p, n) transition. The time resolution is 2tau/sub 0/=0.95 ns for Esub( gamma )1332 keV in coincidence with beta /sup -/-particles of /sup 60/Co. 4 ref...

V. N. Abrosimov V. A. Morozov B. P. Osipenko F. Prazhak V. I. Stegajlov

1986-01-01

115

Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or other failures in those systems. In another type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors of this type could be optoelectronically instrumented for monitoring to provide measured digital indications of color changes indicative of the presence of hydrogen.

Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

2009-01-01

116

Carbon monoxide detector. [electrochemical gas detector for spacecraft use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensitive carbon monoxide detector, developed specifically for spacecraft use, is described. An instrument range of 0 to 60 ppm CO in air was devised. The fuel cell type detector is used as a highly sensitive electrolysis cell for electrochemically detecting gases. The concept of an electrochemical CO detector is discussed and the CO oxidation behavior in phosphoric and sulfuric acid electrolytes is reported.

Holleck, G. L.; Bradspies, J. L.; Brummer, S. B.; Nelsen, L. L.

1973-01-01

117

Neutron detectors at IPNS  

SciTech Connect

The heart of each time-of-flight neutron scattering instrument is its complement of detectors and the associated encoding and counting electronics. Currently there are ten fully-scheduled neutron scattering instruments in operation at IPNS, with three more instruments under development. Six of these instruments use position-sensitive neutron detectors (PSDs) of various types. These PSDs include a 30 cm {times} 30 cm, {approximately}3 mm resolution, neutron Anger camera area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 2.5 cm dia, {approximately}0.7 mm resolution, microchannel-plate area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 20 cm {times} 20 cm, {approximately}5 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a 40 cm {times} 40 cm, {approximately}4 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a flat 25 cm long, {approximately}1.6 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSD; and 160 cylindrical {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSDs, each of which is 1.27 cm in dia and 60 cm long and has {approximately}14 mm resolution. In addition to these PSDs, {approximately}750 standard cylindrical {sup 3}He proportional counters of various sizes are utilized on IPNS instruments, and {approximately}20 BF{sub 3} pulsed ion chambers are in use as beam monitors. This paper discusses these various detectors and associated electronics, with emphasis on the instrumental specifications and the reasons for the selection of the different types of detectors. Observed performance of these detectors is also discussed. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Crawford, R.K.; Haumann, J.R.; Ostrowski, G.E.

1990-01-01

118

Fundamental principles of particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

Fernow, R.C.

1988-01-01

119

Gated High Speed Optical Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, fabrication, and test of two gated, high speed optical detectors for use in high speed digital laser communication links are discussed. The optical detectors used a dynamic crossed field photomultiplier and electronics including dc bias and RF...

G. W. Neal L. M. Carson S. I. Green

1973-01-01

120

High Tc superconducting IR detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared detectors based upon high transition temperature ('high Tc') superconductors include superconducting transition edge microbolometers, nonequilibrium photoeffect detectors and photon-assisted tunneling detectors. Superconducting transition edge microbolometers offer moderate performance as individual detectors; a potential application is for large two-dimensional staring focal plane arrays. Experimental search for the nonequilibrium photoeffect in high Tc superconductors reveals unwanted bolometric signals. Photon-assisted tunneling in theory provides very high performance, but no experimental data are available.

Kruse, Paul W.

1990-10-01

121

New electronically black neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Two neutron detectors are described that can function in a continuous radiation background. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors.

Drake, D.M.; Feldman, W.C.; Hurlbut, C.

1986-03-01

122

ISS/IDS Detector Study  

SciTech Connect

This article summarises the results obtained by the detector working group of the 'International Scooping Study' (ISS) of a future neutrino oscillations facility. Special emphasis is put on far detectors, for which some of the main issues are identified. A detector R and D strategy in the context of the 'International Design Study' (IDS) for a neutrino factory is also presented.

Cervera-Villanueva, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, C.S.I.C.-Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

2008-02-21

123

The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range -3.4 < ? < 5.1. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

Christensen, Christian Holm; Gaardhøje, Jens Jørgen; Gulbrandsen, Kristján; Nielsen, Børge Svane; Søgaard, Carsten

124

Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified version of the THALES double heterostructure (DH) p-i-n device, but with even wider bandgap barriers inserted at the contact layer/absorber layer interfaces. It is designed to work with either bulk semiconductors or superlattices as the absorber material. The superlattice bandgap can be adjusted to match the desired absorption cutoff wavelength. This infrared detector has the potential of high-sensitivity operation at higher operating temperatures. This would reduce cooling requirements, thereby reducing the power, mass, and volume of the equipment and allowing an increased mission science return.

Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

2009-01-01

125

A Hybrid Face Detector Based on an Asymmetrical Adaboost Cascade Detector and a Wavelet-Bayesian-Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper is proposed a hybrid face detector that combines the high processing speed of an Asymmetrical Adaboost Cascade Detector with the high detection rate of a Wavelet Bayesian Detector. This integration is achieved by incorporating this last detector in the middle stages of the cascade detector. Results of the application of the proposed detector to a standard face

Rodrigo Verschae; Javier Ruiz-del-solar

2003-01-01

126

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOEpatents

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

127

Future liquid Argon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber offers an innovative technology for a new class of massive detectors for rare-event detection. It is a precise tracking device that allows three-dimensional spatial reconstruction with mm-scale precision of the morphology of ionizing tracks with the imaging quality of a "bubble chamber", provides dE/dx information with high sampling rate, and acts as high-resolution calorimeter for contained events. First proposed in 1977 and after a long maturing process, its holds today the potentialities of opening new physics opportunities by providing excellent tracking and calorimetry performance at the relevant multi-kton mass scales, outperforming other techniques. In this paper, we review future liquid argon detectors presently being discussed by the neutrino physics community.

Rubbia, A.

2013-02-01

128

Integrated Dual Imaging Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of image detector was designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The integrated Dual Imaging detector (IDID) consists of a lenslet array and a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a commercial charge coupled device (CCD). The IDID simplifies the design and operation of solar vector magnetographs and the imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmosphere and solar research. When used in a solar telescope, the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface. Other applications include environmental monitoring, robot vision, and medical diagnoses (through the eye). Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 5) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout and display of both images; and (4) laptop computer signal processing to produce polarization maps in field situations.

Rust, David M.

1999-01-01

129

Pulsed neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

Robertson, deceased, J. Craig (late of Albuquerque, NM); Rowland, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

1989-03-21

130

Carbon nanotube terahertz detector.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) technologies are promising for diverse areas such as medicine, bioengineering, astronomy, environmental monitoring, and communications. However, despite decades of worldwide efforts, the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum still continues to be elusive for solid state technology. Here, we report on the development of a powerless, compact, broadband, flexible, large-area, and polarization-sensitive carbon nanotube THz detector that works at room temperature. The detector is sensitive throughout the entire range of the THz technology gap, with responsivities as high as ?2.5 V/W and polarization ratios as high as ?5:1. Complete thermoelectric and opto-thermal characterization together unambiguously reveal the photothermoelectric origin of the THz photosignal, triggered by plasmonic absorption and collective antenna effects, and suggest that judicious design of thermal management and quantum engineering of Seebeck coefficients will lead to further enhancement of device performance. PMID:24875576

He, Xiaowei; Fujimura, Naoki; Lloyd, J Meagan; Erickson, Kristopher J; Talin, A Alec; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Jiang, Qijia; Kawano, Yukio; Hauge, Robert H; Léonard, François; Kono, Junichiro

2014-07-01

131

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01

132

Ultrafast neutron detector  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a neutron detector (50) of very high temporal resolution that is particularly well suited for measuring the fusion reaction neutrons produced by laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets. The detector comprises a biased two-conductor traveling-wave transmission line (54, 56, 58, 68) having a uranium cathode (60) and a phosphor anode (62) as respective parts of the two conductors. A charge line and Auston switch assembly (70, 72, 74) launch an electric field pulse along the transmission line. Neutrons striking the uranium cathode at a location where the field pulse is passing, are enabled to strike the phosphor anode and produce light that is recorded on photographic film (64). The transmission line may be variously configured to achieve specific experimental goals.

Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01

133

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17

134

Gated strip proportional detector  

DOEpatents

A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

1987-01-01

135

How Metal Detectors Operate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, provides an explanation of how a metal detector functions. Most people take for granted this common piece of equipment, but the science behind its function is actually quite remarkable. Bartelt uses flash animations and diagrams to examine how these machines work. These animations show everything from the different pieces of the machine to the sine waves and magnetic fields employed by the detector. Without such a detailed outline, these concepts would be much more difficult to grasp, and the author makes the presentation accessible for almost any grade level. Because of this, this would be a wonderful activity for a physics, or even mathematics, course.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-22

136

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

137

Precision synchrotron radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.; Jung, C.K.; Lateur, M.; Nash, J.; Tinsman, J.; Wormser, G.; Gomez, J.J.; Kent, J.

1989-03-01

138

Underwater radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM); McKnight, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

139

Detector KEDR tagger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KEDR Tagging System is designed to enhance the detector ability to study the two-photon processes e+e-?e+e-X. The collider magnetic elements (dipoles and lenses) form a magnetic spectrometer for the scattered electrons and positrons. Its energies are measured with 8 blocks of the drift tube hodoscope which are placed beside of the vacuum chamber. This allows to determine an invariant mass of the system X with resolution 3-15 Mev for W=300÷3000 MeV at the beam energies Eb=1.5-5.0 GeV. Recently the TS was upgraded with triple-GEM 2-dimensional detectors and a laser Compton scattering calibration system. The energy resolution for the scattered e± at the level 3?10-4 was demonstrated.

Zhilich, V. N.; KEDR Collaboration

2012-04-01

140

Portable Radiation Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, General Pneumatics Corporation's Western Research Center satisfied a NASA need for a non-clogging Joule-Thomson cryostat to provide very low temperature cooling for various sensors. This NASA-supported cryostat development played a key part in the development of more portable high-purity geranium gamma-ray detectors. Such are necessary to discern between the radionuclides in medical, fuel, weapon, and waste materials. The outcome of the SBIR project is a cryostat that can cool gamma-ray detectors, without vibration, using compressed gas that can be stored compactly and indefinitely in a standby mode. General Pneumatics also produces custom J-T cryostats for other government, commercial and medical applications.

1997-01-01

141

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30

142

The LHCb detector upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, with its installation scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will transform the data acquisition and processing architecture to a triggerless readout at 40 MHz with subsequent software-based event selection in a CPU farm. In this contribution, an overview of the detector technology options under consideration and the associated challenges is given and selected highlights of the ongoing R&D programme are presented.

Schindler, H.

2013-12-01

143

Biological detector and method  

DOEpatents

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2013-02-26

144

The Antares detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antares Neutrino Telescope is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. It has been completed in May 2008 and is meant to perform neutrino astronomy via a large three-dimensional array of photo-multiplier tubes. This note describes the design, the construction and the functioning of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France, as well as the performances of the detector.

For the Antares Collaboration1; Creusot, A.

2013-08-01

145

Gas bubble detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas bubble detector having a modulated IR source focused through a bandpass filter onto a venturi, formed in a sample tube, to illuminate the venturi with modulated filtered IR to detect the presence of gas bubbles as small as 0.01 cm or about 0.004 in diameter in liquid flowing through the venturi. Means are provided to determine the size of any detected bubble and to provide an alarm in the absence of liquid in the sample tube.

Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Burchfield, David E. (Inventor); Hagey, John M. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

146

SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon p-n junction detectors were fabricated by diffusing phosphorus ; to 2 mu depth into high resistivity p-type silicon. Various base material ; resistivities were employed, ranging from 1000 OMEGA -cm to 9600 OMEGA -cm. ; The devices produced have an encapsulated construction which preserves a good ; protection of the junction edge. Devices of 2-mm, 5-mm, and 12.5-mm sensitive

J. Terada; J. Yoshida; Y. Ebara; T. Kobayashi

1963-01-01

147

The BES detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e+e- annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency

J. Z. Bai; Q. Bian; G. M. Chen; L. J. Chen; S. N. Chen; Y. Q. Chen; Z. Q. Chen; Y. K. Chi; H. C. Cui; X. Z. Cui; S. S. Deng; Y. W. Deng; H. L. Ding; B. Z. Dong; X. S. Dong; X. Du; Z. Z. Du; C. Feng; Z. Feng; Z. S. Fu; C. S. Gao; M. L. Gao; S. Q. Gao; W. X. Gao; Y. N. Gao; S. D. Gu; W. X. Gu; Y. Z. Guan; H. F. Guo; Y. N. Guo; Y. Y. Guo; S. W. Han; Y. Han; W. Hao; J. He; K. R. He; M. J. He; X. J. Hou; G. Y. Hu; J. S. Hu; J. W. Hu; D. Q. Huang; Y. Z. Huang; Q. P. Jia; C. H. Jiang; Q. Ju; Y. F. Lai; P. F. Lang; D. S. Li; F. Li; H. Li; Jia Li; J. T. Li; Jin Li; L. L. Li; P. Q. Li; Q. M. Li; R. B. Li; S. Q. Li; W. Li; Z. X. Li; G. N. Liang; F. C. Lin; S. Z. Lin; W. Lin; Q. Liu; R. G. Liu; W. Liu; X. Liu; Z. A. Liu; Z. Y. Liu; C. G. Lu; W. D. Lu; Z. Y. Lu; J. G. Lu; D. H. Ma; E. C. Ma; J. M. Ma; H. S. Mao; Z. P. Mao; X. C. Meng; H. L. Ni; J. Nie; Z. D. Nie; W. P. Niu; L. J. Pan; N. D. Qi; J. J. Qian; Y. H. Qu; Y. K. Que; G. Rong; T. Z. Ruan; Y. Y. Shao; B. W. Shen; D. L. Shen; J. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; J. P. Sheng; H. Z. Shi; X. F. Song; H. S. Sun; F. K. Tang; S. Q. Tang; W. H. Tian; F. Wang; G. Y. Wang; J. G. Wang; J. Y. Wang; L. S. Wang; L. Z. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; S. M. Wang; S. Q. Wang; T. J. Wang; X. W. Wang; Y. Y. Wang; Z. H. Wang; Z. J. Wang; C. L. Wei; Z. Z. Wei; J. W. Wu; S. H. Wu; S. Q. Wu; W. M. Wu; X. D. Wu; Z. D. Wu; D. M. Xi; X. M. Xia; J. Xiao; P. P. Xie; X. X. Xie; J. G. Xu; R. S. Xu; Z. Q. Xu; B. C. Xuan; S. T. Xue; J. Yan; S. P. Yan; W. G. Yan; C. Z. Yang; C. M. Yang; C. Y. Yang; X. F. Yang; X. R. Yang; M. H. Ye; C. H. Yu; C. S. Yu; Z. Q. Yu; B. Y. Zhang; C. D. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; C. Y. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; G. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; H. L. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; L. S. Zhang; S. Q. Zhang; Y. P. Zhang; Y. M. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; M. Zhao; P. D. Zhao; P. P. Zhao; W. R. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; Z. Q. Zhao; J. P. Zheng; L. S. Zheng; M. Zheng; W. S. Zheng; Z. P. Zheng; G. P. Zhong; G. P. Zhou; H. S. Zhou; J. Zhou; Li Zhou; Lin Zhou; M. Zhou; Y. S. Zhou; Y. H. Zhou; G. S. Zhu; Q. M. Zhu; S. G. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; B. A. Zhuang

1994-01-01

148

Laser beam methane detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument uses infrared absorption to determine methane concentration in liquid natural gas vapor. Two sensors measure intensity of 3.39 mm laser beam after it passes through gas; absorption is proportional to concentration of methane. Instrument is used in modeling spread of LNG clouds and as leak detector on LNG carriers and installations. Unit includes wheels for mobility and is both vertically and horizontally operable.

Hinkley, E. D., Jr.

1981-01-01

149

Automatic human body detector  

SciTech Connect

A method is devised for the automatic detection of a human body. The method utilizes the near-infrared reflection bands of the skin of the human body as the identifying signature. Illumination of the body is provided by a near-infrared light source and the detection of the reflection bands. When each of the three detectors simultaneously register a signal of the proper reflection values, a coincident trigger circuit enables an indicator device which signifies a human body is detected.

Hacskaylo, M.

1985-02-19

150

Directional fast-neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A plurality of omnidirectional radiation detectors are arranged in a close packed symmetrical pattern to form a segmented detector. The output radiation counts from these detectors are arithmetically combined to provide the direction of a source of incident radiation. Directionality is achieved without the use of shielding to provide collimation and background reduction effects. Indeed, output counts from paired detectors are simply subtracted to yield a vector direction toward the radiation source. The counts from all of the detectors can be combined to yield an output signal functionally related to the radiation source strength.

Byrd, Roger C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

151

Germanium detector array — GERDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GERDA will be a new experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) to study neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge at background levels <10 -3 cts/(keV kg y) at Q=2039 keV, two orders of magnitude lower than in the previous experiments. Bare Ge-diodes, enriched to 86% in 76Ge, are operated in liquid argon complemented by a water shield to reduce the external backgrounds. Intrinsic backgrounds will be suppressed by the pulse shape analysis and segmented electrodes. In GERDAs first phase, the detector array will consist of the existing and refurbished detectors of the previous Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments. After one year of measurement, the setup should allow us to scrutinize the claimed observation of 0??? decay in 76Ge. In its second phase, GERDA will use an additional set of new enriched 76Ge crystals, as segmented or point contact detectors. After 100 kg y the sensitivity will be T>1.5?1026 y; this corresponds to an effective Majorana mass range from 0.1 eV to 0.2 eV.

Jochum, J.

2010-04-01

152

Optical ionization detector  

DOEpatents

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

1994-03-29

153

Optical ionization detector  

DOEpatents

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01

154

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOEpatents

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

1998-08-11

155

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOEpatents

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

Chu, Dahlon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Thelen, Jr., Donald C. (Bozeman, MT)

1998-01-01

156

Compact THz imaging detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe preliminary design, modeling and test results for the development of a monolithic, high pixel density, THz band focal plane array (FPA) fabricated in a commercial CMOS process. Each pixel unit cell contains multiple individual THz band antennae that are coupled to independent amplifiers. The amplified signals are summed either coherently or incoherently to improve detection (SNR). The sensor is designed to operate at room temperature using passive or active illumination. In addition to the THz detector, a secondary array of Visible or SWIR context imaging pixels are interposed in the same area matrix. Multiple VIS/SWIR context pixels can be fabricated within the THz pixel unit cell. This provides simultaneous, registered context imagery and "Pan sharpening" MTF enhancement for the THz image. The compact THz imaging system maximizes the utility of a ~ 300 ?m x 300 ?m pixel area associated with the optical resolution spot size for a THz imaging system operating at a nominal ~ 1.0 THz spectral frequency. RF modeling is used to parameterize the antenna array design for optimal response at the THz frequencies of interest. The quarter-wave strip balanced bow-tie antennae are optimized based on the semiconductor fabrication technology thin-film characteristics and the CMOS detector input impedance. RF SPICE models enhanced for THz frequencies are used to evaluate the predicted CMOS detector performance and optimal unit cell design architecture. The models are validated through testing of existing CMOS ROICs with calibrated THz sources.

Newman, J. Daniel; Lee, Paul P. K.; Sacco, Andrew P.; Chamberlain, Thomas B.; Willems, Dave A.; Fiete, Robert D.; Bocko, Mark V.; Ignotovic, Zeljko; Pipher, Judith L.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Rhodes, David B.; Ninkov, Zoran

2013-05-01

157

Detector Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.

Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

2003-01-01

158

Micromechanical Uncooled Photon Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the development of uncooled infrared detectors operate as micromechanical thermal detectors or micromechanical quantum detectors. The authors report on a new method for photon detection using electronic (photo-induced) stresses in semiconductor microstructures. Photo-induced stress in semiconductor microstructures, is caused by changes in the charge carrier density in the conduction band and photon detection results from the measurement of the photo-induced bending of semiconductor microstructures. Small changes in position (displacement) of microstructures are routinely measured in atomic force microscopy (AFM) where atomic imaging of surfaces relies on the measurement of small changes (< 10{sup -9} m) in the bending of microcantilevers. Changes in the conduction band charge carrier density can result either from direct photo-generation of free charge carriers (electrons, holes) or from photoelectrons emitted from thin metal film surfaces in contact with a semiconductor microstructure which forms a Schottky barrier. In their studies, they investigated three systems: (1) Si microstructures, (2)InSb microstructures and (3) Si microstructures coated with a thin film of Pt. They found that for Si the photo-induced stress results in a contraction of the crystal lattice due to the presence of excess electron-hole-pairs while for InSb photo-induced stress causes the crystal lattice to expand. They present their results and discuss their findings.

Datskos, P.G.

2001-09-04

159

Direct Detectors for Electron Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is interest in improving the detectors used to capture images in transmission electron microscopy. Detectors with an improved modulation transfer function at high spatial frequencies allow for higher resolution in images at lower magnification, which leads to an increased effective field of view. Detectors with improved detective quantum efficiency are important for low dose applications. One way in which these performance enhancements can be achieved is through direct detection, where primary electrons are converted directly into suitable electrical signals by the detector rather than relying on an indirect electron to photon conversion before detection. In this paper we present the characterisation of detector performance for a number of different direct detection technologies, and compare these technologies to traditional indirect detectors. Overall our results show that direct detection enables a significant improvement in all aspects of detector performance.

Clough, R. N.; Moldovan, G.; Kirkland, A. I.

2014-06-01

160

State of the art in semiconductor detectors  

SciTech Connect

The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs.

Rehak, P. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Gatti, E. (Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy))

1989-01-01

161

areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS  

SciTech Connect

areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

Rivers, M. (UC)

2011-09-23

162

Detector Mount Design for IGRINS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

2014-06-01

163

Micro UV detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

2004-09-01

164

Micro-UV detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

2004-12-01

165

Pyroelectric demodulating detector  

DOEpatents

A pyroelectric demodulating detector (also termed a pyroelectric demodulator) is disclosed which utilizes an electrical resistor stacked upon a pyroelectric element to demodulate an rf or microwave electrical input signal which is amplitude-modulated (AM). The pyroelectric demodulator, which can be formed as a hybrid or a monolithic device, has applications for use in AM radio receivers. Demodulation is performed by feeding the AM input signal into the resistor and converting the AM input signal into an AM heat signal which is conducted through the pyroelectric element and used to generate an electrical output signal containing AM information from the AM input signal.

Brocato, Robert W. (Sandia Park, NM)

2008-07-08

166

Moderate temperature detector development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

P-side backside reflecting constant, photodiode characterization, and photodiode diffusion and G-R currents were investigated in an effort to develop an 8 m to 12 m infrared quantum detector using mercury cadmium telluride. Anodization, phosphorus implantation, and the graded band gap concept were approaches considered for backside formation. Variable thickness diodes were fabricated with a back surface anodic oxide to investigate the effect of this surface preparation on the diffusion limited zero bias impedance. A modeling technique was refined to thoroughly model diode characteristics. Values for the surface recombination velocity in the depletion region were obtained. These values were improved by implementing better surface damage removal techniques.

Marciniec, J. W.; Briggs, R. J.; Sood, A. K.

1981-01-01

167

Long wavelength infrared detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long wavelength infrared detection is achieved by a detector made with layers of quantum well material bounded on each side by barrier material to form paired quantum wells, each quantum well having a single energy level. The width and depth of the paired quantum wells, and the spacing therebetween, are selected to split the single energy level with an upper energy level near the top of the energy wells. The spacing is selected for splitting the single energy level into two energy levels with a difference between levels sufficiently small for detection of infrared radiation of a desired wavelength.

Vasquez, Richard P.

1993-02-01

168

Flexible composite radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Orler, Edward B. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-12-05

169

Compact pyroelectric detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a pyroelectric detector consisting of a lens-conical condenser and a sensitive element with a source follower and an amplifier. The diameter of the entrance aperture of the condenser is 14 mm and the diameter of the exit aperture is 2 mm. The lens is made of germanium and the sensitive element is made of lithium tantalate. The detectability of the device, relative to the entrance of the lensconical condenser, is 4.10/sup 8/ cm.Hz /SUP 1/2/ .W/sup -1/.

Elizarov, A.S.; Kostin, E.G.; Kulyupin, Y.A.; Lysenko, V.S.; Matsuta, L.A.; Panasyuk, O.P.

1985-08-01

170

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT) [Vernon, CT

1986-01-01

171

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

172

Long wavelength infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long wavelength infrared detection is achieved by a detector made with layers of quantum well material bounded on each side by barrier material to form paired quantum wells, each quantum well having a single energy level. The width and depth of the paired quantum wells, and the spacing therebetween, are selected to split the single energy level with an upper energy level near the top of the energy wells. The spacing is selected for splitting the single energy level into two energy levels with a difference between levels sufficiently small for detection of infrared radiation of a desired wavelength.

Vasquez, Richard P. (inventor)

1993-01-01

173

Improved ion detector  

DOEpatents

An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber type comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

Tullis, A.M.

1986-01-30

174

Ionizing Radiation Detector  

DOEpatents

A CdZnTe (CZT) crystal provided with a native CdO dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals is disclosed. A two step process is provided for forming the dielectric coating which includes etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water after attaching electrical contacts to the crystal surface.

Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-11-18

175

Photon detector system  

DOEpatents

A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

Ekstrom, Philip A. (Lexington, KY)

1981-01-01

176

Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging.  

PubMed

Glow discharge plasma, derived from direct-current gas breakdown, is investigated in order to realize an inexpensive terahertz (THz) room-temperature detector. Preliminary results for THz radiation show that glow discharge indicator lamps as room-temperature detectors yield good responsivity and noise-equivalent power. Development of a focal plane array (FPA) using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the cost of a glow discharge detector is approximately $0.2-$0.5 per lamp, and the FPA images will be diffraction limited. The detection mechanism of the glow discharge detector is found to be the enhanced diffusion current, which causes the glow discharge detector bias current to decrease when exposed to THz radiation. PMID:17932531

Abramovich, A; Kopeika, N S; Rozban, D; Farber, E

2007-10-10

177

Infrared detectors for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation and intended benefits for the use of infrared (IR) detectors for space applications are highlighted. The actual status of state-of-the-art IR detectors for space applications is presented based on some of AIM's currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength IR (SWIR) to the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) and very long-wavelength IR (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength IR (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP and the IR detectors for the Sentinel 3 SLSTR will be elaborated. Additionally, dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC, will be addressed.

Fick, Wolfgang; Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Haiml, Markus; Hanna, Stefan; Hübner, Dominique; Höhnemann, Holger; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Thöt, Richard

2013-12-01

178

New passive helicopter detector  

SciTech Connect

Sandia has developed a new helicopter detector. The device relies on the correlation between the acoustic wave from the helicopter and the resulting coupled seismic wave. A significant feature of this approach is that the detector is completely passive; there is no radio frequency radiation. Intended for deployment as a perimeter sensor around a site, the unit offers a low nuisance/false alarm rate and a high probability of detection for a wide range of helicopters. Reliable detection occurs when the target is at high altitude and also very near the earth's surface. Detection ranges start at one kilometer for the small, four-place, civilian helicopter and approach five kilometers for heavier, military types. The system has two parts: a transducer package containing a microphone and a geophone and a digital processor. Development is underway for a model which will be AC powered and well suited to permanent facilities. A prototype unit using a lightweight, battery powered processor is being constructed for rapid-deployment applications. 6 figs.

Elliott, G.R.

1985-01-01

179

PAU camera: detectors characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

2012-07-01

180

Barrier infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

181

Photon drag detectors  

SciTech Connect

A photon drag detector having a block of semi-conductor material with two opposite faces through one of which a beam of radiation can enter and from the other of which it can emerge; spaced end electrodes in contact with said block, one adjacent to each of said opposite faces; at least two intermediate electrodes in contact with said block, arranged intermediate and spaced from said end electrodes and spaced from each other; an dan impedance connecting said end electrodes; whereby the change in sensitivity of the detector with the position of the beam in the said block can be made small. The block of semi-conductor material is typically bar shaped with the opposite faces substantially parallel end faces of the bar. The bar is conveniently cylindrical. The electrodes are preferably ring electrodes, embracing the block and parallel with the planes of the opposite faces. The semi-conductor may be P-doped germanium of about 30 ohm centimeter resistivity, and the impedance may be a resistance in the range from about 100 to about 400 ohm.

Edwards, J. G.; Roddie, A. G.

1985-04-30

182

GLAS 532nm Optical Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents fabrication and testing of 532nm optical detectors. Testing procedures included 532nm quantum efficiency, detector gain, and photon counting performance, in particular, photon counting efficiency. 532nm quantum efficiency was measured to be 36% to 39% for the detectors fabricated. Detectors with a GaAs APD anode had measured gains of 12,000 to 15,000 maximum. Photon counting efficiency for the detector with an APD anode was measured to be approximately 80% with a detector gain of 11,000. Measurements made on an identical detector, not fabricated under this contract, had a photon counting efficiency exceeding 90% with a gain of 13,000. A formula is derived in which the photon counting efficiency is determined by the system preamp noise and the peak single photon pulse height which is proportional to detector gain. This formula agrees well with the measured results and indicates that a detector gain of 15,000 is sufficient to provide a counting efficiency of 99.6%.

LaRue, Ross A.

1997-01-01

183

Burst Populations and Detector Sensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The F(sub T) (peak bolometric photon flux) vs. E(sub p) (peak energy) plane is a powerful tool to compare the burst populations detected by different detectors. Detector sensitivity curves in this plane demonstrate which burst populations the detectors will detect. For example, future CZT-based detectors will show the largest increase in sensitivity for soft bursts, and will be particularly well- suited to study X-ray rich bursts and X-ray Flashes. Identical bursts at different redshifts describe a track in the F(sub T)-E(sub p) plane.

Band, David L.

2003-01-01

184

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

185

The MUSE instrument detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 ?m pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

2012-09-01

186

Technology of high luminosity detectors  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Collider Detectors: Present Capabilities and Future Possibilities focused on the problems posed by high luminosity and high energy at hadron colliders. Four working groups considered problems in individual detector elements, tracking chambers, calorimeters, triggers and particle identification devices. A fifth group reviewed the general problems of detector systems. The working groups concluded that there are technical solutions for the problems of a luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Everything is difficult and continued R and D is necessary to improve detectors.

Loken, S.C.

1983-11-01

187

Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material.

Kania, D.R.

1997-05-16

188

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies  

SciTech Connect

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (>85%), high spatial resolution (<5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600 / in{sup 2}), low dead time (<4 {mu}s in{sup 2}), good timing resolution (<5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, <200 ps fwhm for time of flight), and good energy resolution (<100 keV fwhm), where these requirements are listed in decreasing order of importance. The ``high efficiency`` requirement also implies that the detector modules must pack together without inactive gaps. Several novel and emerging radiation detector technologies could improve the performance of PET detectors. Avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, metal channel dynode photomultiplier tubes, and new scintillators all have the potential to improve PET detectors significantly.

Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

1994-05-01

189

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

190

Porous material neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

2012-04-10

191

Laser pulse detector  

DOEpatents

A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

Mashburn, Douglas N. (Knoxville, TN); Akerman, M. Alfred (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01

192

Small passive chemical detector  

SciTech Connect

A novel technique has been developed for the detection of organic compounds in the environment. These detectors are passive'' in the sense that they do not contain any electronic or mechanical instrumentation. A visual color change of the devices after exposure to the target compounds of interest allows a quick identification and quantitative determination of the targets. The detection mechanism is based on colorimetry and combines two molecular biology techniques, Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) and Ouchterlony Double Diffusion in Two Dimensions. Preliminary studies have shown that the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol can be monitored by the formation of the blue colored complexes as a result of the reaction between an enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) and a substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate).

Hong, K.C.

1992-03-26

193

Void/particulate detector  

DOEpatents

Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Karplus, Henry B. (Hinsdale, IL)

1985-01-01

194

Void/particulate detector  

SciTech Connect

Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducdrs spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

Clayton, T. N.; Karplus, H. B.

1985-09-24

195

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

196

Recursive quantum detector tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional tomographic techniques are becoming increasingly infeasible for reconstructing the operators of quantum devices of growing sophistication. We describe a novel tomographic procedure using coherent states, which begins by reconstructing the diagonals of the operator and then each successive off-diagonal in a recursive manner. Each recursion is considerably more efficient than reconstructing the operator in its entirety, and each successive recursion involves fewer parameters. We apply our technique to reconstruct the positive-operator-valued measure corresponding to a recently developed coherent optical detector with phase sensitivity and number resolution. We discuss the effect of various parameters on the reconstruction accuracy. The results show the efficiency of the method and its robustness to experimental noise.

Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik B.; Jin, Xian-Min; Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.; Walmsley, Ian A.

2012-11-01

197

SOI monolithic pixel detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing monolithic pixel detector using fully-depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel process technology. The SOI substrate is high resistivity silicon with p-n junctions and another layer is a low resistivity silicon for SOI-CMOS circuitry. Tungsten vias are used for the connection between two silicons. Since flip-chip bump bonding process is not used, high sensor gain in a small pixel area can be obtained. In 2010 and 2011, high-resolution integration-type SOI pixel sensors, DIPIX and INTPIX5, have been developed. The characterizations by evaluating pixel-to-pixel crosstalk, quantum efficiency (QE), dark noise, and energy resolution were done. A phase-contrast imaging was demonstrated using the INTPIX5 pixel sensor for an X-ray application. The current issues and future prospect are also discussed.

Miyoshi, T.; Ahmed, M. I.; Arai, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Ikemoto, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tauchi, K.

2014-05-01

198

Absolute beam brightness detector  

SciTech Connect

In generally accepted emittance measurement, main attention is concentrated on emittance areas {epsilon}{sub x}, {epsilon}{sub y} occupied by desired part of ion beam in transverse phase space and shape of these areas. The absolute beam phase density (brightness) as usually is not measured directly and the average beam brightness B is calculated from a beam intensity I and the transverse emittances. In the ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) optimization, it is important to preserve the beam brightness because some aberration of ion optic and beam instabilities can decrease the brightness of the central part of ion beam significantly. For these brightness measurements, it is convenient to use an absolute beam brightness detector with the brightness determination from one short considered in this article.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2012-02-15

199

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-12-15

200

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01

201

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

Angel, S.M.

1987-02-27

202

Temperature profile detector  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

Tokarz, R.D.

1983-10-11

203

A Low Energy Antineutron Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detector for antineutrons in the momentum range 0.1 - 1 Gev\\/c, to be used at LEAR faci= lity at CERN, is described. The antineutrons are detected by means of the charged pions produced in an annihilation event and their energy is determined by a time of flight measurement. The detector consists of 10 equal modules; each one contains: an

Tullio Bressani; Emilio Chiavassa; Sergio Costa; Giuseppe Dellacasa; Nora de Marco; Mauro Gallio; Alfredo Musso; Ermanno Vercellin; Mauro Morandin; Cesare Voci; Felice Iazzi; Bruno Minetti; Sergio Serci

1985-01-01

204

The ATLAS TRT Barrel Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS TRT barrel is a tracking drift chamber using 52,544 individual tubular drift tubes. It is one part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, which consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4 to 20 cm, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT) from 56 to 108 cm.

E. Abat; T. N. Addy; T. P. A. Åkesson; J. Alison; F. Anghinolfi; E. Arik; M. Arik; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; O. K. Baker; E. Banas; S. Baron; C. Bault; N. Becerici; A. Beddall; J. Bendotti; D. P. Benjamin; H. Bertelsen; A. Bingul; H. Blampey; A. Bocci; M. Bochenek; V. G. Bondarenko; V. Bychkov; J. Callahan; M. Capeáns Garrido; L. Cardiel Sas; A. Catinaccio; S. A. Cetin; T. Chandler; R. Chritin; P. Cwetanski; M. Dam; H. Danielsson; E. Danilevich; E. David; J. Degenhardt; B. Di Girolamo; F. Dittus; N. Dixon; O. B. Dogan; B. A. Dolgoshein; N. Dressnandt; C. Driouchi; W. L. Ebenstein; P. Eerola; U. Egede; K. Egorov; H. Evans; P. Farthouat; O. L. Fedin; A. J. Fowler; S. Fratina; D. Froidevaux; A. Fry; P. Gagnon; I. L. Gavrilenko; C. Gay; N. Ghodbane; J. Godlewski; M. Goulette; I. Gousakov; N. Grigalashvili; Y. Grishkevich; J. Grognuz; Z. Hajduk; M. Hance; F. Hansen; J. B. Hansen; P. H. Hansen; G. Hanson; G. A. Hare; A. Harvey Jr.; C. Hauviller; A. High; W. Hulsbergen; W. Huta; V. Issakov; S. Istin; V. Jain; G. Jarlskog; L. Jeanty; V. A. Kantserov; B. Kaplan; A. S. Kapliy; S. Katounine; F. Kayumov; P. T. Keener; G. D. Kekelidze; E. Khabarova; A. Khristachev; B. Kisielewski; T. H. Kittelmann; C. Kline; E. B. Klinkby; N. V. Klopov; B. R. Ko; T. Koffas; N. V. Kondratieva; S. P. Konovalov; S. Koperny; H. Korsmo; S. Kovalenko; T. Z. Kowalski; K. Krüger; V. Kramarenko; L. G. Kudin; A.-C. LeBihan; B. C. LeGeyt; K. Levterov; P. Lichard; A. Lindahl; V. Lisan; S. Lobastov; A. Loginov; C. W. Loh; S. Lokwitz; M. C. Long; S. Lucas; A. Lucotte; F. Luehring; B. Lundberg; R. Mackeprang; V. P. Maleev; A. Manara; M. Mandl; A. J. Martin; F. F. Martin; R. Mashinistov; G. M. Mayers; K. W. McFarlane; V. Mialkovski; B. M. Mills; B. Mindur; V. A. Mitsou; J. U. Mjörnmark; S. V. Morozov; E. Morris; S. V. Mouraviev; A. M. Muir; A. Munar; A. V. Nadtochi; S. Y. Nesterov; F. M. Newcomer; N. Nikitin; O. Novgorodova; E. G. Novodvorski; H. Ogren; S. H. Oh; S. B. Oleshko; D. Olivito; J. Olszowska; W. Ostrowicz; M. S. Passmore; S. Patrichev; J. Penwell; F. Perez-Gomez; V. D. Peshekhonov; T. C. Petersen; R. Petti; A. Placci; A. Poblaguev; X. Pons; M. J. Price; O. Rø hne; R. D. Reece; M. B. Reilly; C. Rembser; A. Romaniouk; D. Rousseau; D. Rust; Y. F. Ryabov; V. Ryjov; M. Söderberg; A. Savenkov; J. Saxon; M. Scandurra; V. A. Schegelsky; M. I. Scherzer; M. P. Schmidt; C. Schmitt; E. Sedykh; D. M. Seliverstov; T. Shin; A. Shmeleva; S. Sivoklokov; S. Yu Smirnov; L. Smirnova; O. Smirnova; P. Smith; V. V. Sosnovtsev; G. Sprachmann; S. Subramania; S. I. Suchkov; V. V. Sulin; R. R. Szczygiel; G. Tartarelli; E. Thomson; V. O. Tikhomirov; P. Tipton; J. A. Valls Ferrer; R. Van Berg; V. I. Vassilakopoulos; L. Vassilieva; P. Wagner; R. Wall; C. Wang; D. Whittington; H. H. Williams; A. Zhelezko; K. Zhukov

2008-01-01

205

Semiconductor Nuclear Radiation Detector Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a problem that arose with regard to the availability of germanium for lithium-drifted germanium detectors (Ge(Li) detectors), a comprehensive program was undertaken aimed toward the development of a method for the rapid specification of ger...

A. H. Sher

1974-01-01

206

Aerogel Cherenkov Detector Prototype Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the additional flavor degree of freedom in the H(e,e'K^+) and H(e,e'K^+) reactions allows for exceptional insight into the transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom in exclusive processes, specifically the reaction mechanism underlying strangeness production. To carry out strangeness physics experiments, the Nuclear Physics Group at Catholic University of America is building an Aerogel Cherenkov detector to be used at Jefferson Lab. To study the detector performance a prototype was built and experiments were carried out using several component configurations. One important aspect of the prototype is the photocathode uniformity of the large diameter photomultiplier tube: its effect on the detector is best studied with the prototype using the aerogel material and reflective detector box for Cerenkov photons in diffusive reflections. Another important aspect of the detector performance, therefore, is the effect of different reflective materials for the detector box wall lining. In this presentation I will present the results from these tests of the effect of the photomultiplier tubes and reflective surfaces on overall detector performance, as well as the modeling of the detector in the GEANT4 framework.

Rothgeb, Laura

2012-10-01

207

Performance of the DELPHI detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

DELPHI (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is a detector for e^+e^- physics, designed to provide high granularity over a 4\\\\pi solid angle, allowing an effective particle identification. It has been operating at the LEP (Large Electron-Positron) collider at CERN since 1989. This article reviews its performance.

P Abreu; W Adam; T Adye; E Agasi; I Ajinenko; Roy Aleksan; G D Alekseev; R Alemany; P P Allport; S Almehed; S J Alvsvaag; Ugo Amaldi; S Amato; A Andreazza; M L Andrieux; P Antilogus; W D Apel; Y Arnoud; B Åsman; J E Augustin; A Augustinus; Paul Baillon; P Bambade; F Barão; R Barate; Guido Barbiellini; Dimitri Yuri Bardin; A Baroncelli; O Bärring; J A Barrio; Walter Bartl; M J Bates; Marco Battaglia; M Baubillier; J Baudot; K H Becks; M Begalli; P Beillière; Yu A Belokopytov; Alberto C Benvenuti; M Berggren; D Bertrand; F Bianchi; M Bigi; S M Bilenky; P Billoir; D Bloch; M Blume; S Blyth; T Bolognese; M Bonesini; W Bonivento; P S L Booth; G Borisov; C Bosio; S Bosworth; O Botner; B Bouquet; C Bourdarios; T J V Bowcock; M Bozzo; P Branchini; K D Brand; T Brenke; R A Brenner; C Bricman; L Brillault; R C A Brown; P Brückman; J M Brunet; L Bugge; T Buran; T Burgsmüller; P Buschmann; A Buys; S Cabrera; M Caccia; M Calvi; A J Camacho-Rozas; T Camporesi; V Canale; M Canepa; K Cankocak; F Cao; F Carena; P Carrilho; L Carroll; Carlo Caso; M V Castillo-Gimenez; A Cattai; F R Cavallo; L Cerrito; V Chabaud; P Charpentier; L Chaussard; J Chauveau; P Checchia; G A Chelkov; M Chen; R Chierici; P V Chliapnikov; P Chochula; V Chorowicz; J Chudoba; V Cindro; P Collins; J L Contreras; R Contri; E Cortina; G Cosme; F Cossutti; H B Crawley; D J Crennell; G Crosetti; J Cuevas-Maestro; S Czellar; Erik Dahl-Jensen; J Dahm; B D'Almagne; M Dam; G Damgaard; P D Dauncey; Martyn Davenport; W Da Silva; C Defoix; A Deghorain; G Della Ricca; P A Delpierre; N Demaria; A De Angelis; Wim de Boer; S De Brabandere; C De Clercq; C de La Vaissière; B De Lotto; A De Min; L S De Paula; C De Saint-Jean; H Dijkstra; Lucia Di Ciaccio; F Djama; J Dolbeau; M Dönszelmann; K Doroba; M Dracos; J Drees; K A Drees; M Dris; Y Dufour; F Dupont; D M Edsall; R Ehret; G Eigen; T J C Ekelöf; Gösta Ekspong; M Elsing; J P Engel; N Ershaidat; B Erzen; M C Espirito-Santo; V P Falaleev; E Falk; D Fassouliotis; Michael Feindt; A Fenyuk; A Ferrer; A Filippas-Tassos; A Firestone; P A Fischer; H Föth; E Fokitis; F Fontanelli; F Formenti; B J Franek; P Frenkiel; D E C Fries; A G Frodesen; R Frühwirth; F Fulda-Quenzer; J A Fuster; A Galloni; D Gamba; M Gandelman; C García; J García; C Gaspar; U Gasparini; P Gavillet; E N Gazis; D Gelé; J P Gerber; L N Gerdyukov; M Gibbs; R Gokieli; B Golob; Gian P Gopal; L Gorn; M Górski; Yu Guz; Valerio Gracco; E Graziani; G Grosdidier; K Grzelak; S A Gumenyuk; P Gunnarsson; M Günther; J Guy; F Hahn; S Hahn; Z Hajduk; A Hallgren; K Hamacher; W Hao; F J Harris; V Hedberg; R P Henriques; J J Hernández; P Herquet; H Herr; T L Hessing; E Higón; Hans Jürgen Hilke; T S Hill; S O Holmgren; P J Holt; D J Holthuizen; S Hoorelbeke; M A Houlden; Josef Hrubec; K Huet; K Hultqvist; J N Jackson; R Jacobsson; P Jalocha; R Janik; C Jarlskog; G Jarlskog; P Jarry; B Jean-Marie; E K Johansson; L B Jönsson; P E Jönsson; Christian Joram; P Juillot; M Kaiser; F Kapusta; K Karafasoulis; M Karlsson; E Karvelas; A N Karyukhin; S Katsanevas; E C Katsoufis; R Keränen; B A Khomenko; N N Khovanskii; B J King; N J Kjaer; H Klein; A Klovning; P M Kluit; B Köne; P Kokkinias; M Koratzinos; C Kourkoumelis; O Kuznetsov; P H Kramer; Manfred Krammer; C Kreuter; I J Kronkvist; Z Krumshtein; W Krupinski; P Kubinec; W Kucewicz; K L Kurvinen; C Lacasta; I Laktineh; S Lamblot; J Lamsa; L Lanceri; P Langefeld; V Lapin; I Last; J P Laugier; R Lauhakangas; Gerhard Leder; F Ledroit; V Lefébure; C K Legan; R Leitner; Y Lemoigne; J Lemonne; Georg Lenzen; V Lepeltier; T Lesiak; D Liko; R Lindner; A Lipniacka; I Lippi; B Lörstad; J G Loken; J M López; M A López-Aguera; D Loukas; P Lutz; L Lyons; J N MacNaughton; G Maehlum; A Maio; V Malychev; F Mandl; J Marco; B Maréchal; M Margoni; J C Marin; C Mariotti; A Markou; T Maron; C Martínez-Rivero; F Martínez-Vidal; S Martí i García; J Masik; F Matorras; C Matteuzzi; Giorgio Matthiae; M Mazzucato; M L McCubbin; R McKay; R McNulty; J Medbo; C Meroni; S Meyer; W T Meyer; M Michelotto; E Migliore; L Mirabito; Winfried A Mitaroff; U Mjörnmark; T Moa; R Møller; K Mönig; M R Monge; P Morettini; H Müller; L M Mundim; J Murray; B Muryn; Gerald Myatt; F Naraghi; Francesco Luigi Navarria; S Navas; K Nawrocki; P Negri; W Neumann; N Neumeister; R Nicolaidou; B S Nielsen; M Nieuwenhuizen; V Nikolaenko; P Niss; A Nomerotski; Ainsley Normand; W Oberschulte-Beckmann; V F Obraztsov; A G Olshevskii; A Onofre; Risto Orava; K Österberg; A Ouraou; P Paganini; M Paganoni; P Pagès; H Palka; T D Papadopoulou; K Papageorgiou; L Pape; C Parkes; F Parodi; A Passeri; M Pegoraro; L Peralta; V Perevozchikov; H Pernegger; A Perrotta; C Petridou; A Petrolini; M Petrovykh; H T Phillips; G Piana; F Pierre; M Pimenta; M Pindo; S Plaszczynski; O Podobrin; M E Pol; G Polok; P Poropat; V Pozdnyakov; M Prest; P Privitera; N Pukhaeva

1995-01-01

208

A new solar neutrino detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the main features of the proposed low energy solar neutrino detector Borexino, planned to be installed at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. This real time detector is based on a massive, calorimetric, liquid scintillation spectroscopy technique, whose high luminosity is the base for the attempt to achieve a low signal detection threshold. After a description of the main

G. Alimonti; B. Alpat; C. Arpesella; G. Bellini; P. Benetti; S. Bonetti; F. P. Calaprice; M. Campanella; G. Cecchet; A. de Bari; M. Deutsch; A. Donati; F. Elisei; F. von Feilitzsch; D. Franciotti; M. G. Giammarchi; D. Giugni; A. Golubchikov; G. Husser; T. Kovacs; I. Manno; G. Mantovani; G. Manuzio; F. Masetti; U. Mazzucato; E. Meroni; J. Mitchell; L. Oberauer; S. Pakvasa; A. Perotti; A. Preda; P. Raghavan; R. S. Raghavan; F. Ragusa; G. Ranucci; R. Scardaoni; S. Schonert; O. Smirnov; R. Tartaglia; G. Testera; P. Ullucci; S. Vitale; O. Zaimidoroga

1993-01-01

209

Performance of the DELPHI detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DELPHI (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is a detector for e +e - physics, designed to provide high granularity over a 4? solid angle, allowing an effective particle identification. It has been operating at the LEP (Large Electron-Positron) collider at CERN since 1989. This article reviews its performance.

Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adye, T.; Agasi, E.; Ajinenko, I.; Aleksan, R.; Alekseev, G. D.; Alemany, R.; Allport, P. P.; Almehed, S.; Alvsvaag, S. J.; Amaldi, U.; Amato, S.; Andreazza, A.; Andrieux, M. L.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Åsman, B.; Augustin, J.-E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barate, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Bardin, D. Y.; Baroncelli, A.; Barring, O.; Barrio, J. A.; Bartl, W.; Bates, M. J.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Baudot, J.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bianchi, F.; Bigi, M.; Bilenky, M. S.; Billoir, P.; Bloch, D.; Blume, M.; Blyth, S.; Bolognese, T.; Bonesini, M.; Bonivento, W.; Booth, P. S. L.; Bosio, C.; Bosworth, S.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bozzo, M.; Branchini, P.; Brand, K. D.; Brenke, T.; Brenner, R. A.; Bricman, C.; Brillault, L.; Brown, R. C. A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.-M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Burgsmueller, T.; Buschmann, P.; Buys, A.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camacho Rozas, A. J.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Canepa, M.; Cankocak, K.; Cao, F.; Carena, F.; Carrilho, P.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M. V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cerrito, L.; Chabaud, V.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chaussard, L.; Chauveau, J.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chen, M.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; Contreras, J. L.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Crawley, H. B.; Crennell, D.; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; Dahl-Jensen, E.; Dahm, J.; Dalmagne, B.; Dam, M.; Damgaard, G.; Dauncey, P. D.; Davenport, M.; da Silva, W.; Defoix, C.; Deghorain, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Brabandere, S.; de Clercq, C.; de La Vaissiere, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; de Saint-Jean, C.; Dijkstra, H.; di Ciaccio, L.; Djama, F.; Dolbeau, J.; Donszelmann, M.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Drees, K.-A.; Dris, M.; Dufour, Y.; Dupont, F.; Edsall, D.; Ehret, R.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ekspong, G.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.-P.; Ershaidat, N.; Erzen, B.; Espirito Santo, M.; Falaleev, V.; Falk, E.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferrer, A.; Filippas, T. A.; Firestone, A.; Fischer, P.-A.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Formenti, F.; Franek, B.; Frenkiel, P.; Fries, D. C.; Frodesen, A. G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia, J.; Gaspar, C.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E. N.; Gele, D.; Gerber, J.-P.; Gerdyukov, L.; Gibbs, M.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gorski, M.; Gouz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Gumenyuk, S.; Gunnarsson, P.; Gunther, M.; Guy, J.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hao, W.; Harris, F. J.; Hedberg, V.; Henriques, R.; Hernandez, J. J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hessing, T. L.; Higon, E.; Hilke, H. J.; Hill, T. S.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Holthuizen, D.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huet, K.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, Ch.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Johansson, E. K.; Jonsson, L.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Kaiser, M.; Kapusta, F.; Karafasoulis, K.; Karlsson, M.; Karvelas, E.; Karyukhin, A.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E. C.; Keranen, R.; Khomenko, B. A.; Khovanski, N. N.; King, B.; Kjaer, N. J.; Klein, H.; Klovning, A.; Kluit, P.; Koene, B.; Kokkinias, P.; Koratzinos, M.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, P.-H.; Krammer, M.; Kreuter, C.; Kronkvist, I.; Krumstein, Z.; Krupinski, W.; Kubinec, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Kurvinen, K.; Lacasta, C.; Laktineh, I.; Lamblot, S.; Lamsa, J. W.; Lanceri, L.; Lane, D. W.; Langefeld, P.; Lapin, V.; Last, I.; Laugier, J.-P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Lefebure, V.; Legan, C. K.; Leitner, R.; Lemoigne, Y.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liko, D.; Lindner, R.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Loerstad, B.; Loken, J. G.; Lopez, J. M.; Lopez Aguera, M. A.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Maehlum, G.; Maio, A.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Maron, T.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Marti I Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Cubbin, M.; Mc Kay, R.; Mc Nulty, R.; Medbo, J.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, S.; Meyer, W. T.; Michelotto, M.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W. A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moeller, R.; Moenig, K.; Monge, M. R.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, H.; Mundim, L. M.; Murray, W. J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Naraghi, F.

1996-02-01

210

Performance of the DELPHI detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

DELPHI (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is a detector for e+e? physics, designed to provide high granularity over a 4? solid angle, allowing an effective particle identification. It has been operating at the LEP (Large Electron-Positron) collider at CERN since 1989. This article reviews its performance.

P. Abreu; W. Adam; T. Adye; E. Agasi; I. Ajinenko; R. Aleksan; G. D. Alekseev; R. Alemany; P. P. Allport; S. Almehed; S. J. Alvsvaag; U. Amaldi; S. Amato; A. Andreazza; M. L. Andrieux; P. Antilogus; W. D. Apel; Y. Arnoud; B. Åsman; J. E. Augustin; A. Augustinus; P. Baillon; P. Bambade; F. Barao; R. Barate; G. Barbiellini; D. Y. Bardin; A. Baroncelli; O. Barring; J. A. Barrio; W. Bartl; M. J. Bates; M. Battaglia; M. Baubillier; J. Baudot; K. H. Becks; M. Begalli; P. Beilliere; Yu. Belokopytov; A. C. Benvenuti; M. Berggren; D. Bertrand; F. Bianchi; M. Bigi; M. S. Bilenky; P. Billoir; D. Bloch; M. Blume; S. Blyth; T. Bolognese; M. Bonesini; W. Bonivento; P. S. L. Booth; C. Bosio; S. Bosworth; O. Botner; B. Bouquet; C. Bourdarios; T. J. V. Bowcock; M. Bozzo; P. Branchini; K. D. Brand; T. Brenke; R. A. Brenner; C. Bricman; L. Brillault; R. C. A. Brown; P. Bruckman; J. M. Brunet; L. Bugge; T. Buran; T. Burgsmueller; P. Buschmann; A. Buys; S. Cabrera; M. Caccia; M. Calvi; A. J. Camacho Rozas; T. Camporesi; V. Canale; M. Canepa; K. Cankocak; F. Cao; F. Carena; P. Carrilho; L. Carroll; C. Caso; M. V. Castillo Gimenez; A. Cattai; F. R. Cavallo; L. Cerrito; V. Chabaud; Ph. Charpentier; L. Chaussard; J. Chauveau; P. Checchia; G. A. Chelkov; M. Chen; R. Chierici; P. Chliapnikov; P. Chochula; V. Chorowicz; J. Chudoba; V. Cindro; P. Collins; J. L. Contreras; R. Contri; E. Cortina; G. Cosme; F. Cossutti; H. B. Crawley; D. Crennell; G. Crosetti; J. Cuevas Maestro; S. Czellar; E. Dahl-Jensen; J. Dahm; B. Dalmagne; M. Dam; G. Damgaard; P. D. Dauncey; M. Davenport; W. Da Silva; C. Defoix; A. Deghorain; G. Della Ricca; P. Delpierre; N. Demaria; A. De Angelis; W. De Boer; S. De Brabandere; C. De Clercq; C. De La Vaissiere; B. De Lotto; A. De Min; L. De Paula; C. De Saint-Jean; H. Dijkstra; L. Di Ciaccio; F. Djama; J. Dolbeau; M. Donszelmann; K. Doroba; M. Dracos; J. Drees; K.-A. Drees; M. Dris; Y. Dufour; F. Dupont; D. Edsall; R. Ehret; G. Eigen; T. Ekelof; G. Ekspong; M. Elsing; J. P. Engel; N. Ershaidat; B. Erzen; M. Espirito Santo; V. Falaleev; E. Falk; D. Fassouliotis; M. Feindt; A. Fenyuk; A. Ferrer; T. A. Filippas; A. Firestone; P.-A. Fischer; H. Foeth; E. Fokitis; F. Fontanelli; F. Formenti; B. Franek; P. Frenkiel; D. C. Fries; A. G. Frodesen; R. Fruhwirth; F. Fulda-Quenzer; J. Fuster; A. Galloni; D. Gamba; M. Gandelman; C. Garcia; J. Garcia; C. Gaspar; U. Gasparini; Ph. Gavillet; E. N. Gazis; D. Gele; J. P. Gerber; L. Gerdyukov; M. Gibbs; R. Gokieli; B. Golob; G. Gopal; L. Gorn; M. Gorski; Yu. Gouz; V. Gracco; E. Graziani; G. Grosdidier; K. Grzelak; S. Gumenyuk; P. Gunnarsson; M. Gunther; J. Guy; F. Hahn; S. Hahn; Z. Hajduk; A. Hallgren; K. Hamacher; W. Hao; F. J. Harris; V. Hedberg; R. Henriques; J. J. Hernandez; P. Herquet; H. Herr; T. L. Hessing; E. Higon; H. J. Hilke; T. S. Hill; S. O. Holmgren; P. J. Holt; D. Holthuizen; S. Hoorelbeke; M. Houlden; J. Hrubec; K. Huet; K. Hultqvist; J. N. Jackson; R. Jacobsson; P. Jalocha; R. Janik; Ch. Jarlskog; G. Jarlskog; P. Jarry; B. Jean-Marie; E. K. Johansson; L. Jonsson; P. Jonsson; C. Joram; P. Juillot; M. Kaiser; F. Kapusta; K. Karafasoulis; M. Karlsson; E. Karvelas; A. Karyukhin; S. Katsanevas; E. C. Katsoufis; R. Keranen; B. A. Khomenko; N. N. Khovanski; B. King; N. J. Kjaer; H. Klein; A. Klovning; P. Kluit; B. Koene; P. Kokkinias; M. Koratzinos; C. Kourkoumelis; O. Kouznetsov; P.-H. Kramer; M. Krammer; C. Kreuter; I. Kronkvist; Z. Krumstein; W. Krupinski; P. Kubinec; W. Kucewicz; K. Kurvinen; C. Lacasta; I. Laktineh; S. Lamblot; J. W. Lamsa; L. Lanceri; P. Langefeld; V. Lapin; I. Last; J. P. Laugier; R. Lauhakangas; G. Leder; F. Ledroit; V. Lefebure; C. K. Legan; R. Leitner; Y. Lemoigne; J. Lemonne; G. Lenzen; V. Lepeltier; T. Lesiak; D. Liko; R. Lindner; A. Lipniacka; I. Lippi; B. Loerstad; J. G. Loken; J. M. Lopez; M. A. Lopez Aguera; D. Loukas; P. Lutz; L. Lyons; J. MacNaughton; G. Maehlum; A. Maio; V. Malychev; F. Mandl; J. Marco; B. Marechal; M. Margoni; J. C. Marin; C. Mariotti; A. Markou; T. Maron; C. Martinez-Rivero; F. Martinez-Vidal; S. Marti i Garcia; J. Masik; F. Matorras; C. Matteuzzi; G. Matthiae; M. Mazzucato; M. Mc Cubbin; R. Mc Kay; R. Mc Nulty; J. Medbo; C. Meroni; S. Meyer; W. T. Meyer; M. Michelotto; E. Migliore; L. Mirabito; W. A. Mitaroff; U. Mjoernmark; T. Moa; R. Moeller; K. Moenig; M. R. Monge; P. Morettini; H. Mueller; L. M. Mundim; W. J. Murray; B. Muryn; G. Myatt; F. Naraghi; F. L. Navarria; S. Navas; K. Nawrocki; P. Negri; W. Neumann; N. Neumeister; R. Nicolaidou; B. S. Nielsen; M. Nieuwenhuizen; V. Nikolaenko; P. Niss; A. Nomerotski; A. Normand; W. Oberschulte-Beckmann; V. Obraztsov; A. G. Olshevski; A. Onofre; R. Orava; K. Osterberg; A. Ouraou; P. Paganini; M. Paganoni; P. Pages; H. Palka; Th. D. Papadopoulou; K. Papageorgiou; L. Pape; C. Parkes; F. Parodi; A. Passeri; M. Pegoraro; L. Peralta

1996-01-01

211

The D0 detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector.

Bross, A.D.

1995-02-01

212

Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Photon Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are investigating a novel superconducting detector and readout method that could lead to photon counting, energy resolving focal plane arrays. This concept is intrinsically different from STJ and TES detectors, and in principle could deliver large pixel counts, high sensitivity, and Fano-limited spectral resolution in the optical/UV/X-ray bands. The readout uses the monotonic relation between the kinetic surface inductance Ls of a superconductor and the density of quasiparticles n, which holds even at temperatures far below Tc. This allows a sensitive readout of the number of excess quasiparticles in the detector by monitoring the transmission phase of a resonant circuit. The most intriguing aspect of this concept is that passive frequency multiplexing could be used to read out ~104 detectors with a single HEMT amplifier. Single x-ray events have been observed in prototype detectors.

Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

2002-12-01

213

Relative performance of selected detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quadratic polynomial detector (QPD) and the radial basis function (RBF) family of detectors -- including the Bayesian neural network (BNN) -- might well be considered workhorses within the field of automatic target detection (ATD). The QPD works reasonably well when the data is unimodal, and it also achieves the best possible performance if the underlying data follow a Gaussian distribution. The BNN, on the other hand, has been applied successfully in cases where the underlying data are assumed to follow a multimodal distribution. We compare the performance of a BNN detector and a QPD for various scenarios synthesized from a set of Gaussian probability density functions (pdfs). This data synthesis allows us to control parameters such as modality and correlation, which, in turn, enables us to create data sets that can probe the weaknesses of the detectors. We present results for different data scenarios and different detector architectures.

Ranney, Kenneth I.; Khatri, Hiralal; Nguyen, Lam H.; Sichina, Jeffrey

2000-08-01

214

Evaluation of Smoke Detectors for Mining Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has constructed a smoke chamber and developed sensitivity tests for smoke detectors. Response of ionization- and optical-type commercially available smoke detectors have been investigated. Six smoke detectors were measured with re...

G. S. Morrow J. C. Edwards

1995-01-01

215

24 CFR 242.74 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 242.74 Section 242.74...Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.74 Smoke detectors. Each occupied room must include such smoke detectors as are required by...

2013-04-01

216

21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide...

2009-04-01

217

21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide...

2010-04-01

218

Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments  

SciTech Connect

Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1990-08-01

219

The Martian Oasis Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next phase of unmanned Mars missions paves the way for astronauts to land on the surface of Mars. There are lessons to be learned from the unmanned precursor missions to the Moon and the Apollo lunar surface expeditions. These unmanned missions (Ranger, Lunar Orbiter, and Surveyor) provided the following valuable information, useful from both a scientific and engineering perspective, which was required to prepare the way for the manned exploration of the lunar surface: (1) high resolution imagery instrumental to Apollo landing site selection also tremendously advanced the state of Nearside and Farside regional geology; (2) demonstrated precision landing (less than two kilometers from target) and soft landing capability; (3) established that the surface had sufficient bearing strength to support a spacecraft; and (4) examination of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the surface. The search for extinct or extant life on Mars will follow the water. However, geomorphic studies have shown that Mars has had liquid water on its surface throughout its geologic history. A cornucopia of potential landing sites with water histories (lakes, floodplains, oceans, deltas, hydrothermal regions) presently exist. How will we narrow down site selection and increase the likelihood of finding the signs of life? One way to do this is to identify 'Martian oases.' It is known that the Martian surface is often highly fractured and some areas have karst structures that support underground caves. Much of the water that formed the channels and valley networks is thought to be frozen underground. All that is needed to create the potential for liquid water is a near surface source of heat; recent lava flows and Martian meteorites attest to the potential for volcanic activity. If we can locate even one spot where fracturing, ice, and underground heat are co-located then we have the potential for an oasis. Such a discovery could truly excite the imaginations of both the public and Congress providing an attainable goal for both robotic and manned missions. The instrument required to detect an active oasis is a high spatial resolution (few tens of meters) Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectrometer coupled with a high resolution camera (five m/pixel). This combination creates too large a data volume to possibly return data for the entire Martian Surface; therefore it has been designed as one of the first in a new generation of 'smart' detectors, called the Mars Oasis Detector (MOD).

Smith, P. H.; tomasko, M. G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.

2000-07-01

220

Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

221

Optical Flameout Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device has been developed which monitors the presence of a flame within a combustion chamber. The optical flameout detection system responds to gross changes in combustor light intensity which is monitored in two spectral bands. A photomultiplier tube makes optical measurements in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum and a silicon photodiode covers the visible region. The detectors, located outside the combustion chamber, receive the light energy radiated from the combustion process through fiber optic probes designed to operate in a high pressure environment. The optical fibers are aimed diagonally through the center of the injector at the combustion chamber wall downstream of the injector. The probe observes events occurring within a narrow conical-shaped field of view so that the system can quickly detect longitudinal movement of the flame front away from the injector. If a change in intensity of the flame is detected, the fuel supply to the combustion chamber is shut off limiting the amount of unburned fuel in the combustion chamber which could reignite.

Borg, Stephen E. (Inventor); West, James W. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert M. (Inventor); Harper, Samuel E., Jr. (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

222

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector is designed comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient. 6 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1993-11-09

223

Microwave hematoma detector  

DOEpatents

The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA)

2001-01-01

224

Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135°C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm Ø glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm Ø Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's ``72-inch'' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

Mulholland, G. T.; Harigel, G. G.

2004-06-01

225

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801) [108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801

1993-01-01

226

Solid state neutron detector array  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors.

Seidel, John G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ruddy, Frank H. (Monroeville, PA); Brandt, Charles D. (Mount Lebanon, PA); Dulloo, Abdul R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lott, Randy G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sirianni, Ernest (Monroeville, PA); Wilson, Randall O. (Greensburg, PA)

1999-01-01

227

Solid state neutron detector array  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors. 7 figs.

Seidel, J.G.; Ruddy, F.H.; Brandt, C.D.; Dulloo, A.R.; Lott, R.G.; Sirianni, E.; Wilson, R.O.

1999-08-17

228

Advanced detectors and signal processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continued progress is reported toward development of a silicon on garnet technology which would allow fabrication of advanced detection and signal processing circuits on bubble memories. The first integrated detectors and propagation patterns have been designed and incorporated on a new mask set. In addition, annealing studies on spacer layers are performed. Based on those studies, a new double layer spacer is proposed which should reduce contamination of the silicon originating in the substrate. Finally, the magnetic sensitivity of uncontaminated detectors from the last lot of wafers is measured. The measured sensitivity is lower than anticipated but still higher than present magnetoresistive detectors.

Greve, D. W.; Rasky, P. H. L.; Kryder, M. H.

1986-01-01

229

NASA AMES infrared detector assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon: Gallium infrared detector assemblies were designed, fabricated, and tested using techniques representative of those employed for hybrid arrays to determine the suitability of this candidate technology for infrared astronomical detector array applications. Both the single channel assembly and the assembly using a 32 channel CMOS multiplexer are considered. The detector material was certified to have a boron background of less than 10 to the 13th power atoms/sq cm counter doped with phosphorus. The gallium concentration is 2 x 10 to the 16th power atoms/cu cm.

1979-01-01

230

The CDF silicon detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

A major silicon upgrade project is under way for the CDFII experiment that will operate during Run II of the Tevatron in the year 2000. The innermost detector, SVXII, will cover the interaction region with three barrels of five layers of double sided microstrip detectors. In the radial gap between the SVXII and the new main tracking chamber (COT) will be located the ISL that consists of two planes of double sided miscrostrip detectors at large pseudorapidity and one in the central region. A description of the project design and its motivation is presented here.

Azzi, P.

1998-04-01

231

Seal system with integral detector  

DOEpatents

A seal system is disclosed for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials. The seal is tamper-indicating, indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to bypass the seal, is unique and cost effective. The seal system is comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

Fiarman, S.

1982-08-12

232

The New Gamma CFAR Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a new detector called the gamma constant false alarm rate (gamma CFAR). The gamma CFAR detector utilizes a family of gamma functions which provide the ability to change the scale and shape of a stencil that models the local area in an image. The scale and shape can be selected adaptively after training in a way so as to give minimum false alarms. The detector makes the maximal use of intensity information to discriminate targets from background clutter. A significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio is observed.

Principe, Jose C.; Nair, A. D.

1995-12-01

233

Seal system with integral detector  

DOEpatents

There is disclosed a seal system for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials, which is tamper-indicating, which indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to by-pass the seal, which is unique and cost effective, said seal system comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

Fiarman, Sidney (Port Jefferson, NY)

1985-01-01

234

Position-sensitive detectors of the detector group at Jülich  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detector group of the Central Institute of Electronics at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH was founded in 1968. First developments aimed at a detector system with a position-sensitive BF3 proportional counter for small-angle neutron scattering, which was later used at a beamline of the research reactor FRJ2. At the end of the 1970s first measurements were carried out with photomultiplier

R. Engels; U. Clemens; G. Kemmerling; H. Nöldgen; J. Schelten

2009-01-01

235

The detector control system of the LHCb RICH detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is dedicated to the study of b-quark properties. A key element of the LHCb detector is particle identification, a task performed by the ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) subsystem. Efficient particle identification over the full momentum range of 1 to 100 GeV\\/c requires an extensive system of detector control and monitoring. The

F. Fontanelli

2005-01-01

236

Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of ?-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.

Kshetri, R.

2012-04-01

237

Improvement in Ge Detector Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High purity germanium (HPGe) detector cooling technology used in remote radionuclide assay applications, such as the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) Mark IV, is continually evolving. Cryocooler improvements in recent years have resulted in re...

G. N. Martin H. S. Miley J. F. Colaresi K. M. Yocum

2008-01-01

238

Reliability Modeling of Smoke Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presented the results of a study to evaluate current reliability prediction methods for electronic devices and determine which of these methods can be best applied to residential smoke detectors. In addition, data collection efforts were initi...

H. C. Rickers

1979-01-01

239

Modulated voltage metastable ionization detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The output current from a metastable ionization detector (MID) is applied to a modulation voltage circuit. An adjustment is made to balance out the background current, and an output current, above background, is applied to an input of a strip chart recorder. For low level concentrations, i.e., low detected output current, the ionization potential will be at a maximum and the metastable ionization detector will operate at its most sensitive level. When the detected current from the metastable ionization detector increases above a predetermined threshold level, a voltage control circuit is activated which turns on a high voltage transistor which acts to reduce the ionization potential. The ionization potential applied to the metastable ionization detector is then varied so as to maintain the detected signal level constant. The variation in ionization potential is now related to the concentration of the constituent and a representative amplitude is applied to another input of said strip chart recorder.

Carle, G. C.; Kojiro, D. R.; Humphrey, D. E. (inventors)

1985-01-01

240

The ATLAS TRT Barrel Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS TRT barrel is a tracking drift chamber using 52,544 individual tubular drift tubes. It is one part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, which consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4 to 20 cm, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT) from 56 to 108 cm. The TRT barrel covers the central pseudo-rapidity region |?|< 1, and the TRT while endcaps cover the forward and backward eta regions. These TRT systems provide a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. This paper describes the recently-completed construction of the TRT Barrel detector, including the quality control procedures used in the fabrication of the detector.

ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hanson, G.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rø; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

2008-02-01

241

Complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An infrared detector having a hole barrier region adjacent to one side of an absorber region, an electron barrier region adjacent to the other side of the absorber region, and a semiconductor adjacent to the electron barrier.

Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

242

Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

Been, J. F.

1972-01-01

243

Radiation Hazard Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

1978-01-01

244

The SELEX phototube RICH detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, construction, operation, and performance of the RICH detector of Fermilab experiment 781 (SELEX) are described. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode to detect Cherenkov photons generated in a 10m neon radiator. For the central region an N0 of 104cm?1, corresponding to 13.6hits on a ?=1 ring, was obtained. The ring radius resolution

J. Engelfried; I. Filimonov; J. Kilmer; A. Kozhevnikov; V. Kubarovsky; V. Molchanov; A. Nemitkin; E. Ramberg; V. Rud; L. Stutte

1999-01-01

245

Sulphur doped silicon IR detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data on the electrical transport properties and photoconductive detector performance of sulphur doped silicon as a function of temperature are presented. Analysis of the data shows that the detector performance is determined by a donor level at 0.19 eV from the conduction band edge with an electron capture cross section of 2 x 10 to the -13th power sq

P. Migliorato; C. T. Elliott

1978-01-01

246

Photon-Counting Detector Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different classes of photon-counting detector systems are currently in use and under development, specifically, intensified Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), Microchannel Plates (MCPs) with direct electronic readout systems, and coded-aperture systems employing multiple photo-multiplier tubes. This paper gives an overview of the construction and mode-of-operation of the different detector systems and compares and constrasts their performance characteristics.

J. G. Timothy

1988-01-01

247

Photon-Counting Detector Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different classes of photon-counting detector systems are currently in use and under development, specifically, intensified Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), Microchannel Plates (MCPs) with direct electronic readout systems, and coded-aperture systems employing multiple photo-multiplier tubes. This paper gives an overview of the construction and mode-of-operation of the different detector systems and compares and constrasts their performance characteristics.

Timothy, J. G.

248

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

DOEpatents

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

249

Long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); McAtee, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Unruh, Wesley P. (Los Alamos, NM); Cucchiara, Alfred L. (Los Alamos, NM); Huchton, Roger L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

250

Long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

1993-02-02

251

STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade Development  

SciTech Connect

We report on the development and prototyping efforts undertaken with the goal of producing a micro-vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL. We present the basic detector requirements and show a sensor development path, conceptual mechanical design candidates and readout architecture. Prototyping and beam test results with current generation MimoSTAR-2 sensors and a readout system featuring FPGA based on-the-fly hit finding and data sparsification are also presented.

Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu,Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard; Szelezniak, Michal; Sun, Xiangming

2008-01-28

252

Neutron detector development at Brookhaven  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional thermal neutron detectors have been the subject of research and development at Brookhaven for over 20 years. Based primarily on multi-wire chambers filled with a gas mixture containing 3He, these detectors have been used in wide-ranging studies of molecular biology and material science samples. At each phase of development, experimenters have sought improvements in key parameters such as position

B. Yu; J. A. Harder; J. A. Mead; V. Radeka; N. A. Schaknowski; G. C. Smith

2003-01-01

253

The atmosphere as particle detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

Stanev, T.

1990-03-01

254

Intercomparison of Retrospective Radon Detectors  

SciTech Connect

We performed both a laboratory and field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, Pb-210, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha emission of a Pb-210 decay product, Po-210. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks cm{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) is proportional to the surface alpha activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha activity should be proportional to the accumulated Po-210 and hence, the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to: (1) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, (2) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass implanted polonium activities, and (3) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted Po-210 activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type.

Field, R W.; Steck, D J.; Parkhurst, Maryann (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mahaffey, Judith A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Alavanja, M C. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD)

1998-11-01

255

Munich cryogenic detector development 1995.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Technical University of Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Physics the authors are developing cryogenic detectors for the detection of small deposited energies, for example from the elastic scattering of WIMP dark matter particles, or the absorption of X-rays. Together with the University of Oxford and the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso they are preparing the CRESST experiment which uses their detectors to search for WIMP dark matter.

Absmaier, C.; Booth, N. E.; Bucci, C.; Buhler, M.; Colling, P.; Cooper, S.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Ferger, P.; Forster, G.; Gabutti, A.; Gutsche, M.; Hettl, P.; Hohne, J.; Hoss, C.; Igalson, J.; Jochum, J.; Kellner, E.; Kemmather, B.; Koch, M.; Kraus, H.; Lalak, Z.; Loidl, M.; Meier, O.; Nagel, U.; Nucciotti, A.; Olechowski, M.; Pokorski, S.; Probst, F.; van der Putte, M. J. J.; Rulofs, A.; Salmon, G. L.; Schanda, U.; Seidel, W.; Sisti, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Stolovich, A.; Zerle, L.

1995-09-01

256

The CDF detector: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a 5000 t magnetic detector built to study 2 TeV pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron. Event analysis is based on charged particle tracking, magnetic momentum analysis and fine-grained calorimetry. The combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimetry has approximately uniform granularity in rapidity-azimuthal angle and extends down to 2° from the beam direction. Various

F. Abe; D. Amidei; G. Apollinari; G. Ascoli; M. Atac; P. Auchincloss; A. R. Baden; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; E. Barsotti; F. Bedeschi; S. Belforte; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; J. Bensinger; A. Beretvas; P. Berge; S. Bertolucci; S. Bhadra; M. Binkley; R. Blair; C. Blocker; J. Bofill; A. W. Booth; G. Brandenburg; A. Brenner; D. Brown; A. Byon; K. L. Byrum; M. Campbell; R. Carey; W. Carithers; D. Carlsmith; J. T. Carroll; R. Cashmore; F. Cervelli; K. Chadwick; T. Chapin; G. Chiarelli; W. Chinowsky; S. Cihangir; D. Cline; D. Connor; M. Contreras; J. Cooper; M. Cordelli; M. Curatolo; C. Day; R. Delfabbro; M. dell'Orso; L. Demortier; T. Devlin; D. Dibitonto; R. Diebold; F. Dittus; A. Divirgilio; R. Downing; G. Drake; T. Droege; M. Eaton; J. E. Elias; R. Ely; S. Errede; B. Esposito; A. Feldman; B. Flaugher; E. Focardi; G. W. Foster; M. Franklin; J. Freeman; H. Frisch; Y. Fukui; S. Galeotti; I. Gaines; A. F. Garfinkel; P. Giannetti; N. Giokaris; P. Giromini; L. Gladney; M. Gold; K. Goulianos; J. Grimson; C. Grosso-Pilcher; C. Haber; S. R. Hahn; R. Handler; D. Hanssen; R. M. Harris; J. Hauser; Y. Hayashide; T. Hessing; R. Hollebeek; L. Holloway; P. Hu; B. Hubbard; P. Hurst; J. Huth; M. Ito; J. Jaske; H. Jensen; R. P. Johnson; U. Joshi; R. W. Kadel; T. Kamon; S. Kanda; I. Karliner; H. Kautzky; K. Kazlauskis; E. Kearns; R. Kephart; P. Kesten; H. Keutelian; Y. Kikuchi; S. Kim; L. Kirsch; S. Kobayashi; K. Kondo; U. Kruse; S. E. Kuhlmann; A. T. Laasanen; W. Li; T. Liss; N. Lockyer; F. Marchetto; R. Markeloff; L. A. Markosky; M. Masuzawa; P. McIntyre; A. Menzione; T. Meyer; S. Mikamo; M. Miller; T. Mimashi; S. Miscetti; M. Mishina; S. Miyashita; H. Miyata; N. Mondal; S. Mori; Y. Morita; A. Mukherjee; A. Murakami; Y. Muraki; C. Nelson; C. Newman-Holmes; L. Nodulman; J. O'Meara; G. Ott; T. Ozaki; S. Palanque; R. Paoletti; A. Para; D. Pazzuello; J. Patrick; R. Perchonok; T. J. Phillips; H. Piekarz; R. Plunkett; L. Pondrom; J. Proudfoot; G. Punzi; D. Quarrie; K. Ragan; G. Redlinger; R. Rezmer; J. Rhoades; L. Ristori; T. Rohaly; A. Roodman; H. Sanders; A. Sansoni; R. Sard; V. Scarpine; P. Schlabach; E. E. Schmidt; P. Schoessow; M. H. Schub; R. Schwitters; A. Scribano; S. Segler; M. Sekiguchi; P. Sestini; M. Shapiro; M. Sheaff; M. Shibata; M. Shochet; J. Siegrist; V. Simaitis; J. K. Simmons; P. Sinervo; M. Sivertz; J. Skarha; D. A. Smith; R. Snider; L. Spencer; R. St. Denis; A. Stefanini; Y. Takaiwa; K. Takikawa; S. Tarem; D. Theriot; J. Ting; A. Tollestrup; G. Tonelli; W. Trischuk; Y. Tsay; K. Turner; F. Ukegawa; D. Underwood; C. van Ingen; R. van Berg; R. Vidal; R. G. Wagner; R. L. Wagner; J. Walsh; T. Watts; R. Webb; T. Westhusing; S. White; V. White; A. Wicklund; H. H. Williams; T. Winch; R. Yamada; T. Yamanouchi; A. Yamashita; K. Yasuoka; G. P. Yeh; J. Yoh; F. Zetti

1988-01-01

257

Coal-shale interface detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

Reid, H., Jr. (inventor)

1980-01-01

258

The CMS Forward Pixel Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the core of CMS all-silicon tracker is the pixel detector. It provides fine granularity for charged track reconstruction in three-dimensional space with resolutions on the order of 10?m. It consists of two parts—barrels and disks. The disks are called the Forward Pixel Detector and are being assembled at Fermilab, USA. There are eighteen million readout channels for the four

Sudhir Malik

2007-01-01

259

The HELIOS silicon detector array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype detector array has been constructed for use in the Helical Orbit Spectrometer (HELIOS) at the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory. HELIOS is a high-resolution spectrometer for use in studying reactions in inverse kinematics on hydrogen or helium targets. HELIOS consists of a large bore, 3T superconducting solenoid oriented with the magnetic and beam axes aligned. The detector array is comprised of four modules each with six 1.2 x 5.6cm position sensitive silicon detectors. On each module, the detectors were affixed with conductive epoxy and wire bonded to custom made multi-layer printed circuit boards. To keep the radial extent of the detectors to a minimum, the modules were assembled on a hollow 1.6 x 1.6 x 68.8 cm aluminum rail centered on the beam axis located upstream from the target. To characterize the timing, position, and energy resolutions, the detectors were evaluated at the Western Michigan University Accelerator Laboratory using elastic proton-proton scattering. The construction, assembly and preliminary testing of the array will be discussed.

Marley, S. T.

2008-10-01

260

Thermodynamics of low temperature detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in low temperature detectors primarily motivated by particle physics and astrophysics has achieved remarkable improvements for energy sensitivities and thresholds. The purpose of this thesis work is to provide a detailed understanding of physical processes of heat transfer between an absorber and a temperature sensor of a low temperature detector using a sapphire crystal as the absorber and a magnetic material as the sensor. The decay of athermal phonons initially produced by the absorption of a 60 keV photon in the sapphire crystal is measured and discussed. The efficiency of detecting athermal phonons is determined under different experimental conditions and compared with theoretical expectations. The existence of tunneling systems weakly coupled to the lattice of the sapphire crystal is observed. The possible effect of such tunneling systems on the performance of low temperature detectors is also discussed. The parameters determined in the experimental work are used to predict the performance of a low temperature detector whose absorber is a thin sapphire wafer with a large area. The visibility of a single 16 eV photon with the large area detector is discussed for use as the detector for the HERON (HElium Roton Observation of Neutrinos) project.

Kim, Yong-Hamb

261

CFAR detectors in presence of jammer noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell Averaging (CA)-CFAR detector is an optimum detector under the assumption of Rayleigh distributed homogenous noise background, but in presence of clipped jamming noise, it does not have the best performance. In this paper, we compare CA, GO, SO, OS, OSGO and OSSO conventional CFAR detectors to obtain superior CFAR detector in clipped jamming noise. Simulation results show that the

Amir Zaimbashi; A. Sheikhi

2010-01-01

262

Further characterization of IRAS doped silicon detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements made on several doped-silicon detectors are reported. Topics discussed include: Si:Sb detector, the effects of detector bias on dielectric relaxation; characterization of spontaneous noise and gamma-induced spikes and their circumvention; and the time response of two detectors to step changes in the background photon flux density. Several potential system programs are indicated.

1977-01-01

263

Using near detector(s) to predict the far detector events in NOvA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The NOvA experiment is designed to search for a non-vanishing mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} with unprecedented sensitivity and has the potential to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy and constrain CP-violation phase. NOvA will use two functionally identical detectors at near and far locations to eliminate sensitivity to modeling of neutrino flux and cross-sections. The near detector will measure neutrino rate to constrain backgrounds expected in the far detector which will search for appearance of electron neutrinos and/or anti-neutrinos using Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam. This report describes initial thoughts on how the available beams and detectors may be used to reach the NOvA goals.

Djurcic, Zelimir; /Argonne

2011-01-01

264

CCD-based vertex detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 20 years, CCD-based vertex detectors have been used to construct some of the most precise 'tracking microscopes' in particle physics. They were initially used by the ACCMOR collaboration for fixed target experiments in CERN, where they enabled the lifetimes of some of the shortest-lived charm particles to be measured precisely. The migration to collider experiments was accomplished in the SLD experiment, where the original 120 Mpixel detector was later upgraded to one with 307 Mpixels. This detector was used in a range of physics studies which exceeded the capability of the LEP detectors, including the most precise limit to date on the B mixing parameter. This success, and the high background hit densities that will inevitably be encountered at the future TeV-scale linear collider, have established the need for a silicon pixel-based vertex detector at this machine. The technical options have now been broadened to include a wide range of possible silicon imaging technologies as well as CCDs (monolithic and hybrid silicon pixel devices, DEPFET-based and SOI-based devices). However, there is a good chance that CCD-based detectors, or an architecture derived from CCDs, will still prove to be superior for this application. Groups in Europe, Asia and the USA are working semi-independently on various aspects of this development, with the goal of evaluating prototype detector elements within the next 5 years. If the CCD option is selected for one of the LC detector systems, it is hoped that these groups will join forces to construct the new detector. If the design goals can be achieved, this vertex detector will provide a tool not only for b and c tagging, but also for the measurement of 'vertex charge', allowing discrimination between b and b¯ jets, and between c and c¯ jets. Given the complex topological nature of much of the potential new physics in the TeV regime (multiple hadronic jets), such a tool could provide the key to unravel novel processes which may be unintelligible at the LHC.

Damerell, C. J. S.

2005-04-01

265

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

266

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

267

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

268

Scientific Detectors for Astronomy 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every three years, the leading experts in detectors for astronomy gather together to exchange information and form professional relationships. This series of meetings is entitled Scientific Detectors for Astronomy. The meeting has been held six times, with the last four publishing hardcover proceedings. Nearly all leading astronomical observatories and manufacturers attend this meeting, with participants from every continent of the world. The 2005 meeting in Taormina, Italy was attended by 127 professionals who develop and use the highest quality detectors for wavelengths from x-ray to sub-mm, with emphasis on optical and infrared detectors. The meeting consisted of overview talks, technical presentations, poster sessions and roundtable discussions. In addition, a strong cultural programme exposed the participants to the host region while fostering the enhancement of professional relationships. These proceedings capture the technical content and the spirit of the 2005 workshop. The 87 papers cover a wide range of detector technologies including CCDs, CMOS, APDs, and sub-mm detectors. There are papers on observatory status and plans, special applications, detector testing and characterization, and electronics. A special feature of these proceedings is the inclusion of pedagogical overview papers, which were written by teams of leading experts from different institutions. These proceedings are appropriate for a range of expertise levels, from undergraduates to professionals working in the field. The information presented in this book will serve as a valuable reference for many years to come. This workshop was organized by the Scientific Workshop Factory, Inc. and the INAF- Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania. Link: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,5-102-22-91528896-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

Beletic, Jenna E.; Beletic, James W.; Amico, Paola

2006-03-01

269

Diamond detector for alpha-particle spectrometry.  

PubMed

An artificially grown high purity diamond was used as a detector for alpha-particle spectrometry. Diamond detectors can match the performance of silicon detectors employed in standard continuous air monitoring systems. Its radiation hardness and electronic properties make them ideal to work under extreme condition such as high temperature and ambient lights. A 50 ?m thickness single-crystal diamond detector has been compared with a 300 ?m passivated implanted planar silicon detector, under ambient conditions. PMID:24768983

Dueñas, J A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Martín Sánchez, A; Martel, I

2014-08-01

270

Metal detector technology data base  

SciTech Connect

The tests described in this report were conducted to obtain information on the effects target characteristics have on portal type metal detector response. A second purpose of the tests was to determine the effect of detector type and settings on the detection of the targets. Although in some cases comparison performance of different types and makes of metal detectors is found herein, that is not the primary purpose of the report. Further, because of the many variables that affect metal detector performance, the information presented can be used only in a general way. The results of these tests can show general trends in metal detection, but do little for making accurate predictions as to metal detector response to a target with a complex shape such as a handgun. The shape of an object and its specific metal content (both type and treatment) can have a significant influence on detection. Thus it should not be surprising that levels of detection for a small 100g stainless steel handgun are considerably different than for detection of the 100g stainless steel right circular cylinder that was used in these tests. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Porter, L.K.; Gallo, L.R.; Murray, D.W.

1990-08-01

271

ALICE detector in construction phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALICE1 collaboration, which prepares one of the biggest physics experiments in the history, came into production phase of its detector. The experiment will start at LHC2 at CERN in 2007/2008. In the meantime about 1000 people from ~70 institutions are involved in this enterprise. ALICE detector consists of many sub-detectors, designed and manufactured in many laboratories and commercial firms, located mainly in Europe, but also in U.S., India, China and Korea. To assure appropriate working environment for such a specific task, strictly related to tests of particular components, measurements and assembly procedures Detector Construction Database system has been designed and implemented at CERN and at some labs involved in these activities. In this paper special attention is paid to this topic not only due to fact of innovative approach to the problem. Another reason is the group of young computer scientists (mainly students) from the Warsaw University of Technology, leaded by the author, has designed and developed the system for the whole experiment3. Another very interesting subject is the Data Acquisition System which has to fulfill very hard requirements concerning speed and high bandwidth. Required technical performance is achieved thanks to using PCI bus (usually in previous high energy physics experiments VME standard has been used) and optical links. Very general overview of the whole detector and physics goals of ALICE experiment will also be given.

Peryt, Wiktor S.

2005-09-01

272

High precision thermal neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional position sensitive detectors are indispensable in neutron diffraction experiments for determination of molecular and crystal structures in biology, solid-state physics and polymer chemistry. Some performance characteristics of these detectors are elementary and obvious, such as the position resolution, number of resolution elements, neutron detection efficiency, counting rate and sensitivity to gamma-ray background. High performance detectors are distinguished by more subtle characteristics such as the stability of the response (efficiency) versus position, stability of the recorded neutron positions, dynamic range, blooming or halo effects. While relatively few of them are needed around the world, these high performance devices are sophisticated and fairly complex; their development requires very specialized efforts. In this context, we describe here a program of detector development, based on {sup 3}He filled proportional chambers, which has been underway for some years at Brookhaven. Fundamental approaches and practical considerations are outlined that have resulted in a series of high performance detectors with the best known position resolution, position stability, uniformity of reliability over time of this type.

Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; and Yu, B.

1994-10-01

273

Summary of ISO Detector Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Space Observatory successfully carried out a wide range of astronomical observations in the wavelength range 2.4 ?m to nearly 200 ?m. To cover this extremely broad range, a variety of detector technologies were used by the instruments teams. As such ISO also proved to be an important test bed for the operation of these detectors in a low-background space environment. Over the two year mission, all the detector types have proven to be quite stable, with only the Si:As IBC showing any long term degradation. Significant effort has been expended to cope with the behaviour of the detectors under the space conditions both operationally and in ground processing. The main undesirable effect can be classified as either transient response anomalies or radiation effects. Overall sensitivity of the ISO detectors was generally worse than predicted from ground-based measurements due to combinations of these two classes of phenomena. Splinter meetings were held to exchange specific strategies for dealing with glitches, radiation curing, and transient effects. Plans for future actions were initiated.

Young, Erick T.

2000-08-01

274

Silicon single photon imaging detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-photon imaging detectors promise the ultimate in sensitivity by eliminating read noise. These devices could provide extraordinary benefits for photon-starved applications, e.g., imaging exoplanets, fast wavefront sensing, and probing the human body through transluminescence. Recent implementations are often in the form of sparse arrays that have less-than-unity fill factor. For imaging, fill factor is typically enhanced by using microlenses, at the expense of photometric and spatial information loss near the edges and corners of the pixels. Other challenges include afterpulsing and the potential for photon self-retriggering. Both effects produce spurious signal that can degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. This paper reviews development and potential application of single-photon-counting detectors, including highlights of initiatives in the Center for Detectors at the Rochester Institute of Technology and MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Current projects include single-photon-counting imaging detectors for the Thirty Meter Telescope, a future NASA terrestrial exoplanet mission, and imaging LIDAR detectors for planetary and Earth science space missions.

Figer, D. F.; Aull, B. F.; Schuette, D. R.; Hanold, B. J.; Kolb, K.; Lee, J.

2011-09-01

275

The ROSAT WFC imaging detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the calibration program performed on flight and flight-spare detectors for the Rosat Wide Field Camera (WFC) are presented. The result of an accelerated life test on a development model detector assembled to flight standard are summarized. Imaging tests demonstrate that the lookup table technique for removing distortion works efficiency with low differential nonlinearity. No undesirable 'chicken wire' effects are seen in the images, and the detector resolution matches the on-axis performance of the telescope and is constant across the field of view. Peaks in efficiency occur at 10.2, 20, and 100 eV and mimima at 13 and 45 eV. The secondary 13 eV minimum is correlated with the onset of two-electron photoemission. The mean change in gain as a function of photon energy in the EUV band is much less rapid than in the soft X-ray band.

Barstow, M. A.; Sansom, A. E.

1990-11-01

276

Simulation of LAT Silicon Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a next generation high-energy gamma-ray observatory designed for making observations of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy band extending from 20 MeV to 300 GeV. The LAT telescope consists of a four-by-four array of tower modules and the gamma detection is based on the pair conversion principle. Each tower module consists of interleaved planes of silicon-strip detectors and converter sheets. Silicon-strip detectors are able to precisely track the electron or positron produced from the initial gamma-ray. In order to reproduce the tracker digital signal read-out, a full simulation code has been developed to describe all the physical process that take place in a silicon strip detector (SSD). The standalone C++ version of the code has been interfaced with the G4 simulation of the LAT. The preliminary results from the tracker simulation will be shown.

Brigida, M.

2004-07-01

277

Quantum transition-edge detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small perturbations to systems near critical points of quantum phase transitions can induce drastic changes in the system properties. Here I show that this sensitivity can be exploited for weak-signal detection applications. This is done by relating a widely studied signature of quantum chaos and quantum phase transitions known as the Loschmidt echo to the minimum error probability for a quantum detector and noting that the echo, and therefore the error, can be significantly reduced near a critical point. Three examples, namely, the quantum Ising model, the optical parametric oscillator model, and the Dicke model, are presented to illustrate the concept. For the latter two examples, the detectable perturbation can exhibit a Heisenberg scaling with respect to the number of detectors, even though the detectors are not entangled and no special quantum state preparation is specified.

Tsang, Mankei

2013-08-01

278

Hybrid and monolithic infrared detector arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared detector arrays can be divided in two distinct classes: hybrid (and typically photon) detectors and monolithic (and generally thermal) detectors. Hybrid detectors involve flip-chip integration of the detector array and the readout chip, require cooling and thus cause substantial system cost. Monolithic detectors do not suffer this system overhead and most notably the microbolometer thermal detectors allow ambient operating temperature. IMEC focuses on III-V (InGaAs, InAs and InAsSb) short-wave and mid-infrared detector arrays for hybrid integration on one side and surface micromachined uncooled polySiGe microbolometer arrays on the other hand. Progress in both types of detector systems is reported.

Van Hoof, Chris A.; Zimmermann, Lars; John, Joachim; De Moor, Piet; Kavadias, Spyros; Gastal, Martin; Nemeth, Stefan; Borghs, Gustaaf; Merken, Patrick

2001-02-01

279

Photoacoustic tomography with a virtual point detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We devise and explore a ring-shaped acoustic detector associated with a virtual point detector concept for photoacoustic tomography. The center of the ring transducer scans a circle around the object to be imaged and then is treated as an omni-directional virtual point detector in photoacoustic image reconstruction. The virtual point detector introduces a space-invariant point spread function in photoacoustic image reconstruction and thus improves the tangential resolution, which is due to the finite aperture. Compared with a real point detector, the virtual point detector can provide similar spatial resolution but better SNR. Compared with a real finite-aperture detector, the virtual point detector can provide similar SNR but better spatial resolution. In addition, because of its virtual feature, the virtual point detector can be placed very close to and even inside of a tissue sample to locally scan a region of interest, which yields good SNR and spatial resolution.

Yang, Xinmai; Li, Meng-Lin; Wang, Lihong V.

2007-03-01

280

High-efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 +- 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20/sup 0/C.

Anderson, D.F.

1981-05-12

281

Improved Portable Ultrasonic Leak Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved portable ultrasonic leak detector features three interchangeable ultrasonic-transducer modules, each suited for operation in unique noncontact or contact mode. One module equipped with ultrasound-collecting horn for use in scanning to detect leaks from distance; horn provides directional sensitivity pattern with sensitivity multiplied by factor of about 6 in forward direction. Another module similar, does not include horn; this module used for scanning close to suspected leak, where proximity of leak more than offsets loss of sensitivity occasioned by lack of horn. Third module designed to be pressed against leaking vessel; includes rugged stainless-steel shell. Improved detectors perform significantly better, smaller, more rugged, and greater sensitivity.

Youngquist, Robert C.; Moerk, John S.; Haskell, William D.; Cox, Robert B.; Polk, Jimmy D.; Strobel, James P.; Luaces, Frank

1995-01-01

282

The CDF layer 00 detector  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Layer 00 detector consists of single-sided silicon sensors assembled on the beampipe, forming the innermost of eight silicon layers in the CDF detector for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. Radiation tolerant p-in-n silicon with 25(50) {micro}m implant(readout) pitch are mounted on a lightweight, cooled support structure and connect to electronics outside the tracking volume via long, fine-pitch cables. Layer 00 will significantly improve the impact parameter resolution and enhance the longevity of the silicon system, benefiting a large portion of the physics program for Run II.

Timothy K. Nelson

2001-12-07

283

Study of Salt Neutrino Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock salt is studied as a radio wave transmission medium in an ultra high energy (UHE) cosmic neutrino detector. The radio wave would be generated by Askar'yan effect (coherent Chrenkov radiation from negative excess charges in the electromagnetic shower) in the UHE neutrino interaction in the rock salt. We collected the samples of the rock salts from various rock salt mines in order to investigate whether they have a possibility as a Salt Neutrino Detector (SND) sites or not. As a tentative result, the absorption length of the rock salt samples was measured to be between 40 m and400 m at 1 GHz. .

Chiba, Masami; Kamijo, Toshio; Kawaki, Miho; Husain, Athar; Inuzuka, Masahide; Ikeda, Maho; Yasuda, Osamu

2001-07-01

284

SPECTACULAR SCIENCE: The Lie Detector’s Ambivalent Powers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectacular science is a mode of scientific inquiry that is created and sustained by popular culture. In this article, I provide evidence for this claim by examining the history of the lie detector. Throughout the 20th century, the technology was nurtured by newspaper and magazine articles, movies, comic books, television shows, and advertisements. Analysis of this rich archive reveals the

Geoffrey C. Bunn

2007-01-01

285

A Negative Selection Algorithm with the Variable Length Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detector generation is the key step of negative selection. Current detector generation algorithms have holes area and redundancy detector problems. A negative selection algorithm with the variable length detector is proposed in this paper. This algorithm can not only remove the holes, but also decrease redundancy detectors by the corresponding detector optimization algorithm. Therefore, both the detector generation efficiency

Shen HE; LUO Wen-Jian; WANG Xu-Fa

2007-01-01

286

Construction of the CDF silicon vertex detector  

SciTech Connect

Technical details and methods used in constructing the CDF silicon vertex detector are presented. This description includes a discussion of the foam-carbon fiber composite structure used to silicon microstrip detectors and the procedure for achievement of 5 {mu}m detector alignment. The construction of the beryllium barrel structure, which houses the detector assemblies, is also described. In addition, the 10 {mu}m placement accuracy of the detectors in the barrel structure is discussed and the detector cooling and mounting systems are described. 12 refs.

Skarha, J.; Barnett, B.; Boswell, C.; Snider, F.; Spies, A.; Tseng, J.; Vejcik, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.; Gonzales, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Nelson, C.; Segler, S.; Shaw, T.; Tkaczyk, S.; Turner, K.; Wesson, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Carithers, W.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneider, O.; Wester, W.; Wong, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Amidei, D.; Derwent, P. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gold, M.; Matthews, J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L. [Padua Univ. (Italy); Bedeschi, F.; Bolognesi, V.; Dell`Agnello, S.; Galeotti, S.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Punzi, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Risotri, L.; Tartarelli, F.; Turini, N.; Wenzel, H.; Zetti, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)]|[Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Bailey, M.; Garfinkel, A.; Shaw, N. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Tipton, P.; Watts, G. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States)

1992-04-01

287

A variably trimmed mean CFAR radar detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a variably trimmed mean (VTM) constant false-alarm-rate (CFAR) detector which is a modification of the trimmed mean (TM) detector. In the CFAR detector, the threshold is determined by processing a linear combination of a group of ordered samples in each window. Unlike in the case of the TM detectors, however, the number of ordered samples that require further processing is allowed to vary according to a data-dependent rule. It is shown that a VTM CFAR detector with a judicious choice for its parameters yields an improved performance compared to the order-statistic and TM CFAR detectors.

Ozgunes, Inci; Gandhi, Prashant P.; Kassam, Saleem A.

1992-10-01

288

Mineral Detector for Igneous Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a Raman spectral analysis tool that uses machine learning algorithms to classify pure minerals in igneous rocks. Experiments show greater than 90% accuracy classifying a test set of pure minerals against a database of similar reference minerals using an artificial neural network. Efforts are currently underway to improve this tool for use as a mineral detector in rock

S. T. Ishikawa; S. D. Hart; V. C. Gulick

2010-01-01

289

Status of the LIGO detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

All three LIGO detectors have reached sensitivities within a factor of 2 of design over a wide range of frequencies. A sky-averaged detection range (SNR > 8) of more than 10 Mpc for inspiral binary neutron stars with masses of 1.4 Msol has been achieved with the best instrument. The fourth LIGO science run taking data for 30 days has

Daniel Sigg

2006-01-01

290

Status of the LIGO detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

All three LIGO gravitational wave detectors have reached their design sensitivities. A sky-averaged detection range (SNR > 8) of more than 15 Mpc for gravitational waves emitted from inspiral binary neutron stars with masses of 1.4 Modot has been achieved with the two 4 km instruments. The fifth LIGO science run started in November 2005 and ended in September 2007.

Daniel Sigg

2008-01-01

291

ALFA detector: timing and trigger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATLAS is one of the four experiments at the LHC pp collider at CERN, Geneva. The experiment, designed to investigate wide range of physics processes, requires precise measurement of accelerator's luminosity to predict rates of processes with small cross sections (e.g. production of Higgs boson). The ALFA detectors (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS), located on av. 240 m on both sides from the ATLAS Interaction Point (IP), provide independent luminosity measurement by counting protons elastically scattered at small angles. The measurement can be performed only at low luminosity and special LHC optics (high ?*) which allow close approaching the LHC beams by the ALFA detectors. Duration of such settings is limited and requires that the calibration of detectors have to run in parallel with the measurement. Distant location from the ATLAS IP creates challenges with integration and synchronization of ALFA local timing and triggering with the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TDAQ). This paper briefly reviews construction of the ALFA detectors, organization of the front-end electronics and concentrates on hardware integration with the ATLAS trigger system

Korcyl, Krzysztof M.

2013-10-01

292

Far-infrared microbolometer detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bismuth microbolometer is a simple, easily made detector suitable for use throughout the far-infrared, which has been integrated with a variety of planar antennas. The general thermal properties of these devices and some of the constraints on bolometer materials are discussed. The fabrication and performance of several different types of microbolometers and microthermocouples are described.

D. P. Neikirk; Wayne W. Lam; D. B. Rutledge

1984-01-01

293

An inexpensive vehicle speed detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-power minicomputer can plug into automobile cigarette lighter. It measures time it takes observed car to travel premeasured distance and provides immediate readout of speed. Potentially, detector could be manufactured for less than $200 per unit and would have very low maintenance cost.

Broussard, P., Jr.

1973-01-01

294

Direct detector for terahertz radiation  

DOEpatents

A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

2008-09-02

295

A Solid State Scintillation Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to substitute a solid state device for the usual photomultiplier of a scintillation type nuclear detector led to the photoconductive cell. Although extremely sensitive, cadmium sulfide responds slowly to low levels of light, and a technique providing improvement over several orders of magnitude failed to achieve measurement of individual pulses. In an integrating application, however, such a method makes

George E. Wilcox

1967-01-01

296

Scintillation detector for carbon-14  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector consists of plastic, cylindrical double-wall scintillation cell, which is filled with gas to be analyzed. Thin, inner cell wall is isolated optically from outer (guard) scintillator wall by evaporated-aluminum coating. Bonding technique provides mechanical support to cell wall when device is exposed to high temperatures.

Knoll, G. F.; Rogers, W. L.

1971-01-01

297

Copper-Doped Germanium Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background limited operation of copper-doped germanium detectors has been obtained for a background as low as 10 to the minus 11th power watts (5 x 10 to the 8th power photons/second) in the 8-12 microns region. The temperature dependence of the observed ...

T. M. Quist

1968-01-01

298

An imaging plate neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an imaging plate neutron detector (IP-ND). The converters are natGd, natLi or 6Li. The IP-NDs have been applied to neutron radiography and a neutron diffraction experiment on a bio-macromolecule. Several results are demonstrated.

Y. Karasawa; N. Niimura; Inchiro Tanaka; Junji Miyahara; Kenji Takahashi; Hiroki Saito; A. Tsuruno; M. Matsubayashi

1995-01-01

299

BF3 Neutron Detector Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most

Richard T. Kouzes; James H. Ely; Azaree T. Lintereur; Edward R. Siciliano; Mitchell L. Woodring

2009-01-01

300

Frequency detectors for CPM signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency tracking loops are used in digital links to control the carrier frequency of the received signals. A basic component in such loops is the frequency difference detector (FDD). This paper concentrates on a class of FDDs for use with binary continuous-phase modulation (CPM). Their derivation is based on two ideas: the maximum-likelihood principle for parameter estimation and Laurent's (1986)

A. N. D'Andrea; A. Ginesi; U. Mengali

1995-01-01

301

The B AB AR detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B AB AR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e +e - B Factory operating at the ?(4 S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by d E/d x measurements in the tracking detectors and by a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Boucham, A.; Boutigny, D.; De Bonis, I.; Favier, J.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Jeremie, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Le Flour, T.; Lees, J. P.; Lieunard, S.; Petitpas, P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zachariadou, K.; Palano, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Reinertsen, P. L.; Stugu, B.; Abbott, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Amerman, L.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Clark, A. R.; Dardin, S.; Day, C.; Dow, S. F.; Fan, Q.; Gaponenko, I.; Gill, M. S.; Goozen, F. R.; Gowdy, S. J.; Gritsan, A.; Groysman, Y.; Hernikl, C.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Jared, R. C.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Karcher, A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kipnis, I.; Kluth, S.; Kral, J. F.; Lafever, R.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lewis, S. A.; Lionberger, C.; Liu, T.; Long, M.; Luo, L.; Lynch, G.; Luft, P.; Mandelli, E.; Marino, M.; Marks, K.; Matuk, C.; Meyer, A. B.; Minor, R.; Mokhtarani, A.; Momayezi, M.; Nyman, M.; Oddone, P. J.; Ohnemus, J.; Oshatz, D.; Patton, S.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Perazzo, A.; Peters, C.; Pope, W.; Pripstein, M.; Quarrie, D. R.; Rasson, J. E.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Stone, R.; Strother, P. D.; Telnov, A. V.; von der Lippe, H.; Weber, T. F.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zizka, G.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Hawkes, C. M.; Kirk, A.; Knowles, D. J.; O'Neale, S. W.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Koch, H.; Krug, J.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Andress, J. C.; Barlow, N. R.; Bhimji, W.; Chevalier, N.; Clark, P. J.; Cottingham, W. N.; De Groot, N.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; Mass, A.; McFall, J. D.; Wallom, D.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Camanzi, B.; Harrison, T. J.; McKemey, A. K.; Tinslay, J.; Antohin, E. I.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Bukin, D. A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kolachev, G. M.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Mikhailov, S. F.; Onuchin, A. P.; Salnikov, A. A.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Telnov, V. I.; Yushkov, A. N.; Booth, J.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Pier, S.; Stoker, D. P.; Zioulas, G.; Ahsan, A.; Arisaka, K.; Buchanan, C.; Chun, S.; Faccini, R.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Prell, S. A.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Raven, G.; Sharma, V.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hale, D.; Hart, P. A.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; May, J.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; Beringer, J.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D. E.; Eisner, A. M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W. S.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. N.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hanson, J. E.; Hitlin, D. G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Metzler, S.; Oyang, J.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Weaver, M.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Jayatilleke, S. M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P.; Broomer, B.; Erdos, E.; Fahey, S.; Ford, W. T.; Gaede, F.; van Hoek, W. C.; Johnson, D. R.; Michael, A. K.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Park, H.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Sen, S.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, D. L.; Blouw, J.; Harton, J. L.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Warner, D. W.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kocian, M. L.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Behr, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Ferrag, S.; Fouque, G.; Gastaldi, F.; Matricon, P.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Renard, C.; Roussot, E.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Di Lodovico, F.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Falbo, M.; Bozzi, C.; Dittongo, S.; Folegani, M.; Piemontese, L.; Ramusino, A. C.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Xie, Y.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Fabbricatore, P.; Farinon, S.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musenich, R.; Pallavicini, M.; Parodi, R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Priano, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Bartoldus, R.; Dignan, T.; Hamilton, R.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Fischer, P. A.; Lamsa, J.; McKay, R.; Meyer, W. T.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Albert, J. N.; Beigbeder, C.; Benkebil, M.; Breton, D.; Cizeron, R.; Du, S.; Grosdidier, G.; Hast, C.; Höcker, A.; Lacker, H. M.; LePeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.

2002-02-01

302

Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

Gruber, C. L.

1977-01-01

303

Bit-synchronizer lock detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circuit measures phase error that exists in phase-locked loop between clock signal recorded in data on magnetic tape and reconstructed clock signal. Circuit presents error as digital word that can be compared with predetermined threshold to indicate lock status. With simple alterations, circuit can also be used as phase detector.

Huey, D. C.; Itri, B. A.

1978-01-01

304

Field Induced Gap Infrared Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semi-metal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semi-metal material may thus o...

C. T. Elliott

1989-01-01

305

Stray light in infrared detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared optical system which has severe requirements on stray light levels often need cold shield around the detector. Some basic design principles and goals for baffles are presented. The location of vanes for cold shield are shown based on universal design criteria of baffle vane. Three different categories of vane designs for cold shield and their advantages for stray light

Yan Zhang; Dafu Liu; Xiangrong He; Xiaokun Wang; Kefeng Zhang; Hengjing Tang; Tao Li

2009-01-01

306

IR Detector Timing and Persistence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IR detector on WFC3 exhibits after images, known as persistence, following exposure to light that exceeds half saturation of individual pixels of the detector. The IR channel of WFC3 has no shutter and therefore light from bright objects reaches the detector between science exposures. For estimating persistence, the time that is important is the time between pixel resets. In intervals between science exposures, all pixels are discharged or reset every 2.91 s. For full-frame exposures, the time between resets is the science exposure time (EXPTIME) plus 5.82 s. Since fullframe exposures are usually much longer than 5.82 s, the difference between the time between resets and the science exposure time is usually not a significant problem for estimating persistence in full-frame exposures. However, the science exposure time for certain sub-array sequences can be considerably shorter than the time between resets, and in these cases, the persistence can be much greater than one expects if the time between resets is not correctly calculated. Here we discusses details of detector timing in order to allow a more accurate estimate of the effective persistence exposure time during an observation.

Long, Knox S.; Wheeler, Thomas; Bushouse, Howard

2011-04-01

307

Silicon Vertex Detector for CDF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major reason for building a vertex detector for CDF is the tagging of decay vertices of particles with lifetime in the 10 sup -13 /10 sup -12 sec. range. This is a complementary approach to heavy flavour physics with respect to missing E/sub t/ and la...

F. Bedeschi S. Belforte G. Bellettini L. Bosisio F. Cervelli

1986-01-01

308

Contourlet Based Interest Points Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a robust algorithm for detecting interest points based on the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). The NSCT provides multiscale decomposition with directional filters at each scale. Furthermore, NSCT is very efficient in extracting the geometric information of images and therefore it has very good feature localization. The NSCT-based point detector is compared to the widely used Harris and

Samer R. Saydam; Ibrahim El Rube; Amin A. Shoukry

2008-01-01

309

Quantum dot photonic crystal detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the use of a photonic crystal resonant cavity to increase the quantum efficiency, detectivity (D*) and the background limited infrared photodetector (BLIP) temperature of a quantum dot detector. The photonic crystal is incorporated in InAs/InGaAs/GaAs dots-in-well (DWELL) detector using Electron beam lithography. From calibrated blackbody measurements, the conversion efficiency of the detector with the photonic crystal (DWELL-PC) is found to be 58.5% at -2.5 V while the control DWELL detectors have quantum efficiency of 7.6% at the same bias. We observed no significant reduction in the dark current of the photonic crystal devices compared to the normal structure. The generation-recombination limited D* at 77K with a 300K F1.7 background, is estimated to be 6 x 1010 cmHz1/2/W at -3V bias for the DWELL-PC which is a factor of 20 higher than that of the control sample. We also observed a 20% increase in the BLIP temperature for the DWELL-PCs.

Posani, Kalyan T.; Tripathi, Vaibhav; Annamalai, Senthil; Krishna, Sanjay; Perahia, Raviv; Crisafulli, Orion; Painter, Oskar

2006-03-01

310

The CBM-RICH detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main task of the future Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM), to be operated at the FAIR facility at GSI, Darmstadt, is the exploration of the properties of super-dense nuclear matter. The search for in-medium modifications of hadrons, the study of the transition from dense hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter, and the possible location of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram of strongly interacting matter are the most important physics goals of CBM. Detailed measurements of di-leptons stemming from low-mass vector-mesons and charmonium have a large potential to shed light on the existence of such effects. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector of the CBM experiment aims at a clean and efficient electron identification. It is foreseen to use CO2 as radiator gas and equip the detector with a focussing mirror system and multi-anode photomultiplier tubes as photon detector. In this paper we present selected results of R&D studies and beam test measurements of the detector prototype performed in fall 2011 and 2012 at the CERN/PS with a mixed electron-pion beam.

Adamczewski, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Boldyreva, N.; Chernogorov, A.; Deveaux, C.; Dobyrn, V.; Dürr, M.; Eom, J.; Eschke, J.; Höhne, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kleipa, V.; Kochenda, L.; Kolb, B.; Kopfer, J.; Kravtsov, P.; Lebedev, S.; Leonova, E.; Lebedeva, E.; Linev, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Nam, Y.; Niebur, W.; Oh, K.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pauly, C.; Pouryamout, J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Reinecke, S.; Riabov, Y.; Roshchin, E.; Samsonov, V.; Song, J.; Tarasenkova, O.; Torres de Heidenreich, T.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Yi, J.; Yoo, I.-K.

2014-06-01

311

Near Infrared Detectors for SNAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characrerized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized ...

C. Bebek D. Cole M. Borysow M. Schubnell M. G. Brown N. Barron

2006-01-01

312

BGO suppressed gamma detector arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arrays of a number of high-resolution ? detectors are needed to investigate the excited states of nuclei in detail, especially in coincidence experiments. The best elements currently available for such arrays use a high-resolution Ge diode detector surrounded by a high-efficiency Bi 4Ge 3O 12 (BGO) scintillator. The BGO scintillator serves to veto those events in which the incoming ?-ray undergoes Compton scattering leading to escape of the scattered photon from the Ge crystal. The first elements of a detector array at the FSU tandem-linac laboratory have been assembled with Ortec high-purity n-type Ge crystals and single crystal BGO scintillators from Harshaw. Each Ge crystal is placed inside a 127 cm diameter by 152 cm long BGO annulus. A smaller 61 mm diameter by 81 mm long BGO split annulus is placed around the cold finger behind the Ge crystal. The performance of the array elements and repair techniques on the Ge detectors are discussed.

Tabor, S. L.

313

Detector Problems at the SSC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the last couple of years there has been considerable concern expressed among the US high energy community as to whether detector limitations would prevent one from being able to fully exploit a luminosity of 10 exp 33 cm exp -2 sec exp -1 at a hadr...

S. G. Wojcicki

1985-01-01

314

Self-powered neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-powered neutron detector in which the net contribution of current generated by external gamma radiation is largely equal to zero is described. It consists of a centralized emitter core, an insulator surrounding the core, an electrically conductive collector surrounding the insulator, a conduit connected to the emitter core and the collector for withdrawal of generated gamma current. A layer

Johansson

1978-01-01

315

Cardiac R-wave detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cardiac R wave detector obtains the systolic contraction signal of the human heart and uses it as a reference signal for the heart-assist pump cycle. It processes the electrocardiac signal /QRS wave complex/ of the natural heart in a sequence of operations which essentially elimates all components from the input signal except the R wave.

Gebben, V. D.

1968-01-01

316

AMANDA South Pole neutrino detector.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is proposed to instrument the polar ice cap as a low-noise particle detector sensing the Cherenkov light from neutrino-induced muons. This paper describes the successful operation of a prototype string of optical modules that where deployed on January 17, 1992 at the South Pole.

Barwick, S. W.; Lynch, J.; Porrata, R.; Yodh, G.; Lowder, D.; Miller, T.; Price, B.; Richards, A.; Snowden-Ifft, D.; Westphal, A.; Halzen, F.; Jacobsen, J.; Kandhadai, V.; Liubarsky, I.; Morse, R.; Tilav, S.

317

The Tevatron resonant Schottky detectors  

SciTech Connect

The following is a description of some studies the author made on the resonant Schottky detectors in the Tevatron. The author doubts that this document contains any information that wasn't known previously, but the hope is that this document will serve as a useful self-contained reference for users of the system.

Marriner, John; /Fermilab

1995-09-01

318

Effects of detector-source distance and detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of general purpose plastic scintillation detectors.  

PubMed

Effects of source-detector distance and the detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of a general purpose plastic scintillation detector such as BC400 were investigated. (133)Ba and (207)Bi calibration sources with and without collimator were used in the present work. Optimum source-detector distance and bias voltage values were determined for the best time resolution by using leading edge timing method. Effect of the collimator usage on time resolution was also investigated. PMID:23041387

Ermis, E E; Celiktas, C

2012-12-01

319

40 CFR 1065.270 - Chemiluminescent detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Nox and N2o Measurements § 1065.270 Chemiluminescent detector. (a) Application. You may use a chemiluminescent detector...

2010-07-01

320

Neutron coincidence detectors employing heterogeneous materials  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector relies upon optical separation of different scintillators to measure the total energy and/or number of neutrons from a neutron source. In pulse mode embodiments of the invention, neutrons are detected in a first detector which surrounds the neutron source and in a second detector surrounding the first detector. An electronic circuit insures that only events are measured which correspond to neutrons first detected in the first detector followed by subsequent detection in the second detector. In spectrometer embodiments of the invention, neutrons are thermalized in the second detector which is formed by a scintillator-moderator and neutron energy is measured from the summed signals from the first and second detectors.

Czirr, J. Bartley (Mapleton, UT); Jensen, Gary L. (Orem, UT)

1993-07-27

321

Electromechanically-cooled germanium radiation detector system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and e...

A. Lavietes

1998-01-01

322

The LHCb RICH photon detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will employ two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors for particle identification. The Cherenkov photons will be detected by planes of photon detectors covering a total active surface area of 2.1 m 2. The detector chosen for this task is the pixel hybrid photon detector (HPD). This combines silicon pixel sensors, integrated electronics and high-density interconnects together with vacuum-tube technology to produce an efficient, low-noise detector sensitive to single photons. For the complete photon detector system of the LHCb RICH, 484 such HPDs are required and these have been fully integrated into detector modules. Specific aspects of this integration within the RICH system are described together with the steps taken to ensure the efficiency and reliability of the detector in the harsh environment of LHCb.

Wyllie, K.

2008-06-01

323

Full Detector Simulation Using SLIC and LCDD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) and Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD) provide a flexible and powerful package for full detector simulations. This paper outlines the main features of SLIC and LCDD and explains the structure of an LCDD do...

J. McCormick

2005-01-01

324

Methane Detector With Plastic Fresnel Lens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser detector for natural gas leaks modified by substitution of molded plastic lens for spherical mirror. By measuring relative attenuation at two wavelengths, detector used to check for methane escaping from pipelines above or below ground and from landfill.

Grant, W. B.

1986-01-01

325

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is given. It is a calorimetric detector, which covers almost the complete solid angle around the interaction region with segmented calorimeter \\

Hans B. Jensen

1986-01-01

326

Cost/Benefit Analysis of Fire Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study attempts to determine the economic effectiveness of fire detectors by analyzing data collected from records of fire incidents where fire detectors were employed. Data sources considered were state and local-level fire services, equipment manufac...

T. E. Waterman, K. R. Mniszewski, D. J. Spadoni

1978-01-01

327

UV and Optical Detectors: Status and Prospects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

UV and visible detectors - status and prospects. The status and prospects for UV and visible detectors for space astrophysics missions will be described, based on the findings of the NASA working group roadmap report, hopefully updated.

Woodgate, Bruce; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

328

A neutron detector based on microchannel plates  

SciTech Connect

We propose a large-area neutron detector design based on microchannel plates (MCPs). Two characteristics of the MCP make it ideal as a high-rate neutron detector: (1) its signals can have a very fast rise time, and (2) it can count at a high rate. The MCP-based detector could use both the high-voltage power supplies and the readout electronics designed for a neutron detector based on the multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC).

MacArthur, D.W.

1987-06-01

329

Software studies for germanium detectors data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency calibrations of multiple high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are being maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Four generally available software packages for HPGe detector gamma-ray spectrum analysis, including the one currently used at NIST, were tested on spectra collected from two HPGe detectors at different source-to-detector distances and using point sources and ampoules as calibration geometries.

L. Pibida; E. Hsieh; A. Fuentes-Figueroa; M. M. Hammond; L. Karam

2006-01-01

330

The H1 detector at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

General aspects of the H1 detector at the electron-proton storage ring HERA as well as technical descriptions of the magnet, luminosity system, trigger, slow-control, data acquisition and off-line data handling are given. The three major components of the detector, the tracking, calorimeter and muon detectors, will be described in a forthcoming article. The present paper describes the detector that was

I. Abt; T. Ahmed; S. Aid; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; R. D. Appuhn; C. Arnault; M. Arpagaus; A. Babaev; H. Bärwolff; J. Bán; E. Banas; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; M. Barth; U. Bassler; F. Basti; D. E. Baynham; J.-M. Baze; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; D. Bederede; H.-J. Behrend; C. Beigbeder; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; H. Bergstein; R. Bernard; G. Bernardi; R. Bernet; R. Bernier; U. Berthon; G. Bertrand-Coremans; M. Besançon; R. Beyer; J.-C. Biasci; P. Biddulph; V. Bidoli; E. Binder; P. Binko; J.-C. Bizot; V. Blobel; F. Blouzon; H. Blume; K. Borras; V. Boudry; C. Bourdarios; F. Brasse; W. Braunschweig; D. Breton; H. Brettel; V. Brisson; D. Bruncko; C. Brune; U. Buchner; L. Büngener; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; P. Burmeister; A. Busata; G. Buschhorn; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; F. Charles; M. Charlet; R. Chase; D. Clarke; A. B. Clegg; M. Colombo; V. Commichau; J. F. Connolly; U. Cornett; J. A. Coughlan; A. Courau; M.-C. Cousinou; Ch. Coutures; A. Coville; G. Cozzika; D. A. Cragg; L. Criegee; H. I. Cronström; N. H. Cunliffe; J. Cvach; A. Cyz; S. Dagoret; J. B. Dainton; M. Danilov; A. W. E. Dann; D. Darvill; W. D. Dau; J. David; M. David; R. J. Day; E. Deffur; B. Delcourt; L. Del Buono; F. Descamps; M. Devel; J. P. Dewulf; A. De Roeck; P. Dingus; K. Djidi; C. Dollfus; J. D. Dowell; H. B. Dreis; A. Drescher; U. Dretzler; J. Duboc; A. Ducorps; D. Düllmann; O. Dünger; H. Duhm; B. Dulny; F. Dupont; R. Ebbinghaus; M. Eberle; J. Ebert; T. R. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; B. W. H. Edwards; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; S. Eichenberger; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; N. N. Ellis; R. J. Ellison; E. Elsen; A. Epifantsev; M. Erdmann; W. Erdmann; G. Ernst; E. Evrard; G. Falley; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; D. Feeken; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; Z. Y. Feng; I. F. Fensome; J. Fent; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; K. Finke; K. Flamm; W. Flauger; M. Fleischer; M. Flieser; P. S. Flower; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; B. Fominykh; M. Forbush; J. Formánek; J. M. Foster; G. Franke; E. Fretwurst; W. Fröchtenicht; P. Fuhrmann; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; K. Gadow; K. Gamerdinger; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; E. Gazo; A. Gellrich; M. Gennis; U. Gensch; H. Genzel; R. Gerhards; K. Geske; I. Giesgen; D. Gillespie; W. Glasgow; L. Godfrey; J. Godlewski; U. Goerlach; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; A. M. Goodall; I. Gorelov; P. Goritchev; L. Gosset; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; C. Gregory; H. Greif; M. Grewe; G. Grindhammer; A. Gruber; C. Gruber; S. Günther; J. Haack; M. Haguenauer; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; D. Hammer; O. Hamon; M. Hampel; D. Handschuh; K. Hangarter; E. M. Hanlon; M. Hapke; U. Harder; J. Harjes; P. Hartz; P. E. Hatton; R. Haydar; W. J. Haynes; J. Heatherington; V. Hedberg; C. R. Hedgecock; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; H. Henschel; R. Herma; I. Herynek; W. Hildesheim; P. Hill; D. L. Hill; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; K. C. Hoeger; R. B. Hopes; R. Horisberger; A. Hrisoho; J. Huber; Ph. Huet; H. Hufnagel; N. Huot; J.-F. Huppert; M. Ibbotson; D. Imbault; H. Itterbeck; M.-A. Jabiol; A. Jacholkowska; C. Jacobsson; M. Jaffré; T. Jansen; P. Jean; J. Jeanjean; L. Jönsson; K. Johannsen; D. P. Johnson; L. Johnson; P. Jovanovic; H. Jung; P. I. P. Kalmus; D. Kant; G. Kantel; S. Karstensen; S. Kasarian; R. Kaschowitz; P. Kasselmann; U. Kathage; H. H. Kaufmann; G. Kemmerling; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; W. Ko; T. Kobler; J. Koch; T. Köhler; J. Köhne; M. Kolander; H. Kolanoski; F. Kole; J. Koll; S. D. Kolya; B. Koppitz; V. Korbel; M. Korn; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; F. Krivan; D. Krücker; U. Krüger; U. Krüner-Marquis; M. Kubantsev; J. P. Kubenka; T. Külper; H.-J. Küsel; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kurca; J. Kurzhöfer; B. Kuznik; B. Laforge; F. Lamarche; R. Lander; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; R. Langkau; P. Lanius; J.-F. Laporte; L. Laptin; H. Laskus; A. Lebedev; M. Lemler; U. Lenhardt; A. Leuschner; C. Leverenz; S. Levonian; D. Lewin; Ch. Ley; A. Lindner; G. Lindström; F. Linsel; J. Lipinski; B. Liss; P. Loch; A. B. Lodge; H. Lohmander; G. C. Lopez; J.-P. Lottin; V. Lubimov; K. Ludwig; D. Lüers; N. Lugetski; B. Lundberg; K. Maeshima; N. Magnussen; E. Malinovski; S. Mani; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; J. Martens; F. Martin; G. Martin; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; V. Masbender; S. Masson; A. Mavroidis; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; J. Meissner; D. Mercer; T. Merz; C. A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; S. Mikocki; J. L. Mills; V. Milone; J. Möck; E. Monnier; B. Montés; F. Moreau; J. Moreels; B. Morgan; J. V. Morris; J. M. Morton; K. Müller; P. Murín; S. A. Murray; V. Nagovizin; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; P. Nayman; A. Nepeipivo; P. Newman; D. Newman-Coburn; D. Newton; D. Neyret; H. K. Nguyen; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; R. Nisius; T. Novák; H. Nováková; G. Nowak; G. W. Noyes; M. Nyberg

1997-01-01

331

Portable, Single-Mirror, Air Fluorescence Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully designed and tested a mobile, single-mirror air flourescence detector and a mobile vertical laser system. They can both run autonomously. Both the laser and the detector have been tested at several remote locations in weather ranging from blizzard conditions to desert heat. The detector and laser were used to measure the atmospheric clarity in the Millard County area in central Utah for six months with laser-detector separations of 12km and 36km.

Cannon, C.; Martens, K.; Riehle, R.; Thomas, J.; Thomas, S.; Wiencke, L.; HiRes Collaboration

2003-07-01

332

Present status of the MINOS calibration detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that is comprised of two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab in Chicago and the Soudan mine in Northern Minnesota. A correct energy calibration between the two detectors is crucial for the accurate determination of oscillation parameters. A key role in the detector response calibration programme is played by the Calibration Detector. This article reports the present status of and future plans for the Calibration Detector.

Miyagawa, P. S.; Minos Collaboration

333

Proton irradiation of various resistivity silicon detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future high energy physics experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider will use high precision silicon detectors for tracking purposes. The hadronic component of the radiation received threatens the lifetime of these detectors and it is vital to choose the silicon starting material to maximise the performance and lifetime. Ion-implanted silicon detectors with various initial resistivities and germanium concentrations have been

S. J. Bates; B. Dezillie; C. Furetta; M. Glaser; F. Lemeilleur; E. Leon-Florian

1995-01-01

334

24 CFR 965.805 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 965.805 Section 965...PROVISIONS Fire Safety § 965.805 Smoke detectors. (a) Performance requirement...least one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector, or such greater number...

2013-04-01

335

24 CFR 232.591 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 232.591 Section 232... Property Requirements § 232.591 Smoke detectors. After October 30, 1992...one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector in proper working...

2013-04-01

336

24 CFR 200.76 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 200.76 Section 200.76 Housing...Existing Projects Property Requirements § 200.76 Smoke detectors. Smoke detectors and alarm devices must be installed in...

2013-04-01

337

24 CFR 891.555 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 891.555 Section 891...Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.555 Smoke detectors. (a) Performance requirement...one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector, in proper working...

2013-04-01

338

Silicon vertex detector for superheavy elements identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon vertex detector for superheavy elements (SHE) identification has been proposed. It will be constructed using very thin silicon detectors about 5 ?m thickness. Results of test of 7.3 ?m four inch silicon strip detector (SSD) with fission fragments and ? particles emitted by 252Cf source are presented

Kordyasz, A. J.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kisieli?ski, M.; Bednarek, A.; Hady?ska-Klek, M.; Wieloch, A.; Sosin, Z.; Atanasov, D.; Sarnecki, J.; Brzozowski, A.; Jagielski, J.; Teodorczyk, M.; Gajewski, M.; Wi?niewska, A.; Krzy?ak, K.; Gawlik, G.; Zagojski, A.

2012-07-01

339

Uncooled multispectral detectors and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the basic design and essential properties of developed multispectral detectors. The presented detector concept on the basis of lithium tantalate (LiTaO(subscript 3)), a pyroelectric material, makes the parallel measurement possible in four spectral channels in the wavelength range of typically 1 - 25 micrometers . The detector consists of an optical unit with the beam splitter and

Volkmar Norkus; Guenter Hofmann; Christian Schiewe

1996-01-01

340

Full Detector Simulation Using SLIC and LCDD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) and Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD) provide a flexible and powerful package for full detector simulations. This paper outlines the main features of SLIC and LCDD and explains the structure of an LCDD document used for detector description input.

J. McCormick

2005-01-01

341

Fermilab energy doubler beam position detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the design and performance of the beam position detector being installed in the Fermilab superconducting Energy Doubler accelerator. The detector is a stripline pickup designed to operate at 4 degrees Kelvin and with beam intensities ranging from 10⁸ to 10¹¹ protons per rf bucket at 53 MHz. The detector design, signal amplitude, positional sensitivity, directivity,

R. E. Shafer; R. C. Webber; T. H. Nicol

1981-01-01

342

Physics Capabilities of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article I summarize the physics potential of future atmospheric neutrino detectors. I consider two types of detectors - magnetized iron calorimeter pursued by the INO collaboration and a large volume liquid argon time projection chamber. I discuss the hierarchy and octant sensitivity in these detectors in view of moderately large values of ?13 measured by reactor experiments.

Goswami, Srubabati

2013-04-01

343

Unreliable failure detectors for reliable distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept of unreliable failure detectors and study how they can be used to solve Consensus in asynchronous systems with crash failures. We characterise unreliable failure detectors in terms of two properties—completeness and accuracy. We show that Consensus can be solved even with unreliable failure detectors that make an infinite number of mistakes, and determine which ones can

Tushar Deepak Chandra; Sam Toueg

1996-01-01

344

Gem detectors for X-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applicability of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector for the X-ray astronomy will be studied. The final goal of this feasibility study is to produce a sealed GEM detector designed for space flights and several GEM detectors will be constructed during the project. The design of the first prototype GEM with a double GEM foil structure, and its data acquisition

H. Andersson; T. Andersson; J. Heino; J. Huovelin; K. Kurvinen; R. Lauhakangas; S. Nenonen; J. Ojala; R. Orava; J. Schultz; H. Sipilä; O. Vilhu

2003-01-01

345

Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

2013-11-19

346

Detector frontier: Theoretical expectations and dreams  

SciTech Connect

The new large detector systems are certain to shed new light on many aspects of nuclear structure. Some of these areas for future studies are discussed. In this contribution the author concentrates on several aspects of nuclear spectroscopy, that will be accessible by modern detector systems (e.g., {gamma}-ray crystal balls or new-generation particle detectors).

Nazarewicz, W.

1992-12-31

347

Comparison measurements of DQE for two flat panel detectors: fluoroscopic detector vs. cone beam CT detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical performance of two flat panel detectors (FPD) has been evaluated using a standard x-ray beam quality set by IEC, namely RQA5. The FPDs evaluated in this study are based on an amorphous silicon photodiode array that is coupled to a thallium-doped Cesium Iodide scintillator and to a thin film transistor (TFT) array. One detector is the PaxScan 2520 that is designed for fluoro imaging, and has a small dynamic range and a large image lag. The other detector is the PaxScan 4030CB that is designed for cone beam CT, and has a large dynamic range (>16-bit), a reduced image lag and many imaging modes. Varian Medical Systems manufactured both detectors. The linearity of the FPDs was investigated by using an ionization chamber and aluminum filtration in order to obtain the beam quality. Since the FPDs are used in fluoroscopic mode, image lag of the FPD was measured in order to investigate its effect on this study, especially its effect on DQE. The spatial resolution of the FPDs was determined by obtaining the pre-sampling modulation transfer function for each detector. A sharp edge was used in accordance to IEC 62220-1. Next, the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) was calculated for various exposures levels at RQA5 radiation quality. Finally, the DQE of each FPD was obtained with a modified version of the international standard set by IEC 62220-1. The results show that the physical performance in DQE and MTF of the PaxScan 4030CB is superior to that of PaxScan2520.

Betancourt Benítez, Ricardo; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David

2006-03-01

348

Silicon strip detector with a polyethylene converter as a position sensitive detector for fast neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon strip detectors with converters of neutrons into charge particles can be used as neutron position sensitive detectors. Such detectors are needed, for example, for high energy and neutron physics. The possibility of using the silicon strip detector coated with a polyethylene film for the coordinate determination of fast neutrons has been discussed. Recoil protons produced by fast neutrons in

Igor E. Anokhin; O. Zinets

2008-01-01

349

Thick and Large Active Area Si(Li) Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 5 inch diameter, 3 mm thick silicon detector is fabricated using non-detector grade crystal. Detector characteristics of the silicon detector is examined with infrared light and hadron beam. (ERA citation 13:034733)

T. Miyachi S. Ohkawa T. Emura

1987-01-01

350

Massively Parallel MRI Detector Arrays  

PubMed Central

Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays.

Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

2013-01-01

351

Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector  

SciTech Connect

Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ? has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

2007-10-09

352

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

Gray, K.E.

1988-07-28

353

Detector calibration measurements in CRESST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRESST dark matter experiment uses the simultaneous measurement of the scintillation light and the heat signal of a CaWO 4 crystal to discriminate between background electron recoil and nuclear recoil events. At the Technical University of Munich calibration measurements have been performed to characterize the detectors. These measurements include the determination of the light output and scintillation time constants of CaWO 4 at temperatures below 50 mK. The setup used in these measurements consist of a CaWO 4 crystal, which is mounted in a reflective housing together with a silicon light detector carrying an Ir/Au transition edge sensor (TES) evaporated directly onto it.

Westphal, W.; Coppi, C.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Isaila, C.; Jagemann, T.; Jochum, J.; König, J.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Potzel, W.; Rau, W.; Stark, M.; Wernicke, D.

2006-04-01

354

Uncooled infrared thermal detector arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncooled detectors of infra-red radiation exploiting the pyroelectric effect have considerable potential for thermal imaging applications when used in 1-D and 2-D arrays. This paper discusses the factors controlling the performances of such arrays. Lead scandium tantalate is a new ferroelectric ceramic which gives a very high figure-of-merit. The properties of this material are reported and compared and contrasted with those of other ferroelectric ceramics. The possibilites for direct fabrication of thin films of the materials are discussed. Linear arrays of detectors with D-asterisks of up to 5 x 10 to the 8th cmHZ exp 1/2/W and 2-dimensional arrays (up to 100 x 100) with NETDs below 0.2K (25Hz, f/1) have been developed. The technologies for processing these arrays, including the use of reticulation for thermal MTF and microphony improvement, are discussed.

Shorrocks, N. M.; Porter, S. G.; Whatmore, R. W.; Parsons, A. D.; Gooding, J. N.; Pedder, D. J.

1990-10-01

355

The antares neutrino detector instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ANTARES is actually the fully operational and the largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere. Located in the Mediterranean Sea, it consists of a 3D array of 885 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) arranged in 12 detection lines (25 storeys each), able to detect the Cherenkov light induced by upgoing relativistic muons produced in the interaction of high energy cosmic neutrinos with the detector surroundings. Among its physics goals, the search for neutrino astrophysical sources and the indirect detection of dark matter particles coming from the sun are of particular interest. To reach these goals, good accuracy in track reconstruction is mandatory, so several calibration systems for timing and positioning have been developed. In this contribution we will present the design of the detector, calibration systems, associated equipment and its performance on track reconstruction.

Yepes-Ramírez, H.

2012-01-01

356

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1996-06-11

357

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

358

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

1994-05-03

359

The Borexino detector: Photomultipliers system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borexino, a real-time device for low energy solar neutrino spectroscopy has completed the construction phase at the middle of 2006 in the underground laboratories at Gran Sasso, Italy. The detector has been filled with 1300 tons of highly purified scintillator and 2400 tons of ultra-pure water as external shield and since May 16th is under data taking. The experimental goal is the direct measurement of the flux of Be7 solar neutrinos of all flavors via neutrino-electron scattering in an ultra-pure scintillation liquid. The poster describes the design of the Borexino detector and the features of the construction phase. It also presents in deep details the photomultiplier detection apparatus: the device electrical performances, the encapsulation design, the mechanical support, the R&D ageing test and finally the 'in situ' installation procedure.

Lombardi, Paolo; Borexino Collaboration

2008-11-01

360

Multispectral Linear Array detector technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) program sponsored by NASA has the aim to extend space-based remote sensor capabilities. The technology development effort involves the realization of very large, all-solid-state, pushbroom focal planes. The pushbroom, staring focal planes will contain thousands of detectors with the objective to provide two orders of magnitude improvement in detector dwell time compared to present Landsat mechanically scanned systems. Attenton is given to visible and near-infrared sensor development, the shortwave infrared sensor, aspects of filter technology development, the packaging concept, and questions of system performance. First-sample, four-band interference filters have been fabricated successfully, and a hybrid packaging technology is being developed.

Tower, J. R.; Mccarthy, B. M.; Pellon, L. E.; Strong, R. T.; Elabd, H.

1984-01-01

361

Characterization of Czochralski Silicon Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmenteddetectors made of high-resistivity (>1 k?cm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It isshown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher thanthat of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or DiffusionOxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen

Panja-Riina Luukka; Jaakko Haerkoenen

2012-01-01

362

The Super-Kamiokande detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting

S. Fukuda; Y. Fukuda; T. Hayakawa; E. Ichihara; M. Ishitsuka; Y. Itow; T. Kajita; J. Kameda; K. Kaneyuki; S. Kasuga; K. Kobayashi; Y. Kobayashi; Y. Koshio; M. Miura; S. Moriyama; M. Nakahata; S. Nakayama; T. Namba; Y. Obayashi; A. Okada; M. Oketa; K. Okumura; T. Oyabu; N. Sakurai; M. Shiozawa; Y. Suzuki; Y. Takeuchi; T. Toshito; Y. Totsuka; S. Yamada; S. Desai; M. Earl; J. T. Hong; E. Kearns; M. Masuzawa; M. D. Messier; J. L. Stone; L. R. Sulak; C. W. Walter; W. Wang; K. Scholberg; T. Barszczak; D. Casper; D. W. Liu; W. Gajewski; P. G. Halverson; J. Hsu; W. R. Kropp; S. Mine; L. R. Price; F. Reines; M. Smy; H. W. Sobel; M. R. Vagins; K. S. Ganezer; W. E. Keig; R. W. Ellsworth; S. Tasaka; J. W. Flanagan; A. Kibayashi; J. G. Learned; S. Matsuno; V. J. Stenger; Y. Hayato; T. Ishii; A. Ichikawa; J. Kanzaki; T. Kobayashi; T. Maruyama; K. Nakamura; Y. Oyama; A. Sakai; M. Sakuda; O. Sasaki; S. Echigo; T. Iwashita; M. Kohama; A. Suzuki; M. Hasegawa; T. Inagaki; I. Kato; H. Maesaka; T. Nakaya; K. Nishikawa; S. Yamamoto; T. J. Haines; B. K. Kim; R. Sanford; R. Svoboda; E. Blaufuss; M. L. Chen; Z. Conner; J. A. Goodman; E. Guillian; G. W. Sullivan; D. Turcan; A. Habig; M. Ackerman; F. Goebel; J. Hill; C. K. Jung; T. Kato; D. Kerr; M. Malek; K. Martens; C. Mauger; C. McGrew; E. Sharkey; B. Viren; C. Yanagisawa; W. Doki; S. Inaba; K. Ito; M. Kirisawa; M. Kitaguchi; C. Mitsuda; K. Miyano; C. Saji; M. Takahata; M. Takahashi; K. Higuchi; Y. Kajiyama; A. Kusano; Y. Nagashima; K. Nitta; M. Takita; T. Yamaguchi; M. Yoshida; H. I. Kim; S. B. Kim; J. Yoo; H. Okazawa; M. Etoh; K. Fujita; Y. Gando; A. Hasegawa; T. Hasegawa; S. Hatakeyama; K. Inoue; K. Ishihara; T. Iwamoto; M. Koga; I. Nishiyama; H. Ogawa; J. Shirai; T. Takayama; F. Tsushima; M. Koshiba; Y. Ichikawa; T. Hashimoto; Y. Hatakeyama; M. Koike; T. Horiuchi; M. Nemoto; K. Nishijima; H. Takeda; H. Fujiyasu; T. Futagami; H. Ishino; Y. Kanaya; M. Morii; H. Nishihama; H. Nishimura; T. Suzuki; Y. Watanabe; D. Kielczewska; U. Golebiewska; H. G. Berns; S. B. Boyd; R. A. Doyle; J. S. George; A. L. Stachyra; L. L. Wai; R. J. Wilkes; K. K. Young; H. Kobayashi

2003-01-01

363

Laser tests of silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper collects experiences from the development of a silicon sensor laser testing setup and from tests of silicon strip modules (ATLAS End-cap SCT), pixel modules (DEPFET) and large-area diodes using semiconductor lasers. Lasers of 1060 and 680 nm wavelengths were used. A sophisticated method of focusing the laser was developed. Timing and interstrip properties of modules were measured. Analysis of optical effects involved and detailed discussion about the usability of laser testing for particle detectors are presented.

Doležal, Zden?k; Escobar, Carlos; Gadomski, Szymon; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Sergio; Kodyš, Peter; Kubík, Petr; Lacasta, Carlos; Marti, Salvador; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Moorhead, Gareth F.; Phillips, Peter W.; ?ezní?ek, Pavel; Slavík, Radan

2007-04-01

364

The CPLEAR detector at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CPLEAR collaboration has constructed a detector at CERN for an extensive programme of CP-, T- and CPT-symmetry studies using K0 and K0 produced by the annihilation of p's in a hydrogen gas target. The K0 and K0 are identified by their companion products of the annihilation K±?? which are tracked with multiwire proportional chambers, drift chambers and streamer tubes.

R. Adler; W. Albrecht; T. Alhalel; Angelos Angelopoulos; Alcibiades J Apostolakis; Elie Aslanides; Gerhard Backenstoss; F. Bal; J. P. Bard; D. Barraca; C. P. Bee; O. Behnke; A. Benelli; J. Bennet; V. Bertin; F. Blanc; P. Bloch; M. Bonnet; C. Bula; A. Calzas; P J Carlson; M. Carroll; J. Carvalho; E. Cawley; S. Charalambous; M. Chardalas; G. Chardin; P. Charra; M. B. Chertok; A. Cody; J. da Silva; D. Damianoglou; R. Daniel; M. Danielsson; Paul Dechelette; M. Dedieu; S. Dedoussis; M. Dejardin; J. Derre; A. Dijksman; B. Dinkespiller; M. Dodgson; M. Dröge; J. Duclos; N. Dudragne; D. Durand; A. Ealet; B. Eckart; C. Eleftheriadis; Claude Engster; I. Evangelou; L. Faravel; P. Fassnacht; J. L. Faure; C. Felder; R. Ferreira-Marques; W. Fetscher; Maria Fidecaro; A. FilipciC; D. Francis; J. Fry; C. Fuglesang; Erwin Gabathuler; Y. Gally; R. Gamet; D. Garreta; D. Geiss; T. Geralis; H.-J. Gerber; A. Go; P. Gumplinger; D. Guyon; C. Guyot; P. Harrison; A. Haselden; P. J. Hayman; E S Hazen; F. Henry-Couannier; W. G. Heyes; R. W. Hollander; E. Hubert; C. Jacobs; K. Jansson; H. U. Johner; N. Karkour; A. Kerek; J. Kern; G. Kesseler; P.-R. Kettle; D. King; T. Klados; C. Kochowski; P. Kokkas; K. Kontek; R. Kreuger; T Lecouturier; D. Lecouturier; R. Le Gac; F. Leimbgruber; D. Linget; A. Liolios; B. Lofstedt; F. Louis; E. Machado; P. Maley; U. Mall; I. Mandi?; N. Manthos; G. Marel; C.-P. Marin; H. Martin; J. C. Michau; M. Mikuz; J. Miller; F. Montanet; T. Nakada; F. Nanni; A. Onofre; B. Pagels; I. Papadopoulos; P. Pavlopoulos; F. Pelucchi; P. Petit; K. Philippoussis; J. Pinto da Cunha; A. Policarpo; G. Polivka; H. Postma; Ch. Rheme; R. Rickenbach; B. L. Roberts; E. Rozaki; T. Ruf; L Sakelliou; L. Sakeliou; P. Sanders; C. Santoni; K. Sarigiannis; M. Schäfer; L. A. Schaller; T. Schietinger; A. Schopper; P. Schune; A. Soares; M. Steinacher; S. Tatsis; L. Tauscher; C. Thibault; F. Touchard; C. Touramanis; F. Triantis; D. A. Tröster; I. Tsamouranis; H. Tschopp; P. Tsilimigras; E. van Beveren; C. W. E. van Eijk; B. van Koningsveld; J. P. Vanuxem; G. Varner; H. Verweij; S. Vlachos; D. Warner; E. Watson; P. Weber; H. Wendler; O. Wigger; C. Witzig; M. Wolter; C. Yeche; D. Zavrtanik; D. Zimmerman

1996-01-01

365

An imaging plate neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed two kinds of imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND), where the neutron converters, 6Li (tentatively, NatLi was used) and Gd were mixed with photostimulated luminescence (PSL) materials on a flexible plastic support, and the dynamic range and spatial resolution of our IP-ND were successfully obtained as 1:105 and less than 0.2 mm, respectively, which are comparable to the

Nobuo Niimura; Yuuko Karasawa; Inchiro Tanaka; Junji Miyahara; Kenji Takahashi; Hiroki Saito; Satoshi Koizumi; Masanori Hidaka

1994-01-01

366

Mars Oxidant and Radical Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Oxidant and Radical Detector is an instrument designed to characterize the reactive nature of the martian surface environment. Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) techniques, this instrument can detect, identify, and quantify radical species in soil samples, including those inferred to be present by the Viking experiments. This instrument is currently funded by the Mars Instrument Development Program and is compatible with the Mars Science Laboratory mission.

Yen, A. S.; Kim, S. S.

2003-01-01

367

Shielded-emitter neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-powered neutron detector has a neutron-sensitive emitter, a collector enclosing this emitter and insulation between these two components. When irradiated by neutrons, the emitter generates Compton electrons so that a current is produced between the emitter and electrode and which may be used with a current-measuring device to provide a readout. The emitter is enclosed and electrically connected with

Klar

1976-01-01

368

The B AB AR detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e? B Factory operating at the ?(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located

B. Aubert; A. Bazan; A. Boucham; D. Boutigny; I. De Bonis; J. Favier; J.-M. Gaillard; A. Jeremie; Y. Karyotakis; T. Le Flour; J. P. Lees; S. Lieunard; P. Petitpas; P. Robbe; V. Tisserand; K. Zachariadou; A. Palano; G. P. Chen; J. C. Chen; N. D. Qi; G. Rong; P. Wang; Y. S. Zhu; G. Eigen; P. L. Reinertsen; B. Stugu; B. Abbott; G. S. Abrams; L. Amerman; A. W. Borgland; A. B. Breon; D. Brown; J. Button-Shafer; A. R. Clark; S. Dardin; C. Day; S. F. Dow; Q. Fan; I. Gaponenko; M. S. Gill; F. R. Goozen; S. J. Gowdy; A. Gritsan; Y. Groysman; C. Hernikl; R. G. Jacobsen; R. C. Jared; R. W. Kadel; J. Kadyk; A. Karcher; L. T. Kerth; I. Kipnis; S. Kluth; J. F. Kral; R. Lafever; C. LeClerc; M. E. Levi; S. A. Lewis; C. Lionberger; T. Liu; M. Long; L. Luo; G. Lynch; P. Luft; E. Mandelli; M. Marino; K. Marks; C. Matuk; A. B. Meyer; R. Minor; A. Mokhtarani; M. Momayezi; M. Nyman; P. J. Oddone; J. Ohnemus; D. Oshatz; S. Patton; M. Pedrali-Noy; A. Perazzo; C. Peters; W. Pope; M. Pripstein; D. R. Quarrie; J. E. Rasson; N. A. Roe; A. Romosan; M. T. Ronan; V. G. Shelkov; R. Stone; P. D. Strother; A. V. Telnov; H. von der Lippe; T. F. Weber; W. A. Wenzel; G. Zizka; P. G. Bright-Thomas; C. M. Hawkes; A. Kirk; D. J. Knowles; S. W. O'Neale; A. T. Watson; N. K. Watson; T. Deppermann; H. Koch; J. Krug; M. Kunze; B. Lewandowski; K. Peters; H. Schmuecker; M. Steinke; J. C. Andress; N. R. Barlow; W. Bhimji; N. Chevalier; P. J. Clark; W. N. Cottingham; N. De Groot; N. Dyce; B. Foster; A. Mass; J. D. McFall; D. Wallom; F. F. Wilson; K. Abe; C. Hearty; J. A. McKenna; D. Thiessen; B. Camanzi; T. J. Harrison; A. K. McKemey; J. Tinslay; E. I. Antohin; V. E. Blinov; A. D. Bukin; D. A. Bukin; A. R. Buzykaev; M. S. Dubrovin; V. B. Golubev; V. N. Ivanchenko; G. M. Kolachev; A. A. Korol; E. A. Kravchenko; S. F. Mikhailov; A. P. Onuchin; A. A. Salnikov; S. I. Serednyakov; Yu. I. Skovpen; V. I. Telnov; A. N. Yushkov; J. Booth; A. J. Lankford; M. Mandelkern; S. Pier; D. P. Stoker; G. Zioulas; A. Ahsan; K. Arisaka; C. Buchanan; S. Chun; R. Faccini; D. B. MacFarlane; S. A. Prell; Sh. Rahatlou; G. Raven; V. Sharma; S. Burke; D. Callahan; C. Campagnari; B. Dahmes; D. Hale; P. A. Hart; N. Kuznetsova; S. Kyre; S. L. Levy; O. Long; A. Lu; J. May; J. D. Richman; W. Verkerke; M. Witherell; S. Yellin; J. Beringer; J. DeWitt; D. E. Dorfan; A. M. Eisner; A. Frey; A. A. Grillo; M. Grothe; C. A. Heusch; R. P. Johnson; W. Kroeger; W. S. Lockman; T. Pulliam; W. Rowe; H. Sadrozinski; T. Schalk; R. E. Schmitz; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; E. N. Spencer; M. Turri; W. Walkowiak; M. Wilder; D. C. Williams; E. Chen; G. P. Dubois-Felsmann; A. Dvoretskii; J. E. Hanson; D. G. Hitlin; Yu. G. Kolomensky; S. Metzler; J. Oyang; F. C. Porter; A. Ryd; A. Samuel; M. Weaver; S. Yang; R. Y. Zhu; S. Devmal; T. L. Geld; S. Jayatilleke; G. Mancinelli; B. T. Meadows; M. D. Sokoloff; P. Bloom; B. Broomer; E. Erdos; S. Fahey; W. T. Ford; F. Gaede; W. C. van Hoek; D. R. Johnson; A. K. Michael; U. Nauenberg; A. Olivas; P. Rankin; J. Roy; S. Sen; J. G. Smith; D. L. Wagner; J. Blouw; J. L. Harton; M. Krishnamurthy; A. Soffer; W. H. Toki; D. W. Warner; R. J. Wilson; J. Zhang; T. Brandt; J. Brose; G. Dahlinger; M. Dickopp; R. S. Dubitzky; P. Eckstein; H. Futterschneider; M. L. Kocian; R. Krause; R. Müller-Pfefferkorn; K. R. Schubert; R. Schwierz; B. Spaan; L. Wilden; L. Behr; D. Bernard; G. R. Bonneaud; F. Brochard; J. Cohen-Tanugi; S. Ferrag; G. Fouque; F. Gastaldi; P. Matricon; P. Mora de Freitas; C. Renard; E. Roussot; S. T'Jampens; C. Thiebaux; G. Vasileiadis; M. Verderi; A. Anjomshoaa; R. Bernet; F. Di Lodovico; F. Muheim; S. Playfer; J. E. Swain; M. Falbo; C. Bozzi; S. Dittongo; M. Folegani; L. Piemontese; A. C. Ramusino; E. Treadwell; F. Anulli; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; D. Falciai; G. Finocchiaro; P. Patteri; I. M. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; Y. Xie; A. Zallo; S. Bagnasco; A. Buzzo; R. Contri; G. Crosetti; P. Fabbricatore; S. Farinon; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; S. Minutoli; M. R. Monge; R. Musenich; M. Pallavicini; R. Parodi; S. Passaggio; F. C. Pastore; C. Patrignani; M. G. Pia; C. Priano; E. Robutti; A. Santroni; R. Bartoldus; T. Dignan; U. Mallik; J. Cochran; H. B. Crawley; P. A. Fischer; J. Lamsa; R. McKay; W. T. Meyer; E. I. Rosenberg; J. Albert; C. Beigbeder; M. Benkebil; D. Breton; R. Cizeron; S. Du; G. Grosdidier; C. Hast; A. Höcker; H. M. Lacker; V. LePeltier; A. M. Lutz; S. Plaszczynski; M. H. Schune; S. Trincaz-Duvoid; K. Truong; A. Valassi; G. Wormser; O. Alford; D. Behne; R. M. Bionta; J. Bowman; V. Brigljevi?; A. Brooks; V. A. Dacosta; O. Fackler; D. Fujino; M. Harper; D. J. Lange; M. Mugge; T. G. O'Connor; H. Olson; L. Ott; E. Parker; B. Pedrotti; M. Roeben; X. Shi; K. van Bibber; T. J. Wenaus; D. M. Wright; C. R. Wuest; B. Yamamoto; M. Carroll; P. Cooke; J. R. Fry; E. Gabathuler; R. Gamet; M. George; M. Kay; S. McMahon

2002-01-01

369

Solid state detectors in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Since Nuclear Medicine diagnostic applications are growing fast, room temperature semiconductor detectors such CdTe and CdZnTe either in the form of single detectors or as segmented monolithic detectors have been investigated aiming to replace the NaI scintillator. These detectors have inherently better energy resolution that scintillators coupled to photodiodes or photomultiplier tubes leading to compact imaging systems with higher spatial resolution and enhanced contrast. Advantages and disadvantages of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors in imaging systems are discussed and efforts to develop semiconductor-based planar and tomographic cameras as well as nuclear probes are presented. PMID:12072840

Darambara, D G; Todd-Pokropek, A

2002-03-01

370

Germanium Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form. The advantages of the Si blocked impurity band (BIB) detector invented by M. D. Petroff and M. G. Stabelbroek are noted: smaller detection volume leading to a reduction of cosmic ray interference, extended wavelength response because of dopant wavefunction overlap, and photoconductive gain of unity. It is argued that the stated advantages of Si BIB detectors should be realizable for Ge BIB detectors. Information is given on detector development, subtrate choice and preparation, wafer polising, epitaxy, characterization of epi layers, and preliminary Ge BIB detector test results.

Haller, E. E.; Baumann, H.; Beeman, J. W.; Hansen, W. L.; Luke, P. N.; Lutz, M.; Rossington, C. S.; Wu, I. C.

1989-01-01

371

Lanthanum Bromide Detectors for Safeguards Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Lanthanum bromide has advantages over other popular inorganic scintillator detectors. Lanthanum bromide offers superior resolution, and good efficiency when compared to sodium iodide and lanthanum chloride. It is a good alternative to high purity germanium detectors for some safeguards applications. This paper offers an initial look at lanthanum bromide detectors. Resolution of lanthanum bromide will be compared lanthanum chloride and sodium-iodide detectors through check source measurements. Relative efficiency and angular dependence will be looked at. Nuclear material spectra, to include plutonium and highly enriched uranium, will be compared between detector types.

Wright, J.

2011-05-25

372

Large natural Cherenkov detectors: Water and ice  

SciTech Connect

In this review we first address 2 questions: {sm_bullet} why do we need kilometer-scale muon and neutrino detectors? {sm_bullet} what do we learn from the operating Baikal and AMANDA detectors about the construction of kilometer-scale detectors? I will subsequently discuss the challenges for building the next-generation detectors. The main message is that these are different, in fact less ominous, than for commissioning the present, relatively small, detectors which must reconstruct events far outside their instrumented volume in order to achieve large effective telescope area. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Halzen, F. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

1998-06-01

373

Large natural Cherenkov detectors: Water and ice  

SciTech Connect

In this review we first address 2 questions: why do we need kilometer-scale muon and neutrino detectors? what do we learn from the operating Baikal and AMANDA detectors about the construction of kilometer-scale detectors? I will subsequently discuss the challenges for building the next-generation detectors. The main message is that these are different, in fact less ominous, than for commissioning the present, relatively small, detectors which must reconstruct events far outside their instrumented volume in order to achieve large effective telescope area.

Halzen, Francis [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

1998-06-15

374

Alignment systems in LHC general purpose detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking systems in large multipurpose particle physics detectors are comprised of a large number of active elements designed, for precision measurement of particle trajectories. If detectors are to perform as designed a precise knowledge of the location of the different elements, with precision similar to the intrinsic detector resolution, is required. We will describe the design criteria and design considerations for optical alignment systems that achieve these goals. Issues discussed will include resolution discussions, integrating alignment with tracking detectors, geometric considerations, test beam activities, optical devices, calibration, and software analysis and validation procedures. We will describe the implementation of these ideas mainly in the CMS and ATLAS detectors operating at LHC.

Bensinger, J.; Rodrigo, T.

2012-02-01

375

INO prototype detector and data acquisition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is proposing to build a 50 kton magnetised iron calorimetric (ICAL) detector in an underground laboratory to be located in South India. Glass resistive plate chambers (RPCs) of about 2 m×2 m in size will be used as active elements for the ICAL detector. As a first step towards building the ICAL detector, a 35 ton prototype of the same is being set up over ground to track cosmic muons. Design and construction details of the prototype detector and its data acquisition system will be discussed. Some of the preliminary results from the detector stack will also be highlighted.

Behere, Anita; Bhatia, M. S.; Chandratre, V. B.; Datar, V. M.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Jena, Satyajit; Viyogi, Y. P.; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Saha, Satyajit; Bhide, Sarika; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Nagesh, B. K.; Rao, Shobha K.; Reddy, L. V.; Saraf, M.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R. R.; Upadhya, S. S.; Verma, P.; Biswas, Saikat; Chattopadhyay, Subhasish; Sarma, P. R.

2009-05-01

376

CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R3B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ˜300MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator - photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma-ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations.

Pietras, B.; Gascón, M.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Bendel, M.; Bloch, T.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I.; Fiori, E.; Gernhäuser, R.; González, D.; Kröll, T.; Le Bleis, T.; Montes, N.; Nácher, E.; Robles, M.; Perea, A.; Vilán, J. A.; Winkel, M.

2013-11-01

377

Antimonide superlattice barrier infrared detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unipolar barriers can block one carrier type but allow the un-impeded flow of the other. They can be used to implement the barrier infra-red detector (BIRD) design for increasing the collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, and reducing dark current generation without impeding photocurrent flow. In particular, the InAs/GaSb/AlSb material system, which can be epitaxially grown on GaSb or InAs substrates, is well suited for implementing BIRD structures, as there is considerable flexibility in forming a variety of alloys and superlattices, and tailoring band offsets. We describe our efforts to achieve high-performance long wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared photodetectors based on the BIRD architecture. Specifically, we report a 10 ?m cutoff device based on a complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design. The detector, without anti-reflection coating, exhibits a responsivity of 1.5 A/W and a dark current density of 1×10-5 A/cm2 at 77K under 0.2 V bias. It reaches 300 K background limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) operation at 101 K, with a black-body BLIP D* value of 2.6×1010 cm-Hz1/2/W for 2? field of view under 0.2 V bias.

Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Nguyen, Jean; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Lee, Michael C.; Yang, Baohau; Gunapala, Sarath D.

2009-08-01

378

The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem  

SciTech Connect

The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status.

Yamamoto, R.M.; Bowers, J.M.; Harvey, A.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-05-19

379

Amanda South Pole neutrino detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy neutrino radiation provides us with a tomographic tool to scan the Universe. Sites shielded by a few hundred grams of matter are not revealed by light, whatever its wavelength. High energy neutrinos are decay products of pions and therefore are a signature of the most energetic cosmic processes. It is proposed to instrument the polar ice cap as a low-noise particle detector sensing the Cherenkov light from neutrino-induced muons. This paper describes the successful operation of a prototype string of optical modules that were deployed on January 17, 1992 at the South Pole. The advantages of the method are intriguing. The ice has good optical transmission and provides a mechanical structure to support the instrument. Ice is a quiet, sterile medium where photomultiplier tubes experience low background counting rates. The low background allows us to develop electronics and triggering schemes that are simple and can be installed at the surface and thus remain accessible after deployment of the PMTs under 1 km of ice. NSF has recently approved our proposal to construct a detector that will have an area over one order of magnitude larger than the largest of the present generation of underground detectors.

Barwick, S.; Lynch, J.; Porrata, R.; Yodh, G.; Lowder, D.; Miller, T.; Price, B.; Richards, A.; Snowden-Ifft, D.; Westphal, A.; Halzen, F.; Jacobsen, J.; Kandhadai, V.; Luibarsky, I.; Morse, R.; Tilav, S.

1992-02-01

380

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOEpatents

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

1996-08-20

381

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOEpatents

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

1996-08-20

382

Energy Calibration of Double Chooz Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactor anti-neutrino oscillation experiment Double Chooz was designed to measure the mixing angle theta-13 with unprecedented sensitivity. The Double Chooz detector system consists of a main detector, an outer veto system and several calibration systems. The main detector has a cylindrical structure. It consists of the target vessel, a liquid scintillator loaded with Gd, surrounded by the gamma-catcher, a non-loaded liquid scintillator. A buffer region of non-scintillating liquid surrounds the gamma-catcher and serves to host 390 photomultiplier tubes and to decrease the level of accidental background. The Inner Veto region is outside the buffer, and the Outer Veto system covers all detector components. Far detector is operational and the near detector is under construction. The detector is calibrated with light sources, radioactive point sources, cosmics and natural radioactivity. In this presentation we will describe use of radioactive calibration sources and cross-checks performed with cosmics and natural radioactivity.

Yang, Guang

2013-04-01

383

Detectors for Linear Colliders: Detector design for a Future Electron-Positron Collider (4/4)  

ScienceCinema

In this lecture I will discuss the issues related to the overall design and optimization of a detector for ILC and CLIC energies. I will concentrate on the two main detector concepts which are being developed in the context of the ILC. Here there has been much recent progress in developing realistic detector models and in understanding the physics performance of the overall detector concept. In addition, I will discuss the how the differences in the detector requirements for the ILC and CLIC impact the overall detector design.

None

2011-10-06

384

The PANDA detector at FAIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooled antiproton beams of unprecedented intensities in the momentum range of 1.5-15 GeV/c will be used for the PANDA experiment at FAIR to perform high precision experiments in the charmed quark sector. Four major physical research topics will be addressed: Spectroscopy of resonances in the energy region of charmonium and above, In-medium effects of open and hidden charm, glueballs, predicted by QCD, and single and double hypernuclei. The proposed PANDA detector is a 4 ? internal target spectrometer at the HESR allowing the detection and identification of neutral and charged particles generated within the total energy range of the antiproton annihilation products.

Schwarz, C.

2009-11-01

385

Nanocomposite scintillator, detector, and method  

DOEpatents

A compact includes a mixture of a solid binder and at least one nanopowder phosphor chosen from yttrium oxide, yttrium tantalate, barium fluoride, cesium fluoride, bismuth germanate, zinc gallate, calcium magnesium pyrosilicate, calcium molybdate, calcium chlorovanadate, barium titanium pyrophosphate, a metal tungstate, a cerium doped nanophosphor, a bismuth doped nanophosphor, a lead doped nanophosphor, a thallium doped sodium iodide, a doped cesium iodide, a rare earth doped pyrosilicate, or a lanthanide halide. The compact can be used in a radiation detector for detecting ionizing radiation.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); McKigney, Edward A. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-04-28

386

New technologies for UV detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several technologies are currently being developed, leading to substantial improvements in the performance of UV detectors or significant reductions in power or weight. Four technologies discussed are (1) thin-film coatings to enhance the UV sensitivity of CCD's, (2) highly innovative magnet assemblies that dramatically reduce weight and result in virtually no external flux, (3) new techniques for curving microchannel plates (MCP's) so that single plates can be used to prevent ion feedback and present highly localized charge clouds to an anode structure, and (4) high-performance alternatives to glass-based MCP's. In item (2), for example, very robust magnets are made out of rare earth materials such as samarium cobalt, and cladding magnets are employed to prevent flux from escaping from the detector into the external environment. These new ultralight magnet assemblies are able to create strong, exceptionally uniform magnetic fields for image intensification and focusing of photoelectrons. The principle advantage of such detectors is the quantum efficiencies of 70-80 percent obtained throughout ultraviolet wavelengths (900-2000 A), the highest of any device. Despite the improvements achieved under item (3), high-performance alternatives to conventional glass-based MCP's potentially offer three distinct new advantages that include (1) a 30-100-fold improvement in dynamic range resulting in correspondingly higher signal-to-noise ratios, (2) the use of pure dielectric and semiconductor materials that will not outgas contaminants that eventually destroy photocathodes, and (3) channels that have constant spacing providing long-ranged order since the plates are made using photolithography techniques from the semiconductor industry. The manufacturers of these advanced-technology MCP's, however, are a couple of years away from actually producing a functioning image intensifier. In contrast to the use of CCD's for optical, ground based observations, there is no single detector technology in the ultraviolet that dominates or is as universally suitable for all applications. Thus, several technological problems, recent advances, and the impact that these new enabling technologies represent for UV applications are addressed.

Joseph, C. L.

1993-01-01

387

High gas flow alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

1996-05-07

388

Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

We discuss two approaches to obtain detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focussed and energy analyzed through a pinhole and streaked. Calculations show that 20 ps time-resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse.

Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Campbell, D.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Cable, M.D.; Graves, W.R.; Lane, S.M.; Lerche, R.A.

1984-10-05

389

Calorimetry of the Rice Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment (RICE) is an ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic ray neutrino detector for neutrino energies greater than a PeV. This pilot project explores the radio detection technique for UHE particles. Deployed at the Antarctic polar ice cap, RICE antennas have been operational since 1996. Basic calibrations of the antenna array have been done using data taken mostly in situ. The calibration results and an upper limit on electron neutrino flux based on one month of analyzed data are reported here.

Razzaque, Soebur

2002-01-01

390

Detector challenges at the LHC.  

PubMed

The best way to study the existence of the Higgs boson, supersymmetry and grand unified theories, and perhaps the physics of dark matter and dark energy, is at the TeV scale. This is the energy scale that will be explored at the Large Hadron Collider. This machine will generate the energy and rate of collisions that might provide evidence of new fundamental physics. It also brings with it the formidable challenge of building detectors that can record a large variety of detailed measurements in the inhospitable environment close to the collisions points of the machine. PMID:17637659

Stapnes, Steinar

2007-07-19

391

Ge photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An undoped Ge photocapacitive detector is reported which has peak normalized detectivities at wavelengh 1.4 microns and chopping frequencies 13-1000 Hz of 9 x 10 to the 12th, 4 x 10 to the 9th cm Hz to the 1/2th/W operating respectively at temperatures 77, 195, and 295 K. The observed temperature, spectral, and frequency response of the signal and noise are explained in terms of the measured space charge and interface state properties of the device.

Binari, S. C.; Miller, W. E.; Tsuo, Y. H.; Miller, W. E.

1979-01-01

392

Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

Leonard, F. L.

2012-03-01

393

Small area detectors at the European XFEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detectors to be used at the European XFEL have to deal with the unique time structure of the machine, delivering up to 2700 pulses, with a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, ten times per second, the very high photon flux and the need to combine single-photon sensitivity and a large dynamic range. This represents a challenge not only for the large-area 2D imaging detectors but also for the smaller-area detectors and makes the use of standard commercial devices impossible. Dedicated solutions are therefore envisaged for small imaging- or strip-detectors. In this contribution the focus is put on two particular small-area detector solutions which are planned to be used at the European XFEL, a strip detector for hard X-rays (with energy 3 < E < 25 keV) and an imaging detector for soft X-rays (0.25 < E < 3 keV). Hard X-rays photon-beam diagnostics as well as hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy at the European XFEL make use of strip detectors as detectors for beam spectrometers or as energy-dispersive detectors in combination with an energy-dispersive element. The European XFEL is establishing cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen to develop a new version of the Gotthard detector best suited to the European XFEL needs. The use case and the required detector specifications are illustrated. Starting from the present detector version, the modifications planned to adapt it to the European XFEL running conditions are described. These include the capability of running at an increased rate and to provide a veto signal to the large 2D imaging detectors, in order to be able to remove non-interesting images already at early stages of the DAQ system. In another particular application, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a Micro-Channel Plate detector matched to a delay-line readout is foreseen to be used. In this case the European XFEL is aiming for a highly customized solution provided by the German company Surface Concept. The use case is described, the science-driven detector specifications are illustrated and the expected detector performance is shown.

Turcato, M.; Gessler, P.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Meyer, M.; Nordgren, J.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Youngman, C.

2014-05-01

394

Charge collection in partially depleted silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of partially depleted silicon detectors deserves some attention in the design of large systems such as electromagnetic or hadronic calorimeters in which these detectors are used and conservative operating conditions must be imposed [1-3]. We have experimentally investigated charge collection from the undepleted region in silicon detectors manufactured for high energy calorimetry by Ansaldo Semiconductors S.p.A. The observed results are compared with a simple model.

Fontanelli, F.; Ramella, P.; Vitale, S.

1988-06-01

395

Resonant-mass detectors of gravitational radiation.  

PubMed

A network of second-generation low-temperature gravitational radiation detectors is nearing completion. These detectors, sensitive to mechanical strains of order 10(-18), are possible because of a variety of technical innovations hat have been made in cryogenics, low-noise superconducting instrumentation, and vibration isolation techniques. Another five orders of magnitude improvement in energy sensitivity of resonant-mass detectors is possible before the linear amplifier quantum limit is encountered. PMID:17830923

Michelson, P F; Price, J C; Taber, R C

1987-07-10

396

Active microphonic noise cancellation in radiation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new adaptive filtering technique to reduce microphonic noise in radiation detectors is presented. The technique is based on system identification that actively cancels the microphonic noise. A sensor is used to measures mechanical disturbances that cause vibration on the detector assembly, and the digital adaptive filtering estimates the impact of these disturbances on the microphonic noise. The noise then can be subtracted from the actual detector measurement. In this paper the technique is presented and simulations are used to support this approach.

Zimmermann, Sergio

2013-11-01

397

Large Cryogenic Germanium Detector. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to investigate possible ways of increasing the size of cryogenic Ge detectors. This project identified two possible approaches to increasing the individual cryogenic Ge detector size. The first approach relies on using the existing technology for growing detector-grade (high-purity) germanium crystals of dislocation density 100-7000 cm{sup -2}. The second approach is to consider dislocation-free Ge crystals.

Mandic, Vuk

2013-02-13

398

Development of a Plasma Panel Muon Detector  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detector technology based on Plasma Display Panels (PDP), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays is being investigated. Emerging from this well established television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micropattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally a fast, high resolution detector comprised of an array of plasma discharge cells operating in a hermetically sealed gas mixture. We report on the PPS development effort, including proof-of-principle results of laboratory signal observations.

Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Dai, T. [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University; Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; White, Sebastion [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan

2010-01-01

399

Large Format Detector Arrays for Astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in detector design and advances in fabrication techniques has resulted in devices which can reach fundamental sensitivity limits in many cases. Many pressing astrophysical questions require large arrays of such sensitive detectors. I will describe the state of far infrared through millimeter detector development at NASA/GSFC, the design and production of large format arrays, and the initial deployment of these powerful new tools.

Moseley, Harvey

2006-01-01

400

The E781 (SELEX) RICH detector  

SciTech Connect

First results from a new RICH detector, operating in an experiment currently taking data - Fermilab E781 (SELEX), are presented. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode. In a 650 GeV/c ?r- beam the number of photons detected is 14 per ring, giving a Figure of Merit No of 106 cm-`. The ring radius resolution obtained is 1.2 %. Results showing the particle identification ability of the detector are discussed.

Engelfried, J.

1997-06-01

401

Physics prospects with the upgraded CDF detector  

SciTech Connect

The CDF detector is being extensively upgraded for Fermilab Tevatron Run II, which is scheduled to begin in 1999. This talk describes the planned detector upgrades. The power of the upgraded detector is illustrated by showing the expected precision of several physics measurements that will be made with the Run II data: the top mass, the W mass, BR(t{yields}Wb), and the CP violation parameters sin(2{alpha}) and sin(2{beta}).

Hylen, J.; CDF Collaboration

1995-07-01

402

Latency and bandwidth-minimizing failure detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure detectors are fundamental building blocks in dis- tributed systems. Multi-node failure detectors, where the detector is tasked with monitoring N other nodes, play a critical role in overlay networks and peer-to-peer systems. In such networks, failures need to be detected quickly and with low overhead. Achieving these properties simultane- ously poses a dicult tradeo between detection latency and resource

Kelvin C. W. So; Emin Gün Sirer

2007-01-01

403

Latency and bandwidth-minimizing failure detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure detectors are fundamental building blocks in distributed systems. Multi-node failure detectors, where the detector is tasked with monitoring N other nodes, play a critical role in overlay networks and peer-to-peer systems. In such networks, failures need to be detected quickly and with low overhead. Achieving these properties simultaneously poses a difficult tradeoff between detection latency and resource consumption. In

Kelvin C. W. So; Emin Gün Sirer

2007-01-01

404

Performance of FIMS Microchannel Plate Detector System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe some performance of the detector electronics system for the FIMS (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph) mission. The FIMS mission to map the far ultraviolet sky uses MCP (micro-channel plate) detectors with a crossed delay line anode to record photon arrival events. FIMS has two MCP detectors, each with a ˜25mm×25mm active area. The unconventional anode design allows for the use

U.-W. Nam; J.-G. Rhee; K.-N. Kong; Y.-S. Park; K.-C. Jin; H. Jin; J.-H. Park; I.-S. Yuk; K.-I. Seon; W. Han; D.-H. Lee; K.-S. Ryu; K.-W. Min; J. Edelstein; E. Korpela

2002-01-01

405

Development of a plasma panel muon detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation detector technology based on plasma display panels (PDPs), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays, is being investigated. Emerging from this well-established television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micro-pattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally a fast, high-resolution detector comprised of an array of plasma discharge cells, operating in a

D. S. Levin; R. Ball; J. R. Beene; Y. Benhammou; J. W. Chapman; T. Dai; E. Etzion; P. S. Friedman; M. Ben Moshe; Y. Silver; R. L. Varner; C. Weaverdyck; S. White; B. Zhou

2011-01-01

406

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Michigan State U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /CHEP, Taegu /Seoul Natl. U.

2007-02-01

407

Wide-Band Partial Discharge Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide-band peak voltage detector is presented, which is used for measuring partial discharges in submarine telecommunication cable systems. For high-voltage discharge detection of simple dielectric geometries or complete power filters, the wide-band detector is suitable for laboratory or factory use. A low-cost low-resolution amplitude-distribution analyzer can be assembled by combining several detectors for the special requirements of high-voltage dc

Earnest Franke; Edward Czekaj

1975-01-01

408

Superconducting nano-striplines as quantum detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent progress in the nanofabrication of superconducting films opens the road toward detectors with highly improved performances.\\u000a This is the case for superconducting nano-striplines where the thickness and the width are pushed down to the extreme limits\\u000a to realize detectors with unprecedented sensitivity and ultra fast response time. In this way quantum detectors for single\\u000a photons at telecommunication wavelengths

A. Casaburi; M. Ejrnaes; F. Mattioli; A. Gaggero; R. Leoni; N. Martucciello; S. Pagano; M. Ohkubo; R. Cristiano

409

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

1992-01-01

410

Characterization of Platinum Self-Powered Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because platinum self-powered flux detectors have a mixed (neutron and gamma-ray) response in reactor radiation fields, an experimental program was undertaken to characterize these devices. This paper describes experiments performed to determine the response parameters for Pt detectors in a heavy-water moderated reactor. Absolute y-ray and neutron sensitivities were derived from these measurements for detectors with three different emitter diameters,

G. F. Lynch; R. B. Shields; P. G. Coulter

1977-01-01

411

Readout and DAQ for Pixel Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data readout and acquisition control of pixel detectors demand the transfer of significantly a large amounts of bits between the detector and the computer. For this purpose dedicated interfaces are used which are designed with focus on features like speed, small dimensions or flexibility of use such as digital signal processors, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and USB communication ports. This work summarizes the readout and DAQ system built for state-of-the-art pixel detectors of the Medipix family.

Platkevic, Michal

2010-01-01

412

Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives and selected data are presented for the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Cosmic Ray Experiment (LSCRE) for the purpose of introducing an analysis of three of the separate detectors contained within in LSCRE package. The mica detector for measuring heavy solar wind, and the lexan stack and glass detectors for measuring energetic particles in space are discussed in terms of their deployment, exposure time, calibration, and data yield. Relevant articles on solar particles, interplanetary ions, and cosmic ray nuclei are also included.

Walker, R. M.

1974-01-01

413

Fire detector response in aircraft applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoelectric, ionization, and gas sensors were used to detect the signatures from the radiant heat or flame of various aircraft materials. It was found that both ionization and photoelectric detectors are about equally capable of detecting products of pyrolysis and combustion of synthetic polymers, especially those containing fire-retardant additives. Ionization detectors alone appeared to be sensitive to combustion products of simple cellulosic materials. A gas sensor detector appeared to be insensitive to pyrolysis or combustion products of many of the materials.

Wiersma, S. J.; Mckee, R. G.

1978-01-01

414

Field induced gap infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

Elliott, C. Thomas (inventor)

1990-01-01

415

The FPGA Pixel Array Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proposed design for a reconfigurable x-ray Pixel Array Detector (PAD) is described. It operates by integrating a high-end commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA) into a 3-layer device along with a high-resistivity diode detection layer and a custom, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) layer. The ASIC layer contains an energy-discriminating photon-counting front end with photon hits streamed directly to the FPGA via a massively parallel, high-speed data connection. FPGA resources can be allocated to perform user defined tasks on the pixel data streams, including the implementation of a direct time autocorrelation function (ACF) with time resolution down to 100 ns. Using the FPGA at the front end to calculate the ACF reduces the required data transfer rate by several orders of magnitude when compared to a fast framing detector. The FPGA-ASIC high-speed interface, as well as the in-FPGA implementation of a real-time ACF for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments has been designed and simulated. A 16×16 pixel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated and is being tested.

Hromalik, Marianne S.; Green, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

2013-02-01

416

A new passive helicopter detector  

SciTech Connect

Sandia has developed a new helicopter detector. The device relies on the correlation between the acoustic wave from the helicopter and the resulting coupled seismic wave. A significant feature of this approach is that the detector is completely passive; there is no radio frequency radiation. Intended for deployment as a perimeter sensor around a site, the unit offers a low nuisance/false alarm rate and a high probability of detection for a wide range of helicopters. Reliable detection occurs when the target is at high altitude and also very near the earth's surface. Detection ranges start at one kilometre for the small, four-place, civilian helicopter and approach five kilometres for heavier, military types. The system has two parts: a transducer package containing a microphone and a geophone and a digital processor. Development is underway for a model which will be AC powered and well suited to permanent facilities. A prototype unit using a lightweight, battery powered processor is being constructed for rapid-deployment applications.

Elliott, G.R.

1985-01-01

417

Micromegas detectors for CLAS12  

SciTech Connect

The electron accelerator of the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (VI, USA) will soon be upgraded to deliver 12 GeV high intensity beams. This increase in the performance will give the opportunity to study the nucleon structure with an unprecedented accuracy. To meet this end, new equipments will be installed in the experimental areas, particularly in the Hall B/CLAS spectrometer. One of the most challenging aspects is the installation of a Central Tracker surrounding the target, dedicated to the detection of particles emitted at large angles. Micromegas detectors have been chosen to be a major element of this new equipment, due to their high rate capability as well as their robustness and light material. Using the recent bulk technology, part of these gaseous detectors are planned to be assembled in thin cylinders to maximize the acceptance. On the other hand, the presence of a strong magnetic field either perpendicular or parallel to the readout strips has important consequences which need to be carefully investigated. Finally, resistive Micromegas have been studied to further improve the rate capability.

Charles, Gabriel [CEA, SACLAY

2013-08-01

418

Multielement detector for gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a study to improve the capabilities of a gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma (GC- MIP) detector system, determine the feasibility of empirical formula determination for simple mixtures containing elements of interest to fossil fuel analysis and, subsequently, explore applications for analysis of the complex mixtures associated with fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that the GC-MIP system is useful as a specific-element detector that provides excellent elemental specificity for a number of elements of interest to the analysis of fossil fuels. It has reasonably good sensitivity for carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nickel, and better sensitivity for chlorine and fluorine. Sensitivity is poor for nitrogen and oxygen, however, probably because of undetected leaks or erosion of the plasma tube. The GC-MIP can also provide stoichiometric information about components of simple mixtures. If this powerful technique is to be available for complex mixtures, it will be necessary to greatly simplify the chromatograms by chemical fractionation. 38 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

1988-11-01

419

Field induced gap infrared detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

Elliott, C. Thomas

1990-08-01

420

STJ detectors for protein detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has become an essential spectrometry for a research field of bioscience. However, the mass limit of the conventional TOF-MS spectrometer frequently prevent us from measuring the mass values for large biomolecules without chemical or enzymatic digestion. Overcoming the circumstance, a TOF-MS instrument with superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors (Super TOF-MS) were developed. The direct observation of the kinetic energy for each ion by Super TOF-MS leads to the two considerable capabilities: the observation of large proteins up to 1 MDa and the ionic charge-state discrimination of them, which are impossible with conventional ion detectors. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the these advantages of Super TOF-MS is a powerful tool at performing a fragment analysis of, for example, immunoglobulin G (IgG) which is a large protein playing a key role in an immune system.

Kobayashi, Y.; Ukibe, M.; Chiba-Kamoshida, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Shiki, S.; Suzuki, K.; Ohkubo, M.

2008-09-01

421

Recirculating cross-correlation detector  

DOEpatents

A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

1985-01-18

422

A Power-Efficient Configurable Low-Complexity MIMO Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a power-efficient configurable multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) detector, supporting QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM with low complexity. The approach divides a large MIMO detector into two subsystems: a core detector and a residual detector. The core detector, a low-cost 2 times 2 V-BLAST with ML detector, is used to detect the first two significant outputs. This detector not

Chien-Jen Huang; Chung-Wen Yu; Hsi-Pin Ma

2009-01-01

423

Physics capabilities of the DO upgrade detector  

SciTech Connect

The D0 detector at Fermilab is being upgraded to meet the demands imposed by high luminosity Tevatron running planned to begin in 1998. The central tracking detectors will be replaced with silicon and scintillating fiber tracking systems inside a solenoidal magnetic field and a preshower detector will be added to aid in electron identification. The design and performance of these systems are described and detailed simulations of the physics capabilities of the upgraded detector are presented. In particular the authors focus on the study of electroweak boson properties and top quark physics and briefly describe the b-physics capabilities.

Ellison, J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Physics Dept.

1994-11-01

424

Improved low frequency stability of bolometric detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ac bridge readout system has been developed that greatly improves the low-frequency stability of bolometric detectors. The readout can be implemented with a simple circuit appropriate for use in space applications. A matched pair of detectors was used in the readout to achieve system noise within a factor of two of the fundamental noise limit of the detectors at frequencies as low as 10 mHz. The low-frequency stability of the readout system allows slower, more sensitive detectors to be used in many applications, and it facilitates observing strategies that are well suited to spaceborne observations.

Wilbanks, T.; Devlin, M.; Lange, A. E.; Beeman, J. W.; Sato, S.

1990-01-01

425

The LiC detector toy program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note describes the "LiC Detector Toy" ("LiC" for Linear Collider) software tool which has been developed for detector design studies, aiming at investigating the resolution of reconstructed track parameters for the purpose of comparing and optimizing various detector setups. It consists of a simplified simulation of the detector measurements, taking into account multiple scattering, followed by full single track reconstruction using the Kalman filter. The tool is written in M ATLAB and may be installed on a laptop. It can easily be used as a black-box tool by non-experts, but also adapted to individual needs.

Regler, Meinhard; Valentan, Manfred; Frühwirth, Rudolf

2007-10-01

426

Novel detectors for traceable THz power measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several novel types of detectors for the measurement of electromagnetic radiation in the THz spectral range are described. Firstly, detectors based on pyroelectric foil coated with different absorbers have been developed focusing on the following features: high accuracy due to well-characterized absorption, high sensitivity, large area absorbers and frequency and polarization independence. A three-dimensional design with five absorptions gave an overall absorption of more than 98 %. Secondly, detectors based on pyroelectric foils with thin metal layers were realized. An absorption of 50 % can be obtained if the thickness of the layers is carefully adjusted. According to electromagnetic theory this degree of absorption is independent of the polarization and frequency of the radiation in a wide range from at least 20 GHz to 5 THz. The third type of detector is based on a new type of volume absorber with a polished front surface and a gold-coated back side. It is the absorber of choice of the standard power detector for disseminating the spectral power responsivity scale. This standard detector allows the application of a physical model to calculate its spectral responsivity in the range from 1 THz to 5 THz if the detector has been calibrated at one single frequency. Finally, a THz detector calibration facility was set up and is now in operation at PTB to calibrate detectors from customers with an uncertainty as low as 1.7 %.

Müller, Ralf; Bohmeyer, Werner; Kehrt, Mathias; Lange, Karsten; Monte, Christian; Steiger, Andreas

2014-04-01

427

Radiation experience with the CDF silicon detectors  

SciTech Connect

The silicon detectors of the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider are operated in a harsh radiation environment. The lifetime of the silicon detectors is limited by radiation damage, and beam-related incidents are an additional risk. This article describes the impact of beam-related incidents on detector operation and the effects of radiation damage on electronics noise and the silicon sensors. From measurements of the depletion voltage as a function of the integrated luminosity, estimates of the silicon detector lifetime are derived.

Husemann, Ulrich; /Rochester U.

2005-11-01

428

Measured proton sensitivities of bubble detectors.  

PubMed

The neutron dose equivalent in aircraft is measured using commercial bubble detectors, but at high altitudes there are not only neutrons but also protons. Bubble detectors have been used because they are considered not to be sensitive to protons, but this has been the subject of only a few studies. In this study, by irradiating bubble detectors with energetic protons, the detectors' responses to protons were observed. Bubbles were clearly formed by protons, but the proton sensitivities were one order of magnitude smaller than the neutron sensitivities. Thus, counts of protons can be ignored in neutron measurements in aircraft. PMID:15266070

Takada, Masashi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

2004-01-01

429

Hybrid Photon Detectors and Ion Feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term development of the Ion Feedback rate of Hybrid Photon Detectors in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors was studied as a sensitive measure of the vacuum quality. From a phenomenological understanding of the development reliable predictions can be made for individual photon detectors. Eighty percent of them will operate well for the lifetime of LHCb. In a 20% subsample a faster-than-expected degradation of the vacuum quality was found. A HPD repair and replacement programme guarantees a good performance of the LHCb RICH detector at all time during data taking.

Eisenhardt, Stephan; LHCb RICH Collaboration

430

The HADES Pre-Shower detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pre-Shower detector was built for the high acceptance di-electron spectrometer to identify electrons produced in pion, proton and heavy ion-induced reactions in the 0.2detector for time-of-flight measurements. The paper describes the Pre-Shower detector construction, the detector operation, the read-out electronics and its response to charged particles studied with electron, proton and heavy ion beams.

Ba?anda, A.; Jasku?a, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kido?, L.; Korcyl, K.; Kühn, W.; Kulessa, R.; Malarz, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Petri, M.; Pietraszko, J.; Prokopowicz, W.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Skocze?, A.; Szczybura, M.; Wajda, E.; Walu?, W.; Wi?niowski, M.; Wójcik, T.; Hades Collaboration

2004-10-01

431

Processing circuitry for single channel radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing circuitry is provided for a high voltage operated radiation detector. An event detector utilizes a comparator configured to produce an event signal based on a leading edge threshold value. A preferred event detector does not produce another event signal until a trailing edge threshold value is satisfied. The event signal can be utilized for counting the number of particle hits and also for controlling data collection operation for a peak detect circuit and timer. The leading edge threshold value is programmable such that it can be reprogrammed by a remote computer. A digital high voltage control is preferably operable to monitor and adjust high voltage for the detector.

Holland, Samuel D. (Inventor); Delaune, Paul B. (Inventor); Turner, Kathryn M. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

432

Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an ultrafast graphene-based detector, working in the THz range at room temperature. A logarithmic-periodic antenna is coupled to a graphene flake that is produced by exfoliation on SiO2. The detector was characterized with the free-electron laser FELBE for wavelengths from 8 ?m to 220 ?m. The detector rise time is 50 ps in the wavelength range from 30 ?m to 220 ?m. Autocorrelation measurements exploiting the nonlinear photocurrent response at high intensities reveal an intrinsic response time below 10 ps. This detector has a high potential for characterizing temporal overlaps, e.g., in two-color pump-probe experiments.

Mittendorff, Martin; Winnerl, Stephan; Kamann, Josef; Eroms, Jonathan; Weiss, Dieter; Schneider, Harald; Helm, Manfred

2013-07-01

433

Electronic considerations for externally segmented germanium detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dominant background source for germanium gamma ray detector spectrometers used for some astrophysics observations is internal beta decay. Externally segmented germanium gamma ray coaxial detectors can identify beta decay by localizing the event. Energetic gamma rays interact in the germanium detector by multiple Compton interactions while beta decay is a local process. In order to recognize the difference between gamma rays and beta decay events, the external electrode (outside of detector) is electrically partitioned. The instrumentation of these external segments and the consequence with respect to the spectrometer energy signal is examined.

Madden, N. W.; Landis, D. A.; Goulding, F. S.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Malone, D. F.; Pollard, M. J.

1991-01-01

434

MIMO Detector Based on Trellis Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth-first sphere decoder (SD) and the K-best algorithm have been widely studied as near optimum detectors. Depth-first SD has a non-deterministic computational throughput and K-best requires a sorting unit whose complexity is significant when a large K is used together with high modulation constellations. In this letter, we propose a MIMO detector that employs the trellis structure instead of the conventional tree searching. This detector can keep the computational throughput constant and reduce the complexity because the sorting is not required. From the simulation and complexity analysis, we investigate the advantage and drawback of the proposed detector.

Lee, Jin; Park, Sin-Chong

435

The dependence of the virtual point-detector on the HPGe detector dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the HPGe detector efficiency when collecting full-energy peaks vs. the distance of the point source from the detector cap was studied by Monte-Carlo methods for 49 cylindrical detectors, having different radii and thicknesses. It was shown that in all cases, interpolation and extrapolation can be done using the model of the virtual point-detector. The dependence of the

S. Mahling; I. Orion; Z. B. Alfassi

2006-01-01

436

Evaluation of HPGe detector efficiency for point sources using virtual point detector model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a virtual point detector (VPD) has been developed and validated in the past for Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors. In the present research, a new semi-empirical equation involving photon energy and source–virtual point detector distance for the efficiency of point sources by HPGe detectors is introduced , which is based on the VPD model. The calculated efficiencies for

M. A. Mohammadi; M. R. Abdi; M. Kamali; M. Mostajaboddavati; M. R. Zare

2011-01-01

437

Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV (at 1 keV) and 5 eV (at 7 keV), creating some overlap with part of the NFI 1 energy window. Both narrow field imagers have a 0.5 arcmin field of view. Their imaging capabilities are matched to the XEUS optics of 2 to 5 arcsec leading to 1 arcsec pixels. The detector arrays will be cooled by a closed cycle system comprising a mechanical cooler with a base temperature of 2.5 K and either a low temperature 3He sorption pump providing the very low temperature stage and/or an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). The ADR cooler is explicitly needed to cool the NFI 2 array. The narrow field imager 1} Currently a 48 times 48 element array of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) is envisaged. Its operating temperature is in the range between 30 and 350 mK. Small, single Ta STJs (20-50 mum on a side) have shown 3.5 eV (FWHM) resolution at E = 525 eV and small arrays have been successfully demonstrated (6 times 6 pixels), or are currently tested (10 times 12 pixels). Alternatively, a prototype Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID), consisting of a linear superconducting Ta absorber of 20 times 100 mum2, including a 20 times 20 mum STJ for readout at either end, has shown a measured energy resolution of 2.4 eV (FWHM) at E = 500 eV. Simulations involving the diffusion properties as well as loss and tunnel rates have shown that the performance can be further improved by slight modifications in the geometry, and that the size of the DROIDS can be increased to 0.5-1.0 mm without loss in energy resolution. The relatively large areas and good energy resolution compared to single STJs make DROIDS good candidates for the basic elements of the NFI 1 detector array. With a DROID-based array of 48 times 10 elements covering the NFI 1 field of view of 0.5 arcmin, the number of signal wires would already be reduced by a factor 2.4 compared to a 48 times 48 array of single pixels. While the present prototype DROIDS are still covered with a 480 nm thick SiOx insulation layer, this layer could easily be reduced in thickness or omitted. The detection efficiency of such a device with a 500 nm thick Ta absorber would be >80% in the energy range of 100-3000eV, without any disturbing contributions from other layers as in single STJs. Further developments involve devices of lower Tc-superconductors for better energy resolution and faster diffusion (e.g. Mo). The narrow field imager 2 The NFI 2 will consist of an array of 32 times 32 detector pixels. Each detector is a microcalorimeter which consists of a a superconducting to normal phase transition edge thermometer (transition edge sensor, TES) with an operating temperature of 100 mK, and an absorber which allows a detection efficiency of >90% and a filling factor of the focal plane in excess of 90%. Single pixel microcalorimeters with a Ti/Au TES have already shown an energy resolution of 3.9 eV at 5.89 keV in combination with a thermal response time of 100 mus. These results imply that they the high-energy requirement for XEUS can be met, in terms of energy resolution and response time. It has been demonstrated that bismuth can be applied as absorber material without impeding on the detector performance. Bi increases the stopping power in excess of 90 % and allows for a high filling factor since the absorber is can be modeled in the shape of a mushroom, allowing that the wiring to the detector and the thermal support structure are placed under the hat of the mushroom. In order to realize the NFI 2 detector array, there are two major development areas. Firstly, there is the development of micromachined Si and SiN structures that will provide proper cooling for each of the pixels and the production of small membranes to support the

Hoevers, H.; Verhoeve, P.

438

Development of a Personal CO2 Detector and a CH4 Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes four handheld CO2 detectors and three handheld CH4 detectors that were designed and manufactured for in-mine safety use. The detectors incorporated an optical-electronic analyzer design in which exceptional zero stability is achieved...

I. G. Burough

1979-01-01

439

X-Ray Detector: An x-ray radiation detector design code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-Ray Detector (XRD) is an x-ray detector design code. It is intended to aid in the rapid design of x-ray detector packages. The design capabilities of XRD include filters, x-ray mirrors, x-ray diodes, silicon PIN diodes, GaAs PIN diodes, photoconducting ...

R. B. Spielman

1990-01-01

440

Far-Infrared Detectors for CLARREO Interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic-doped Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors are a mature detector technology for the infrared spectral range of 5 to 28 micrometers for low-background astronomy [Spitzer, ISO, WISE, JWST, and other observatories] and for higher-background astronomy from terrestrial telescopes. These detectors operate below 10 K (typically using cryogenic cooling) and achieve detectivity, bandwidth, and linearity performance at least an order of magnitude over uncooled detectors such as pyroelectrics or bolometers. To address specific requirements for long-duration, full-spectrum Earth radiance studies, a joint development effort between DRS Technologies and NASA Langley Research Center has now extended BIB detector wavelength sensitivity to at least 50 micrometers and raised operating temperature above 10 K for long-duration orbital operation with existing space-capable cryocoolers. In parallel DRS has demonstrated a large-area BIB detector design with negligible internal losses and gains for use in a 99.9% QE, two-detector light trap for a Fourier Transform Spectrometer application. The application of BIB detectors with these improved features to CLARREO provides major benefits: 1) Light trapping combined with high internal QE detectors results in instrument spectral radiance results that are insensitive to operating environment variations or radiation induced drift in detector characteristics over orbital lifetime. 2) Order-of-magnitude improved detectivity allows order-of-magnitude reduction in the time to acquire an interferogram - significantly reducing scene smear associated with the time of flight over the Earth. These improvements in detector capability enable the most accurate and precise full Earth spectrum radiance measurements.

Hogue, H. H.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Muzilla, M. S.

2008-12-01

441

High P/sub T/ detectors for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

Summarized in this report is some of the work done at the recent Workshop on Experiments, Detectors, and Experimental Areas for the Supercollider held at Berkeley. The major goal was to develop an understanding of what complement of detectors would provide the capability for a well-balanced physics program at the SSC. Unlike earlier studies which had emphasized individual components such as tracking, calorimetry, etc., the intention was to focus on complete detectors. The particular detectors discussed in this paper are: the large solenoid detectors, the compact solenoid detectors, the non-magnetic detectors, the dipole detectors and muon detectors. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs. (LSP)

Trilling, G.H.

1987-11-01

442

Optical alignment system for the ZEUS micro vertex detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron–proton scattering experiment ZEUS will be equipped with a silicon vertex detector in preparation for the upgrade of the HERA collider. An optical alignment system for the vertex detector is being developed. The alignment system measures the position of the vertex detector with respect to the outer tracking detector as well as the shape of the vertex detector using

Takashi Matsushita; Stewart Boogert; Robin Devenish; Roman Walczak

2001-01-01

443

Neutron detectors for active interrogation of highly enriched uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the results of our effort to optimize three neutron detector systems for active interrogation of highly enriched uranium: 1) a large-area detector for maximum absolute efficiency; 2) modular detectors for maximum flexibility in configuring a detector system for an application; and 3) a portable detector. All three systems contained 3He tubes, polyethylene to moderate the neutrons, and cadmium

C. E. Moss; C. A. Goulding; C. L. Hollas; W. L. Myers

2004-01-01

444

CZT quasi-hemispherical detectors with improved spectrometric characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present time various CZT detectors of different designs and sizes are widely and successfully used for different applications due to its favorable detection properties. Among them there are hemispherical or quasi-hemispherical detectors. These detectors have rather simple design and do not require special electronics for application. Development of quasi-hemispherical detectors fabrication methods allows noticeable improves detector's spectrometric performance due

V. Ivanov; L. Aleksejeva; P. Dorogov; A. Luchanskii

2009-01-01

445

The Performance of LHCf Detector  

SciTech Connect

In cosmic ray physics, the uncertainty of the hadron interaction model causes systematic errors of air shower simulations in high-energy region. To solve the problem, the LHCf experiment measures energies and transverse momenta of neutral particles emitted in the forward region of 14 TeV p-p collision at CERN LHC. Two LHCf detectors, consisting of sampling and imaging calorimeters, are installed at zero degree collision angle at + 140 m from the interaction point 1 (IP1). The energy resolution is confirmed as to be <5% and the position resolution <0.2 mm for gamma-rays with energies from 100 GeV to 200 GeV by test beam results at the CERN SPS. Use of the Front Counter reduces the beam-gas background by a factor 50.

Kawade, K.; Itow, Y.; Mase, T.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Sako, T.; Taki, K. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; Grandi, M.; Menjo, H. [Universita degli Studi di Firenze and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bongi, M.; Papini, P.; Ricciarini, S.; Viciani, A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Castellini, G. [IFAC CNR and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Faus, A.; Velasco, J. [IFIC, Centro Mixto CSIC-UVEG, Valencia (Spain)

2010-06-01

446

Alien liquid detector and control  

SciTech Connect

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

Potter, B.M.

1980-09-02

447

High spatial resolution particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

2012-09-04

448

Lightweight standoff chemical agent detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lightweight standoff chemical agent detector (LSCAD) is an infrared Michelson interferometer operating in the 8 - 12 micron band and is designed primarily for military applications. The first group of prototypes has been delivered and is undergoing testing. A secondary and no less important mission of LSCAD is its application to the civilian environmental monitoring field. Trials with earlier systems at industrial sites have been successful. The system is designed to be operated from a vehicle while on the move. Platforms which have been used are road vehicles, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles (UAV), and scanning from a fixed emplacement. To meet the restrictions of military applications, the prototype system has a weight of about 22 lbs and is approximately 0.3 cu ft in size. It employs an onboard instrument control, data collection, and analysis and detection decision system which is key to its real-time operation. The hardware, data system, and preliminary results are discussed.

Ditillo, John T.; Gross, Robert L.; Althouse, Mark L.; Lagna, William M.; Loerop, William R.; Deluca, Paul J.; Quinn, Thomas G.; Grim, Larry B.

1995-02-01

449

Ion chamber gamma burst detector  

SciTech Connect

A gamma ray burst detector of x-ray photons 2 to 10 keV is designed to maximize area, 100 m/sup 2/, and sensitivity, 10/sup -10/ ergs cm/sup -2/ s/sup 1/2/ modest directionality, 2 x 10/sup -4/ sr, and minimize thickness, 3 mg cm/sup -2/, as a plastic space balloon ion chamber. If the log N - log S curve for gamma bursts extends as the -3/2 power, the sensitivity is limited by gamma-burst peak overlap in time so that the question of the size spectrum and isotropy is maximally tested. Supernova type I prompt x-ray bursts of congruent to 3-ms duration should be detected at a rate of several per day from supernova at a distance greater than 100 Mpc.

Colgate, S.A.

1981-08-25

450

Unitary scintillation detector and system  

DOEpatents

The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations.

McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

451

Unitary scintillation detector and system  

DOEpatents

The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. 10 figs.

McElhaney, S.A.; Chiles, M.M.

1994-05-31

452

Magnetic tape lightning current detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development and application tests of a low cost, passive, peak lightning current detector (LCD) found it to provide measurements with accuracies of + or - 5 percent to + or - 10 percent depending on the readout method employed. The LCD uses magnetic audio recording tape to sense the magnitude of the peak magnetic field around a conductor carrying lightning currents. The test results showed that the length of audio tape erased was linearly related to the peak simulated lightning currents in a round conductor. Accuracies of + or - 10 percent were shown for measurements made using a stopwatch readout technique to determine the amount of tape erased by the lightning current. Where more accurate data are desired, the tape is played and the output recorded on a strip chart, oscilloscope, or some other means so that measurements can be made on that recording. Conductor dimensions, tape holder dimensions, and tape formulation must also be considered to obtain a more accurate result.

Crouch, K. E.; Jafferis, W.

1980-01-01

453

The PHENIX Hadron Blind Detector  

SciTech Connect

Dielectron measurements by the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC are limited by the combinatorial background from electrons and positrons which are not produced in the same pair. The Hadron Blind Detector will allow a substantial reduction of this background by correctly identifying dielectrons from photon conversions and pion Dalitz decays which dominate the signal in the low mass region of the spectrum. Triple GEM stacks, with a CsI photocathode deposited on the uppermost GEM, detect Cherenkov light produced by electrons in a CF{sub 4} radiator. The transparency of CF{sub 4}, high quantum efficiency of CsI in the UV, and absence of a window between the gas radiator and the GEMs allow a large photoelectron yield, while minimizing the hadron signal. Results from the HBD in RHIC's Run-7 and preparations for upcoming runs are discussed.

Durham, J. M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University Stony Brook, NY 11780-3800 (United States)

2009-03-10

454

[The design of handheld fast ECG detector].  

PubMed

A new handheld fast ECG detector based on low gain amplifier, the high resolution analog to digital converter, the real-time digital filter, fast P-QRS-T wave detection and abstraction algorithm was designed. The results showed that the ECG detector can meet the requirements of fast detecting heart rate and ECG P-QRS-T waveforms. PMID:23777065

Shi, Bo; Zhang, Genxuan; Tsau, Young

2013-03-01

455

Impact of the Use of Smoke Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fire Safety and Disaster Preparedness Task Force of the Urban Consortium has identified, as one of several city and county government priorities, the need to improve smoke detector technology and to evaluate the impact of the use of smoke detectors. M...

1978-01-01

456

Applications of {sup 3}He neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Neutron detectors with {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters are described. The use of these detectors in measuring the probability of neutron emission (in particular, multiparticle neutron emission) after the {beta} decay of neutron-rich nuclei and in studying rare events of spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei is considered.

Testov, D. A., E-mail: dumon@jinr.r [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Briancon, Ch. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (France); Dmitriev, S. N.; Yeremin, A. V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Pyatkov, Yu. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Sokol, E. A. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation)

2009-01-15

457

The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BABAR detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O'Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.

2013-11-01

458

ATLAS pixel detector electronics and sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silicon pixel tracking system for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is described and the performance requirements are summarized. Detailed descriptions of the pixel detector electronics and the silicon sensors are given. The design, fabrication, assembly and performance of the pixel detector modules are presented. Data obtained from test beams as well as studies using cosmic rays

G. Aad; M. Ackers; F. A. Alberti; M. Aleppo; G. Alimonti; J. Alonso; E. C. Anderssen; A. Andreani; A. Andreazza; J.-F. Arguin; K. E. Arms; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; M. Bazalova; R. B. Beccherle; K. H. Becks; P. K. Behera; F. Bellina; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; J. B. Biesiada; L. Blanquart; J. Boek; G. R. Boyd; P. Breugnon; P. Buchholz; B. Butler; M. Caccia; A. C. Capsoni; C. Caso; D. Cauz; M. Cepeda; R. Cereseto; M. Cervetto; M. L. Chu; M. Citterio; J. C. Clemens; Y. C. Coadou; M. Cobal; A. Coccaro; S. Coelli; S. Correard; M. Cristinziani; S. Cuneo; S. D'Auria; M. Dameri; G. Darbo; S. Dardin; B. DeLotto; U. DeSanctis; J. B. DeVivie DeRegie; C. DelPapa; P. Delpierre; B. Di Girolamo; W. Dietsche; F. Djama; D. Dobos; M. Donega; J. Dopke; K. Einsweiler; A. Eyring; D. Fasching; L. Feligioni; D. Ferguson; W. Fernando; P. Fischer; M. J. Fisher; T. Flick; G. Gagliardi; E. Galyaev; K. K. Gan; M. Garcia-Sciveres; N. Garelli; G. G. Gariano; G. G. Gaycken; C. Gemme; P. Gerlach; M. Gilchriese; M. P. Giordani; D. Giugni; K. W. Glitza; C. Gössling; T. Golling; F. Goozen; I. Gorelov; G. Gorfine; C. Grah; H. M. Gray; I. M. Gregor; J. Grosse-Knetter; K. Grybel; P. Gutierrez; G. D. Hallewell; N. Hartman; M. Havranek; B. Heinemann; T. Henß; M. R. Hoeferkamp; D. Hoffmann; M. Holder; W. Honerbach; C. Horn; S. Hou; G. S. Huang; F. Huegging; E. W. Hughes; I. Ibragimov; I. Ilyashenko; M. Imhaeuser; J. M. Izen; J. Jackson; D. Jana; R. C. Jared; P. Jez; T. Johnson; J. Joseph; H. Kagan; M. Karagounis; R. D. Kass; M. Keil; S. Kersten; P. Kind; J. Klaiber-Lodewigs; L. Klingbeil; R. Klingenberg; A. Korn; V. V. Kostyukhin; I. Kostyukhina; O. Krasel; H. Krüger; K. Krueger; J. Kudlaty; T. Kuhl; O. Kvasnicka; K. Lantzsch; T. Lari; S. L. Latorre; S. C. Lee; T. Lenz; G. Lenzen; J. Lepidis; J. Levêque; M. Leyton; D. Lopez Mateos; K. F. Loureiro; D. Lüke; L. Luisa; J. Lys; R. J. Madaras; P. Mättig; F. M. Manca; E. Mandelli; M. Marcisovsky; Z. Marshall; G. Martinez; L. Masetti; M. Maß; M. Mathes; R. McKay; G. Meddeler; R. Meera-Lebbai; C. Meroni; J. Metcalfe; W. T. Meyer; D. W. Miller; W. Miller; S. Montesano; M. M. Monti; P. Morettini; J. M. Moss; T. Mouthuy; P. Nechaeva; W. Ockenfels; G. A. Odino; M. Olcese; B. Osculati; F. Parodi; A. Pekedis; K. Perez; I. Peric; C. Pizzorno; J. Popule; R. Post; F. Ragusa; A. M. Rahimi; B. Raith; S. Rajek; K. Reeves; I. Reisinger; J. D. Richardson; E. I. Rosenberg; L. P. Rossi; I. Rottländer; A. R. Rovani; A. Rozanov; O. Runolfsson; E. R. Ruscino; A. F. Saavedra; F. S. Sabatini; M. Saleem; S. Sandvoss; B. Sanny; L. Santi; M. I. Scherzer; C. Schiavi; A. Schreiner; J. Schultes; A. Schwartzman; R. Seibert; S. C. Seidel; H. Severini; S. Shanava; P. Sicho; P. Skubic; A. C. Smith; D. S. Smith; J. Snow; T. Stahl; T. Stockmanns; S. Strandberg; M. Strauss; D. Ta; F. Tegenfeldt; P. K. Teng; R. Ter-Antonyan; J. Thadome; T. Tic; L. Tomasek; M. Tomasek; F. Tomasi; K. Toms; C. Tran; J. Treis; N. Triplett; C. Troncon; L. Vacavant; S. Vahsen; J. Valenta; G. Vegni; F. Vernocchi; E. Vigeolas; J. Virzi; E. Viscione; V. Vrba; J. Walbersloh; W. Walkowiak; J. Weber; T. F. Weber; J. Weingarten; C. Weldon; N. Wermes; U. Werthenbach; J. S. Wirth; R. Witharm; B. Witt; M. Wittgen; J. Wuestenfeld; R. Wunstorf; J. Wyckoff; W.-M. Yao; C. Young; R. Zaidan; M. Zdrazil; F. Zetti; J. Zhong; M. Ziolkowski; G. Zizka; M. M. Zoeller

2008-01-01

459

Point Contact MOM Tunneling Detector Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responsivity and its frequency dependence are derived for an asymmetrical tunneling contact in terms of area, thickness, mean barrier height, and asymmetry. This analysis applies to the point contact metal-oxide-metal diodes which are used as detectors and heterodyne mixers in the submillimeter wavelength and far infrared regions and are the fastest detectors yet conceived. Analytical results show that the

Samuel I. Green; H. Fritzsche; J. Non-Crystalline Solids; J. T. Kerr; P. J. Walsh; R. Nicolaides; S. DeFeo; P. Calella; J. Kuchmas; W. Doremus

1971-01-01

460

Gravitational wave astronomy using spaceborne detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the use of spaceborne gravitational wave detectors as observatories for studying sources of gravitational radiation. The next decade will see the launch of the first space-based gravitational wave detector. Planning for several follow on missions is already underway. Before these observatories are constructed, extensive studies into their responses, expected output, and data analysis techniques must be completed.

Louis Joseph Rubbo IV

2004-01-01