Sample records for scintillator-photodiode detectors

  1. Characterization of flash gamma-ray detectors that operate in the Trad\\/s range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. L. Sanford; J. A. Halbleib; R. C. Mock; D. E. Beutler; G. A. Carlson; J. W. Poukey

    1990-01-01

    Compton-diode detectors, scintillator-photodiode detectors, and Cherenkov-photodiode detectors, designed to measure the intense pulsed bremsstrahlung field of HERMES III, are described and characterized in the field of HERMES III. Measurements and modeling show that (1) the Compton-diode detector measures dose rate and is capable of linear operation up to 2.5×1012 rad\\/s, (2) the scintillator-photodiode detector measures dose rate only when the

  2. Energy Resolution Improvement of Scintielectron detectors: Priorities and Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Naydenov; V. D. Ryzhikov

    2002-01-01

    The development prospects of a scintillator-photodiode type detector with an improved energy resolution attaining few per cent, R from 1 to 2%, are considered. The main resolution components have been analyzed theoretically, their theoretical and physical limits have been established. Empirical data on the properties of novel scintillators have been presented confirming the possibility of the R improvement. New optimization

  3. Flash ?-ray detectors that operate at the tera rad\\/s level (abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. L. Sanford; J. A. Halbleib; G. A. Carlson; D. E. Beutler; J. W. Poukey; R. C. Mock

    1990-01-01

    HERMES III is a 20 MV, 700 kA electron accelerator that produces an intense bremsstrahlung pulse for the study of nuclear radiation effects. We describe and characterize a Compton diode, scintillator photodiode, and Cerenkov photodiode detector that are designed to measure the radiation field of HERMES III. Our measurements and modeling show (1) that the Compton diode directly measures dose

  4. Characterization of flash ?-ray detectors that operate in the Trad/s range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Halbleib, J. A.; Mock, R. C.; Beutler, D. E.; Carlson, G. A.; Poukey, J. W.

    1990-09-01

    Compton-diode detectors, scintillator-photodiode detectors, and Cherenkov-photodiode detectors, designed to measure the intense pulsed bremsstrahlung field of HERMES III, are described and characterized in the field of HERMES III. Measurements and modeling show that (1) the Compton-diode detector measures dose rate and is capable of linear operation up to 2.5×10 12 rad/s, (2) the scintillator-photodiode detector measures dose rate only when the rate is less then 2×10 11 rad/s, and (3) the Cherenkov photodiode detector can be used o place limits on the radiation pulse over the range ˜ 2.5×10 10 to ˜ 2.5×10 12 rad/s. A by-product of the measurements and modeling is the determination of the temporal behavior of the forward field of HERMES III near the beam axis.

  5. Gaseous x-ray detectors to examine freight containers and vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundermann, Dietmar; Gaillard, Gerald; Lilot, Alain-Pierre; Maitrejean, Serge; Pellegrin, P. O.; Sedaries, D.

    1994-03-01

    The Schlumberger SYCOSCAN is a radioscopic control system designed to inspect freight containers and vehicles by X-rays. The X-ray detection is based on a modified version of a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) patented by Schlumberger. The MWPC principle was discovered by 1992 Physics Nobel Prize Winner G. Charpak. We present the detector's working principle. It presents simultaneously a high spatial resolution, a good detection efficiency, a high intrinsic gain and high dynamics. We will compare the SYCOSCAN detector to conventional scintillator/photodiode combinations.

  6. Flash ?-ray detectors that operate at the tera rad/s level (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Halbleib, J. A.; Carlson, G. A.; Beutler, D. E.; Poukey, J. W.; Mock, R. C.

    1990-10-01

    HERMES III is a 20 MV, 700 kA electron accelerator that produces an intense bremsstrahlung pulse for the study of nuclear radiation effects. We describe and characterize a Compton diode, scintillator photodiode, and Cerenkov photodiode detector that are designed to measure the radiation field of HERMES III. Our measurements and modeling show (1) that the Compton diode directly measures dose rate and is capable of linear operation up to 2.5×1012 rad/s in the near field of HERMES III, (2) the scintillator photodiode provides a sensitive measure of dose rate with high spatial resolution in the far field where dose rates are below 2×1011 rad/s, and (3) the Cerenkov photodiode can be used to place limits on the radiation pulse in the near field with high spatial resolution. We show that the measurements, when combined with the modeling, provide a powerful diagnostic for monitoring the flow of electrons at the bremsstrahlung target. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-76DP00789.

  7. Application of monolithic CdZnTe linear solid state ionization detectors for x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichar, Raulf M.; Schirato, Richard C.; Reed, John H.

    1993-02-01

    Current approaches to digital radiography and tomography are dominated by the use of Scintillator-Photodiode arrays as detectors. To improve the quality of the data for such measurements it is desirable to increase the efficiency of the device both for the absorption of incoming x rays as well as the ratio of current produced per unit dose. In order to be of practical use, such detectors must maintain a high signal to noise performance and level of dark current stability in the presence of large radiation fluxes. In this laboratory, we are exploring the use of monolithic linear arrays that directly convert ionizing radiation into charge without the intervening photo-emission step. We have evaluated detectors made from CdTe as well as CdZnTe intrinsic material with a variety of contact methods. Our studies have shown that the relative efficiency of charge collection of the holes within the pulse shaping time is the most significant parameter governing their use. Data have been collected on this property from several devices. CdZnTe solid state devices produce over ten times the current per absorbed dose than a typical scintillator-photodiode. Recent advances in raw material production and contact technology provide detectors which can maintain their operating characteristics over kilo-rad of dose. Readout methods that use pulse counting mode operation have been evaluated. Results are shown on the sensitivity and spatial resolution of these detectors. Examples of results taken with multi-element, monolithic devices fabricated thus far are demonstrated with some estimates on the possibility for the production of larger arrays.

  8. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Because the liquid hydrogen which NASA stores for the space shuttle engines is easily ignited, a hand held ultraviolet fire detector was developed by detector electronics under NASA contract. The system was commercialized by Detector Electronics for use in other hydrogen handling facilities. The detector sensors spot a hydrogen flame at 100 feet, show radiation levels and provide an aural fire alert.

  9. Particle Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris

    2011-09-01

    Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; Introduction; 1. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter; 2. Characteristic properties of detectors; 3. Units of radiation measurements and radiation sources; 4. Accelerators; 5. Main physical phenomena used for particle detection and basic counter types; 6. Historical track detectors; 7. Track detectors; 8. Calorimetry; 9. Particle identification; 10. Neutrino detectors; 11. Momentum measurement and muon detection; 12. Ageing and radiation effects; 13. Example of a general-purpose detector: Belle; 14. Electronics; 15. Data analysis; 16. Applications of particle detectors outside particle physics; 17. Glossary; 18. Solutions; 19. Resumé; Appendixes; Index.

  10. Metal Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  11. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An early warning fire detection sensor developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter is being evaluated as a possible hazard prevention system for mining operations. The incipient Fire Detector represents an advancement over commercially available smoke detectors in that it senses and signals the presence of a fire condition before the appearance of flame and smoke, offering an extra margin of safety.

  12. Meteoroid detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmaster, L. R.; Peterson, S. T.; Hughes, F. M. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    A meteoroid detector is described which uses, a cold cathode discharge tube with a gas-pressurized cell in space for recording a meteoroid puncture of the cell and for determining the size of the puncture.

  13. MS Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Koppenaal; Charles J. Barinaga; M Bonner B. Denton; Roger P. Sperline; Gary M. Hieftje; Gregory D. Schilling; Francisco J. Andrade; James H. Barnes IV; IV IV

    2005-01-01

    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the

  14. Detector Detail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This game requires users to match the â??shower shapesâ? and the energies of particles produced in a particle collision. There is also a movie (or animated gif) in the Calorimetry section which allows students to see the workings of the detector. It is part of a collection of games that allows students to explore concepts in particle physics.

  15. Flame Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Scientific Instruments, Inc. has now developed a second generation, commercially available instrument to detect flames in hazardous environments, typically refineries, chemical plants and offshore drilling platforms. The Model 74000 detector incorporates a sensing circuit that detects UV radiation in a 100 degree conical field of view extending as far as 250 feet from the instrument. It operates in a bandwidth that makes it virtually 'blind' to solar radiation while affording extremely high sensitivity to ultraviolet flame detection. A 'windowing' technique accurately discriminates between background UV radiation and ultraviolet emitted from an actual flame, hence the user is assured of no false alarms. Model 7410CP is a combination controller and annunciator panel designed to monitor and control as many as 24 flame detectors. *Model 74000 is no longer being manufactured.

  16. Nuclear Radiation Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Morton

    1962-01-01

    Nuclear radiation detectors are required in all the major fields of nuclear science and technology. They fall into two principal categories, single element detectors and imaging detectors. Single element detectors can be classified into four types, based upon their physical mode of operation. These are 1) Scintillation counters, 2) Gas ionization detectors, a) Ionization chambers, b) Proportional counters, c) Geiger-Mueller

  17. Thallium bromide radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Shah; J. C. Lund; F. Olschner; L. Moy; M. R. Squillante

    1989-01-01

    Radiation detectors have been fabricated from crystals of the semiconductor material thallium bromide (TlBr) and the performance of these detectors as room temperature photon spectrometers has been measured. These detectors exhibit improved energy resolution over previously reported TlBr detectors. These results indicate that TlBr is a very promising radiation detector material.

  18. Oscillator detector

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-05-13

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.

  19. Nuclear radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Alexandre Schuch; Daniel Jean Roger Nordemann

    1990-01-01

    Detectors of nuclear radiation, such as gaseous detectors, scintillators, and semiconductors, are presented through their general properties and with their operating systems. The semiconductor detectors are studied with more details.

  20. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

  1. Silicon radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Rehak

    2003-01-01

    A rapid progress of past 20 years in silicon radiation detectors is reviewed. The availability of silicon as almost ideal semiconductor material is one of the main reasons for this progress. The well-defined properties of the silicon-silicon dioxide interface allowed the development of detector structures beyond the structure of a classical diode detector, which was practically the only silicon detector

  2. Advanced UV Detectors and Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Torvik, John

    1998-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) with its wide energy bandgap of 3.4 eV holds excellent promise for solar blind UV detectors. We have successfully designed, fabricated and tested GaN p-i-n detectors and detector arrays. The detectors have a peak responsivity of 0.14A/W at 363 nm (3.42 eV) at room temperature. This corresponds to an internal quantum efficiency of 56%. The responsivity decreases by several orders of magnitude to 0.008 A/W at 400 nm (3.10 eV) giving the excellent visible rejection ratio needed for solar-blind applications.

  3. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  4. Segmented pyroelector detector

    DOEpatents

    Stotlar, S.C.; McLellan, E.J.

    1981-01-21

    A pyroelectric detector is described which has increased voltage output and improved responsivity over equivalent size detectors. The device comprises a plurality of edge-type pyroelectric detectors which have a length which is much greater than the width of the segments between the edge-type electrodes. External circuitry connects the pyroelectric detector segments in parallel to provide a single output which maintains 50 ohm impedance characteristics.

  5. Gamma ray detector shield

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

    1985-08-26

    A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

  6. The upgraded DØ detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

    2006-01-01

    The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

  7. Microwave leakage detector

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, D.D.

    1982-07-06

    A portable microwave leakage detector comprises a dipole antenna and a hot carrier diode connected in parallel with a light emitting diode, the circuit incorporating minimum solder joints and affording maximum sensitivity without moving parts such that the detector circuit does not decay with time. The dipole antenna is oriented diagonally in a detector case so that the user of the detector automatically presents the antenna to the radiating microwave field (or leakage field) at a maximum receiving attitude with respect to the field. The detector can be utilized to determine whether a microwave oven or any other device is leaking radiation beyond limits imposed by the food and drug administration.

  8. High-energy detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  9. Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-06

    This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

  10. Intelligent Detector Design

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

  11. Detectors (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  12. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  13. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  14. OPTI 566 SPRING 2012 Optical Detectors and Detector Systems

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    analysis of solid- state physics. Following the coverage of detectors and detector arrays, the content sources 38 - 77 (D/B) 3 of x 4 Tue 31 Jan 2012 Thu 02 Feb 2012 Intro to noise Detector Figures of meritOPTI 566 ­ SPRING 2012 Optical Detectors and Detector Systems Meinel Building, Room 422 Tu & Th, 8

  15. Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

  16. Neutrino factory near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.

    2013-08-01

    The neutrino factory is a facility for future precision studies of neutrino oscillations. A so-called near detector is essential for reaching the required precision for a neutrino oscillation analysis. The main task of the near detector is to measure the flux of the neutrino beam. Such a high intensity neutrino source like a neutrino factory provides also the opportunity for precision studies of various neutrino interaction processes in the near detector. We discuss the design concepts of such a detector. Results of simulations of a high resolution scintillating fiber tracker show that such a detector is capable of determining the neutrino flux normalization with an uncertainty of less than 1% by measuring pure leptonic interactions. Reconstruction of the neutrino energy in each event and a flux estimation based on the shapes of the neutrino energy spectra are discussed. A full setup of the near detector, consisting of a high granularity vertex detector, high resolution tracker, and muon catcher is also presented. Finally, a method to extrapolate the measured near detector flux to the far detector is shown, demonstrating that it is able to extract the correct values of ?13 and the CP violation phase ? without any significant bias and with high accuracy.

  17. Polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, Michael M.; Hermon, Haim; Zuck, Asaf; Vilensky, Alexander I.; Melekhov, Leonid; Shatunovsky, Rubil; Meerson, Evgenie; Saado, Yehezkel

    1999-10-01

    The fabrication of polycrystalline HgI2 thick film detectors using the hot wall physical vapor deposition, method is described. The X-ray response of these detectors to a radiological X-ray generator of 60 kVp has been studied using the current integration mode. The response expressed in (mu) A, the dark current expressed in pA/cm2 and sensitivity expressed in (mu) C/R(DOT)cm2 are given for these detectors for several thickness and grain sizes. The optimal sensitivity is compared with published data on the response to X-rays by polycrystalline PbI2 and A-Se detectors.

  18. The CLEO II detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kubota; J. K. Nelson; D. Perticone; R. Poling; S. Schrenk; M. S. Alam; Z. H. Bian; D. Chen; I. J. Kim; W. C. Li; X. C. Lou; B. Nemati; C. R. Sun; P.-N. Wang; M. M. Zoeller; G. Crawford; R. Fulton; K. K. Gan; T. Jensen; H. Kagan; R. Kass; R. Malchow; F. Morrow; M. K. Sung; J. Whitmore; P. Wilson; F. Butler; X. Fu; G. Kalbfleisch; M. Lambrecht; P. Skubic; J. Snow; P.-L. Wang; D. Bortoletto; D. N. Brown; W. Y. Chen; J. Dominick; R. L. McIlwain; D. H. Miller; M. Modesitt; E. I. Shibata; S. F. Schaffner; I. P. J. Shipsey; W. M. Yao; M. Battle; H. Kroha; K. Sparks; E. H. Thorndike; C.-H. Wang; R. Stroynowski; M. Artuso; M. Goldberg; T. Haupt; R. Holmes; N. Horwitz; A. Jawahery; P. Lubrano; G. C. Moneti; Y. Rozen; P. Rubin; V. Sharma; T. Skwarnicki; S. Stone; M. Thulasidas; G. Zhu; S. E. Csorna; V. Jain; T. Letson; D. S. Akerib; B. Barish; M. Chadha; D. F. Cowen; G. Eigen; J. S. Miller; J. Urheim; A. J. Weinstein; R. J. Morrison; H. Nelson; J. Richman; H. Tajima; D. Schmidt; M. Witherell; A. Bean; I. Brock; M. Procario; M. Daoudi; W. T. Ford; D. R. Johnson; K. Lingel; M. Lohner; P. Rankin; J. G. Smith; J. Alexander; C. Bebek; K. Berkelman; D. Besson; E. Blucher; T. E. Browder; D. G. Cassel; E. Cheu; D. M. Coffman; R. Desalvo; P. S. Drell; R. Ehrlich; R. S. Galik; M. Garcia-Sciveres; B. Geiser; M. G. D. Gilchriese; B. Gittelman; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; K. Honschoid; C. Jones; J. Kandaswamy; N. Katayama; P. C. Kim; R. Kowalewski; D. L. Kreinick; G. S. Ludwig; J. Masui; J. Mevissen; N. B. Mistry; J. Mueller; R. Namjoshi; S. Nandi; C. R. Ng; E. Nordberg; C. O'Grady; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; M. Pisharody; D. Riley; M. Sapper; M. Selen; H. Worden; M. Worris; F. Würthwein; P. Avery; A. Freyberger; J. Rodriguez; J. Yelton; T. Bowcock; R. Giles; S. Henderson; K. Kinoshita; F. Pipkin; M. Saulnier; R. Wilson; J. Wolinski; D. Xiao; H. Yamamoto; A. J. Sadoff; R. Ammar; P. Baringer; D. Coppage; R. Davis; P. Haas; M. Kelly; N. Kwak; H. Lam; S. Ro

    1992-01-01

    The new detector for data recording by the CLEO collaboration at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring is described. This detector has been designed to optimize studying e+ e- annihilation into hadronic matter at a total energy of 10 GeV. It consists of high precesion charged particle tracking chambers and an electromagnetic calorimeter together with systems for particle identification. The design

  19. Smoke Detectors and Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This manual, one of a series for use in public education, provides an in-depth review of the current status of state and local smoke detector legislation. First, for the community considering a smoke detector law or ordinance, six decision points are discussed: which residential occupancy sub-classes will be affected; what the time factors are for…

  20. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  1. The TESLA Detector

    E-print Network

    Klaus Moenig

    2001-11-05

    For the superconducting linear collider TESLA a multi purpose detector has been designed. This detector is optimised for the important physics processes expected at a next generation linear collider up to around 1 TeV and is designed for the specific environment of a superconducting collider.

  2. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Perez-Mendez; S. N. Kaplan

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of

  3. The MAC detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Allaby; W. W. Ash; H. R. Band; L. A. Baksay; H. T. Blume; M. Bosman; T. Camporesi; G. B. Chadwick; S. H. Clearwater; R. W. Coombes; M. C. Delfino; R. de Sangro; W. L. Faissler; E. Fernández; W. T. Ford; M. W. Gettner; G. P. Goderre; Y. Goldschmidt-Clermont; B. Gottschalk; D. E. Groom; B. K. Heltsley; R. B. Hurst; J. R. Johnson; H. S. Kaye; K. H. Lau; T. L. Lavine; H. Y. Lee; R. E. Leedy; S. P. Leung; I. Lippi; E. C. Loh; H. L. Lynch; A. Marini; J. S. Marsh; T. Maruyama; R. L. Messner; O. A. Meyer; S. J. Michalowski; S. Morcos; J. H. Moromisato; R. M. Morse; L. J. Moss; F. Muller; H. N. Nelson; I. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; R. Prepost; J. Pyrlik; N. Qi; A. L. Read; K. Rich; D. M. Ritson; F. Ronga; L. J. Rosenberg; W. D. Shambroom; J. C. Sleeman; J. G. Smith; J. P. Venuti; P. G. Verdini; E. von Goeler; H. B. Wald; R. Weinstein; D. E. Wiser; R. W. Zdarko

    1989-01-01

    The MAC detector at PEP recorded data for an integrated luminosity of 335 pb-1 between 1980 and 1986. The design of this low-cost MAgnetic Calorimeter was optimized for electron and muon identification, as well as for the measurement of hadronic energy flow. Muon identification is available over 96% of the solid angle, and MAC was the first detector to make

  4. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  5. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  6. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  7. Advanced far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

  8. Pyroelectric detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fripp, A. L.; Robertson, J. B.; Breckenridge, R. (inventors)

    1982-01-01

    A pyroelectric detector array and the method for using it are described. A series of holes formed through a silicon dioxide layer on the surface of a silicon substrate forms the mounting fixture for the pyroelectric detector array. A series of nontouching strips of indium are formed around the holes to make contact with the backside electrodes and form the output terminals for individual detectors. A pyroelectric detector strip with front and back electrodes, respectively, is mounted over the strips. Biasing resistors are formed on the surface of the silicon dioxide layer and connected to the strips. A metallized pad formed on the surface of layer is connected to each of the biasing resistors and to the film to provide the ground for the pyroelectric detector array.

  9. Pyroelectric detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fripp, A. L.; Robertson, J. B.; Breckenridge, R. A. (inventors)

    1982-01-01

    A pryoelectric detector array and the method for making it are described. A series of holes formed through a silicon dioxide layer on the surface of a silicon substrate forms the mounting fixture for the pyroelectric detector array. A series of nontouching strips of indium are formed around the holes to make contact with the backside electrodes and form the output terminals for individual detectors. A pyroelectric detector strip with front and back electrodes, respectively, is mounted over the strip. Biasing resistors are formed on the surface of the silicon dioxide layer and connected to the strips. A metallized pad formed on the surface of the layer is connected to each of the biasing resistors and to the film to provide the ground for the pyroelectric detector array.

  10. Arc detector uses fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnegan, E. J.; Leech, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Arc detector for protecting high-power microwave klystron oscillators uses fiber optics connected to remote solid-state light-sensing circuits. Detector is more reliable, smaller, and sensitive than other systems that locate detector in waveguide.

  11. ACCESS: Detector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Foltz, R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Pelton, R. S.; Wright, E. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

    2013-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (overview Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. The flight detector controller boards have been installed into a ruggedized flight housing. They have been successfully vacuum tested for periods significantly longer than the flight length, and components have been heat-sunk and reinforced as necessary. Thermal stability tests have been performed, and results will be presented. Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL) executed initial characterization tests for the flight detector in 2007. These were repeated in 2012, to ensure and establish baseline performance. Current lab characterization tests at Johns Hopkins are ongoing, and results will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  12. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  13. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  14. LHC detector upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Green

    2003-09-15

    The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

  15. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  16. The HERMES Recoil Detector Recoil Detector Test Beams

    E-print Network

    detector versus the of the incoming particle and the position of incidence on the strip. The data was takenThe HERMES Recoil Detector Recoil Detector Test Beams A will be installed to the HERMES experiment of fromprotons recoil detector Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS). Recoil proton momentum versus polar

  17. The LUX Prototype Detector

    E-print Network

    Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Cahn, S; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Clark, K; Classen, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, C E; Dazeley, S; deViveiros, L; Dragowsky, M; Druszkiewicz, E; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Hall, C; Faham, C; Holbrook, B; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Leonard, D; Malling, D; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D; Mock, J; Morii, M; Nikkel, J; Phelps, P; Shutt, T; Skulski, W; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Steigler, T; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01

    The LUX (Large Underground Xenon) detector is a two-phase xenon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) designed to search for WIMP-nucleon dark matter interactions. As with all noble element detectors, continuous purification of the detector medium is essential to produce a large ($>$1ms) electron lifetime; this is necessary for efficient measurement of the electron signal which in turn is essential for achieving robust discrimination of signal from background events. In this paper we describe the development of a novel purification system deployed in a prototype detector. The results from the operation of this prototype indicated heat exchange with an efficiency above 94% up to a flow rate of 42 slpm, allowing for an electron drift length greater than 1 meter to be achieved in approximately two days and sustained for the duration of the testing period.

  18. Inverter ratio failure detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  19. Pendulum detector testing device

    DOEpatents

    Gonsalves, John M. (Modesto, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A detector testing device which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: 1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, 2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and 3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements.

  20. Microwave Radiation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

  1. Lightning Current Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Lightning Current Detector (LCD) was developed to monitor the magnitude of lightning strikes. Information it supplies is useful in evaluating lightning protection designs for such systems as telephone cables, radio broadcast towers, power transmission equipment and oil well towers.

  2. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-04-08

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  3. Two New Edge Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Jacobus; Robert T. Chien

    1981-01-01

    This paper introduces two new edge detection algorithms. One uses multiple difference-based edge detectors. This scheme selects peak center by absolute maximum or center of mass techniques. The other algorithm is motivated by the observation that second-order enhancement improves human contour extraction, but generally confuses difference-based edge detectors. This algorithm translates intensity images into three state images (plus one, zero,

  4. The Belle Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abashian; K. Gotow; N. Morgan; L. Piilonen; S. Schrenk

    2002-01-01

    The Belle detector was designed and constructed to carry out quantitative studies of rare B-meson decay modes with very small branching fractions using an asymmetric e+e- collider operating at the \\/Upsilon(4S) resonance, the KEK-B-factory. Such studies require data samples containing ~107 B-meson decays. The Belle detector is configured around a 1.5T superconducting solenoid and iron structure surrounding the KEK-B beams

  5. Fuel rod leak detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 (¹³³Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (..gamma..-rays)

  6. Novel uncooled infrared detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rogalski

    2010-01-01

    Despite successful commercialization of uncooled microbolometers suitable for imaging, the community is still searching for\\u000a a platform for imagers that combine affordability, convenience of operation, and excellent performance. More recently, a new\\u000a type of uncooled detectors based on expansion phenomena in micromechanical structures has been introduced. These detectors\\u000a are essentially free of intrinsic electronic noise and can be combined with

  7. Fiber optic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, Judy K.; Ward, Thomas E.; Grey, Alan E.

    1990-04-01

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  8. Gallium arsenide pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; D'Auria, S.; da Vià, C.; del Papa, C.; Heijne, E. M.; Middelkamp, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Smith, K.; Snoeys, W.

    1998-02-01

    GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV ?- beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e -.

  9. The Belle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Morgan, N.; Piilonen, L.; Schrenk, S.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Alexander, J. P.; Aoki, K.; Behari, S.; Doi, Y.; Enomoto, R.; Fujii, H.; Fujita, Y.; Funahashi, Y.; Haba, J.; Hamasaki, H.; Haruyama, T.; Hayashi, K.; Higashi, Y.; Hitomi, N.; Igarashi, S.; Igarashi, Y.; Iijima, T.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Hitomi; Itoh, R.; Iwai, M.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Joo, K. K.; Kasami, K.; Katayama, N.; Kawai, M.; Kichimi, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Koike, S.; Kondo, Y.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Manabe, A.; Matsuda, T.; Murakami, T.; Nagayama, S.; Nakao, M.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, K.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohnishi, Y.; Ozaki, H.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, M.; Sakai, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, N.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, J. I.; Suzuki, S.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tatomi, T.; Tsuboyama, T.; Tsukada, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uehara, S.; Ujiie, N.; Uno, S.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamaoka, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zhao, H.; Abe, R.; Iwai, G.; Kawasaki, T.; Miyata, H.; Shimada, K.; Takahashi, S.; Tamura, N.; Abe, K.; Hanada, H.; Nagamine, T.; Nakajima, M.; Nakajima, T.; Narita, S.; Sanpei, M.; Takayama, T.; Ueki, M.; Yamaga, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Ahn, B. S.; Kang, J. S.; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Ahn, H. S.; Jang, H. K.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, S. H.; Park, C. S.; Won, E.; Aihara, H.; Higuchi, T.; Kawai, H.; Matsubara, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, J.; Tomura, T.; Yokoyama, M.; Akatsu, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Hirose, M.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itami, S.; Kani, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagai, I.; Okabe, T.; Oshima, T.; Senyo, K.; Sugi, A.; Sugiyama, A.; Suitoh, S.; Suzuki, S.; Tomoto, M.; Yoshida, K.; Akhmetshin, R.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, Y. Q.; Hou, W. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Huang, H. C.; Huang, T. J.; Lee, M. C.; Lu, R. S.; Peng, J. C.; Peng, K. C.; Sahu, S.; Sung, H. F.; Tsai, K. L.; Ueno, K.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, M. Z.; Alimonti, G.; Browder, T. E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Fang, F.; Guler, H.; Jones, M.; Li, Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Peters, M.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Rosen, M.; Swain, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Varner, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Zheng, Y. H.; An, Q.; Chen, H. F.; Wang, Y. F.; Xu, Z. Z.; Ye, S. W.; Zhang, Z. P.; Asai, M.; Asano, Y.; Mori, S.; Stani?, S.; Tsujita, Y.; Zhang, J.; Žontar, D.; Aso, T.; Aulchenko, V.; Beiline, D.; Bondar, A.; Dneprovsky, L.; Eidelman, S.; Garmash, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Romanov, L.; Root, N.; Shwartz, B.; Sidorov, A.; Sidorov, V.; Usov, Y.; Zhilich, V.; Bakich, A. M.; Peak, L. S.; Varvell, K. E.; Banas, E.; Bozek, A.; Jalocha, P.; Kapusta, P.; Natkaniec, Z.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palka, H.; Rozanka, M.; Rybicki, K.; Behera, P. K.; Mohapatra, A.; Satapathy, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, H. S.; Dong, L. Y.; Li, J.; Liu, H. M.; Mao, Z. P.; Yu, C. X.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, Z. P.; Cheon, B. G.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D. W.; Nam, J. W.; Chidzik, S.; Korotuschenko, K.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Liu, T.; Marlow, D.; Mindas, C.; Prebys, E.; Rabberman, R.; Sands, W.; Wixted, R.; Choi, S.; Dragic, J.; Everton, C. W.; Gordon, A.; Hastings, N. C.; Heenan, E. M.; Moffitt, L. C.; Moloney, G. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Sevior, M. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Tovey, S. N.; Drutskoy, A.; Kagan, R.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Fukunaga, C.; Suda, R.; Fukushima, M.; Goriletsky, V. I.; Grinyov, B. V.; Lyubinsky, V. R.; Panova, A. I.; Shakhova, K. V.; Shpilinskaya, L. I.; Vinograd, E. L.; Zaslavsky, B. G.; Guo, R. S.; Haitani, F.; Hoshi, Y.; Neichi, K.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Hazumi, M.; Hojo, T.; Jackson, D.; Miyake, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Ryuko, J.; Sumisawa, K.; Takita, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Hayashii, H.; Miyabayashi, K.; Noguchi, S.; Hikita, S.; Hirano, H.; Hoshina, K.; Mamada, H.; Nitoh, O.; Okazaki, N.; Yokoyama, T.; Ishino, H.; Ichizawa, S.; Hirai, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kaneko, J.; Nakamura, T.; Ohshima, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yanaka, S.; Inoue, Y.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Kang, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Heejong; Kwon, Y.-J.; Kawai, H.; Kurihara, E.; Ooba, T.; Suzuki, K.; Unno, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Yuta, H.; Kinoshita, K.; Satpathy, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Kuniya, T.; Murakami, A.; Tsukamoto, T.; Kumar, S.; Singh, J.; Lange, J.; Stock, R.; Matsumoto, S.; Watanabe, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nishida, S.; Nomura, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sasao, N.; Ushiroda, Y.; Nagasaka, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Okuno, S.; Shen, D. Z.; Yan, D. S.; Yin, Z. W.; Tan, N.; Wang, C. H.; Yamaki, T.; Yamashita, Y.

    2002-02-01

    The Belle detector was designed and constructed to carry out quantitative studies of rare B-meson decay modes with very small branching fractions using an asymmetric e +e - collider operating at the ?(4S) resonance, the KEK-B-factory. Such studies require data samples containing ˜10 7 B-meson decays. The Belle detector is configured around a 1.5 T superconducting solenoid and iron structure surrounding the KEK-B beams at the Tsukuba interaction region. B-meson decay vertices are measured by a silicon vertex detector situated just outside of a cylindrical beryllium beam pipe. Charged particle tracking is performed by a wire drift chamber (CDC). Particle identification is provided by d E/d x measurements in CDC, aerogel threshold Cherenkov counter and time-of-flight counter placed radially outside of CDC. Electromagnetic showers are detected in an array of CsI( Tl) crystals located inside the solenoid coil. Muons and K L mesons are identified by arrays of resistive plate counters interspersed in the iron yoke. The detector covers the ? region extending from 17° to 150°. The part of the uncovered small-angle region is instrumented with a pair of BGO crystal arrays placed on the surfaces of the QCS cryostats in the forward and backward directions. Details of the design and development works of the detector subsystems, which include trigger, data acquisition and computer systems, are described. Results of performance of the detector subsystems are also presented.

  10. Gamma ray detector modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

  11. Detectors for CBA

    SciTech Connect

    Baggett, N.; Gordon, H.A.; Palmer, R.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J. (eds.)

    1983-05-01

    We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise.

  12. Experience with alpha track detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Oswald; R. V. Wheeler; C. Yoder

    1988-01-01

    The heightened awareness of radon hazards have resulted in an increase in the use of alpha track detectors. Field and laboratory tests have been conducted over sufficiently long periods of time by enough different laboratories so that characteristics of these detectors are better understood. The paper compares common experiences of Terradex Radtrak and Type SF detectors. Both detectors employ the

  13. Signal Formation in Various Detectors

    E-print Network

    Manolis Dris; Theo Alexopoulos

    2014-08-15

    In this write up we present the general theory of the signal formation in various detectors. We follow a pedagogical analysis and presentation such that the results could easily understood and applied by the interested reader to the different detector configurations. We include few applications to gaseous detectors, namely, Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) and microstrip pattern detector of the micromegas type.

  14. Evaluation of commercial pyroelectric detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Crouch, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A series of commercially available pyroelectric detectors made from PVF2, LTO, SBN, and TGS were evaluated in terms of responsivity and detectivity as a function of frequency. The performance of the detectors evaluated was very different, depending upon the manufacturer of the detector, and this dependency was primarily related to the thickness of the various detectors. The best detectors of each material were comparable in performance at frequencies around 10 Hz but differed radically at frequencies above 100 Hz.

  15. Solid xenon radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinski, Michelle J.

    2014-03-01

    Cryogenic liquid xenon detectors have become a popular technology in the search for rare events, such as dark matter interactions and neutrinoless double beta decay. The power of the liquid xenon detector technology is in the combination of the ionization and scintillation signals, resulting in particle discrimination and improved energy resolution over the ionization-only signal. The improved energy resolution results from a unique anti-correlation phenomenon that has not been described from first principles. Solid xenon bolometers, under development at Drexel University, are expected to have excellent counting statistics in the phonon channel, with energy resolution of 0.1% or better. This additional energy channel may offer the final piece of the puzzle in understanding liquid xenon detector energy response. Supported by a grant from the Charles E. Kaufman Foundation.

  16. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  17. Glow discharge detector

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

  18. Fissile material detector

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Alexander I. (Dubna, RU); Lushchikov, Vladislav I. (Dubna, RU); Shabalin, Eugeny P. (Dubna, RU); Maznyy, Nikita G. (Dubna, RU); Khvastunov, Michael M. (Dubna, RU); Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A detector for fissile materials which provides for integrity monitoring of fissile materials and can be used for nondestructive assay to confirm the presence of a stable content of fissile material in items. The detector has a sample cavity large enough to enable assay of large items of arbitrary configuration, utilizes neutron sources fabricated in spatially extended shapes mounted on the endcaps of the sample cavity, incorporates a thermal neutron filter insert with reflector properties, and the electronics module includes a neutron multiplicity coincidence counter.

  19. Gaseous Radiation Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    2014-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Electromagnetic interactions of charged particles with matter; 3. Interactions of photons and neutrons with matter; 4. Drift and diffusion of charges in gases; 5. Collisional excitations and charge multiplication in uniform fields; 6. Parallel plate counters; 7. Proportional counters; 8. Multiwire proportional chambers; 9. Drift chambers; 10. Time projection chambers; 11. Multitube arrays; 12. Resistive plate chambers; 13. Micro-pattern gas detectors; 14. Cherenkov ring imaging; 15. Miscellaneous detectors and applications; 16. Time degeneracy and aging; Further reading; References; Index.

  20. The Advanced Virgo detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; Adams, T.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Allocca, A.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th S.; Bavigadda, V.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Bloemen, S.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chua, S.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dereli, H.; De Rosa, R.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Drago, M.; Ducrot, M.; Endr?czi, G.; Fafone, V.; Farinon, S.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Harms, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hofman, D.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Kasprzack, M.; Kéfélian, F.; Królak, A.; Kutynia, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Lebigot, E.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martinelli, L.; Masserot, A.; Meacher, D.; Meidam, J.; Mezzani, F.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mours, B.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Nocera, F.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prijatelj, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Shah, S.; Siellez, K.; Straniero, N.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Tonelli, M.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; Vasúth, M.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Wei, L.-W.; Yvert, M.; Zadro?ny, A.; Zendri, J.-P.

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Virgo interferometer is the upgraded version of the Virgo detector having the goal to extend by a factor 10 the observation horizon in the universe and consequently increase the detection rate by three orders of magnitude. Its installation is in progress and is expected to be completed in late 2015. In this proceeding we will present the scheme and the main challenging technical features of the detector and we will give an outline of the installation status and the foreseen time schedule which will bring Advanced Virgo to its full operation.

  1. Future water Cherenkov detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Marc

    2015-05-01

    In these proceedings a review of the current proposed large-scale Warer Cherenkov experiments is given. An argument is made that future water Cherenkov detectors would benefit in the investment in neutron detection technology. A brief overview will be given of proposed water Cherenkov experiments such as HYPER-K and MEMPHYS and other R&D experiments to demonstrate neutron capture in water Cherenkov detectors. Finally, innovation developed in the context of the now defunct LBNE Water R&D option to improve Water Cherenkov technology will be described.

  2. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    E-print Network

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high P? tracks in one single TRD stack.

  3. Semiconductor neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB); Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA); Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM); Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-03-08

    A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

  4. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  5. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  6. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  7. The Upgraded D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U./Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco deQuito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS; ,

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  8. The Upgraded D0 Detector

    E-print Network

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

    2005-01-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  9. MPD Detector at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanova, L.; Vasendina, V.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this article is to give information about the new accelerator complex NICA at JINR, Dubna and especially, to provide overview of the MultiPurpose Detector (MPD) and its subdetectors. The current results of the MPD performance for dileptons, hyperons, hypernuclei and phi-meson are presented.

  10. Understanding the SNO+ Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, K.

    SNO+, a large liquid scintillator experiment, is the successor of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment. The scintillator volume will be loaded with large quantities of 130Te, an isotope that undergoes double beta decay, in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. In addition to this search, SNO+ has a broad physics program due to its sensitivity to solar and supernova neutrinos, as well as reactor and geo anti-neutrinos. SNO+ can also place competitive limits on certain modes of invisible nucleon decay during its first phase. The detector is currently undergoing commissioning in preparation for its first phase, in which the detector is filled with ultra pure water. This will be followed by a pure scintillator phase, and then a Tellurium-loaded scintillator phase to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Here we present the work done to model detector aging, which was first observed during SNO. The aging was found to reduce the optical response of the detector. We also describe early results from electronics calibration of SNO+.

  11. Optical detector calibrator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

  12. TESLA detector magnet design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kircher, François; Gastineau, Bernard; Klioukhine, Viatcheslav; Pabot, Yves

    2001-07-01

    The TESLA detector asks for a strong and very homogeneous magnetic field within its useful volume. In this respect, a large superconducting magnet has been designed, with special attention to get the requested field homogeneity. The design of the magnet, a superconducting solenoid with its iron yoke, is described in this paper, with some emphasis on the achievement of the field homogeneity.

  13. SSC detector solenoid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Fast; J. H. Grimson; R. D. Kephart; H. J. Krebs; M. E. Stone; E. D. Theriot; R. H. Wands

    1989-01-01

    A detector utilizing a superconducting solenoid is being discussed for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). A useful field volume of 8 m diameter x 16 m length at 1.5-2 T (--1 GJ at 2T) is required. It has been decided that all of the particle physics calorimetry will be inside the bore of the solenoid and that there is no

  14. The ? accrual failure detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naohiro Hayashibara; X. Defago; R. Yared; T. Katayama

    2004-01-01

    The detection of failures is a fundamental issue for fault-tolerance in distributed systems. Recently, many people have come to realize that failure detection ought to be provided as some form of generic service, similar to IP address lookup or time synchronization. However, this has not been successful so far; one of the reasons being the fact that classical failure detectors

  15. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  16. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  17. Transition radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Dolgoshein

    1993-01-01

    The use of transition radiation (TR) as a means of identifying high energy particles has now become a subject of intensive experimental investigations and applications. Our intention is first to study the physics of these phenomena and to describe ways of building detectors which can efficiently identify particles.

  18. Smoke Detector Resource Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.; Powell, Pamela, Ed.

    This manual is one of a series developed for public education on smoke detectors. First, basic facts are given including guidelines for selection and purchasing, installation, maintenance, and what to do if the alarm goes off. Second, five case studies are presented which are examples of public education programs. (The script to one slide…

  19. Smoke Detector Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

    This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

  20. Status of Virgo detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Acernese; P. Amico; M. Alshourbagy; F. Antonucci; S. Aoudia; P. Astone; S. Avino; D. Babusci; G. Ballardin; F. Barone; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; F. Beauville; S. Bigotta; S. Birindelli; M. A. Bizouard; C. Boccara; F. Bondu; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; S. Braccini; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; D. Buskulic; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; F. Carbognani; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Cesarini; E. Chassande-Mottin; N. Christensen; C. Corda; A. Corsi; F. Cottone; A.-C. Clapson; F. Cleva; J.-P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; A. Dari; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; M. del Prete; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Virgilio; B. Dujardin; A. Eleuteri; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J.-D. Fournier; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; L. Gammaitoni; F. Garufi; E. Genin; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; G. Giordano; L. Giordano; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; G. Guidi; S. Hebri; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; S. Karkar; S. Kreckelbergh; P. La Penna; M. Laval; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; B. Lopez; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; G. Losurdo; J.-M. Mackowski; E. Majorana; C. N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; M. Mazzoni; L. Milano; F. Menzinger; C. Moins; J. Moreau; N. Morgado; B. Mours; F. Nocera; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; F. Piergiovanni; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; K. Qipiani; P. Rapagnani; V. Reita; A. Remillieux; F. Ricci; I. Ricciardi; P. Ruggi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; A. Spallicci; M. Tarallo; M. Tonelli; A. Toncelli; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; C. Tremola; G. Vajente; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; J.-Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Yvert

    2007-01-01

    The commissioning of the Virgo gravitational wave detector has restarted after several major hardware upgrades carried out during winter 2005. Now Virgo is fully operative and its sensitivity greatly improved and continually improving. A program of short scientific data taking has already started and Virgo is moving towards a period of continuous data taking, which should start at the end

  1. Gas Detectors, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The report contains annotated references on gas detectors compiled from the Defense Documentation Center's data bank. The range of the topics deals with detection of toxic propellants, odors, gas leaks, oxygen, etc. Included with the bibliographic reference are the corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, and title indexes. (Author/JR)

  2. Refrigerant leak detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative leak detector visually demonstrates refrigerant loss from precision volume of large refrigeration system over established period of time from single test point. Mechanical unit is less costly than electronic "sniffers" and is more reliable due to absence of electronic circuits that are susceptible to drift.

  3. The silicon strip detectors of the ZEUS microvertex detector

    E-print Network

    of monocrystalline high resistivity n­type silicon with 512 readout p + -strips, which are AC coupled to the readoutThe silicon strip detectors of the ZEUS microvertex detector Diplomarbeit am II. Institut fË? ur; Abstract A new silicon microvertex detector (MVD) will be installed in the ZEUS experiment during

  4. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  5. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or other failures in those systems. In another type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors of this type could be optoelectronically instrumented for monitoring to provide measured digital indications of color changes indicative of the presence of hydrogen.

  6. Fundamental principles of particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Status of the KEDR detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Anashin; V. M Aulchenko; B. O Baibusinov; V. Balashov; E. M Baldin; L. M Barkov; A. K Barladyan; M. Yu Barnyakov; S. E Baru; I. V. Bedny; D. M Beilin; A. E Blinov; V. E Blinov; D. V. Bondarev; A. E Bondar; A. R Buzykaev; P. Cantoni; A. G Chilingarov; L. V. Dneprovsky; S. I. Eidelman; D. A Epifanov; P. L Frabetti; P. B Gaidarev; V. R Groshev; S. V. Karpov; V. A Kiselev; S. G Klimenko; G. M Kolachev; S. A Kononov; V. N Kozlov; E. A Kravchenko; V. F Kulikov; L. M Kurdadze; A. S Kuzmin; S. A Kuznecov; F. Lanni; M. Yu Lelchuk; L. A Leontiev; E. B Levichev; V. M Malyshev; P. F Manfredi; A. L Maslennikov; G. D Minakov; V. P Nagaslaev; A. Naumenkov; S. A Nikitin; A. Nomerotsky; A. P Onuchin; S. B Oreshkin; R. Ovechkin; F. Palombo; S. V. Peleganchuk; S. S. Petrosyan; S. V. Pivovarov; A. O Poluektov; G. E Pospelov; I. Ya Protopopov; V. Re; L. V. Romanov; N. I. Root; A. A. Ruban; G. A Savinov; A. G Shamov; D. Shatilov; M. A Shubin; A. I. Shusharo; B. A Shwartz; V. A Sidorov; Yu. I. Skovpen; V. P Smakhtin; R. G Snopkov; A. V. Sokolov; A. M Soukharev; A. A. Talyshev; V. A Tayursky; V. I. Telnov; Yu. A Tikhonov; K. Yu Todyshev; Yu. V. Usov; A. I. Vorobyev; A. N Yushkov; A. V. Zatcepin; V. N Zhilich

    2002-01-01

    KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e+e?-collider in the energy range 2E=2.0–12GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J\\/? meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results

  8. Semiconductor nuclear radiation detector studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Sher

    1974-01-01

    In response to a problem that arose with regard to the availability of germanium for lithium-drifted germanium detectors (Ge(Li) detectors), a comprehensive program was undertaken aimed toward the development of a method for the rapid specification of germanium quality for nuclear radiation detector use, and the determination of factors affecting germanium quality. Measurements on a large number of germanium crystals,

  9. Transition Radiation Detector in MACRO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Nicola Mazziotta

    1999-01-01

    The MACRO detector is located in the Gran Sasso Laboratory. MACRO's overburden varies from to ? . A transition radiation detector (TRD) has been added to the MACRO detector in order to measure the residual energy of muons entering MACRO, i.e. the energy they have after passing through the Gran Sasso's rock overburden. The TRD consists of three identical modules

  10. Detectors in astronomy - Infrared astronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Young

    1982-01-01

    The technical characteristics of infrared detectors are discussed. The mode of operation of thermal, photovoltaic, and photoconductive detectors is explained, and for each type, the noise equivalent power and quantum efficiency are assessed. The influence of doping is discussed; the Ga-doped Ge bolometer is a virtually ideal detector with almost unity quantum efficiency. At wavelengths below five microns, the most

  11. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified version of the THALES double heterostructure (DH) p-i-n device, but with even wider bandgap barriers inserted at the contact layer/absorber layer interfaces. It is designed to work with either bulk semiconductors or superlattices as the absorber material. The superlattice bandgap can be adjusted to match the desired absorption cutoff wavelength. This infrared detector has the potential of high-sensitivity operation at higher operating temperatures. This would reduce cooling requirements, thereby reducing the power, mass, and volume of the equipment and allowing an increased mission science return.

  12. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    E-print Network

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2015-05-12

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  13. Directional fast-neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Byrd, Roger C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A plurality of omnidirectional radiation detectors are arranged in a close packed symmetrical pattern to form a segmented detector. The output radiation counts from these detectors are arithmetically combined to provide the direction of a source of incident radiation. Directionality is achieved without the use of shielding to provide collimation and background reduction effects. Indeed, output counts from paired detectors are simply subtracted to yield a vector direction toward the radiation source. The counts from all of the detectors can be combined to yield an output signal functionally related to the radiation source strength.

  14. Pulsed neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, deceased, J. Craig (late of Albuquerque, NM); Rowland, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-03-21

    A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

  15. Ultrafast neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    The invention comprises a neutron detector (50) of very high temporal resolution that is particularly well suited for measuring the fusion reaction neutrons produced by laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets. The detector comprises a biased two-conductor traveling-wave transmission line (54, 56, 58, 68) having a uranium cathode (60) and a phosphor anode (62) as respective parts of the two conductors. A charge line and Auston switch assembly (70, 72, 74) launch an electric field pulse along the transmission line. Neutrons striking the uranium cathode at a location where the field pulse is passing, are enabled to strike the phosphor anode and produce light that is recorded on photographic film (64). The transmission line may be variously configured to achieve specific experimental goals.

  16. Stable glow discharge detector

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2004-05-18

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

  17. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  18. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  19. The LUCID detector

    E-print Network

    Lasagni Manghi, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Starting from 2015 LHC will perform a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely renewed, both on detector design and in the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics is presented, featuring a new read-out board (LUCROD), for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and the revisited LUMAT board for side A–side C combination. The contribution covers the new boards design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  20. Triac failure detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A failure detector is provided for detecting unidirectional failures in triacs, particularly as used in power factor controllers for induction motors. In a first embodiment, the triac voltage waveform is sensed and upon detection of an unbalanced signal, corresponding to failure of the triac in either the positive or negative direction, the triac is turned full on in both directions. In a second embodiment, a pair of pulsed signals are derived, the pulse durations of which are proportional to the phase difference between the load current and voltage for each half cycle, and the triac is turned full on responsive to a difference in pulse duration between the half cycle signals. An unidirectional open circuit detector is adapted to use a signal from either of the first and second embodiment to turn the triac off in response to an open circuit failure in either direction.

  1. Carbon nanotube terahertz detector.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaowei; Fujimura, Naoki; Lloyd, J Meagan; Erickson, Kristopher J; Talin, A Alec; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Jiang, Qijia; Kawano, Yukio; Hauge, Robert H; Léonard, François; Kono, Junichiro

    2014-07-01

    Terahertz (THz) technologies are promising for diverse areas such as medicine, bioengineering, astronomy, environmental monitoring, and communications. However, despite decades of worldwide efforts, the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum still continues to be elusive for solid state technology. Here, we report on the development of a powerless, compact, broadband, flexible, large-area, and polarization-sensitive carbon nanotube THz detector that works at room temperature. The detector is sensitive throughout the entire range of the THz technology gap, with responsivities as high as ?2.5 V/W and polarization ratios as high as ?5:1. Complete thermoelectric and opto-thermal characterization together unambiguously reveal the photothermoelectric origin of the THz photosignal, triggered by plasmonic absorption and collective antenna effects, and suggest that judicious design of thermal management and quantum engineering of Seebeck coefficients will lead to further enhancement of device performance. PMID:24875576

  2. Portable Radiation Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, General Pneumatics Corporation's Western Research Center satisfied a NASA need for a non-clogging Joule-Thomson cryostat to provide very low temperature cooling for various sensors. This NASA-supported cryostat development played a key part in the development of more portable high-purity geranium gamma-ray detectors. Such are necessary to discern between the radionuclides in medical, fuel, weapon, and waste materials. The outcome of the SBIR project is a cryostat that can cool gamma-ray detectors, without vibration, using compressed gas that can be stored compactly and indefinitely in a standby mode. General Pneumatics also produces custom J-T cryostats for other government, commercial and medical applications.

  3. Lasers, Spectrographs, and Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaPlant, Fred

    The introduction of Raman spectroscopy into new fields has been driven largely by advances in the underlying technology. While the spectrometer is still comprised of a light source, a wavelength selector, and a detector, the improvement in functionality of each of these components has had dramatic impacts on areas where Raman was once thought impractical, if not impossible. In addition, esoteric techniques once confined to academic spectroscopy labs are now finding wide application.

  4. Vertex Detector Cable Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, William E.; /Fermilab

    2009-02-01

    Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, 'pulsed power' is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

  5. Biological detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  6. Biological detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  7. Pyromagnetic infrared radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Bene; R. M. Walser

    1975-01-01

    Work on the spin reorientation transition in YbFeO3 was completed. This work showed the two second order transitions associated with the spin reorientation transition. Experimental work on 15 MHz on the family of materials (CoS(2-x)Se(x) has been completed. This study investigates the detector material limitations on high frequency response. In particular the effect of eddy currents is examined both theoretically

  8. Gas bubble detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Burchfield, David E. (Inventor); Hagey, John M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A gas bubble detector having a modulated IR source focused through a bandpass filter onto a venturi, formed in a sample tube, to illuminate the venturi with modulated filtered IR to detect the presence of gas bubbles as small as 0.01 cm or about 0.004 in diameter in liquid flowing through the venturi. Means are provided to determine the size of any detected bubble and to provide an alarm in the absence of liquid in the sample tube.

  9. Semiconductor projectile impact detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shriver, E. L. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor projectile impact detector is described for use in determining micrometeorite presence, as well as its flux and energy comprising a photovoltaic cell which generates a voltage according to the light and heat emitted by the micrometeorites upon impact. A counter and peak amplitude measuring device were used to indicate the number of particules which strike the surface of the cell as well as the kinetic energy of each of the particles.

  10. Vacuum Ultraviolet Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chun-Lin; Tomita, Kazuhiro; Jimbo, Takashi; Umeno, Masayoshi; Hattori, Shuzo

    1985-02-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet detector has been fabricated. A sample was made using a crystalline quartz plate on the surface of which a metal electrode was deposited. It has been experimentally established that the sample is sensitive to VUV radiation, and the external quantum efficiency is estimated to be higher than several percent. The new photodetector also has very good stability and should be a practicable new VUV photodetector.

  11. Laser beam methane detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Instrument uses infrared absorption to determine methane concentration in liquid natural gas vapor. Two sensors measure intensity of 3.39 mm laser beam after it passes through gas; absorption is proportional to concentration of methane. Instrument is used in modeling spread of LNG clouds and as leak detector on LNG carriers and installations. Unit includes wheels for mobility and is both vertically and horizontally operable.

  12. Extruded plastic scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Pla-Dalmau, Alan D. Bross and Kerry L. Mellott

    1999-04-16

    As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of the raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light yield and transmittance measurements are presented.

  13. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  14. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, M. (UC)

    2011-09-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  15. SOIKID, SOI pixel detector combined with superconducting detector KID

    E-print Network

    Ishino, Hirokazu; Kida, Yosuke; Yamada, Yousuke

    2015-01-01

    We present the development status of the SOIKID, a detector combining the SOI pixel detector and the superconducting detector KID (Kinetic Inductance Detector). The aim of the SOIKID is to measure X-ray photon energy with the resolution better than that of the semiconductor detector. The silicon substrate is used as the X-ray photon absorber. The recoiled electron creates athermal phonons as well as the ionizing electron-hole pairs. The KID formed at one side of the substrate surface detects the phonons to measure the total energy deposited, while the SOI pixel detector formed on the other side of the substrate detects the ionized carries to measure the position. Combining the position and energy measurements, it is in principle possible to have the extremely high energy resolution.

  16. Position-sensitive detectors of the detector group at Jülich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, R.; Clemens, U.; Kemmerling, G.; Nöldgen, H.; Schelten, J.

    2009-06-01

    The detector group of the Central Institute of Electronics at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH was founded in 1968. First developments aimed at a detector system with a position-sensitive BF 3 proportional counter for small-angle neutron scattering, which was later used at a beamline of the research reactor FRJ2. At the end of the 1970s first measurements were carried out with photomultiplier (PM)-based detector systems linked with a LiI crystal from Harshaw. Based on this experience we started with the spectrum of position-sensitive neutron scintillation detectors, which have been developed and designed in our institute during the last three decades comprising several high-resolution linear and two-dimensional detectors. The general design of those detectors is based on a modified Anger principle using an array of PMs and a 1 mm 6Li glass scintillator. The sensitive detector area varies on the type of the PMs used and is related to the spatial resolution of the detector type. The neutron sensitivity at 1 Å is about 65% and the remaining gamma sensitivity is less than 10 -4 with a maximum count rate up to 500 kHz depending on the used detector system.

  17. Micro-UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-12-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  18. Micro UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-09-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  19. Photon detector system

    DOEpatents

    Ekstrom, Philip A. (Lexington, KY)

    1981-01-01

    A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

  20. Avalanche semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sadygov, Z.Y. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); [Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan). Physics Inst.; Zheleznykh, I.M.; Kirillova, T.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Malakhov, N.A.; Jejer, V.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1996-06-01

    Operation of novel avalanche semiconductor detector, produced on the basis of heterojunctions Si-SiC and Si-Si{sub x}O{sub y} is described. A uniform avalanche process with gain from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} can be reached depending on the conductivity of SiC and Si{sub x}O{sub y} layers. Two types of avalanche photodetectors designed for applications in wavelength range 500--10,00 nm with quantum efficiency 60 {+-} 10% (650 nm) and 200--700 nm with quantum efficiency 60 {+-} 15% (450 nm) are presented.

  1. Improved ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Tullis, A.M.

    1986-01-30

    An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber type comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

  2. Ionizing Radiation Detector

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-11-18

    A CdZnTe (CZT) crystal provided with a native CdO dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals is disclosed. A two step process is provided for forming the dielectric coating which includes etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water after attaching electrical contacts to the crystal surface.

  3. Moderate temperature detector development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marciniec, J. W.; Briggs, R. J.; Sood, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    P-side backside reflecting constant, photodiode characterization, and photodiode diffusion and G-R currents were investigated in an effort to develop an 8 m to 12 m infrared quantum detector using mercury cadmium telluride. Anodization, phosphorus implantation, and the graded band gap concept were approaches considered for backside formation. Variable thickness diodes were fabricated with a back surface anodic oxide to investigate the effect of this surface preparation on the diffusion limited zero bias impedance. A modeling technique was refined to thoroughly model diode characteristics. Values for the surface recombination velocity in the depletion region were obtained. These values were improved by implementing better surface damage removal techniques.

  4. Flexible composite radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Orler, Edward B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  5. Active Pyroelectric Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (inventor); Zalameda, Joseph N. (inventor); Mina, Joseph M. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noncontact pyroelectric infrared detector is described. A pyroelectric film that also has piezoelectric properties is held in place so that it is free to vibrate. It is electrically stimulated to vibrate at a resonance frequency. The vibrating film forms part of a balanced bridge circuit. As thermal radiation impinges on the film the pyroelectric effect causes the resonance frequency to change, thereby unbalancing the bridge circuit. A differential amplifier tracks the change in voltage across the bridge. The resulting voltage signal is further processed by a bandpass filter and a precision rectifier. The device allows for DC or static temperature measurements without the use of a mechanical chopping device.

  6. Radiation damage of germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Energetic particles can produce interstitial-vacancy pairs in a crystal by knocking the atoms from their normal positions. Detectors are unique among semiconductor devices in depending on very low concentrations of electrically active impurities, and also on efficient transport of holes and electrons over relatively large distances. Because the dense regions of damage produced by energetic particles may result in donors and/or acceptors, and also provide trapping sites for holes and electrons, detectors are very sensitive to radiation damage. In addition to these effects occurring within the detector, radiation may also change the characteristics of the exposed surfaces causing unpredictable effects on the detector leakage current. Radiation-induced surface degradation has rarely, if ever, been observed for germanium detectors. The possibility of minimizing hole trapping in charge collection by the use of a high-purity germanium coaxial detector configured with the p (+) contact on the coaxial periphery is discussed.

  7. Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin S. Felber; Norbert C. Wild; Scott Nunan; Dennis Breuner; Frank Doft

    1998-01-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and

  8. Transition Radiation Detector in MACRO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Mazziotta

    1999-01-01

    The MACRO detector is located in the Gran Sasso Laboratory. MACRO's\\u000aoverburden varies from 3150 to 7000 hg\\/cm^2. A transition radiation detector\\u000a(TRD) has been added to the MACRO detector in order to measure the residual\\u000aenergy of muons entering MACRO, i.e. the energy they have after passing through\\u000athe Gran Sasso's rock overburden. The TRD consists of three identical

  9. Improved detectivity of pyroelectric detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. E.; Gelpey, J. C.; Marciniec, J. W.; Chiang, A. M.; Maciolek, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    High detectivity single-element SBN pyroelectric detectors were fabricated. The theory and technology developments related to improved detector performance were identified and formulated. Improved methods of material characterization, thinning, mounting, blackening and amplifier matching are discussed. Detectors with detectivities of 1.3 x 10 to the 9th power square root of Hz/watt at 1 Hz are reported. Factors limiting performance and recommendations for future work are discussed.

  10. Burst Populations and Detector Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.

    2003-01-01

    The F(sub T) (peak bolometric photon flux) vs. E(sub p) (peak energy) plane is a powerful tool to compare the burst populations detected by different detectors. Detector sensitivity curves in this plane demonstrate which burst populations the detectors will detect. For example, future CZT-based detectors will show the largest increase in sensitivity for soft bursts, and will be particularly well- suited to study X-ray rich bursts and X-ray Flashes. Identical bursts at different redshifts describe a track in the F(sub T)-E(sub p) plane.

  11. GLAS 532nm Optical Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaRue, Ross A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents fabrication and testing of 532nm optical detectors. Testing procedures included 532nm quantum efficiency, detector gain, and photon counting performance, in particular, photon counting efficiency. 532nm quantum efficiency was measured to be 36% to 39% for the detectors fabricated. Detectors with a GaAs APD anode had measured gains of 12,000 to 15,000 maximum. Photon counting efficiency for the detector with an APD anode was measured to be approximately 80% with a detector gain of 11,000. Measurements made on an identical detector, not fabricated under this contract, had a photon counting efficiency exceeding 90% with a gain of 13,000. A formula is derived in which the photon counting efficiency is determined by the system preamp noise and the peak single photon pulse height which is proportional to detector gain. This formula agrees well with the measured results and indicates that a detector gain of 15,000 is sufficient to provide a counting efficiency of 99.6%.

  12. Diamond detectors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, E.; De Sio, A.

    2003-11-01

    This work reviews some general results obtained by our group in the framework of a programme focused on the development and the characterisation of Vacuum-UV (VUV) CVD diamond photodetectors to address the requirements of space missions where pixel and 2-D arrays are used. We discuss the performance of detectors based on single crystal diamond films and CVD polycrystalline diamond films. The performance of these devices in the dark and under illumination was investigated and the results were compared to those from CCD and MCP detectors. The status of diamond detector technology is finally described in order to highlight its advantages over more traditional detectors and the aspects requiring further developments.

  13. Efficiencies of Quantum Optical Detectors

    E-print Network

    Daniel Hogg; Dominic W. Berry; A. I. Lvovsky

    2014-12-15

    We propose a definition for the efficiency that can be universally applied to all classes of quantum optical detectors. This definition is based on the maximum amount of optical loss that a physically plausible device can experience while still replicating the properties of a given detector. We prove that detector efficiency cannot be increased using linear optical processing. That is, given a set of detectors, as well as arbitrary linear optical elements and ancillary light sources, it is impossible to construct detection devices that would exhibit higher efficiencies than the initial set.

  14. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  15. Advances in pyroelectric infrared detectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerman, H. P.; Schwarz, F.; Weiner, S.

    1972-01-01

    Recent improvements in the pyroelectric detector have been due to the development of locked-in polarization, further reduction of the FET leakage current, and reduction of short circuit noise. The pyroelectric detector has been successfully employed in these typical applications: (1) thermograph using a single detector and X-Y scanner, (2) focal plane reticle scanner, (3) linear array thermal imaging system, (4) pyroelectric image tube, (5) radiometers (vertical temperature profile radiometer, carbon dioxide sensor), (6) high speed spectrometer, and (7) laser detector.

  16. Photon drag detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. G.; Roddie, A. G.

    1985-04-30

    A photon drag detector having a block of semi-conductor material with two opposite faces through one of which a beam of radiation can enter and from the other of which it can emerge; spaced end electrodes in contact with said block, one adjacent to each of said opposite faces; at least two intermediate electrodes in contact with said block, arranged intermediate and spaced from said end electrodes and spaced from each other; an dan impedance connecting said end electrodes; whereby the change in sensitivity of the detector with the position of the beam in the said block can be made small. The block of semi-conductor material is typically bar shaped with the opposite faces substantially parallel end faces of the bar. The bar is conveniently cylindrical. The electrodes are preferably ring electrodes, embracing the block and parallel with the planes of the opposite faces. The semi-conductor may be P-doped germanium of about 30 ohm centimeter resistivity, and the impedance may be a resistance in the range from about 100 to about 400 ohm.

  17. Advanced Radiation Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    The University of Michigan

    1998-07-01

    Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

  18. Bragg waveguide ultrasound detectors.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Vishnupriya; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2012-10-01

    Polymer Bragg grating waveguides (BGWs) are demonstrated as ultrasound detectors. The device is fabricated by a direct electron beam lithography technique using an epoxy-based photoresist as the core material, with grating features fabricated on the side walls of the rib waveguide. The main motivation for this design is the linear geometry of the device, which can be used in a linear array, facilitating high-frequency ultrasound imaging. The fabricated BGW device has a cross-sectional area of 1.5 × 1.5 ?m and the grating length is 500 ?m. The optical resonance spectrum is measured and compared with a theoretical model. The BGW device is experimentally demonstrated for the detection of ultrasound waves emitted by a 25-MHz transducer. Detection sensitivity depends on optimal grating design for a steep resonance. The extension of a single-element BGW device to a linear array using optical wavelength division multiplexing is presented. The results demonstrate the potential use of BGW devices in highly compact array of optoacoustic detectors for high-sensitivity ultrasound detection and photoacoustic imaging. PMID:23143579

  19. Barrier infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

  20. The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory and the JWST Detector Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Figer; B. J. Rauscher; M. W. Regan; J. Balleza; R. Barkhouser; L. Bergeron; G. R. Greene; S. R. McCandliss; E. Morse; T. Reeves; H. S. Stockman

    2002-01-01

    The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory (IDTL) is jointly operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Johns Hopkins University (JHU), and is assisting the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission in choosing and operating the best near-infrared detectors. The JWST is the centerpiece of the NASA Office of Space Science theme, the Astronomical Search for Origins, and the

  1. A novel 5GHz RF power detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zhang; William R. Eisenstadt; Robert M. Fox

    2004-01-01

    The principles of a RF power detector using bipolar transistors are analyzed and a new RF power detector for embedded RF IC test is proposed. The new detector uses a voltage divider to provide unequal ac signals for its differential input. It has a more linear transfer function for large-signal detection than previously reported detectors. Also, the detector retains its

  2. A low temperature gravitational radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, W. O.

    1971-01-01

    The beginning design of an experiment is discussed for studying gravitational radiation by using massive detectors which are cooled to ultralow temperatures in order to improve the signal to noise ratios and the effective range and stability of the detectors. The gravitational detector, a low detection system, a cooled detector, magnetic support, superconducting shielding, and superconducting accelerometer detector are described.

  3. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  4. Temperature profile detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles.

  5. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  6. Absolute beam brightness detector.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-01

    In generally accepted emittance measurement, main attention is concentrated on emittance areas ?(x), ?(y) occupied by desired part of ion beam in transverse phase space and shape of these areas. The absolute beam phase density (brightness) as usually is not measured directly and the average beam brightness B is calculated from a beam intensity I and the transverse emittances. In the ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) optimization, it is important to preserve the beam brightness because some aberration of ion optic and beam instabilities can decrease the brightness of the central part of ion beam significantly. For these brightness measurements, it is convenient to use an absolute beam brightness detector with the brightness determination from one short considered in this article. PMID:22380223

  7. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  8. Porous material neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

  9. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  10. Temperature profile detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  11. Absolute beam brightness detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    In generally accepted emittance measurement, main attention is concentrated on emittance areas {epsilon}{sub x}, {epsilon}{sub y} occupied by desired part of ion beam in transverse phase space and shape of these areas. The absolute beam phase density (brightness) as usually is not measured directly and the average beam brightness B is calculated from a beam intensity I and the transverse emittances. In the ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) optimization, it is important to preserve the beam brightness because some aberration of ion optic and beam instabilities can decrease the brightness of the central part of ion beam significantly. For these brightness measurements, it is convenient to use an absolute beam brightness detector with the brightness determination from one short considered in this article.

  12. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Faruqi, A R; Henderson, R

    2007-10-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) in the structural analysis of large biological molecules and macro-molecular complexes and the need for simple, rapid and efficient readout, there is a persuasive need for improved detectors. Commercial detectors, based on phosphor/fibre optics-coupled CCDs, provide adequate performance for many applications, including electron diffraction. However, due to intrinsic light scattering within the phosphor, spatial resolution is limited. Careful measurements suggest that CCDs have superior performance at lower resolution while all agree that film is still superior at higher resolution. Consequently, new detectors are needed based on more direct detection, thus avoiding the intermediate light conversion step required for CCDs. Two types of direct detectors are discussed in this review. First, there are detectors based on hybrid technology employing a separate pixellated sensor and readout electronics connected with bump bonds-hybrid pixel detectors (HPDs). Second, there are detectors, which are monolithic in that sensor and readout are all in one plane (monolithic active pixel sensor, MAPS). Our discussion is centred on the main parameters of interest to cryoEM users, viz. detective quantum efficiency (DQE), resolution or modulation transfer function (MTF), robustness against radiation damage, speed of readout, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of independent pixels available for a given detector. PMID:17913494

  13. Sputtered film thermistor IR detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shankar B. Baliga; Martin R. Rost; Alan P

    1994-01-01

    The thermistor infrared detector or bolometer is the detector of choice in many classical remote sensing applications such as horizon sensing, noncontact thermometry, and industrial applications. In recent years, the authors have developed a thin film process where the thermistor material is deposited from a target directly onto the substrate. This is an advance over the labor intensive ceramic technology,

  14. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Casagrande; M. C. Abreu; W. H. Bell; P. Berglund; W. de Boer; E. Borchi; K. Borer; M. Bruzzi; S. Buontempo; S. Chapuy; V. Cindro; P. Collins; N. D'Ambrosio; C. Da Viá; S. Devine; B. Dezillie; Z. Dimcovski; V. Eremin; A. Esposito; V. Granata; E. Grigoriev; F. Hauler; E. Heijne; S. Heising; S. Janos; L. Jungermann; I. Konorov; Z. Li; C. Lourenço; M. Mikuz; T. O. Niinikoski; V. O'Shea; S. Pagano; V. G. Palmieuri; S. Paul; S. Pirollo; K. Pretzl; P. Rato; G. Ruggiero; K. Smith; P. Sonderegger; P. Sousa; E. Verbitskaya; S. Watts; M. Zavrtanik

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, “resuscitate” when operated at temperatures below 130K. This is often referred to as the “Lazarus effect”. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors.

  15. The ATLAS TRT Barrel Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Abat; T. N. Addy; T. P. A. Åkesson; J. Alison; F. Anghinolfi; E. Arik; M. Arik; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; O. K. Baker; E. Banas; S. Baron; C. Bault; N. Becerici; A. Beddall; J. Bendotti; D. P. Benjamin; H. Bertelsen; A. Bingul; H. Blampey; A. Bocci; M. Bochenek; V. G. Bondarenko; V. Bychkov; J. Callahan; M. Capeáns Garrido; L. Cardiel Sas; A. Catinaccio; S. A. Cetin; T. Chandler; R. Chritin; P. Cwetanski; M. Dam; H. Danielsson; E. Danilevich; E. David; J. Degenhardt; B. Di Girolamo; F. Dittus; N. Dixon; O. B. Dogan; B. A. Dolgoshein; N. Dressnandt; C. Driouchi; W. L. Ebenstein; P. Eerola; U. Egede; K. Egorov; H. Evans; P. Farthouat; O. L. Fedin; A. J. Fowler; S. Fratina; D. Froidevaux; A. Fry; P. Gagnon; I. L. Gavrilenko; C. Gay; N. Ghodbane; J. Godlewski; M. Goulette; I. Gousakov; N. Grigalashvili; Y. Grishkevich; J. Grognuz; Z. Hajduk; M. Hance; F. Hansen; J. B. Hansen; P. H. Hansen; G. Hanson; G. A. Hare; A. Harvey Jr.; C. Hauviller; A. High; W. Hulsbergen; W. Huta; V. Issakov; S. Istin; V. Jain; G. Jarlskog; L. Jeanty; V. A. Kantserov; B. Kaplan; A. S. Kapliy; S. Katounine; F. Kayumov; P. T. Keener; G. D. Kekelidze; E. Khabarova; A. Khristachev; B. Kisielewski; T. H. Kittelmann; C. Kline; E. B. Klinkby; N. V. Klopov; B. R. Ko; T. Koffas; N. V. Kondratieva; S. P. Konovalov; S. Koperny; H. Korsmo; S. Kovalenko; T. Z. Kowalski; K. Krüger; V. Kramarenko; L. G. Kudin; A.-C. LeBihan; B. C. LeGeyt; K. Levterov; P. Lichard; A. Lindahl; V. Lisan; S. Lobastov; A. Loginov; C. W. Loh; S. Lokwitz; M. C. Long; S. Lucas; A. Lucotte; F. Luehring; B. Lundberg; R. Mackeprang; V. P. Maleev; A. Manara; M. Mandl; A. J. Martin; F. F. Martin; R. Mashinistov; G. M. Mayers; K. W. McFarlane; V. Mialkovski; B. M. Mills; B. Mindur; V. A. Mitsou; J. U. Mjörnmark; S. V. Morozov; E. Morris; S. V. Mouraviev; A. M. Muir; A. Munar; A. V. Nadtochi; S. Y. Nesterov; F. M. Newcomer; N. Nikitin; O. Novgorodova; E. G. Novodvorski; H. Ogren; S. H. Oh; S. B. Oleshko; D. Olivito; J. Olszowska; W. Ostrowicz; M. S. Passmore; S. Patrichev; J. Penwell; F. Perez-Gomez; V. D. Peshekhonov; T. C. Petersen; R. Petti; A. Placci; A. Poblaguev; X. Pons; M. J. Price; O. Rø hne; R. D. Reece; M. B. Reilly; C. Rembser; A. Romaniouk; D. Rousseau; D. Rust; Y. F. Ryabov; V. Ryjov; M. Söderberg; A. Savenkov; J. Saxon; M. Scandurra; V. A. Schegelsky; M. I. Scherzer; M. P. Schmidt; C. Schmitt; E. Sedykh; D. M. Seliverstov; T. Shin; A. Shmeleva; S. Sivoklokov; S. Yu Smirnov; L. Smirnova; O. Smirnova; P. Smith; V. V. Sosnovtsev; G. Sprachmann; S. Subramania; S. I. Suchkov; V. V. Sulin; R. R. Szczygiel; G. Tartarelli; E. Thomson; V. O. Tikhomirov; P. Tipton; J. A. Valls Ferrer; R. Van Berg; V. I. Vassilakopoulos; L. Vassilieva; P. Wagner; R. Wall; C. Wang; D. Whittington; H. H. Williams; A. Zhelezko; K. Zhukov

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS TRT barrel is a tracking drift chamber using 52,544 individual tubular drift tubes. It is one part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, which consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4 to 20 cm, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT) from 56 to 108 cm.

  16. Low power consuming pulse detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rulikowski; V. Sokol; J. Barrett

    2005-01-01

    A new approach for detection of ultra-wideband pulses based on a flip-flop circuit is proposed in this paper. A functional sample of the pulse detector was designed, manufactured and measured. The detector is able to detect a pulse 335 ps wide with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of at least 10 MHz, whereas a minimum detectable signal level is approximately

  17. ISO/LWS: Detector status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenaour, C.; Delettrez, C.; Griffin, M.; Ade, P.; Robinson, D.; Vickers, D.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory is to perform spectrometry in the wavelength range 45 to 200 microns using two resolution modes. The resolution will be around 200 in the medium resolution mode while it will reach 10(exp 4) in the high resolution mode. The sensitivity of this instrument will be close to 10(exp -18) W/sq. root Hz. A schematic view of the focal plane unit is presented. The detectors divide the wavelength range into ten spectral channels. The spectral range and position of each detector is indicated. Each detector will cover approximately a spectral bandwidth sufficient to allow for a 50 percent redundancy in the case of detector failure. There are three types of detectors. SW1 is a Ge:Be photoconductor covering the 45 to 55 micron region. LW1, SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5 are unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductors which cover the 50 to 120 micron region. LW2, LW3, LW4, LW5 are uniaxially stressed Ge:GA photoconductors covering the range from 100 to 200 microns. The stress applied to each detector will be adjusted in order to get the peak response in the corresponding wavelength range, and to minimize the dark current of the shorter wavelength stressed detectors. Stressed and unstressed detectors are located alternatively in order to receive the first and second order of the diffracted beam.

  18. Infrared Detector Arrays for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, G. H.

    2007-09-01

    Use of infrared detector arrays in astronomy began roughly 20 years ago, and our detection capabilities in parts of this spectral range have doubled about every seven months since then. A variety of approaches are now used for detector arrays operating from 1 ?m to 1 mm and beyond. They include direct hybrid arrays of InSb and HgCdTe photodiodes that operate from 0.6 ?m to 5 ?m, and of Si:As impurity band conduction detectors from 5 ?m to 28 ?m; a number of approaches to photoconductive detector arrays in the far-infrared; and bolometer arrays read out by transistors or superconducting devices in the far-infrared through millimeter-wave spectral range. The underlying principles behind these approaches are discussed. The application of these principles is illustrated through detailed discussion of a number of state-of-the-art detector arrays.

  19. Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors

    E-print Network

    A. Buzulutskov

    2015-03-29

    Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

  20. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  1. 14 CFR 125.173 - Fire detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...detectors. Fire detectors must be made and installed in a manner that assures their ability to resist, without failure, all vibration, inertia, and other loads to which they may be normally subjected. Fire detectors must be unaffected by exposure to...

  2. 14 CFR 125.173 - Fire detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...detectors. Fire detectors must be made and installed in a manner that assures their ability to resist, without failure, all vibration, inertia, and other loads to which they may be normally subjected. Fire detectors must be unaffected by exposure to...

  3. Acquisition System and Detector Interface for Power Pulsed Detectors

    E-print Network

    Cornat, R

    2015-01-01

    A common DAQ system is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture based on giga-ethernet and 8b/10b serial links in order to transmit either slow control data, fast signals or read out data. A detector interface (DIF) is used to connect detectors to the DAQ system based on a single firmware shared among the collaboration but targeted on various physical implementations. The DIF allows to build, store and queue packets of data as well as to control the detectors providing USB and serial link connectivity. The overall architecture is foreseen to manage several hundreds of thousands channels.

  4. Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

  5. Bubble detector investigations in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Lun

    2006-01-01

    Investigation on bubble detectors started in China in 1989. Five types of bubble detectors have been developed, with LET thresholds ranging from 0.05 to 6.04 MeV mg(-1) cm(2) at 25 degrees C. The neutron response of bubble detectors made with freon-12 has been investigated with mono-energetic neutrons from 20 keV to 19 MeV. Its effective threshold energy for neutron detection is approximately 100 keV at 28 degrees C. The response above this threshold is approximately 1.5 x 10(-4) (bubble cm(-2))/(n cm(-2)). Bubble detectors are unique not only for neutron dosimetry but also for monitoring and identifying high-energy heavy ions such as cosmic radiation in the space. High-energy heavy ion tracks in large size bubble detectors have been investigated in cooperation with scientists in Japan. The key parameter behind the thresholds of bubble detectors for track registration is the critical rate of energy loss. Three approaches to identify high-energy heavy ions with bubble detectors are suggested. PMID:16782985

  6. Charged Fusion Product Detector Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Plasmas are hot ionized gases which may be manipulated by electromagnetic fields in machines called tokamaks, which are experimental reactors created to harness energy when fusion occurs in said plasma. In order to study instabilities within the tokamak plasma, the trajectories of protons were studied with an array of silicon surface barrier detectors. The collection efficiency of the detectors was analyzed in order to make more accurate calculations, where particular attention was paid to the solid angle of acceptance, or the angular distribution through which particles would enter into the detector. Monte Carlo simulations were coded and implemented in the Python language, where a point on the grid acted as a source which one million data points shot at the plane of the detector. The ratio of the hits versus the misses was calculated for varying positions of the source relative to the plane of the detector. These results were compared to an alpha particle spectroscopy experiment, where a radiation source emitting alpha particles was placed at varying positions relative to the detector. The counting rate of the detector was then observed when it was exposed to the source, and this along with the Monte Carlo results were implemented into an efficiency calculation. DOE Grant # DE-SC0001157.

  7. The Martian Oasis Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.; tomasko, M. G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.

    2000-07-01

    The next phase of unmanned Mars missions paves the way for astronauts to land on the surface of Mars. There are lessons to be learned from the unmanned precursor missions to the Moon and the Apollo lunar surface expeditions. These unmanned missions (Ranger, Lunar Orbiter, and Surveyor) provided the following valuable information, useful from both a scientific and engineering perspective, which was required to prepare the way for the manned exploration of the lunar surface: (1) high resolution imagery instrumental to Apollo landing site selection also tremendously advanced the state of Nearside and Farside regional geology; (2) demonstrated precision landing (less than two kilometers from target) and soft landing capability; (3) established that the surface had sufficient bearing strength to support a spacecraft; and (4) examination of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the surface. The search for extinct or extant life on Mars will follow the water. However, geomorphic studies have shown that Mars has had liquid water on its surface throughout its geologic history. A cornucopia of potential landing sites with water histories (lakes, floodplains, oceans, deltas, hydrothermal regions) presently exist. How will we narrow down site selection and increase the likelihood of finding the signs of life? One way to do this is to identify 'Martian oases.' It is known that the Martian surface is often highly fractured and some areas have karst structures that support underground caves. Much of the water that formed the channels and valley networks is thought to be frozen underground. All that is needed to create the potential for liquid water is a near surface source of heat; recent lava flows and Martian meteorites attest to the potential for volcanic activity. If we can locate even one spot where fracturing, ice, and underground heat are co-located then we have the potential for an oasis. Such a discovery could truly excite the imaginations of both the public and Congress providing an attainable goal for both robotic and manned missions. The instrument required to detect an active oasis is a high spatial resolution (few tens of meters) Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectrometer coupled with a high resolution camera (five m/pixel). This combination creates too large a data volume to possibly return data for the entire Martian Surface; therefore it has been designed as one of the first in a new generation of 'smart' detectors, called the Mars Oasis Detector (MOD).

  8. Compound semiconductor radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alan; Peacock, A.

    2004-09-01

    We discuss the potential benefits of using compound semiconductors for the detection of X- and ?-ray radiation. While Si and Ge have become detection standards for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by one or more of their physical limitations; namely the need for ancillary cooling systems or bulky cryogenics, their modest stopping powers and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors encompass such a wide range of physical properties that it is technically feasible to engineer a material to any application. Wide band-gap compounds offer the ability to operate in a wide range of thermal and radiation environments, whilst still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at hard X-ray wavelengths. Narrow band-gap materials, on the other hand, offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolution of both Si and Ge, by as much as a factor of 3. Assuming that the total system noise can be reduced to a level commensurate with Fano noise, spectroscopic detectors could work in the XUV, effectively bridging the gap between the ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavebands. Thus, in principle, compound semiconductor detectors can provide continuous spectroscopic coverage from the far infrared through to ?-ray wavelengths. However, while they are routinely used at infrared and optical wavelengths, in other bands, their development has been plagued by material and fabrication problems. This is particularly true at hard X- and ?-ray wavelengths, where only a few compounds (e.g., GaAs, CdZnTe and HgI2) have evolved sufficiently to produce working detection systems. In this paper, we examine the current status of research in compound semiconductors and by a careful examination of material properties and future requirements, recommend a number of compounds for further development. In the longer term, when material problems are sufficiently under control, we believe the future lies in the development of heterostructures and inserted interface layers to overcome contacting problems and quantum heterostructures and superlattices to facilitate low-noise readout.

  9. Plastic neutron detectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Tiffany M.S; King, Michael J.; Doty, F. Patrick

    2008-12-01

    This work demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of semiconducting {pi}-conjugated organic polymers for fast neutron detection via n-p elastic scattering. Charge collection in conjugated polymers in the family of substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s (PPV) was evaluated using band-edge laser and proton beam ionization. These semiconducting materials can have high H/C ratio, wide bandgap, high resistivity and high dielectric strength, allowing high field operation with low leakage current and capacitance noise. The materials can also be solution cast, allowing possible low-cost radiation detector fabrication and scale-up. However, improvements in charge collection efficiency are necessary in order to achieve single particle detection with a reasonable sensitivity. The work examined processing variables, additives and environmental effects. Proton beam exposure was used to verify particle sensitivity and radiation hardness to a total exposure of approximately 1 MRAD. Conductivity exhibited sensitivity to temperature and humidity. The effects of molecular ordering were investigated in stretched films, and FTIR was used to quantify the order in films using the Hermans orientation function. The photoconductive response approximately doubled for stretch-aligned films with the stretch direction parallel to the electric field direction, when compared to as-cast films. The response was decreased when the stretch direction was orthogonal to the electric field. Stretch-aligned films also exhibited a significant sensitivity to the polarization of the laser excitation, whereas drop-cast films showed none, indicating improved mobility along the backbone, but poor {pi}-overlap in the orthogonal direction. Drop-cast composites of PPV with substituted fullerenes showed approximately a two order of magnitude increase in photoresponse, nearly independent of nanoparticle concentration. Interestingly, stretch-aligned composite films showed a substantial decrease in photoresponse with increasing stretch ratio. Other additives examined, including small molecules and cosolvents, did not cause any significant increase in photoresponse. Finally, we discovered an inverse-geometric particle track effect wherein increased track lengths created by tilting the detector off normal incidence resulted in decreased signal collection. This is interpreted as a trap-filling effect, leading to increased carrier mobility along the particle track direction. Estimated collection efficiency along the track direction was near 20 electrons/micron of track length, sufficient for particle counting in 50 micron thick films.

  10. NASA AMES infrared detector assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Silicon: Gallium infrared detector assemblies were designed, fabricated, and tested using techniques representative of those employed for hybrid arrays to determine the suitability of this candidate technology for infrared astronomical detector array applications. Both the single channel assembly and the assembly using a 32 channel CMOS multiplexer are considered. The detector material was certified to have a boron background of less than 10 to the 13th power atoms/sq cm counter doped with phosphorus. The gallium concentration is 2 x 10 to the 16th power atoms/cu cm.

  11. Seal system with integral detector

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.

    1982-08-12

    A seal system is disclosed for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials. The seal is tamper-indicating, indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to bypass the seal, is unique and cost effective. The seal system is comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

  12. Neutrino Physics with Thermal Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nucciotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2009-11-09

    The investigation of fundamental neutrino properties like its mass and its nature calls for the design of a new generation of experiments. High sensitivity, high energy resolution, and versatility together with the possibility of a simple multiplexing scheme are the key features of future detectors for these experiments. Thermal detectors can combine all these features. This paper reviews the status and the perspectives for what concerns the application of this type of detectors to neutrino physics, focusing on direct neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  13. The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B. [and others

    1993-09-01

    A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the detector in the radiation environment are discussed. The device has been taking colliding beams data since May of 1992, performing at its best design specifications and enhancing the physics program of CDF.

  14. The DCTPC Fast Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulai, Marjon

    2014-09-01

    The Double Chooz Time Projection Chamber (DCTPC) project employs a set of directional fast neutron detectors that measure background neutron production at the Double Chooz reactor-based neutrino oscillation experiment's near (120 mwe) and far (300 mwe) halls. The DCTPC detectors are used to study the relationship between fast neutron production and rainfall, and will provide valuable neutron measurements as a function of depth, direction, and energy. I will present the latest results from the 60 liter DCTPC detector and discuss future opportunities with the device.

  15. Solid state neutron detector array

    DOEpatents

    Seidel, John G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ruddy, Frank H. (Monroeville, PA); Brandt, Charles D. (Mount Lebanon, PA); Dulloo, Abdul R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lott, Randy G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sirianni, Ernest (Monroeville, PA); Wilson, Randall O. (Greensburg, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors.

  16. Solid state neutron detector array

    DOEpatents

    Seidel, J.G.; Ruddy, F.H.; Brandt, C.D.; Dulloo, A.R.; Lott, R.G.; Sirianni, E.; Wilson, R.O.

    1999-08-17

    A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors. 7 figs.

  17. Modern detectors for radiation monitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Shumakov; A. S. Sviridov; S. V. Kolesnikov

    2011-01-01

    The possibilities of using modern photon and neutron detectors for developing radiation monitors, specifically, LaBr3, Bi4Ge3O12, CdWO4, LiI, ZnO, Lu2SiO5(Ce), CdTe, and HgI2, microtubes from organic scintillators, nanomaterials, and detectors based on gaseous and solid-state electronic multipliers\\u000a are examined. A comparison is made of conventional detectors based on NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl), plastic scintillators, and 3He counters. The advantages of the

  18. The CDF silicon detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Azzi, P.

    1998-04-01

    A major silicon upgrade project is under way for the CDFII experiment that will operate during Run II of the Tevatron in the year 2000. The innermost detector, SVXII, will cover the interaction region with three barrels of five layers of double sided microstrip detectors. In the radial gap between the SVXII and the new main tracking chamber (COT) will be located the ISL that consists of two planes of double sided miscrostrip detectors at large pseudorapidity and one in the central region. A description of the project design and its motivation is presented here.

  19. The micro void neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Menyhért

    2004-08-01

    The Gas-filled Micro Void Particle Detector is based on gas-filled micro voids placed in an external electric field. This detector presents common features of solid state and gas filled devices as internal amplification, unlimited size and shape, dense, high efficiency parallax reducing structure. The gas filling in the void and/or the wall of the micro void serves as radiation detector. The working principle was tested on syntactic foam composed of glass micro bubbles embedded in an epoxy matrix.

  20. Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T. [Applied Cryogenics Technology, Ovilla TX 75154 (United States); Harigel, G.G. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2004-06-23

    In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135 deg. C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm O glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm O Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's '72-inch' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

  1. Optical flameout detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Stephen E.; West, James W.; Lawrence, Robert M.; Harper, Samuel E., Jr.; Alderfer, David W.

    1993-10-01

    A device has been developed which monitors the presence of a flame within a combustion chamber. The optical flameout detection system responds to gross changes in combustor light intensity, which is monitored in two spectral bands. A photomultiplier tube makes optical measurements in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, and a silicon photodiode covers the visible region. The detectors, located outside the combustion chamber, receive the light energy radiated from the combustion process through fiber optic probes designed to operate in a high pressure environment. The optical fibers are aimed diagonally through the center of the injector at the combustion chamber wall downstream of the injector. The probes observe events occurring within a narrow conical-shaped field of view so that the system can quickly detect longitudinal movement of the flame front away from the injector. If a change in intensity of the flame is detected, the fuel supply to the combustion chamber is shut off, limiting the amount of unburned fuel in the combustion chamber which could reignite.

  2. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01

    A transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

  3. Optical Flameout Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, Stephen E. (Inventor); West, James W. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert M. (Inventor); Harper, Samuel E., Jr. (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A device has been developed which monitors the presence of a flame within a combustion chamber. The optical flameout detection system responds to gross changes in combustor light intensity which is monitored in two spectral bands. A photomultiplier tube makes optical measurements in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum and a silicon photodiode covers the visible region. The detectors, located outside the combustion chamber, receive the light energy radiated from the combustion process through fiber optic probes designed to operate in a high pressure environment. The optical fibers are aimed diagonally through the center of the injector at the combustion chamber wall downstream of the injector. The probe observes events occurring within a narrow conical-shaped field of view so that the system can quickly detect longitudinal movement of the flame front away from the injector. If a change in intensity of the flame is detected, the fuel supply to the combustion chamber is shut off limiting the amount of unburned fuel in the combustion chamber which could reignite.

  4. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-03-04

    This invention consists of a transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

  5. Triple Coincidence Radioxenon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Morris, Scott J.; Reeder, Paul L.

    2004-09-22

    The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is on e of the world’s most sensitive systems for monitoring the four radioxenon isotopes 133Xe, 133mXE, 131mXe and 135Xe. However, due to size, weight and power specifications appropriate to meet treaty-monitoring requirements; the ARSA is unsuitable for rapid deployment using modest transportation means. To transition this technology to a portable unit can be easily and rapidly deployed can be achieved by significant reductions in size, weight and power consumption if concentration were not required. As part of an exploratory effort to reduce both the size of the air sample and the gas processing requirement PNNL has developed an experimental nuclear detector to test and qualify the use of triple coincidence signatures (beta, conversion electron, x-ray) from two of the radioxenon isotopes (135Xe and 133Xe) as well as the more traditional beta-gamma coincidence signatures used by the ARSA system. The additional coincidence requirement allows for reduced passive shielding, and makes it possible for unambiguous detection of 133Xe and 153Xe in the presence of high 222Rn backgrounds. This paper will discuss the experimental setup and the results obtained for a 133Xe sample with and without 222Rn as an interference signature.

  6. Hadron Collider Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Incandela, J.R.

    2000-03-07

    Experiments are being prepared at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider that promise to deliver extraordinary insights into the nature of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the role of supersymmetry in the universe. This article reviews the goals, challenges, and designs of these experiments. The first hadron collider, the ISR at CERN, has to overcome two initial obstacles. The first was low luminosity, which steadily improved over time. The second was the broad angular spread of interesting events. In this regard Maurice Jacob noted (1): The answer is ... sophisticated detectors covering at least the whole central region (45{degree} {le} {theta} {le} 135{degree}) and full azimuth. This statement, while obvious today, reflects the major revelation of the ISR period that hadrons have partonic substructure. The result was an unexpectedly strong hadronic yield at large transverse momentum (p{sub T}). Partly because of this, the ISR missed the discovery of the J/{psi} and later missed the {Upsilon}. The ISR era was therefore somewhat less auspicious than it might have been. It did however make important contributions in areas such as jet production and charm excitation and it paved the way for the SPS collider, also at CERN.

  7. All-electric gas detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Modified optoacoustic gas detector identifies gases by measuring pressure-induced voltage charge in electric signals. Can detect water vapor, atmospheric fluorocarbons, or certain nitrous or nitric compounds that indicate presence of explosives.

  8. Evaluation of bismuth germanate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Eschbach, P.A.

    1993-12-01

    During International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards inspections, one of the activities is the verification of materials in the inventory through quantitative or qualitative measurements. Performance of these measurements requires an array of sophisticated detectors, electronics, shields, and stands. This requires the transport and handling of delicate systems that are both heavy and bulky. The increasing sophistication and miniaturization of electronic and computer systems have led to progressive reductions in both the weight and the bulk of such electronics. However, to take full advantage of these improvements, similar reductions must also occur in the size and weight of the detectors. The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of one type of new detector, the bismuth germinate (BGO) scintillator. The purpose was to test detectors for their performance at high (fission products) and low ({sup 235}U) photon energies. Information is also provided on other scintillators, including those using photodiode-coupled cesium iodide and germanium orthosilicate.

  9. Induction loop detector systems crosstalk

    E-print Network

    Bhagat, Victor

    1994-01-01

    traffic control systems are necessary to obtain maximum possible efficiency from our freeway systems. A major component of freeway management systems is the induction loop detector. This research effort evaluated the methods by which crosstalk could...

  10. Encapsulating X-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Joseph M.; Bradley, James G.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor-deposited polymer shields crystals from environment while allowing X rays to pass. Polymer coating transparental to X rays applied to mercuric iodide detector in partial vacuum. Coating protects crystal from sublimation, chemical attack, and electrical degradation.

  11. Prototype Neutron Portal Monitor Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schier, W.

    2014-05-01

    A very large drum-shaped neutron detector which could replace the 3He neutron portal monitor detector is under development. Detection is based on the 6Li(n,3H)4He reaction. 6Li metal is evaporated onto aluminum plates then covered with 22-cm x 27-cm ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets and sealed about the edges. The equivalent of 40 detector plates will be arrayed in the 80-cm diameter drum housing and viewed by a single 20-cm diameter hemispherical photomultiplier tube without the use of light guides. Presently 25 detector plates are installed. Light collection tests are performed with a bare 210Po alpha source on a ZnS(Ag) disk. Neutron detection studies include neutrons from a 2-curie PuBe source and from a 0.255-gram 240Pu source.

  12. Linear radio frequency power detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Liang Shieh; Wei-Ju Lai; Jin-Shun Li; Yen-Lung Chiang; Han-Hsin Wu; Chin-Chung Xsieh; Chih-Ho Tu; Sheng-Wen Chen; Janne-Wha Wu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a design for high dynamic range applicable of power detector by using successive detection logarithmic amplifier (SDLA) configuration consists of PMOS load limiting amplifier and unbalanced source-coupled pairs. This device was been fabricated by TSMC 0.18-¿m 1P6M CMOS process. The experimental results show that the dynamic range of the power detector the frequency 900-MHz is almost kept

  13. Integrating Pixel Array Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Sol

    2009-03-01

    X-ray experiments are very frequently detector limited at storage ring synchrotron radiation sources, and will be even more so at future x-ray free electron laser and energy recovery linac sources. Limitations most frequently arise from the inability of detectors to efficiently collect and process data at the rates at which the data can be generated. Two bump-bonded silicon pixel array detectors (PADs) are being developed at Cornell University that will greatly enhance data collection capabilities. In these PADs x-rays are converted to electrical signals in a pixelated layer of high resistivity silicon, each pixel of which is connected by a metal solder ``bump'' to a corresponding pixel in a CMOS silicon integrated circuit. Each CMOS pixel contains its own data handling and processing electronics. Since all pixels operate in parallel, the PAD is capable of handling extremely high data throughput. The PAD pixels feature integrating analog front-end electronics which allow extremely high instantaneous count-rates, yet sufficiently high signal-to-noise to be able to detect single x-ray photons. The first PAD is designed for coherent x-ray imaging experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. This detector frames continuously at the LCLS rate of 120 Hz, where the data for each frame can arrive in femtoseconds. The second detector, a result of a collaboration with the Area Detector Systems Corporation, is designed for high throughput protein crystallography experiments. Both detectors are described, and test data is provided. The capabilities of the detectors suggest a variety of new applications, some of which will be discussed.

  14. The atmosphere as particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, Todor

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

  15. Low-temperature tracking detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. O. Niinikoski; M. Abreu; P. Anbinderis; T. Anbinderis; N. D'Ambrosio; W. de Boer; E. Borchi; K. Borer; M. Bruzzi; S. Buontempo; W. Chen; V. Cindro; B. Dezillie; A. Dierlamm; V. Eremin; E. Gaubas; V. Gorbatenko; V. Granata; E. Grigoriev; S. Grohmann; F. Hauler; E. Heijne; S. Heising; O. Hempel; R. Herzog; J. Härkönen; I. Ilyashenko; S. Janos; L. Jungermann; V. Kalesinskas; J. Kapturauskas; R. Laiho; Z. Li; P. Luukka; I. Mandic; R. de Masi; D. Menichelli; M. Mikuz; O. Militaru; G. Nuessle; V. O'Shea; S. Pagano; S. Paul; B. Perea Solano; K. Piotrzkowski; S. Pirollo; K. Pretzl; M. Rahman; P. Rato Mendes; X. Rouby; G. Ruggiero; K. Smith; P. Sousa; E. Tuominen; E. Tuovinen; J. Vaitkus; E. Verbitskaya; C. da Viá; L. Vlasenko; M. Vlasenko; E. Wobst; M. Zavrtanik

    2004-01-01

    RD39 collaboration develops new detector techniques for particle trackers, which have to withstand fluences up to 1016cm-2 of high-energy particles. The work focuses on the optimization of silicon detectors and their readout electronics while keeping the temperature as a free parameter. Our results so far suggest that the best operating temperature is around 130K. We shall also describe in this

  16. Cryogenic operation of silicon detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Collins; I. B. M. Barnett; P. Bartalini; W. Bell; P. Berglund; W. de Boer; S. Buontempo; K. Borer; T. Bowcock; J. Buytaert; L. Casagrande; V. Chabaud; P. Chochula; V. Cindro; C. Da Via; S. Devine; H. Dijkstra; B. Dezillie; Z. Dimcovski; O. Dormond; V. Eremin; A. Esposito; R. Frei; V. Granata; E. Grigoriev; F. Hauler; S. Heising; S. Janos; L. Jungermann; Z. Li; C. Lourenço; M. Mikuz; T. O Niinikoski; V O'Shea; V. G Palmieri; S. Paul; C. Parkes; G. Ruggiero; T. Ruf; S. Saladino; L. Schmitt; K. Smith; I. Stavitski; E. Verbitskaya; F. Vitobello; M. Zavrtanik

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements at cryogenic temperatures of a silicon microstrip detector irradiated with 24 GeV protons to a fluence of 3.5×1014p\\/cm2 and of a p–n junction diode detector irradiated to a similar fluence. At temperatures below 130 K a recovery of charge collection efficiency and resolution is observed. Under reverse bias conditions this recovery degrades in time towards

  17. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert C. Wild; Frank Doft; Dennis Breuner; Franklin S. Felber

    2001-01-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in

  18. Picosecond photoconductors as radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Wagner; J. M. Bradley; R. B. Hammond

    1986-01-01

    A new class of extremely high-speed radiation detectors has been developed. They are simple and inexpensive to fabricate, rugged, and reliable. Their sensitivity to gamma-rays, X-rays, soft X-rays, charged particles, and light has been demonstrated, and response speeds of less than 100 ps have been obtained. Their current response is proportional to incident-radiation intensity. The detectors are not used for

  19. Picosecond Photoconductors as Radiation Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald S. Wagner; Jeffrey M. Bradley; Robert B. Hammond

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a new class of extremely high-speed radiation detectors. They are simple and inexpensive to fabricate, rugged, and reliable. We have demonstrated their sensitivity to gamma-rays, x-rays, soft x-rays, charged particles, and light and have obtained response speeds of <100 ps. Their current response is proportional to incident-radiation intensity. The detectors are not used for detecting single particles

  20. The BELLE silicon vertex detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Alimonti; H. Aihara; J. Alexander; Y. Asano; A. Bakich; A. Bozek; E. Banas; T. Browder; J. Dragic; C. Fukunaga; A. Gordon; H. Guler; C. Everton; E. Heenan; J. Haba; M. Hazumi; N. Hastings; T. Hara; T. Hojo; T. Higuchi; G. Iwai; H. Ishino; P. Jalocha; K. Korotuschenko; J. Kaneko; P. Kapusta; T. Kawasaki; J. S Lange; Y. Li; D. Marlow; G. Moloney; L. Moffitt; S. Mori; T. Matsubara; T. Nakadaira; T. Nakamura; Z. Natkaniec; S. Okuno; S. Olsen; W. Ostrowicz; H. Palka; L. S Peak; J. Ryuko; M. Rózanska; M. Sevior; J. Shimada; K. Sumisawa; R. Stock; S. Stanic; S. Swain; G. Taylor; F. Takasaki; H. Tajima; K. Trabelsi; N. Tamura; J. Tanaka; M. Tanaka; S. Takahashi; T. Tomura; T. Tsuboyama; Y. Tsujita; G. Varner; K. E Varvell; Y. Watanabe; H. Yamamoto; Y. Yamada; M. Yokoyama; H. Zhao; D Žontar

    2000-01-01

    A silicon vertex detector has been developed for the BELLE experiment at the KEK B-factory to be used to determine the relative displacements of B-meson decay vertices for CP violation measurements. The device has been successfully installed and operated with high-luminosity beam conditions. The average strip yield is larger than 96%, including the preamplifier electronics yield and the detector is

  1. Moving belt metal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl V.; Mendat, Deborah P.; Huynh, Toan B.

    2006-05-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed a prototype metal detection survey system that will increase the search speed of conventional technology while maintaining high sensitivity. Higher search speeds will reduce the time to clear roads of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IED) and to locate unexploded ordnance (UXO) at Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) sites, thus reducing remediation costs. The new survey sensor system is called the moving belt metal detector (MBMD) and operates by both increasing sensor speed over the ground while maintaining adequate sensor dwell time over the target for good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reducing motion-induced sensor noise. The MBMD uses an array of metal detection sensors mounted on a flexible belt similar to a tank track. The belt motion is synchronized with the forward survey speed so individual sensor elements remain stationary relative to the ground. A single pulsed transmitter coil is configured to provide a uniform magnetic field along the length of the receivers in ground contact. Individual time-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) receivers are designed to sense a single time-gate measurement of the total metal content. Each sensor module consists of a receiver coil, amplifier, digitizing electronics and a low power UHF wireless transmitter. This paper presents the survey system design concepts and metal detection data from various targets at several survey speeds. Although the laboratory prototype is designed to demonstrate metal detection survey speeds up to 10 m/s, higher speeds are achievable with a larger sensor array. In addition, the concept can be adapted to work with other sensor technologies not previously considered for moving platforms.

  2. Radiation Hazard Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

  3. Calibration of the IMB Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Bionta, R.M.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Claus, R.; Cortez, B.; Dye, S.T.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Gajewski, W.; Ganezer, K.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T.J.; Halverson, P.G.; Hazen, E.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Kropp, W.R.; Learned, J.G.; Losecco, J.M.; Matsuno, S.; /UC, Irvine /Michigan U. /Brookhaven /Boston U. /Hawaii U. /University Coll. London /Warsaw U. /Cleveland State U. /Notre Dame U. /Louisiana State U. /Maryland U. /AT-T Bell Labs, Holmdel /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab /LLNL, Livermore /New Mexico U. /SLAC /Adelaide U. /CERN /Cal State, Dominguez Hills

    2012-04-03

    The IMB detector (named after its founding institutions: University of California, Irvine, the University of Michigan and Brookhaven National Laboratory) collected data on a wide range of phenomena for over eight years. It was the first and the largest of the ring imaging water Cherenkov detectors. The detector consisted of 8000 metric tons of ultra-pure water instrumented with 2048 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs were placed on the roof, floor, and walls of the detector in a lattice of approximately 1 m spacing. It made measurements of contained events that ranged in energy from 15 MeV up to 1.5 GeV. This paper describes the calibration of the IMB detector. This procedure was accurate and stable over a wide range of physical variables. It was used with little change throughout the entire eight-year lifetime of the experiment. The IMB calibration is a model for future large-scale detectors that employ the water Cherenkov technique.

  4. Blowfish Detector Upgrade Manual 2nd Edition

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    it will reduce the chance of damaging the detector. #12;Cell LightGuide BlowfishArm Washer Metal Cylinder EndBlowfish Detector Upgrade Manual 2nd Edition U of S Subatomic Physics Internal Report SPIR-124 M. Barnett, B. Bewer, J. Robb, W. Wurtz 1 June, 2004 1. Remove Detector From the Array Detectors may

  5. Procedures to develop standoff detector models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Gruber; Larry B. Grim; Martin Marshall

    2002-01-01

    A Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) for evaluation of CB detectors is being developed by the U.S. Army at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). The VPG is essentially a combination of computer models for the scene and a detector. The objective is to evaluate the detector performance without requiring expensive field tests. To support the VPG, a general purpose, passive standoff detector

  6. InI nuclear radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Squillante; C. Zhou; J. Zhang; L. P. Moy; K. S. Shah

    1993-01-01

    Semiconductor radiation detectors are fabricated on single crystal wafers of indium iodide and tested both as direct radiation detectors and as optical detectors coupled to a scintillator crystal. The initial performance of the devices is encouraging but some chemical instability of the crystals is observed. Improvements in the detector performance may be possible by enhancing the InI crystal purity and

  7. Further characterization of IRAS doped silicon detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Measurements made on several doped-silicon detectors are reported. Topics discussed include: Si:Sb detector, the effects of detector bias on dielectric relaxation; characterization of spontaneous noise and gamma-induced spikes and their circumvention; and the time response of two detectors to step changes in the background photon flux density. Several potential system programs are indicated.

  8. Biopolymer mass spectrometer with cryogenic particle detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian Twerenbold

    1996-01-01

    A novel type of biopolymer mass spectrometer is proposed for massive proteins, polypeptides and DNA-fragments by replacing standard ionizing detectors with cryogenic particle detectors. The detection efficiency in ionizing detectors decreases rapidly with increasing biopolymer mass owing to the biopolymer's decreasing velocity. Cryogenic particle detectors, however, record the total kinetic energy deposited by the accelerated biopolymer. In a given electric

  9. A Detector of Magnesium Atomic Beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. I. Alinovskii; V. V. Parkhomchuk; A. N. Smirnov

    2002-01-01

    A detector of neutral Mg atoms is described. The operating principle of the detector is based on variations in the emissive ability of a tungsten filament exposed to an atomic Mg beam. The emission current of the detector reaches several tens of microamperes, with the flux density of Mg atoms being ~1014 particles\\/(s cm2). The spatial resolution of the detector

  10. Using Near Detector(s) to predict the Far Detector Events in NOvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Djurcic, Zelimir [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-10-06

    The NOvA experiment is designed to search for a non-vanishing mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} with unprecedented sensitivity and has the potential to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy and constrain CP-violation phase. NO{theta}A will use two functionally identical detectors at near and far locations to eliminate sensitivity to modeling of neutrino flux and cross-sections. The near detector will measure neutrino rate to constrain backgrounds expected in the far detector which will search for appearance of electron neutrinos and/or anti-neutrinos using Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam. This report describes initial thoughts on how the available beams and detectors may be used to reach the NOvA goals.

  11. Using near detector(s) to predict the far detector events in NOvA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Djurcic, Zelimir; /Argonne

    2011-01-01

    The NOvA experiment is designed to search for a non-vanishing mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} with unprecedented sensitivity and has the potential to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy and constrain CP-violation phase. NOvA will use two functionally identical detectors at near and far locations to eliminate sensitivity to modeling of neutrino flux and cross-sections. The near detector will measure neutrino rate to constrain backgrounds expected in the far detector which will search for appearance of electron neutrinos and/or anti-neutrinos using Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam. This report describes initial thoughts on how the available beams and detectors may be used to reach the NOvA goals.

  12. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  13. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  14. Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.

    PubMed Central

    Field, R W; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

    1999-01-01

    We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks per square centimeter per hour) is proportional to the surface alpha-activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha-emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha-activity should be proportional to the accumulated (210)Po, and hence to the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to a) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, b) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass-implanted polonium activities, and c) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted (210)Po activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type. Preliminary comparisons of the models used to translate track rate densities to average long-term radon concentrations differ between the two studies. Further calibration of the retrospective detectors' models for interpretation of track rate density may allow the pooling of studies that use glass-based retrospective radon detectors to determine historic residential radon exposures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10545336

  15. Pyroelectric Detector Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S. G.

    1988-10-01

    Linear pyroelectric arrays of up to 64 elements have been available for some time. Individual array elements are defined by photolithographic electrode patterning on the pyroelectric ceramic, and absorption of radiation is maximised across the wavelength range of interest by electrodeposition of 'platinum black on to the active element electrodes. Direct thermal conduction paths between adjacent elements in a monolithic array produce significant amounts of thermal crosstalk, decreasing the image resolution. Reticulation techniques have therefore been developed to isolate the elements thermally and hence decrease the crosstalk. Detector elements are individually compensated by large non-blacked areas connected in series opposition with the active element. This provides cancellation of common mode signals such as those produced by temperature drift and vibration. Discrete JFET chips have traditionally been used as buffer amplifiers, but MOSFET arrays have now been developed, giving a significant simplification in assembly. In its simplest form the MOSFET array consists of 32 transistors integrated onto a single chip; two of these chips are used to provide the 64 source followers for a 64 element linear pyroelectric array. A major advantage of MOSFET arrays is the lower gate leakage current than that obtainable with JFETs. This results in a lower current noise, which is manifested as an improvement in D* at low frequencies. The advantage of the MOSFET buffers is even more marked at elevated temperatures, because the leakage current of a JFET is strongly temperature dependent. As the element count of linear arrays increases so do the problems of interfacing the array to the following electronics; packages with more than 68 leads are very bulky. One solution to this problem is to incorporate multiplexers into the package, thus reducing the number of connections needed. To this end, multiplexed MOSFET arrays have been developed. The disadvantage of multiplexing immediately after the source follower is that no noise bandwidth limiting can be incorporated before the multiplexer, and the high frequency noise is aliased into the base band. This leads to a deterioration in the achievable signal to noise ratio. In order to improve on this, an integrated circuit has been developed which consists of 16 rising gain amplifiers and band limiting filters followed by a 16 way multiplexer. Eight of these integrated circuits have been incorporated into a single hybrid with a 128 element pyroelectric array.

  16. Advanced concepts for semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kemmer

    1990-01-01

    By applying the technologies of semiconductor device fabrication, new types of Si radiation detectors have been developed. These include low-noise detectors for energy spectroscopy as well as detectors for precise position measurement of radiation. The activities on smart sensors resulted in detectors with on-chip low-noise signal amplification. One of the most interesting ideas is a random-access pixel detector with charge

  17. Metal detector technology data base

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, L.K.; Gallo, L.R.; Murray, D.W.

    1990-08-01

    The tests described in this report were conducted to obtain information on the effects target characteristics have on portal type metal detector response. A second purpose of the tests was to determine the effect of detector type and settings on the detection of the targets. Although in some cases comparison performance of different types and makes of metal detectors is found herein, that is not the primary purpose of the report. Further, because of the many variables that affect metal detector performance, the information presented can be used only in a general way. The results of these tests can show general trends in metal detection, but do little for making accurate predictions as to metal detector response to a target with a complex shape such as a handgun. The shape of an object and its specific metal content (both type and treatment) can have a significant influence on detection. Thus it should not be surprising that levels of detection for a small 100g stainless steel handgun are considerably different than for detection of the 100g stainless steel right circular cylinder that was used in these tests. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Near infrared detectors for SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

    2006-05-23

    Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

  19. ALICE detector in construction phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peryt, Wiktor S.

    2005-09-01

    ALICE1 collaboration, which prepares one of the biggest physics experiments in the history, came into production phase of its detector. The experiment will start at LHC2 at CERN in 2007/2008. In the meantime about 1000 people from ~70 institutions are involved in this enterprise. ALICE detector consists of many sub-detectors, designed and manufactured in many laboratories and commercial firms, located mainly in Europe, but also in U.S., India, China and Korea. To assure appropriate working environment for such a specific task, strictly related to tests of particular components, measurements and assembly procedures Detector Construction Database system has been designed and implemented at CERN and at some labs involved in these activities. In this paper special attention is paid to this topic not only due to fact of innovative approach to the problem. Another reason is the group of young computer scientists (mainly students) from the Warsaw University of Technology, leaded by the author, has designed and developed the system for the whole experiment3. Another very interesting subject is the Data Acquisition System which has to fulfill very hard requirements concerning speed and high bandwidth. Required technical performance is achieved thanks to using PCI bus (usually in previous high energy physics experiments VME standard has been used) and optical links. Very general overview of the whole detector and physics goals of ALICE experiment will also be given.

  20. Portable humanitarian mine detector overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allsopp, David J.; Dibsdall, Ian M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper will present an overview and early results of the QinetiQ Portable Humanitarian Mine Detector project, funded by the UK Treasury Capital Modernization Fund. The project aims to develop a prototype multi-sensor man-portable detector for humanitarian demining, drawing on experience from work for UK MoD. The project runs from July 2000 to October 2002. The project team have visited mined areas and worked closely with a number of demining organizations and a manufacturer of metal detectors used in the field. The primary objective is to reduce the number of false alarms resulting from metallic ground clutter. An analysis of such clutter items found during actual demining has shown a large proportion to be very small when compared with anti-personnel mines. The planned system integrates: a lightweight multi-element pseudo-random-code ground penetrating radar array; a pulse induction metal detector and a capacitive sensor. Data from the GPR array and metal detector are fused to provide a simple audio-visual operator interface. The capacitive sensor provides information to aid processing of the radar responses and to provide feedback to the operator of the position of the sensors above the ground. At the time of presentation the project should be in the final stages of build, prior to tests and field trials, which QinetiQ hope to carry out under the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) banner.

  1. Causal particle detectors and topology

    E-print Network

    Paul Langlois

    2005-10-10

    We investigate particle detector responses in some topologically non-trivial spacetimes. We extend a recently proposed regularization of the massless scalar field Wightman function in 4-dimensional Minkowski space to arbitrary dimension, to the massive scalar field, to quotients of Minkowski space under discrete isometry groups and to the massless Dirac field. We investigate in detail the transition rate of inertial and uniformly accelerated detectors on the quotient spaces under groups generated by $(t,x,y,z)\\mapsto(t,x,y,z+2a)$, $(t,x,y,z)\\mapsto(t,-x,y,z)$, $(t,x,y,z)\\mapsto(t,-x,-y,z)$, $(t,x,y,z)\\mapsto(t,-x,-y,z+a)$ and some higher dimensional generalizations. For motions in at constant $y$ and $z$ on the latter three spaces the response is time dependent. We also discuss the response of static detectors on the RP^3 geon and inertial detectors on RP^3 de Sitter space via their associated global embedding Minkowski spaces (GEMS). The response on RP^3 de Sitter space, found both directly and in its GEMS, provides support for the validity of applying the GEMS procedure to detector responses and to quotient spaces such as RP^3 de Sitter space and the RP^3 geon where the embedding spaces are Minkowski spaces with suitable identifications.

  2. Report on Advanced Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Jewell

    2012-09-01

    Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

  3. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  4. Transition Radiation Detector in MACRO

    E-print Network

    M. N. Mazziotta; for the MACRO Collaboration

    1999-05-13

    The MACRO detector is located in the Gran Sasso Laboratory. MACRO's overburden varies from 3150 to 7000 hg/cm^2. A transition radiation detector (TRD) has been added to the MACRO detector in order to measure the residual energy of muons entering MACRO, i.e. the energy they have after passing through the Gran Sasso's rock overburden. The TRD consists of three identical modules with a total horizontal area of 36 m^2. The results presented here are referred to single and double events in MACRO with one muon crossing one of the TRD modules. Our data show that double muons are more energetic than single ones, as predicted by the interaction models of primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere.

  5. SVX/silicon detector studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, L.; Johnson, M.; Lipton, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Gu, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1995-11-01

    AC coupled silicon detectors, being used for the DO upgrade, may have substantial voltage across the coupling capacitor. Failed capacitors can present {approximately}50 V to the input of the SVX, Silicon Vertex, device. We measured the effects that failed detector coupling capacitors have on the SVXD (rad soft 3{mu}m), SVXH (rad hard 1.2{mu}m), and SVXIIb (rad soft 1.2{mu}m) amplifier / readout devices. The test results show that neighboring channels saturate when an excessive voltage is applied directly to a SVX channel. We believe that the effects are due to current diffusion within the SVX substrate rather than surface currents on the detectors. This paper discusses the magnitude of the saturation and a possible solution to the problem.

  6. Microradiography with Semiconductor Pixel Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubek, Jan; Cejnarova, Andrea; Dammer, Jiri; Holy, Tomas; Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vavrik, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2007-11-26

    High resolution radiography (with X-rays, neutrons, heavy charged particles, ...) often exploited also in tomographic mode to provide 3D images stands as a powerful imaging technique for instant and nondestructive visualization of fine internal structure of objects. Novel types of semiconductor single particle counting pixel detectors offer many advantages for radiation imaging: high detection efficiency, energy discrimination or direct energy measurement, noiseless digital integration (counting), high frame rate and virtually unlimited dynamic range. This article shows the application and potential of pixel detectors (such as Medipix2 or TimePix) in different fields of radiation imaging.

  7. Silicon Detector Letter of Intent

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

    2010-05-26

    This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  8. Radiation detector passes big test.

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    The new Emergency Department Notification System (EDNS) for radiation detection has been successfully tested at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Presbyterian Hospital in Pittsburgh. Physicians in the hospital ED and radiation oncology departments agree this"new generation" device offers several benefits. Isotopes regularly used for diagnoses and therapy will not set off the detectors. Because dangerous isotopes can be detected in a patient's body, if radioactive dust has been inhaled, the detectors will set off an alarm. Machines such as CT scans can be saved from contamination. PMID:21449511

  9. COS FUV Detector Gain Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnow, David

    2013-10-01

    This program uses the deuterium lamp to illuminate the entire region of the detector currently being used to collect spectra. The data obtained will be used to create gain maps of the detector. Because of the strongly varying intensity of the lamp as a function of wavelength, G130M/1309 data will be obtained for Segment A, and G160M/1600 will be used for Segment B.Gain map data will be obtained both before and after any change is made to the nominal high voltage value on either segment.

  10. Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer system: Automatic Whistler Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lichtenberger; C. Ferencz; L. Bodnár; D. Hamar; P. Steinbach

    2008-01-01

    A new, unique system has been developed for the automatic detection and analysis of whistlers. The Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer (AWDA) system has two purposes: (1) to automatically provide plasmaspheric electron densities extracted from whistlers and (2) to collect statistical data for the investigation of whistler generation and propagation. This paper presents the details of and the first results

  11. Construction of the CDF silicon vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Skarha, J.; Barnett, B.; Boswell, C.; Snider, F.; Spies, A.; Tseng, J.; Vejcik, S. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.; Gonzales, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Nelson, C.; Segler, S.; Shaw, T.; Tkaczyk, S.; Turner, K.; Wesson, T. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Carithers, W.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneider, O.; Wester

    1992-04-01

    Technical details and methods used in constructing the CDF silicon vertex detector are presented. This description includes a discussion of the foam-carbon fiber composite structure used to silicon microstrip detectors and the procedure for achievement of 5 {mu}m detector alignment. The construction of the beryllium barrel structure, which houses the detector assemblies, is also described. In addition, the 10 {mu}m placement accuracy of the detectors in the barrel structure is discussed and the detector cooling and mounting systems are described. 12 refs.

  12. Noise analysis of infrared detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milos Chvatal; V. Sedlakova; J. Majzner

    2009-01-01

    Pyroelectric infrared detectors convert the changes in incoming infrared light to electric signals. Pyroelectric materials are characterized by having spontaneous electric polarization, which is altered by temperature changes as infrared light illuminates the elements. Since our sensor series uses this effect they can be used at ambient temperature even in the presence of thermal noise. By choosing appropriate infrared receiving

  13. The Tevatron resonant Schottky detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    1995-09-01

    The following is a description of some studies the author made on the resonant Schottky detectors in the Tevatron. The author doubts that this document contains any information that wasn't known previously, but the hope is that this document will serve as a useful self-contained reference for users of the system.

  14. TRACES Centre GC Detector Series

    E-print Network

    Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

    this principle to detect not by interaction with solutes chemically but instead respond to changes in this bulk with a temperature difference between them, the thermal conductivity is the heat energy transferred per unit time and per unit surface area, divided by the temperature difference. Thermal conductivity detectors use

  15. Sputtered film thermistor IR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliga, Shankar B.; Rost, Martin R.; Doctor, Alan P.

    1994-07-01

    The thermistor infrared detector or bolometer is the detector of choice in many classical remote sensing applications such as horizon sensing, noncontact thermometry, and industrial applications. In recent years, the authors have developed a thin film process where the thermistor material is deposited from a target directly onto the substrate. This is an advance over the labor intensive ceramic technology, where sintered flakes of the thermistor are bonded to the substrate. The thin film technique permits a variety of device constructions and configurations. Detectors fabricated on heat-sunk ceramic substrates can withstand high operating temperatures and large incident optical power, in both pulsed and CW laser measurements. For dc or low frequency measurements, the films can be deposited onto a thermally isolated membrane with applications in motion sensing, gas detection, and temperature measurement. Utilizing advances in micromachining a 2D array of thermally isolated microbolometer sensors, integrated onto a silicon wafer containing readout circuitry may be achieved. This paper describes the construction of the sputtered film thermistor detectors, their operation, and applications.

  16. Polymer bragg waveguide ultrasound detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishnupriya Govindan; Shai Ashkenazi

    2011-01-01

    Polymer Bragg Grating Waveguides (BGW) are demonstrated as ultrasound detectors. The device is fabricated by direct electron beam lithography technique using SU-8 as the core material with grating features fabricated on the side walls of the rib waveguide. The main motivation for this design is the linear geometry of the device, which can be used in a linear array facilitating

  17. Low-Temperature Particle Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman E. Booth; Blas Cabrera; Ettore Fiorini

    1996-01-01

    The need for very good energy resolution in experiments in particle and astroparticle physics and the need to detect very small energy depositions are the major motivations for the development of low-temperature particle detectors. Because the energy quanta associated with superconductors and lattice vibrations (phonons) are more than one hundred times smaller, substantial improvements have been obtained in energy resolution

  18. Neutron coincidence detectors employing heterogeneous materials

    DOEpatents

    Czirr, J. Bartley (Mapleton, UT); Jensen, Gary L. (Orem, UT)

    1993-07-27

    A neutron detector relies upon optical separation of different scintillators to measure the total energy and/or number of neutrons from a neutron source. In pulse mode embodiments of the invention, neutrons are detected in a first detector which surrounds the neutron source and in a second detector surrounding the first detector. An electronic circuit insures that only events are measured which correspond to neutrons first detected in the first detector followed by subsequent detection in the second detector. In spectrometer embodiments of the invention, neutrons are thermalized in the second detector which is formed by a scintillator-moderator and neutron energy is measured from the summed signals from the first and second detectors.

  19. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  20. Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Detectors

    E-print Network

    Sasaki, Galen H.

    1 Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Components · Detectors ­ Photodetectors ­ Front-End Amplifiers · Switches · Wavelength Converters Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 2 Outline · Detectors ­ Photodetectors ­ Front-End Amplifiers · Switches · Wavelength Converters Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 3

  1. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a 6Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m2, is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security.

  2. Properties of lead iodide semiconductor radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. C.; Shah, K. S.; Squillante, M. R.; Moy, L. P.; Sinclair, F.; Entine, G.

    1989-11-01

    Semiconductor radiation detectors have been fabricated from melt grown crystals of lead iodide (PbI2) and the performance of these detectors as room temperature X-ray spectrometers has been measured. These detectors exhibit good energy resolution (915 eV FWHM for the 5.9 keV peak of 55Fe at 20°C). Preliminary results indicate they are more stable than HgI2 detectors and capable of operating at temperatures over 100°C.

  3. Characterization of HPGe detectors using Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, A.; Bahar Gogani, J.; Granström, M.; Johansson, L.; Andersson, J. S.; Ramebäck, H.

    2015-06-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) high-resolution imaging have been used to investigate if there is a significant change in the crystal-to-window distance, i.e. the air gap thickness, in a small n-type detector cooled to 77 K, and in a medium sized p-type HPGe detector when cooled to 100 K. The findings were compared to detector dimension data made available by the manufacturer. The air gap thickness increased by (0.38±0.07) mm for the n-type detector and by (0.40±0.15) mm for the p-type detector when the detectors were cooled to 77 resp. 100 K compared to at room temperature. Monte Carlo calculations indicate that these differences have a significant impact on the efficiency in close geometries (<5 cm). In the energy range of 40-700 keV with a source placed directly on endcap, the change in detector efficiency with temperature is 1.9-2.9% for the n-type detector and 0.3-2.1% for the p-type detector. The measured air gap thickness when cooling the detector was 1.1 mm thicker than manufacturer data for the n-type detector and 0.2 mm thicker for the p-type detector. In the energy range of 40-700 keV and with a source on endcap, this result in a change in detector efficiency of 5.2-7.1% for the n-type detector and 0.2-1.0% for the p-type detector, i.e. the detector efficiency is overestimated using data available by the manufacturer.

  4. The H1 detector at HERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Abt; T. Ahmed; S. Aid; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; R. D. Appuhn; C. Arnault; M. Arpagaus; A. Babaev; H. Bärwolff; J. Bán; E. Banas; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; M. Barth; U. Bassler; F. Basti; D. E. Baynham; J.-M. Baze; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; D. Bederede; H.-J. Behrend; C. Beigbeder; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; H. Bergstein; R. Bernard; G. Bernardi; R. Bernet; R. Bernier; U. Berthon; G. Bertrand-Coremans; M. Besançon; R. Beyer; J.-C. Biasci; P. Biddulph; V. Bidoli; E. Binder; P. Binko; J.-C. Bizot; V. Blobel; F. Blouzon; H. Blume; K. Borras; V. Boudry; C. Bourdarios; F. Brasse; W. Braunschweig; D. Breton; H. Brettel; V. Brisson; D. Bruncko; C. Brune; U. Buchner; L. Büngener; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; P. Burmeister; A. Busata; G. Buschhorn; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; F. Charles; M. Charlet; R. Chase; D. Clarke; A. B. Clegg; M. Colombo; V. Commichau; J. F. Connolly; U. Cornett; J. A. Coughlan; A. Courau; M.-C. Cousinou; Ch. Coutures; A. Coville; G. Cozzika; D. A. Cragg; L. Criegee; H. I. Cronström; N. H. Cunliffe; J. Cvach; A. Cyz; S. Dagoret; J. B. Dainton; M. Danilov; A. W. E. Dann; D. Darvill; W. D. Dau; J. David; M. David; R. J. Day; E. Deffur; B. Delcourt; L. Del Buono; F. Descamps; M. Devel; J. P. Dewulf; A. De Roeck; P. Dingus; K. Djidi; C. Dollfus; J. D. Dowell; H. B. Dreis; A. Drescher; U. Dretzler; J. Duboc; A. Ducorps; D. Düllmann; O. Dünger; H. Duhm; B. Dulny; F. Dupont; R. Ebbinghaus; M. Eberle; J. Ebert; T. R. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; B. W. H. Edwards; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; S. Eichenberger; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; N. N. Ellis; R. J. Ellison; E. Elsen; A. Epifantsev; M. Erdmann; W. Erdmann; G. Ernst; E. Evrard; G. Falley; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; D. Feeken; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; Z. Y. Feng; I. F. Fensome; J. Fent; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; K. Finke; K. Flamm; W. Flauger; M. Fleischer; M. Flieser; P. S. Flower; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; B. Fominykh; M. Forbush; J. Formánek; J. M. Foster; G. Franke; E. Fretwurst; W. Fröchtenicht; P. Fuhrmann; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; K. Gadow; K. Gamerdinger; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; E. Gazo; A. Gellrich; M. Gennis; U. Gensch; H. Genzel; R. Gerhards; K. Geske; I. Giesgen; D. Gillespie; W. Glasgow; L. Godfrey; J. Godlewski; U. Goerlach; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; A. M. Goodall; I. Gorelov; P. Goritchev; L. Gosset; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; C. Gregory; H. Greif; M. Grewe; G. Grindhammer; A. Gruber; C. Gruber; S. Günther; J. Haack; M. Haguenauer; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; D. Hammer; O. Hamon; M. Hampel; D. Handschuh; K. Hangarter; E. M. Hanlon; M. Hapke; U. Harder; J. Harjes; P. Hartz; P. E. Hatton; R. Haydar; W. J. Haynes; J. Heatherington; V. Hedberg; C. R. Hedgecock; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; H. Henschel; R. Herma; I. Herynek; W. Hildesheim; P. Hill; D. L. Hill; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; K. C. Hoeger; R. B. Hopes; R. Horisberger; A. Hrisoho; J. Huber; Ph. Huet; H. Hufnagel; N. Huot; J.-F. Huppert; M. Ibbotson; D. Imbault; H. Itterbeck; M.-A. Jabiol; A. Jacholkowska; C. Jacobsson; M. Jaffré; T. Jansen; P. Jean; J. Jeanjean; L. Jönsson; K. Johannsen; D. P. Johnson; L. Johnson; P. Jovanovic; H. Jung; P. I. P. Kalmus; D. Kant; G. Kantel; S. Karstensen; S. Kasarian; R. Kaschowitz; P. Kasselmann; U. Kathage; H. H. Kaufmann; G. Kemmerling; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; W. Ko; T. Kobler; J. Koch; T. Köhler; J. Köhne; M. Kolander; H. Kolanoski; F. Kole; J. Koll; S. D. Kolya; B. Koppitz; V. Korbel; M. Korn; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; F. Krivan; D. Krücker; U. Krüger; U. Krüner-Marquis; M. Kubantsev; J. P. Kubenka; T. Külper; H.-J. Küsel; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kurca; J. Kurzhöfer; B. Kuznik; B. Laforge; F. Lamarche; R. Lander; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; R. Langkau; P. Lanius; J.-F. Laporte; L. Laptin; H. Laskus; A. Lebedev; M. Lemler; U. Lenhardt; A. Leuschner; C. Leverenz; S. Levonian; D. Lewin; Ch. Ley; A. Lindner; G. Lindström; F. Linsel; J. Lipinski; B. Liss; P. Loch; A. B. Lodge; H. Lohmander; G. C. Lopez; J.-P. Lottin; V. Lubimov; K. Ludwig; D. Lüers; N. Lugetski; B. Lundberg; K. Maeshima; N. Magnussen; E. Malinovski; S. Mani; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; J. Martens; F. Martin; G. Martin; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; V. Masbender; S. Masson; A. Mavroidis; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; J. Meissner; D. Mercer; T. Merz; C. A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; S. Mikocki; J. L. Mills; V. Milone; J. Möck; E. Monnier; B. Montés; F. Moreau; J. Moreels; B. Morgan; J. V. Morris; J. M. Morton; K. Müller; P. Murín; S. A. Murray; V. Nagovizin; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; P. Nayman; A. Nepeipivo; P. Newman; D. Newman-Coburn; D. Newton; D. Neyret; H. K. Nguyen; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; R. Nisius; T. Novák; H. Nováková; G. Nowak; G. W. Noyes; M. Nyberg

    1997-01-01

    General aspects of the H1 detector at the electron-proton storage ring HERA as well as technical descriptions of the magnet, luminosity system, trigger, slow-control, data acquisition and off-line data handling are given. The three major components of the detector, the tracking, calorimeter and muon detectors, will be described in a forthcoming article. The present paper describes the detector that was

  5. An ultra low power CMOS motion detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Hyeok Yang; Kyoung-Bum Kim; Eung-Ju Kim; Kwang-Hyun Baek; Suki Kim

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a CMOS motion detector which consumes extremely low power. CMOS image sensor pixels in this motion detector senses image and image data are converted into just one-bit by using clocked comparators. Because using one-bit data makes additional processing units simple, total power consumption of this CMOS motion detector can be reduced. That is, internal memory which is

  6. A Temperature-Stable Metal Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chekcheyev

    2009-01-01

    The design of a temperature-stable metal detector is analyzed. A mathematical analysis method was used to find critical points that have influence on the thermal stability of the metal detector. Practical measures for ensuring thermal stability are considered. Thermal test results are described. The improvement of the thermal stability of the metal detector allows one to minimize the risk of

  7. Detector frontier: Theoretical expectations and dreams

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1992-12-31

    The new large detector systems are certain to shed new light on many aspects of nuclear structure. Some of these areas for future studies are discussed. In this contribution the author concentrates on several aspects of nuclear spectroscopy, that will be accessible by modern detector systems (e.g., {gamma}-ray crystal balls or new-generation particle detectors).

  8. Silicon microstrip detectors with SVX chip readout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Brückner; F. Dropmann; M. Godbersen; I. Konorov; K. Königsmann; S. Masciocchi; C. Newsom; S. Paul; B. Povh; J. S. Russ; S. Timm; K. Vorwalter; R. Werding

    1995-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed for the fixed target experiment WA89 at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into a FASTBUS memory. The detector provides a fast readout by offering zero-suppressed data extraction on the chip. The silicon counters are the largest detectors

  9. RADIATION DETECTORS. 3. THEIR OPERATING LIMITATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gray

    1959-01-01

    All types of detectors are limited by their response to unwanted ; radiation. Detectors chosen must be of sufficient sensitivity to provide from ; the lowest level to be measured a statistical error small enough to be within the ; limits of accuracy required. The influence of these factors on the choice of a ; detector and the limits withia

  10. Semiconductor nuclear radiation detector studies. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sher

    1974-01-01

    In response to a problem that arose with regard to the availability of ; germanium for lithium-drifted germanium detectors (Ge(Li) detectors), a ; comprehensive program was undertaken aimed toward the development of a method for ; the rapid specification of germanium quality for nuclear radiation detector use, ; and the determination of factors affecting germanium quality. Measurements on a ;

  11. Quantum Opportunities in Gravitational Wave Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mavalvala, Negris (MIT) [MIT

    2012-03-14

    Direct observation of gravitational waves should open a new window into the Universe. Gravitational wave detectors are the most sensitive position meters ever constructed. The quantum limit in gravitational wave detectors opens up a whole new field of study. Quantum opportunities in gravitational wave detectors include applications of quantum optics techniques and new tools for quantum measurement on truly macroscopic (human) scales.

  12. Silicon Detectors for Low Energy Particle Detection

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Silicon Detectors for Low Energy Particle Detection C.S. Tindall, N.P. Palaio, B.A. Ludewigt, S-7300 Abstract­ Silicon detectors with very thin entrance contacts have been fabricated for use in the IMPACT on the THEMIS mission. The silicon diode detectors were fabricated using a 200� thick phosphorous doped

  13. Full Detector Simulation Using SLIC and LCDD

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.; /SLAC

    2005-08-18

    Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) and Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD) provide a flexible and powerful package for full detector simulations. This paper outlines the main features of SLIC and LCDD and explains the structure of an LCDD document used for detector description input.

  14. Comparisons of Scintillating Fiber, Diamond Particle Detector

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    _AB_note.pdf guard ring electrode #12;Response of diamond particle detector using injection 241Am @ 5.5 MeV 241Am detector using 193 nm ArF laser laser illumination location #12;Response of diamond particle detector using

  15. Anonymity, Failures, Detectors and Consensus Zohir Bouzid

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Anonymity, Failures, Detectors and Consensus Zohir Bouzid UPMC - LIP6-CNRS, France. zohir the consensus problem in anonymous, failures prone and asynchronous mes- sage passing systems. It determines the weakest failure detector in anonymous message passing systems for solving consensus. Two failure detector

  16. Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Page 1 of 20 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Distribution authorized to all. Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Submitted by Nicolas Roy University) 393 8351 Email nroy@usc.edu Date: April 27, 2010 Work performed at USC #12;Veterinary Seizure Detector

  17. Microwave and mm wave BARITT Doppler detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. East; H. Nguyen-Ba; G. I. Haddad

    1976-01-01

    Advantages of the BARITT Doppler detector and of the BARITT diode are stated and detector design rules and applications are discussed. BARITT device operation, some simplified design rules for various operating frequencies of a uniformly doped BARITT structure with abrupt junctions, and device operation as a Doppler detector in the X-band and at 22 GHz are considered. Superiority of the

  18. Unreliable failure detectors for reliable distributed systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tushar Deepak Chandra; Sam Toueg

    1996-01-01

    We introduce the concept of unreliable failure detectors and study how they can be used to solve Consensus in asynchronous systems with crash failures. We characterise unreliable failure detectors in terms of two properties—completeness and accuracy. We show that Consensus can be solved even with unreliable failure detectors that make an infinite number of mistakes, and determine which ones can

  19. Improved gas detector speeds leak surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Altpeter; P. Beckendorf; T. Henningsen

    1995-01-01

    Imagine being able to conduct a gas leak survey with a detector that allows the vehicle to travel at normal traffic speeds. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is sponsoring the development of just such a detector, called an optical methane detector (OMD). Technology in the new instrument is based on the absorption of infrared (IR) light by methane in natural

  20. Detection Limits and Selectivity in Electrochemical Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Stephen G.; Long, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three aspects of electrochemical detectors: (1) signal and noise generation and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) improvement of qualitative information content, and (3) control of selectivity of the detector. Explains electronic principles of detectors and detection limits. Lists current applications and research. (ML)

  1. 8. Particle detectors 8.1 Emulsions

    E-print Network

    Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

    8. Particle detectors 8.1 Emulsions Nuclear emulsions can be used to give 3-dimensional information-altitude balloons. A second way of measuring energetic charged particles involves scintillation detectors. Here of the detectors is low, so they are not ideal at particle energies below about 100 keV, but they are simple

  2. Performance of the ALEPH detector at LEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damir Buskulic; David William Casper; I De Bonis; D. Decamp; P. Ghez; C. Goy; J.-P Lees; M.-N Minard; P. Odier; B. Pietrzyk; F. Ariztizabal; M. Chmeissani; J. M Crespo; I. Efthymiopoulos; E. Fernandez; M. Fernandez-Bosman; V. Gaitan; Ll. Garrido; M. Martinez; T S Mattison; S. Orteu; A. Pacheco; C. Padilla; Fabrizio Palla; A. Pascual; J. A Perlas; F. Sanchez; F. Teubert; F. Chiumarulo; A. Clemente; D. Creanza; M de Palma; A. Farilla; R. Ferorelli; Giuseppe Iaselli; G. Maggi; N. Marinelli; A. Mastrogiacomo; S. Natali; V. Negro; S. Nuzzo; M. Papagni; C. Pinto; A. Ranieri; G. Raso; F. Romano; F. Ruggieri; G. Selvaggi; L. Silvestris; P. Tempesta; G. Zito; Y. Chai; D. Huang; X. Huang; J. Lin; T. Wang; Y. Xie; D Xu; R Xu; J Zhang; L Zhang; W Zhao; H Albrecht; A Ball; R Benetta; F Bird; E Blucher; G Bonvicini; J Boudreau; T Charity; P. Coyle; P Coyle; H Drevermann; A Engelhardt; M Ferro-Luzzi; L Foà; Roger W Forty; M Frank; G Ganis; C Gay; M Girone; C Grab; R Grabit; J Griffiths; R Grub; R Hagelberg; J Harvey; B Ivesdal; R Jacobsen; Pierre Jarron; B Jost; M Kasemann; Gottfried Kellner; J Knobloch; A Lacourt; Pierre Lazeyras; Ivan Lehraus; B Lofstedt; T Lohse; D Lütze; M Maggi; A Marchioro; C Markou; E. B Martin; P Mato; J.-M Maugain; J May; H Meinhard; V Mertens; A. Miotto; R Miquel; P Palazzi; J. R Pater; P Perrodo; R Pintus; Ludwig F Pregernig; M Price; J.-F Pusztaszeri; F Ranjard; J Richstein; W Richter; Luigi Rolandi; Herbert Rotscheidt; W von Ruden; M Saich; Jean-Claude Santiard; P Schilly; D Schlatter; M Schmelling; G Stefanini; Hans Taureg; W Tejessy; I. R Tomalin; R Veenhof; A Venturi; H Verweij; H W Wachsmuth; H Wahl; S Wheeler; W Wiedenmann; T Wildish; W Witzeling; J Wotschack; Ziad J Ajaltouni; Maria Bardadin-Otwinowska; A Barres; C Boyer; M Brossard; R Chadelas; F Daudon; A Falvard; P Gay; C Guicheney; P Henrard; J Jousset; B Michel; J-C Montret; D Pallin; P Perret; F Podlyski; J Proriol; F Saadi; H Bertelsen; Tom Fearnley; F Hansen; J. B Hansen; J. D Hansen; P. H Hansen; S. D Johnson; A Lindahl; B Madsen; R Møllerud; B. S Nilsson; G Petersen; A Kyriakis; Errietta Simopoulou; I Siotis; Anna Vayaki; K Zachariadou; M Bercher; U Berthon; A Blondel; G R Bonneaud; J. C Brient; P Bourdon; A Busata; M Cerutti; J Doublet; G Fouque; C Lemoine; P Matricon; M Maubras; R Morano; J.-Y Parey; L Passalacqua; P Poilleux; A Rougé; C Roy; M Rumpf; R Tanaka; Andrea Valassi; M Verderi; H L Videau; C Violet; D. J Candlin; A. J Main; M. I Parsons; E Veitch; E Focardi; G Parrini; E Scarlini; M Corden; M C Delfino; C H Georgiopoulos; D. E Jaffe; D A Levinthal; M Anelli; A Antonelli; A Balla; G Bencivenni; G Bologna; R Bonini; F Bossi; P Campana; G Capon; M Carletti; F Cerutti; V Chiarella; G Corradi; B Dulach; G Felici; P Laurelli; G Mannocchi; F Murtas; G. P Murtas; M Pepe-Altarelli; P Picchi; S Salomone; M Santoni; P Colrain; I ten Have; I. G Knowles; J. G Lynch; W J Maitland; W. T Morton; C Raine; P Reeves; J. M Scarr; K Smith; M. G Smith; A. S Thompson; S Thorn; R. M Turnbull; U Becker; B Brandl; O Braun; R Geiges; C Geweniger; P Hanke; V Hepp; W Heyde; E. E Kluge; J Krause; Y Maumary; M Panter; A Putzer; B Rensch; M Schmidt; K Schmitt; A Stahl; H Stenzel; K Tittel; M Wunsch; G. J Barber; R Beuselinck; David M Binnie; W Cameron; M Cattaneo; D. J Colling; P. J Dorna; D. N Gentry; J. F Hassard; N Konstantinidis; D. G Miller; L Moneta; A Moutoussi; J Nash; D. G Payne; D. R Price; G San Martin; J. K Sedgbeer; A. G Wright; P Girtler; D Kuhn; G Rudolph; R Vogl; C. K Bowdery; T. J Brodbeck; A. J Finch; F Foster; G Hughes; D Jackson; N. R Keemer; M Nuttall; A Patel; T Sloan; S. W Snow; E. P Whelan; L. A. T Bauerdick; A M Greene; A. M Greene; K Kleinknecht; J Raab; B Renk; H. Schmidt; S. M Walther; R Wanke; B Wolf; A. M Bencheikh; C Benchouk; M Billaut; A Bonissent; D Calvet; J Carr; C Diaconu; F Etienne; Y Gally; D Nicod; P Payre; L Roos; D Rousseau; P Schwemling; M Talby; I Abt; K Ackermann; S Adlung; R Assmann; C Bauer; H Becker; W Blum; D Brown; P Cattaneo; B Dehning; H Dietl; F Dydak; H Fischer; A. W Halley; D Hauff; P Holl; K Jakobs; W Kothhuber; H Kroha; J Lauber; G Lütjens; G Lutz; W Männer; H.-G Moser; R Richter; J Schröder; A. S Schwarz; R Settles; H Seywerd; H Stieg; U. Stierlin; U Stierlin; R. St Denis; L Strüder; G Waltermann; P Weissbach; G Wolf; J.-N Albert; R Alemany; C Arnault; R Bernier; J Boucrot; O Callot; R Chase; A Cordier; M. Dialinas; A Ducorps; L Duflot; J.-F Grivaz; Ph Heusse; P Janot; Ph Jean; D. W Kim; F Le Diberder; J Lefrançois; A.-M Lutz; G Musolino; H. J Park; J.-P Richer; M.-H Schune; J.-J Veillet; I Videau; D Abbaneo; C Avanzini; G. Batignani; G Batignani; A Bechini; F Bosi; U Bottigli; C. Bradaschia; G Calderini; M Carpinelli; C Cerri; M. A Ciocci; V Ciulli; R Dell'Orso; R Fantechi; I Ferrante; F Fidecaro; F Forti; M. A. Giorgi; M. A Giorgi; A Gregorio; F Ligabue; R Lorenzini; A Lusiani; P. S Marrocchesi; A Messineo

    1995-01-01

    The performance of the ALEPH detector at the LEP e+e? collider is reviewed. The accuracy of the tracking detectors to measure the impact parameter and momentum of charged tracks is specified. Calorimeters are used to measure photons and neutral hadrons, and the accuracy obtained in energy and angle is given. An essential property of the detector is its ability to

  3. Radiation hardness studies of CVD diamond detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bauer; I. Baumann; C. Colledani; J. Conway; P. Delpierre; F. Djama; W. Dulinski; A. Fallou; K. K. Gan; R. S. Gilmore; E. Grigoriev; G. Hallewell; S. Han; T. Hessing; K. Honschied; J. Hrubec; D. Husson; H. Kagan; D. Kania; R. Kass; W. Kinnison; K. T. Knöpfle; M. Krammer; T. J. Llewellyn; P. F. Manfredi; L. S. Pan; H. Pernegger; M. Pernicka; R. Plano; V. Re; S. Roe; A. Rudge; M. Schaeffer; S. Schnetzer; S. Somalwar; V. Speziali; R. Stone; R. J. Tapper; R. Tesarek; W. Trischuk; R. Turchetta; G. B. Thomson; R. Wagner; P. Weilhammer; C. White; H. Ziock; M. Zoeller

    1995-01-01

    The inherent properties of diamond make it an ideal material for tracking detectors especially in the high rate, high radiation environments of future colliders such as the LHC. In order to survive in this environment, detectors must be radiation hard. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond and performed radiation hardness tests on them. The signal

  4. Diamond radiation detectors I. Detector properties for IIa diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-05-16

    The detector properties and carrier dynamics of type IIa diamonds are reasonably well understood. The trends in the electron and hole mobilities have been characterized as a function of temperature, impurity content, electric field and carrier density. The carrier lifetimes are coupled through the nitrogen impurity. This leaves us with typical samples with collection distances of 20 to 50 micrometers. The detailed dynamics of the carriers can be modeled using a rate equation analysis. Much progress has been made in understanding the detector properties of diamond, but continued progress has been limited by the geologic processes used to make the material, for example sample size and no synthesis control. CVD diamond promises to eliminate these restrictions.

  5. JWST Detector Characteristics Measured in the Operations Detector Lab at STScI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Regan; E. Bergeron; K. Lindsay; D. Long

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of recent work we have finished in the Operations Detector Lab on JWST near infrared detectors. This involves measuring the effects of temperature variations on the detectors and the decay time scales of persistence. The temperature results show that milli-Kelvin changes in the detector temperature lead to significant bias changes that will effect the sensitivity of

  6. METHODS TO SUPPRESS POLARIZATION IN CHLORINE COMPENSATED CADMIUM TELLURIDE DETECTORS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .cm) is achieved by means of chlorine compensation. However, the nuclear radiation detectors prepared radiation detectors prepared from insulating material appears a polarization effect, which is characterized radiation detector considerably reduced the interest on insulating materials, only the diamond detectors

  7. Stressed detector arrays for airborne astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Geis, N.; Poglitsch, A.; Rumitz, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of stressed Ge:Ga detector arrays for far-infrared astronomy from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) is discussed. Researchers successfully constructed and used a three channel detector array on five flights from the KAO, and have conducted laboratory tests of a two-dimensional, 25 elements (5x5) detector array. Each element of the three element array performs as well as the researchers' best single channel detector, as do the tested elements of the 25 channel system. Some of the exciting new science possible with far-infrared detector arrays is also discussed.

  8. Germanium Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, E. E.; Baumann, H.; Beeman, J. W.; Hansen, W. L.; Luke, P. N.; Lutz, M.; Rossington, C. S.; Wu, I. C.

    1989-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form. The advantages of the Si blocked impurity band (BIB) detector invented by M. D. Petroff and M. G. Stabelbroek are noted: smaller detection volume leading to a reduction of cosmic ray interference, extended wavelength response because of dopant wavefunction overlap, and photoconductive gain of unity. It is argued that the stated advantages of Si BIB detectors should be realizable for Ge BIB detectors. Information is given on detector development, subtrate choice and preparation, wafer polising, epitaxy, characterization of epi layers, and preliminary Ge BIB detector test results.

  9. Magnetic detector for projectiles in tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.; Knowlen, C.; Murakami, D.; Stonich, I.

    1990-01-01

    A new wall-mounted, magnetic detector is presented for measuring projectile passage times in tubes. The detector has the advantages of simplicity over laser and microwave techniques and has other advantages over the electrical contact wire technique. Representative data are presented. The detector is shown to be very insensitive to strong pressure waves and combustion, but able to detect the passage of the projectile (carrying one or two magnets) clearly. Two modes of operation of the detector are described and the use of these detectors to measure projectile velocities, accelerations, and spin rates is discussed.

  10. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  11. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  12. Massively parallel MRI detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

    2013-04-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas via reception, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called "ultimate" SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

  13. Plasma Panel Based Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University; Ferretti, Claudio [University of Michigan; Bentefour, E [Ion Beam Applications; Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan

    2013-01-01

    The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a gaseous micropattern radiation detector under current development. It has many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels (PDPs). It comprises a dense matrix of small, gas plasma discharge cells within a hermetically sealed panel. As in PDPs, it uses non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, refractory metal electrodes, and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing these devices primarily as thin, low-mass detectors with gas gaps from a few hundred microns to a few millimeters. The PPS is a high gain, inherently digital device with the potential for fast response times, fine position resolution (< 50 m RMS) and low cost. In this paper we report here on prototype PPS experimental results in detecting betas, protons and cosmic muons, and we extrapolate on the PPS potential for applications including detection of alphas, heavy-ions at low to medium energy, thermal neutrons and X-rays.

  14. Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test

    SciTech Connect

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-10-23

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

  15. Electro-optic Lightning Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    The design, alignment, calibration, and field deployment of a solid-state lightning detector is described. The primary sensing component of the detector is a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) electro-optic crystal that is attached in series to a flat plate aluminum antenna; the antenna is exposed to the ambient thundercloud electric field. A semiconductor laser diode (lambda = 685 nm), polarizing optics, and the crystal are arranged in a Pockels cell configuration. Lightning-caused electric field changes are related to small changes in the transmission of laser light through the optical cell. Several hundred lightning electric field change excursions were recorded during five thunderstorms that occurred in the summer of 1998 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in northern Alabama.

  16. Microgap x-ray detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  17. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  18. Radiation Detector Materials: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrath, Brian D.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Bliss, Mary; Weber, William J.

    2008-10-10

    This review describes the current state of radiation detection material science, with particular emphasis on national security needs and the goal of identifying the challenges and opportunities that this area represents for the materials science community. Radiation detector materials physics is reviewed, which sets the stage for performance metrics that determine the relative merit of existing and new materials. Semiconductors and scintillators represent the two primary classes of radiation detector materials that are of interest. The state-of-the-art and limitations for each of these materials classes are presented, along with possible avenues of research. Novel materials that could overcome the need for single crystals will also be discussed. Finally, new methods of material discovery and development are put forward – the goal being to provide more predictive guidance and faster screening of candidate materials – and thus ultimately the faster development of superior radiation detection materials.

  19. Inexpensive solid state radiation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity is of interest both within the geosciences community and to groups such as the emergency services who need to quickly assess the safety of an environment. Here we present a light weight and inexpensive detector based on solid state technology, that can be easily worn or carried, or used disposably. It responds to gamma radiation and other radioactive particles such as those from space weather and cosmic rays. Unlike traditional technology such as the Geiger counter, the detector can operate at low voltage without the need for step-up circuitry, and it can also distinguish different particle energies. It is suitable for monitoring background radioactivity from cosmic rays and radon as well as responding to higher radioactivity levels. We anticipate that the device will have a broad range of end users, from terrestrial to space applications.

  20. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  1. Terahertz Detectors based on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouider, Fathi; Salman, Majdi; Göthlich, Markus; Schmidt, Hennrik; Ahlers, Franz-J.; Haug, Rolf; Nachtwei, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In this study we present magnetotransport an magnetooptical data obtained in the magnetic field range 0T < B < 7T at detectors patterned in Corbino geometry on epitaxial graphene wafer using a Ge detector. We observed the cyclotron resonance of charge carriers in these wafers by measurement of the transmission of THz wafes through the unpatterned squares (about 4 × 4mm2) of the wafers as a function of the magnetic field B applied perpendicular to the wafer. Further, we performed measurements of the photocunductivity of graphene-based devices shaped in Corbino geometry, induced by terahertz (THz) radiation generated by a p-Ge laser (emitting in the energy range 7.5meV <= Eph <= 11meV). Our photoconductivity measurement imply that graphene devices are suitable for the detection of terahertz radiation.

  2. Electro-Optic Lightning Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, Willliam; Solakiewicz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The design, alignment, calibration, and field deployment of a solid-state lightning detector is described. The primary sensing component of the detector is a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) electro-optic crystal that is attached in series to a flat plate aluminum antenna; the antenna is exposed to the ambient thundercloud electric field. A semiconductor laser diode (lambda = 685 nm), polarizing optics, and the crystal are arranged in a Pockels cell configuration. Lightning-caused electric field changes are then related to small changes in the transmission of laser light through the optical cell. Several hundred lightning electric field change excursions were recorded during 4 thunderstorms that occurred in the summer of 1998 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Northern Alabama.

  3. The particle detector array AMPHORA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Drain; A. Giorni; D. Hilscher; C. Ristori; J. Alarja; G. Barbier; R. Bertholet; R. Billerey; B. Chambon; B. Cheynis; J. Crançon; A. Dauchy; P. Désesquelles; A. Fontenille; L. Guyon; D. Heuer; A. Llères; M. Maurel; E. Monnand; C. Morand; H. Nifenecker; C. Pastor; J. Pouxe; H. Rossner; J. Saint-Martin; F. Schussler; P. Stassi; M. Tournier; J. B. Viano

    1989-01-01

    A 4pi-multidetector consisting of 140 CsI(Tl) detectors has been designed and built to be used for detecting and identifying either light charged particles (with a detection threshold of about 0.4 MeV\\/nucleon) and neutrons or light heavy ions and light charged particles, in the range of energies available at SARA (from 10 to 40 MeV\\/nucleon). The choice of the scintillator material

  4. The ALICE transition radiation detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tariq Mahmoud

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is equipped with 750m2 total area of gas chambers with radiators for particle tracking and electron identification above 1GeV\\/c, divided in 540 modules organized in 18 sectors and 6 layers, in a barrel geometry between 2.9 and 3.7m from the beam axis. The TRD will also serve as a trigger on high-pte+e- pairs in

  5. The Super-Kamiokande detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fukuda; Y. Fukuda; T. Hayakawa; E. Ichihara; M. Ishitsuka; Y. Itow; T. Kajita; J. Kameda; K. Kaneyuki; S. Kasuga; K. Kobayashi; Y. Kobayashi; Y. Koshio; M. Miura; S. Moriyama; M. Nakahata; S. Nakayama; T. Namba; Y. Obayashi; A. Okada; M. Oketa; K. Okumura; T. Oyabu; N. Sakurai; M. Shiozawa; Y. Suzuki; Y. Takeuchi; T. Toshito; Y. Totsuka; S. Yamada; S. Desai; M. Earl; J. T. Hong; E. Kearns; M. Masuzawa; M. D. Messier; J. L. Stone; L. R. Sulak; C. W. Walter; W. Wang; K. Scholberg; T. Barszczak; D. Casper; D. W. Liu; W. Gajewski; P. G. Halverson; J. Hsu; W. R. Kropp; S. Mine; L. R. Price; F. Reines; M. Smy; H. W. Sobel; M. R. Vagins; K. S. Ganezer; W. E. Keig; R. W. Ellsworth; S. Tasaka; J. W. Flanagan; A. Kibayashi; J. G. Learned; S. Matsuno; V. J. Stenger; Y. Hayato; T. Ishii; A. Ichikawa; J. Kanzaki; T. Kobayashi; T. Maruyama; K. Nakamura; Y. Oyama; A. Sakai; M. Sakuda; O. Sasaki; S. Echigo; T. Iwashita; M. Kohama; A. Suzuki; M. Hasegawa; T. Inagaki; I. Kato; H. Maesaka; T. Nakaya; K. Nishikawa; S. Yamamoto; T. J. Haines; B. K. Kim; R. Sanford; R. Svoboda; E. Blaufuss; M. L. Chen; Z. Conner; J. A. Goodman; E. Guillian; G. W. Sullivan; D. Turcan; A. Habig; M. Ackerman; F. Goebel; J. Hill; C. K. Jung; T. Kato; D. Kerr; M. Malek; K. Martens; C. Mauger; C. McGrew; E. Sharkey; B. Viren; C. Yanagisawa; W. Doki; S. Inaba; K. Ito; M. Kirisawa; M. Kitaguchi; C. Mitsuda; K. Miyano; C. Saji; M. Takahata; M. Takahashi; K. Higuchi; Y. Kajiyama; A. Kusano; Y. Nagashima; K. Nitta; M. Takita; T. Yamaguchi; M. Yoshida; H. I. Kim; S. B. Kim; J. Yoo; H. Okazawa; M. Etoh; K. Fujita; Y. Gando; A. Hasegawa; T. Hasegawa; S. Hatakeyama; K. Inoue; K. Ishihara; T. Iwamoto; M. Koga; I. Nishiyama; H. Ogawa; J. Shirai; T. Takayama; F. Tsushima; M. Koshiba; Y. Ichikawa; T. Hashimoto; Y. Hatakeyama; M. Koike; T. Horiuchi; M. Nemoto; K. Nishijima; H. Takeda; H. Fujiyasu; T. Futagami; H. Ishino; Y. Kanaya; M. Morii; H. Nishihama; H. Nishimura; T. Suzuki; Y. Watanabe; D. Kielczewska; U. Golebiewska; H. G. Berns; S. B. Boyd; R. A. Doyle; J. S. George; A. L. Stachyra; L. L. Wai; R. J. Wilkes; K. K. Young; H. Kobayashi

    2003-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting

  6. The CPLEAR detector at CERN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Adler; W. Albrecht; T. Alhalel; Angelos Angelopoulos; Alcibiades J Apostolakis; Elie Aslanides; Gerhard Backenstoss; F. Bal; J. P. Bard; D. Barraca; C. P. Bee; O. Behnke; A. Benelli; J. Bennet; V. Bertin; F. Blanc; P. Bloch; M. Bonnet; C. Bula; A. Calzas; P J Carlson; M. Carroll; J. Carvalho; E. Cawley; S. Charalambous; M. Chardalas; G. Chardin; P. Charra; M. B. Chertok; A. Cody; J. da Silva; D. Damianoglou; R. Daniel; M. Danielsson; Paul Dechelette; M. Dedieu; S. Dedoussis; M. Dejardin; J. Derre; A. Dijksman; B. Dinkespiller; M. Dodgson; M. Dröge; J. Duclos; N. Dudragne; D. Durand; A. Ealet; B. Eckart; C. Eleftheriadis; Claude Engster; I. Evangelou; L. Faravel; P. Fassnacht; J. L. Faure; C. Felder; R. Ferreira-Marques; W. Fetscher; Maria Fidecaro; A. FilipciC; D. Francis; J. Fry; C. Fuglesang; Erwin Gabathuler; Y. Gally; R. Gamet; D. Garreta; D. Geiss; T. Geralis; H.-J. Gerber; A. Go; P. Gumplinger; D. Guyon; C. Guyot; P. Harrison; A. Haselden; P. J. Hayman; E S Hazen; F. Henry-Couannier; W. G. Heyes; R. W. Hollander; E. Hubert; C. Jacobs; K. Jansson; H. U. Johner; N. Karkour; A. Kerek; J. Kern; G. Kesseler; P.-R. Kettle; D. King; T. Klados; C. Kochowski; P. Kokkas; K. Kontek; R. Kreuger; T Lecouturier; D. Lecouturier; R. Le Gac; F. Leimbgruber; D. Linget; A. Liolios; B. Lofstedt; F. Louis; E. Machado; P. Maley; U. Mall; I. Mandi?; N. Manthos; G. Marel; C.-P. Marin; H. Martin; J. C. Michau; M. Mikuz; J. Miller; F. Montanet; T. Nakada; F. Nanni; A. Onofre; B. Pagels; I. Papadopoulos; P. Pavlopoulos; F. Pelucchi; P. Petit; K. Philippoussis; J. Pinto da Cunha; A. Policarpo; G. Polivka; H. Postma; Ch. Rheme; R. Rickenbach; B. L. Roberts; E. Rozaki; T. Ruf; L Sakelliou; L. Sakeliou; P. Sanders; C. Santoni; K. Sarigiannis; M. Schäfer; L. A. Schaller; T. Schietinger; A. Schopper; P. Schune; A. Soares; M. Steinacher; S. Tatsis; L. Tauscher; C. Thibault; F. Touchard; C. Touramanis; F. Triantis; D. A. Tröster; I. Tsamouranis; H. Tschopp; P. Tsilimigras; E. van Beveren; C. W. E. van Eijk; B. van Koningsveld; J. P. Vanuxem; G. Varner; H. Verweij; S. Vlachos; D. Warner; E. Watson; P. Weber; H. Wendler; O. Wigger; C. Witzig; M. Wolter; C. Yeche; D. Zavrtanik; D. Zimmerman

    1996-01-01

    The CPLEAR collaboration has constructed a detector at CERN for an extensive programme of CP-, T- and CPT-symmetry studies using K0 and K0 produced by the annihilation of p's in a hydrogen gas target. The K0 and K0 are identified by their companion products of the annihilation K±?? which are tracked with multiwire proportional chambers, drift chambers and streamer tubes.

  7. Improved Phase-Lock Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    Single detection channel is used alternately by in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals, under control of a dither switch. By eliminating errors caused by unbalance of the I and Q channels, this dither-balanced detector reduces false locking. Can be used to improve detection probability and reduce false alarm probability for any loop that must acquire signal with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  8. Diamond Detectors as Beam Monitors

    E-print Network

    Dehning, B; Dobos, D; Pernegger, H; Griesmayer, E

    2010-01-01

    CVD diamond particle detectors are already in use in the CERN experiments ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE and at various particle accelerator laboratories in USA and Japan. This is a proven technology with high radiation tolerance and very fast signal read-out. It can be used for measuring single-particles as well as for high-intensity particle cascades, for timing measurements on the nanosecond scale and for beam protection systems. The radiation tolerance is specified with 10 MGy.

  9. High performance charge transfer device detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sweedler, J.V.; Bilhorn, R.B.; Epperson, P.M.; Sims, G.R.; Denton, M.B.

    1988-02-15

    There is great interest in replacing single-channel photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with multichannel devices (1,2). Multichannel detectors such as vidicons, intensified target vidicons, image dissectors, and photodiode arrays (PDAs) do not offer the sensitivity, dynamic range, and noise performance necessary to be competitive with the PMT in many situations. Successful application of these multichannel detectors is limited to experimental conditions in which the multichannel advantage outweighs the noise, cross talk, and dynamic-range disadvantages. New multichannel alternatives to PMT detection are now capable of superior sensitivity and dynamic range when compared on a detector element by detector element basis. In fact, some of these devices exceed the sensitivity and dynamic range of all other available detectors. The performance of charge transfer devices (CTDs) has advanced to the point where the application of this technology to the field of analytical chemistry is appropriate. In the first of this two-part series, the theory, design, operation, and performance of CTD detectors are described. CTDs are solid-state multichannel detectors. These detectors integrate signal information as light strikes them, much like photographic film. The amount of charge generated in a CTD detector is measured either by moving the charge form the detector element where it is collected to a charge-sensing amplifier, or by moving it within the detector element and measuring the voltage change induced by this movement.

  10. The CPLEAR detector at CERN

    E-print Network

    Adler, R; Alhalel, T; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bal, F; Bard, J P; Barraca, D; Bee, C P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bennet, J; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Bonnet, M; Bula, C; Calzas, A; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Carvalho, J; Cawley, E; Charalambous, S; Chardalas, M; Chardin, G; Charra, P; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Da Silva, J; Damianoglou, D; Daniel, R; Danielsson, M; Dechelette, Paul; Dedieu, M; Dedoussis, S; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Dijksman, A; Dinkespiler, B; Dodgson, M; Dröge, M; Duclos, J; Dudragne, J; Durand, D; Ealet, A; Eckart, B; Eleftheriadis, C; Engster, Claude; Evangelou, I; Faravel, L; Fassnacht, P; Faure, J L; Felder, C; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Fuglesang, C; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gally, Y; Gamet, R; Garreta, D; Geiss, D; Geralis, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Guyot, C; Harrison, P; Harrison, P F; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Hazen, E S; Henry-Coüannier, F; Heyes, W G; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jacobs, C; Jansson, K; Johner, H U; Jon-And, K; Karkour, N; Kérek, A; Kesseler, G; Kettle, P R; King, D; Klados, T; Kochowski, Claude; Kokkas, P; Kontek, K; Kreuger, R; Lawry, T; Lecouturier, T; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Linget, D; Liolios, A; Löfstedt, B; Louis, F; Machado, E; Maley, P; Mall, U; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Marin, C P; Martin, H; Michau, J C; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nanni, F; Onofre, A; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pelucchi, F; Petit, P; Philippoussis, K; Pinto da Cunha, J; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Postma, H; Rheme, C; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Rozaki, E; Ruf, T; Sacks, L; Sakelliou, L; Sanders, P; Santoni, C; Sarigiannis, K; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Schune, P; Soares, A; Steinacher, M; Tatsis, S; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; Triantis, F A; Tröster, D A; Tsamouranis, I; Tschopp, H; Tsilimigras, Panayiotis; Van Beveren, E; van Eijk, C W E; Van Koningsfeld, V; Vanuxem, J P; Varner, G S; Verweij, H; Vlachos, S; Warner, D; Watson, E; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Wigger, O; Witzig, C; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1996-01-01

    The CPLEAR collaboration has constructed a detector at CERN for an extensive programme of CP-, T- and CPT-symmetry studies using ${\\rm K}^0$ and $\\bar{\\rm K}^0$ produced by the annihilation of $\\bar{\\rm p}$'s in a hydrogen gas target. The ${\\rm K}^0$ and $\\bar{\\rm K}^0$ are identified by their companion products of the annihilation ${\\rm K}^{\\pm} \\pi^{\\mp}$ which are tracked with multiwire proportional chambers, drift chambers and streamer tubes. Particle identification is carried out with a liquid Cherenkov detector for fast separation of pions and kaons and with scintillators which allow the measurement of time of flight and energy loss. Photons are measured with a lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter. The required antiproton annihilation modes are selected by fast online processors using the tracking chamber and particle identification information. All the detectors are mounted in a 0.44 T uniform field of an axial solenoid of diameter 2 m and length 3.6 m to form a magnetic spectrometer capable o...

  11. Contextual and non-contextual performance evaluation of edge detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Nguyen; Djemel Ziou

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents two new evaluation methods for edge detectors. First is non-contextual and concerns the evaluation of edge detector performance in terms of detection errors. The second contextual method evaluates the performance of edge detectors in the context of image reconstruction. Both methods study the influence of image characteristics and edge detector properties on detector performance. Five detectors are

  12. Procedures to develop standoff detector models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Thomas C., Jr.; Grim, Larry B.; Marshall, Martin

    2002-02-01

    A Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) for evaluation of CB detectors is being developed by the U.S. Army at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). The VPG is essentially a combination of computer models for the scene and a detector. The objective is to evaluate the detector performance without requiring expensive field tests. To support the VPG, a general purpose, passive standoff detector model was developed using models from the literature. The important environmental stress variables that affect the detector output signal are determined using 2 level factorial design experiments. An example 2 level factorial design experiment with ILSCAD data is discussed. The model parameters are determined with various detector characterization tests. These include spatial responsivity measurement, wavenumber scale calibration, line shape function measurement, and spectral response measurement. An overview of the detector model and the characterization procedures is discussed.

  13. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  14. Energy Calibration of Double Chooz Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang

    2013-04-01

    Reactor anti-neutrino oscillation experiment Double Chooz was designed to measure the mixing angle theta-13 with unprecedented sensitivity. The Double Chooz detector system consists of a main detector, an outer veto system and several calibration systems. The main detector has a cylindrical structure. It consists of the target vessel, a liquid scintillator loaded with Gd, surrounded by the gamma-catcher, a non-loaded liquid scintillator. A buffer region of non-scintillating liquid surrounds the gamma-catcher and serves to host 390 photomultiplier tubes and to decrease the level of accidental background. The Inner Veto region is outside the buffer, and the Outer Veto system covers all detector components. Far detector is operational and the near detector is under construction. The detector is calibrated with light sources, radioactive point sources, cosmics and natural radioactivity. In this presentation we will describe use of radioactive calibration sources and cross-checks performed with cosmics and natural radioactivity.

  15. Southwest Research Institute intensified detector development capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Erik; Vincent, Michael; Kofoed, Christopher; Andrews, John; Brownsberger, Judith; Siegmund, Oswald

    2012-09-01

    Imaging detectors for wavelengths between 10 nm and 105 nm generally rely on microchannel plates (MCPs) to provide photon detection (via the photo-electric effect) and charge amplification. This is because silicon-based detectors (CCD or APS) have near zero quantum detection efficiency (QDE) over this wavelength regime. Combining a MCP based intensifier tube with a silicon detector creates a detector system that can be tuned to the wavelength regime of interest for a variety of applications. Intensified detectors are used in a variety of scientific (e.g. Solar Physics) and commercial applications (spectroscopic test instrumentation, night vision goggles, low intensity cameras, etc.). Building an intensified detector requires the mastery of a variety of technologies involved in integrating and testing of these detector systems. We report on an internally funded development program within the Southwest Research Institute to architect, design, integrate, and test intensified imaging detectors for space-based applications. Through a rigorous hardware program the effort is developing and maturing the technologies necessary to build and test a large format (2k × 2k) UV intensified CCD detector. The intensified CCD is designed around a commercially available CCD that is optically coupled to a UV Intensifier Tube from Sensor Sciences, LLC. The program aims to demonstrate, through hardware validation, the ability to architect and execute the integration steps necessary to produce detector systems suitable for space-based applications.

  16. Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Lydersen, Lars; Maroey, Oystein; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); University Graduate Center, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 24, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    We introduce the concept of a superlinear threshold detector, a detector that has a higher probability to detect multiple photons if it receives them simultaneously rather than at separate times. Highly superlinear threshold detectors in quantum key distribution systems allow eavesdropping the full secret key without being revealed. Here, we generalize the detector control attack, and analyze how it performs against quantum key distribution systems with moderately superlinear detectors. We quantify the superlinearity in superconducting single-photon detectors based on earlier published data, and gated avalanche photodiode detectors based on our own measurements. The analysis shows that quantum key distribution systems using detector(s) of either type can be vulnerable to eavesdropping. The avalanche photodiode detector becomes superlinear toward the end of the gate. For systems expecting substantial loss, or for systems not monitoring loss, this would allow eavesdropping using trigger pulses containing less than 120 photons per pulse. Such an attack would be virtually impossible to catch with an optical power meter at the receiver entrance.

  17. Fiber optic inclination detector system

    SciTech Connect

    Cwalinski, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    A fiber optic inclination detector system for determining the angular displacement of an object from a reference surface includes a simple mechanical transducer which requires a minimum number of parts and no electrical components. The system employs a single light beam which is split into two light beams and provided to the transducer. Each light beam is amplitude modulated upon reflecting off the transducer to detect inclination. The power values associated with each of the reflected light beams are converted by a pair of photodetectors into voltage signals, and a microprocessor manipulates the voltage signals to provide a measure of the angular displacement between the object and the reference surface.

  18. Tuneable Current Mode RMS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovi?, Predrag B.

    2015-01-01

    A new realization of RMS detector, employing two CCCIIs (controlled current conveyors), metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and single grounded capacitor is present in this paper, without any external resistors and components matching requirements. The proposed circuit can be applied in measuring the RMS value of periodic, band-limited signals. The proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into integrated circuits. The errors related to the signal processing and errors bound were investigated and provided. To verify the theoretical analysis, the circuit PSpice simulations have also been included, showing good agreement with the theory.

  19. Ge photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binari, S. C.; Miller, W. E.; Tsuo, Y. H.; Miller, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    An undoped Ge photocapacitive detector is reported which has peak normalized detectivities at wavelengh 1.4 microns and chopping frequencies 13-1000 Hz of 9 x 10 to the 12th, 4 x 10 to the 9th cm Hz to the 1/2th/W operating respectively at temperatures 77, 195, and 295 K. The observed temperature, spectral, and frequency response of the signal and noise are explained in terms of the measured space charge and interface state properties of the device.

  20. Some characteristics of crystal detectors

    E-print Network

    Whittemore, L E (Laurens Ellis), 1892-

    1915-01-01

    reached was that "rectification was of two kinds, 1 surface! and fbody1 rectification; that the former takes place with pure elements in an active gas, and the latter with im­ pure elements and chemical compounds, irrespective of the nature of the gas... not obtain the decrease in temperature as uniformly as we should have liked. By lowering the detector nearer and nearer to the surface of tho liquid air in the Dewar flask wo were ablo to obtain sufficient data to determine the gen­ eral behavior...

  1. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

    1994-09-20

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

  2. Neutrino Factory Near Detector Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Karadzhov, Yordan [Department of Atomic Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-03-30

    We present a simulation with GENIE MC generator of the Neutrino Factory baseline near detector interaction rates for the purely leptonic process nu{sub m}u+e{sup -}->nu{sub e}+mu{sup -} and for nu{sub m}u+N->mu{sup -}+X scattering in view of measuring the first one and suppressing the second one for neutrino flux estimation. A set of most sensitive measurable quantities are discussed and their selective power against experimental uncertainties is examined.

  3. A terahertz plasmon cavity detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, G. C.; Vinh, N. Q.; Allen, S. J. [Institute for Terahertz Science and Technology, UC Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J. [Kingsborough College, City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11235 (United States); Reno, J. L.; Shaner, E. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2010-11-08

    Sensitivity of a plasmonic detector is enhanced by integrating a broadband log-periodic antenna with a two-dimensional plasma cavity that is defined by source, drain, and multiple gates of a GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistor. Both narrow-band terahertz detection and a rich harmonic spectrum are evident. With a bolometric sensor in the channel, we report responsivity, on resonance at 235-240 GHz and at 20 K, of up to 7 kV/W and a noise equivalent power of 5x10{sup -10} W/Hz{sup 1/2}.

  4. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  5. Nanocomposite scintillator, detector, and method

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); McKigney, Edward A. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-04-28

    A compact includes a mixture of a solid binder and at least one nanopowder phosphor chosen from yttrium oxide, yttrium tantalate, barium fluoride, cesium fluoride, bismuth germanate, zinc gallate, calcium magnesium pyrosilicate, calcium molybdate, calcium chlorovanadate, barium titanium pyrophosphate, a metal tungstate, a cerium doped nanophosphor, a bismuth doped nanophosphor, a lead doped nanophosphor, a thallium doped sodium iodide, a doped cesium iodide, a rare earth doped pyrosilicate, or a lanthanide halide. The compact can be used in a radiation detector for detecting ionizing radiation.

  6. New technologies for UV detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Several technologies are currently being developed, leading to substantial improvements in the performance of UV detectors or significant reductions in power or weight. Four technologies discussed are (1) thin-film coatings to enhance the UV sensitivity of CCD's, (2) highly innovative magnet assemblies that dramatically reduce weight and result in virtually no external flux, (3) new techniques for curving microchannel plates (MCP's) so that single plates can be used to prevent ion feedback and present highly localized charge clouds to an anode structure, and (4) high-performance alternatives to glass-based MCP's. In item (2), for example, very robust magnets are made out of rare earth materials such as samarium cobalt, and cladding magnets are employed to prevent flux from escaping from the detector into the external environment. These new ultralight magnet assemblies are able to create strong, exceptionally uniform magnetic fields for image intensification and focusing of photoelectrons. The principle advantage of such detectors is the quantum efficiencies of 70-80 percent obtained throughout ultraviolet wavelengths (900-2000 A), the highest of any device. Despite the improvements achieved under item (3), high-performance alternatives to conventional glass-based MCP's potentially offer three distinct new advantages that include (1) a 30-100-fold improvement in dynamic range resulting in correspondingly higher signal-to-noise ratios, (2) the use of pure dielectric and semiconductor materials that will not outgas contaminants that eventually destroy photocathodes, and (3) channels that have constant spacing providing long-ranged order since the plates are made using photolithography techniques from the semiconductor industry. The manufacturers of these advanced-technology MCP's, however, are a couple of years away from actually producing a functioning image intensifier. In contrast to the use of CCD's for optical, ground based observations, there is no single detector technology in the ultraviolet that dominates or is as universally suitable for all applications. Thus, several technological problems, recent advances, and the impact that these new enabling technologies represent for UV applications are addressed.

  7. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-29

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  8. CHIPS Neutrino Detector Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Ramon; Vahle, Patricia; Chips Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The CHIPS R&D project is an effort to develop affordable megaton-scale neutrino detectors. The CHIPS strategy calls for submerging water Cherenkov detectors deep under water. The surrounding water acts as structural support, minimizing large initial investments in costly infrastructure, and serves as an overburden, shielding the detector from cosmic rays and eliminating the need for expensive underground construction. Additional cost savings will be achieved through photodetector development and optimization of readout geometry. In summer 2014 a small prototype of the CHIPS detector was deployed in the flooded Wentworth Mine Pit in Northern Minnesota. The detector has been recording data underwater throughout the fall and winter. In this talk, we will discuss lessons learned from the prototyping experience and the plans for submerging much larger detectors in future years.

  9. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many â?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability weâ??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDDâ??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detectorâ??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  10. Development of innovative silicon radiation detectors

    E-print Network

    Balbuena, JuanPablo

    Silicon radiation detectors fabricated at the IMB-CNM (CSIC) Clean Room facilities using the most innovative techniques in detector technology are presented in this thesis. TCAD simulation comprises an important part in this work as becomes an essential tool to achieve exhaustive performance information of modelled detectors prior their fabrication and subsequent electrical characterization. Radiation tolerance is also investigated in this work using TCAD simulations through the potential and electric field distributions, leakage current and capacitance characteristics and the response of the detectors to the pass of different particles for charge collection efficiencies. Silicon detectors investigated in this thesis were developed for specific projects but also for applications in experiments which can benefit from their improved characteristics, as described in Chapter 1. Double-sided double type columns 3D (3D-DDTC) detectors have been developed under the NEWATLASPIXEL project in the framework of the CERN ...

  11. Gaseous Detectors: recent developments and applications

    E-print Network

    Titov, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volume with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photo-lithography and micro-processing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolut...

  12. Scintillation detectors of Alborz-I experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshkian, Yousef; Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Abbasian Motlagh, Mehdi; Rezaie, Masume

    2015-02-01

    A new air shower experiment of the Alborz Observatory, Alborz-I, located at the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, will be constructed in near future. An area of about 30×40 m2 will be covered by 20 plastic scintillation detectors (each with an area of 50×50 cm2). A series of experiments have been performed to optimize the height of light enclosures of the detectors for this array and the results have been compared to an extended code simulation of these detectors. Operational parameters of the detector obtained by this code are cross checked by the Geant4 simulation. There is a good agreement between the extended-code and Geant4 simulations. We also present further discussions on the detector characteristics, which can be applicable for all scintillation detectors with a similar configuration.

  13. Detector simulations for EIC at JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiwen

    2015-04-01

    An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is considered to be the next machine to study the internal structure of hadrons and nuclei on the basis of the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Jefferson Lab (JLab) has conducted both EIC accelerator and detector designs. The detector simulation ``EIC_GEMC'' is based on the simulation framework of GEant4 Monte-Carlo (GEMC). It works like a C++ wrapper around GEANT4. Anything specific to a particular detector like geometry, material, field, sensitivity is put into external input. And it has the ability to customize hit processing routine and output according to various detectors. Overall, these features enable simulating individual sub-detectors and the whole detector in the same framework and make it effortless to switch between them. The main features of simulation ``EIC_GEMC'' and some simulation results will be the main focus of the talk.

  14. A wide band CMOS RF power detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yijun ZhouandMichael; M. Chia Yan Wah

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a wide band CMOS RF power detector using 0.25 mum technology. It includes a CMOS power detector unit, a chopper modulator and a logarithmic amplifier. Chopper technique is applied to reduce the dc offset. The CMOS RF power detector achieves 45 dB dynamic range with bandwidth up to 6 GHz. The power consumption is 17 mW from

  15. Noise analysis for noncontact vital sign detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaogang Yu; Changzhi Li; Jenshan Lin

    2010-01-01

    A method for analyzing the overall noise performance of vital sign detectors is introduced. For demonstration purpose, the noise analysis on a quadrature direct-conversion vital sign detector is performed. The detector is divided into three sub-systems including RF Front-end amplifiers, mixer with LO, and baseband amplifiers. The noise characteristics of the sub-systems are studied individually and combined to form the

  16. Fire detector response in aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiersma, S. J.; Mckee, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric, ionization, and gas sensors were used to detect the signatures from the radiant heat or flame of various aircraft materials. It was found that both ionization and photoelectric detectors are about equally capable of detecting products of pyrolysis and combustion of synthetic polymers, especially those containing fire-retardant additives. Ionization detectors alone appeared to be sensitive to combustion products of simple cellulosic materials. A gas sensor detector appeared to be insensitive to pyrolysis or combustion products of many of the materials.

  17. ATLAS Inner Detector Event Data Model

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS; Akesson, F.; Costa, M.J.; Dobos, D.; Elsing, M.; Fleischmann, S.; Gaponenko, A.; Gnanvo, K.; Keener, P.T.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.; Siebel, M.; Wildauer, A.

    2007-12-12

    The data model for event reconstruction (EDM) in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment is presented. Different data classes represent evolving stages in the reconstruction data flow, and specific derived classes exist for the sub-detectors. The Inner Detector EDM also extends the data model for common tracking in ATLAS and is integrated into the modular design of the ATLAS high-level trigger and off-line software.

  18. Development of cryogenic detectors for radioactivity metrology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Leblanc; P Cassette; J Bouchard; J Plagnard

    1998-01-01

    Low temperature detectors are expected to improve radioactivity measurements as they offer two major advantages compared to classical semiconductor detectors: excellent energy resolution (10eV for 6keV X-rays) and 100% detection efficiency for low energy X-rays (i.e. 1–10keV). The main difficulties encountered in the development of such detectors are their high sensitivity to electromagnetic noise and acoustic vibrations. These difficulties are

  19. The Silicon Pixel Detector for ALICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, D.; Bombonati, C.; Dima, R.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pepato, A.; Bohus, L. Sajo; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.; Shen, D.; Turrisi, R.; Viesti, G. [Dip. di Fisica dell'Universita' and Sezione INFN di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Anelli, G.; Boccardi, A.; Burns, M.; Campbell, M.; Ceresa, S.; Conrad, J.; Kluge, A.; Kral, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2007-10-26

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment is made of position sensitive detectors which have to operate in a region where the track density may be as high as 50 tracks/cm{sup 2}. To handle such densities detectors with high precision and granularity are mandatory. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD), the innermost part of the ITS, has been designed to provide tracking information close to primary interaction point. The assembly of the entire SPD has been completed.

  20. Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives and selected data are presented for the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Cosmic Ray Experiment (LSCRE) for the purpose of introducing an analysis of three of the separate detectors contained within in LSCRE package. The mica detector for measuring heavy solar wind, and the lexan stack and glass detectors for measuring energetic particles in space are discussed in terms of their deployment, exposure time, calibration, and data yield. Relevant articles on solar particles, interplanetary ions, and cosmic ray nuclei are also included.

  1. Radiation hardness of cryogenic silicon detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. O Niinikoski; M. Abreu; W. Bell; P. Berglund; W de Boer; E. Borchi; K. Borer; M. Bruzzi; S. Buontempo; L. Casagrande; S. Chapuy; V. Cindro; P. Collins; N D’Ambrosio; C Da Viá; S. R. H Devine; B. Dezillie; Z. Dimcovski; V. Eremin; A. Esposito; V. Granata; E. Grigoriev; S. Grohmann; F. Hauler; E. Heijne; S. Heising; S. Janos; L. Jungermann; I. Konorov; Z. Li; C. Lourenço; M. Mikuz; V O’Shea; S. Pagano; V. G Palmieri; S. Paul; S. Pirollo; K. Pretzl; P. Rato Mendes; G. Ruggiero; K. Smith; P. Sonderegger; P. Sousa; E. Verbitskaya; S. Watts; M. Zavrtanik

    2002-01-01

    We shall review test results which show that silicon detectors can withstand at 130K temperature a fluence of 2×1015cm–2 of 1MeV neutrons, which is about 10 times higher than the fluence tolerated by the best detectors operated close to room temperature. The tests were carried out on simple pad devices and on microstrip detectors of different types. The devices were

  2. III-V Based Semiconductor THz Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. U. Perera

    2006-01-01

    The III-V semiconductor materials have been investigated for use in the terahertz range, and results are reported on heterojunction and homojunction detectors. Broad response out to 1 THz has been observed in both Nitride and Antimonide based detectors. A responsivity R of ~2.5 AAV in 1-5 THz range was observed for a GaN detector. A stronger narrower response was also

  3. Gallium Nitride Room Temperature ? Particle Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Min; Zhang Guo-Guang; Fu Kai; Yu Guo-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) room temperature ? particle detectors are fabricated and characterized, whose device structure is Schottky diode. The current-voltage (I – V) measurements reveal that the reverse breakdown voltage of the detectors is more than 200 V owing to the consummate fabrication processes, and that the Schottky barrier and ideal factor of the detectors are 0.64 eV and 1.02,

  4. Gallium Nitride Room Temperature alpha Particle Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Lu; Guo-Guang Zhang; Kai Fu; Guo-Hao Yu

    2010-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) room temperature alpha particle detectors are fabricated and characterized, whose device structure is Schottky diode. The current-voltage (I - V) measurements reveal that the reverse breakdown voltage of the detectors is more than 200 V owing to the consummate fabrication processes, and that the Schottky barrier and ideal factor of the detectors are 0.64 eV and 1.02,

  5. Development of a silicon carbide radiation detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. Ruddy; A. R. Dulloo; J. G. Seidel; S. Seshadri; L. B. Rowland

    1998-01-01

    The radiation detection properties of semiconductor detectors made of 4H silicon carbide were evaluated. Both Schottky and p-n junction devices were tested. Exposure to alpha particles from a 238Pu source led to robust signals from the detectors. The resolution of the Schottky SiC detector was 5.8% (FWHM) at an energy of 294 keV, while that of the p-n junction was

  6. Alternative particle identification techniques to Cherenkov detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnew, Neville

    2014-12-01

    Alternative particle identification methods to Cherenkov techniques are reviewed. Particular focus is given to recent advances in Transition Radiation Detectors (TRDs), improvements in dE/dx ionization loss by cluster counting, and Time of Flight (ToF) techniques. In each case several state of the art detectors are highlighted. For advances in ToF techniques, the status of fast photon detectors and electronics developments is summarized.

  7. The ATLAS Inner Detector commissioning and calibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; H. Abreu; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; J. Adelman; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; M. Ahsan; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; G. Akimoto; A. V. Akimov; A. Aktas; M. S. Alam; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; M. Aliev; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; J. Almond; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; C. Amelung; A. Amorim; V. Andrei; X. S. Anduaga; A. Angerami; F. Anghinolfi; N. Anjos; A. Annovi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; J. Antos; B. Antunovic; F. Anulli; S. Aoun; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; S. Arfaoui; T. Argyropoulos; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; R. Asfandiyarov; S. Ask; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astvatsatourov; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; K. Augsten; M. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; A. M. Bach; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; T. Bain; O. K. Baker; M. D. Baker; S Baker; F. Baltasar Dos; Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; T. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. Barlow; B. M. Barnett; R. M. Barnett; A. Baroncelli; A. J. Barr; F. Barreiro; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; R. L. Bates; L. Batkova; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; H. S. Bawa; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; T. Beau; P. H. Beauchemin; R. Beccherle; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; A. J. Beddall; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; M. Begel; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Benary; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector is a composite tracking system consisting of silicon\\u000apixels, silicon strips and straw tubes in a 2 T magnetic field. Its\\u000ainstallation was completed in August 2008 and the detector took part in data-\\u000ataking with single LHC beams and cosmic rays. The initial detector operation,\\u000ahardware commissioning and in-situ calibrations are described. Tracking\\u000aperformance has

  8. Virtual phase CCD x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Roy; Rodricks, Brian; Smither, Robert

    1989-07-01

    A two-dimensional charge-coupled device (CCD) detector, based on the Texas Instruments ``virtual phase'' CCD, has been developed at the University of Michigan for synchrotron radiation applications. A series of performance tests were carried out at the LURE synchrotron facility, and the results show that the detector is ideally suited to measurements in dispersive absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution diffuse scattering, and small-angle scattering. The characteristics of the detector also show great promise for time-resolved experiments.

  9. SiC detectors for neutron monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Manfredotti; A. Lo Giudice; F. Fasolo; E. Vittone; C. Paolini; F. Fizzotti; A. Zanini; G. Wagner; C. Lanzieri

    2005-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors equipped with a converter like 6LiF or 10B can currently be considered a very interesting alternative to conventional neutron detectors, especially because of their compactness and reliability. The materials for the detection of the ions produced in the converter are generally either Si or GaAs. SiC detectors presented in this work are completely new devices which are proved

  10. MIMO Detector Based on Trellis Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin; Park, Sin-Chong

    The depth-first sphere decoder (SD) and the K-best algorithm have been widely studied as near optimum detectors. Depth-first SD has a non-deterministic computational throughput and K-best requires a sorting unit whose complexity is significant when a large K is used together with high modulation constellations. In this letter, we propose a MIMO detector that employs the trellis structure instead of the conventional tree searching. This detector can keep the computational throughput constant and reduce the complexity because the sorting is not required. From the simulation and complexity analysis, we investigate the advantage and drawback of the proposed detector.

  11. Electronic considerations for externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Landis, D. A.; Goulding, F. S.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Malone, D. F.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The dominant background source for germanium gamma ray detector spectrometers used for some astrophysics observations is internal beta decay. Externally segmented germanium gamma ray coaxial detectors can identify beta decay by localizing the event. Energetic gamma rays interact in the germanium detector by multiple Compton interactions while beta decay is a local process. In order to recognize the difference between gamma rays and beta decay events, the external electrode (outside of detector) is electrically partitioned. The instrumentation of these external segments and the consequence with respect to the spectrometer energy signal is examined.

  12. Correlation measurements with on-off detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2013-10-01

    We present a general method to detect nonclassical radiation fields with systems of on-off detectors. We especially study higher order correlations for the identification of nonclassical radiation. This allows us to directly characterize quantum correlations by the statistics measured with systems of on-off detectors. Additionally, we generalize our method to multiple detector systems for measurements of correlations between light fields. We also consider multimode radiation fields and isolate nonclassicality in terms of the space time correlations. Finally, we present results for the quantum statistics using on-off detectors operating in nonlinear detection modes.

  13. The status of detectors at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanski, R.

    1990-09-01

    The announcement of the location of the SSC at the site near Waxahachie, Texas was made in January, 1989. Since then a great many important steps have been taken toward the start of the new Laboratory. Some 900 people have been brought to the site as the starting nucleus of the staff that will ultimate number about 2200. A design baseline has been completed that includes a conceptual design for the accelerator, and the detectors. Also, the process has begun to determine the configuration of detectors that will be built for the SSC. This process has several steps, and now the first of these has been taken: The detector collaborations have submitted the Expression of Interest to the Laboratory. These were reviewed by Laboratory management and the Physics Advisory Committee in July, 1990 and recommendations were made to the collaborations. Decisions were deferred for all of the detectors. But perhaps the most significant recommendation was the request to reduce the size and cost of the general purpose detectors. The detector collaborations are now reviewing their initial designs to prepare for the Letters of Intent, the next step in the detector planning process. This is clearly a difficult and crucial step in that the redesign of the detectors must be done with minimal reduction in detector quality. It is an interesting time in the development of the new laboratory, and a crucial time for the ultimate physics that will be done at the SSC.

  14. Electronic considerations for externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, N. W.; Landis, D. A.; Goulding, F. S.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Malone, D. F.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-08-01

    The dominant background source for germanium gamma ray detector spectrometers used for some astrophysics observations is internal beta decay. Externally segmented germanium gamma ray coaxial detectors can identify beta decay by localizing the event. Energetic gamma rays interact in the germanium detector by multiple Compton interactions while beta decay is a local process. In order to recognize the difference between gamma rays and beta decay events, the external electrode (outside of detector) is electrically partitioned. The instrumentation of these external segments and the consequence with respect to the spectrometer energy signal is examined.

  15. Processing circuitry for single channel radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Samuel D. (Inventor); Delaune, Paul B. (Inventor); Turner, Kathryn M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Processing circuitry is provided for a high voltage operated radiation detector. An event detector utilizes a comparator configured to produce an event signal based on a leading edge threshold value. A preferred event detector does not produce another event signal until a trailing edge threshold value is satisfied. The event signal can be utilized for counting the number of particle hits and also for controlling data collection operation for a peak detect circuit and timer. The leading edge threshold value is programmable such that it can be reprogrammed by a remote computer. A digital high voltage control is preferably operable to monitor and adjust high voltage for the detector.

  16. Field induced gap infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, C. Thomas (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

  17. Micromegas detectors for CLAS12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, G.

    2013-08-01

    The electron accelerator of the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (VI, USA) will soon be upgraded to deliver 12 GeV high intensity beams. This increase in the performance will give the opportunity to study the nucleon structure with an unprecedented accuracy. To meet this end, new equipments will be installed in the experimental areas, particularly in the Hall B/CLAS spectrometer. One of the most challenging aspects is the installation of a Central Tracker surrounding the target, dedicated to the detection of particles emitted at large angles. Micromegas detectors have been chosen to be a major element of this new equipment, due to their high rate capability as well as their robustness and light material. Using the recent bulk technology, part of these gaseous detectors are planned to be assembled in thin cylinders to maximize the acceptance. On the other hand, the presence of a strong magnetic field either perpendicular or parallel to the readout strips has important consequences which need to be carefully investigated. Finally, resistive Micromegas have been studied to further improve the rate capability.

  18. Multielement detector for gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the results of a study to improve the capabilities of a gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma (GC- MIP) detector system, determine the feasibility of empirical formula determination for simple mixtures containing elements of interest to fossil fuel analysis and, subsequently, explore applications for analysis of the complex mixtures associated with fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that the GC-MIP system is useful as a specific-element detector that provides excellent elemental specificity for a number of elements of interest to the analysis of fossil fuels. It has reasonably good sensitivity for carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nickel, and better sensitivity for chlorine and fluorine. Sensitivity is poor for nitrogen and oxygen, however, probably because of undetected leaks or erosion of the plasma tube. The GC-MIP can also provide stoichiometric information about components of simple mixtures. If this powerful technique is to be available for complex mixtures, it will be necessary to greatly simplify the chromatograms by chemical fractionation. 38 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Recent Advances in Diamond Detectors

    E-print Network

    Trischuk, W

    2008-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2012, ATLAS and CMS are planning for detector upgrades for their innermost layers requiring radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is now planned for all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as an alternate sensor for use very close to the interaction region of the super LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences available. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10^16 protons/cm^2 showing that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one t...

  20. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  1. X-Ray Detector: An x-ray radiation detector design code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick B. Spielman

    1990-01-01

    X-Ray Detector (XRD) is an x-ray detector design code. It is intended to aid in the rapid design of x-ray detector packages. The design capabilities of XRD include filters, x-ray mirrors, x-ray diodes, silicon PIN diodes, GaAs PIN diodes, photoconducting detectors, bolometers, and x-ray film. XRD uses x-ray cross-section information stored in easily-modified external libraries. Interactive calculations are completed in

  2. A New TV Video\\/Sound Detector IC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milton Wilcox

    1974-01-01

    The operation of multiplier and video amplifier circuits used in present TV IF detector ICs is explained. A new detector is described which uses a separate sound detector to allow conventional trapping before the video detector. The sound carrier output is buffered and the video detector features differential inputs and special circuitry to handle input overloads. An NPN video amplifier

  3. Heterojunction model for Focal Plane Array detector devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn T. Hess; Thomas J. Sanders; Hang-Ming Dai; Gwendolyn Newsome; Theodore Fischer

    1997-01-01

    Night vision systems for military and commercial applications usually use an Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA) for its radiation detector. Existing IRFPA models lack simplicity for setting up the detector's architecture\\/structure and lack continuity between IR detector material, IR detector processes and detector architecture. This paper will discuss the first version a new IRFPA computer model which is to be

  4. Current injected detectors at super-LHC program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Eremin; J. Härkönen; Z. Li; E. Verbitskaya

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes works on the development of detectors operated with external current injection (CID, Current Injected Detector) that makes it possible to significantly improve the detector operation at very high fluences. In a CID, the injected carriers allow the manipulation of the electric field distribution in the detector in such a way that the detector is fully depleted at

  5. Amorphous Silicon Based Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liwei

    2004-12-12

    Various large-scale neutron sources already build or to be constructed, are important for materials research and life science research. For all these neutron sources, neutron detectors are very important aspect. However, there is a lack of a high-performance and low-cost neutron beam monitor that provides time and temporal resolution. The objective of this SBIR Phase I research, collaboratively performed by Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE), the University of Toledo (UT) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is to demonstrate the feasibility for amorphous silicon based neutron beam monitors that are pixilated, reliable, durable, fully packaged, and fabricated with high yield using low-cost method. During the Phase I effort, work as been focused in the following areas: 1) Deposition of high quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) at high deposition rate and with low device shunting; 2) Fabrication of Si/SiO2/metal/p/i/n/metal/n/i/p/metal/SiO2/ device for the detection of alpha particles which are daughter particles of neutrons through appropriate nuclear reactions; and 3) Testing of various devices fabricated for alpha and neutron detection; As the main results: · High quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films have been successfully deposited using VHF PECVD on various low-cost substrates; · Various single-junction and double junction detector devices have been fabricated; · The detector devices fabricated have been systematically tested and analyzed. · Some of the fabricated devices are found to successfully detect alpha particles. Further research is required to bring this Phase I work beyond the feasibility demonstration toward the final prototype devices. The success of this project will lead to a high-performance, low-cost, X-Y pixilated neutron beam monitor that could be used in all of the neutron facilities worldwide. In addition, the technologies developed here could be used to develop X-ray and neutron monitors that could be used in the future for security checks at the airports and other critical facilities. The project would lead to devices that could significantly enhance the performance of multi-billion dollar neutron source facilities in the US and bring our nation to the forefront of neutron beam sciences and technologies which have enormous impact to materials, life science and military research and applications.

  6. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  7. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations.

  8. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, S.A.; Chiles, M.M.

    1994-05-31

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. 10 figs.

  9. Balanced homodyne detectors in QFT

    E-print Network

    P. Marecki

    2008-03-22

    Within the dipole approximation we describe the interaction of a photodiode with the quantum electric field. The diode is modelled by an electron in a bound state which upon interaction, treated perturbatively in the paper, can get excited to one of the scattering states. We furthermore analyze a balanced homodyne detector (BHD) with a local oscillator (LO) consisting of two photodiodes illuminated by a monochromatic coherent state. We show, that to the leading order the BHD's output measures the expectation value of the quantum electric field, in the state without the LO, restricted to the frequency of the LO. The square of the output measures the two-point function of the quantum field. This shows that the BHDs provide tools for measurements of sub-vacuum (negative) expectation values of the squares quantum fields and thus for test of Quantum Energy Inequality - like bounds, or other QFT effects under the influence of external conditions.

  10. Radiation detectors: Needs and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armantrout, G. A.

    Important applications for X and gamma ray spectroscopy are found in prospecting, materials characterization, environmental monitoring, the life sciences, and nuclear physics. The specific requirements vary for each application with varying degrees of emphasis on either spectrometer resolution, detection efficiency, or both. Since no one spectrometer is ideally suited to this wide range of needs, compromises are usually required. Gas and scintillation spectrometers have reached a level of maturity, and recent interest has concentrated on semiconductor spectrometers. Germanium detectors are showing continuing refinement and are the spectrometers of choice for high resolution applications. The new high Z semiconductors, such as CdTe and HgI2 show steady improvement but are limited in both resolution and size and will likely be used only in applications which require their unique properties.

  11. Magnetic tape lightning current detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, K. E.; Jafferis, W.

    1980-01-01

    Development and application tests of a low cost, passive, peak lightning current detector (LCD) found it to provide measurements with accuracies of + or - 5 percent to + or - 10 percent depending on the readout method employed. The LCD uses magnetic audio recording tape to sense the magnitude of the peak magnetic field around a conductor carrying lightning currents. The test results showed that the length of audio tape erased was linearly related to the peak simulated lightning currents in a round conductor. Accuracies of + or - 10 percent were shown for measurements made using a stopwatch readout technique to determine the amount of tape erased by the lightning current. Where more accurate data are desired, the tape is played and the output recorded on a strip chart, oscilloscope, or some other means so that measurements can be made on that recording. Conductor dimensions, tape holder dimensions, and tape formulation must also be considered to obtain a more accurate result.

  12. Single nanowire photoconductive terahertz detectors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kun; Parkinson, Patrick; Fu, Lan; Gao, Qiang; Jiang, Nian; Guo, Ya-Nan; Wang, Fan; Joyce, Hannah J; Boland, Jessica L; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Johnston, Michael B

    2015-01-14

    Spectroscopy and imaging in the terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum has proven to provide important insights in fields as diverse as chemical analysis, materials characterization, security screening, and nondestructive testing. However, compact optoelectronics suited to the most powerful terahertz technique, time-domain spectroscopy, are lacking. Here, we implement single GaAs nanowires as microscopic coherent THz sensors and for the first time incorporated them into the pulsed time-domain technique. We also demonstrate the functionality of the single nanowire THz detector as a spectrometer by using it to measure the transmission spectrum of a 290 GHz low pass filter. Thus, nanowires are shown to be well suited for THz device applications and hold particular promise as near-field THz sensors. PMID:25490548

  13. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  14. RADIOXENON MEASUREMENTS WITH THE PHOSWATCH DETECTOR SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Hennig; William K. Warburton; A. Fallu-Labruyere; K. Sabourov; Matthew W. Cooper; Justin I. McIntyre; A. Gleyzer; Marc Bean; E. Korpach; R. Kurt Ungar; W. Zhang; P. Mekarski; Rebecca Ward; S. Biegalski; Derek A. Haas

    2009-01-01

    Many of the radioxenon detector systems used in the International Monitoring System and in other applications employ beta\\/gamma coincidence detection to achieve high sensitivity. In these systems, the coincidence detection is implemented by requiring simultaneous signals from separate beta and gamma detectors. While very sensitive to small amounts of radioxenon, this approach requires careful calibration and gain matching of several

  15. Landmine detection using single sensor metal detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Brown; A. M. Zoubir; I. J. Chant; C. Abeynayake

    2002-01-01

    Historically, metal detectors have been essential tools for demining. However they have been unable to keep pace with developments that made landmines more difficult to find. Here, techniques for the detection of buried objects using a metal detector are presented, evaluated and compared. The findings highlight a number of deficiencies, as well as a number of strengths, in the proposed

  16. Sensitivity maps for metal detector design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Silvester; D. Omeragic

    1996-01-01

    Eddy-current or permeability-contrast based metal detectors may be characterized by static sensitivity maps, a new graphic representation that maps detector response to a standardized infinitesimal object in a static field. A sphere is shown to be a suitable standard object because its behavior describes, to within multiplicative constants, objects of arbitrary conductivity and permeability. Static sensitivity maps take full account

  17. Sensitivity of metal detectors to spheroidal targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Silvester; D. Omeragic

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity of magnetic metal detectors to prolate or oblate spheroidal targets depends both on the semiaxis ratio and on the orientation of the spheroid polar axis relative to the local magnetic field. A spherical target produces null response only if the generator and detector coil magnetic fields are orthogonal, but the spheroid possesses a null direction for a large

  18. Basic analysis of a metal detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yamazaki; H. Nakane; A. Tanaka

    2002-01-01

    Metal detectors are extensively used to find undesirable metal objects in processed food. In such a typical metal detector, the coils are coaxially arranged with the transmitting coil in the center and two receiving coils on the sides. The receiving coils are connected to a differential amplifier. When the magnetic field generated in the transmitting coil is disturbed by metal

  19. Short-range laser obstacle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriger, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Detector, designed for slow-moving vehicle to explore surface of Mars, will automatically divert vehicle from obstacles as small as 0.5 m in its path. Detector comprises injection laser operating in pulse time-delay measurement, or radar, mode. It is capable of scanning area extending from few meters to approximately 30 m.

  20. Applications of {sup 3}He neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Testov, D. A., E-mail: dumon@jinr.r [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Briancon, Ch. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (France); Dmitriev, S. N.; Yeremin, A. V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Pyatkov, Yu. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Sokol, E. A. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15

    Neutron detectors with {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters are described. The use of these detectors in measuring the probability of neutron emission (in particular, multiparticle neutron emission) after the {beta} decay of neutron-rich nuclei and in studying rare events of spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei is considered.

  1. Characterization of Large Liquid Scintillation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, S.A.

    2003-08-25

    This report presents the results of the characterization of 11 large liquid scintillators. The neutron energy threshold and maximum detection efficiency were determined as a function of voltage and constant fraction discriminator threshold. Fits to the response of each detector were found. The results can be used to select the experimental settings in the operation of the detectors to ensure consistent response and repeatability.

  2. The NIOSH Detector Tube Certification Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL ROPER

    1974-01-01

    Because NIOSH evaluations of commercial gas detector tubes in past years had indicated widespread inaccuracy and other serious problems with these devices, NIOSH adopted a set of performance and quality control standards for gas detector tubes which commercial tubes must meet in order to be considered acceptable for NIOSH and OSHA use. NIOSH has also established a testing program in

  3. Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, M.; Pynn, R.

    1997-07-01

    Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required.

  4. Hypergol Vapor Detector (HVD) technical interchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Loper

    1981-01-01

    Lower explosion limit (LEL) and threshold limit value (TLV) hydrazine-fuel vapor detectors were developed. Sensitive and specific detectors are currently desired that are capable of rapidly monitoring hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) at levels that are one-half of the TLVs established for these compounds. Information on the principle of operation of each HVD, as well as specifications on

  5. Cerenkov background radiation in imaging detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward I. Rosenblatt; Edward A. Beaver; Ross D. Cohen; J. B. Linsky; Ron W. Lyons

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss results of an analysis of background dark data obtained with the Digicon detector in the faint object spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Time sequenced data are presented which show the background recorded by the detector as it orbits the Earth at an altitude of 600 km. The authors propose that Cerenkov radiation produced by cosmic

  6. Cosmic Ray Nuclei (CRN) detector investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Meyer; Dietrich Muller; Jacques Lheureux; Simon Swordy

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Nuclei (CRN) detector was designed to measure elemental composition and energy spectra of cosmic radiation nuclei ranging from lithium to iron. CRN was flown as part of Spacelab 2 in 1985, and consisted of three basic components: a gas Cerenkov counter, a transition radiation detector, and plastic scintillators. The results of the experiment indicate that the relative

  7. 14 CFR 121.275 - Fire detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Fire detectors must be made and installed in a manner that assures their ability to resist, without failure, all vibration, inertia, and other loads to which they may be normally subjected. Fire detectors must be unaffected by exposure to fumes, oil,...

  8. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  9. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  10. Resource Letter PD-1 on Particle Detectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trower, W. Peter

    1970-01-01

    Intended to guide college physicists to literature on nuclear and sub-nuclear particle detectors. The paper contains a discussion of (1) interactions of particles with matter and (2) individual particle detectors, each section being followed by an annotated bibliography of selected reference materials. Rankings are given to the articles on the…

  11. The BABAR Detector The BABAR Collaboration

    E-print Network

    -2001 8583A50 1015 1749 4050 370 I.P. Detector CL Figure 1. BABAR detector longitudinal section. · excellent in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking

  12. Compact imaging system for GEM detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohisa Uchida; Masahiro Ikeno; Takahisa Koike; Kouichi Miyama; Takeshi Murakami; Eiichi Nakano; Hideki Ohwada; Michiko Sekimoto; Masayoshi Shoji; Manobu Tanaka; Shoji Uno; Masaki Wada

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a compact imaging system for GEM detectors, which is applied to thermal neutron imaging. A GEM chamber and a readout board are integrated into one device. The detector is connected to a readout PC with Gigabit Ethernet. This system generates image data of 14.4K pixel from 240 signals employing strip readout method. We have measured performance of

  13. Recent developments in PET detector technology

    PubMed Central

    Lewellen, Tom K

    2010-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a tool for metabolic imaging that has been utilized since the earliest days of nuclear medicine. A key component of such imaging systems is the detector modules—an area of research and development with a long, rich history. Development of detectors for PET has often seen the migration of technologies, originally developed for high energy physics experiments, into prototype PET detectors. Of the many areas explored, some detector designs go on to be incorporated into prototype scanner systems and a few of these may go on to be seen in commercial scanners. There has been a steady, often very diverse development of prototype detectors, and the pace has accelerated with the increased use of PET in clinical studies (currently driven by PET/CT scanners) and the rapid proliferation of pre-clinical PET scanners for academic and commercial research applications. Most of these efforts are focused on scintillator-based detectors, although various alternatives continue to be considered. For example, wire chambers have been investigated many times over the years and more recently various solid-state devices have appeared in PET detector designs for very high spatial resolution applications. But even with scintillators, there have been a wide variety of designs and solutions investigated as developers search for solutions that offer very high spatial resolution, fast timing, high sensitivity and are yet cost effective. In this review, we will explore some of the recent developments in the quest for better PET detector technology. PMID:18695301

  14. 24 CFR 965.805 - Smoke detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Fire Safety § 965.805 Smoke detectors...subpart must be equipped with at least one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke...detectors to serve as adequate warning of fire. Public areas include, but are...

  15. 24 CFR 965.805 - Smoke detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Fire Safety § 965.805 Smoke detectors...subpart must be equipped with at least one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke...detectors to serve as adequate warning of fire. Public areas include, but are...

  16. 24 CFR 965.805 - Smoke detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Fire Safety § 965.805 Smoke detectors...subpart must be equipped with at least one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke...detectors to serve as adequate warning of fire. Public areas include, but are...

  17. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  18. Characteristics of radiation detectors for diagnostic radiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry A. DeWerd; Louis K. Wagner

    1999-01-01

    The use of X-rays for diagnosis has been significant since its discovery. A measurement of the X-ray dose is the main determinant for risk vs benefit of these examinations. Radiation detectors are important for dose measurement. A description of these detectors, including the most frequently used ionization chamber, aids in the understanding necessary for their use. Proper and accurate use

  19. Recent advances in compound semiconductor radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J Sellin

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in compound semiconductor detectors are reviewed, highlighting the latest spectroscopic performance from devices fabricated from a range of wide bandgap materials. Cadmium zinc telluride and cadmium telluride continue to dominate the field, with a range of prototype imaging detectors under development, principally for nuclear medicine and X-ray astronomy applications. Improvements in material quality and supply plus metal–semiconductor contact

  20. Eco gases for future particle gas detectors

    E-print Network

    Kjølbro, Jógvan Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Due to global regulations of non environmental refrigerants, some of the gas mixtures used in gas detectors at CERN has to be replaced. This report is a review that summarises and predicts some properties that are important when selecting new gases to operate in the gas detectors.

  1. Calibration of detector sensitivity in positron cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Chesler; C. W. Stearns

    1990-01-01

    An improved method for calibrating detector sensitivities in a positron camera has been developed. The calibration phantom is a cylinder of activity placed near the center of the camera and fully within the field of view. The calibration data are processed in such a manner that the following two important properties are achieved: (1) the estimate of detector sensitivity is

  2. Sofradir SWIR hyperspectral detectors for space applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoanna-Reine Nowicki-Bringuier; Philippe Chorier

    2009-01-01

    The field of SWIR detectors for space applications is strongly growing those last years, mainly because of the increasing need for environmental missions in the SWIR detection range. For now more than 10 years, Sofradir is involved in that field, developing and improving its SWIR detectors technology, leading to a mature technology that enable to address most of missions needs

  3. Irreversible laser damage in ir detector materials.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, F; Esterowitz, L; Kruer, M; Allen, R

    1977-11-01

    Irreversible laser damage phenomena are investigated in pyroelectric and semiconductor ir detector materials. Thermal damage phenomena in these materials are reviewed, and new results are presented. Theoretical models, which successfully describe thermal damage in detector materials, are reviewed, and criteria for the application of these models are discussed. PMID:20174269

  4. Fast envelope detector with bias compensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Bryant

    1984-01-01

    In combination with an enveloped detector in a radar system, a bias compensation circuit consisting of a programmable read-only memory and a binary adder produce an unbiased envelope detection signal. The bias compensation circuit adds one to the output of the detector based upon whether the minimum of the I and Q (inphase and quadrature) signals is odd and the

  5. Automatically scoring ladar detectors using target descriptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Bergman; David H. DeKruger

    2001-01-01

    The volume of data that must be processed to characterize the performance of target detection algorithms over a complex parameter space requires automated analysis. This paper discusses a methodology for automatically scoring the results from a diversity of detectors producing several different forms of detected regions. The ability to automatically score detector outputs without using full target templates or models

  6. Full LCD Detector Simulation with GISMO

    SciTech Connect

    Cassell, R.

    2004-10-11

    We present a status update of a full simulation package using GISMO. This package is a functioning tool producing simulation data for the two standard LCD detector designs, in a framework allowing easy changes to the detector designs. The simulation engine, GISMO, is separated from the application code, GISMOAPPS, to allow for a future upgrade to GEANT4 within the same framework.

  7. Gallium arsenide detectors for minimum ionizing particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Beaumont; R. Bertin; C. N. Booth; C. Buttar; C. Capiluppi; L. Carraresi; F. Cindolo; M. Colocci; F. H. Combley; S. D. Auria; C. del Papa; M. Dogru; M. Edwards; F. Fiori; F. Foster; A. Francescato; R. Gray; G. Hill; Y. Hou; P. Houston; G. Hughes; B. K. Jones; J. G. Lynch; B. Lisowsky; J. Matheson; F. Nava; M. Nuti; V. O'Shea; P. G. Pelfer; C. Raine; J. Santana; I. J. Saunders; P. H. Seller; K. Shankar; P. H. Sharp; I. O. Skillicorn; T. Sloan; K. M. Smith; N. Tartoni; I. Ten Have; R. M. Turnbull; U. Vanni; A. Vinattieri; A. Zichichi

    1993-01-01

    Progress on the development of GaAs solid state detectors is presented. 80% charge collection efficiency has been achieved, and double sided detectors with metal rectifying contacts have been tested. Measurements of capacitance and tests with SEM are giving more information on the behaviour of these devices.

  8. Agile Digital Detector for RFI Mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidharth Misra; Christopher Ruf; Roger De Roo

    2006-01-01

    A new type of microwave radiometer detector has been developed that is capable of identifying low level radio frequency interference (RFI) and of reducing or eliminating its effect on the measured brightness temperature. The agile digital detector (ADD) can discriminate between RFI and natural thermal emission signals by directly measuring other moments of the signal than the variance that is

  9. The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Adinolfi; F. Ambrosino; A. Andryakov; A. Antonelli; M. Antonelli; C. Bacci; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Bankamp; F. Bellini; G. Bencivenni; S. Bertolucci; C. Bini; C. Bloise; V. Bocci; F. Bossi; P. Branchini; S. A Bulychjov; G. Cabibbo; A. Calcaterra; R. Caloi; P. Campana; G. Capon; A. Cardini; M. Casarsa; V. Casavola; G. Cataldi; F. Ceradini; F. Cervelli; G. Chiefari; P. Ciambrone; E De Lucia; R De Sangro; P De Simone; S Dell'Agnello; A. Denig; A. Di Domenico; C. Di Donato; S Di Falco; A. Doria; E. Drago; G. Felici; A. Ferrari; M L. Ferrer; G. Finocchiaro; G. Fischer; C. Forti; A. Franceschi; P. Franzini; C. Gatti; P. Gauzzi; S. Giovannella; V. Golovatyuk; E. Gorini; F. Grancagnolo; E. Graziani; M. Incagli; L. Ingrosso; Y. Y. Jiang; W. Kluge; V. Kulikov; C. Kuo; F. Lacava; G. Lanfranchi; J. Lee-Franzini; T. Lomtadze; C. Luisi; M. Martemianov; M. Matsyuk; W. Mei; A. Menicucci; R. Messi; S. Moccia; M. Moulson; S. Müller; F. Murtas; M. Napolitano; A. Nedosekin; L. Pacciani; P. Pagès; M. Palutan; M. Panareo; L. Paoluzi; E. Pasqualucci; L. Passalacqua; M. Passaseo; A. Passeri; V. Patera; E. Petrolo; G. Petrucci; D. Picca; M. Piccolo; G. Pirozzi; M. Pollack; L. Pontecorvo; M. Primavera; E. Santovetti; G. Saracino; F. Schönleber; B. Sciascia; A. Sciubba; I. Sfiligoi; T. Spadaro; S. Spagnolo; E. Spiriti; U von Hagel; P. Valente; B. Valeriani; G. Venanzoni; S. Veneziano; A. Ventura

    2002-01-01

    The design and construction of the large Drift Chamber for the KLOE experiment at the Frascati ?-factory, DA?NE, are described. The relevant aspects of the various elements of the detector are reviewed together with a description of the track reconstruction program and of the calibration procedures. The performance of the detector based on measurements with cosmic rays and with e+e?

  10. Si:As BIB detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharat, R.; Petroff, M. D.; Speer, J. J.; Stapelbroek, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights of the results obtained on arsenic-doped silicon blocked impurity band (BIB) detectors and arrays since the invention of the BIB concept a few years ago are presented. After a brief introduction and a description of the BIB concept, data will be given on single detector performance. Then different arrays that were fabricated will be described and test data presented.

  11. Entanglement in particle-detector interactions

    E-print Network

    Michael Steiner; R. W. Rendell

    2002-08-30

    It is predicted by Schrodinger's equation that entanglement will occur in the interaction between detector and particle. We provide an analysis of the entanglement using the Gurvitz model of double-dot and detector. New results on entangled doubled-dots are provided as well as implications on Quantum Information processing.

  12. Epitaxial silicon carbide charge particle detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Nava; P. Vanni; C. Lanzieri; C. Canali

    1999-01-01

    The radiation detection properties of Schottky detectors made on epitaxial layers of 4H silicon carbide were evaluated. Exposure to 5.48MeV alpha particles from a 241Am source in vacuum led to robust signals from the detectors. The collection of the charge carriers was found to increase linearly with the square root of the applied reverse bias.

  13. Development of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Adam; C Bauer; E Berdermann; F Bogani; E Borchi; Mara Bruzzi; C Colledani; J Conway; W Dabrowski; P A Delpierre; A Deneuville; W Dulinski; B van Eijk; A Fallou; D Fisch; F Foulon; M Friedl; K K Gan; E Gheeraert; E A Grigoriev; G D Hallewell; R Hall-Wilton; S Han; F G Hartjes; Josef Hrubec; D Husson; H Kagan; D R Kania; J Kaplon; R Kass; K T Knöpfle; Manfred Krammer; P F Manfredi; D Meier; M Mishina; F Le Normand; L S Pan; H Pernegger; Manfred Pernicka; S Pirollo; V Re; J L Riester; S Roe; D G Roff; A Rudge; S R Schnetzer; S Sciortino; V Speziali; H Stelzer; R Stone; R J Tapper; R J Tesarek; G B Thomson; M L Trawick; W Trischuk; R Turchetta; A M Walsh; R Wedenig; Peter Weilhammer; H J Ziock; M M Zoeller

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high ra diation, high temperature and in aggressive chemical media. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond. Characterization of the diamond samples and various detect ors are

  14. Technique for mounting pyroelectric detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, R. A.; Fripp, A. L.; Robertson, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    Technique is developed at Langley Research Center for mounting pyroelectric detector arrays on silicon integrated circuits. Procedure incorporates normal silicon integrated-circuit technology to form quasi-free mounts for detector arrays. Advantages of technique include lower cost, better image registration, and improved reliability.

  15. EDAX Compact Detector Unit EDAX detector is used for advanced materials characterization of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS).

    E-print Network

    EDAX Compact Detector Unit EDAX© detector is used for advanced materials characterization of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS). In 1992, EDAX introduced the Compact Detector Unit (CDU), a major. It is available with 10mm2 or 30mm2 detector crystals. #12;Electron Count by EDAX detector (8/16/05) 0 500 1000

  16. Detecting MALDI ions with a cryogenic detector

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, W. Henry

    1997-09-12

    Progress in cryogenic detector technology has led to the development of new devices appropriate for use as ion detectors. We have recently begun to evaluate one type of cryogenic detector called a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector. Initial tests were conducted by replacing a microchannel plate ion detector in a matrix-assisted-laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) with a STJ detector. In those initial tests we showed that 1) the STJ detector produces pulses appropriate for timing large ions and 2) the height of the pulses is proportional to ion energy and thus useful for deducing ion charge. We now report additional STJ ion energy measurements that help to reveal some aspects of ion fragmentation in MALDI mass spectrometry. The height of the output pulse from a STJ detector is related approximately linearly to ion energy, thus doubly charged ions in a MALDI:TOF-MS produce pulses about twice as large as singly charged ions. Cryogenic detectors show excellent energy resolution for X rays, but poorer energy resolution is observed when MALDI ions are analyzed. The cause for the poor energy resolution of MALDI ions is not fully understood; nevertheless, it appears feasible to use STJ detectors to study the energy distribution of MALDI ions. The detectors appear to be sensitive enough to measure individual ion impacts and processes which influence ion energy such as in-source fragmentation and the deficit of ion energy caused by accelerating ions through a MALDI plume. In this study, we show how a STJ detector can be used to measure the time of flight of macroglobulin ions (725,000 Daltons), determine ion charge using detector pulse height and investigate in-source fragmentation patterns. It is found that the energy response of the STJ detector not only provides a way to assign charge to ions but also provides a way to examine fragmentation patterns for MALDI ions. The simple model described above appears to account for the flight times and expected energy of the ions that lead to clusters of crescent shaped data points. Work is under way to investigate the fragmentation of multiply charged ions.

  17. Wideband 1.064 micrometer detector evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. I.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of several candidate detectors for use as communications detectors in a 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometers laser communication system was evaluated. The results of communication system Bit Error Rate (BER) testing for the best detector of each type are summarized. Complete testing data of each type detector is presented. The 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometers communication system receiver test bed is described. The best communication system results for each detector type are included. Performance comparisons are made at 0.000001 BER, the specification level chosen for satellite laser communication links. The data is presented in two groups. The first indicates the best performance levels that can be expected on normal space laser communication system operation. The second cites the best performance levels which can be achieved by focusing the signal to diffraction limited spots on the photosensitive area.

  18. MAJORANA Collaboration's Experience with Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, S.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, F. T., III; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; MAJORANA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the Majorana Demonstrator project is to search for 0??? decay in 76Ge. Of all candidate isotopes for 0???, 76Ge has some of the most favorable characteristics. Germanium detectors are a well established technology, and in searches for 0???, the high purity germanium crystal acts simultaneously as source and detector. Furthermore, p-type germanium detectors provide excellent energy resolution and a specially designed point contact geometry allows for sensitive pulse shape discrimination. This paper will summarize the experiences the MAJORANA collaboration made with enriched germanium detectors manufactured by ORTEC®®. The process from production, to characterization and integration in MAJORANA mounting structure will be described. A summary of the performance of all enriched germanium detectors will be given.

  19. Enhanced neutron imaging detector using optical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Existing neutron imaging detectors have limited count rates due to inherent property and electronic limitations. The popular multiwire proportional counter is qualified by gas recombination to a count rate of less than 10{sup 5} n/s over the entire array and the neutron Anger camera, even though improved with new fiber optic encoding methods, can only achieve 10{sup 6} cps over a limited array. We present a preliminary design for a new type of neutron imaging detector with a resolution of 2--5 mm and a count rate capability of 10{sup 6} cps pixel element. We propose to combine optical and electronic processing to economically increase the throughput of advanced detector systems while simplifying computing requirements. By placing a scintillator screen ahead of an optical image processor followed by a detector array, a high throughput imaging detector may be constructed.

  20. Enhanced neutron imaging detector using optical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1992-08-01

    Existing neutron imaging detectors have limited count rates due to inherent property and electronic limitations. The popular multiwire proportional counter is qualified by gas recombination to a count rate of less than 10{sup 5} n/s over the entire array and the neutron Anger camera, even though improved with new fiber optic encoding methods, can only achieve 10{sup 6} cps over a limited array. We present a preliminary design for a new type of neutron imaging detector with a resolution of 2--5 mm and a count rate capability of 10{sup 6} cps pixel element. We propose to combine optical and electronic processing to economically increase the throughput of advanced detector systems while simplifying computing requirements. By placing a scintillator screen ahead of an optical image processor followed by a detector array, a high throughput imaging detector may be constructed.

  1. Advances in detectors for astronomical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boksenberg, A.

    1982-11-01

    It is pointed out that spectroscopy is the most important investigative technique applied in astronomy. In many respects it is far more challenging to find appropriate image-reproducing detectors for astronomical spectroscopy than for direct-imaging applications. A functional tree is presented to show the operation of various practical imaging detectors in current or planned use. A clear trend in the use of detectors in astronomy in recent years has been the increased application of electronic data processing and computer techniques. An account is given of some of the techniques implied in the functional tree, taking into account detectors suitable for astronomical applications in the ultraviolet, optical, and near infrared (to about 1 micrometer) spectral ranges. Attention is given to photographic emulsions, electronography, image intensifiers, integrating television camera tubes, image photon-counting systems, and solid-state detectors.

  2. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    E-print Network

    Band, H R; Chu, M-C; Heeger, K M; Kwok, M W; Shih, K; Wise, T; Xiao, Q

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya...

  3. Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (review)

    E-print Network

    Buzulutskov, A

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

  4. Calibration of the LUX Dark Matter Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastens, Louis

    2010-02-01

    Calibration strategies for LUX (Large Underground Xenon), a liquid xenon time projection chamber designed to directly detect dark matter, will be explored. The introduction of external gamma and neutron sources into a water tank containing the detector will be discussed. Large liquid noble detectors achieve very low backgrounds through self-shielding of the fiducial volume, however this same shielding inhibits the use of external gamma ray sources to calibrate the fiducial volume detector. To mitigate this effect, research on novel calibration strategies using radioactive ^83mKr and ^3He doped into the detector to efficiently calibrate the fiducial volume of these detectors will be reported upon. LUX will be deploying to Davis Cavern at SUSEL (Sanford Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory), future site of DUSEL (Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory), in the first half of 2010. )

  5. A novel electron tunneling infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, T. W.; Waltman, S. B.; Reynolds, J. K.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The pneumatic infrared detector, originally developed by Golay in the late 1940s, uses the thermal expansion of one cm(exp 3) of xenon at room temperature to detect the heat deposited by infrared radiation. This detector was limited by thermal fluctuations within a 10 Hz bandwidth, but suffered from long thermal time constants and a fragile structure. Nevertheless, it represents the most sensitive room temperature detector currently available in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR). Fabrication of this type of detector on smaller scales has been limited by the lack of a suitably sensitive transducer. Researchers designed a detector based on this principle, but which is constructed entirely from micromachined silicon, and uses a vacuum tunneling transducer to detect the expansion of the trapped gas. Because this detector is fabricated using micromachining techniques, miniaturization and integration into one and two-dimensional arrays is feasible. The extreme sensitivity of vacuum tunneling to changes in electrode separation will allow a prototype of this detector to operate in the limit of thermal fluctuations over a 10 kHz bandwidth. A calculation of the predicted response and noise of the prototype is presented with the general formalism of thermal detectors. At present, most of the components of the prototype have been fabricated and tested independently. In particular, a characterization of the micromachined electron tunneling transducer has been carried out. The measured noise in the tunnel current is within a decade of the limit imposed by shot noise, and well below the requirements for the operation of an infrared detector with the predicted sensitivity. Assembly and characterization of the prototype infrared detector will be carried out promptly.

  6. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Protection § 29.1203 Fire detector systems. (a) For...approved, quick-acting fire detectors in designated...locations ensuring prompt detection of fire in those zones. ...of each fire detector system electrical...

  7. 14 CFR 121.273 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 121.273 Section...Requirements § 121.273 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  8. 14 CFR 121.273 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 121.273 Section...Requirements § 121.273 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  9. 14 CFR 125.171 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 125.171 Section...Requirements § 125.171 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  10. 14 CFR 125.171 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 125.171 Section...Requirements § 125.171 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  11. 14 CFR 121.273 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 121.273 Section...Requirements § 121.273 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  12. 14 CFR 121.273 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 121.273 Section...Requirements § 121.273 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Protection § 29.1203 Fire detector systems. (a) For...approved, quick-acting fire detectors in designated...locations ensuring prompt detection of fire in those zones. ...of each fire detector system electrical...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Protection § 29.1203 Fire detector systems. (a) For...approved, quick-acting fire detectors in designated...locations ensuring prompt detection of fire in those zones. ...of each fire detector system electrical...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Protection § 29.1203 Fire detector systems. (a) For...approved, quick-acting fire detectors in designated...locations ensuring prompt detection of fire in those zones. ...of each fire detector system electrical...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1203 - Fire detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Protection § 29.1203 Fire detector systems. (a) For...approved, quick-acting fire detectors in designated...locations ensuring prompt detection of fire in those zones. ...of each fire detector system electrical...

  17. 14 CFR 125.171 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 125.171 Section...Requirements § 125.171 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  18. 14 CFR 125.171 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 125.171 Section...Requirements § 125.171 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  19. 14 CFR 125.171 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 125.171 Section...Requirements § 125.171 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  20. 14 CFR 121.273 - Fire-detector systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Fire-detector systems. 121.273 Section...Requirements § 121.273 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided...fire zone to assure the detection of any fire that may...

  1. 47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement detector functions and bandwidths...FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.35 Measurement detector functions and bandwidths...quasi-peak detector function and related measurement bandwidths, unless otherwise...

  2. 47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement detector functions and bandwidths...FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.35 Measurement detector functions and bandwidths...quasi-peak detector function and related measurement bandwidths, unless otherwise...

  3. 47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement detector functions and bandwidths...FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.35 Measurement detector functions and bandwidths...quasi-peak detector function and related measurement bandwidths, unless otherwise...

  4. 47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement detector functions and bandwidths...FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.35 Measurement detector functions and bandwidths...quasi-peak detector function and related measurement bandwidths, unless otherwise...

  5. ATLAS Detector Paper Back-Up Note: Electrons and Photons

    E-print Network

    Elsing, M; Gorfine, G; Kartvelishvili, V; Koffas, T; Kostyukhin, V; Lee, J S H; Liebig, W; Morley, A; Piacquadio, N G; Prokofiev, K; Wildauer, A; Zhu, H

    2008-01-01

    This is the supporting note to the ATLAS Detector paper for electron and photon reconstruction with the Inner Detector. It describes the software used to produce the results presented in the ATLAS Detector paper.

  6. Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter Panofsky Prize presentation American;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University Original Motivation for broad international program on cryogenic particle detectors was neutrino physics and dark

  7. RADIOXENON MEASUREMENTS WITH THE PHOSWATCH DETECTOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, Wolfgang; Warburton, William K.; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Sabourov, K.; Cooper, Matthew W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Gleyzer, A.; Bean, Marc; Korpach, E.; Ungar, R. Kurt; Zhang, W.; Mekarski, P.; Ward, Rebecca; Biegalski, S.; Haas, Derek A.

    2009-09-22

    Many of the radioxenon detector systems used in the International Monitoring System and in other applications employ beta/gamma coincidence detection to achieve high sensitivity. In these systems, the coincidence detection is implemented by requiring simultaneous signals from separate beta and gamma detectors. While very sensitive to small amounts of radioxenon, this approach requires careful calibration and gain matching of several detectors and photomultiplier tubes. An alternative approach is the use of a phoswich detector in which beta-gamma coincidences are detected by pulse shape analysis. The phoswich requires only a single photomultiplier tube and thus is easier to set up and calibrate, and can be assembled into a more compact and robust system. In the past, we have developed a COTS detector system, named PhosWatch, which consists of a CsI(Tl)/BC-404 phoswich detector, digital readout electronics, and on-board software to perform the pulse shape analysis. Several units of this system have been manufactured and are now evaluated at several radioxenon research laboratories. In this paper, we will report results from production tests and some of the evaluations, including a side-by-side comparison of a SAUNA detector and a PhosWatch system using atmospheric radioxenon samples. In addition, we will show initial results obtained with a higher speed version of the readout electronics, digitizing at 500 MHz and thus able to better resolve the fast pulses from the BC-404.

  8. Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

    2008-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 x 150 {micro}m{sup 2}. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

  9. Photoacoustic tomography using integrating line detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgholzer, P.; Berer, T.; Gruen, H.; Roitner, H.; Bauer-Marschallinger, J.; Nuster, R.; Paltauf, G.

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic Imaging (also known as thermoacoustic or optoacoustic imaging) is a novel imaging method which combines the advantages of Diffuse Optical Imaging (high contrast) and Ultrasonic Imaging (high spatial resolution). In photoacoustic imaging, a short laser pulse excites the sample. The absorbed energy causes a thermoelastic expansion and thereby launches a broadband ultrasonic wave (photoacoustic signal). This way one can measure the optical contrast of a sample with ultrasonic resolution. For collecting photoacoustic signals our group introduced so called integrating detectors a few years ago. Such integrating detectors integrate the pressure in one or two dimensions (line or plane detectors). Thereby the three dimensional imaging problem is reduced to a two or a one dimensional problem for the pressure projections for line or plane detectors, respectively. Several reconstruction methods like Fourier or F-SAFT reconstruction or back projection are used for the two dimensional first step, but the model-based time reversal method shows a significant advantage: acoustical heterogeneity and attenuation, which both cause blurring of reconstructions, can be directly implemented in the reconstruction method. The integrating detectors are mainly optical detectors and thus can provide a high bandwidth up to several 100 MHz. Using these detectors the resolution is often limited by the acoustic attenuation in the sample itself, because attenuation increases with higher frequencies. For thin layers, small cylinders, and small spherical inclusions the effect of attenuation in human fat is simulated and the influence of dispersion on image reconstruction is shown.

  10. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  11. Gaseous Detectors: recent developments and applications

    E-print Network

    Maxim Titov

    2010-08-24

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volume with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photo-lithography and micro-processing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high energy physics, MPGD applications has expanded to nuclear physics, UV and visible photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection and medical physics.

  12. TCT measurements with slim edge strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandi?, Igor; Cindro, Vladimir; Gorišek, Andrej; Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F.-W.; Christophersen, Marc; Phlips, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Transient current technique (TCT) measurements with focused laser light on miniature silicon strip detectors (n+-type strips on p-type bulk) with one inactive edge thinned to about 100 ?m using the Scribe-Cleave-Passivate (SCP) method are presented. Pulses of focused IR (?=1064 nm) laser light were directed to the surface of the detector and charge collection properties near the slim edge were investigated. Measurements before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons up to 1 MeV equivalent fluence of 1.5×1015 neq/cm2 showed that SCP thinning of detector edge does not influence its charge collection properties. TCT measurements were done also with focused red laser beam (?=640 nm) directed to the SCP processed side of the detector. The absorption length of red light in silicon is about 3 ?m so with this measurement information about the electric field at the edge can be obtained. Observations of laser induced signals indicate that the electric field distribution along the depth of the detector at the detector edge is different than in the detector bulk: electric field is higher near the strip side and lower at the back side. This is a consequence of negative surface charge caused by passivation of the cleaved edge with Al2O3. The difference between bulk and edge electric field distributions gets smaller after irradiation.

  13. Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.

    2009-03-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 × 150 ?m2. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

  14. Neutron-chamber detectors and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehlau, Paul E.; Atwater, Henry F.; Coop, Kenneth L.

    1990-12-01

    Detector applications in nuclear safeguards and waste management have included measuring neutrons from fission and (?, n) reactions with well-moderated neutron proportional counters, often embedded in a slab of polyethylene. Other less-moderated geometries are useful for detecting both bare and moderated fission-source neutrons with good efficiency. The neutron chamber is an undermoderated detector design comprising a large, hollow, polyethylene-walled chamber containing one or more proportional counters. Neutron-chamber detectors are relatively inexpensive, can have large apertures, usually through a thin chamber wall, and offer very good detection efficiency per dollar. For 10% of the cost, a neutron-chamber detector may give one-half the total detection efficiency of a slab detector for detecting neutrons from a distant, bare source. A nuclear-safeguards pedestrian monitor detects concealed plutonium using two such chamber detectors to form a walk-through portal. Neutron-chamber detectors have also been used for monitoring vehicles and for assaying large crates of transuranic waste. Our Monte Carlo calculations for a new application (monitoring low-density waste for concealed plutonium) illustrate the advantages of the hollow-chamber design for detecting moderated fission sources.

  15. A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

  16. A novel compact real time radiation detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiping; Xu, Xiufeng; Cao, Hongrui; Tang, Shibiao; Ding, Baogang; Yin, Zejie

    2012-08-01

    A novel compact real time radiation detector with cost-effective, ultralow power and high sensitivity based on Geiger counter is presented. The power consumption of this detector which employs CMOS electro circuit and ultralow-power microcontroller is down to only 12.8 mW. It can identify the presences of 0.22 ?Ci (60)Co at a distance of 1.29 m. Furthermore, the detector supports both USB bus and serial interface. It can be used for personal radiation monitoring and also fits the distributed sensor network for radiation detection. PMID:22738843

  17. Progress of Belle II - detector and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Kenji

    2014-08-01

    The progress on the detector and accelerator in the Belle II experiment is presented. The B factories have successfully accumulated the experimental data at ? (4 S) and achieved the world highest sensitivity on the search for lepton flavor violating tau decays and other new physics searches. The Belle II experiment will obtain 50 times larger data samples compared to the Belle experiment and improve the detector sensitivity. The construction of the detector and accelerator is in progress. The commissioning will start in 2014 and the expected integrated luminosity is 50ab-1 by 2022.

  18. Use of Silicon Detectors in Medical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaño Zetina, Luis Manuel

    2006-09-01

    In this document I will review the characteristics and applications of silicon detectors in Medical Physics. I will cover the activities done by some research mexican groups working with silicon detectors (Silicon Strip and PIN detectors) as devices for digital imaging supported by some Monte Carlo simulations and X-ray units parameters valuation devices for quality control. In the end I will give some perspectives on the future of these scientific activities as important contributions in the development of the area of Medical Physics around the world.

  19. Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice LWIR Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice (HIDS) InAs devices proposed for use as photoconductive or photovoltaic detectors of radiation in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) range of 8 to 17 micrometers. Array of HIDS devices fabricated on substrates GaAs or Si. Radiation incident on black surface, metal contacts for picture elements serve as reactors, effectively doubling optical path and thereby increasing absorption of photons. Photoconductive detector offers advantages of high gain and high impedance; photovoltaic detector offers lower noise and better interface to multiplexer readouts.

  20. The CMS Phase-1 pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CMS silicon pixel detector allows for precise track parameter measurements and vertex reconstruction. The current detector is designed to operate at a maximum luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. The Phase-1 pixel upgrade is planned to meet or exceed the necessary performance at the expected peak luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2 s-1 of the updated accelerator in an environment where there are many interactions per beam crossing. The new low mass pixel detector will have four barrel layers and three forward/backward disks to provide four pixel hits on tracks. Radiation damage, rate limitations, and performance are being simulated and measured.

  1. Fiberoptic metal detector capable of profile detection.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wei-Shu; Hooks, Joshua R; Erwin, Nicholas A; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2011-03-31

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel ferromagnetic polymeric metal detector system by using a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a newly developed ferromagnetic polymer as the magnetostrictive sensing device. This ferromagnetic polymeric metal detector system is simple to fabricate, small in size, and resistant to RF interference (which is common in typical electromagnetic type metal detectors). Metal detection is made possible by disrupting the magnetic flux density present on the magnetostrictive sensor. This paper discusses the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic polymers. In addition, the preliminary results of successful sensing of different geometrical metal shapes will be discussed. PMID:24357903

  2. Detector Characterization for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliss, Thomas; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) is a neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 ???) search, in the isotope 76Ge . Seeking measurement of the 0 ??? lifetime, and exploration of additional physics, MJD employs high-purity Ge detectors possessing superior energy resolution down to a low threshold. Characterization of these p-type point contact detectors is essential to understanding the backgrounds and sensitivity of the experiment. Progress in characterizing MJD detectors will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  3. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  4. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  5. Fast-timing methods for semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, H.

    1982-03-01

    The basic parameters are discussed which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

  6. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    DOEpatents

    Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wallace, Steven A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  7. 3D IC for future HEP detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thom, J.; Lipton, R.; Heintz, U.; Johnson, M.; Narain, M.; Badman, R.; Spiegel, L.; Triphati, M.; Deptuch, G.; Kenney, C.; Parker, S.; Ye, Z.; Siddons, D. P.

    2014-11-01

    Three dimensional integrated circuit technologies offer the possibility of fabricating large area arrays of sensors integrated with complex electronics with minimal dead area, which makes them ideally suited for applications at the LHC upgraded detectors and other future detectors. We describe ongoing R&D efforts to demonstrate functionality of components of such detectors. This includes the study of integrated 3D electronics with active edge sensors to produce "active tiles" which can be tested and assembled into arrays of arbitrary size with high yield.

  8. Hypergol Vapor Detector (HVD) technical interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loper, G. L.

    1981-08-01

    Lower explosion limit (LEL) and threshold limit value (TLV) hydrazine-fuel vapor detectors were developed. Sensitive and specific detectors are currently desired that are capable of rapidly monitoring hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) at levels that are one-half of the TLVs established for these compounds. Information on the principle of operation of each HVD, as well as specifications on the instrument size and performance are provided. Trade-offs that exist between the cost, sensitivity and specificity, and portability of the various detectors are discussed.

  9. Development of a plasma panel radiation detector

    E-print Network

    Ball, R; Ben-Moshe, M; Benhammou, Y; Bensimon, R; Chapman, J W; Etzion, E; Ferretti, C; Friedman, P S; Levin, D S; Silver, Y; Varner, R L; Weaverdyck, C; Wetzel, R; Zhou, B; Anderson, T; McKinny, K; Bentefour, E H

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of a radiation detector based on plasma display panel technology. The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a variant of micropattern gas radiation detectors. PPS components are non-reactive and intrinsically radiation-hard materials, such as glass substrates, metal electrodes and inert gas mixtures. Plasma display panels used as detectors were tested with cosmic ray muons, beta rays and gamma rays, protons, and thermal neutrons. The results demonstrated risetimes and time resolution of a few nanoseconds, as well as spatial resolution compatible with the pixel pitch.

  10. Use of Silicon Detectors in Medical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel [Physics Department, Cinvestav, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2006-09-25

    In this document I will review the characteristics and applications of silicon detectors in Medical Physics. I will cover the activities done by some research mexican groups working with silicon detectors (Silicon Strip and PIN detectors) as devices for digital imaging supported by some Monte Carlo simulations and X-ray units parameters valuation devices for quality control. In the end I will give some perspectives on the future of these scientific activities as important contributions in the development of the area of Medical Physics around the world.

  11. A panoramic photon-counting detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Daniel; Hardy, Eduardo; Couture, Jean

    1987-07-01

    The characteristics and implementation of the Laval Image Photon-Counting System (LIPS) are described. LIPS is a flexible, compact, and transportable two-dimensional detector system which is currently in use in the spectroscopic mode on the 1.6 m telescope at the Mont Megantic Observatory. The detector is described, including the quantum efficiency, resolution, linearity, noise characteristics, and distortions. The data acquisition and display module is considered, including the computer, image display unit, Direct Memory Access Board which controls the detector, and control and data-acquisition program. Spectroscopy using LIPS is briefly addressed. The present assessment of the system and its future use are discussed.

  12. Lamb Shift of Unruh Detector Levels

    E-print Network

    Bjorn Garbrecht; Tomislav Prokopec

    2005-10-28

    We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in Quantum Electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding Universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

  13. Cherenkov detector prototype for ILC polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käfer, Daniela; Bartels, Christoph; Helebrant, Christian; List, Jenny

    2011-05-01

    Precise knowledge of all beam parameters is crucial to fully exploit the physics potential of the International Linear Collider (ILC). A sufficiently accurate measurement of the beam polarisation can only be achieved using dedicated high energy Compton polarimeters combined with well-designed Cherenkov detectors. The requirements have been evaluated and a suitable Cherenkov detector prototype has been designed, simulated and constructed accordingly. This prototype allows nearly all aspects of the final detector to be studied and has been operated successfully in a testbeam of which first results are presented as well.

  14. Operational experience with the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karancsi, J.

    2015-05-01

    In the first LHC running period the CMS pixel detector had to face various operational challenges and had to adapt to the rapidly changing beam conditions. In order to maximize the physics potential and the quality of the data, online and offline calibrations were performed on a regular basis. The detector performed excellently with an average hit efficiency above 99% for all layers and disks. In this contribution the operational challenges of the silicon pixel detector in the first LHC run and the current long shutdown are summarized and the expectations for 2015 are discussed.

  15. Isospin physics by CHIMERA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, S.; De Filippo, E.; Politi, G.; Russotto, P.; Exochim Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    This contribution presents some recent results relative to the studies of isospin- asymmetric nuclear matter in experiments using the 4? detector CHIMERA and the beams delivered by the Superconductive Cyclotron at INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania. In particular, we report the results of the experiments named "Reverse" and "Isodec", both included in the EXOCHIM activity supported by the CNSIII of INFN. In the Isodec experiment, the two systems 78Kr+40Ca (neutron poor) and 86Kr+48Ca (neutron rich) at 10A MeV were studied, looking at the competition between the various disintegration decay paths of medium mass compound nuclei, formed by fusion processes and at the isospin influence on the decay process. The results show the presence of a relaxed component in the reaction mechanism, the evidence of staggering effects in the Z distributions, as well as different isotopic composition and neutron enrichment for the reaction products in the two systems. In the Reverse experiment, mass asymmetric projectile-target combinations 124Sn+64Ni and 112Sn+58Ni were investigated at 35A MeV. We provide evidence that the Dynamical Fission process is about two times more probable than the equilibrated (statistical) Fission one in the neutron rich 124Sn+64Ni system with respect to the 112Sn+58Ni neutron poor one. The observed difference in the strength of the dynamical effects could arise from the difference in the entrance channel Isospin (N/Z) content.

  16. The SNAP near infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tarle, G.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, Anne; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.; Harvey, P.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Lampton, M.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; Miguel, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tomasch, A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will measure precisely the cosmological expansion history over both the acceleration and deceleration epochs and thereby constrain the nature of the dark energy that dominates our universe today. The SNAP focal plane contains equal areas of optical CCDs and NIR sensors and an integral field spectrograph. Having over 150 million pixels and a field-of-view of 0.34 square degrees, the SNAP NIR system will be the largest yet constructed. With sensitivity in the range 0.9-1.7 {micro}m, it will detect Type Ia supernovae between z = 1 and 1.7 and will provide follow-up precision photometry for all supernovae. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-off tuned to 1.7 {micro}m, will permit passive cooling at 140 K while maintaining noise below zodiacal levels. By dithering to remove the effects of intrapixel variations and by careful attention to other instrumental effects, we expect to control relative photometric accuracy below a few hundredths of a magnitude. Because SNAP continuously revisits the same fields we will be able to achieve outstanding statistical precision on the photometry of reference stars in these fields, allowing precise monitoring of our detectors. The capabilities of the NIR system for broadening the science reach of SNAP are discussed.

  17. Quantum teleportation between moving detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Yuin; Chou, Chung-Hsien; Hu, B. L.

    2015-04-01

    It is commonly believed that the fidelity of quantum teleportation using localized quantum objects with one party or both accelerated in vacuum would be degraded due to the heat up by the Unruh effect. In this paper, we point out that the Unruh effect is not the whole story in accounting for all the relativistic effects in quantum teleportation. First, there could be degradation of fidelity by a common field environment even when both quantum objects are in inertial motion. Second, relativistic effects entering the description of the dynamics, such as frame dependence, time dilation, and Doppler shift, already existent in inertial motion, can compete with or even overwhelm the effect due to uniform acceleration in a quantum field. We show it is not true that larger acceleration of an object would necessarily lead to a faster degradation of fidelity. These claims are based on four cases of quantum teleportation we studied using two Unruh-DeWitt detectors coupled via a common quantum field initially in the Minkowski vacuum. We find the quantum entanglement evaluated around the light cone, rather than the conventional ones evaluated on the Minkowski time slices, is the necessary condition for the averaged fidelity of quantum teleportation beating the classical one. These results are useful as a guide to making judicious choices of states and parameter ranges and estimation of the efficiency of quantum teleportation in relativistic quantum systems under environmental influences.

  18. Minefield reconnaissance and detector system

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.T.; Cave, S.P.; Creager, J.D.; Johnson, C.M.; Mathes, J.B.; Smith, K.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a multi-sensor system for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like, is disclosed. A remote sensor platform has a plurality of metal detector sensors and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors. The remote sensor platform is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit and signals from the remote sensor platform are sent to the processing and control unit where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps to obtain a probability ``score`` for each of the pluralities of sensors. These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step by comparing score sets to a probability table which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess for controlling a marker device to mark the location of found objects.

  19. Minefield reconnaissance and detector system

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Millard T. (Albuquerque, NM); Cave, Steven P. (Albuquerque, NM); Creager, James D. (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, Charles M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mathes, John B. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Kirk J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A multi-sensor system (10) for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like. A remote sensor platform (12) has a plurality of metal detector sensors (22) and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors (24). The remote sensor platform (12) is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit (14) and signals from the remote sensor platform (12) are sent to the processing and control unit (14) where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps (34, 36) to obtain a probability "score" for each of the pluralities of sensors (22, 24). These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step (38) by comparing score sets to a probability table (130) which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess (40) for controlling a marker device (76) to mark the location of found objects.

  20. Electrodynamic radioactivity detector for microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, T. L.; Davis, E. J.; Jenkins, R. W., Jr.; McRae, D. D.

    1989-03-01

    A new technique for the measurement of the radioactive decay of single microparticles has been demonstrated. Although the experiments were made with droplets of order 20 ?m in diameter, microparticles in the range 0.1-100 ?m can be accommodated. An electrodynamic balance and combination light-scattering photometer were used to measure the charge-loss rate and size of a charged microsphere suspended in a laser beam by superposed ac and dc electrical fields. The charged particle undergoes charge loss in the partially ionized gas atmosphere which results from radioactive decay of 14C-tagged compounds, and the rate of charge loss is proportional to the rate of decay here. The charge on a particle was determined by measuring the dc voltage necessary to stably suspend the particle against gravity while simultaneously determining the droplet size by light-scattering techniques. The parameters which affect the operation of the electrodynamic balance as a radioactivity detector are examined, and the limits of its sensitivity are explored. Radioactivity levels as low as 120 pCi have been measured, and it appears that by reducing the background contamination inside our balance activity levels on the order of 10 pCi can be detected. This new technique has application in the measurement of activity levels and source discrimination of natural and man-made aerosols and smokes and is also useful for studies involving specifically labeled radio-chemical probes.

  1. Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

  2. Minefield reconnaissance and detector system

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.T.; Cave, S.P.; Creager, J.D.; Johnson, C.M.; Mathes, J.B.; Smith, K.J.

    1994-04-26

    A multi-sensor system is described for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like. A remote sensor platform has a plurality of metal detector sensors and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors. The remote sensor platform is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit and signals from the remote sensor platform are sent to the processing and control unit where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps to obtain a probability score for each of the pluralities of sensors. These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step by comparing score sets to a probability table which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess for controlling a marker device to mark the location of found objects. 7 figures.

  3. Thoughts on VCD-145 Detector Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W V

    2005-02-10

    In 1980, Don Smith requested that the EG&G Detector Group in North Las Vegas provide a summary of calibrated sensitivities for the VCD-145 detector. The &sired information was provided in a memorandum from Sam Egdorf (Reference 1). A memo from Brent Davis issued a week later described the effect on VCD-145 detector sensitivity that resulted from changing the thickness of the stainless steel entrance window (Reference 2). This memo is intended first to effectively archive those two references, and second to record thoughts about the significance of their contents. Reference 1 lists a total of 118 calibrated values for 80 different VCD-145 detectors, from 1977 to 1980. With only four exceptions, all of the serial numbers from V004 to V087 were included. The earlier calibrations were for detectors with 1-mil entrance windows, and the later ones were for detectors with 2-mil entrance windows. Three of the earlier units were calibrated at both thicknesses by temporarily placing an extra 1-mil sheet of stainless steel across the window. Altogether six different collimator diameters were used, from 60 mm to 95 mm. Some units were calibrated for more than one collimator diameter, and 14 were at some point designated as backup detectors for a second event. Reference 2 describes the effect of window thickness on calibrated sensitivity. Quoting that reference: ''To demonstrate that the sensitivity decrease is solely a function of the window thickness, a standard VCD-145 detector with a 0.001-inch thick window was calibrated with the {sup 60}Co source. Then without changing detector or geometry, a 0.001 -inch thick stainless steel foil (same material as that of the window) was placed directly in front of the detector window, effectively making a 0.002-inch thick entrance window. The detector was again calibrated. This technique was repeated until the detector had an entrance window equivalent to 0.010-inches thick.'' There are multiple reasons to suspect that the accuracy of the sensitivity reported for a vacuum Compton detector is uncertain by one-half percent or so. Differences in collimated diameter, variations in window thickness, and unknown errors in the calibration procedures all seem to have some small uncertainty. If one looks at the situation from another angle, this can be considered good news--because there are no indications of uncertainties at the one percent level. Having studied the data from References 1 and 2 in depth, it is my opinion that an experimenter can be confident that the calibrated sensitivity reported for a vacuum Compton detector is accurate to one percent or better. This may not be the smallest error in a reaction history measurement, and it may not be negligible, but realistically it is not often a concern. The uncertainty in knowledge of energy transmission through several mean free paths of attenuating material will almost certainly be several times larger than the uncertainty in detector sensitivity. It is believed that there is a trend for the VCD-145 sensitivity to decrease as the collimator diameter is reduced. Since this likely aggravates the problem of the negative precursor, it is recommended that when detector time response is important, the detector should only be used with a collimator that is close to the largest allowed.

  4. Thermal detector model for cryogenic composite detectors for the dark matter experiments CRESST and EURECA

    E-print Network

    S. Roth; C. Ciemniak; C. Coppi; F. v. Feilitzsch; A. Guetlein; C. Isaila; J. -C. Lanfranchi; S. Pfister; W. Potzel; W. Westphal

    2008-09-30

    The CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) and the EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) experiments are direct dark matter search experiments where cryogenic detectors are used to detect spin-independent, coherent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle)-nucleon scattering events by means of the recoil energy. The cryogenic detectors use a massive single crystal as absorber which is equipped with a TES (transition edge sensor) for signal read-out. They are operated at mK-temperatures. In order to enable a mass production of these detectors, as needed for the EURECA experiment, a so-called composite detector design (CDD) that allows decoupling of the TES fabrication from the optimization procedure of the absorber single-crystal was developed and studied. To further investigate, understand and optimize the performance of composite detectors a detailed thermal detector model which takes into account the CDD has been developed.

  5. Detector requirements for space infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements for background-limited (BLIP) detectors are discussed in terms of number of photons falling on each pixel, dark current, high detective quantum efficiencies, large numbers of pixels, and array size.

  6. The LUX prototype detector: Heat exchanger development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Cahn, S. B.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J. J.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Curioni, A.; Dahl, C. E.; Dazeley, S.; de Viveiros, L.; Dragowsky, M.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Hall, C.; Faham, C.; Holbrook, B.; Kastens, L.; Kazkaz, K.; Kwong, J.; Lander, R.; Leonard, D.; Malling, D.; Mannino, R.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.; Mock, J.; Morii, M.; Nikkel, J. A.; Phelps, P.; Shutt, T.; Skulski, W.; Sorensen, P.; Spaans, J.; Steigler, T.; Svoboda, R.; Sweany, M.; Thomson, J.; Tripathi, M.; Walsh, N.; Webb, R.; White, J.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Woods, M.; Zhang, C.

    2013-05-01

    The LUX (large underground xenon) detector is a two-phase xenon time projection chamber (TPC) designed to search for WIMP-nucleon dark matter interactions. As with all noble element detectors, continuous purification of the detector medium is essential to produce a large (>1 ms) electron lifetime; this is necessary for efficient measurement of the electron signal which in turn is essential for achieving robust discrimination of signal from background events. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel purification system deployed in a prototype detector. The results from the operation of this prototype indicated heat exchange with an efficiency above 94% up to a flow rate of 42 slpm, allowing for an electron drift length greater than 1 m to be achieved in approximately 2 days and sustained for the duration of the testing period.

  7. Ultrafast photoconductor detector-laser-diode transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.L.; Davis, B.A.; Davies, T.J.; Nelson, M.A.; Thomas, M.C.; Zagarino, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    We report the results of an experiment in which we used an ultrafast, photoconductive, radiation detector to drive a fast laser-diode transmitter. When we irradiated the neutron-damaged Cr-doped GaAs detector with 17-MeV electron beams, the temporal response was measured to be less than 30 ps. The pulses from this detector modulated a fast GaAlAs laser diode to transmit the laser output through 30- and 1100-m optical fibers. Preliminary results indicate that 50- and 80-ps time resolutions, respectively, are obtainable with these fibers. We are now working to integrate the photoconductive detector and the laser diode transmitter into a single chip.

  8. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  9. Three Alternative Symbol-Lock Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shihabi, Mazen M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Shah, Biren N.

    1993-01-01

    Three symbol-lock detectors proposed as alternatives in advanced receivers processing non-return-to-zero binary data signals. Two perform operations similar to those of older square-law and absolute-value types. However, integrals computed during nonoverlapping symbol periods and, therefore, only one integrator needed in each such detector. Proposed detectors simpler, but performances worse because noises in overlapping samples correlated, whereas noises in nonoverlapping samples not correlated. Third detector is signal-power-estimator type. Signal integrated during successive half symbol cycles, and therefore only one integrator needed. Half-cycle integrals multiplied to eliminate effect of symbol polarity, and products accumulated during M-cycle observation period to smooth out estimate of signal power. If estimated signal power exceeds threshold, delta, then lock declared.

  10. Bubble detector characterization for space radiation.

    PubMed

    Green, A R; Andrews, H R; Bennett, L G I; Clifford, E T H; Ing, H; Jonkmans, G; Lewis, B J; Noulty, R A; Ough, E A

    2005-01-01

    In light of the importance of the neutron contribution to the dose equivalent received by space workers in the near-Earth radiation environment, there is an increasing need for a personal dosimeter that is passive in nature and able to respond to this neutron field in real time. Recent Canadian technology has led to the development of a bubble detector, which is sensitive to neutrons, but insensitive to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. By changing the composition of the bubble detector fluid (or "superheat"), the detectors can be fabricated to respond to different types of radiation. This paper describes a preliminary ground-based research effort to better characterize the bubble detectors of different compositions at various charged-particle accelerator facilities, which are capable of simulating the space radiation field. PMID:15835053

  11. Method and apparatus for checking fire detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clawson, G. T. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A fire detector checking method and device are disclosed for nondestructively verifying the operation of installed fire detectors of the type which operate on the principle of detecting the rate of temperature rise of the ambient air to sound an alarm and/or which sound an alarm when the temperature of the ambient air reaches a preset level. The fire alarm checker uses the principle of effecting a controlled simulated alarm condition to ascertain wheather or not the detector will respond. The checker comprises a hand-held instrument employing a controlled heat source, e.g., an electric lamp having a variable input, for heating at a controlled rate an enclosed mass of air in a first compartment, which air mass is then disposed about the fire detector to be checked. A second compartment of the device houses an electronic circuit to sense and adjust the temperature level and heating rate of the heat source.

  12. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    E-print Network

    Afanasiev, S V; Appelshäuser, H; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Bieser, F; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Böck, R K; Bormann, C; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Cyprian, M; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Empl, T; Eschke, J; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Hlinka, V; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Ivanov, M; Janik, R; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Liebicher, K; Lynen, U; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Marks, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Pestov, Yu N; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pimpl, W; Pinsky, L; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmidt, R; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Semenov, A Yu; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stelzer, H; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Szymanski, P; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R

    1999-01-01

    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via $dE/dx$. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

  13. Magnetic Czochralski silicon as detector material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härkönen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Nordlund, H. K.; Tuominen, E.

    2007-09-01

    The Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has intrinsically high oxygen concentration. Therefore Cz-Si is considered as a promising material for the tracking systems in future very high luminosity colliders. In this contribution a brief overview of the Czochralski crystal growth is given. The fabrication process issues of Cz-Si are discussed and the formation of thermal donors is especially emphasized. N +/p -/p + and p +/n -/n + detectors have been processed on magnetic Czochralski (MCz-Si) wafers. We show measurement data of AC-coupled strip detectors and single pad detectors as well as experimental results of intentional TD doping. Data of spatial homogeneity of electrical properties, full depletion voltage and leakage current, is shown and n and p-type devices are compared. Our results show that it is possible to manufacture high quality n +/p -/p + and p +/n -/n + particle detectors from high-resistivity Cz-Si.

  14. The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent

    E-print Network

    Abe, Toshinori; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David; Attree, Derek J.; Burger, Jochen; Bailey, David; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Ball, Markus; Ballin, James; Barbi, Mauricio; Barlow, Roger; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassignana, Daniela; Bates, Richard; Baudot, Jerome; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Jeannine; Beckmann, Moritz; Bedjidian, Marc; Behnke, Ties; Belkadhi, Khaled; Bellerive, Alain; Bentvelsen, Stan; Bergauer, Thomas; Berggren, C.Mikael U.; Bergholz, Matthias; Bernreuther, Werner; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhuyan, Bipul; Biebel, Otmar; Bilki, Burak; Blair, Grahame; Blumlein, Johannes; Bo, Li; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boos, Eduard; Boudry, Vincent; Bouquet, Bernard; Bouvier, Joel; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brogna, Andrea; Buchholz, Peter; Buesser, Karsten; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Buzulutskov, A.F.; Caccia, Massimo; Caiazza, Stefano; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caldwell, Allen; Callier, Stephane L.C.; Calvo Alamillo, Enrique; Campbell, Michael; Campbell, Alan J.; Cappellini, Chiara; Carloganu, Cristina; Castro, Nuno; Castro Carballo, Maria Elena; Chadeeva, Marina; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Paoti; Charpy, Alexandre; Chen, Xun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Hongfang; Cheon, Byunggu; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, B.C.; Christen, Sandra; Ciborowski, Jacek; Ciobanu, Catalin; Claus, Gilles; Clerc, Catherine; Coca, Cornelia; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Cornat, Remi; Cornebise, Patrick; Corriveau, Francois; Cvach, Jaroslav; Czakon, Michal; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Da Silva, Wilfrid; Dadoun, Olivier; Dam, Mogens; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daubard, Guillaume; David, Dorte; David, Jacques; De Boer, Wim; De Groot, Nicolo; De Jong, Sijbrand; De Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Masi, Rita; De Roeck, Albert; Decotigny, David; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Deng, Zhi; Desch, Klaus; Dieguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dima, Mihai-Octavian; Dissertori, Gunther; Dixit, Madhu S.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris A.; Dollan, Ralph; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doublet, Philippe; Doyle, Tony; Doziere, Guy; Dragicevic, Marko; Drasal, Zbynek; Drugakov, Vladimir; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Dulucq, Frederic; Dumitru, Laurentiu Alexandru; Dzahini, Daniel; Eberl, Helmut; Eckerlin, Guenter; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eigen, Gerald; Eklund, Lars; Elsen, Eckhard; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Engels, Jan; Evrard, Christophe; Fabbri, Riccardo; Faber, Gerard; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Feege, Nils; Feng, Cunfeng; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Garcia, Marcos; Filthaut, Frank; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien L.; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Fouz, Mary-Cruz; Frank, Sebastian; Frey, Ariane; Frotin, Mickael; Fujii, Hirofumi; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fujita, Yowichi; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gaddi, Andrea; Gaede, Frank; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallas, Abraham; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gamba, Diego; Gao, Yuanning; Garrido Beltran, Lluis; Garutti, Erika; Gastaldi, Franck; Gaur, Bakul; Gay, Pascal; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerwig, Hubert; Gibbons, Lawrence; Ginina, Elena; Giraud, Julien; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Gladilin, Leonid; Goldstein, Joel; Gonzalez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Gournaris, Filimon; Greenshaw, Tim; Greenwood, Z.D.; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Philippe; Grondin, Denis; Grunewald, Martin; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gurtu, Atul; Haas, Tobias; Haensel, Stephan; Hajdu, Csaba; Hallermann, Lea; Han, Liang; Hansen, Peter H.; Hara, Takanori; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harz, Martin; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hauschild, Michael; He, Qing; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heinze, Isa; Helebrant, Christian; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hertenberger, Ralf; Herve, Alain; Higuchi, Takeo; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hironori, Kazurayama; Hlucha, Hana; Hommels, Bart; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Wei-Shu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huang, Xingtao; Huppert, Jean Francois; Ide, Yasuhiro; Idzik, Marek; Iglesias Escudero, Carmen; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Igonkina, Olga; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Ikuno, Toshinori; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Imhoff, Marc; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle ow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which st...

  15. Semiconductor High-Energy Radiation Scintillation Detector

    E-print Network

    Kastalsky, A; Spivak, B

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new scintillation-type detector in which high-energy radiation produces electron-hole pairs in a direct-gap semiconductor material that subsequently recombine producing infrared light to be registered by a photo-detector. The key issue is how to make the semiconductor essentially transparent to its own infrared light, so that photons generated deep inside the semiconductor could reach its surface without tangible attenuation. We discuss two ways to accomplish this, one based on doping the semiconductor with shallow impurities of one polarity type, preferably donors, the other by heterostructure bandgap engineering. The proposed semiconductor scintillator combines the best properties of currently existing radiation detectors and can be used for both simple radiation monitoring, like a Geiger counter, and for high-resolution spectrography of the high-energy radiation. The most important advantage of the proposed detector is its fast response time, about 1 ns, essentially limited only by the recombi...

  16. Thermopile Detector Arrays for Space Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Krueger, T. R.; McCann, T. A.; Chacon, R.; Jones, E. W.; Dickie, M. R.; Schofield, J. T.; McCleese, D. J.; Gaalema, S.

    2004-01-01

    Thermopile detectors are widely used in uncooled applications where small numbers of detectors are required, particularly in low-cost commercial applications or applications requiring accurate radiometry. Arrays of thermopile detectors, however, have not been developed to the extent of uncooled bolometer and pyroelectric/ferroelectric arrays. Efforts at JPL seek to remedy this deficiency by developing high performance thin-film thermopile detectors in both linear and two-dimensional formats. The linear thermopile arrays are produced by bulk micromachining and wire bonded to separate CMOS readout electronic chips. Such arrays are currently being fabricated for the Mars Climate Sounder instrument, scheduled for launch in 2005. Progress is also described towards realizing a two-dimensional thermopile array built over CMOS readout circuitry in the substrate.

  17. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  18. Performance enhancements for a dynamic invariant detector

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Chen, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic invariant detection is the identification of the likely properties about a program based on observed variable values during program execution. While other dynamic invariant detectors use a brute force algorithm, ...

  19. A functionally reconfigurable detector head for scintimammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrato, S.; Cautero, G.; Corsi, F.; DallaBetta, G. F.; Dragone, A.; Fazzi, A.; Garibaldi, F.; Marzocca, C.; Petasecca, M.; Pignatel, G. U.; Stebel, L.; Tauro, A.; Varoli, V.; Zorzi, N.

    2007-02-01

    A novel prototype detector for scintimammography is presented. The detector is built according to a modular strategy. Each module is composed of an array of p-i-n diodes, coupled to a CsI(Tl) scintillator and to mixed-mode ASICs with self-triggering, sparsifying, A/D conversion and bidirectional serial data I/O transfer capabilities. The front-end electronics exhibits good performance in terms of equivalent input noise charge (ENC<100 e - rms). Digital signals are routed out so that each module can be attached to a main board with an FPGA for overall detector management. PC-based supervision of the detector is accomplished using a LabVIEW graphical user interface.

  20. A multilayer surface detector for ultracold neutrons

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhehui; Callahan, N B; Adamek, E R; Bacon, J D; Blatnik, M; Brandt, A E; Broussard, L J; Clayton, S M; Cude-Woods, C; Currie, S; Dees, E B; Ding, X; Gao, J; Gray, F E; Hoffbauer, M A; Holley, A T; Ito, T M; Liu, C -Y; Makela, M; Ramsey, J C; Pattie,, R W; Salvat, D J; Saunders, A; Schmidt, D W; Schulze, R K; Seestrom, S J; Sharapov, E I; Sprow, A; Tang, Z; Wei, W; Wexler, J W; Womack, T L; Young, A R; Zeck, B A

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer surface detector for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) is described. The top $^{10}$B layer is exposed to the vacuum chamber and directly captures UCNs. The ZnS:Ag layer beneath the $^{10}$B layer is a few microns thick, which is sufficient to detect the charged particles from the $^{10}$B(n,$\\alpha$)$^7$Li neutron-capture reaction, while thin enough so that ample light due to $\\alpha$ and $^7$Li escapes for detection by photomultiplier tubes. One-hundred-nm thick $^{10}$B layer gives high UCN detection efficiency, as determined by the mean UCN kinetic energy, detector materials and others. Low background, including negligible sensitivity to ambient neutrons, has also been verified through pulse-shape analysis and comparisons with other existing $^3$He and $^{10}$B detectors. This type of detector has been configured in different ways for UCN flux monitoring, development of UCN guides and neutron lifetime research.