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1

Detectors  

DOEpatents

The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

2

New application of scintillator ZnSe(Te) in scintielectronic detectors for detection of neutrons, medical imaging, explosive detection, and NDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillators on the basis of AIIBVI compounds, such as ZnSe(Te), can be used for detection of secondary charged particles coming from nuclear reactions in which neutrons interact with target nuclei of atoms present in transparent materials of dispersion scintillation detectors matrices. Using unique properties of scintillator ZnSe(Te) we show possibility of increase detection efficiency for soft x-ray radiation (20 - 90 keV). The amorphous silicon flat panels and the photodiode arrays wide used for non-destructive testing and medical imaging (spatial resolution 20 - 400 mkm). By our estimations, using of such detectors in combination with thin film of ZnSe(Te) can increase efficiency of registration of x-ray radiation (for the source of 60-140kV) in 1,2 - 2 times. We obtained thin films (10-450mkm) of scintillator ZnSe(Te) on the different substrate materials and estimated the relative light yield of the layers deposited on the graphite and Al2O3 ceramic substrates and the bulk ZnSe(Te) crystal. Use of ZnSe(Te) in the low-energy "scintillator - photodiode" type detector allowed to increase accuracy of authentication of explosives (HEIMANN X-RAY INSPECTION SYSTEM EDtS10080). Using the dual energy digital radiography system prototype we obtained the x-ray images (60 projections of each object). These images are basic data for computer tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction of density and effective atomic number. The color identification palette provides clearly show variations of effective atomic number in biological and inorganic objects. So, for example, changes of calcium concentration in a bone. The research described in this publication was supported by STCU #4115 and NATO SfP-982823.

Ryzhikov, Volodymyr D.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Fedorov, Alexander G.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Kostioukevitch, Sergey A.

2008-08-01

3

Ultraviolet detectors Photon detectors  

E-print Network

of aluminum gallium nitride (AlxGa1-xN)-based thin films varies as a function of x, with x ranging from 0 to 1Ultraviolet detectors Photon detectors Photoelectric Semiconductor Photoconductive Schottky barrier

4

Semiconductor Detectors (Solid State Detectors)  

E-print Network

Semiconductor Detectors (Solid State Detectors) energy, position particles & photons energy loss conversion electron-hole pairs energetic "cheap" improved resolution #12;Semiconductor Detectors (Solid State electrons holes ni = Nc Nv exp -Eg 2kT = AT 3/ 2 exp -Eg 2kT #12;Semiconductor Detectors how

Peletier, Reynier

5

Particle Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; Introduction; 1. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter; 2. Characteristic properties of detectors; 3. Units of radiation measurements and radiation sources; 4. Accelerators; 5. Main physical phenomena used for particle detection and basic counter types; 6. Historical track detectors; 7. Track detectors; 8. Calorimetry; 9. Particle identification; 10. Neutrino detectors; 11. Momentum measurement and muon detection; 12. Ageing and radiation effects; 13. Example of a general-purpose detector: Belle; 14. Electronics; 15. Data analysis; 16. Applications of particle detectors outside particle physics; 17. Glossary; 18. Solutions; 19. Resumé; Appendixes; Index.

Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris

2008-03-01

6

Particle Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; Introduction; 1. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter; 2. Characteristic properties of detectors; 3. Units of radiation measurements and radiation sources; 4. Accelerators; 5. Main physical phenomena used for particle detection and basic counter types; 6. Historical track detectors; 7. Track detectors; 8. Calorimetry; 9. Particle identification; 10. Neutrino detectors; 11. Momentum measurement and muon detection; 12. Ageing and radiation effects; 13. Example of a general-purpose detector: Belle; 14. Electronics; 15. Data analysis; 16. Applications of particle detectors outside particle physics; 17. Glossary; 18. Solutions; 19. Resumé; Appendixes; Index.

Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris

2011-09-01

7

Smoke Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

1979-01-01

8

MS Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

2005-11-01

9

Detector Ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component-baseddetection methods have demonstrated their promise by integrating a set of part-detectors to deal with large appearance variations of the target. However, an essential and critical issue, i.e., how to handle the im- perfectness of part-detectors in the integration, is not well addressed in the literature. This paper proposes a detec- tor ensemble model that consists of a set of

Shengyang Dai; Ming Yang; Ying Wu; Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

2007-01-01

10

Pyroelectric detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multi-agency, long-term Global Change programs, and specifically NASA's Earth Observing system, will require some new and advanced photon detector technology which must be specifically tailored for long-term stability, broad spectral range, cooling constraints, and other parameters. Whereas MCT and GaAs alloy based photovoltaic detectors and detector arrays reach most impressive results to wavelengths as long as 12 microns when cooled to below 70 K, other materials, such as ferroelectrics and pyroelectrics, appear to offer special opportunities beyond 12 microns and above 70 K. These materials have found very broad use in a wide variety of room temperature applications. Little is known about these classes of materials at sub-room temperatures and no photon detector results have been reported. From the limited information available, researchers conclude that the room temperature values of D asterisk greater than or equal to 10(exp 9) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W may be improved by one to two orders of magnitude upon cooling to temperatures around 70 K. Improvements of up to one order of magnitude appear feasible for temperatures achievable by passive cooling. The flat detector response over a wavelength range reaching from the visible to beyond 50 microns, which is an intrinsic advantage of bolometric devices, makes for easy calibration. The fact that these materials have been developed for reduced temperature applications makes ferro- and pyroelectric materials most attractive candidates for serious exploration.

Haller, Eugene E.; Beeman, Jeffrey; Hansen, William L.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.

1990-01-01

11

Microwave detector  

DOEpatents

A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, Heiner W. (Moss Beach, CA); Cusson, Ronald Y. (Chapel Hill, NC); Johnson, Ray M. (San Ramon, CA)

1986-01-01

12

Hydrogen detector  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

Kanegae, Naomichi (Mito, JP); Ikemoto, Ichiro (Mito, JP)

1980-01-01

13

Microwave detector  

DOEpatents

A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

1985-02-08

14

Vertex detectors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10{sup {minus}13} s, among them the {tau} lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation.

Lueth, V.

1992-07-01

15

MS Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the

David W. Koppenaal; Charles J. Barinaga; M Bonner B. Denton; Roger P. Sperline; Gary M. Hieftje; Gregory D. Schilling; Francisco J. Andrade; James H. Barnes IV; IV IV

2005-01-01

16

Flame Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific Instruments, Inc. has now developed a second generation, commercially available instrument to detect flames in hazardous environments, typically refineries, chemical plants and offshore drilling platforms. The Model 74000 detector incorporates a sensing circuit that detects UV radiation in a 100 degree conical field of view extending as far as 250 feet from the instrument. It operates in a bandwidth that makes it virtually 'blind' to solar radiation while affording extremely high sensitivity to ultraviolet flame detection. A 'windowing' technique accurately discriminates between background UV radiation and ultraviolet emitted from an actual flame, hence the user is assured of no false alarms. Model 7410CP is a combination controller and annunciator panel designed to monitor and control as many as 24 flame detectors. *Model 74000 is no longer being manufactured.

1990-01-01

17

Neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

2011-04-05

18

Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water ?erenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

19

Oscillator detector  

SciTech Connect

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.

Potter, B.M.

1980-05-13

20

Detector simulation needs for detector designers  

SciTech Connect

Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

Hanson, G.G.

1987-11-01

21

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

SciTech Connect

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.

Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

1988-01-01

22

GADRAS Detector Response Function.  

SciTech Connect

The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

2014-11-01

23

The MINOS detectors  

SciTech Connect

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized iron/scintillator calorimeters. The Far Detector has been operational for cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from July of 2003, the Near Detector from September 2004, and the NuMI beam started in early 2005. This poster presents details of the two detectors.

Habig, A.; Grashorn, E.W.; /Minnesota U., Duluth

2005-07-01

24

Asynchronous Failure Detectors  

E-print Network

Failure detectors -- oracles that provide information about process crashes -- are an important abstraction for crash tolerance in distributed systems. The generality of failure-detector theory, while providing great ...

Cornejo, Alejandro

2013-10-10

25

Infrared Detector: Card Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes the physics of a simple infra-red detector. A simulation is used to illustrate energy level dependence and electron transitions in the detector. Discussion problems and comparison with other physical applications are included.

Group, Kansas S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2004-03-05

26

Event-sequence detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector consists of matrix of storage elements which are activated by coincidence of failure-voltage pulses and clock pulses. Clock frequency used for event sequence detector can be selected to provide time resolution demanded by test at hand.

Hanna, M. F.

1973-01-01

27

Segmented pyroelector detector  

DOEpatents

A pyroelectric detector is described which has increased voltage output and improved responsivity over equivalent size detectors. The device comprises a plurality of edge-type pyroelectric detectors which have a length which is much greater than the width of the segments between the edge-type electrodes. External circuitry connects the pyroelectric detector segments in parallel to provide a single output which maintains 50 ohm impedance characteristics.

Stotlar, S.C.; McLellan, E.J.

1981-01-21

28

Tevatron detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

29

LGB neutron detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double pulse signature of the Gadolinium Lithium Borate Cerium doped plastic detector suggests its effectiveness for analyzing neutrons while providing gamma ray insensitivity. To better understand this detector, a californium gamma/neutron time of flight facility was constructed in our lab. Reported here are efforts to understand the properties and applications of the LGB detector with regards to neutron spectroscopy.

Quist, Nicole

2012-10-01

30

The upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

2006-01-01

31

High-energy detector  

DOEpatents

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22

32

Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

Soler, F. J. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2011-10-06

33

Intelligent Detector Design  

SciTech Connect

As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

2012-06-11

34

Detectors (5/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

None

2011-10-06

35

Detectors (4/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

None

2011-10-06

36

The CDFII Silicon Detector  

SciTech Connect

The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

Julia Thom

2004-07-23

37

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22

38

Instrumentation and Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter contains a broad introduction to astronomical instruments and detectors. The basic design principles for cameras, spectrometers, polarimeters, and interferometers are given, together with some practical material on instrument building techniques, including vacuum-cryogenic methods. Different detector technologies are introduced, such as CCDs and infrared arrays, together with basic information on semiconductors.

McLean, Ian S.; Larkin, James; Fitzgerald, Michael

39

High efficiency photoionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a

1984-01-01

40

High efficiency photoionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization

David F

1984-01-01

41

Arsenic activation neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

Jacobs, E.L.

1980-01-28

42

Arsenic activation neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

Jacobs, Eddy L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1981-01-01

43

Cable-splice detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector has possible uses in aerial cable-car systems, equipment handling in mines, boreholes, and undersea operations, and other applications where moving steel cable must be measured, monitored, or controlled. Detector consists of Hall-effect magnetic sensor located close to cable. Magnetic markings on cable are converted to electrical signals. Signals are filtered, amplified, and can actuate alarm.

Lee, R. D.; Iufer, E. J.; Giovannetti, A.

1980-01-01

44

Alkali ionization detector  

DOEpatents

A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

Hrizo, John (Monroeville, PA); Bauerle, James E. (Plum Borough, PA); Witkowski, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA)

1982-01-01

45

BESII detector simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Monte Carlo program based on GEANT3 has been developed for BESII detector simulation. The organization of the program is outlined, and the digitization procedure for simulating the response of various sub-detectors is described. Comparisons with data show that the performance of the program is generally satisfactory.

M. Ablikim; J. Z. Bai; Y. Ban; J. G. Bian; X. Cai; J. F. Chang; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; H. X. Chen; J. C. Chen; Jin Chen; Jun Chen; M. L. Chen; Y. B. Chen; B. S. Cheng; S. P. Chi; Y. P. Chu; X. Z. Cui; H. L. Dai; Y. S. Dai; Z. Y. Deng; L. Y. Dong; Q. F. Dong; S. X. Du; Z. Z. Du; J. Fang; S. S. Fang; C. D. Fu; H. Y. Fu; C. S. Gao; Y. N. Gao; M. Y. Gong; W. X. Gong; S. D. Gu; Y. N. Guo; Y. Q. Guo; Z. J. Guo; F. A. Harris; K. L. He; M. He; X. He; Y. K. Heng; H. M. Hu; T. Hu; G. S. Huang; X. P. Huang; X. T. Huang; X. B. Ji; C. H. Jiang; X. S. Jiang; D. P. Jin; S. Jin; Y. Jin; Y. F. Lai; C. G. Li; F. Li; G. Li; H. H. Li; J. Li; Q. J. Li; R. Y. Li; S. M. Li; W. D. Li; W. G. Li; X. L. Li; X. Q. Li; Y. L. Li; Y. F. Liang; H. B. Liao; C. X. Liu; F. Liu; Fang Liu; H. H. Liu; H. M. Liu; J. Liu; J. P. Liu; R. G. Liu; Z. A. Liu; Z. X. Liu; F. Lu; G. R. Lu; H. J. Lu; J. G. Lu; C. L. Luo; L. X. Luo; X. L. Luo; F. C. Ma; H. L. Ma; J. M. Ma; L. L. Ma; Q. M. Ma; X. B. Ma; X. Y. Ma; Z. P. Mao; X. H. Mo; J. Nie; Z. D. Nie; S. L. Olsen; H. P. Peng; N. D. Qi; C. D. Qian; H. Qin; J. F. Qiu; Z. Y. Ren; G. Rong; L. Y. Shan; L. Shang; D. L. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; F. Shi; X. Shi; H. S. Sun; J. F. Sun; S. S. Sun; Y. Z. Sun; Z. J. Sun; X. Tang; N. Tao; Y. R. Tian; G. L. Tong; G. S. Varner; D. Y. Wang; J. Z. Wang; K. Wang; L. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; S. Z. Wang; W. F. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Z. Wang; Zheng Wang; C. L. Wei; D. H. Wei; N. Wu; Y. M. Wu; X. M. Xia; X. X. Xie; B. Xin; G. F. Xu; H. Xu; S. T. Xue; M. L. Yan; F. Yang; H. X. Yang; J. Yang; Y. X. Yang; M. Ye; Y. X. Ye; L. H. Yi; Z. Y. Yi; C. S. Yu; G. W. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; J. M. Yuan; Y. Yuan; S. L. Zang; Y. Zeng; Yu Zeng; B. X. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; J. Zhang; Q. J. Zhang; S. Q. Zhang; X. M. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Y. Y. Zhang; Yiyun Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Q. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; J. B. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; M. G. Zhao; P. P. Zhao; W. R. Zhao; X. J. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; H. Q. Zheng; J. P. Zheng; L. S. Zheng; Z. P. Zheng; X. C. Zhong; B. Q. Zhou; G. M. Zhou; L. Zhou; N. F. Zhou; K. J. Zhu; Q. M. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; Yingchun Zhu; Z. A. Zhu; B. A. Zhuang; X. A. Zhuang; B. S. Zou

2005-01-01

46

Infrared Detector Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, part of the Spectroscopy Lab Suite, simulates optical transitions in a pumped infrared detector. In this simulated experiment, impurity states are initially populated with visible light. Infrared radiation can then then be detected by de-populating the impurity levels, causing the material to glow. The energy levels and transitions in this material detector can be changed.

Group, Kansas S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2004-03-05

47

Smoke Detectors and Legislation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, one of a series for use in public education, provides an in-depth review of the current status of state and local smoke detector legislation. First, for the community considering a smoke detector law or ordinance, six decision points are discussed: which residential occupancy sub-classes will be affected; what the time factors are for…

National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

48

Third generation infrared detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of materials used in fabrication of third generation infrared photon detectors are discussed. In this class of detectors two main competitors, HgCdTe photodiodes and quantum well photoconductors are considered. The metallurgical issues of the epitaxial layers such as uniformity and number of defected elements are the serious problems in the

A. Rogalski

2006-01-01

49

Advanced far infrared detectors  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

Haller, E.E.

1993-05-01

50

Nanomechanical resonance detector  

DOEpatents

An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

2013-10-29

51

TM Failed Detectors Data Replacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper detectors (band 2 detector 4 and band 5 detector 3) have inadequate performances. The operational system correction processing will disregard the data sensed by the failed detectors and replace them by data coming from the neighbor detectors of the same spectra band. The analysis performed by ESA Earthnet and attempts to suggest an operational failed detector replacement algorithm are described.

Fusco, L.; Trevese, D.

1984-01-01

52

The HERMES recoil detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.

2013-05-01

53

Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

Moseley, Harvey

2009-01-01

54

Micropattern Gaseous Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced in 1988, microstrip gas chambers perform considerably better than classic multiwire detectors. Excellent localization, high rate capability, and good granularity make them attractive for charged-particle tracking at high-luminosity colliders, among other applications. The technology continues to improve; for example, substrates have been developed that prevent charge accumulations. Some problems persist, namely the slow degradation under sustained irradiation (aging) and the serious damage that can result from accidental discharges. New types of detectors aim at improving on these points; the microdot, micromegas, and gas electron multiplier detectors are promising examples. They are generally more reliable and cheaper.

Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, Archana

55

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

DOEpatents

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10

56

Pocked surface neutron detector  

DOEpatents

The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-04-08

57

Modular optical detector system  

DOEpatents

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14

58

Ultrafast neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector of very high temporal resolution is described. It may be used to measure distributions of neutrons produced by fusion reactions that persist for times as short as about 50 picoseconds.

Wang, C.L.

1985-06-19

59

SRAM Detector Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Custom proton sensitive SRAM chips are being flown on the BMDO Clementine missions and Space Technology Research Vehicle experiments. This paper describes the calibration procedure for the SRAM proton detectors and their response to the space environment.

Soli, G. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Beuhler, M. G.

1994-01-01

60

Lightning Current Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightning Current Detector (LCD) was developed to monitor the magnitude of lightning strikes. Information it supplies is useful in evaluating lightning protection designs for such systems as telephone cables, radio broadcast towers, power transmission equipment and oil well towers.

1981-01-01

61

Improved gaseous leak detector  

DOEpatents

In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the nonlinear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

Juravic, F.E. Jr.

1983-10-06

62

A photoionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photoionization detector (P.I.D.) with separated discharge and detection compartments, enabling detection of eluted substances under normal pressure, has been developed. A detection mechanism was formulated for these conditions and relations for the P.I.D. signal were derived. The detector can measure all substances with ionization potentials less than 11.4 eV. A detection limit of 10?14 mol\\/s for benzene, with a

J. Šev?ik; S. Krýsl

1973-01-01

63

Fiber optic detector  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

64

Gallium arsenide pixel detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV ?- beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e -.

Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; D'Auria, S.; da Vià, C.; del Papa, C.; Heijne, E. M.; Middelkamp, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Smith, K.; Snoeys, W.

1998-02-01

65

Gaseous leak detector  

DOEpatents

In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the non linear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

Juravic, Jr., Frank E. (Aurora, IL)

1988-01-01

66

Fiber optic detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, Judy K.; Ward, Thomas E.; Grey, Alan E.

1990-04-01

67

Gamma ray detector modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

68

The Belle detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Belle detector was designed and constructed to carry out quantitative studies of rare B-meson decay modes with very small branching fractions using an asymmetric e +e - collider operating at the ?(4S) resonance, the KEK-B-factory. Such studies require data samples containing ˜10 7 B-meson decays. The Belle detector is configured around a 1.5 T superconducting solenoid and iron structure surrounding the KEK-B beams at the Tsukuba interaction region. B-meson decay vertices are measured by a silicon vertex detector situated just outside of a cylindrical beryllium beam pipe. Charged particle tracking is performed by a wire drift chamber (CDC). Particle identification is provided by d E/d x measurements in CDC, aerogel threshold Cherenkov counter and time-of-flight counter placed radially outside of CDC. Electromagnetic showers are detected in an array of CsI( Tl) crystals located inside the solenoid coil. Muons and K L mesons are identified by arrays of resistive plate counters interspersed in the iron yoke. The detector covers the ? region extending from 17° to 150°. The part of the uncovered small-angle region is instrumented with a pair of BGO crystal arrays placed on the surfaces of the QCS cryostats in the forward and backward directions. Details of the design and development works of the detector subsystems, which include trigger, data acquisition and computer systems, are described. Results of performance of the detector subsystems are also presented.

Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Morgan, N.; Piilonen, L.; Schrenk, S.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Alexander, J. P.; Aoki, K.; Behari, S.; Doi, Y.; Enomoto, R.; Fujii, H.; Fujita, Y.; Funahashi, Y.; Haba, J.; Hamasaki, H.; Haruyama, T.; Hayashi, K.; Higashi, Y.; Hitomi, N.; Igarashi, S.; Igarashi, Y.; Iijima, T.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Hitomi; Itoh, R.; Iwai, M.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Joo, K. K.; Kasami, K.; Katayama, N.; Kawai, M.; Kichimi, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Koike, S.; Kondo, Y.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Manabe, A.; Matsuda, T.; Murakami, T.; Nagayama, S.; Nakao, M.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, K.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohnishi, Y.; Ozaki, H.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, M.; Sakai, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, N.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, J. I.; Suzuki, S.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tatomi, T.; Tsuboyama, T.; Tsukada, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uehara, S.; Ujiie, N.; Uno, S.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamaoka, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zhao, H.; Abe, R.; Iwai, G.; Kawasaki, T.; Miyata, H.; Shimada, K.; Takahashi, S.; Tamura, N.; Abe, K.; Hanada, H.; Nagamine, T.; Nakajima, M.; Nakajima, T.; Narita, S.; Sanpei, M.; Takayama, T.; Ueki, M.; Yamaga, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Ahn, B. S.; Kang, J. S.; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Ahn, H. S.; Jang, H. K.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, S. H.; Park, C. S.; Won, E.; Aihara, H.; Higuchi, T.; Kawai, H.; Matsubara, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, J.; Tomura, T.; Yokoyama, M.; Akatsu, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Hirose, M.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itami, S.; Kani, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagai, I.; Okabe, T.; Oshima, T.; Senyo, K.; Sugi, A.; Sugiyama, A.; Suitoh, S.; Suzuki, S.; Tomoto, M.; Yoshida, K.; Akhmetshin, R.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, Y. Q.; Hou, W. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Huang, H. C.; Huang, T. J.; Lee, M. C.; Lu, R. S.; Peng, J. C.; Peng, K. C.; Sahu, S.; Sung, H. F.; Tsai, K. L.; Ueno, K.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, M. Z.; Alimonti, G.; Browder, T. E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Fang, F.; Guler, H.; Jones, M.; Li, Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Peters, M.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Rosen, M.; Swain, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Varner, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Zheng, Y. H.; An, Q.; Chen, H. F.; Wang, Y. F.; Xu, Z. Z.; Ye, S. W.; Zhang, Z. P.; Asai, M.; Asano, Y.; Mori, S.; Stani?, S.; Tsujita, Y.; Zhang, J.; Žontar, D.; Aso, T.; Aulchenko, V.; Beiline, D.; Bondar, A.; Dneprovsky, L.; Eidelman, S.; Garmash, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Romanov, L.; Root, N.; Shwartz, B.; Sidorov, A.; Sidorov, V.; Usov, Y.; Zhilich, V.; Bakich, A. M.; Peak, L. S.; Varvell, K. E.; Banas, E.; Bozek, A.; Jalocha, P.; Kapusta, P.; Natkaniec, Z.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palka, H.; Rozanka, M.; Rybicki, K.; Behera, P. K.; Mohapatra, A.; Satapathy, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, H. S.; Dong, L. Y.; Li, J.; Liu, H. M.; Mao, Z. P.; Yu, C. X.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, Z. P.; Cheon, B. G.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D. W.; Nam, J. W.; Chidzik, S.; Korotuschenko, K.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Liu, T.; Marlow, D.; Mindas, C.; Prebys, E.; Rabberman, R.; Sands, W.; Wixted, R.; Choi, S.; Dragic, J.; Everton, C. W.; Gordon, A.; Hastings, N. C.; Heenan, E. M.; Moffitt, L. C.; Moloney, G. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Sevior, M. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Tovey, S. N.; Drutskoy, A.; Kagan, R.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Fukunaga, C.; Suda, R.; Fukushima, M.; Goriletsky, V. I.; Grinyov, B. V.; Lyubinsky, V. R.; Panova, A. I.; Shakhova, K. V.; Shpilinskaya, L. I.; Vinograd, E. L.; Zaslavsky, B. G.; Guo, R. S.; Haitani, F.; Hoshi, Y.; Neichi, K.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Hazumi, M.; Hojo, T.; Jackson, D.; Miyake, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Ryuko, J.; Sumisawa, K.; Takita, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Hayashii, H.; Miyabayashi, K.; Noguchi, S.; Hikita, S.; Hirano, H.; Hoshina, K.; Mamada, H.; Nitoh, O.; Okazaki, N.; Yokoyama, T.; Ishino, H.; Ichizawa, S.; Hirai, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kaneko, J.; Nakamura, T.; Ohshima, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yanaka, S.; Inoue, Y.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Kang, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Heejong; Kwon, Y.-J.; Kawai, H.; Kurihara, E.; Ooba, T.; Suzuki, K.; Unno, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Yuta, H.; Kinoshita, K.; Satpathy, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Kuniya, T.; Murakami, A.; Tsukamoto, T.; Kumar, S.; Singh, J.; Lange, J.; Stock, R.; Matsumoto, S.; Watanabe, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nishida, S.; Nomura, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sasao, N.; Ushiroda, Y.; Nagasaka, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Okuno, S.; Shen, D. Z.; Yan, D. S.; Yin, Z. W.; Tan, N.; Wang, C. H.; Yamaki, T.; Yamashita, Y.

2002-02-01

69

Progress in semiconductor drift detectors  

SciTech Connect

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

1985-01-01

70

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2002-01-01

71

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

72

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

Anderson, D.F.

1984-01-31

73

Intelligent Detector Design  

SciTech Connect

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx}30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

Graf, Norman; Cassell, Ron; Johnson, Tony; McCormick, Jeremy [Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Magill, Steve; Kuhlmann, Steve [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2006-10-27

74

Mossbauer spectrometer radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mossbauer spectrometer with high efficiencies in both transmission and backscattering techniques is described. The device contains a sodium iodide crystal for detecting radiation caused by the Mossbauer effect, and two photomultipliers to collect the radiation detected by the crystal. When used in the transmission technique, the sample or scatterer is placed between the incident radiation source and the detector. When used in a backscattering technique, the detector is placed between the incident radiation source and the sample of scatterer such that the incident radiation will pass through a hole in the crystal and strike the sample. Diagrams of the instrument are provided.

Singh, J. J. (inventor)

1973-01-01

75

Fissile material detector  

DOEpatents

A detector for fissile materials which provides for integrity monitoring of fissile materials and can be used for nondestructive assay to confirm the presence of a stable content of fissile material in items. The detector has a sample cavity large enough to enable assay of large items of arbitrary configuration, utilizes neutron sources fabricated in spatially extended shapes mounted on the endcaps of the sample cavity, incorporates a thermal neutron filter insert with reflector properties, and the electronics module includes a neutron multiplicity coincidence counter.

Ivanov, Alexander I. (Dubna, RU); Lushchikov, Vladislav I. (Dubna, RU); Shabalin, Eugeny P. (Dubna, RU); Maznyy, Nikita G. (Dubna, RU); Khvastunov, Michael M. (Dubna, RU); Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA)

2002-01-01

76

Semiconductor neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB); Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA); Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM); Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM)

2011-03-08

77

The Upgraded D0 detector  

SciTech Connect

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U./Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco deQuito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS; ,

2005-07-01

78

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, D.C.

1980-12-17

79

Smoke Detector Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

80

Directional gamma detector  

DOEpatents

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01

81

MPD Detector at NICA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this article is to give information about the new accelerator complex NICA at JINR, Dubna and especially, to provide overview of the MultiPurpose Detector (MPD) and its subdetectors. The current results of the MPD performance for dileptons, hyperons, hypernuclei and phi-meson are presented.

Yordanova, L.; Vasendina, V.

2014-04-01

82

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

DOEpatents

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

Myneni, G.R.

1999-08-03

83

Gas Detectors, Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report contains annotated references on gas detectors compiled from the Defense Documentation Center's data bank. The range of the topics deals with detection of toxic propellants, odors, gas leaks, oxygen, etc. Included with the bibliographic reference are the corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, and title indexes. (Author/JR)

Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

84

Ionizations scintillation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few references are made to factors which affect the energy resolution of proportional scintillation. The coupling of proportional or primary scintillation devices to photoionization detectors (PIPS chamber) is considered, both in the gas and liquid phases, and using the data available some information is given concerning its expected characteristics of energy, position and time resolution.

Policarpo, A. J. P. L.

85

Leak detector uses ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Probe located on outer wall of vacuum-jacketed fluid lines detects leaks on inner wall. Probe picks up and amplifies vibrations that occur when gas rushes through leak and converts them to audible signal or CRT display. System is considerably simpler to use than helium leak detectors and allows rapid checks to be made as part of routine maintenance.

Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.; Keir, A. R.

1978-01-01

86

Optical detector calibrator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

87

Activation neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable

T. S. Ambardanishvili; M. A. Kolomiitsev; T. Y. Zakharina; V. J. Dundua; N. V. Chikhladze

1976-01-01

88

The Friendship Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After years of using Rube Goldberg-inspired projects to teach concepts of simple machines, the author sought a comparable project to reinforce electricity lessons in his ninth-grade Science and Technology course. The Friendship Detector gives students a chance to design, test, and build a complex circuit with multiple switches and battery-powered…

Cox, Scott

2012-01-01

89

The CLIC Vertex Detector  

E-print Network

The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a meas- urement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t ? W b will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit tim- ing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC ver- tex det...

Dannheim, D.

2014-01-01

90

Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or other failures in those systems. In another type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors of this type could be optoelectronically instrumented for monitoring to provide measured digital indications of color changes indicative of the presence of hydrogen.

Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

2009-01-01

91

High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors  

DOEpatents

A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-16

92

Carbon monoxide detector. [electrochemical gas detector for spacecraft use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensitive carbon monoxide detector, developed specifically for spacecraft use, is described. An instrument range of 0 to 60 ppm CO in air was devised. The fuel cell type detector is used as a highly sensitive electrolysis cell for electrochemically detecting gases. The concept of an electrochemical CO detector is discussed and the CO oxidation behavior in phosphoric and sulfuric acid electrolytes is reported.

Holleck, G. L.; Bradspies, J. L.; Brummer, S. B.; Nelsen, L. L.

1973-01-01

93

Fundamental principles of particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

Fernow, R.C.

1988-01-01

94

New electronically black neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Two neutron detectors are described that can function in a continuous radiation background. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors.

Drake, D.M.; Feldman, W.C.; Hurlbut, C.

1986-03-01

95

Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified version of the THALES double heterostructure (DH) p-i-n device, but with even wider bandgap barriers inserted at the contact layer/absorber layer interfaces. It is designed to work with either bulk semiconductors or superlattices as the absorber material. The superlattice bandgap can be adjusted to match the desired absorption cutoff wavelength. This infrared detector has the potential of high-sensitivity operation at higher operating temperatures. This would reduce cooling requirements, thereby reducing the power, mass, and volume of the equipment and allowing an increased mission science return.

Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

2009-01-01

96

Pulsed neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

Robertson, deceased, J. Craig (late of Albuquerque, NM); Rowland, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

1989-03-21

97

Ultrafast neutron detector  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a neutron detector (50) of very high temporal resolution that is particularly well suited for measuring the fusion reaction neutrons produced by laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets. The detector comprises a biased two-conductor traveling-wave transmission line (54, 56, 58, 68) having a uranium cathode (60) and a phosphor anode (62) as respective parts of the two conductors. A charge line and Auston switch assembly (70, 72, 74) launch an electric field pulse along the transmission line. Neutrons striking the uranium cathode at a location where the field pulse is passing, are enabled to strike the phosphor anode and produce light that is recorded on photographic film (64). The transmission line may be variously configured to achieve specific experimental goals.

Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01

98

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

99

Gated strip proportional detector  

DOEpatents

A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

1985-02-19

100

Precision synchrotron radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.; Jung, C.K.; Lateur, M.; Nash, J.; Tinsman, J.; Wormser, G.; Gomez, J.J.; Kent, J.

1989-03-01

101

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

DOEpatents

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

102

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

DOEpatents

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05

103

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOEpatents

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

104

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30

105

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01

106

Aerogel for FARICH detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our current experience in preparation of focusing aerogels for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detector. Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since 2004. We have obtained 2-3-4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30-45 mm. In 2012, the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process. The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype.

Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Gulevich, V. V.; Danilyuk, A. F.; Kononov, S. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Lopatin, S. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Ovtin, I. V.; Podgornov, N. A.; Porosev, V. V.; Predein, A. Yu.; Protsenko, R. S.

2014-12-01

107

Carbon nanotube terahertz detector.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) technologies are promising for diverse areas such as medicine, bioengineering, astronomy, environmental monitoring, and communications. However, despite decades of worldwide efforts, the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum still continues to be elusive for solid state technology. Here, we report on the development of a powerless, compact, broadband, flexible, large-area, and polarization-sensitive carbon nanotube THz detector that works at room temperature. The detector is sensitive throughout the entire range of the THz technology gap, with responsivities as high as ?2.5 V/W and polarization ratios as high as ?5:1. Complete thermoelectric and opto-thermal characterization together unambiguously reveal the photothermoelectric origin of the THz photosignal, triggered by plasmonic absorption and collective antenna effects, and suggest that judicious design of thermal management and quantum engineering of Seebeck coefficients will lead to further enhancement of device performance. PMID:24875576

He, Xiaowei; Fujimura, Naoki; Lloyd, J Meagan; Erickson, Kristopher J; Talin, A Alec; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Jiang, Qijia; Kawano, Yukio; Hauge, Robert H; Léonard, François; Kono, Junichiro

2014-07-01

108

Event sequence detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An event sequence detector is described with input units, each associated with a row of bistable elements arranged in an array of rows and columns. The detector also includes a shift register which is responsive to clock pulses from any of the units to sequentially provide signals on its output lines each of which is connected to the bistable elements in a corresponding column. When the event-indicating signal is received by an input unit it provides a clock pulse to the shift register to provide the signal on one of its output lines. The input unit also enables all its bistable elements so that the particular element in the column supplied with the signal from the register is driven to an event-indicating state.

Hanna, M. F. (inventor)

1973-01-01

109

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17

110

Vertex Detector Cable Considerations  

SciTech Connect

Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, 'pulsed power' is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

Cooper, William E.; /Fermilab

2009-02-01

111

Detector limitations, STAR  

SciTech Connect

Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

Underwood, D. G.

1998-07-13

112

Laser beam methane detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument uses infrared absorption to determine methane concentration in liquid natural gas vapor. Two sensors measure intensity of 3.39 mm laser beam after it passes through gas; absorption is proportional to concentration of methane. Instrument is used in modeling spread of LNG clouds and as leak detector on LNG carriers and installations. Unit includes wheels for mobility and is both vertically and horizontally operable.

Hinkley, E. D., Jr.

1981-01-01

113

The BES detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e+e- annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency

J. Z. Bai; Q. Bian; G. M. Chen; L. J. Chen; S. N. Chen; Y. Q. Chen; Z. Q. Chen; Y. K. Chi; H. C. Cui; X. Z. Cui; S. S. Deng; Y. W. Deng; H. L. Ding; B. Z. Dong; X. S. Dong; X. Du; Z. Z. Du; C. Feng; Z. Feng; Z. S. Fu; C. S. Gao; M. L. Gao; S. Q. Gao; W. X. Gao; Y. N. Gao; S. D. Gu; W. X. Gu; Y. Z. Guan; H. F. Guo; Y. N. Guo; Y. Y. Guo; S. W. Han; Y. Han; W. Hao; J. He; K. R. He; M. J. He; X. J. Hou; G. Y. Hu; J. S. Hu; J. W. Hu; D. Q. Huang; Y. Z. Huang; Q. P. Jia; C. H. Jiang; Q. Ju; Y. F. Lai; P. F. Lang; D. S. Li; F. Li; H. Li; Jia Li; J. T. Li; Jin Li; L. L. Li; P. Q. Li; Q. M. Li; R. B. Li; S. Q. Li; W. Li; Z. X. Li; G. N. Liang; F. C. Lin; S. Z. Lin; W. Lin; Q. Liu; R. G. Liu; W. Liu; X. Liu; Z. A. Liu; Z. Y. Liu; C. G. Lu; W. D. Lu; Z. Y. Lu; J. G. Lu; D. H. Ma; E. C. Ma; J. M. Ma; H. S. Mao; Z. P. Mao; X. C. Meng; H. L. Ni; J. Nie; Z. D. Nie; W. P. Niu; L. J. Pan; N. D. Qi; J. J. Qian; Y. H. Qu; Y. K. Que; G. Rong; T. Z. Ruan; Y. Y. Shao; B. W. Shen; D. L. Shen; J. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; J. P. Sheng; H. Z. Shi; X. F. Song; H. S. Sun; F. K. Tang; S. Q. Tang; W. H. Tian; F. Wang; G. Y. Wang; J. G. Wang; J. Y. Wang; L. S. Wang; L. Z. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; S. M. Wang; S. Q. Wang; T. J. Wang; X. W. Wang; Y. Y. Wang; Z. H. Wang; Z. J. Wang; C. L. Wei; Z. Z. Wei; J. W. Wu; S. H. Wu; S. Q. Wu; W. M. Wu; X. D. Wu; Z. D. Wu; D. M. Xi; X. M. Xia; J. Xiao; P. P. Xie; X. X. Xie; J. G. Xu; R. S. Xu; Z. Q. Xu; B. C. Xuan; S. T. Xue; J. Yan; S. P. Yan; W. G. Yan; C. Z. Yang; C. M. Yang; C. Y. Yang; X. F. Yang; X. R. Yang; M. H. Ye; C. H. Yu; C. S. Yu; Z. Q. Yu; B. Y. Zhang; C. D. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; C. Y. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; G. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; H. L. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; L. S. Zhang; S. Q. Zhang; Y. P. Zhang; Y. M. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; M. Zhao; P. D. Zhao; P. P. Zhao; W. R. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; Z. Q. Zhao; J. P. Zheng; L. S. Zheng; M. Zheng; W. S. Zheng; Z. P. Zheng; G. P. Zhong; G. P. Zhou; H. S. Zhou; J. Zhou; Li Zhou; Lin Zhou; M. Zhou; Y. S. Zhou; Y. H. Zhou; G. S. Zhu; Q. M. Zhu; S. G. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; B. A. Zhuang

1994-01-01

114

Biological detector and method  

DOEpatents

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2014-04-15

115

Gaseous wire detectors  

SciTech Connect

This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations. Reader should also refer to Ref. 1{endash}4. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Vavra, J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

1998-02-01

116

Optical ionization detector  

DOEpatents

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01

117

Optical ionization detector  

DOEpatents

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

1994-03-29

118

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOEpatents

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

1998-08-11

119

Nanowire-based detector  

DOEpatents

Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

2014-06-24

120

Compact THz imaging detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe preliminary design, modeling and test results for the development of a monolithic, high pixel density, THz band focal plane array (FPA) fabricated in a commercial CMOS process. Each pixel unit cell contains multiple individual THz band antennae that are coupled to independent amplifiers. The amplified signals are summed either coherently or incoherently to improve detection (SNR). The sensor is designed to operate at room temperature using passive or active illumination. In addition to the THz detector, a secondary array of Visible or SWIR context imaging pixels are interposed in the same area matrix. Multiple VIS/SWIR context pixels can be fabricated within the THz pixel unit cell. This provides simultaneous, registered context imagery and "Pan sharpening" MTF enhancement for the THz image. The compact THz imaging system maximizes the utility of a ~ 300 ?m x 300 ?m pixel area associated with the optical resolution spot size for a THz imaging system operating at a nominal ~ 1.0 THz spectral frequency. RF modeling is used to parameterize the antenna array design for optimal response at the THz frequencies of interest. The quarter-wave strip balanced bow-tie antennae are optimized based on the semiconductor fabrication technology thin-film characteristics and the CMOS detector input impedance. RF SPICE models enhanced for THz frequencies are used to evaluate the predicted CMOS detector performance and optimal unit cell design architecture. The models are validated through testing of existing CMOS ROICs with calibrated THz sources.

Newman, J. Daniel; Lee, Paul P. K.; Sacco, Andrew P.; Chamberlain, Thomas B.; Willems, Dave A.; Fiete, Robert D.; Bocko, Mark V.; Ignotovic, Zeljko; Pipher, Judith L.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Rhodes, David B.; Ninkov, Zoran

2013-05-01

121

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOEpatents

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

Chu, Dahlon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Thelen, Jr., Donald C. (Bozeman, MT)

1998-01-01

122

Detector Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.

Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

2003-01-01

123

The STAR Vertex Position Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event "start time" needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ~100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ~1 cm.

Llope, W. J.; Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Asselta, K.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Butterworth, J.; Camarda, T.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H. J.; Dong, X.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Hammond, J.; Judd, E.; McDonald, D. L.; Perkins, C.; Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J.; Schambach, J. J.; Soja, R.; Xin, K.; Yang, C.

2014-09-01

124

State of the art in semiconductor detectors  

SciTech Connect

The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs.

Rehak, P. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Gatti, E. (Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy))

1989-01-01

125

areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS  

SciTech Connect

areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

Rivers, Mark L. [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources and Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2010-06-23

126

areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS  

SciTech Connect

areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

Rivers, M. (UC)

2011-09-23

127

Detector Mount Design for IGRINS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

2014-06-01

128

Micro UV detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

2004-09-01

129

Micro-UV detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

2004-12-01

130

Improved ion detector  

DOEpatents

An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber type comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

Tullis, A.M.

1986-01-30

131

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

132

Photon detector system  

DOEpatents

A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

Ekstrom, Philip A. (Lexington, KY)

1981-01-01

133

Moderate temperature detector development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

P-side backside reflecting constant, photodiode characterization, and photodiode diffusion and G-R currents were investigated in an effort to develop an 8 m to 12 m infrared quantum detector using mercury cadmium telluride. Anodization, phosphorus implantation, and the graded band gap concept were approaches considered for backside formation. Variable thickness diodes were fabricated with a back surface anodic oxide to investigate the effect of this surface preparation on the diffusion limited zero bias impedance. A modeling technique was refined to thoroughly model diode characteristics. Values for the surface recombination velocity in the depletion region were obtained. These values were improved by implementing better surface damage removal techniques.

Marciniec, J. W.; Briggs, R. J.; Sood, A. K.

1981-01-01

134

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01

135

Active Pyroelectric Infrared Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A noncontact pyroelectric infrared detector is described. A pyroelectric film that also has piezoelectric properties is held in place so that it is free to vibrate. It is electrically stimulated to vibrate at a resonance frequency. The vibrating film forms part of a balanced bridge circuit. As thermal radiation impinges on the film the pyroelectric effect causes the resonance frequency to change, thereby unbalancing the bridge circuit. A differential amplifier tracks the change in voltage across the bridge. The resulting voltage signal is further processed by a bandpass filter and a precision rectifier. The device allows for DC or static temperature measurements without the use of a mechanical chopping device.

Zuckerwar, Allan J. (inventor); Zalameda, Joseph N. (inventor); Mina, Joseph M. (inventor)

1995-01-01

136

Wire-inhomogeneity detector  

DOEpatents

A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

1982-08-31

137

Scalar top study: Detector optimization  

SciTech Connect

A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies pixel detectors for heavy quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

Milstene, C.; /Fermilab; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

2006-09-01

138

LCFI vertex detector design studies  

SciTech Connect

A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies CCD detectors for quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

Milstene, C.; Sopczak, A.

2005-12-01

139

Directivity function of muon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new concept of directivity function (DF) to describe directional sensitivity of a particle detector. DF is ? 3D function, describing the sensitivity of a detector to asymptotic directions of primary protons. It defines the contribution of primary protons, arriving from different asymptotic directions to the count rate of the detector. We develop the approach for computing the DF and derive it in particular case of SEVAN muon detector, located at mount Aragats, Armenia. Obtained data enable one to outline the region of solid angles, inside of which the arriving protons contribute a given percentage of count rate. In general, the DF can have the multi peak shape. It provides the most detailed and accurate description of directional sensitivity of a particle detector and we suggest that it is used in space research based on neutron and muon detectors.

Karapetyan, G. G.

2015-02-01

140

Scalar top study: Detector optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vertex detector concept of the linear collider flavour identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies pixel detectors for heavy quark flavour identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the international linear collider (ILC).

Milsténe, C.; Sopczak, A.

2007-11-01

141

Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glow discharge plasma, derived from direct-current gas breakdown, is investigated in order to realize an inexpensive terahertz (THz) room-temperature detector. Preliminary results for THz radiation show that glow discharge indicator lamps as room-temperature detectors yield good responsivity and noise-equivalent power. Development of a focal plane array (FPA) using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the cost of a glow discharge detector is approximately 0.2-0.5 per lamp, and the FPA images will be diffraction limited. The detection mechanism of the glow discharge detector is found to be the enhanced diffusion current, which causes the glow discharge detector bias current to decrease when exposed to THz radiation.

Abramovich, A.; Kopeika, N. S.; Rozban, D.; Farber, E.

2007-10-01

142

Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging.  

PubMed

Glow discharge plasma, derived from direct-current gas breakdown, is investigated in order to realize an inexpensive terahertz (THz) room-temperature detector. Preliminary results for THz radiation show that glow discharge indicator lamps as room-temperature detectors yield good responsivity and noise-equivalent power. Development of a focal plane array (FPA) using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the cost of a glow discharge detector is approximately $0.2-$0.5 per lamp, and the FPA images will be diffraction limited. The detection mechanism of the glow discharge detector is found to be the enhanced diffusion current, which causes the glow discharge detector bias current to decrease when exposed to THz radiation. PMID:17932531

Abramovich, A; Kopeika, N S; Rozban, D; Farber, E

2007-10-10

143

Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glow discharge plasma, derived from direct-current gas breakdown, is investigated in order to realize an inexpensive terahertz (THz) room-temperature detector. Preliminary results for THz radiation show that glow discharge indicator lamps as room-temperature detectors yield good responsivity and noise-equivalent power. Development of a focal plane array (FPA) using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the cost of a glow

A. Abramovich; N. S. Kopeika; D. Rozban; E. Farber

2007-01-01

144

Improved detectivity of pyroelectric detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High detectivity single-element SBN pyroelectric detectors were fabricated. The theory and technology developments related to improved detector performance were identified and formulated. Improved methods of material characterization, thinning, mounting, blackening and amplifier matching are discussed. Detectors with detectivities of 1.3 x 10 to the 9th power square root of Hz/watt at 1 Hz are reported. Factors limiting performance and recommendations for future work are discussed.

Marshall, D. E.; Gelpey, J. C.; Marciniec, J. W.; Chiang, A. M.; Maciolek, R. B.

1978-01-01

145

A Centrality Detector Concept  

E-print Network

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision "centrality". In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This article describes the concept of the centrality detector for heavy ion experiment, which measures the total mass number of all fragments by measuring their deflection in the magnetic field of the collider elements.

Sourav Tarafdar; Zvi Citron; Alexander Milov

2014-05-18

146

Advanced Radiation Detector Development  

SciTech Connect

Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

The University of Michigan

1998-07-01

147

Barrier infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

148

A centrality detector concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision "centrality". In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This paper describes the concept of a centrality detector for heavy ion experiment, which measures the total mass number of all fragments by measuring their deflection in the magnetic field of the collider elements.

Tarafdar, Sourav; Citron, Zvi; Milov, Alexander

2014-12-01

149

Bragg waveguide ultrasound detectors.  

PubMed

Polymer Bragg grating waveguides (BGWs) are demonstrated as ultrasound detectors. The device is fabricated by a direct electron beam lithography technique using an epoxy-based photoresist as the core material, with grating features fabricated on the side walls of the rib waveguide. The main motivation for this design is the linear geometry of the device, which can be used in a linear array, facilitating high-frequency ultrasound imaging. The fabricated BGW device has a cross-sectional area of 1.5 × 1.5 ?m and the grating length is 500 ?m. The optical resonance spectrum is measured and compared with a theoretical model. The BGW device is experimentally demonstrated for the detection of ultrasound waves emitted by a 25-MHz transducer. Detection sensitivity depends on optimal grating design for a steep resonance. The extension of a single-element BGW device to a linear array using optical wavelength division multiplexing is presented. The results demonstrate the potential use of BGW devices in highly compact array of optoacoustic detectors for high-sensitivity ultrasound detection and photoacoustic imaging. PMID:23143579

Govindan, Vishnupriya; Ashkenazi, Shai

2012-10-01

150

The MUSE instrument detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 ?m pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

2012-09-01

151

Technology of high luminosity detectors  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Collider Detectors: Present Capabilities and Future Possibilities focused on the problems posed by high luminosity and high energy at hadron colliders. Four working groups considered problems in individual detector elements, tracking chambers, calorimeters, triggers and particle identification devices. A fifth group reviewed the general problems of detector systems. The working groups concluded that there are technical solutions for the problems of a luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Everything is difficult and continued R and D is necessary to improve detectors.

Loken, S.C.

1983-11-01

152

GLAS 532nm Optical Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents fabrication and testing of 532nm optical detectors. Testing procedures included 532nm quantum efficiency, detector gain, and photon counting performance, in particular, photon counting efficiency. 532nm quantum efficiency was measured to be 36% to 39% for the detectors fabricated. Detectors with a GaAs APD anode had measured gains of 12,000 to 15,000 maximum. Photon counting efficiency for the detector with an APD anode was measured to be approximately 80% with a detector gain of 11,000. Measurements made on an identical detector, not fabricated under this contract, had a photon counting efficiency exceeding 90% with a gain of 13,000. A formula is derived in which the photon counting efficiency is determined by the system preamp noise and the peak single photon pulse height which is proportional to detector gain. This formula agrees well with the measured results and indicates that a detector gain of 15,000 is sufficient to provide a counting efficiency of 99.6%.

LaRue, Ross A.

1997-01-01

153

Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within ?1%X0 per layer. This has set some

Costanza Cavicchioli

2011-01-01

154

NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS. Review Report No. 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book discusses several types of detectors, including ionization ; detectors, scintillation counters, Cherenkov counters, semiconductor devices, and ; crystalline detectors. Other types of detectors which are not discussed because ; of limited application include Wilson and bubble chambers. photographic ; emulsions, and chemical dosimeters. The principles of operation and proper use ; of the detectors are presented. The latest

Kazimierski

1962-01-01

155

Event counting alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

1996-08-27

156

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01

157

Void/particulate detector  

DOEpatents

Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Karplus, Henry B. (Hinsdale, IL)

1985-01-01

158

Event counting alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

159

Porous material neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

2012-04-10

160

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

161

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-12-15

162

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

Angel, S.M.

1987-02-27

163

Space-based detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parallel session C5 on Space-Based Detectors gave a broad overview over the planned space missions related to gravitational wave detection. Overviews of the revolutionary science to be expected from LISA was given by Alberto Sesana and Sasha Buchman. The launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload "LISA Technology Package" will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical bench of LPF was presented by Christian Killow and the performance of the LPF optical metrology system by Paul McNamara. While LPF will not yet be sensitive to gravitational waves, it may nevertheless be used to explore fundamental physics questions, which was discussed by Michele Armano. Some parts of the LISA technology that are not going to be demonstrated by LPF, but under intensive development at the moment, were presented by Oliver Jennrich and Oliver Gerberding. Looking into the future, Japan is studying the design of a mid-frequency detector called DECIGO, which was discussed by Tomotada Akutsu. Using atom interferometry for gravitational wave detection has also been recently proposed, and it was critically reviewed by Peter Bender. In the nearer future, the launch of GRACE Follow-On (for Earth gravity observation) is scheduled for 2017, and it will include a Laser Ranging Interferometer as technology demonstrator. This will be the first inter-spacecraft laser interferometer and has many aspects in common with the LISA long arm, as discussed by Andrew Sutton.

Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Robertson, D. I.; Ward, H.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Bryant, J.; Cruise, A. M.; Dixon, G.; Hoyland, D.; Smith, D.; Bogenstahl, J.; McNamara, P. W.; Gerndt, R.; Flatscher, R.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Hewitson, M.; Gerberding, O.; Barke, S.; Brause, N.; Bykov, I.; Danzmann, K.; Enggaard, A.; Gianolio, A.; Vendt Hansen, T.; Heinzel, G.; Hornstrup, A.; Jennrich, O.; Kullmann, J.; Møller-Pedersen, S.; Rasmussen, T.; Reiche, J.; Sodnik, Z.; Suess, M.; Armano, M.; Sumner, T.; Bender, P. L.; Akutsu, T.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

2014-12-01

164

High-efficiency photoionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization

1981-01-01

165

Detector simulation for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

Detector simulation activities for SSC detector designs are described. Topics include the extensive work to date using existing programs. In addition, the several efforts to extend the capabilities of today's programs are described, as the practical and experimental use of new computing platforms for simulation. Finally, progress in the field is compared with the recommendations of the first workshop in this series in 1987.

Price, L.E.

1991-01-01

166

The SPICE Detector at ISAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ancillary detector system for the TIGRESS HPGe array called SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons (SPICE) is currently under development. SPICE consists of a segmented electron detector, photon shield and a permanent magnetic lens. SPICE will enable in-beam electron spectroscopy and, in coupling to the TIGRESS HPGe array, coincident gamma-electron spectroscopy with stable and radioactive beams.

Garnsworthy, A. B.; Moukaddam, M.; Bolton, C.; Ketelhut, S.; Evitts, L. J.; Andreoiu, C.; Constable, M.; Hackman, G.; Henderson, R.; Svensson, C. E.

2013-12-01

167

The PILATUS 1M detector.  

PubMed

The PILATUS 1M detector is a hybrid pixel array detector with over one million pixels that operate in single photon counting mode. The detector, designed for macromolecular crystallography, is the largest pixel array detector currently in use at a synchrotron. It is a modular system consisting of 18 multichip modules covering an area of 21 cm x 24 cm. The design of the components as well as the manufacturing of the detector including the bump-bonding was performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The use of a single photon counting detector for protein crystallography requires detailed studies of the charge collection properties of the silicon sensor. The 18 modules are read out in parallel, leading to a full frame readout-time of 6.7 ms. This allows crystallographic data to be acquired in fine-varphi-slicing mode with continuous rotation of the sample. The detector was tested in several experiments at the protein crystallography beamline X06SA at the Swiss Light Source at PSI. Data were collected both in conventional oscillation mode using the shutter, as well as in a fine-varphi-slicing mode. After applying all the necessary corrections to data from a thaumatin crystal, the processing of the conventional data led to satisfactory merging R-factors of the order of 8.5%. This allows, for the first time, determination of a refined electron density map of a macromolecular biological crystal using a silicon pixel detector. PMID:16495612

Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Henrich, B; Horisberger, R; Huelsen, G; Pohl, E; Schmitt, B; Schulze-Briese, C; Suzuki, M; Tomizaki, T; Toyokawa, H; Wagner, A

2006-03-01

168

Phase Detector For Rectangular Waveforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase detector for use with phase-locked-loops, servocontrol, and other electronic circuits designed to avoid disadvantages of other phase detectors. Used with both intermittent and continuous input signals. Circuit offers several advantages; reference signals continuous, burst of few pulses, or single pulse. Circuit "coasts" in absence of reference signal. Generates no steady-state output waveform at lock which makes filtering easier.

Dischert, Robert A.; Walter, James M.

1993-01-01

169

ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

2014-01-01

170

The ATLAS TRT Barrel Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS TRT barrel is a tracking drift chamber using 52,544 individual tubular drift tubes. It is one part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, which consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4 to 20 cm, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT) from 56 to 108 cm.

E. Abat; T. N. Addy; T. P. A. Åkesson; J. Alison; F. Anghinolfi; E. Arik; M. Arik; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; O. K. Baker; E. Banas; S. Baron; C. Bault; N. Becerici; A. Beddall; J. Bendotti; D. P. Benjamin; H. Bertelsen; A. Bingul; H. Blampey; A. Bocci; M. Bochenek; V. G. Bondarenko; V. Bychkov; J. Callahan; M. Capeáns Garrido; L. Cardiel Sas; A. Catinaccio; S. A. Cetin; T. Chandler; R. Chritin; P. Cwetanski; M. Dam; H. Danielsson; E. Danilevich; E. David; J. Degenhardt; B. Di Girolamo; F. Dittus; N. Dixon; O. B. Dogan; B. A. Dolgoshein; N. Dressnandt; C. Driouchi; W. L. Ebenstein; P. Eerola; U. Egede; K. Egorov; H. Evans; P. Farthouat; O. L. Fedin; A. J. Fowler; S. Fratina; D. Froidevaux; A. Fry; P. Gagnon; I. L. Gavrilenko; C. Gay; N. Ghodbane; J. Godlewski; M. Goulette; I. Gousakov; N. Grigalashvili; Y. Grishkevich; J. Grognuz; Z. Hajduk; M. Hance; F. Hansen; J. B. Hansen; P. H. Hansen; G. Hanson; G. A. Hare; A. Harvey Jr.; C. Hauviller; A. High; W. Hulsbergen; W. Huta; V. Issakov; S. Istin; V. Jain; G. Jarlskog; L. Jeanty; V. A. Kantserov; B. Kaplan; A. S. Kapliy; S. Katounine; F. Kayumov; P. T. Keener; G. D. Kekelidze; E. Khabarova; A. Khristachev; B. Kisielewski; T. H. Kittelmann; C. Kline; E. B. Klinkby; N. V. Klopov; B. R. Ko; T. Koffas; N. V. Kondratieva; S. P. Konovalov; S. Koperny; H. Korsmo; S. Kovalenko; T. Z. Kowalski; K. Krüger; V. Kramarenko; L. G. Kudin; A.-C. LeBihan; B. C. LeGeyt; K. Levterov; P. Lichard; A. Lindahl; V. Lisan; S. Lobastov; A. Loginov; C. W. Loh; S. Lokwitz; M. C. Long; S. Lucas; A. Lucotte; F. Luehring; B. Lundberg; R. Mackeprang; V. P. Maleev; A. Manara; M. Mandl; A. J. Martin; F. F. Martin; R. Mashinistov; G. M. Mayers; K. W. McFarlane; V. Mialkovski; B. M. Mills; B. Mindur; V. A. Mitsou; J. U. Mjörnmark; S. V. Morozov; E. Morris; S. V. Mouraviev; A. M. Muir; A. Munar; A. V. Nadtochi; S. Y. Nesterov; F. M. Newcomer; N. Nikitin; O. Novgorodova; E. G. Novodvorski; H. Ogren; S. H. Oh; S. B. Oleshko; D. Olivito; J. Olszowska; W. Ostrowicz; M. S. Passmore; S. Patrichev; J. Penwell; F. Perez-Gomez; V. D. Peshekhonov; T. C. Petersen; R. Petti; A. Placci; A. Poblaguev; X. Pons; M. J. Price; O. Rø hne; R. D. Reece; M. B. Reilly; C. Rembser; A. Romaniouk; D. Rousseau; D. Rust; Y. F. Ryabov; V. Ryjov; M. Söderberg; A. Savenkov; J. Saxon; M. Scandurra; V. A. Schegelsky; M. I. Scherzer; M. P. Schmidt; C. Schmitt; E. Sedykh; D. M. Seliverstov; T. Shin; A. Shmeleva; S. Sivoklokov; S. Yu Smirnov; L. Smirnova; O. Smirnova; P. Smith; V. V. Sosnovtsev; G. Sprachmann; S. Subramania; S. I. Suchkov; V. V. Sulin; R. R. Szczygiel; G. Tartarelli; E. Thomson; V. O. Tikhomirov; P. Tipton; J. A. Valls Ferrer; R. Van Berg; V. I. Vassilakopoulos; L. Vassilieva; P. Wagner; R. Wall; C. Wang; D. Whittington; H. H. Williams; A. Zhelezko; K. Zhukov

2008-01-01

171

SSC detectors desperately seek donors  

SciTech Connect

Even if funding for the Superconducting Super Collider is approved by the Clinton administration, funding for the two detectors, the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and the GEM (gammas, electron, and muon detection), remains uncertain. One hundred Japanese physicists have signed on to the SDC and other countries may contribute. The status of GEM is dependent on the amount of funding obtained for SDC.

Taubes, G.

1993-02-05

172

Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) proposes to use personnel dosimetry radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for safeguards purposes. It plans to place these YES\\/NO monitors at barrier penetration points declared closed under IAEA safeguards to detect the passage of plutonium-bearing nuclear material, usually spent fuel. For this application, commercially available dosimeters were surveyed as well as other radiation detectors

P. E. Fehlau; E. J. Dowdy

1981-01-01

173

The D0 detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector.

Bross, A.D.

1995-02-01

174

Detector absorptivity measuring method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for measuring the absorptivity of a radiation detector by making the detector an integral part of a cavity radiometer are described. By substituting the detector for the surface of the cavity upon which the radiation first impinges a comparison is made between the quantity of radiation incident upon the detector and the quantity reflected from the detector. The difference between the two is a measurement of the amount of radiation absorbed by the detector.

Sheets, R. E. (inventor)

1976-01-01

175

Gamma radiation detectors for safeguards applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA uses extensively a variety of gamma radiation detectors to verify nuclear material. These detectors are part of standardized spectrometry systems: germanium detectors for High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS); Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for Room Temperature Gamma Spectrometry (RTGS); and NaI(Tl) detectors for Low Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (LRGS). HRGS with high-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors cooled by liquid nitrogen is

R. Carchon; M. Moeslinger; L. Bourva; C. Bass; M. Zendel

2007-01-01

176

Plastic neutron detectors.  

SciTech Connect

This work demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of semiconducting {pi}-conjugated organic polymers for fast neutron detection via n-p elastic scattering. Charge collection in conjugated polymers in the family of substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s (PPV) was evaluated using band-edge laser and proton beam ionization. These semiconducting materials can have high H/C ratio, wide bandgap, high resistivity and high dielectric strength, allowing high field operation with low leakage current and capacitance noise. The materials can also be solution cast, allowing possible low-cost radiation detector fabrication and scale-up. However, improvements in charge collection efficiency are necessary in order to achieve single particle detection with a reasonable sensitivity. The work examined processing variables, additives and environmental effects. Proton beam exposure was used to verify particle sensitivity and radiation hardness to a total exposure of approximately 1 MRAD. Conductivity exhibited sensitivity to temperature and humidity. The effects of molecular ordering were investigated in stretched films, and FTIR was used to quantify the order in films using the Hermans orientation function. The photoconductive response approximately doubled for stretch-aligned films with the stretch direction parallel to the electric field direction, when compared to as-cast films. The response was decreased when the stretch direction was orthogonal to the electric field. Stretch-aligned films also exhibited a significant sensitivity to the polarization of the laser excitation, whereas drop-cast films showed none, indicating improved mobility along the backbone, but poor {pi}-overlap in the orthogonal direction. Drop-cast composites of PPV with substituted fullerenes showed approximately a two order of magnitude increase in photoresponse, nearly independent of nanoparticle concentration. Interestingly, stretch-aligned composite films showed a substantial decrease in photoresponse with increasing stretch ratio. Other additives examined, including small molecules and cosolvents, did not cause any significant increase in photoresponse. Finally, we discovered an inverse-geometric particle track effect wherein increased track lengths created by tilting the detector off normal incidence resulted in decreased signal collection. This is interpreted as a trap-filling effect, leading to increased carrier mobility along the particle track direction. Estimated collection efficiency along the track direction was near 20 electrons/micron of track length, sufficient for particle counting in 50 micron thick films.

Wilson, Tiffany M.S; King, Michael J.; Doty, F. Patrick

2008-12-01

177

Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

178

Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

179

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1993-01-01

180

Microwave hematoma detector  

DOEpatents

The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA)

2001-01-01

181

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-03-04

182

Metamaterial Based Terahertz Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed, fabricated, and characterized metamaterial enhanced bimaterial cantilever pixels for far-infrared detection. Local heating due to absorption from split ring resonators (SRRs) incorporated directly onto the cantilever pixels leads to mechanical deflection which is readily detected with visible light. Highly responsive pixels have been fabricated for detection at 95 GHz and 693 GHz, demonstrating the frequency agility of our technique, and their subwavelength nature enables their use as a focal plane array (FPA) to image near the diffraction limit. We have obtained single pixel responsivities as high as 16,500 V/W and noise equivalent powers of 10-8 W/Hz1/2 with these first-generation devices, which were achieved at room temperature and pressure. Consequently, MMs hold great promise for facilitating the development of a ``versatile'' THz detector which can a) strongly absorb THz radiation; b) operate at room temperature; c) function as a multi-pixel array for imaging applications; and d) be lightweight and low cost.

Strikwerda, Andrew; Tao, Hu; Kadlec, Emil; Fan, Kebin; Padilla, Willie; Averitt, Richard; Shaner, Eric; Zhang, Xin

2012-02-01

183

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector is designed comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient. 6 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1993-11-09

184

The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector  

SciTech Connect

A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the detector in the radiation environment are discussed. The device has been taking colliding beams data since May of 1992, performing at its best design specifications and enhancing the physics program of CDF.

Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B. [and others

1993-09-01

185

The CDF silicon detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

A major silicon upgrade project is under way for the CDFII experiment that will operate during Run II of the Tevatron in the year 2000. The innermost detector, SVXII, will cover the interaction region with three barrels of five layers of double sided microstrip detectors. In the radial gap between the SVXII and the new main tracking chamber (COT) will be located the ISL that consists of two planes of double sided miscrostrip detectors at large pseudorapidity and one in the central region. A description of the project design and its motivation is presented here.

Azzi, P.

1998-04-01

186

Solid state neutron detector array  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors. 7 figs.

Seidel, J.G.; Ruddy, F.H.; Brandt, C.D.; Dulloo, A.R.; Lott, R.G.; Sirianni, E.; Wilson, R.O.

1999-08-17

187

Solid state neutron detector array  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors.

Seidel, John G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ruddy, Frank H. (Monroeville, PA); Brandt, Charles D. (Mount Lebanon, PA); Dulloo, Abdul R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lott, Randy G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sirianni, Ernest (Monroeville, PA); Wilson, Randall O. (Greensburg, PA)

1999-01-01

188

Thermoluminescent Detectors in Mixed Fields  

E-print Network

This note reports on using of thermoluminescent detectors for radiation monitoring in the LHC tunnel and in the shielded areas around the tunnel. The accumulated annual doses in these areas vary a lot so a dosimeter used there should cover a large dose range. TL detectors can measure dose from 0.1 mGy to few kGy (with a recently proposed new technique which needs more studies up to 1 MGy). This report presents studies of these detectors in mixed fields similar to radiation field in the LHC and the possible usage of their results for calculation of high energy hadron and thermal neutron fluence.

Mala, P; Biskup, B; Roeed, K

2012-01-01

189

Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

Been, J. F.

1972-01-01

190

Prototype Neutron Portal Monitor Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very large drum-shaped neutron detector which could replace the 3He neutron portal monitor detector is under development. Detection is based on the 6Li(n,3H)4He reaction. 6Li metal is evaporated onto aluminum plates then covered with 22-cm x 27-cm ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets and sealed about the edges. The equivalent of 40 detector plates will be arrayed in the 80-cm diameter drum housing and viewed by a single 20-cm diameter hemispherical photomultiplier tube without the use of light guides. Presently 25 detector plates are installed. Light collection tests are performed with a bare 210Po alpha source on a ZnS(Ag) disk. Neutron detection studies include neutrons from a 2-curie PuBe source and from a 0.255-gram 240Pu source.

Schier, W.

2014-05-01

191

Complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An infrared detector having a hole barrier region adjacent to one side of an absorber region, an electron barrier region adjacent to the other side of the absorber region, and a semiconductor adjacent to the electron barrier.

Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

192

Modulated voltage metastable ionization detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The output current from a metastable ionization detector (MID) is applied to a modulation voltage circuit. An adjustment is made to balance out the background current, and an output current, above background, is applied to an input of a strip chart recorder. For low level concentrations, i.e., low detected output current, the ionization potential will be at a maximum and the metastable ionization detector will operate at its most sensitive level. When the detected current from the metastable ionization detector increases above a predetermined threshold level, a voltage control circuit is activated which turns on a high voltage transistor which acts to reduce the ionization potential. The ionization potential applied to the metastable ionization detector is then varied so as to maintain the detected signal level constant. The variation in ionization potential is now related to the concentration of the constituent and a representative amplitude is applied to another input of said strip chart recorder.

Carle, G. C.; Kojiro, D. R.; Humphrey, D. E. (inventors)

1985-01-01

193

Radiation Hazard Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

1978-01-01

194

Moving belt metal detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed a prototype metal detection survey system that will increase the search speed of conventional technology while maintaining high sensitivity. Higher search speeds will reduce the time to clear roads of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IED) and to locate unexploded ordnance (UXO) at Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) sites, thus reducing remediation costs. The new survey sensor system is called the moving belt metal detector (MBMD) and operates by both increasing sensor speed over the ground while maintaining adequate sensor dwell time over the target for good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reducing motion-induced sensor noise. The MBMD uses an array of metal detection sensors mounted on a flexible belt similar to a tank track. The belt motion is synchronized with the forward survey speed so individual sensor elements remain stationary relative to the ground. A single pulsed transmitter coil is configured to provide a uniform magnetic field along the length of the receivers in ground contact. Individual time-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) receivers are designed to sense a single time-gate measurement of the total metal content. Each sensor module consists of a receiver coil, amplifier, digitizing electronics and a low power UHF wireless transmitter. This paper presents the survey system design concepts and metal detection data from various targets at several survey speeds. Although the laboratory prototype is designed to demonstrate metal detection survey speeds up to 10 m/s, higher speeds are achievable with a larger sensor array. In addition, the concept can be adapted to work with other sensor technologies not previously considered for moving platforms.

Nelson, Carl V.; Mendat, Deborah P.; Huynh, Toan B.

2006-05-01

195

Intercomparison of Retrospective Radon Detectors  

SciTech Connect

We performed both a laboratory and field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, Pb-210, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha emission of a Pb-210 decay product, Po-210. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks cm{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) is proportional to the surface alpha activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha activity should be proportional to the accumulated Po-210 and hence, the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to: (1) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, (2) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass implanted polonium activities, and (3) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted Po-210 activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type.

Field, R W.; Steck, D J.; Parkhurst, Maryann (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mahaffey, Judith A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Alavanja, M C. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD)

1998-11-01

196

Current readout of infrared detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A buffered direct-injection (BDI) current readout for infrared detectors is described and analyzed. It is compared with the common direct-injection circuit with respect to injection efficiency, noise, and tolerance of low R(0)A product photovoltaic detectors. Power requirements and threshold control are also discussed. Throughout the analysis, it is clear that much advantage is gained at relatively little cost by the use of a BDI structure for an integrated circuit focal plane.

Bluzer, Nathan; Jensen, Arthur S.

1987-03-01

197

Long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

1993-02-02

198

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

SciTech Connect

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

199

Long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); McAtee, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Unruh, Wesley P. (Los Alamos, NM); Cucchiara, Alfred L. (Los Alamos, NM); Huchton, Roger L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

200

The atmosphere as particle detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

Stanev, Todor

1990-01-01

201

Coal-shale interface detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

Reid, H., Jr. (inventor)

1980-01-01

202

Calibration of the IMB Detector  

SciTech Connect

The IMB detector (named after its founding institutions: University of California, Irvine, the University of Michigan and Brookhaven National Laboratory) collected data on a wide range of phenomena for over eight years. It was the first and the largest of the ring imaging water Cherenkov detectors. The detector consisted of 8000 metric tons of ultra-pure water instrumented with 2048 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs were placed on the roof, floor, and walls of the detector in a lattice of approximately 1 m spacing. It made measurements of contained events that ranged in energy from 15 MeV up to 1.5 GeV. This paper describes the calibration of the IMB detector. This procedure was accurate and stable over a wide range of physical variables. It was used with little change throughout the entire eight-year lifetime of the experiment. The IMB calibration is a model for future large-scale detectors that employ the water Cherenkov technique.

Becker-Szendy, R.; Bionta, R.M.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Claus, R.; Cortez, B.; Dye, S.T.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Gajewski, W.; Ganezer, K.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T.J.; Halverson, P.G.; Hazen, E.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Kropp, W.R.; Learned, J.G.; Losecco, J.M.; Matsuno, S.; /UC, Irvine /Michigan U. /Brookhaven /Boston U. /Hawaii U. /University Coll. London /Warsaw U. /Cleveland State U. /Notre Dame U. /Louisiana State U. /Maryland U. /AT-T Bell Labs, Holmdel /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab /LLNL, Livermore /New Mexico U. /SLAC /Adelaide U. /CERN /Cal State, Dominguez Hills

2012-04-03

203

Physics and Detector Response Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the complexity and resolution of modern detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing detector systems composed of many disparate subsystems requires ef?cient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. Comparisons of different technology options, or geometric layouts, are facilitated if the results can be obtained with a common simulation and reconstruction framework. We have developed efficient and ?exible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development with a minimal investment of time and effort. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system. The reconstruction software and analysis environment are written in Java, providing a modern, object-oriented platform which is independent of the computing operating system.

Graf, Norman A.; McCormick, Jeremy

204

8. Particle detectors 8.1 Emulsions  

E-print Network

leave analyzable tracks. 8.2 Solid-state detectors Solid-state detectors come in different types, first, and the radiation hardness that make then ideally suited for the harsh radiation environment of satellites and high and one wishes the particle to be absorbed in the detector, then water may be a useful detector material

Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

205

8. Particle detectors 8.1 Emulsions  

E-print Network

leave analyzable tracks. 8.2 Solid-state detectors Solid-state detectors come in different types, first, and the radiation hardness that make them ideally suited for the harsh radiation environment of satellites and high and one wishes the particle to be absorbed in the detector, then water may be a useful detector material

Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

206

Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of

A. D. Lavietes; G. Joseph Mauger; E. H. Anderson

1999-01-01

207

The Mark II detector for the SLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mark II detector has been upgraded in preparation for its role as the first detector to take data at the Stanford Linear Collider. The new detector components include the central drift chamber, the time-of-flight system, the coil, the endcap electromagnetic calorimeters and the beam energy and luminosity measuring devices. There have also been improvements in detector hermeticity. All of

G. Abrams; C. E. Adolphsen; C. Akerlof; J. P. Alexander; M. Alvarez; D. Averill; A. R. Baden; J. Ballam; B. C. Barish; T. Barklow; B. A. Barnett; J. Bartelt; D. Blockus; W. de Boer; G. Bonvicini; C. Boswell; A. Boyarski; J. Boyer; B. Brabson; K. Braune; A. Breakstone; J. M. Brom; F. Bulos; P. R. Burchat; D. L. Burke; F. Butler; F. Calvino; R. J. Cence; J. Chapman; M. Chmeissani; D. Cords; D. P. Coupal; P. Dauncey; H. C. Destaebler; D. E. Dorfan; J. M. Dorfan; P. S. Drell; D. C. Drewer; J. Fay; G. J. Feldman; D. Fernandes; E. Fernandez; R. C. Field; W. T. Ford; C. Fordham; R. Frey; D. Fujino; K. K. Gan; C. Gatto; E. Gero; G. Gidal; T. Glanzman; G. Goldhaber; J. J. Gomez Cadenas; X. Gong; G. Gratta; A. Green; P. Grosse-Wiesmann; J. Haggerty; G. Hanson; R. Harr; B. Harral; F. A. Harris; C. M. Hawkes; K. Hayes; C. Hearty; D. Herrup; C. A. Heusch; T. Himel; D. A. Hinshaw; M. Hoenk; S.-O. Holmgren; S. J. Hong; D. Hutchinson; J. Hylen; W. R. Innes; R. G. Jacobsen; M. Jaffre; J. A. Jaros; C. K. Jung; I. Juricic; J. A. Kadyk; D. Karlen; J. Kent; M. King; S. R. Klein; L. Koepke; D. Koetke; A. Koide; S. Komamiya; W. Koska; L. A. Kowalski; W. Kozanecki; J. F. Kral; M. Kuhlen; L. Labarga; A. J. Lankford; R. R. Larsen; M. E. Levi; Z. Li; A. M. Litke; V. Lüth; G. R. Lynch; J. A. McKenna; J. A. J. Matthews; T. Mattison; B. D. Milliken; K. C. Moffeit; L. Müller; C. T. Munger; W. N. Murray; J. Nash; M. E. Nelson; D. Nitz; H. Ogren; R. A. Ong; K. F. O'Shaughnessy; S. I. Parker; C. Peck; J. Perl; M. L. Perl; F. Perrier; A. Petersen; M. Petradza; R. Pitthan; F. C. Porter; P. Rankin; J. D. Richman; K. Riles; F. R. Rouse; D. R. Rust; H. F. W. Sadrozinski; M. W. Schaad; W. B. Schmidke; B. A. Schumm; A. S. Schwarz; A. Seiden; J. G. Smith; A. Snyder; E. Soderstrom; D. P. Stoker; R. Stroynowski; M. Swartz; R. E. Taylor; R. Thun; G. H. Trilling; R. Tschirhart; M. Turala; R. van Kooten; S. Vejcik; H. Veltman; P. Voruganti; S. R. Wagner; S. Watson; P. Weber; A. Weigend; A. J. Weinstein; A. J. Weir; S. Weisz; S. L. White; E. Wicklund; R. C. Wolf; D. R. Wood; M. Woods; G. Wormser; R. Wright; D. Y. Wu; M. Yurko; C. Zaccardelli; C. von Zanthier

1989-01-01

208

Using near detector(s) to predict the far detector events in NOvA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The NOvA experiment is designed to search for a non-vanishing mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} with unprecedented sensitivity and has the potential to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy and constrain CP-violation phase. NOvA will use two functionally identical detectors at near and far locations to eliminate sensitivity to modeling of neutrino flux and cross-sections. The near detector will measure neutrino rate to constrain backgrounds expected in the far detector which will search for appearance of electron neutrinos and/or anti-neutrinos using Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam. This report describes initial thoughts on how the available beams and detectors may be used to reach the NOvA goals.

Djurcic, Zelimir; /Argonne

2011-01-01

209

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

210

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

211

Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

2013-01-01

212

Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Gatti, E. [Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milano (Italy)

1992-12-31

213

Report on Advanced Detector Development  

SciTech Connect

Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

James K. Jewell

2012-09-01

214

The CMS Detector Power System  

E-print Network

The power system for the on-detector electronics of the CMS Experiment comprises approximately 12000 low voltage channels, with a total power requirement of 1.1 MVA. The radiation environment inside the CMS experimental cavern combined with an ambient magnetic field (reaching up to 1.3 kGauss at the detector periphery) severely limit the available choices of low voltage supplies, effectively ruling out the use of commercial off-the-shelf DC power supplies. Typical current requirements at the CMS detector front end range from 1A-30A per channel at voltages ranging between 1.25V and 8V. This requires in turn that the final stage of the low voltage power supply be located on the detector periphery. Power to the CMS front-end electronics is stabilized by a 2 MVA uninterruptible power supply (UPS) located in a CMS surface building. This UPS isolates the CMS detector from disturbances on the local power grid and provides for 2 minutes of autonomy following a power failure, allowing for an orderly shutdown of detect...

Lusin, S

2008-01-01

215

Airport detectors and orthopaedic implants.  

PubMed

As a result of the rising threats of terrorism, airport security has become a major issue. Patients with orthopaedic implants are concerned that they may activate alarms at airport security gates. A literature overview showed that the activation rate of the alarm by hand-held detectors is higher than for arch detectors (100% versus 56%). Arch detection rate has significantly increased from 0% before 1995 up to 83.3% after 1994. Reported factors which influence detection rates are implant mass, implant combinations, implant volume, transfer speed, side of implant, detector model, sensitivity settings, material and tissue masking. Detection rate has been improved by more sensitive devices and improved filter software. Doctors should be able to objectively inform patients. A form is presented which will easily inform the airport security staff. PMID:16184989

van der Wal, Bart C H; Grimm, Bernd; Heyligers, Ide C

2005-08-01

216

MTF optimization of MCT detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial applications are challenging infrared (IR) technologies requiring the best system performances. Usually, the need is a trade-off between the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and spatial response of the IR detector, and in particular the modulation transfer function (MTF) performance. MTF optimization requires a deep understanding of detector physics and the use of evaluation tools. This paper describes the optimization of an n-on-p Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) pixel design using a MTF mathematical model to predict the performance.

Martineau, L.; Rubaldo, L.; Chabuel, F.; Gravrand, Olivier

2013-10-01

217

High-efficiency photoionization detector  

SciTech Connect

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 +- 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20/sup 0/C.

Anderson, D.F.

1981-05-12

218

A novel threshold Cherenkov detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are studying a novel threshold Cherenkov detector system for the discrimination between charged pions and kaons in an experiment on CP breaking at LEAR, CERN. Cherenkov UV-light is produced in an FC72 radiator and detected in a row of 2 cm diameter quartz tubes filled with TMAE vapour at 45°C. Inside a tube a wire is stretched along the axis as anode and a nichrome spiral functions as cathode. Computer simulations have shown that good pion/kaon discrimination can be obtained. First results obtained with a small quartz-tube light detector are presented.

Okx, W. J. C.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Looman, M.; Tanner, N. W.

1988-12-01

219

Microradiography with Semiconductor Pixel Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution radiography (with X-rays, neutrons, heavy charged particles, …) often exploited also in tomographic mode to provide 3D images stands as a powerful imaging technique for instant and nondestructive visualization of fine internal structure of objects. Novel types of semiconductor single particle counting pixel detectors offer many advantages for radiation imaging: high detection efficiency, energy discrimination or direct energy measurement, noiseless digital integration (counting), high frame rate and virtually unlimited dynamic range. This article shows the application and potential of pixel detectors (such as Medipix2 or TimePix) in different fields of radiation imaging.

Jakubek, Jan; Cejnarova, Andrea; Dammer, Ji?í; Holý, Tomáš; Platkevi?, Michal; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Vav?ík, Daniel; Vykydal, Zden?k

2007-11-01

220

Silicon Detector Letter of Intent  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

2010-05-26

221

Construction of the CDF silicon vertex detector  

SciTech Connect

Technical details and methods used in constructing the CDF silicon vertex detector are presented. This description includes a discussion of the foam-carbon fiber composite structure used to silicon microstrip detectors and the procedure for achievement of 5 {mu}m detector alignment. The construction of the beryllium barrel structure, which houses the detector assemblies, is also described. In addition, the 10 {mu}m placement accuracy of the detectors in the barrel structure is discussed and the detector cooling and mounting systems are described. 12 refs.

Skarha, J.; Barnett, B.; Boswell, C.; Snider, F.; Spies, A.; Tseng, J.; Vejcik, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.; Gonzales, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Nelson, C.; Segler, S.; Shaw, T.; Tkaczyk, S.; Turner, K.; Wesson, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Carithers, W.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneider, O.; Wester, W.; Wong, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Amidei, D.; Derwent, P. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gold, M.; Matthews, J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L. [Padua Univ. (Italy); Bedeschi, F.; Bolognesi, V.; Dell`Agnello, S.; Galeotti, S.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Punzi, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Risotri, L.; Tartarelli, F.; Turini, N.; Wenzel, H.; Zetti, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)]|[Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Bailey, M.; Garfinkel, A.; Shaw, N. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Tipton, P.; Watts, G. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States)

1992-04-01

222

An inexpensive vehicle speed detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-power minicomputer can plug into automobile cigarette lighter. It measures time it takes observed car to travel premeasured distance and provides immediate readout of speed. Potentially, detector could be manufactured for less than $200 per unit and would have very low maintenance cost.

Broussard, P., Jr.

1973-01-01

223

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Mendez, Victor P. (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1988-01-01

224

Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount

Halina Abramowicz; Angel Abusleme; Konstantin Afanaciev; Jonathan Aguilar; Prasoon Ambalathankandy; Philip Bambade; Matthias Bergholz; Ivanka Bozovic-Jelisavcic; Elena Castro; Georgy Chelkov; Cornelia Coca; Witold Daniluk; Angelo Dragone; Laurentiu Dumitru; Konrad Elsener; Igor Emeliantchik; Tomasz Fiutowski; Mikhail Gostkin; Christian Grah; Grzegorz Grzelak; Gunter Haller; Hans Henschel; Alexandr Ignatenko; Marek Idzik; Kazutoshi Ito; Tatjana Jovin; Eryk Kielar; Jerzy Kotula; Zinovi Krumstein; Szymon Kulis; Wolfgang Lange; Wolfgang Lohmann; Aharon Levy; Arkadiusz Moszczynski; Uriel Nauenberg; Olga Novgorodova; Marin Ohlerich; Marius Orlandea; Gleb Oleinik; Krzysztof Oliwa; Alexander Olshevski; Mila Pandurovic; Bogdan Pawlik; Dominik Przyborowski; Yutaro Sato; Iftach Sadeh; Andre Sailer; Ringo Schmidt; Bruce Schumm; Sergey Schuwalow; Ivan Smiljanic; Krzysztof Swientek; Yosuke Takubo; Eliza Teodorescu; Wojciech Wierba; Hitoshi Yamamoto; Leszek Zawiejski; Jinlong Zhang

2010-01-01

225

Contamination avoidance detector test suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination avoidancerefers to the military doctrine of avoiding or minimizing the effects of Chemical and Biological (CB) threats. The location, identification and tracking of CB hazards are also major concern for Homeland CB defense. Several advanced detector systems for both chemical and biological threats are being developed for the Armed Services. Current test equipment and methodologies are inadequate for the

Arthur R. Maret; Lorraine C. Castillo; Eddie Meadows; Lyman W. Condie

2003-01-01

226

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

1988-11-15

227

Neutron coincidence detectors employing heterogeneous materials  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector relies upon optical separation of different scintillators to measure the total energy and/or number of neutrons from a neutron source. In pulse mode embodiments of the invention, neutrons are detected in a first detector which surrounds the neutron source and in a second detector surrounding the first detector. An electronic circuit insures that only events are measured which correspond to neutrons first detected in the first detector followed by subsequent detection in the second detector. In spectrometer embodiments of the invention, neutrons are thermalized in the second detector which is formed by a scintillator-moderator and neutron energy is measured from the summed signals from the first and second detectors.

Czirr, J. Bartley (Mapleton, UT); Jensen, Gary L. (Orem, UT)

1993-07-27

228

The H1 detector at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

General aspects of the H1 detector at the electron-proton storage ring HERA as well as technical descriptions of the magnet, luminosity system, trigger, slow-control, data acquisition and off-line data handling are given. The three major components of the detector, the tracking, calorimeter and muon detectors, will be described in a forthcoming article. The present paper describes the detector that was

I. Abt; T. Ahmed; S. Aid; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; R. D. Appuhn; C. Arnault; M. Arpagaus; A. Babaev; H. Bärwolff; J. Bán; E. Banas; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; M. Barth; U. Bassler; F. Basti; D. E. Baynham; J.-M. Baze; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; D. Bederede; H.-J. Behrend; C. Beigbeder; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; H. Bergstein; R. Bernard; G. Bernardi; R. Bernet; R. Bernier; U. Berthon; G. Bertrand-Coremans; M. Besançon; R. Beyer; J.-C. Biasci; P. Biddulph; V. Bidoli; E. Binder; P. Binko; J.-C. Bizot; V. Blobel; F. Blouzon; H. Blume; K. Borras; V. Boudry; C. Bourdarios; F. Brasse; W. Braunschweig; D. Breton; H. Brettel; V. Brisson; D. Bruncko; C. Brune; U. Buchner; L. Büngener; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; P. Burmeister; A. Busata; G. Buschhorn; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; F. Charles; M. Charlet; R. Chase; D. Clarke; A. B. Clegg; M. Colombo; V. Commichau; J. F. Connolly; U. Cornett; J. A. Coughlan; A. Courau; M.-C. Cousinou; Ch. Coutures; A. Coville; G. Cozzika; D. A. Cragg; L. Criegee; H. I. Cronström; N. H. Cunliffe; J. Cvach; A. Cyz; S. Dagoret; J. B. Dainton; M. Danilov; A. W. E. Dann; D. Darvill; W. D. Dau; J. David; M. David; R. J. Day; E. Deffur; B. Delcourt; L. Del Buono; F. Descamps; M. Devel; J. P. Dewulf; A. De Roeck; P. Dingus; K. Djidi; C. Dollfus; J. D. Dowell; H. B. Dreis; A. Drescher; U. Dretzler; J. Duboc; A. Ducorps; D. Düllmann; O. Dünger; H. Duhm; B. Dulny; F. Dupont; R. Ebbinghaus; M. Eberle; J. Ebert; T. R. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; B. W. H. Edwards; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; S. Eichenberger; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; N. N. Ellis; R. J. Ellison; E. Elsen; A. Epifantsev; M. Erdmann; W. Erdmann; G. Ernst; E. Evrard; G. Falley; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; D. Feeken; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; Z. Y. Feng; I. F. Fensome; J. Fent; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; K. Finke; K. Flamm; W. Flauger; M. Fleischer; M. Flieser; P. S. Flower; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; B. Fominykh; M. Forbush; J. Formánek; J. M. Foster; G. Franke; E. Fretwurst; W. Fröchtenicht; P. Fuhrmann; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; K. Gadow; K. Gamerdinger; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; E. Gazo; A. Gellrich; M. Gennis; U. Gensch; H. Genzel; R. Gerhards; K. Geske; I. Giesgen; D. Gillespie; W. Glasgow; L. Godfrey; J. Godlewski; U. Goerlach; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; A. M. Goodall; I. Gorelov; P. Goritchev; L. Gosset; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; C. Gregory; H. Greif; M. Grewe; G. Grindhammer; A. Gruber; C. Gruber; S. Günther; J. Haack; M. Haguenauer; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; D. Hammer; O. Hamon; M. Hampel; D. Handschuh; K. Hangarter; E. M. Hanlon; M. Hapke; U. Harder; J. Harjes; P. Hartz; P. E. Hatton; R. Haydar; W. J. Haynes; J. Heatherington; V. Hedberg; C. R. Hedgecock; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; H. Henschel; R. Herma; I. Herynek; W. Hildesheim; P. Hill; D. L. Hill; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; K. C. Hoeger; R. B. Hopes; R. Horisberger; A. Hrisoho; J. Huber; Ph. Huet; H. Hufnagel; N. Huot; J.-F. Huppert; M. Ibbotson; D. Imbault; H. Itterbeck; M.-A. Jabiol; A. Jacholkowska; C. Jacobsson; M. Jaffré; T. Jansen; P. Jean; J. Jeanjean; L. Jönsson; K. Johannsen; D. P. Johnson; L. Johnson; P. Jovanovic; H. Jung; P. I. P. Kalmus; D. Kant; G. Kantel; S. Karstensen; S. Kasarian; R. Kaschowitz; P. Kasselmann; U. Kathage; H. H. Kaufmann; G. Kemmerling; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; W. Ko; T. Kobler; J. Koch; T. Köhler; J. Köhne; M. Kolander; H. Kolanoski; F. Kole; J. Koll; S. D. Kolya; B. Koppitz; V. Korbel; M. Korn; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; F. Krivan; D. Krücker; U. Krüger; U. Krüner-Marquis; M. Kubantsev; J. P. Kubenka; T. Külper; H.-J. Küsel; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kurca; J. Kurzhöfer; B. Kuznik; B. Laforge; F. Lamarche; R. Lander; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; R. Langkau; P. Lanius; J.-F. Laporte; L. Laptin; H. Laskus; A. Lebedev; M. Lemler; U. Lenhardt; A. Leuschner; C. Leverenz; S. Levonian; D. Lewin; Ch. Ley; A. Lindner; G. Lindström; F. Linsel; J. Lipinski; B. Liss; P. Loch; A. B. Lodge; H. Lohmander; G. C. Lopez; J.-P. Lottin; V. Lubimov; K. Ludwig; D. Lüers; N. Lugetski; B. Lundberg; K. Maeshima; N. Magnussen; E. Malinovski; S. Mani; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; J. Martens; F. Martin; G. Martin; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; V. Masbender; S. Masson; A. Mavroidis; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; J. Meissner; D. Mercer; T. Merz; C. A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; S. Mikocki; J. L. Mills; V. Milone; J. Möck; E. Monnier; B. Montés; F. Moreau; J. Moreels; B. Morgan; J. V. Morris; J. M. Morton; K. Müller; P. Murín; S. A. Murray; V. Nagovizin; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; P. Nayman; A. Nepeipivo; P. Newman; D. Newman-Coburn; D. Newton; D. Neyret; H. K. Nguyen; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; R. Nisius; T. Novák; H. Nováková; G. Nowak; G. W. Noyes; M. Nyberg

1997-01-01

229

Detector For FM Voice Or Digital Signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frequency-modulation (FM) detector operates with either analog audio (usually voice) signals or digital signals sent by differential minimum-shift keying (DMSK). Performance expected similar to conventional limiter/discriminator FM detectors. Detector operates at baseband, obviating need for band-pass filtering at intermediate frequency. Baseband version made in very-large-scale integrated circuit. New detector useful in mobile communications, where trend is toward integrated voice and data service.

Davarian, Faramaz

1989-01-01

230

Analysis of Cadmium Based Neutron Detector Configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to national security concerns pertaining to the smuggling of special nuclear materials and a small supply of He-3 for use in neutron detectors, there is currently a need for a new kind of neutron detector. Using Monte Carlo techniques I have studied the neutron capture efficiency of an array of cadmium wedge detectors in the presence of a californium source. By using varying numbers of wedges and comparing their capture ratios we will be better able to design future detectors.

James, Brian; Rees, Lawrence; Czirr, J. Bart

2012-10-01

231

Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector  

DOEpatents

A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

1987-01-01

232

The Semiconductor Tracker Detector Control System  

E-print Network

The Semiconductor Tracker Detector Control System Requirements Document Reference cmproj #12; ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Issue: Draft 1.0 Detector Control System Date: November 21, 1996 1: requested by SCT page 2 #12; ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Issue: Draft 1.0 Detector Control System Date

California at Santa Cruz, University of

233

A mobile antineutrino detector with plastic scintillators  

E-print Network

We propose a new type segmented antineutrino detector made of plastic scintillators for the nuclear safeguard application. A small prototype was built and tested to measure background events. A satisfactory unmanned field operation of the detector system was demonstrated. Besides, a detailed Monte Carlo simulation code was developed to estimate the antineutrino detection efficiency of the detector.

Yasuhiro Kuroda; Shugo Oguri; Yo Kato; Ryoko Nakata; Yoshizumi Inoue; Chikara Ito; Makoto Minowa

2012-06-28

234

24 CFR 965.805 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with at least one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector, or such greater...hearing-impaired residents, smoke detectors must be hard-wired. (2) After October 30...for each area, of battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detectors to serve as...

2010-04-01

235

Quantum Opportunities in Gravitational Wave Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Direct observation of gravitational waves should open a new window into the Universe. Gravitational wave detectors are the most sensitive position meters ever constructed. The quantum limit in gravitational wave detectors opens up a whole new field of study. Quantum opportunities in gravitational wave detectors include applications of quantum optics techniques and new tools for quantum measurement on truly macroscopic (human) scales.

Mavalvala, Negris (MIT) [MIT

2012-03-14

236

Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

2013-11-19

237

Physics Capabilities of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article I summarize the physics potential of future atmospheric neutrino detectors. I consider two types of detectors - magnetized iron calorimeter pursued by the INO collaboration and a large volume liquid argon time projection chamber. I discuss the hierarchy and octant sensitivity in these detectors in view of moderately large values of ?13 measured by reactor experiments.

Goswami, Srubabati

2013-04-01

238

Development of far-infrared semiconductor detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent developments of semiconductor Si, Ge and GaAs blocked impurity band detectors (BIBs), and Si and GaAs homojunction interfacial work-function internal photoemission (HIWIP) far-infrared (FIR) detectors in extending the wavelength coverage and improving the focal plane array (FPA) performance are reviewed. The advantages, current status, and potential limitations of these FIR detectors are also discussed

W. Z. Shen

2000-01-01

239

The ATLAS Inner Detector commissioning and calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS Inner Detector is a composite tracking system consisting of silicon pixels, silicon strips and straw tubes in a 2 T magnetic field. Its installation was completed in August 2008 and the detector took part in data-taking with single LHC beams and cosmic rays. The initial detector operation, hardware commissioning and in-situ calibrations are described. Tracking performance has been

Georges Aad

2010-01-01

240

Applying the helium ionization detector in chromatography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High noise levels and oversensitivity of helium detector make flame-ionization and thermal-conductivity detectors more suitable for chromotography. Deficiencies are eliminated by modifying helium device to operate in saturation rather than multiplication mode. Result is low background current, low noise, high stability, and high sensitivity. Detector analyzes halocarbons, hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and inorganics without requiring expensive research-grade helium.

Gibson, E. K.; Andrawes, F. F.; Brazell, R. S.

1981-01-01

241

Silicon radiation detectors - materials and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon nuclear radiation detectors are available today in a large variety of sizes and types. This profusion has been made possible by the ever increasing quality and diameter silicon single crystals, new processing technologies and techniques, and innovative detector design. The salient characteristics of the four basic detector groups, diffused junction, ion implanted, surface barrier, and lithium drift are reviewed

J. T. Walton; E. E. Haller

1983-01-01

242

InI nuclear radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor radiation detectors were fabricated on single crystal wafers on indium iodide and tested both as direct radiation detectors and as optical detectors coupled to a scintillator crystal. Indium iodide is shown to be a promising material for fabricating room-temperature photodetectors for use in scintillation spectroscopy due to its high resistivity, good charge transport properties, and high quantum efficiency in

M. R. Squillante; C. Zhou; J. Zhang; L. P. Moy; K. S. Shah

1992-01-01

243

Silicon radiation detectors: Materials and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon nuclear radiation detectors are available today in a large variety of sizes and types. This profusion was made possible by the ever increasing quality and diameter silicon single crystals, new processing technologies and techniques, and innovative detector design. The salient characteristics of the four basic detector groups, diffused junction, ion implanted, surface barrier, and lithium drift are reviewed along

J. T. Walton; E. E. Haller

1982-01-01

244

Subatomic Physics Detector Lab Design, construction and testing of particle detectors for  

E-print Network

. Synthetic diamond used as a semiconductor detector (eh pair creation) ­ fast response, low noise ­ very imaging at HSC #12; Diamond Detectors for Particle Physics J.W. Martin et al, U. Winnipeg Detectors for position sensitivity. polycrystalline diamond after surface prep at NSFL ebeam in to expt.Diamond detector

Martin, Jeff

245

Electro-optic Lightning Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, alignment, calibration, and field deployment of a solid-state lightning detector is described. The primary sensing component of the detector is a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) electro-optic crystal that is attached in series to a flat plate aluminum antenna; the antenna is exposed to the ambient thundercloud electric field. A semiconductor laser diode (lambda = 685 nm), polarizing optics, and the crystal are arranged in a Pockels cell configuration. Lightning-caused electric field changes are related to small changes in the transmission of laser light through the optical cell. Several hundred lightning electric field change excursions were recorded during five thunderstorms that occurred in the summer of 1998 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in northern Alabama.

Koshak, William J.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

1996-01-01

246

Plasma Panel Based Radiation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a gaseous micropattern radiation detector under current development. It has many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels (PDPs). It comprises a dense matrix of small, gas plasma discharge cells within a hermetically sealed panel. As in PDPs, it uses non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, refractory metal electrodes, and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing these devices primarily as thin, low-mass detectors with gas gaps from a few hundred microns to a few millimeters. The PPS is a high gain, inherently digital device with the potential for fast response times, fine position resolution (< 50 m RMS) and low cost. In this paper we report here on prototype PPS experimental results in detecting betas, protons and cosmic muons, and we extrapolate on the PPS potential for applications including detection of alphas, heavy-ions at low to medium energy, thermal neutrons and X-rays.

Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University; Ferretti, Claudio [University of Michigan; Bentefour, E [Ion Beam Applications; Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan

2013-01-01

247

Massively Parallel MRI Detector Arrays  

PubMed Central

Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

2013-01-01

248

The BELLE silicon vertex detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silicon vertex detector has been developed for the BELLE experiment at the KEK B-factory to be used to determine the relative displacements of B-meson decay vertices for CP violation measurements. The device has been successfully installed and operated with high-luminosity beam conditions. The average strip yield is larger than 96%, including the preamplifier electronics yield and the detector is currently working stably with a signal-to-noise ratio of 17-40. The measured impact parameter resolution agrees with expectations based on Monte Carlo simulations, and the measured D 0 lifetime is in good agreement with the particle data group's average of other measurements. Several B?J/?K events produced at the ?(4S) resonance have been detected and separate decay vertices have been found.

Alimonti, G.; Aihara, H.; Alexander, J.; Asano, Y.; Bakich, A.; Bo?ek, A.; Bana?, E.; Browder, T.; Dragic, J.; Fukunaga, C.; Gordon, A.; Guler, H.; Everton, C.; Heenan, E.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Hastings, N.; Hara, T.; Hojo, T.; Higuchi, T.; Iwai, G.; Ishino, H.; Ja?ocha, P.; Korotuschenko, K.; Kaneko, J.; Kapusta, P.; Kawasaki, T.; Lange, J. S.; Li, Y.; Marlow, D.; Moloney, G.; Moffitt, L.; Mori, S.; Matsubara, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S.; Ostrowicz, W.; Pa?ka, H.; Peak, L. S.; Ryuko, J.; Ró?a?ska, M.; Sevior, M.; Shimada, J.; Sumisawa, K.; Stock, R.; Stani?, S.; Swain, S.; Taylor, G.; Takasaki, F.; Tajima, H.; Trabelsi, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Takahashi, S.; Tomura, T.; Tsuboyama, T.; Tsujita, Y.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamada, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Zhao, H.; Žontar, D.

2000-10-01

249

Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors  

E-print Network

Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/P12002

2010-01-01

250

Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

Abramowicz, H.; Abusleme, A.; Afanaciev, K.; Aguilar, J.; Ambalathankandy, P.; Bambade, P.; Bergholz, M.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Castro, E.; Chelkov, G.; Coca, C.; Daniluk, W.; Dragone, A.; Dumitru, L.; Elsener, K.; Emeliantchik, I.; Fiutowski, T.; Gostkin, M.; Grah, C.; Grzelak, G.; Haller, G.; Henschel, H.; Ignatenko, A.; Idzik, M.; Ito, K.; Jovin, T.; Kielar, E.; Kotula, J.; Krumstein, Z.; Kulis, S.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Levy, A.; Moszczynski, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Novgorodova, O.; Ohlerich, M.; Orlandea, M.; Oleinik, G.; Oliwa, K.; Olshevski, A.; Pandurovic, M.; Pawlik, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Sato, Y.; Sadeh, I.; Sailer, A.; Schmidt, R.; Schumm, B.; Schuwalow, S.; Smiljanic, I.; Swientek, K.; Takubo, Y.; Teodorescu, E.; Wierba, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Zawiejski, L.; Zhang, J.

2010-12-01

251

Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector  

SciTech Connect

Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ? has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

2007-10-09

252

The BTeV Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BTeV experiment is designed to investigate CP violation, mixing and rare decays in the b and c quark systems produced in forward direction at proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab. The BTeV detector will use silicon pixels for vertex reconstruction, silicon microstrips and straw chambers for charged particles momentum measurement, RICH and lead-tungstate crystals for particle identification and calorimetry, and proportional tubes for muon detection. The experiment will trigger on detached b vertices at the first-level and employ a very high speed data acquisition system. We will review main components and unique features of the BTeV detector and discuss progress in our R program.

Ledovskoy, Alexander

2003-04-01

253

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

254

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

255

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

1994-05-03

256

The ATLAS Detector Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

2012-12-01

257

The B AB AR detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e? B Factory operating at the ?(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located

B. Aubert; A. Bazan; A. Boucham; D. Boutigny; I. De Bonis; J. Favier; J.-M. Gaillard; A. Jeremie; Y. Karyotakis; T. Le Flour; J. P. Lees; S. Lieunard; P. Petitpas; P. Robbe; V. Tisserand; K. Zachariadou; A. Palano; G. P. Chen; J. C. Chen; N. D. Qi; G. Rong; P. Wang; Y. S. Zhu; G. Eigen; P. L. Reinertsen; B. Stugu; B. Abbott; G. S. Abrams; L. Amerman; A. W. Borgland; A. B. Breon; D. Brown; J. Button-Shafer; A. R. Clark; S. Dardin; C. Day; S. F. Dow; Q. Fan; I. Gaponenko; M. S. Gill; F. R. Goozen; S. J. Gowdy; A. Gritsan; Y. Groysman; C. Hernikl; R. G. Jacobsen; R. C. Jared; R. W. Kadel; J. Kadyk; A. Karcher; L. T. Kerth; I. Kipnis; S. Kluth; J. F. Kral; R. Lafever; C. LeClerc; M. E. Levi; S. A. Lewis; C. Lionberger; T. Liu; M. Long; L. Luo; G. Lynch; P. Luft; E. Mandelli; M. Marino; K. Marks; C. Matuk; A. B. Meyer; R. Minor; A. Mokhtarani; M. Momayezi; M. Nyman; P. J. Oddone; J. Ohnemus; D. Oshatz; S. Patton; M. Pedrali-Noy; A. Perazzo; C. Peters; W. Pope; M. Pripstein; D. R. Quarrie; J. E. Rasson; N. A. Roe; A. Romosan; M. T. Ronan; V. G. Shelkov; R. Stone; P. D. Strother; A. V. Telnov; H. von der Lippe; T. F. Weber; W. A. Wenzel; G. Zizka; P. G. Bright-Thomas; C. M. Hawkes; A. Kirk; D. J. Knowles; S. W. O'Neale; A. T. Watson; N. K. Watson; T. Deppermann; H. Koch; J. Krug; M. Kunze; B. Lewandowski; K. Peters; H. Schmuecker; M. Steinke; J. C. Andress; N. R. Barlow; W. Bhimji; N. Chevalier; P. J. Clark; W. N. Cottingham; N. De Groot; N. Dyce; B. Foster; A. Mass; J. D. McFall; D. Wallom; F. F. Wilson; K. Abe; C. Hearty; J. A. McKenna; D. Thiessen; B. Camanzi; T. J. Harrison; A. K. McKemey; J. Tinslay; E. I. Antohin; V. E. Blinov; A. D. Bukin; D. A. Bukin; A. R. Buzykaev; M. S. Dubrovin; V. B. Golubev; V. N. Ivanchenko; G. M. Kolachev; A. A. Korol; E. A. Kravchenko; S. F. Mikhailov; A. P. Onuchin; A. A. Salnikov; S. I. Serednyakov; Yu. I. Skovpen; V. I. Telnov; A. N. Yushkov; J. Booth; A. J. Lankford; M. Mandelkern; S. Pier; D. P. Stoker; G. Zioulas; A. Ahsan; K. Arisaka; C. Buchanan; S. Chun; R. Faccini; D. B. MacFarlane; S. A. Prell; Sh. Rahatlou; G. Raven; V. Sharma; S. Burke; D. Callahan; C. Campagnari; B. Dahmes; D. Hale; P. A. Hart; N. Kuznetsova; S. Kyre; S. L. Levy; O. Long; A. Lu; J. May; J. D. Richman; W. Verkerke; M. Witherell; S. Yellin; J. Beringer; J. DeWitt; D. E. Dorfan; A. M. Eisner; A. Frey; A. A. Grillo; M. Grothe; C. A. Heusch; R. P. Johnson; W. Kroeger; W. S. Lockman; T. Pulliam; W. Rowe; H. Sadrozinski; T. Schalk; R. E. Schmitz; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; E. N. Spencer; M. Turri; W. Walkowiak; M. Wilder; D. C. Williams; E. Chen; G. P. Dubois-Felsmann; A. Dvoretskii; J. E. Hanson; D. G. Hitlin; Yu. G. Kolomensky; S. Metzler; J. Oyang; F. C. Porter; A. Ryd; A. Samuel; M. Weaver; S. Yang; R. Y. Zhu; S. Devmal; T. L. Geld; S. Jayatilleke; G. Mancinelli; B. T. Meadows; M. D. Sokoloff; P. Bloom; B. Broomer; E. Erdos; S. Fahey; W. T. Ford; F. Gaede; W. C. van Hoek; D. R. Johnson; A. K. Michael; U. Nauenberg; A. Olivas; P. Rankin; J. Roy; S. Sen; J. G. Smith; D. L. Wagner; J. Blouw; J. L. Harton; M. Krishnamurthy; A. Soffer; W. H. Toki; D. W. Warner; R. J. Wilson; J. Zhang; T. Brandt; J. Brose; G. Dahlinger; M. Dickopp; R. S. Dubitzky; P. Eckstein; H. Futterschneider; M. L. Kocian; R. Krause; R. Müller-Pfefferkorn; K. R. Schubert; R. Schwierz; B. Spaan; L. Wilden; L. Behr; D. Bernard; G. R. Bonneaud; F. Brochard; J. Cohen-Tanugi; S. Ferrag; G. Fouque; F. Gastaldi; P. Matricon; P. Mora de Freitas; C. Renard; E. Roussot; S. T'Jampens; C. Thiebaux; G. Vasileiadis; M. Verderi; A. Anjomshoaa; R. Bernet; F. Di Lodovico; F. Muheim; S. Playfer; J. E. Swain; M. Falbo; C. Bozzi; S. Dittongo; M. Folegani; L. Piemontese; A. C. Ramusino; E. Treadwell; F. Anulli; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; D. Falciai; G. Finocchiaro; P. Patteri; I. M. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; Y. Xie; A. Zallo; S. Bagnasco; A. Buzzo; R. Contri; G. Crosetti; P. Fabbricatore; S. Farinon; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; S. Minutoli; M. R. Monge; R. Musenich; M. Pallavicini; R. Parodi; S. Passaggio; F. C. Pastore; C. Patrignani; M. G. Pia; C. Priano; E. Robutti; A. Santroni; R. Bartoldus; T. Dignan; U. Mallik; J. Cochran; H. B. Crawley; P. A. Fischer; J. Lamsa; R. McKay; W. T. Meyer; E. I. Rosenberg; J. Albert; C. Beigbeder; M. Benkebil; D. Breton; R. Cizeron; S. Du; G. Grosdidier; C. Hast; A. Höcker; H. M. Lacker; V. LePeltier; A. M. Lutz; S. Plaszczynski; M. H. Schune; S. Trincaz-Duvoid; K. Truong; A. Valassi; G. Wormser; O. Alford; D. Behne; R. M. Bionta; J. Bowman; V. Brigljevi?; A. Brooks; V. A. Dacosta; O. Fackler; D. Fujino; M. Harper; D. J. Lange; M. Mugge; T. G. O'Connor; H. Olson; L. Ott; E. Parker; B. Pedrotti; M. Roeben; X. Shi; K. van Bibber; T. J. Wenaus; D. M. Wright; C. R. Wuest; B. Yamamoto; M. Carroll; P. Cooke; J. R. Fry; E. Gabathuler; R. Gamet; M. George; M. Kay; S. McMahon

2002-01-01

258

Direct digital conversion detector technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A\\/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A\\/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A\\/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept

William J. Mandl; Richard Fedors

1995-01-01

259

Germanium Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form. The advantages of the Si blocked impurity band (BIB) detector invented by M. D. Petroff and M. G. Stabelbroek are noted: smaller detection volume leading to a reduction of cosmic ray interference, extended wavelength response because of dopant wavefunction overlap, and photoconductive gain of unity. It is argued that the stated advantages of Si BIB detectors should be realizable for Ge BIB detectors. Information is given on detector development, subtrate choice and preparation, wafer polising, epitaxy, characterization of epi layers, and preliminary Ge BIB detector test results.

Haller, E. E.; Baumann, H.; Beeman, J. W.; Hansen, W. L.; Luke, P. N.; Lutz, M.; Rossington, C. S.; Wu, I. C.

1989-01-01

260

Stressed detector arrays for airborne astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of stressed Ge:Ga detector arrays for far-infrared astronomy from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) is discussed. Researchers successfully constructed and used a three channel detector array on five flights from the KAO, and have conducted laboratory tests of a two-dimensional, 25 elements (5x5) detector array. Each element of the three element array performs as well as the researchers' best single channel detector, as do the tested elements of the 25 channel system. Some of the exciting new science possible with far-infrared detector arrays is also discussed.

Stacey, G. J.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Geis, N.; Poglitsch, A.; Rumitz, M.

1989-01-01

261

Lanthanum Bromide Detectors for Safeguards Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Lanthanum bromide has advantages over other popular inorganic scintillator detectors. Lanthanum bromide offers superior resolution, and good efficiency when compared to sodium iodide and lanthanum chloride. It is a good alternative to high purity germanium detectors for some safeguards applications. This paper offers an initial look at lanthanum bromide detectors. Resolution of lanthanum bromide will be compared lanthanum chloride and sodium-iodide detectors through check source measurements. Relative efficiency and angular dependence will be looked at. Nuclear material spectra, to include plutonium and highly enriched uranium, will be compared between detector types.

Wright, J.

2011-05-25

262

CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R3B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ?300 MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator - photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma-ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations.

Pietras, B.; Gascón, M.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Bendel, M.; Bloch, T.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I.; Fiori, E.; Gernhäuser, R.; González, D.; Kröll, T.; Le Bleis, T.; Montes, N.; Nácher, E.; Robles, M.; Perea, A.; Vilán, J. A.; Winkel, M.

2013-11-01

263

Pillar Structured Thermal Neutron Detector  

SciTech Connect

This work describes an innovative solid state device structure that leverages advanced semiconductor fabrication technology to produce an efficient device for thermal neutron detection which we have coined the 'Pillar Detector'. State-of-the-art thermal neutron detectors have shortcomings in simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low operating voltage while maintaining adequate fieldability performance. By using a three dimensional silicon PIN diode pillar array filled with isotopic {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B), a high efficiency device is theoretically possible. Here we review the design considerations for going from a 2-D to 3-D device and discuss the materials trade-offs. The relationship between the geometrical features and efficiency within our 3-D device is investigated by Monte Carlo radiation transport method coupled with finite element drift-diffusion carrier transport simulations. To benchmark our simulations and validate the predicted efficiency scaling, experimental results of a prototype device are illustrated. The fabricated pillar structures reported in this work are composed of 2 {micro}m diameter silicon pillars with a 2 {micro}m spacing and pillar height of 12 {micro}m. The pillar detector with a 12 {micro}m height achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 7.3% at a reverse bias of -2 V.

Nikolic, R; Conway, A; Reinhardt, C; Graff, R; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C

2008-06-10

264

Contamination avoidance detector test suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination avoidancerefers to the military doctrine of avoiding or minimizing the effects of Chemical and Biological (CB) threats. The location, identification and tracking of CB hazards are also major concern for Homeland CB defense. Several advanced detector systems for both chemical and biological threats are being developed for the Armed Services. Current test equipment and methodologies are inadequate for the complete evaluation of these emerging detector systems. Improvements are needed across the entire test spectrum from agent-simulation correction studies and equipment upgrades to field testing techniques. The Contamination Avoidance Detector Test Suite (CADTS) project is funded by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) under the auspices of the Director for Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E). This agency is responsible to DoD and congress for the adequate testing of any military hardware before release to the warfighter. This paper discusses the issues involved in CB testing and provides an overview of the characteristics and status of the key capabilities that were selected for funding.

Maret, Arthur R.; Castillo, Lorraine C.; Meadows, Eddie; Condie, Lyman W.

2003-08-01

265

WFC3 UVIS Detector Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is a fourth-generation imaging instrument installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) in May 2000. WFC3 has two observational channels, UV/visible (UVIS) and infrared (IR); both have been performing well on-orbit. Since installation, the WFC3 team has been diligent in monitoring the performance of both detectors. The UVIS channel consists of two e2v, backside illuminated, 2Kx4K CCDs arranged in a 2x1 mosaic. We present results from some of the monitoring programs used to check various aspects of the UVIS detector. We discuss the growth trend of hot pixels and the efficacy of regular anneals in controlling the hot pixel population. We detail a pixel population with lowered-sensitivity that evolves during the time between anneals, and is largely reset by each anneal procedure. We discuss the stability of the post-flash LED lamp, used and recommended for CTE mitigation in observations with less than 12 e-/pixel backgrounds. Finally, we summarize long-term photometric trends of the UVIS detector, as well as the absolute gain measurement, used as a proxy for the on-orbit evolution of the UVIS channel.

Gunning, Heather C.; Baggett, Sylvia M.; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Bourque, Matthew; MacKenty, John W.; Anderson, Jay; WFC3 Team

2015-01-01

266

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOEpatents

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

1996-08-20

267

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOEpatents

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

1996-08-20

268

Assemble new object detector with few examples.  

PubMed

Learning a satisfactory object detector generally requires sufficient training data to cover the most variations of the object. In this paper, we show that the performance of object detector is severely degraded when training examples are limited. We propose an approach to handle this issue by exploring a set of pretrained auxiliary detectors for other categories. By mining the global and local relationships between the target object category and auxiliary objects, a robust detector can be learned with very few training examples. We adopt the deformable part model proposed by Felzenszwalb and simultaneously explore the root and part filters in the auxiliary object detectors under the guidance of the few training examples from the target object category. An iterative solution is introduced for such a process. The extensive experiments on the PASCAL VOC 2007 challenge data set show the encouraging performance of the new detector assembled from those related auxiliary detectors. PMID:21632300

Yang, Kuiyuan; Wang, Meng; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Yan, Shuicheng; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

2011-12-01

269

Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the concept of a superlinear threshold detector, a detector that has a higher probability to detect multiple photons if it receives them simultaneously rather than at separate times. Highly superlinear threshold detectors in quantum key distribution systems allow eavesdropping the full secret key without being revealed. Here, we generalize the detector control attack, and analyze how it performs against quantum key distribution systems with moderately superlinear detectors. We quantify the superlinearity in superconducting single-photon detectors based on earlier published data, and gated avalanche photodiode detectors based on our own measurements. The analysis shows that quantum key distribution systems using detector(s) of either type can be vulnerable to eavesdropping. The avalanche photodiode detector becomes superlinear toward the end of the gate. For systems expecting substantial loss, or for systems not monitoring loss, this would allow eavesdropping using trigger pulses containing less than 120 photons per pulse. Such an attack would be virtually impossible to catch with an optical power meter at the receiver entrance.

Lydersen, Lars; Maroey, Oystein; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); University Graduate Center, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 24, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-09-15

270

Trustworthiness of detectors in quantum key distribution with untrusted detectors  

E-print Network

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol has been demonstrated as a viable solution to detector side-channel attacks. One of the main advantages of MDI-QKD is that the security can be proved without making any assumptions about how the measurement device works. The price to pay is the relatively low secure key rate comparing with conventional quantum key distribution (QKD), such as the decoy-state BB84 protocol. Recently a new QKD protocol, aiming at bridging the strong security of MDI-QKD with the high efficiency of conventional QKD, has been proposed. In this protocol, the legitimate receiver employs a trusted linear optics network to encode information on photons received from an insecure quantum channel, and then performs a Bell state measurement (BSM) using untrusted detectors. One crucial assumption made in most of these studies is that the untrusted BSM located inside the receiver's laboratory cannot send any unwanted information to the outside. Here, we show that if the BSM is completely untrusted, a simple scheme would allow the BSM to send information to the outside. Combined with Trojan horse attacks, this scheme could allow Eve to gain information of the quantum key without being detected. To prevent the above attack, either countermeasures to Trojan horse attacks or some trustworthiness to the "untrusted" BSM device is required.

Bing Qi

2014-11-14

271

New technologies for UV detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several technologies are currently being developed, leading to substantial improvements in the performance of UV detectors or significant reductions in power or weight. Four technologies discussed are (1) thin-film coatings to enhance the UV sensitivity of CCD's, (2) highly innovative magnet assemblies that dramatically reduce weight and result in virtually no external flux, (3) new techniques for curving microchannel plates (MCP's) so that single plates can be used to prevent ion feedback and present highly localized charge clouds to an anode structure, and (4) high-performance alternatives to glass-based MCP's. In item (2), for example, very robust magnets are made out of rare earth materials such as samarium cobalt, and cladding magnets are employed to prevent flux from escaping from the detector into the external environment. These new ultralight magnet assemblies are able to create strong, exceptionally uniform magnetic fields for image intensification and focusing of photoelectrons. The principle advantage of such detectors is the quantum efficiencies of 70-80 percent obtained throughout ultraviolet wavelengths (900-2000 A), the highest of any device. Despite the improvements achieved under item (3), high-performance alternatives to conventional glass-based MCP's potentially offer three distinct new advantages that include (1) a 30-100-fold improvement in dynamic range resulting in correspondingly higher signal-to-noise ratios, (2) the use of pure dielectric and semiconductor materials that will not outgas contaminants that eventually destroy photocathodes, and (3) channels that have constant spacing providing long-ranged order since the plates are made using photolithography techniques from the semiconductor industry. The manufacturers of these advanced-technology MCP's, however, are a couple of years away from actually producing a functioning image intensifier. In contrast to the use of CCD's for optical, ground based observations, there is no single detector technology in the ultraviolet that dominates or is as universally suitable for all applications. Thus, several technological problems, recent advances, and the impact that these new enabling technologies represent for UV applications are addressed.

Joseph, C. L.

1993-01-01

272

High gas flow alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

1996-05-07

273

Detector challenges at the LHC.  

PubMed

The best way to study the existence of the Higgs boson, supersymmetry and grand unified theories, and perhaps the physics of dark matter and dark energy, is at the TeV scale. This is the energy scale that will be explored at the Large Hadron Collider. This machine will generate the energy and rate of collisions that might provide evidence of new fundamental physics. It also brings with it the formidable challenge of building detectors that can record a large variety of detailed measurements in the inhospitable environment close to the collisions points of the machine. PMID:17637659

Stapnes, Steinar

2007-07-19

274

The Belle Silicon Vertex Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Belle Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) started working from June 1999 at the KEK B-factory experiment. The main purpose of the SVD is to make precise measurements of the B decay vertex position, which are essential for the observation of CP asymmetries. Excellent vertex resolution and a good detection efficiency are required for the SVD. In the present paper, the performance of Belle SVD is reviewed. The upgrade plan for the SVD2, which is under construction and will be installed in summer 2002, is also presented.

Kawasaki, T.

2002-11-01

275

High gas flow alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

276

Nanocomposite scintillator, detector, and method  

DOEpatents

A compact includes a mixture of a solid binder and at least one nanopowder phosphor chosen from yttrium oxide, yttrium tantalate, barium fluoride, cesium fluoride, bismuth germanate, zinc gallate, calcium magnesium pyrosilicate, calcium molybdate, calcium chlorovanadate, barium titanium pyrophosphate, a metal tungstate, a cerium doped nanophosphor, a bismuth doped nanophosphor, a lead doped nanophosphor, a thallium doped sodium iodide, a doped cesium iodide, a rare earth doped pyrosilicate, or a lanthanide halide. The compact can be used in a radiation detector for detecting ionizing radiation.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); McKigney, Edward A. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-04-28

277

Calorimetry of the Rice Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment (RICE) is an ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic ray neutrino detector for neutrino energies greater than a PeV. This pilot project explores the radio detection technique for UHE particles. Deployed at the Antarctic polar ice cap, RICE antennas have been operational since 1996. Basic calibrations of the antenna array have been done using data taken mostly in situ. The calibration results and an upper limit on electron neutrino flux based on one month of analyzed data are reported here.

Razzaque, Soebur

2002-01-01

278

Scintillation detectors of Alborz-I experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new air shower experiment of the Alborz Observatory, Alborz-I, located at the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, will be constructed in near future. An area of about 30×40 m2 will be covered by 20 plastic scintillation detectors (each with an area of 50×50 cm2). A series of experiments have been performed to optimize the height of light enclosures of the detectors for this array and the results have been compared to an extended code simulation of these detectors. Operational parameters of the detector obtained by this code are cross checked by the Geant4 simulation. There is a good agreement between the extended-code and Geant4 simulations. We also present further discussions on the detector characteristics, which can be applicable for all scintillation detectors with a similar configuration.

Pezeshkian, Yousef; Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Abbasian Motlagh, Mehdi; Rezaie, Masume

2015-02-01

279

HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many â?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability weâ??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDDâ??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detectorâ??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

2013-04-30

280

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time is described. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by uv photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the uv photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector. 4 figs.

Huston, G.C.

1989-11-27

281

Gamma radiation detectors for safeguards applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IAEA uses extensively a variety of gamma radiation detectors to verify nuclear material. These detectors are part of standardized spectrometry systems: germanium detectors for High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS); Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for Room Temperature Gamma Spectrometry (RTGS); and NaI(Tl) detectors for Low Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (LRGS). HRGS with high-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors cooled by liquid nitrogen is widely used in nuclear safeguards to verify the isotopic composition of plutonium or uranium in non-irradiated material. Alternative cooling systems have been evaluated and electrically cooled HpGe detectors show a potential added value, especially for unattended measurements. The spectrometric performance of CZT detectors, their robustness and simplicity are key to the successful verification of irradiated materials. Further development, such as limiting the charge trapping effects in CZT to provide improved sensitivity and energy resolution are discussed. NaI(Tl) detectors have many applications—specifically in hand-held radioisotope identification devices (RID) which are used to detect the presence of radioactive material where a lower resolution is sufficient, as they benefit from a generally higher sensitivity. The Agency is also continuously involved in the review and evaluation of new and emerging technologies in the field of radiation detection such as: Peltier-cooled CdTe detectors; semiconductor detectors operating at room temperature such as HgI 2 and GaAs; and, scintillator detectors using glass fibres or LaBr 3. A final conclusion, proposing recommendations for future action, is made.

Carchon, R.; Moeslinger, M.; Bourva, L.; Bass, C.; Zendel, M.

2007-08-01

282

High sensitivity neutron detector for Z  

SciTech Connect

We have developed, calibrated, and tested a high sensitivity neutron detector that can be operated in the harsh x-ray bremsstrahlung environment that exists in experiments conducted on the 20 MA Z z-pinch facility located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The detector uses a scintillator coupled to a microchannel-plate photomultiplier tube detector and extensive x-ray shielding.

Ruggles, L.E.; Porter, J.L. Jr.; Simpson, W.W.; Vargas, M.F.; Zagar, D.M.; Hartke, R.; Buersgens, F.; Symes, D.R.; Ditmire, T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2004-10-01

283

Alternative particle identification techniques to Cherenkov detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative particle identification methods to Cherenkov techniques are reviewed. Particular focus is given to recent advances in Transition Radiation Detectors (TRDs), improvements in dE/dx ionization loss by cluster counting, and Time of Flight (ToF) techniques. In each case several state of the art detectors are highlighted. For advances in ToF techniques, the status of fast photon detectors and electronics developments is summarized.

Harnew, Neville

2014-12-01

284

ATLAS Inner Detector Event Data Model  

SciTech Connect

The data model for event reconstruction (EDM) in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment is presented. Different data classes represent evolving stages in the reconstruction data flow, and specific derived classes exist for the sub-detectors. The Inner Detector EDM also extends the data model for common tracking in ATLAS and is integrated into the modular design of the ATLAS high-level trigger and off-line software.

ATLAS; Akesson, F.; Costa, M.J.; Dobos, D.; Elsing, M.; Fleischmann, S.; Gaponenko, A.; Gnanvo, K.; Keener, P.T.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.; Siebel, M.; Wildauer, A.

2007-12-12

285

Histogram-based interest point detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method for detecting interest points using histogram information. Unlike existing interest point detectors, which measure pixel-wise differences in image intensity, our detectors incorporate histogram-based representations, and thus can find image regions that present a distinct distribution in the neighborhood. The proposed detectors are able to capture large-scale structures and distinctive textured patterns, and exhibit strong invariance

Wei-Ting Lee; Hwann-Tzong Chen

2009-01-01

286

Histogram-based interest point detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method for detecting interest points using histogram information. Unlike existing interest point detectors, which measure pixel-wise differences in image intensity, our detectors incorporate histogram-based rep- resentations, and thus can find image regions that present a distinct distribution in the neighborhood. The proposed detectors are able to capture large-scale structures and dis- tinctive textured patterns, and exhibit

Wei-ting Lee; Hwann-tzong Chen

2009-01-01

287

Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives and selected data are presented for the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Cosmic Ray Experiment (LSCRE) for the purpose of introducing an analysis of three of the separate detectors contained within in LSCRE package. The mica detector for measuring heavy solar wind, and the lexan stack and glass detectors for measuring energetic particles in space are discussed in terms of their deployment, exposure time, calibration, and data yield. Relevant articles on solar particles, interplanetary ions, and cosmic ray nuclei are also included.

Walker, R. M.

1974-01-01

288

A new shock\\/discontinuity detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new effective shock\\/discontinuity detector has been developed in this work. The detector has two steps. The first step is to check the ratio of the truncation errors on the coarse and fine grids, and the second step is to check the local ratio of the left- and right-hand slopes. The currently popular shock\\/discontinuity detectors such as Harten's, Jameson's and

M. Oliveira; P. Lu; X. Liu; C. Liu

2010-01-01

289

Fire detector response in aircraft applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoelectric, ionization, and gas sensors were used to detect the signatures from the radiant heat or flame of various aircraft materials. It was found that both ionization and photoelectric detectors are about equally capable of detecting products of pyrolysis and combustion of synthetic polymers, especially those containing fire-retardant additives. Ionization detectors alone appeared to be sensitive to combustion products of simple cellulosic materials. A gas sensor detector appeared to be insensitive to pyrolysis or combustion products of many of the materials.

Wiersma, S. J.; Mckee, R. G.

1978-01-01

290

Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs.

Rehak, P. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A. (Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)); Vacchi, A. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

291

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

1992-01-01

292

Multielement detector for gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a study to improve the capabilities of a gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma (GC- MIP) detector system, determine the feasibility of empirical formula determination for simple mixtures containing elements of interest to fossil fuel analysis and, subsequently, explore applications for analysis of the complex mixtures associated with fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that the GC-MIP system is useful as a specific-element detector that provides excellent elemental specificity for a number of elements of interest to the analysis of fossil fuels. It has reasonably good sensitivity for carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nickel, and better sensitivity for chlorine and fluorine. Sensitivity is poor for nitrogen and oxygen, however, probably because of undetected leaks or erosion of the plasma tube. The GC-MIP can also provide stoichiometric information about components of simple mixtures. If this powerful technique is to be available for complex mixtures, it will be necessary to greatly simplify the chromatograms by chemical fractionation. 38 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

1988-11-01

293

Recirculating cross-correlation detector  

DOEpatents

A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

1985-01-18

294

Direct digital conversion detector technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

1995-06-01

295

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

Voigtman, Edward G. (Gainesville, FL); Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jurgensen, Arthur R. (Gainesville, FL)

1983-01-01

296

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

1983-11-08

297

The H1 detector at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General aspects of the H1 detector at the electron-proton storage ring HERA as well as technical descriptions of the magnet, luminosity system, trigger, slow-control, data acquisition and off-line data handling are given. The three major components of the detector, the tracking, calorimeter and muon detectors, will be described in a forthcoming article. The present paper describes the detector that was used from 1992 to the end of 1994. After this a major upgrade of some components was undertaken. Some performance figures from luminosity runs at HERA during 1993 and 1994 are given.

Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R. D.; Arnault, C.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Banas, E.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Basti, F.; Baynham, D. E.; Baze, J.-M.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Bederede, D.; Behrend, H.-J.; Beigbeder, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernard, R.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bernier, R.; Berthon, U.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biasci, J.-C.; Biddulph, P.; Bidoli, V.; Binder, E.; Binko, P.; Bizot, J.-C.; Blobel, V.; Blouzon, F.; Blume, H.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Breton, D.; Brettel, H.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchner, U.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, P.; Busata, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Charlet, M.; Chase, R.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Commichau, V.; Connolly, J. F.; Cornett, U.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Coutures, Ch.; Coville, A.; Cozzika, G.; Cragg, D. A.; Criegee, L.; Cronström, H. I.; Cunliffe, N. H.; Cvach, J.; Cyz, A.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Darvill, D.; Dau, W. D.; David, J.; David, M.; Day, R. J.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; Descamps, F.; Devel, M.; Dewulf, J. P.; De Roeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Djidi, K.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Dretzler, U.; Duboc, J.; Ducorps, A.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Dulny, B.; Dupont, F.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Edwards, B. W. H.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Epifantsev, A.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Ernst, G.; Evrard, E.; Falley, G.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Feng, Z. Y.; Fensome, I. F.; Fent, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Finke, K.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flower, P. S.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fröchtenicht, W.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gadow, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gažo, E.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Gensch, U.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Geske, K.; Giesgen, I.; Gillespie, D.; Glasgow, W.; Godfrey, L.; Godlewski, J.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Gosset, L.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregory, C.; Greif, H.; Grewe, M.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Günther, S.; Haack, J.; Haguenauer, M.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hammer, D.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Handschuh, D.; Hangarter, K.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, U.; Harjes, J.; Hartz, P.; Hatton, P. E.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Hedgecock, C. R.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hill, D. L.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Hopes, R. B.; Horisberger, R.; Hrisoho, A.; Huber, J.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Huppert, J.-F.; Ibbotson, M.; Imbault, D.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffré, M.; Jansen, T.; Jean, P.; Jeanjean, J.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jovanovic, P.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kantel, G.; Karstensen, S.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kemmerling, G.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Kobler, T.; Koch, J.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Koll, J.; Kolya, S. D.; Koppitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krivan, F.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, U.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubenka, J. P.; Külper, T.; Küsel, H.-J.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Laforge, B.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J.-F.; Laptin, L.; Laskus, H.; Lebedev, A.; Lemler, M.; Lenhardt, U.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Liss, B.; Loch, P.; Lodge, A. B.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lottin, J.-P.; Lubimov, V.; Ludwig, K.; Lüers, D.; Lugetski, N.; Lundberg, B.; Maeshima, K.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, F.; Martin, G.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masbender, V.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.

1997-02-01

298

Fast neutron dosemeter using pixelated detector Timepix.  

PubMed

A Timepix detector covered with polyethylene convertors of different thicknesses is presented as a fast neutron real-time dosemeter. The application of different weighting factors in connection with the position of a signal in a Timepix detector enables one to obtain an energy-dependent signal equal to neutron dose equivalents. A simulation of a Timepix detector covered with polyethylene convertors using monoenergetic neutrons is presented. The experimental set-up of a dosemeter was also produced. The first results of detector response using different fast neutron sources are presented. PMID:24277875

Bulanek, Boris; Ekendahl, Daniela; Prouza, Zdenek

2014-10-01

299

Regularization property of linear interference cancellation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we unveil a new property of linear interference cancellation detectors. Particularly, we focus in this study on the linear parallel interference cancellation (LPIC) detector and show that it exhibits a semi-convergence property. The roots of the semi-convergence behavior of the LPIC detector are clarified and the necessary conditions for its occurrence are determined. In addition, we show that the LPIC detector is in fact a regularization scheme and that the stage index and the weighting factor are the regularization parameters. Consequently, a stopping criterion based on the Morozov discrepancy rule is investigated and tested. Simulation results are presented to support our theoretical findings.

Bentrcia, Abdelouahab; Alshebeili, Saleh A.

2012-12-01

300

Neutron detector characterization for SCINTIA array  

SciTech Connect

SCINTIA is a new detector array of organic scintillators under development at the Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). The present design of SCINTIA includes NE213, p-terphenyl and Li glass neutron detectors positioned in a spherical configuration around the target. The properties of a novel p-terphenyl neutron detector to be used with SCINTIA have been investigated using photon sources and neutrons from a time tagged {sup 252}Cf(sf) source. The results show that the p-terphenyl crystal has better energy resolution, increased proton light output and neutron efficiency when compared to a similar size NE213 equivalent neutron detector. (authors)

Matei, C.; Hambsch, F. J.; Oberstedt, S. [EC-JRC - Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

2011-07-01

301

The status of detectors at the SSC  

SciTech Connect

The announcement of the location of the SSC at the site near Waxahachie, Texas was made in January, 1989. Since then a great many important steps have been taken toward the start of the new Laboratory. Some 900 people have been brought to the site as the starting nucleus of the staff that will ultimate number about 2200. A design baseline has been completed that includes a conceptual design for the accelerator, and the detectors. Also, the process has begun to determine the configuration of detectors that will be built for the SSC. This process has several steps, and now the first of these has been taken: The detector collaborations have submitted the Expression of Interest to the Laboratory. These were reviewed by Laboratory management and the Physics Advisory Committee in July, 1990 and recommendations were made to the collaborations. Decisions were deferred for all of the detectors. But perhaps the most significant recommendation was the request to reduce the size and cost of the general purpose detectors. The detector collaborations are now reviewing their initial designs to prepare for the Letters of Intent, the next step in the detector planning process. This is clearly a difficult and crucial step in that the redesign of the detectors must be done with minimal reduction in detector quality. It is an interesting time in the development of the new laboratory, and a crucial time for the ultimate physics that will be done at the SSC.

Stefanski, R.

1990-09-01

302

The HADES Pre-Shower detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pre-Shower detector was built for the high acceptance di-electron spectrometer to identify electrons produced in pion, proton and heavy ion-induced reactions in the 0.2detector for time-of-flight measurements. The paper describes the Pre-Shower detector construction, the detector operation, the read-out electronics and its response to charged particles studied with electron, proton and heavy ion beams.

Ba?anda, A.; Jasku?a, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kido?, L.; Korcyl, K.; Kühn, W.; Kulessa, R.; Malarz, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Petri, M.; Pietraszko, J.; Prokopowicz, W.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Skocze?, A.; Szczybura, M.; Wajda, E.; Walu?, W.; Wi?niowski, M.; Wójcik, T.; Hades Collaboration

2004-10-01

303

Processing circuitry for single channel radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing circuitry is provided for a high voltage operated radiation detector. An event detector utilizes a comparator configured to produce an event signal based on a leading edge threshold value. A preferred event detector does not produce another event signal until a trailing edge threshold value is satisfied. The event signal can be utilized for counting the number of particle hits and also for controlling data collection operation for a peak detect circuit and timer. The leading edge threshold value is programmable such that it can be reprogrammed by a remote computer. A digital high voltage control is preferably operable to monitor and adjust high voltage for the detector.

Holland, Samuel D. (Inventor); Delaune, Paul B. (Inventor); Turner, Kathryn M. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

304

2. Detector Overview The BABAR detector was designed and built by  

E-print Network

, and a CsI calorimeter. These detector systems are surrounded by a supercon­ ducting solenoid of the PEP­II storage rings. The detector is of compact design, its trans­ verse dimension being constrained

305

2. Detector Overview The BABAR detector was designed and built by  

E-print Network

, and a CsI calorimeter. These detector systems are surrounded by a supercon- ducting solenoid of the PEP-II storage rings. The detector is of compact design, its trans- verse dimension being constrained

306

EVAPORATIVE LIGHT SCATTERING DETECTOR AS A MASS DETECTOR WITH MALLS FOR DETERMINATION OF PECTIN MOLECULAR WEIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method to calibrate and use an evaporative light scattering detector (ELS) as a mass detector for molecular weight determination of polysaccharides using a multi-angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) is shown. The calibration of the ELS was performed under isocratic conditions using conce...

307

Amorphous Silicon Based Neutron Detector  

SciTech Connect

Various large-scale neutron sources already build or to be constructed, are important for materials research and life science research. For all these neutron sources, neutron detectors are very important aspect. However, there is a lack of a high-performance and low-cost neutron beam monitor that provides time and temporal resolution. The objective of this SBIR Phase I research, collaboratively performed by Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE), the University of Toledo (UT) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is to demonstrate the feasibility for amorphous silicon based neutron beam monitors that are pixilated, reliable, durable, fully packaged, and fabricated with high yield using low-cost method. During the Phase I effort, work as been focused in the following areas: 1) Deposition of high quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) at high deposition rate and with low device shunting; 2) Fabrication of Si/SiO2/metal/p/i/n/metal/n/i/p/metal/SiO2/ device for the detection of alpha particles which are daughter particles of neutrons through appropriate nuclear reactions; and 3) Testing of various devices fabricated for alpha and neutron detection; As the main results: · High quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films have been successfully deposited using VHF PECVD on various low-cost substrates; · Various single-junction and double junction detector devices have been fabricated; · The detector devices fabricated have been systematically tested and analyzed. · Some of the fabricated devices are found to successfully detect alpha particles. Further research is required to bring this Phase I work beyond the feasibility demonstration toward the final prototype devices. The success of this project will lead to a high-performance, low-cost, X-Y pixilated neutron beam monitor that could be used in all of the neutron facilities worldwide. In addition, the technologies developed here could be used to develop X-ray and neutron monitors that could be used in the future for security checks at the airports and other critical facilities. The project would lead to devices that could significantly enhance the performance of multi-billion dollar neutron source facilities in the US and bring our nation to the forefront of neutron beam sciences and technologies which have enormous impact to materials, life science and military research and applications.

Xu, Liwei

2004-12-12

308

A high sensitivity THz detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel THz detector which uses the cantilever technology and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology to achieve a high sensitivity. The Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology is adopted to fabricate the detector, which comprise thermo-sensitive bi-material micro-cantilever, prism and optical readout system. The bi-material of Si3N4 and Al is used to fabricate the micro-cantilever because of the good absorption characteristic for THz of Si3N4 and the great difference in thermal expansion coefficient of the bi-material for the deformation of the micro-cantilever. In order to increase the deformation of micro-cantilever, the method of computer simulation is used to obtain the optimal structure of micro-cantilever and the thickness of Si3N4 and Al. The function of the glass prism is to make the incident light generate total reflection under certain conditions. The gold film is sputtering on the top of glass slide using the method of magnetron sputtering and it is necessary for the generation of SPR performance. The optical readout system can make the change of cantilever bending convert to the change of reflection luminous intensity proportionally. The heat on the micro-cantilever coming from the THz radiation can lose easily in the air, so the detector is placed vertically in a cylindrical vacuum chamber which is sealed with quartz glasses and polyethylene lamina at the two end surfaces respectively. The quartz glass is used for the incidence of visible polarized light and the polyethylene lamina for the THz radiation. In order to maintain the vacuum performance of the chamber, the mechanical pump and molecular pump are adopted. In static mode, THz radiation absorption raises the temperature of micro-cantilever, so it bends proportionally. The micro-cantilever bending changes the thicknesses of the gap between the micro-cantilever and the metallic thin film on the micro-prism. It will result in a shift of the SPR angle. Therefore, the surface plasmon excitation efficiency and therewith the measured at a fixed incident angle reflectance of a metallic film will be changed almost proportionally to the cantilever bending. Consequently, the radiation energy of THz can be determined via the metallic film reflectivity change. Finally, the technology of image processing is introduced in detail.

Su, Bo; Duan, Guoteng

2011-08-01

309

Intravascular imaging with a storage phosphor detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop and test an intravascular positron imaging system based on a storage phosphor detector for imaging and detecting vulnerable plaques of human coronary arteries. The radiotracer F18-FDG accumulates in vulnerable plaques with inflammation of the overlying cap. The vulnerable plaques can, therefore, be imaged by recording positrons emitted from F18-FDG with a detector inserted into the artery. A prototype intravascular detector was constructed based on storage phosphor. The detector uses a flexible storage phosphor tube with 55 mm length, 2 mm diameter and 0.28 mm wall thickness. The intravascular detector is guided into the vessel using x-ray fluoroscopy and the accumulated x-ray signal must be erased prior to positron imaging. For this purpose, a light diffuser, 0.9 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length, was inserted into the detector tube. The light diffuser was connected to a laser source through a 2 m long optical fiber. The diffuser redirected the 0.38 W laser light to the inner surface of the phosphor detector to erase it. A heart phantom with 300 cm3 volume and three coronary arteries with 3.2 mm diameter and with several plaques was constructed. FDG solution with 0.5 µCi cm-3 activity concentration was filled in the heart and coronary arteries. The detector was inserted in a coronary artery and the signal from the plaques and surrounding background activity was recorded for 2 min. Then the phosphor detector was extracted and read out using a storage phosphor reader. The light diffuser erased the signal resulting from fluoroscopic exposure to level below that encountered during positron imaging. Vulnerable plaques with area activities higher than 1.2 nCi mm-2 were visualized by the detector. This activity is a factor of 10-20 lower than that expected in human vulnerable plaques. The detector was able to image the internal surface of the coronary vessels with 50 mm length and 360° circumference. Spatial resolution was 0.6-1.2 mm FWHM with a readout pixel resolution of 80 µm. The detector is flexible, reusable and easy to handle; it provides virtually real-time imaging. An intravascular imaging detector based on storage phosphor has shown a potential for imaging human coronary artery plaques. The detector provides the sensitivity, spatial resolution, flexibility and short imaging times necessary for clinical applications. Future research will decrease the detector diameter from 2 mm to 1 mm, and will apply the design to in vivo animal experiments.

Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Petrek, Peter; Matthews, Kenneth L., II; Fritz, Shannon G.; Bujenovic, L. Steven; Xu, Tong

2010-05-01

310

Double Sided 3D Detector Technologies at CNM-IMB  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new architecture for 3D silicon radiation detectors is proposed which simplifies the fabrication process and avoids the limitations of 3D detectors technology. The detector consists in a three-dimensional array of electrodes that penetrate into the detector bulk. The geometry of the detector is such that a central anode is surrounded by four cathode contacts. This geometry gives a uniform

G. Pellegrini; F. Campabadal; M. Lozano; J. M. Rafi; M. Ullan; R. Bates; C. Fleta; D. Pennicard

2006-01-01

311

Detector control system for the ATLAS muon endcap trigger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin gap chambers (TGC) is the end-cap muon trigger detector of the ATLAS experiment, one of the major projects being built at CERN. The TGC detector will be inaccessible during operation due to high radiation levels in the ATLAS cavern. The detector requires a detector control system (DCS) to monitor important detector and environmental parameters, calibrate, set and maintain the

S. Bressler; S. Tarem; A. Harel; E. Hadash; R. Lifshitz; N. Lupu; L. J. Levinson

2004-01-01

312

Detector-Control System for the ATLAS Muon Endcap Trigger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin gap chambers (TGCs) is the end-cap muon trigger detector of the ATLAS experiment, one of the major projects being built at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. The TGC detector will be inaccessible during operation due to high radiation levels in the ATLAS cavern. The detector requires a detector-control system (DCS) to monitor important detector and environmental parameters, calibrate, set, and maintain

S. Tarem; S. Bressler; A. Harel; E. Hadash; R. Lifshitz; N. Lupu; L. J. Levinson

2005-01-01

313

The Bugey 3 neutrino detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bugey 3 experiment, designed to measure oscillations of reactor neutrinos, has used 3 identical detection modules, each of 600 liters, filled with a new 6Li-loaded liquid scintillator. These modules were located in two shielding bunkers, respectively 15 and 40 m away from the reactor core. We describe here the mechanical characteristics of these modules, their shielding, the associated electronics, the trigger, the acquisition systems, the calibration and monitoring of these detectors, and the Monte Carlo simulations of their response to particles. We conclude on the overall performance of this new detection technique which has allowed the recording of 120000 neutrino interactions with good neutron efficiency (49%), low background (2.5 evts/hr) and good energy resolution (4% at 4.4 MeV).

Abbes, M.; Achkar, B.; Ait-Boubker, S.; Aleksan, R.; Avenier, M.; Bagieu, G.; Ballansat, J.; Barnoux, Ch.; Bazzoli, R.; Berger, J.; Bermond, M.; Besson, P.; Billault, M.; Boucher, J.; Bouchez, J.; Bouriant, M.; Brissot, R.; Camberlin, B.; Cavaignac, J. F.; Charvin, Ph.; Collot, J.; Commerçon, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Daguin-Moynot, G.; Declais, Y.; Desanlis, Th.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dufour, Y.; Farrache, G.; Favier, J.; Gally, Y.; Garciaz, F.; Giacobone, L.; Guerre-Chaley, B.; Jobez, J.-P.; Jourde, D.; Kajfasz, E.; de Kerret, H.; Koang, D. H.; Lefièvre, B.; Léon, F.; Lesquoy, E.; Mallet, J.; Menthe, A.; Metref, A.; Mullié, J.; Nagy, E.; Obolensky, M.; Ollive, P.; Oriboni, A.; Pessard, H.; Pierre, F.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Provasi, R.; Stutz, A.; Thion, J.; Thomas, J.-F.; Wuthrick, J. P.

1996-02-01

314

Ion chamber based neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

2014-12-16

315

Two-color infrared detector  

DOEpatents

A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

2014-05-13

316

High spatial resolution particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

2012-09-04

317

Alien liquid detector and control  

SciTech Connect

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

Potter, B.M.

1980-09-02

318

Unitary scintillation detector and system  

DOEpatents

The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations.

McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

319

A prototype monolithic pixel detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a monolithic pixel detector with both detecting elements and readout circuitry in the same piece of high-resistivity silicon and providing three-dimensional position information is described. The basic pixel cell is 34 × 125 ?m 2. The most-probable signal for a minimum-ionizing particle was observed to be 65 times the single-channel, root-mean-square noise in a muon beam. With different off-chip electronics, used with a gamma-ray source, the noise was found to be 2.3 times lower. A spatial resolution of 2.0 ?m was obtained in the direction of 34 ?m pitch for normally incident high-momentum muons. For tracks of up to 56° to the normal the spatial resolution was under 7 ?m. Results of a simulation program for calculating charge spreading and drift times are presented and compared with observations.

Kenney, Christopher J.; Parker, Sherwood I.; Peterson, Vincent Z.; Snoeys, Walter J.; Plummer, James D.; Aw, Chye Huat

1994-03-01

320

Single nanowire photoconductive terahertz detectors.  

PubMed

Spectroscopy and imaging in the terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum has proven to provide important insights in fields as diverse as chemical analysis, materials characterization, security screening, and nondestructive testing. However, compact optoelectronics suited to the most powerful terahertz technique, time-domain spectroscopy, are lacking. Here, we implement single GaAs nanowires as microscopic coherent THz sensors and for the first time incorporated them into the pulsed time-domain technique. We also demonstrate the functionality of the single nanowire THz detector as a spectrometer by using it to measure the transmission spectrum of a 290 GHz low pass filter. Thus, nanowires are shown to be well suited for THz device applications and hold particular promise as near-field THz sensors. PMID:25490548

Peng, Kun; Parkinson, Patrick; Fu, Lan; Gao, Qiang; Jiang, Nian; Guo, Ya-Nan; Wang, Fan; Joyce, Hannah J; Boland, Jessica L; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Johnston, Michael B

2015-01-14

321

Balanced homodyne detectors in QFT  

E-print Network

Within the dipole approximation we describe the interaction of a photodiode with the quantum electric field. The diode is modelled by an electron in a bound state which upon interaction, treated perturbatively in the paper, can get excited to one of the scattering states. We furthermore analyze a balanced homodyne detector (BHD) with a local oscillator (LO) consisting of two photodiodes illuminated by a monochromatic coherent state. We show, that to the leading order the BHD's output measures the expectation value of the quantum electric field, in the state without the LO, restricted to the frequency of the LO. The square of the output measures the two-point function of the quantum field. This shows that the BHDs provide tools for measurements of sub-vacuum (negative) expectation values of the squares quantum fields and thus for test of Quantum Energy Inequality - like bounds, or other QFT effects under the influence of external conditions.

P. Marecki

2007-03-08

322

Superconducting niobium nanowire single photon detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated and tested single photon detectors based on a current biased superconducting niobium nanowire patterned into a meander. The detectors are fabricated from high quality, ultra high vacuum sputtered niobium thin films on a sapphire substrate. For detection of single optical photons, we show that the superconductor's intrinsic kinetic inductance does not limit the reset time of the

A. J. Annunziata; A. Frydman; M. O. Reese; L. Frunzio; M. Rooks; D. E. Prober

2006-01-01

323

Boiling Point Detector for Surface Cooking Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new type of boiling point detector is discussed which detects the boiling point of water in a container irrespective of the volume of water or the type of container. This detector consists of the sensor unit using a thermistor and the signal processor unit using a one-chip 4-b microcomputer. The sensor unit is covered with a stainless casing. It

Haruo Terai; Yasumichi Kobayashi; Shigeharu Nakamoto

1984-01-01

324

The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and construction of the large Drift Chamber for the KLOE experiment at the Frascati ?-factory, DA?NE, are described. The relevant aspects of the various elements of the detector are reviewed together with a description of the track reconstruction program and of the calibration procedures. The performance of the detector based on measurements with cosmic rays and with e+e?

M. Adinolfi; F. Ambrosino; A. Andryakov; A. Antonelli; M. Antonelli; C. Bacci; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Bankamp; F. Bellini; G. Bencivenni; S. Bertolucci; C. Bini; C. Bloise; V. Bocci; F. Bossi; P. Branchini; S. A Bulychjov; G. Cabibbo; A. Calcaterra; R. Caloi; P. Campana; G. Capon; A. Cardini; M. Casarsa; V. Casavola; G. Cataldi; F. Ceradini; F. Cervelli; G. Chiefari; P. Ciambrone; E De Lucia; R De Sangro; P De Simone; S Dell'Agnello; A. Denig; A. Di Domenico; C. Di Donato; S Di Falco; A. Doria; E. Drago; G. Felici; A. Ferrari; M L. Ferrer; G. Finocchiaro; G. Fischer; C. Forti; A. Franceschi; P. Franzini; C. Gatti; P. Gauzzi; S. Giovannella; V. Golovatyuk; E. Gorini; F. Grancagnolo; E. Graziani; M. Incagli; L. Ingrosso; Y. Y. Jiang; W. Kluge; V. Kulikov; C. Kuo; F. Lacava; G. Lanfranchi; J. Lee-Franzini; T. Lomtadze; C. Luisi; M. Martemianov; M. Matsyuk; W. Mei; A. Menicucci; R. Messi; S. Moccia; M. Moulson; S. Müller; F. Murtas; M. Napolitano; A. Nedosekin; L. Pacciani; P. Pagès; M. Palutan; M. Panareo; L. Paoluzi; E. Pasqualucci; L. Passalacqua; M. Passaseo; A. Passeri; V. Patera; E. Petrolo; G. Petrucci; D. Picca; M. Piccolo; G. Pirozzi; M. Pollack; L. Pontecorvo; M. Primavera; E. Santovetti; G. Saracino; F. Schönleber; B. Sciascia; A. Sciubba; I. Sfiligoi; T. Spadaro; S. Spagnolo; E. Spiriti; U von Hagel; P. Valente; B. Valeriani; G. Venanzoni; S. Veneziano; A. Ventura

2002-01-01

325

Si:As BIB detector arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of the results obtained on arsenic-doped silicon blocked impurity band (BIB) detectors and arrays since the invention of the BIB concept a few years ago are presented. After a brief introduction and a description of the BIB concept, data will be given on single detector performance. Then different arrays that were fabricated will be described and test data presented.

Bharat, R.; Petroff, M. D.; Speer, J. J.; Stapelbroek, M. G.

1986-01-01

326

A Chemiluminescence Detector for Ozone Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ozone detector was built and evaluated for its applicability in smog chamber studies. The detection method is based on reaction of ozone with ethylene and measurement of resultant chemiluminescence. In the first phase of evaluation, the detector's response to ozone was studied as a function of several instrument parameters, and optimum…

Carroll, H.; And Others

327

The HERMES RICH detector HERMES Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new HERMES RICH detector is presented. This is the first fully operational RICH using an aerogel radiator, as well as the more standard C 4F 10 gas. The design of the detector is discussed and first results are shown.

Ryckbosch, D.

1999-08-01

328

Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

2014-01-30

329

Characterization of IRAS doped silicon detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented from a range of operating conditions which include background photo flux, operating temperature, and frequency. Each detector is equipped with a load resistor, a cryogenic field effect transistor preamplifier, and a temperature sensor. Data are also presented of detector signal, noise spectra, noise equivalent power, and spectral response.

1976-01-01

330

Performance of an Axial Gas Ionization Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axial gas ionization chamber has been fabricated for use as a DeltaE detector in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. Different operating parameters such as gas type, pressure, anode voltage, and anode structures have been optimized. The transparency of the anode structure is observed to play an important role in improving the energy resolution of the detector

S. Adhikari; C. Basu; C. Samanta; S. S. Brahmachari; B. P. Das; P. Basu

2006-01-01

331

Use of track detectors in biomedical sciences.  

PubMed

The CR-39 track detectors have been applied to irradiate the Chinese hamster V79-753B cells for survival studies. The survival curves have given satisfactory results. Energies of the incoming as well as outgoing proton beams evaluated from the track diameters are found to be close to the values found separately by surface barrier detector (SSBD). PMID:11543206

Waheed, A; Majeed, A; Cera, F; Tiveron, P; Cherubini, R; Moschini, G; Khan, E U

1993-01-01

332

Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

1972-01-01

333

Author's personal copy Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors  

E-print Network

energy attenuation of the reaction products. Although there are several neutron reactions and reactiveNeil, S.L. Bellinger, T.C. Unruh, J.K. Shultis S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear detectors are compact diode detectors that operate at low power and can be fashioned to have high thermal

Shultis, J. Kenneth

334

A robustness measure for the sign detector  

E-print Network

performance may be obtained when the noise is actually non-Gaussian and/or nonstationary [4, 5] Progress has also been made in investigating the effects of dependency on the nonparametric detector [6, 7] and detectors for dependent da, ta have been...

Liu, Wensheng

1991-01-01

335

Looking at single photons using hybrid detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SLS detector group develops silicon hybrid detectors for X-ray applications used in synchrotron facilities all over the world. Both microstrip and pixel detectors with either single photon counting or charge integrating read out are being developed. Low noise charge integrating detectors can be operated in single photon regime, i.e. with low fluxes and high frame rates in order to detect on average less than one photon per cluster of 2×2 pixels. In this case, the analog signal read out for each single X-ray provides information about the energy of the photon. Moreover the signal from neighboring channels can be correlated in order to overcome or even take advantage of charge sharing. The linear charge collection model describing microstrip detectors and large pixels is unsuitable for the calibration of small pitch pixel detectors due to the large amount of charge sharing occurring also in the corner region. For this reason, the linear charge collection model is extended to the case of small pixels and tested with monochromatic X-ray data acquired using the 25 ?m pitch MÖNCH and the 75 ?m pitch JUNGFRAU detectors. The successful outcome of the calibration of the MÖNCH detector is proven by the high energy resolution of the spectrum obtained by accumulating the counts from more than 6000 channels after the correction of the gain mismatches using the proposed model.

Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

2015-01-01

336

Standardisation of superheated drop and bubble detectors.  

PubMed

This study presents an analysis of the commercially available superheated drop detectors and bubble detectors, performed in substantial accordance with the guidelines developed by the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). The analysis was performed in terms of linearity, reproducibility, ageing, minimum detection thresholds, energy and angular dependence of the response and the influence of various climatic conditions. PMID:12382753

Vanhavere, F; d'Errico, F

2002-01-01

337

Performance of irradiated CMS forward pixel detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a module of the CMS forward pixel detector irradiated up to a maximum dose of 45 Mrad was investigated at a beam test at Fermilab. The conclusion is that the CMS forward pixel detector can easily tolerate this radiation dose without any impact on the CMS physics performance.

Taroni, S.

2010-04-01

338

Automatically scoring ladar detectors using target descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume of data that must be processed to characterize the performance of target detection algorithms over a complex parameter space requires automated analysis. This paper discusses a methodology for automatically scoring the results from a diversity of detectors producing several different forms of detected regions. The ability to automatically score detector outputs without using full target templates or models

Annette Bergman; David H. DeKruger

2001-01-01

339

Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment One Year Report  

E-print Network

f Apollo XII Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment One Year Report October, 1970 Prepared by Rice Detector) This r?port reviews the lunar surface operation o~ the .e_uprathermal _Ion Qetector Experiment origin such as the moon or the solar wind, or are due to the Apollo vehicle and life-support syste~s. (2

Rathbun, Julie A.

340

Avalanche photodiodes for the CMS detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CERN LHC experiment CMS has selected for the readout of the barrel crystal calorimeter a 5×5 mm2 avalanche photodiode (APD) manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics. In the detector we will equip each crystal with two APDs for a total of 122400 diodes. As the calorimeter will be almost completely inaccessible during the life of the detector, the assurance that they

K. Deiters; A. Dorokhov; Q. Ingram; S. Nicol; I. Musienko; B. Patel; D. Renker; S. Reucroft; R. Rusack; T. Sakhelashvili; A. Singovski; J. Swain; P. Vikas

2000-01-01

341

Metal Detectors and Feeling Safe at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that metal detectors bestow an organizational stigma to schools. One symptom of this is students' heightened level of fear at school. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and a matched-pair design, this study finds that metal detectors are negatively correlated with students' sense…

Gastic, Billie

2011-01-01

342

The most powerful scintillator supernovae detector: LVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Large Volume Detector (LVD) in the Gran Sasso underground Laboratory is a multipurpose detector consisting of a large volume of liquid scintillator interleaved with limited streamer tubes. In this paper we discuss its power to study low-energy cosmic neutrinos. The results show that the first LVD tower (368 tons of liquid scintillator) is well suited to detect neutrinos

M. Aglietta; B. Alpat; E. D. Alyea; P. Antonioli; G. Anzivino; G. Badino; Y. Ban; G. Bari; M. Basile; A. Benelli; V. S. Berezinsky; L. Bergamasco; S. Bianco; A. Bizzetti; G. Bruni; Y. Cao; G. Cara Romeo; R. Casaccia; C. Castagnoli; A. Castellina; K. Chen; R. Chen; J. A. Chinellato; L. Cifarelli; G. Cini; S. Cong; A. Contin; V. L. Dadikin; M. Dardo; A. De Silva; M. Deutsch; L. G. Dos Santos; R. I. Enikeev; F. L. Fabbri; W. Fulgione; P. Galeotti; P. L. Ghia; P. Giusti; F. Grianti; S. Gu; E. S. Hafen; P. Haridas; G. Iacobucci; N. Inoue; F. F. Khalchukov; E. V. Korolkova; P. V. Kortchaguin; V. B. Kortchaguin; V. A. Kudryavtsev; G. Landi; K. Lau; X. Lin; L. Lu; J. Ma; Z. Ma; G. Maccarrone; A. S. Malguin; Z. Mao; M. A. Markov; T. Massam; B. Mayes; N. Mengotti Silva; A. Misaki; G. H. Mo; B. Monteleoni; C. Morello; J. Moromisato; R. Nania; G. Navarra; L. Panaro; D. Parks; P. G. Pelfer; L. Periale; P. Picchi; P. Pinna; L. Pinsky; I. A. Pless; M. Pu; J. Pyrlyk; J. Qiu; V. G. Ryasny; O. G. Ryazhskaya; O. Saavedra; K. Saitoh; D. Sanders; G. Sartorelli; S. Sarwar; D. Shen; V. P. Talochkin; H. Tang; J. Tang; W. Tian; G. C. Trinchero; A. Turtelli; I. Uman; P. Vallania; S. Vernetto; E. von Goeler; L. Votano; T. Wada; F. Wang; H. Wang; S. Wang; R. Weathers; R. Weinstein; M. Widgoff; L. Xu; Z. Xu; V. F. Yakushev; I. Yamamoto; G. Yi; A. Zallo; G. T. Zatsepin; X. Zhou; Q. Zhu; X. Zhu; B. Zhuan; A. Zichichi

1992-01-01

343

Testing of radiation detectors by IBIC imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear microprobe technique IBIC (Ion Beam Induced Charge) was used for tests of different radiation detectors. By using a 2–6 MeV proton microbeam with a current of less than 1000 protons per second, images and profiles of charge collection efficiency in radiation detectors can be produced. This application of the IBIC technique provides results that can be used to

M. JaksiC; I. Bogdanovi?; M. Bogovac; S. Fazini?; S. Galassini; K. Kova?evi?; C. Manfredotti; E. Vittone

1996-01-01

344

Neutron Position Sensitive Detectors for the ESS  

E-print Network

The European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden will become the world's leading neutron source for the study of materials. The instruments are being selected from conceptual proposals submitted by groups from around Europe. These instruments present numerous challenges for detector technology in the absence of the availability of Helium-3, which is the default choice for detectors for instruments built until today and due to the extreme rates expected across the ESS instrument suite. Additionally a new generation of source requires a new generation of detector technologies to fully exploit the opportunities that this source provides. The detectors will be sourced from partners across Europe through numerous in-kind arrangements; a process that is somewhat novel for the neutron scattering community. This contribution presents briefly the current status of detectors for the ESS, and outlines the timeline to completion. For a conjectured instrument suite based upon instruments recommended for construction, ...

Kirstein, Oliver; Stefanescu, Irina; Etxegarai, Maddi; Anastasopoulos, Michail; Fissum, Kevin; Gulyachkina, Anna; Höglund, Carina; Imam, Mewlude; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Khaplanov, Anton; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kolya, Scott; Nilsson, Björn; Ortega, Luis; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Piscitelli, Francesco; Ramos, Judith Freita; Robinson, Linda; Scherzinger, Julius

2014-01-01

345

Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors for Cryogenic Temperature Applications  

E-print Network

There are several proposals and projects today for building LXe Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) for dark matter search. An important element of these TPCs are the photomultipliers operating either inside LXe or in vapors above the liquid. We have recently demonstrated that photosensitive gaseous detectors (wire type and hole-type) can operate perfectly well until temperatures of LN2. In this paper results of systematic studies of operation of the photosensitive version of these detectors (combined with reflective or semi-transparent CsI photocathodes) in the temperature interval of 300-150 K are presented. In particular, it was demonstrated that both sealed and flushed by a gas detectors could operate at a quite stable fashion in a year/time scale. Obtained results, in particular the long-term stability of photosensitive gaseous detectors, strongly indicate that they can be cheap and simple alternatives to photomultipliers or avalanche solid-state detectors in LXe TPC applications.

Periale, L; Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F

2007-01-01

346

Wideband 1.064 micrometer detector evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of several candidate detectors for use as communications detectors in a 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometers laser communication system was evaluated. The results of communication system Bit Error Rate (BER) testing for the best detector of each type are summarized. Complete testing data of each type detector is presented. The 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometers communication system receiver test bed is described. The best communication system results for each detector type are included. Performance comparisons are made at 0.000001 BER, the specification level chosen for satellite laser communication links. The data is presented in two groups. The first indicates the best performance levels that can be expected on normal space laser communication system operation. The second cites the best performance levels which can be achieved by focusing the signal to diffraction limited spots on the photosensitive area.

Green, S. I.

1975-01-01

347

Comparison of a pulsed electron capture detector and a Fourier transform ion mobility detector after capillary supercritical fluid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial electron capture detector and an ion mobility detector were interfaced to a supercritical fluid chromatograph (SFC). The ion mobility detector (IMD) was operated in the negative ion collection mode wherein analyte molecules of high electron affinity form negatively charged ions in the detector, producing an ECD-like response. Responses of the two detectors were compared using pressure programmed SFC

E. E. Tarver; H. H. Hill

1992-01-01

348

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2013-10-01

349

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2014-10-01

350

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2012-10-01

351

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2011-10-01

352

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter Panofsky Prize presentation American;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University Original #12;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University TES

California at Berkeley, University of

353

Neutron spectrometry with spherical hydrogen proportional detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spherical hydrogen proportional detectors (HPD) of 40 mm diameter with different pressures are used in neutron spectrometry in energy range 20-1200 keV. This spherical shape detector having anode wire along one diameter was designed to give a response to neutrons which is independent to their direction of travel with respect to the counter axis (anode). Nevertheless, in practice some imperfectness of spherical detector response exists. The reactor iron filtered beam was assembled with the aim to study detector response dependent on the angle (90° and 0°; perpendicular and parallel) between neutron beam and detector anode. It was confirmed that the dominant effect is caused by neutron shielding properties of the massive end-parts of detector (insulators, aluminum ending). This effect produces 7-13% decrease of registered neutrons depending on energy interval. The resonance energy structure with characteristic maxima of iron filtered beam is used for energy calibration. Comparison with He-3 admixture calibration method is presented. Negative energy shift of measured maxima in neutron beam spectrum is observed. Energy shift depends on high voltage, on the angle between neutron and detector anode and on energy of neutron peak. This shift effect is caused by gas multiplication saturation close to anode wire.

Jansky, Bohumil; Novak, Evzen

2014-01-01

354

Muon Energy Calibration of the MINOS Detectors  

SciTech Connect

MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for conclusive evidence of neutrino oscillations and to measure the oscillation parameters precisely. MINOS comprises two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab and Soudan. The Calibration Detector at CERN is a third MINOS detector used as part of the detector response calibration programme. A correct energy calibration between these detectors is crucial for the accurate measurement of oscillation parameters. This thesis presents a calibration developed to produce a uniform response within a detector using cosmic muons. Reconstruction of tracks in cosmic ray data is discussed. This data is utilized to calculate calibration constants for each readout channel of the Calibration Detector. These constants have an average statistical error of 1.8%. The consistency of the constants is demonstrated both within a single run and between runs separated by a few days. Results are presented from applying the calibration to test beam particles measured by the Calibration Detector. The responses are calibrated to within 1.8% systematic error. The potential impact of the calibration on the measurement of oscillation parameters by MINOS is also investigated. Applying the calibration reduces the errors in the measured parameters by {approx} 10%, which is equivalent to increasing the amount of data by 20%.

Miyagawa, Paul S.; /Oxford U.

2004-09-01

355

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

356

A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

2004-01-01

357

Semiconductor detectors for the ATLAS inner tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS experiment currently under design for the CERN LHC contains an inner detector which tracks charged particles from the LHC beam-pipe to the electromagnetic calorimeter system. The main task is to reconstruct event tracks with high efficiency, to assist electron, photon and muon recognition and to reconstruct signatures of short-lived particles. Track densities at the LHC will be extremely large, and hence high precision measurements are required. This will be achieved using semiconductor tracking detectors, making use of silicon microstrip and pixel technology. For detectors closest to the beam interaction point the radiation levels are extremely high-up to 10 MRad. At the time of the ATLAS technical proposal, it was envisaged that gallium arsenide detectors could withstand such an environment. However, it has since become clear that GaAs is not as radiation hard as first expected, and that detectors would not perform sufficiently for the required time. In addition, progress on silicon detectors has indicated that they are able to withstand harsh radiation environments, and hence further work on silicon detectors now continues.

Morgan, Debbie

1998-02-01

358

New class of biological detectors for WIMPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) may constitute a large fraction of the matter in the Universe. There are excess events in the data of DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, CRESST-II, and recently CDMS-Si, which could be consistent with WIMP masses of approximately 10 GeV/c2. However, for MDM > 10 GeV/c2 null results of the CDMS-Ge, XENON, and LUX detectors may be in tension with the potential detections for certain dark matter scenarios and assuming a certain light response. We propose the use of a new class of biological dark matter (DM) detectors to further examine this light dark matter hypothesis, taking advantage of new signatures with low atomic number targets. Two types of biological DM detectors are discussed here: DNA-based detectors and enzymatic reactions (ER) based detectors. In the case of DNA-based detectors, we discuss a new implementation. In the case of ER detectors, there are four crucial phases of the detection process: (a) change of state due to energy deposited by a particle; (b) amplification due to the release of energy derived from the action of an enzyme on its substrate; (c) sustainable but nonexplosive enzymatic reaction; (d) self-termination due to the denaturation of the enzyme, when the temperature is raised. This paper provides information of how to design as well as optimize these four processes.

Drukier, A. K.; Cantor, Ch.; Chonofsky, M.; Church, G. M.; Fagaly, R. L.; Freese, K.; Lopez, A.; Sano, T.; Savage, C.; Wong, W. P.

2014-07-01

359

Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector  

SciTech Connect

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 x 150 {micro}m{sup 2}. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

2008-12-01

360

Nuclear Electronics: Superconducting Detectors and Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the commercialisation of superconducting particles and radiation detectors set to occur in the very near future, nuclear analytical instrumentation is taking a big step forward. These new detectors have a high degree of accuracy, stability and speed and are suitable for high-density multiplex integration in nuclear research laboratories and astrophysics. Furthermore, superconducting detectors can also be successfully applied to food safety, airport security systems, medical examinations, doping tests & forensic investigations. This book is the first to address a new generation of analytical tools based on new superconductor detectors demonstrating outstanding performance unsurpassed by any other conventional devices. Presenting the latest research and development in nanometer technologies and biochemistry this book: * Discusses the development of nuclear sensing techniques. * Provides guidance on the design and use of the next generation of detectors. * Describes cryogenic detectors for nuclear measurements and spectrometry. * Covers primary detectors, front-end readout electronics and digital signal processing. * Presents applications in nanotechnology and modern biochemistry including DNA sequencing, proteinomics, microorganisms. * Features examples of two applications in X-ray electron probe nanoanalysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This comprehensive treatment is the ideal reference for researchers, industrial engineers and graduate students involved in the development of high precision nuclear measurements, nuclear analytical instrumentation and advanced superconductor primary sensors. This book will also appeal to physicists, electrical and electronic engineers in the nuclear industry.

Polushkin, Vladimir

2004-06-01

361

RADIOXENON MEASUREMENTS WITH THE PHOSWATCH DETECTOR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Many of the radioxenon detector systems used in the International Monitoring System and in other applications employ beta/gamma coincidence detection to achieve high sensitivity. In these systems, the coincidence detection is implemented by requiring simultaneous signals from separate beta and gamma detectors. While very sensitive to small amounts of radioxenon, this approach requires careful calibration and gain matching of several detectors and photomultiplier tubes. An alternative approach is the use of a phoswich detector in which beta-gamma coincidences are detected by pulse shape analysis. The phoswich requires only a single photomultiplier tube and thus is easier to set up and calibrate, and can be assembled into a more compact and robust system. In the past, we have developed a COTS detector system, named PhosWatch, which consists of a CsI(Tl)/BC-404 phoswich detector, digital readout electronics, and on-board software to perform the pulse shape analysis. Several units of this system have been manufactured and are now evaluated at several radioxenon research laboratories. In this paper, we will report results from production tests and some of the evaluations, including a side-by-side comparison of a SAUNA detector and a PhosWatch system using atmospheric radioxenon samples. In addition, we will show initial results obtained with a higher speed version of the readout electronics, digitizing at 500 MHz and thus able to better resolve the fast pulses from the BC-404.

Hennig, Wolfgang; Warburton, William K.; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Sabourov, K.; Cooper, Matthew W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Gleyzer, A.; Bean, Marc; Korpach, E.; Ungar, R. Kurt; Zhang, W.; Mekarski, P.; Ward, Rebecca; Biegalski, S.; Haas, Derek A.

2009-09-22

362

Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector  

SciTech Connect

The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

1994-03-01

363

Performance characteristics of STIS detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report quantum efficiency measurements of back-illuminated, ion-implanted, laser-annealed charge coupled devices (CCD's) in the wavelength range 13-10,000 A. The equivalent quantum efficiency (EQE = effective photons detected per incident photon) ranges from a minimum of 5 percent as 1216 A to a maximum of 87 percent at 135 A. Using a simple relationship for the charge collection efficiency of the CCD pixels as a function of depth, we present a semi-empirical model with few parameters which reproduces our measurements with a fair degree of accuracy. The advantage of this model is that is can be used to predict CCD QE performance for shallow backside implanted devices without detailed solution of a system of differential equations, as in conventional approaches, and yields a simple analytic form for the charge collection efficiency which is adequate for detector calibration purposes. Making detailed assumptions about the dopant profile, we also solve the carrier density and continuity equations in order to relate our semi-empirical model parameters to surface and bulk device properties. The latter procedure helps to better establish device processing parameters for a given level of CCD QE performance.

Stern, Robert A.

1992-01-01

364

Handheld erythema and bruise detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual inspection of intact skin is commonly used when assessing persons for pressure ulcers and bruises. Melanin masks skin discoloration hindering visual inspection in people with darkly pigmented skin. The objective of the project is to develop a point of care technology capable of detecting erythema and bruises in persons with darkly pigmented skin. Two significant hardware components, a color filter array and illumination system have been developed and tested. The color filter array targets four defined wavelengths and has been designed to fit onto a CMOS sensor. The crafting process generates a multilayer film on a glass substrate using vacuum ion beam splitter and lithographic techniques. The illumination system is based upon LEDs and targets these same pre-defined wavelengths. Together, these components are being used to create a small, handheld multispectral imaging device. Compared to other multi spectral technologies (multi prisms, optical-acoustic crystal and others), the design provides simple, low cost instrumentation that has many potential multi spectral imaging applications which require a handheld detector.

Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Duckworth, Mark G.; Yi, Dingrong; Caspall, Jayme J.; Wang, Jiwu; Zhao, Futing

2008-03-01

365

Minefield reconnaissance and detector system  

DOEpatents

A multi-sensor system (10) for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like. A remote sensor platform (12) has a plurality of metal detector sensors (22) and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors (24). The remote sensor platform (12) is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit (14) and signals from the remote sensor platform (12) are sent to the processing and control unit (14) where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps (34, 36) to obtain a probability "score" for each of the pluralities of sensors (22, 24). These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step (38) by comparing score sets to a probability table (130) which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess (40) for controlling a marker device (76) to mark the location of found objects.

Butler, Millard T. (Albuquerque, NM); Cave, Steven P. (Albuquerque, NM); Creager, James D. (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, Charles M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mathes, John B. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Kirk J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

366

Minefield reconnaissance and detector system  

DOEpatents

A multi-sensor system is described for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like. A remote sensor platform has a plurality of metal detector sensors and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors. The remote sensor platform is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit and signals from the remote sensor platform are sent to the processing and control unit where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps to obtain a probability score for each of the pluralities of sensors. These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step by comparing score sets to a probability table which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess for controlling a marker device to mark the location of found objects. 7 figures.

Butler, M.T.; Cave, S.P.; Creager, J.D.; Johnson, C.M.; Mathes, J.B.; Smith, K.J.

1994-04-26

367

CZT detector technology for medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades, the II–VI semiconductors CdTe and CdZnTe (CZT) has emerged as the material of choice for room temperature detection of hard X-rays and soft ?-rays. The techniques of growing the crystals, the design of the detectors, and the electronics used for reading out the detectors have been considerably improved over the last few years. CdTe/CZT materials find now applications in astrophysics, medical imaging and security applications. The paper discusses recent progress in CZT detector technology and outlines possible new application opportunities.

Iniewski, K.

2014-11-01

368

Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber  

DOEpatents

An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wallace, Steven A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

369

Microresonator detectors for neutrino physics in Milano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting microwave microresonators are low temperature detectors compatible with large-scale multiplexed frequency domain readout. We aim to develop detector arrays for calorimetric measurement of the energy spectra of 163Ho EC decay (Q?2-3 keV) for a direct measurement of the neutrino mass. We plan to investigate nitrides of high-Z materials, like TaN and HfN, that are appropriate for containing the energy of keV decay events, exploring the properties relevant to our detectors, such as quality factor, penetration depth and recombination time.

Faverzani, M.; Day, P.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Giordano, C.; Marghesin, B.; Nucciotti, A.

2013-08-01

370

Engineering Novel Detectors and Sensors for MRI  

PubMed Central

Increasing detection sensitivity and image contrast have always been major topics of research in MRI. In this perspective, we summarize two engineering approaches to make detectors and sensors that have potential to extend the capability of MRI. The first approach is to integrate miniaturized detectors with a wireless powered parametric amplifier to enhance the detection sensitivity of remotely coupled detectors. The second approach is to microfabricate contrast agents with encoded multispectral frequency shifts, whose properties can be specified and fine-tuned by geometry. These two complementary approaches will benefit from the rapid development in nanotechnology and microfabrication which should enable new opportunities for MRI. PMID:23245489

Qian, Chunqi; Zabow, Gary; Koretsky, Alan

2013-01-01

371

Charge Effects on Gravitational Wave Detectors  

E-print Network

We show that the mean-square displacement of a charged oscillator due to the zero point oscillations of the radiation field is unique in the sense that it is very sensitive to the value of the bare mass of the charge. Thus, a controlled experiment using gravitational wave detectors could lead to a determination of the electron bare mass and shed some light on quantum electrodynamic theory. We also speculate that the irregular signals of non-gravitational origin often observed in gravitational wave bar detectors could be caused by stray charges and that such charges could also adversely affect LIGO and other such detectors

R. F. O'Connell

2001-05-14

372

Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors  

DOEpatents

Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

Weinberg, David M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harding, L. Dean (Chubbuck, ID); Larsen, Eric D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

373

Gamma-ray imaging with germanium detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Externally segmented germanium detectors promise a breakthrough in gamma-ray imaging capabilities while retaining the superb energy resolution of germanium spectrometers. By combining existing position-sensitive detectors with an appropriate code aperture, two-dimensional imaging with 0.2-deg angular resolution becomes practical for a typical balloon experiment. Much finer resolutions are possible with larger separations between detectors and the coded aperture as would be applicable for space-based or lunar-based observatories. Two coaxial germanium detectors divided into five external segments have been fabricated and have undergone extensive performance evaluation and imaging testing in our laboratory. These tests together with detailed Monte Carlo modeling calculations have demonstrated the great promise of this sensor technology for future gamma-ray missions.

Mahoney, W. A.; Callas, J. L.; Ling, J. C.; Radocinski, R. G.; Skelton, R. T.; Varnell, L. S.; Wheaton, W. A.

1993-01-01

374

Development of bismuth self-powered detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-powered detectors have been developed with bismuth (2 mm diameter×6.4 mm) and platinum (2 mm diameter ×5 mm) emitters. Tests at a 60Co irradiation facility in 0.125 MR/h (484.5 MC/kg/h) gamma field showed that the gamma sensitivity of the two detectors is 0.121 fA/R/h (0.468 pA/C/kg/h) and 0.17 fA/R/h (0.658 pA/C/kg/h). When tested in the core location in Apsara Swimming Pool reactor the current from Bi detector was assumed to be totally gamma-induced. This information was used to derive the neutron-induced component of the Pt detector in which 55% of the total signal was gamma-induced. The neutron sensitivity was found to be 0.54×10 -21 A/nv.

Alex, Mary; Prasad, K. R.; Kataria, S. K.

2004-05-01

375

Photosensitive gaseous detectors for cryogenic temperature applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several proposals and projects today for building LXe time projection chambers (TPCs) for dark matter search. Important elements of these TPCs are the photomultipliers operating either inside LXe or in vapours above the liquid. We have recently demonstrated that photosensitive gaseous detectors (wire type and hole type) can operate perfectly well, until temperatures of LN 2. In this paper, results of systematic studies of operation of the photosensitive version of these detectors (combined with reflective or semi-transparent CsI photocathodes) in the temperature interval of 300-150 K are presented. In particular, it was demonstrated that both sealed and flushed by a gas detectors could operate at a quite stable fashion in a year/time scale. Obtained results strongly indicate that they can be cheap and simple alternatives to photomultipliers or avalanche solid-state detectors in LXe TPC applications.

Periale, L.; Peskov, V.; Iacobaeus, C.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Rodionov, I.

2007-04-01

376

Characterization of the Resistive Micromegas Muon Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MICRO-MEsh-GAseous Structure (Micromegas) is a particle detector that is a candidate for the ATLAS muon system upgrade. It is a gaseous particle detector that makes use of printed circuit boards for micron-sized readout strips. This creates the potential for high spatial resolution, high rate capability, large sensitive area, operational stability, and radiation hardness. While the MicroMegas detector is being researched in many laboratories, the CERN MicroMegas team has developed a novel resistive design that alleviates many problems associated with the detector such as high spark rate. Several resistive MicroMegas designs were tested to determine their gain and transparency. With the resistive chambers, we observed high gains and transparency, with a minimal spark rate.

Moskaleva, Alexandra

2011-04-01

377

The GEO600 gravitational wave detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GEO600 laser interferometric gravitational wave detector is unique in having advanced monolithic suspensions and a signal recycled optical design. This contribution will discuss the optical layout, the heterodyne readout and the performance of GEO600.

B. Willke

2005-01-01

378

Workshop on detectors for synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

Forefront experiments in many scientific areas for which synchrotron sources provide sufficient flux are nonetheless hindered because detectors cannot collect data fast enough, do not cover sufficiently solid angle, or do no have adequate resolution. Overall, the synchrotron facilities, each of which represents collective investments from funding agencies and user institutions ranging from many hundreds of millions to more than a billion dollars, are effectively significantly underutilized. While this chronic and growing problem plagues facilities around the world, it is particularly acute in the United States, where detector research often has to ride on the coat tails of explicitly science-oriented projects. As a first step toward moving out of this predicament, scientists from the U.S. synchrotron facilities held a national workshop in Washington, DC, on October 30-31, 2000. The Workshop on Detectors for Synchrotron Research aimed to create a national ''roadmap'' for development of synchrotron-radiation detectors.

Robinson, Arthur L.

2000-11-22

379

One hundred anode microchannel plate ion detector  

SciTech Connect

A one-hundred-anode microchannel plate detector is constructed on a 10 cm x 15 cm printed circuit board and attached to a homebuilt matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ringing and cross talk between anodes have been successfully eliminated and preliminary mass spectra of peptide ions recorded. With one hundred anodes on the printed circuit board, spatial information about the ion beam can also be readily determined with this detector. During operation, the detector anode assembly loses sensitivity after ions strike it for a considerable period of time due to charging of the non-conductive regions between anodes. However, this effect can be minimized by deflecting matrix ions away from the detector.

He Yi; Poehlman, John F.; Alexander, Andrew W.; Boraas, Kirk; Reilly, James P. [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47403 (United States)

2011-08-15

380

OSIRIS-REx OCAMS detector assembly characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission carries a suite of three cameras referred to as OCAMS. The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) at Utah State University is providing the CCD-based detector assemblies for OCAMS to the Lunar Planetary Lab (LPL) at the University of Arizona. Working with the LPL, SDL has designed the electronics to operate a 1K by 1K frame transfer Teledyne DALSA Multi-Pinned Phase (MPP) CCD. The detector assembly electronics provides the CCD clocking, biasing, and digital interface with the OCAMS payload Command Control Module (CCM). A prototype system was built to verify the functionality of the detector assembly design and to characterize the detector system performance at the intended operating temperatures. The characterization results are described in this paper.

Hancock, J.; Crowther, B.; Whiteley, M.; Burt, R.; Watson, M.; Nelson, J.; Fellows, C.; Rizk, B.; Kinney-Spano, E.; Perry, M.; Hunten, M.

2013-09-01

381

Wavelet Analysis in Point Contact HPGe Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-noise and pulse-shape discrimination characteristics of point-contact High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors have made them a promising detector technology for neutrinoless double-beta (0???) decay experiments and direct dark matter searches. In 0??? searches, substantial background rejection can be achieved if one can identify and reject multiple site interactions. Dark matter searches require low energy thresholds and noise reduction in the events is thus highly desirable. This talk will introduce some of the techniques of wavelet analysis that can be used to de-noise pulse shapes from point contact HPGe detectors, and to separate multi-site interactions from single-site interactions. The work presented here was done in the context of the Majorana Demonstrator project, which will search for neutrinoless double beta decay as well as direct dark matter interactions using an array of point contact HPGe detectors.

Martin, Ryan

2010-11-01

382

The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent  

E-print Network

The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle ow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which st...

Abe, Toshinori; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David; Attree, Derek J.; Burger, Jochen; Bailey, David; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Ball, Markus; Ballin, James; Barbi, Mauricio; Barlow, Roger; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassignana, Daniela; Bates, Richard; Baudot, Jerome; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Jeannine; Beckmann, Moritz; Bedjidian, Marc; Behnke, Ties; Belkadhi, Khaled; Bellerive, Alain; Bentvelsen, Stan; Bergauer, Thomas; Berggren, C.Mikael U.; Bergholz, Matthias; Bernreuther, Werner; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhuyan, Bipul; Biebel, Otmar; Bilki, Burak; Blair, Grahame; Blumlein, Johannes; Bo, Li; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boos, Eduard; Boudry, Vincent; Bouquet, Bernard; Bouvier, Joel; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brogna, Andrea; Buchholz, Peter; Buesser, Karsten; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Buzulutskov, A.F.; Caccia, Massimo; Caiazza, Stefano; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caldwell, Allen; Callier, Stephane L.C.; Calvo Alamillo, Enrique; Campbell, Michael; Campbell, Alan J.; Cappellini, Chiara; Carloganu, Cristina; Castro, Nuno; Castro Carballo, Maria Elena; Chadeeva, Marina; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Paoti; Charpy, Alexandre; Chen, Xun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Hongfang; Cheon, Byunggu; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, B.C.; Christen, Sandra; Ciborowski, Jacek; Ciobanu, Catalin; Claus, Gilles; Clerc, Catherine; Coca, Cornelia; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Cornat, Remi; Cornebise, Patrick; Corriveau, Francois; Cvach, Jaroslav; Czakon, Michal; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Da Silva, Wilfrid; Dadoun, Olivier; Dam, Mogens; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daubard, Guillaume; David, Dorte; David, Jacques; De Boer, Wim; De Groot, Nicolo; De Jong, Sijbrand; De Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Masi, Rita; De Roeck, Albert; Decotigny, David; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Deng, Zhi; Desch, Klaus; Dieguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dima, Mihai-Octavian; Dissertori, Gunther; Dixit, Madhu S.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris A.; Dollan, Ralph; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doublet, Philippe; Doyle, Tony; Doziere, Guy; Dragicevic, Marko; Drasal, Zbynek; Drugakov, Vladimir; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Dulucq, Frederic; Dumitru, Laurentiu Alexandru; Dzahini, Daniel; Eberl, Helmut; Eckerlin, Guenter; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eigen, Gerald; Eklund, Lars; Elsen, Eckhard; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Engels, Jan; Evrard, Christophe; Fabbri, Riccardo; Faber, Gerard; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Feege, Nils; Feng, Cunfeng; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Garcia, Marcos; Filthaut, Frank; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien L.; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Fouz, Mary-Cruz; Frank, Sebastian; Frey, Ariane; Frotin, Mickael; Fujii, Hirofumi; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fujita, Yowichi; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gaddi, Andrea; Gaede, Frank; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallas, Abraham; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gamba, Diego; Gao, Yuanning; Garrido Beltran, Lluis; Garutti, Erika; Gastaldi, Franck; Gaur, Bakul; Gay, Pascal; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerwig, Hubert; Gibbons, Lawrence; Ginina, Elena; Giraud, Julien; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Gladilin, Leonid; Goldstein, Joel; Gonzalez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Gournaris, Filimon; Greenshaw, Tim; Greenwood, Z.D.; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Philippe; Grondin, Denis; Grunewald, Martin; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gurtu, Atul; Haas, Tobias; Haensel, Stephan; Hajdu, Csaba; Hallermann, Lea; Han, Liang; Hansen, Peter H.; Hara, Takanori; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harz, Martin; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hauschild, Michael; He, Qing; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heinze, Isa; Helebrant, Christian; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hertenberger, Ralf; Herve, Alain; Higuchi, Takeo; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hironori, Kazurayama; Hlucha, Hana; Hommels, Bart; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Wei-Shu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huang, Xingtao; Huppert, Jean Francois; Ide, Yasuhiro; Idzik, Marek; Iglesias Escudero, Carmen; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Igonkina, Olga; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Ikuno, Toshinori; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Imhoff, Marc; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Eiji

2010-01-01

383

Thermopile Detector Arrays for Space Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermopile detectors are widely used in uncooled applications where small numbers of detectors are required, particularly in low-cost commercial applications or applications requiring accurate radiometry. Arrays of thermopile detectors, however, have not been developed to the extent of uncooled bolometer and pyroelectric/ferroelectric arrays. Efforts at JPL seek to remedy this deficiency by developing high performance thin-film thermopile detectors in both linear and two-dimensional formats. The linear thermopile arrays are produced by bulk micromachining and wire bonded to separate CMOS readout electronic chips. Such arrays are currently being fabricated for the Mars Climate Sounder instrument, scheduled for launch in 2005. Progress is also described towards realizing a two-dimensional thermopile array built over CMOS readout circuitry in the substrate.

Foote, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Krueger, T. R.; McCann, T. A.; Chacon, R.; Jones, E. W.; Dickie, M. R.; Schofield, J. T.; McCleese, D. J.; Gaalema, S.

2004-01-01

384

He Puff System For Dust Detector Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

Local detection of surface dust is needed for the safe operation of next-step magnetic fusion devices such as ITER. An electrostatic dust detector, based on a 5 cm x 5 cm grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 50 V, has been developed to detect dust on remote surfaces and was successfully tested for the first time on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). We report on a helium puff system that clears residual dust from this detector and any incident debris or fibers that might cause a permanent short circuit. The entire surface of the detector was cleared of carbon particles by two consecutive helium puffs delivered by three nozzles of 0.45 mm inside diameter. The optimal configuration was found to be with the nozzles at an angle of 30o with respect to the surface of the detector and a helium backing pressure of 6 bar. __________________________________________________

B. Rais, C.H. Skinner A.L. Roquemore

2010-10-01

385

Status of the Soudan 2 detector experiment  

SciTech Connect

The status of the Soudan 2 experiment is discussed. The detector parameters, running schedule, and physics program are presented. Limits on proton decay, the flux of highly ionizing magnetic monopoles and neutrinos from active galactic nuclei are given.

Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.S.; Balka, L.; Barrett, W.L.; Dawson, J.; Fields, T.; Goodman, M.C.; Hill, N.; Hoftiezer, J.H.; Jankowski, D.J.; Lopez, F.; May, E.N.; Price, L.E.; Schlereth, J.; Thron, J.L.; Trost, H.J.; Uretsky, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bode, C.; Border, P.; Demuth, D.; Courant, H.; Gallagher, H.; Gray, R.; Johns, K.; Kasahara, S.; Longley, N.; Lowe, M.; Marshak, M.L.; Maxam, D.; Miller, W.H.; Minor, E.A.; Peterson, E.A.; Roback, D.; Rosen, D.; Ruddick, K.; Schmid, D.; Shupe, M.; Villaume, G.; Werkema, S.J. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Allison, W.W.M.; Barr, G.D.; Brooks, C.B.; Cobb, J.H.; Giles, R.H.; Giller, G.L.; Gray, R.; Perkins, D.H.; Shield, P.; Thomson, M.; Tupper, L.M.; West, N. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom); Alner, G.J.; Cockerill, D.J.A.; Edwards, V.W.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Litchfield, P.J.; Pearce, G.F.; Woods, C.A. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom); Benjamin, D.; Ewen, B.; Kafka, T.; Kochocki, J.; Leeson, W.; Mann, W.A.; McMaster, L.; Milburn, R.; Napier, A.; Oliver, W.; Saitta, B.; Schneps, J.; Sundaralingam, N. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1993-06-01

386

Improved fast neutron spectroscopy via detector segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic scintillators are widely used for fast neutron detection and spectroscopy. Several effects complicate the interpretation of results from detectors based upon these materials. First, fast neutrons will often leave a detector before depositing all of their energy within it. Second, fast neutrons will typically scatter several times within a detector, and there is a non-proportional relationship between the energy of, and the scintillation light produced by, each individual scatter; therefore, there is not a deterministic relationship between the scintillation light observed and the neutron energy deposited. Here we demonstrate a hardware technique for reducing both of these effects. Use of a segmented detector allows for the event-by-event correction of the light yield non-proportionality and for the preferential selection of events with near-complete energy deposition, since these will typically have high segment multiplicities.

Bowden, N. S.; Marleau, P.; Steele, J. T.; Mrowka, S.; Aigeldinger, G.; Mengesha, W.

2009-10-01

387

Detection limits and selectivity in electrochemical detectors  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemistry provides a powerful set of tools for analysis. Its power derives from the fact that electrochemistry is inherently chemical in nature. This instrumentation article describes developments in current-carrying electrochemical detectors. It is possible to argue that these detectors, out of all other developments in electroanalytical chemistry, have had the greatest impact on real analytical chemistry since the development of ion-selective electrodes. Within the context of electrochemical detectors, the authors will discuss three topics that are important to all analytical chemists: signal and noise generation and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), the improvement of qualitative information content, and control of selectivity of the detector. In each area there are many opportunities to increase our knowledge; they describe some relevant research. They demonstrate that there is much to learn and that the electrochemical approach can be made more versatile and powerful that it is today.

Weber, S.G.; Long, J.T.

1988-08-01

388

Alignment of the Fermilab D0 Detector  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab D0 detector was used for the discovery of the top quark during Run I in 1996. It is currently being upgraded to exploit the physics potential to be presented by the Main Injector and the Tevatron Collider during Run II in the Fall of 2000. Some of the essential elements of this upgrade is the upgrade of the Solenoid Magnet, the Central Fiber Tracker, the Preshower Detectors, the Calorimeter System, and the Muon System. This paper discusses the survey and alignment of the these detectors with emphasis on the Muon detector system. The alignment accuracy is specified as better than 0.5mm. A combination of the Laser Tracker, BETS, and V-STARS systems are used for the survey.

Babatunde O'Sheg Oshinowo

2001-07-20

389

One hundred anode microchannel plate ion detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-hundred-anode microchannel plate detector is constructed on a 10 cm × 15 cm printed circuit board and attached to a homebuilt matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ringing and cross talk between anodes have been successfully eliminated and preliminary mass spectra of peptide ions recorded. With one hundred anodes on the printed circuit board, spatial information about the ion beam can also be readily determined with this detector. During operation, the detector anode assembly loses sensitivity after ions strike it for a considerable period of time due to charging of the non-conductive regions between anodes. However, this effect can be minimized by deflecting matrix ions away from the detector.

He, Yi; Poehlman, John F.; Alexander, Andrew W.; Boraas, Kirk; Reilly, James P.

2011-08-01

390

Monolithic short wave infrared (SWIR) detector array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monolithic self-scanned linear detector array was developed for remote sensing in the 1.1- 2.4-micron spectral region. A high-density IRCCD test chip was fabricated to verify new design approaches required for the detector array. The driving factors in the Schottky barrier IRCCD (Pdsub2Si) process development are the attainment of detector yield, uniformity, adequate quantum efficiency, and lowest possible dark current consistent with radiometric accuracy. A dual-band module was designed that consists of two linear detector arrays. The sensor architecture places the floating diffusion output structure in the middle of the chip, away from the butt edges. A focal plane package was conceptualized and includes a polycrystalline silicon substrate carrying a two-layer, thick-film interconnecting conductor pattern and five epoxy-mounted modules. A polycrystalline silicon cover encloses the modules and bond wires, and serves as a radiation and EMI shield, thermal conductor, and contamination seal.

1983-01-01

391

An engineering design study of detector deformation limits in the SSC SDC-detector  

SciTech Connect

The 18,500-metric-ton muon magnet support system (MMSS) is the major component for the large detector proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). The SDC detector requires thick slabs of steel as an absorber. The purpose of this study is to determine and understand the major impact of the deflection of the toroid and stress in the connecting bolts have on the magnet design.

Leung, K.K.; Western, J.L.

1992-03-01

392

Megaton Water Cerenkov Detectors and Astrophysical Neutrinos  

E-print Network

Although formal proposals have not yet been made, the UNO and Hyper-Kamiokande projects are being developed to follow-up the tremendously successful program at Super-Kamiokande using a detector that is 20-50 times larger. The potential of such a detector to continue the study of astrophysical neutrinos is considered and contrasted with the program for cubic kilometer neutrino observatories.

Maury Goodman

2005-01-21

393

MicroBooNE Detector Move  

SciTech Connect

On Monday, June 23, 2014 the MicroBooNE detector -- a 30-ton vessel that will be used to study ghostly particles called neutrinos -- was transported three miles across the Fermilab site and gently lowered into the laboratory's Liquid-Argon Test Facility. This video documents that move, some taken with time-lapse camerad, and shows the process of getting the MicroBooNE detector to its new home.

Flemming, Bonnie; Rameika, Gina

2014-06-25

394

Broadband electronics for CVD-diamond detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of CVD-diamond detectors for particle detection has created a demand for the development of very fast, low-noise electronics operated at high dc bias voltages. To take advantage of the high charge-carrier mobility of the new detector material the signal processing is performed using microwave layout techniques as well as picosecond pulse shapers and GHz-frequency dividers. The particle detection

P. Moritz; E. Berdermann; K. Blasche; H. Stelzer; B. Voss

2001-01-01

395

Smart detectors for Monte Carlo radiative transfer  

E-print Network

Many optimization techniques have been invented to reduce the noise that is inherent in Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. As the typical detectors used in Monte Carlo simulations do not take into account all the information contained in the impacting photon packages, there is still room to optimize this detection process and the corresponding estimate of the surface brightness distributions. We want to investigate how all the information contained in the distribution of impacting photon packages can be optimally used to decrease the noise in the surface brightness distributions and hence to increase the efficiency of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. We demonstrate that the estimate of the surface brightness distribution in a Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation is similar to the estimate of the density distribution in an SPH simulation. Based on this similarity, a recipe is constructed for smart detectors that take full advantage of the exact location of the impact of the photon packages. Several types of smart detectors, each corresponding to a different smoothing kernel, are presented. We show that smart detectors, while preserving the same effective resolution, reduce the noise in the surface brightness distributions compared to the classical detectors. The most efficient smart detector realizes a noise reduction of about 10%, which corresponds to a reduction of the required number of photon packages (i.e. a reduction of the simulation run time) of 20%. As the practical implementation of the smart detectors is straightforward and the additional computational cost is completely negligible, we recommend the use of smart detectors in Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations.

Maarten Baes

2008-09-11

396

CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a large detector built to study 2 TeV anti p p collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron. The calorimetry, which has polar angle coverage from 2 to 178, and complete azimuthal coverage within this region, forms the subject of this paper. It consists of both electromagnetic shower counters (EM calorimeters) and hadron calorimeters, and is segmented into about 5000 ''towers'' or solid angle elements.

Jensen, H.B.

1987-03-01

397

Smart detectors for Monte Carlo radiative transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many optimization techniques have been invented to reduce the noise that is inherent in Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. As the typical detectors used in Monte Carlo simulations do not take into account all the information contained in the impacting photon packages, there is still room to optimize this detection process and the corresponding estimate of the surface brightness distributions. We want to investigate how all the information contained in the distribution of impacting photon packages can be optimally used to decrease the noise in the surface brightness distributions and hence to increase the efficiency of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. We demonstrate that the estimate of the surface brightness distribution in a Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation is similar to the estimate of the density distribution in a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation. Based on this similarity, a recipe is constructed for smart detectors that take full advantage of the exact location of the impact of the photon packages. Several types of smart detectors, each corresponding to a different smoothing kernel, are presented. We show that smart detectors, while preserving the same effective resolution, reduce the noise in the surface brightness distributions compared to the classical detectors. The most efficient smart detector realizes a noise reduction of about 10 per cent, which corresponds to a reduction of the required number of photon packages (i.e. a reduction of the simulation run time) of 20 per cent. As the practical implementation of the smart detectors is straightforward and the additional computational cost is completely negligible, we recommend the use of smart detectors in Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations.

Baes, Maarten

2008-12-01

398

Search for nuclearites with the ANTARES detector  

SciTech Connect

ANTARES is an underwater detector located in the Mediterranean Sea, near the French city of Toulon, dedicated to the search for cosmic neutrinos. ANTARES is optimized to detect the Cherenkov signal from up-going relativistic particles, but could also observe massive exotic objects, such as magnetic monopoles and nuclearites. In this article we present a search strategy for nuclearites and determine the sensitivity to nuclearites of ANTARES detector in complete configuration, using a set of data taken in 2008.

Pavalas, G. E. [Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2010-11-24

399

Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical detection system is described comprising in combination: (a) a multielement, microelectrode array detector containing means for acquiring a plurality of signals; (b) electronic means for receiving said signals and converting said signals into a readout or display providing information with respect to the nature and concentration of elements present in a solution being tested. Also described is the means of making the above described microelectrode detector.

Glass, R.S.; Perone, S.P.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Kimmons, J.F.

1992-12-31

400

Photoconducting positions monitor and imaging detector  

DOEpatents

A photoconductive, high energy photon beam detector/monitor for detecting x-rays and gamma radiation, having a thin, disk-shaped diamond substrate with a first and second surface, and electrically conductive coatings, or electrodes, of a predetermined configuration or pattern, disposed on the surfaces of the substrate. A voltage source and a current amplifier is connected to the electrodes to provide a voltage bias to the electrodes and to amplify signals from the detector.

Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Kuzay, Tuncer M. (Naperville, IL)

2000-01-01

401

Summary Scientific Performance of EUCLID Detector Prototypes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) plan to partner to build the EUCLID mission. EUCLID is a mission concept for studying the Dark Energy that is hypothesized to account for the accelerating cosmic expansion. For the past year, NASA has been building detector prototypes at Teledyne Imaging Sensors. This talk will summarize the measured scientific performance of these detector prototypes for astrophysical and cosmological applications.

Rauscher, Bernard J.

2011-01-01

402

CDF silicon tracking detectors, 1988-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On September 30, 2011, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) finished physics data-taking at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The original CDF silicon tracking detector, proposed in 1981 (SVX) and later replaced and updated (SVX'), was again replaced for Run-2 in 2002-2011 (SVX-II, ISL, L00). These systems operated successfully for many years, performing essential roles in exploring physics at the energy frontier, most notably the discovery of the top quark.

Hara, K.; Baccehtta, N.; Spalding, W. J.; Worm, S. D.

2013-01-01

403

Spectral Irradiance Measurements Based on Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the preliminary results of the realization of absolute spectral irradiance scale at INMETRO in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions using filter radiometers as secondary standards. In the construction of these instruments are used, at least, apertures, interference filters and a trap detector. In the assembly of the trap detectors it was necessary to characterize several photocells in spatial uniformity and shunt resistance. All components were calibrated and these results were analyzed to mount the filter radiometer.

Lima, M. S.; Menegotto, T.; Duarte, I.; Ferreira da Silva, T.; Alves, L. C.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Almeida, G. B.; Teixeira, R. N.; Couceiro, I. B.

2015-01-01

404

Fiber optic detector for immuno-testing  

DOEpatents

A portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals in air or a gas by exchanging the target chemical for a fluoroescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Thomas E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01

405

The Zero-Degree Detector System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We will report on a detector system used for accelerator measurement of nuclear fragmentation cross sections. This system consists of two detector planes, each carrying a ring of 8 detectors. Each detector has 64 pads. These two detector planes are arranged facing each other so that the matching detector pads on each plane form a two element charged particle telescope. Each of these telescopes is capable of determining the elemental identity of nuclear fragments passing through it. The system is used to measure light fragment production in the presence of heavier fragments. We will present a detailed discussion of the 64-pad detector design, the substrate design. The front-end electronics used to read out the signals is based on a custom VLSI chip developed for the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter experiment which has been flown successfully twice in Antarctica. Each of these chips has 16 channels and each channel consists of a charge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaping amplifier and a track-and-hold circuit. The track-and-hold circuits are connected via a multiplexer to an output line driver. This allows the held signals to be presented, one-by-one via a common data line to a analog-to-digital converter. Because the output line driver can be placed in a high input impedance state when not in use, it is possible to daisy-change many chips on the same common data line. The front-end electronics and data readout scheme will be discussed in detail. The Zero Degree Detector has been used in several accelerator experiments conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory as well as at the HIMAC accelerator in Japan. We will show examples of data taken at these accelerator runs to demonstrate how the system works.

Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Howell, Leonard W.; Kouznetsov, Evgueni

2006-01-01

406

A new active thermal neutron detector.  

PubMed

This communication presents the main results about the design and in-house fabrication of a new solid-state neutron detector, which produces a DC output signal proportional to the thermal neutron fluence rate. The detector has been developed within the framework of the 3-y project NESCOFI@BTF of INFN (CSN V). Due to its sensitivity, photon rejection, low cost and minimum size, this device is suited to be used in moderator-based spectrometers. PMID:24345462

Bedogni, R; Bortot, D; Pola, A; Introini, M V; Gentile, A; Esposito, A; Gómez-Ros, J M; Palomba, M; Grossi, A

2014-10-01

407

Molecular Expressions: How a Metal Detector Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This java simulation illustrates the operation of a metal detector. An animation shows the creation of a pulsed magnetic field from the detector, the induced currents in a metal object, and the resultant magnetic signal. Text explains the animation. This animation is part of a large collection of tutorial materials on electricity and magnetism and optics. This resource is part of a larger collection on electricity and magnetism by the same authors.

Davidson, Michael

2007-11-03

408

An Adaptive Anomaly Detector for Worm Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an adaptive end-host anomaly detector where a supervised classifier trained as a trac predictor is used to control a time-varying detection threshold. Using real enterprise trac traces for both training and testing, we show that our detector outperforms a fixed-threshold de- tector. This comparison is robust to the choice of o-the- shelf classifier and to a variety of

John Mark Agosta; Carlos Diuk-Wasser; Jaideep Chandrashekar; Carl Livadas

409

Miniature Reversal Electron-Attachment Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miniature reversal electron-attachment detector (miniREAD) enables direct injection of air or vapor at atmospheric pressure from monitored area into mass-spectrometric instrument to detect explosives, narcotics, or other substances, vapors of which suspected of being present in low concentrations. In comparison with older reversal electron-attachment detector, miniREAD simpler in design; more rugged; and easier to build, repair, and maintain. In addition, probably more sensitive.

Chutjian, Ara

1994-01-01

410

Pre-stabilized Lasers for Advanced Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational wave detectors need very stable continuous wave laser sources able to delivering high power beams. Realization of those lasers is a special R&D calling on very low noise controls on very reliable laser sources. After a brief introduction on the laser principles, we review the current laser sources for gravitational wave interferometric detectors, shortly describing the technologies of both solid-state and fiber lasers and amplifiers. A final section addresses the issue of laser pre-stabilization.

Man, C.-Nary

411

Thallium Bromide Nuclear Radiation Detector Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a dense, high-Z, wide bandgap semiconductor that has potential as an efficient, compact, room temperature nuclear radiation detector. In this paper we report on our recent progress in TlBr nuclear detector development. In particular, improvements in material purification have led to an order of magnitude increase in the mobility-lifetime product of electrons, (mutau)e, to as high

Alexei V. Churilov; Guido Ciampi; Hadong Kim; Leonard J. Cirignano; William M. Higgins; Fred Olschner; Kanai S. Shah

2009-01-01

412

Thallium bromide nuclear radiation detector development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a dense, high-Z, wide band gap semiconductor that has potential as an efficient, compact, room temperature nuclear radiation detector. In this paper we report on our recent progress in TlBr nuclear detector development. In particular, improvements in material purification have led to an order of magnitude increase in the mobility-lifetime product of electrons, (??)e, to as

Alexei V. Churilov; Guido Ciampi; Hadong Kim; Leonard J. Cirignano; William M. Higgins; Fred Olschner; Kanai S. Shah

2008-01-01

413

Prosthetic metal implants and airport metal detectors  

PubMed Central

Introduction Metal detectors have been present in airports and points of departure for some time. With the introduction of heightened security measures in response to fears of an increased threat of terrorism, they may become more prevalent in other public locations. The aim of this study was to ascertain which prosthetic devices activated metal detector devices used for security purposes. Methods A range of prosthetic devices used commonly in orthopaedic and plastic surgery procedures were passed through an arch metal detector at Birmingham Airport in the UK. Additionally, each item was passed under a wand detector. Items tested included expandable breast prostheses, plates used in wrist and hand surgery, screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ ligation clips and staples. Results No prostheses were detected by the arch detector. The expandable implants and wrist plates were the only devices detected by passing the wand directly over them. No device was detected by the wand when it was under cover of the axillary soft tissue. Screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ clips and staples were not detected under any of the study conditions. Conclusions Although unlikely to trigger a detector, it is possible that an expandable breast prosthesis or larger plate may do so. It is therefore best to warn patients of this so they can anticipate detection and further examination. PMID:23827294

Dancey, A; Titley, OG

2013-01-01

414

NaI Detector Network at Aragats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aragats Space Environmental Center (ASEC) [1] provides monitoring of different species of secondary cosmic rays and consists of two high altitude research stations on Mt. Aragats in Armenia. Along with solar modulation effects, ASEC detectors register several coherent enhancements associated with thunderstorm activity. The experimental techniques used allowed for the first time to simultaneously measure fluxes of the electrons, muons, gamma rays, and neutrons correlated with thunderstorm activity [2,3]. Ground-based observations by a complex of surface particle detectors, measuring in systematically and repeatable fashion, gamma quanta, electrons, muons and neutrons from atmospheric sources are necessary for proving the theory of particle acceleration and multiplication during thunderstorms. Energy spectra and correlations between fluxes of different particles, measured on Earth's surface address the important issues of research of the solar modulation effects and the atmospheric high-energy phenomena. In May 26 2011, launched 5 NaI(Tl) (thallium-doped sodium iodide) scintillation detectors and 1 plastic one in the new ASEC laboratory on Aragats to detect low energy gamma rays from the thunderclouds and short particle bursts. Including NaI(Tl) detectors in ASEC detectors system is of great importance for investigation thunderstorm phenomena because NaI(Tl) detectors have high efficiency of gamma ray detecting in comparison with plastic ones.

Avakyan, Karen; Arakelyan, Karen; Chilingarian, Ashot; Daryan, Ara; Kozliner, Lev; Mailyan, Bagrat; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Pokhsraryan, David; Sargsyan, David

2013-02-01

415

High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

Karp, Joel

2014-03-26

416

CZT imaging detectors for ProtoEXIST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the detector development for a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray (20-600 keV) telescope, ProtoEXIST. ProtoEXIST is a pathfinder for both technology and science of the proposed implementation of the Black Hole Finder Probe, Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey telescope (EXIST). The principal technology challenge is the development of large area, close-tiled modules of imaging CZT detectors (1000 cm2 for ProtoEXIST1). We review the updates of the detector design and package concept for ProtoEXIST1 and report the current development status of the CZT detectors, using calibration results of our basic detector unit - 2 x 2 x 0.5 cm CZT crystals with 2.5 mm pixels (8 x 8 array). The current prototype (Rev1) of our detector crystal unit (DCU) shows ~4.5 keV electronics noise (FWHM), and the radiation measurements show the energy resolution (FWHM) of the units is 4.7 keV (7.9%) at 59.5 keV, 5.6 keV (4.6%) at 122 keV, and 7.6 keV (2.1%) at 356 keV. The new (Rev2) DCU with revised design is expected to improve the resolution by ~30%.

Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.; Chammas, N.; Copete, A.; Baker, R. G.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Cook, W. R., III; Burnham, J. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Collins, J.; Craig, W. W.

2006-08-01

417

The CMS Tracker Detector Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

2009-06-01

418

Comparison of Detector Technologies for CAPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, several different detectors are examined for use in a Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS), a conceptual study for a possible future space-based system. Each detector will be examined for its future (25 years or more in the future) ability to find and track near-Earth Objects (NEOs) from a space-based detection platform. Within the CAPS study are several teams of people who each focus on different aspects of the system concept. This study s focus is on detection devices. In particular, evaluations on the following devices have been made: charge-coupled devices (CCDs), charge-injected devices (CIDs), superconducting tunneling junctions (STJs), and transition edge sensors (TESs). These devices can be separated into two main categories; the first category includes detectors that are currently being widely utilized, such as CCDs and CIDs. The second category includes experimental detectors, such as STJs and TESs. After the discussion of the detectors themselves, there will be a section devoted to the explicit use of these detectors with CAPS.

Stockum, Jana L.

2005-01-01

419

Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

Howcroft, Caius L.F.; /Cambridge U.

2004-12-01

420

The evaporative cooling system for the ATLAS inner detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the evaporative system used to cool the silicon detector structures of the inner detector sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The motivation for an evaporative system, its design and construction are discussed. In detail the particular requirements of the ATLAS inner detector, technical choices and the qualification and manufacture of final components

D. Attree; B. Anderson; E. C. Anderssen; V. Akhnazarov; R. J. Apsimon; P. Barclay; L. E. Batchelor; R. L. Bates; M. Battistin; J. Bendotti; S. Berry; A. Bitadze; J. P. Bizzel; P. Bonneau; M. Bosteels; J. M. Butterworth; S. Butterworth; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; A. Catinaccio; F. Corbaz; H. O. Danielsson; E. Danilevich; N. Dixon; S. D. Dixon; F. Doherty; O. Dorholt; M. Doubrava; K. Egorov; K. Einsweiler; A. C. Falou; P. Feraudet; P. Ferrari; K. Fowler; J. T. Fraser; R. S. French; M. Galuska; F. Gannaway; G. Gariano; M. D. Gibson; M. Gilchriese; D. Giugni; J. Godlewski; I. Gousakov; B. Gorski; G. D. Hallewell; N. Hartman; R. J. Hawkings; S. J. Haywood; N. P. Hessey; I. Ilyashenko; S. Infante; J. N. Jackson; T. J. Jones; J. Kaplon; S. Katunin; S. Lindsay; L. Luisa; N. Massol; F. Mc Ewan; S. J. Mc Mahon; C. Menot; J. Mistry; J. Morris; D. M. Muskett; K. Nagai; A. Nichols; R. Nicholson; R. B. Nickerson; S. L. Nielsen; P. E. Nordahl; M. Olcese; M. Parodi; F. Perez-Gomez; H. Pernegger; E. Perrin; L. P. Rossi; A. Rovani; E. Ruscino; H. Sandaker; A. Smith; V. Sopko; S. Stapnes; M. Stodulski; J. Tarrant; J. Thadome; D. Tovey; M. Turala; M. Tyndel; V. Vacek; E. van der Kraaij; G. H. A. Viehhauser; E. Vigeolas; P. S. Wells; S. Wenig; P. Werneke

2008-01-01

421

Precise pointing of space telescope using a quadrant detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was done to evaluate the pointing performance of Space Telescope with a quadrant detector used as the fine guidance sensor. The detector, a quadrant digicon, has been proposed as a replacement detector should unforeseen problems develop with the present baseline interferometer design. The detector model is discussed along with the experimental data from which it was derived.

Strikwerda, T. E.; Strohbehn, K.; Heyler, G. A.

1985-01-01

422

SILICON SURFACE-BARRIER RADIATION DETECTORS SOME DESIGNS AND APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of semiconductor surface-barrier radiation detectors now ; being developed is described. The performance and electronic requirements of the ; detectors are discussed together with a general description of the techniques ; used in the preparation of the crystals and their subsequent encapsulation. The ; areas of the detectors range from a few mm² to a multiple detector

P. G. Salmon; F. L. Allsworth

1963-01-01

423

THE 15 LAYER SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR TRACKER IN EXPERIMENT 896.  

SciTech Connect

Large linear silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for use in several experiments. Recently 15 detectors were used as a tracking device in BNL-AGS heavy ion experiment (E896). The detectors were successfully operated in a 6.2 T magnetic field. The behavior of the detectors, such as drift uniformity, resolution, and charge collection efficiency are presented. The effect of the environment on the detector performance is discussed. Some results from the experimental run are presented. The detectors performed well in an experimental environment. This is the first tracking application of these detectors.

PANDY,S.U.

1998-11-08

424

Characterisation of a Si(Li) orthogonal-strip detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Compton camera composed of an orthogonal-strip Si(Li) detector and an orthogonal-strip HPGe SmartPET detector is under investigation at the University of Liverpool. To optimise the performance of the system, it is essential to quantify the response of the detectors to gamma irradiation. Such measurements have previously been reported for the SmartPET detector and in this work we report on the experimental characterisation of the Si(Li) detector. Precision scans of the detector have been performed using a finely collimated 241Am gamma-ray source to determine the uniformity and charge collection properties of the detector.

Harkness, L. J.; Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Sweeney, A.; Beau, J.; Lampert, M.; Pirard, B.; Zuvic, M.

2013-10-01

425

Low-Power Multi-Aspect Space Radiation Detector System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of all of these detector technologies will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the deep space radiation field.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave; Freeman, Jon C.; Burkebile, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

426

Mineral Detector for Igneous Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Raman spectral analysis tool that uses machine learning algorithms to classify pure minerals in igneous rocks. Experiments show greater than 90% accuracy classifying a test set of pure minerals against a database of similar reference minerals using an artificial neural network. Efforts are currently underway to improve this tool for use as a mineral detector in rock samples, an important milestone toward autonomously classifying rocks based on spectral, and previous imaging work. Although pure mineral classification has been widely successful, applying the same methods to rocks is difficult because the spectra may represent a combination of multiple, and often competing, mineral signatures. In such cases some minerals may appear with more intensity than others resulting in masking of weaker minerals. Furthermore, with our particular spectrometer (852 nm excitation, ~50 micron spot size), minerals such as potassium feldspar fluoresce, both obscuring its characteristic Raman features and suppressing those of weaker minerals. For example, plagioclase and quartz, two key minerals for determining the composition of igneous rocks, are often hidden by minerals such as potassium feldspar and pyroxene, and are consequently underrepresented in the spectral analysis. These technicalities tend to skew the perceived composition of a rock from its actual composition. Despite these obstacles, an experiment involving a training set of 26 minerals (plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, quartz) and a test set of 57 igneous rocks (basalt, gabbro, andesite, diorite, dacite, granodiorite, rhyolite, granite) shows that generalizations derived from their spectral data are consistent with expected trends: as rock composition goes from felsic to mafic there is a marked increase in the detection of minerals such as plagioclase and pyroxene along with a decrease in the detection of minerals such as quartz and potassium feldspar. The results suggest that phaneritic rocks are especially good candidates for compositional characterization based on spectral analysis. Aphanitic rocks, whose expected trends were not fully met due to the technicalities mentioned earlier, benefit from our previous imaging analysis work where visual attributes (texture and color) are obtained from color photos. Earlier experiments using 266 igneous rock samples (andesite, basalt, rhyolite, granite, granodiorite, and diorite) correctly classified rocks as felsic, intermediate, or mafic with 79%, 63%, and 58% accuracy, respectively [1]. [1] S. T. Ishikawa, V. C. Gulick. AGU 2008 Fall Mtg.

Ishikawa, S. T.; Hart, S. D.; Gulick, V. C.

2010-12-01

427

Piezoelectric microcantilever serum protein detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies such as Herceptin and Cetuximab. The PEMS displayed a limit of detection of 100 fg/mL, which was 100 times lower than the current methods of protein detection in serum, such as ELISA. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the PEMS device allows it to be capable of determining the dissociation constant, K d, of selective receptors such as antibodies. Using the dose response trials of Her2, Kd has been deduced for H3 scFv, and Herceptin, a commercial antibody specific for Her2.

Capobianco, Joseph A.

428

Workshop on detectors for third-generation synchrotron sources: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The aims of the workshop were (1) to acquaint APS users with current R and D being carried out on detectors, (2) to identify new detector systems possible during the next five years, (3) to identify new detectors theoretically possible in the future, (4) to stimulate interactions between user groups and detector developers, and (5) to obtain recommendations from expert panels on technical issues needing resolution. Development of detectors at ESRF, Spring-8, BNL, CERN and LBL are included.

NONE

1994-12-01

429

Double-cantilever mount for angle-resolving particle detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double cantilever detector mount, constructed from aluminum, was designed to support an angle-resolving particle detector mounted on a rotary table. The mount allows precise and accurate alignment of the detector's field of view in the Cartesian x, y, and z plane, and allows precise control of the azimuthal angle of the detector. The mount is simple to adjust, provides high precision and stability, and can be used in any situation where precise and accurate detector alignment is required.

Waterhouse, D. K.; Devlin, J. K.; Williams, J. F.

2003-04-01

430

Gamma detectors in explosives and narcotics detection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma detectors based on BGO crystals were designed and developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These detectors are used in explosives and narcotics detection systems. Key specifications and design features of the detectors are presented. A software temperature-compensation method that makes it possible to stabilize the gamma detector response and operate the detector in a temperature range from -20 to 50°C is described.

Bystritsky, V. M.; Zubarev, E. V.; Krasnoperov, A. V.; Porohovoi, S. Yu.; Rapatskii, V. L.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Sadovskii, A. B.; Salamatin, A. V.; Salmin, R. A.; Slepnev, V. M.; Andreev, E. I.

2013-11-01

431

A novel pixellated solid-state photon detector for enhancing the Everhart-Thornley detector.  

PubMed

This article presents a pixellated solid-state photon detector designed specifically to improve certain aspects of the existing Everhart-Thornley detector. The photon detector was constructed and fabricated in an Austriamicrosystems 0.35 µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process technology. This integrated circuit consists of an array of high-responsivity photodiodes coupled to corresponding low-noise transimpedance amplifiers, a selector-combiner circuit and a variable-gain postamplifier. Simulated and experimental results show that the photon detector can achieve a maximum transimpedance gain of 170 dB? and minimum bandwidth of 3.6 MHz. It is able to detect signals with optical power as low as 10 nW and produces a minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 24 dB regardless of gain configuration. The detector has been proven to be able to effectively select and combine signals from different pixels. The key advantages of this detector are smaller dimensions, higher cost effectiveness, lower voltage and power requirements and better integration. The photon detector supports pixel-selection configurability which may improve overall SNR and also potentially generate images for different analyses. This work has contributed to the future research of system-level integration of a pixellated solid-state detector for secondary electron detection in the scanning electron microscope. PMID:23553907

Chuah, Joon Huang; Holburn, David

2013-06-01

432

Diamond Detector Prototyping Outline: Recipe "how to make a diamond detector"  

E-print Network

Diamond Detector Prototyping Outline: Recipe "how to make a diamond detector" 1. Buy 2. Clean Vapour Deposition (CVD) method of diamond synthesis that can be compared to frost forming on a window in various acids/bases (cleaning) Main purpose: to remove all organic and inorganic impurities from

Martin, Jeff

433

Measurements of fast neutrons by bubble detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron bubble detectors have been studied using Am-Be and D-D neuron sources, which give limited energy information. The Bubble Detector Spectrometer (BDS) have six different energy thresholds ranging from 10 KeV to 10 Mev. The number of bubbles obtained in each measurement is related to the dose (standardized response R) equivalent neutrons through sensitivity (b / ?Sv) and also with the neutron flux (neutrons per unit area) through a relationship that provided by the manufacturer. Bubble detectors were used with six different answers (0.11 b/ ?Sv, 0093 b/?Sv, 0.14 b/?Sv, 0.17 b/?Sv, 0051 b/?Sv). To test the response of the detectors (BDS) radiate a set of six of them with different energy threshold, with a source of Am-Be, placing them at a distance of one meter from it for a few minutes. Also, exposed to dense plasma focus Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II FPD) of ICN-UNAM, apparatus which produces fusion plasma, generating neutrons by nuclear reactions of neutrons whose energy emitting is 2.45 MeV. In this case the detectors were placed at a distance of 50 cm from the pinch at 90° this was done for a certain number of shots. In both cases, the standard response is reported (Dose in ?Sv) for each of the six detectors representing an energy range, this response is given by the expression Ri = Bi / Si where Bi is the number of bubbles formed in each and the detector sensitivity (Si) is given for each detector in (b / ?Sv). Also, reported for both cases, the detected neutron flux (n cm-2), by a given ratio and the response involves both standardized R, as the average cross section sigma. The results obtained have been compared with the spectrum of Am-Be source. From these measurements it can be concluded that with a combination of bubble detectors, with different responses is possible to measure the equivalent dose in a range of 10 to 100 ?Sv fields mixed neutron and gamma, and pulsed generated fusion devices.

Castillo, F.; Leal, B.; Mart?nez, H.; Rangel, J.; Reyes, P. G.

2013-07-01

434

Position sensitivity in gallium arsenide radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

For several years, the authors have studied the electrical output of GaAs detectors in response to MeV protons. Beams from the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s tandem Van de Graaff, bunched into pulses of about 0.7-ns width, have been used to drive detectors into the current mode, and fast electronics have enabled characterization of the impulse response shapes and the absolute sensitivities. Recently, the authors extended this line of investigation to measure output-charge spectra in response to low-current beams, in which the count rate was low and pulses due to individual ionizing particles were analyzed. The first part of the work was the measurement of spectra of the output charge of the detectors when bombarded by a beam of MeV-energy protons, which was collimated to a diameter of 0.1 mm. The GaAs detector was mounted on a microadjustable stage just behind the collimator, so that the site of irradiation on the detector could be varied. Output pulses originating from the impacts of individual protons were preamplified with charge-sensitive Lecroy 2004 preamplifiers, shaped with Lecroy 2011 amplifiers, and analyzed with a Lecroy 3500 multichannel analyzer. The second part was the measurement of the time response of the detector to a 0.1 mm-collimated bunched proton beam. The proton bunch width was less than 1 ns, during which time many protons struck the detector, driving it into the current mode where individual proton impacts are unresolved. A possible detector design is suggested by the results. In the past, GaAs time response has been improved by doping or radiation damaging, which introduces traps. The tails can be eliminated, but at the cost of a factor of a thousand in main peak sensitivity. It now appears that by masking off the region of the detector near the negative electrode, the tails can be eliminated with only a factor of about ten loss in peak gain.

Harper, R.; Hilko, R.A.

1994-12-31

435

Principles of wide bandwidth acoustic detectors and the single-mass DUAL detector  

E-print Network

We apply the standard theory of the elastic body to obtain a set of equations describing the behavior of an acoustic Gravitational Wave detector, fully taking into account the 3-dimensional properties of the mass, the readout and the signal. We show that the advantages given by a Dual detector made by two nested oscillators can also be obtained by monitoring two different acoustic modes of the same oscillator, thus easing the detector realization. We apply these concepts and by means of an optimization process we derive the main figures of such a single-mass Dual detector designed specifically for the frequency interval 2-5kHz. Finally we calculate the SQL sensitivity of this detector.

Michele Bonaldi; Massimo Cerdonio; Livia Conti; Paolo Falferi; Paola Leaci; Stefano Odorizzi; Giovanni A. Prodi; Mario Saraceni; Enrico Serra; Jean Pierre Zendri

2006-04-29

436

Muon Collider Machine-Detector Interface  

SciTech Connect

In order to realize the high physics potential of a Muon Collider (MC) a high luminosity of {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}-collisions at the Interaction Point (IP) in the TeV range must be achieved ({approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). To reach this goal, a number of demanding requirements on the collider optics and the IR hardware - arising from the short muon lifetime and from relatively large values of the transverse emittance and momentum spread in muon beams that can realistically be obtained with ionization cooling should be satisfied. These requirements are aggravated by limitations on the quadrupole gradients as well as by the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. The overall detector performance in this domain is strongly dependent on the background particle rates in various sub-detectors. The deleterious effects of the background and radiation environment produced by the beam in the ring are very important issues in the Interaction Region (IR), detector and Machine-Detector Interface (MDI) designs. This report is based on studies presented very recently.

Mokhov, Nikolai V.; /Fermilab

2011-08-01

437

Liquid scintillation detectors for high energy neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large liquid scintillation detectors have been generally used for low energy neutrino measurements, in the MeV energy region. We describe the potential employment of large detectors (>1 kiloton) for studies of higher energy neutrino interactions, such as cosmic rays and long baseline experiments. When considering the physics potential of new large instruments the possibility of doing useful measurements with higher energy neutrino interactions has been overlooked. Here we take into account Fermat’s principle, which states that the first light to reach each PMT will follow the shortest path between that PMT and the point of origin. We describe the geometry of this process, and the resulting wavefront, which we call the “Fermat surface”, and discuss methods of using this surface to extract directional track information and particle identification. This capability may be demonstrated in the new long baseline neutrino beam from Jaeri accelerator to the KamLAND detector in Japan. Other exciting applications include the use of Hanohano as a movable long baseline detector in this same beam, and LENA in Europe for future long baseline neutrino beams from CERN. Also, this methodology opens up the question as to whether a large liquid scintillator detector should be given consideration for use in a future long baseline experiment from Fermilab to the DUSEL underground laboratory at Homestake.

Smith, Stefanie N.; Learned, John G.

2010-04-01

438

Liquid Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

Large open volume (not segmented) liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measurements, in the MeV energy region. We describe the potential employment of large detectors (>1 kiloton) for studies of higher energy neutrino interactions, such as cosmic rays and long-baseline experiments. When considering the physics potential of new large instruments the possibility of doing useful measurements with higher energy neutrino interactions has been overlooked. Here we take into account Fermat's principle, which states that the first light to reach each PMT will follow the shortest path between that PMT and the point of origin. We describe the geometry of this process, and the resulting wavefront, which we are calling the 'Fermat surface', and discuss methods of using this surface to extract directional track information and particle identification. This capability may be demonstrated in the new long-baseline neutrino beam from Jaeri accelerator to the KamLAND detector in Japan. Other exciting applications include the use of Hanohano as a movable long-baseline detector in this same beam, and LENA in Europe for future long-baseline neutrino beams from CERN. Also, this methodology opens up the question as to whether a large liquid scintillator detector should be given consideration for use in a future long-baseline experiment from Fermilab to the DUSEL underground laboratory at Homestake.

Smith, Stefanie N.; Learned, John G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2010-03-30

439

Liquid Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large open volume (not segmented) liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measurements, in the MeV energy region. We describe the potential employment of large detectors (>1 kiloton) for studies of higher energy neutrino interactions, such as cosmic rays and long-baseline experiments. When considering the physics potential of new large instruments the possibility of doing useful measurements with higher energy neutrino interactions has been overlooked. Here we take into account Fermat's principle, which states that the first light to reach each PMT will follow the shortest path between that PMT and the point of origin. We describe the geometry of this process, and the resulting wavefront, which we are calling the "Fermat surface", and discuss methods of using this surface to extract directional track information and particle identification. This capability may be demonstrated in the new long-baseline neutrino beam from Jaeri accelerator to the KamLAND detector in Japan. Other exciting applications include the use of Hanohano as a movable long-baseline detector in this same beam, and LENA in Europe for future long-baseline neutrino beams from CERN. Also, this methodology opens up the question as to whether a large liquid scintillator detector should be given consideration for use in a future long-baseline experiment from Fermilab to the DUSEL underground laboratory at Homestake.

Smith, Stefanie N.; Learned, John G.

2010-03-01

440

Neutrino induced events in the MINOS detectors  

SciTech Connect

The MINOS experiment is designed to study neutrino oscillations. It uses an accelerator generated beam of neutrinos and two detectors, the smaller at a distance of 1km and the larger at 735 km. By comparing the spectrum and flavour composition of the beam at the two detectors precise determinations of the oscillation parameters are possible. This thesis concentrates on the analysis of data from the larger Far Detector. By studying the spectrum of neutral current events it is possible to look for evidence of non-interacting 'sterile' neutrinos. The thesis describes how events are selected for this analysis, and a method for discriminating between charged current and neutral current events. The systematic uncertainties resulting from these cuts are evaluated. Several techniques for using Near Detector data to eliminate systematic uncertainties in the predicted Far Detector spectrum are compared. An oscillation analysis, based on the first year of MINOS data, uses the selected events to make a measurement of f{sub s}, the fraction of unseen neutrinos that are sterile. The measured value is f{sub s} = 0.07{sup +0.32} at 68%C.L., and is consistent with the standard three-neutrino picture, which has no sterile neutrino.

Litchfield, Reuben Phillip; /Oxford U.

2008-03-01

441

SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond.  

PubMed

The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic. PMID:21828904

Peterson, Todd E; Furenlid, Lars R

2011-09-01

442

Optical lumped element microwave kinetic inductance detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, or MKIDs, have proven to be a powerful cryogenic detector technology due to their sensitivity and the ease with which they can be multiplexed into large arrays. An MKID is an energy sensor based on a photon-variable superconducting inductance in a lithographed microresonator. It is capable of functioning as both a photon detector across the electromagnetic spectrum and a particle detector. We have recently demonstrated the world's first photon-counting, energy-resolving, ultraviolet, optical, and near infrared MKID focal plane array in the ARCONS camera at the Palomar 200" telescope. Optical Lumped Element (OLE) MKID arrays have significant advantages over semiconductor detectors such as charge coupled devices (CCDs). They can count individual photons with essentially no false counts and determine the energy (to a few percent) and arrival time (to ?1?s) of every photon, with good quantum efficiency. Initial devices were degraded by substrate events from photons passing through the Titanium Nitride (TiN) material of the resonator and being absorbed in the substrate. Recent work has eliminated this issue, with a solution found to be increasing the thickness of the TiN resonator from 20 to 60 nm.

Marsden, Danica; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Bumble, Bruce; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; McHugh, Sean; Strader, Matthew; Langman, Eric

2012-07-01

443

Detector analysis for shallow water active sonar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPAWAR Systems Center-San Diego, in concert with the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has designed and built a proof-of-concept broadband biomimetic sonar. This proof-of-concept sonar emulates a dolphin biosonar system; emitted broadband signals approximate the frequency and time domain characteristics of signals produced by echolocating dolphins, the receive system is spatially modeled after the binaural geometry of the dolphin, and signal processing algorithms incorporate sequential integration of aspect varying returns. As with any sonar, object detection in shallow water while maintaining an acceptable false alarm rate is an important problem. A comprehensive parametric analysis of detection algorithms is presented, focusing primarily on two detector strategies: a matched filter and a spectral detector. The spectral detector compares the ratio of in-band to out-of-band power, and thus functions something like a phase-incoherent matched filter. This computationally efficient detector is shown to perform well with high proportional bandwidth signals. The detector (either matched filter or spectral) is coupled with an alpha-beta tracker which maintains a running noise estimate and calculates signal excess above the estimated noise level which is compared to a fixed threshold.

Pastore, Thomas J.; Phillips, Michael E.

2002-11-01

444

Device for calibrating a radiation detector system  

DOEpatents

A device for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a "shield plate" or shell, and an opposing "source plate" containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects.

Mc Fee, Matthew C. (New Ellenton, SC); Kirkham, Tim J. (Beech Island, SC); Johnson, Tippi H. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

445

Electron imaging with an EBSD detector.  

PubMed

Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing the crystallographic orientation aspects of microstructures at length scales ranging from tens of nanometers to millimeters in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). With the advent of high-speed digital cameras for EBSD use, it has become practical to use the EBSD detector as an imaging device similar to a backscatter (or forward-scatter) detector. Using the EBSD detector in this manner enables images exhibiting topographic, atomic density and orientation contrast to be obtained at rates similar to slow scanning in the conventional SEM manner. The high-speed acquisition is achieved through extreme binning of the camera-enough to result in a 5×5 pixel pattern. At such high binning, the captured patterns are not suitable for indexing. However, no indexing is required for using the detector as an imaging device. Rather, a 5×5 array of images is formed by essentially using each pixel in the 5×5 pixel pattern as an individual scattered electron detector. The images can also be formed at traditional EBSD scanning rates by recording the image data during a scan or can also be formed through post-processing of patterns recorded at each point in the scan. Such images lend themselves to correlative analysis of image data with the usual orientation data provided by and with chemical data obtained simultaneously via X-Ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS). PMID:25461590

Wright, Stuart I; Nowell, Matthew M; de Kloe, René; Camus, Patrick; Rampton, Travis

2015-01-01

446

Integration of Radioactive Material with Microcalorimeter Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microcalorimeter detectors with embedded radioactive material offer many possibilities for new types of measurements and applications. We will discuss the designs and methods that we are developing for precise deposition of radioactive material and its encapsulation in the absorber of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter detectors for two specific applications. The first application is total nuclear reaction energy (Q) spectroscopy for nuclear forensics measurements of trace actinide samples, where the goal is determination of ratios of isotopes with Q values in the range of 5-7 MeV. Simplified, rapid sample preparation and detector assembly is necessary for practical measurements, while maintaining good energy resolution. The second application is electron capture spectroscopy of isotopes with low Q values, such as Ho, for measurement of neutrino mass. Detectors for electron capture spectroscopy are designed for measuring energies up to approximately 6 keV. Their smaller heat capacity and physical size present unique challenges. Both applications require precise deposition of radioactive material and encapsulation in an absorber with optimized thermal properties and coupling to the TES. We have made detectors for both applications with a variety of designs and assembly methods, and will present their development.

Croce, M. P.; Bond, E. M.; Hoover, A. S.; Kunde, G. J.; Moody, W. A.; Rabin, M. W.; Bennett, D. A.; Hayes-Wehle, J.; Kotsubo, V.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

2014-09-01

447

EarthCARE BBR detectors performance characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Broadband Radiometer (BBR) is an instrument being developed for the ESA EarthCARE satellite. The BBR instrument objective is to provide measurements of the reflected short-wave (0.25-4.0 ?m) and emitted long-wave (4.0- 50 ?m) TOA radiance over three along-track views (forward, nadir and backward). The instrument has three fixed telescopes, one for each view, each containing a broadband detector. Each detector consists of an uncooled focal plane array (FPA) hybridized with a readout integrated circuit (ROIC) and a proximity electronics circuit-card assembly (CCA) packaged in an aluminum base plate with cover. The detectors, based on INO's VOx microbolometer technology, are required to provide fast pixel response time (< 6 ms), uniform spectral response over the entire spectral range (achieved by the development of a gold black absorber), and low NEDT under the instrument operating conditions. The detectors development has now passed the critical design review (CDR) and various development units (among which the most recent is the engineering model (EM)) have been shown to meet the specification requirements. This paper first provides a description of the detector design, followed by its principles of operation. It further presents and discusses measurement and analysis results for the performance characterization of the engineering model in the context of the applicable requirements.

Proulx, Christian; Allard, Martin; Pope, Tim; Tremblay, Bruno; Williamson, Fraser; Delderfield, John; Parker, Dave

2010-10-01

448

Calibration of the GLAST Burst Monitor Detectors  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will augment the capabilities of GLAST for the detection of cosmic gamma-ray bursts by extending the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) towards lower energies by 2 BGO-detectors (150 keV to 30 MeV) and 12 NaI(Tl) detectors (10 keV to 1 MeV). The physical detector response of the GBM instrument for GRBs is determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground calibration measurements, performed extensively with the individual detectors at the MPE in 2005. All flight and spare detectors were irradiated with calibrated radioactive sources in the laboratory (from 14 keV to 4.43 MeV). The energy/channel-relations, the dependences of energy resolution and effective areas on the energy and the angular responses were measured. Due to the low number of emission lines of radioactive sources below 100 keV, calibration measurements in the energy range from 10 keV to 60 keV were performed with the X-ray radiometry working group of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the BESSY synchrotron radiation facility, Berlin.

von Kienlin, Andreas; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Lichti, Giselher G.; Steinle, Helmut; Krumrey, Michael; Gerlach, Martin; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles; Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Diehl, Roland; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R.Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

2011-11-29

449

A silicon detector for neutrino physics  

E-print Network

In order to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting future muon neutrino - tau neutrino oscillation searches using a high-resolution, large-area silicon microstrip detector, the Silicon TARget (STAR) detector was built. STAR was installed in the NOMAD short baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at the CERN SPS neutrino beam, where it recorded approximately 10000 neutrino interactions during the operation of the detector in the period 1997-98. It consists of five layers of silicon detectors interleaved with four layers of passive boron carbide as the target. The target mass is 45 kg, while the total silicon surface area is 1.14 square-meters and contains 32000 readout channels. The individual modules have a length of 72 cm, the longest built to date. The detection of tau particles, produced in tau neutrino charged-current interactions, would require a tracking detector with a precision of a few tens of microns in order to measure the position of the neutrino interaction vertex as well as the impact parame...

Kokkonen, J

2002-01-01

450

Coincidence summing corrections for a clover detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The true coincidence summing effect on the full energy peak efficiency calibration of a clover HPGe detector for point sources has been determined as a function of sample-to-detector distance using mono-energetic and multi-energetic gamma ray sources. The coincidence summing effect has been observed to increase at closer distances with the correction factors as high as 1.25 at closest distance studied. The correction factors for the total and the photopeak efficiencies have been obtained using the analytical method. The clover detector response has been simulated using MCNP code, taking care of the bevels and the flat surfaces of the clover detector. The geometry of the clover detector has been optimized to match the experimental and the theoretical efficiencies. The true coincidence summing correction factors (kTCS) have also been experimentally obtained by taking the ratio of corresponding mono-energetic extrapolated efficiencies to multi-energetic efficiencies. The kTCS obtained from analytical method has been found to match with the experimental kTCS with the simulated values within 1-5%.

Agarwal, Chhavi; Danu, L. S.; Gathibandhe, M.; Goswami, A.; Biswas, D. C.

2014-11-01

451

Device for calibrating a radiation detector system  

DOEpatents

A device is disclosed for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a ''shield plate'' or shell, and an opposing ''source plate'' containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects. 3 figures.

McFee, M.C.; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

1994-12-27

452

Cryogenic detectors for advanced neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next-generation pulsed neutron sources using high-intensity proton accelerators have made a great deal of progress in Japan (J-PARC project), United States (SNS project), and United Kingdom (ISIS second target station project), where the peak intensity of the neutrons flux is expected to be an order of magnitude higher than the existing highest flux steady reactor in the Institut Laue-Langevin. The high-intensity pulsed neutron source would open up a possibility to use a micron-sized neutron beam, thus the neutron detectors with a high spatial resolution of a few micrometers and a temporal resolution of a few microseconds would be required. The cryogenic detectors using superconducting tunnel junctions or microcalorimeter would be key instruments to explore new sciences in such applications. Moreover, neutron detectors operating at a cryogenic temperature have an important role in physics research using fast neutrons or ultra-cold neutrons. In such applications, the microcalorimeters and the solid-state semiconductor detectors with neutron converters ( 6Li, 10B, 3He) have been developed. The cryogenic neutron detectors and their applications are reviewed in this report.

Katagiri, Masaki

2006-04-01

453

Charged-coupled detector sky surveys.  

PubMed Central

Sky surveys have played a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of the cosmos. The current pictures of stellar evolution and structure and kinematics of our Galaxy were made possible by the extensive photographic and spectrographic programs performed in the early part of the 20th century. The Palomar Sky Survey, completed in the 1950s, is still the principal source for many investigations. In the past few decades surveys have been undertaken at radio, millimeter, infrared, and x-ray wavelengths; each has provided insights into new astronomical phenomena (e.g., quasars, pulsars, and the 3 degrees cosmic background radiation). The advent of high quantum efficiency, linear solid-state devices, in particular charged-coupled detectors, has brought about a revolution in optical astronomy. With the recent development of large-format charged-coupled detectors and the rapidly increasing capabilities of data acquisition and processing systems, it is now feasible to employ the full capabilities of electronic detectors in projects that cover an appreciable fraction of the sky. This talk reviews the first "large scale" charged-coupled detector survey. This program, designed to detect very distant quasars, reveals the powers and limitations of charged-coupled detector surveys. PMID:11607431

Schneider, D P

1993-01-01

454

Trends and new developments in gaseous detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost one century ago the method of particle detection with gaseous detectors was invented. Since then they have been exploited successfully in many experiments using a wide variety of different applications. The development is still going on today. The underlying working principles are today well understood and with the help of modern simulation techniques, new configurations can be easily examined and optimized before a first experimental test. Traditional wire chamber ensembles demonstrate that they are still up to date and are well prepared to meet also the challenges of LHC. Applications will be discussed using TPCs in high multiplicity environments with standard Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) as readout as well as drift tubes in a muon spectrometer for a Large Hardron Collider (LHC) experiment. Triggered by the evolving printed circuit technology, a new generation of gaseous detectors with very high position resolution and rate capability has emerged. Two representatives (MICROMEGAS, GEM) have proved their reliability in various experiments and are promising candidates for future projects. Performance and results will be discussed for these detectors. Furthermore, achievements in RPC-based detectors will be discussed. The standard Trigger RPC is a reliable low-cost semi-industrial manufactured device with good time resolution. Thin gap RPCs (Multigap-, and High Rate Timing RPC) show very fast signal response at high efficiency and significantly increased rate capability and will be applied in TOF detectors.

Hoch, M.

455

A very high momentum particle identification detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new detector concept has been investigated to extend the capabilities of heavy-ion collider experiments, represented here through the ALICE detector, in the high transverse momentum ( p T region. The resulting Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/ c < p < 25 GeV/ c momentum range and provides heavy-ion experiments with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at RHIC and LHC energies, where the creation of deconfined quark-gluon matter has been established. The detector is based on novel advances to the pressurized gaseous ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) concept, which yield a very compact, high resolution addition to existing heavy-ion experiments. We conclude that in order for the device to yield statistically significant results not only for single particle measurements, but also for di-hadron and jet-tagged correlation studies, it has to cover contiguously up to 30% of a central barrel detector in radial direction. This will allow, for the first time, identified charged hadron measurements in jets. In this paper we summarize the physics motivations for such a device, as well as its conceptual design, layout, and integration into ALICE.

Acconcia, T. V.; Agócs, A. G.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Bellwied, R.; Bencédi, G.; Bencze, G.; Berényi, D.; Boldizsár, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cindolo, F.; Cossyleon, K.; Chinellato, D. D.; D'Ambrosio, S.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L.; Dash, A. K.; De Cataldo, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Futó, E.; García-Solis, E.; Hamar, G.; Harton, A.; Iannone, G.; Jayarathna, S. P.; Jimenez, R. T.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. S.; Knospe, A.; Kovács, L.; Lévai, P.; Nappi, E.; Markert, C.; Martinengo, P.; Mayani, D.; Molnár, L.; Oláh, L.; Pai?, G.; Pastore, C.; Patimo, G.; Patino, M. E.; Peskov, V.; Pinsky, L.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Pochybová, S.; Sgura, I.; Sinha, T.; Song, J.; Takahashi, J.; Timmins, A.; Van Beelen, J. B.; Varga, D.; Volpe, G.; Weber, M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Yi, J.; Yoo, I.-K.

2014-05-01

456

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?av, is found to be significantly lower (20-30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?av/?0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

Zhang, S.; Lin, W.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z.; Chen, Z.; Keutgen, T.; Kowalski, S.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P. K.; Schmidt, K. J.; Wang, J.

2013-05-01

457

SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic.

Peterson, Todd E.; Furenlid, Lars R.

2011-09-01

458

Calibration of the GLAST Burst Monitor detectors  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will augment the capabilities of GLAST for the detection of cosmic gamma-ray bursts by extending the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) towards lower energies by 2 BGO-detectors (150 keV to 30 MeV) and 12 NaI(Tl) detectors (10 keV to 1 MeV). The physical detector response of the GBM instrument for GRBs is determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground calibration measurements, performed extensively with the individual detectors at the MPE in 2005. All flight and spare detectors were irradiated with calibrated radioactive sources in the laboratory (from 14 keV to 4.43 MeV). The energy/channel-relations, the dependences of energy resolution and effective areas on the energy and the angular responses were measured. Due to the low number of emission lines of radioactive sources below 100 keV, calibration measurements in the energy range from 10 keV to 60 keV were performed with the X-ray radiometry working group of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the BESSY synchrotron radiation facility, Berlin.

Kienlin, Andreas von; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Lichti, Giselher G.; Steinle, Helmut; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Krumrey, Michael; Gerlach, Martin [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen [Marshall Space Flight Center, VP62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert [University of Alabama, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Kippen, R. Marc [Los Alamos National Laboratory, ISR-1, MS B244, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2007-07-12

459

The Silicon Detector (SiD) And Linear Collider Detector R&D in Asia And North America  

SciTech Connect

In Asia and North America research and development on a linear collider detector has followed complementary paths to that in Europe. Among the developments in the US has been the conception of a detector built around silicon tracking, which relies heavily on a pixel (CCD) vertex detector, and employs a silicon tungsten calorimeter. Since this detector is quite different from the TESLA detector, we describe it here, along with some of the sub-system specific R&D in these regions.

Brau, J.E.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; /SLAC; Fujii, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba

2005-08-11

460

Comparison of Fast Amplifiers for Diamond Detectors  

E-print Network

The development of Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond detectors requests for novel signal amplifiers, capable to match the superb signal-to-noise ratio and timing response of these detectors. Existing amplifiers are still far away from this goal and are the dominant contributors to the overall system noise and the main source of degradation of the energy and timing resolution. We tested a number of commercial amplifiers designed for diamond detector readout to identify the best solution for a particular application. This application required a deposited energy threshold below 100 keV and timing resolution of the order of 200 ps at 200 keV. None of tested amplifiers satisfies these requirements. The best solution to such application found to be the Cividec C6 amplifier, which allows 100 keV minimal threshold, but its coincidence timing resolution at 200 keV is as large as 1.2 ns.

M. Osipenko; S. Minutoli; P. Musico; M. Ripani; B. Caiffi; A. Balbi; G. Ottonello; S. Argirò; S. Beolè; N. Amapane; M. Masera; G. Mila

2013-10-03

461

Centroid tracking with area array detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program (ALGEVAL) has been developed to simulate the position estimating behavior of a centroid estimator algorithm using data typical of optical point spread function data recorded by an area array detector. Typical results are shown of varying detector properties and optical point spread function types. The detector parameters currently available for study include read noise mean value, dark current mean value and spatial variation, charge transfer efficiency and point spread function location, saturation level, signal level and pixel size. The program is capable of calculating any order centroid using an array size from 2 x 2 to 15 x 15 pixels. The output of the program is either a performance map, histogram data or tabluar data. A number of further developments are recommended.

Glavich, T. A.

1986-01-01

462

Microstructured silicon neutron detectors for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the design and performance of a perforated thermal neutron silicon detector with a 6LiF neutron converter. This device was manufactured within the REWARD project workplace whose aim is to develop and enhance technologies for the detection of nuclear and radiological materials. The sensor perforated structure results in a higher efficiency than that obtained with an equivalent planar sensor. The detectors were tested in a thermal neutron beam at the nuclear reactor at the Instituto Superior Técnico in Lisbon and the intrinsic detection efficiency for thermal neutrons and the gamma sensitivity were obtained. The Geant4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the experimental conditions, i.e. thermal neutron beam and the whole detector geometry. An intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 8.6%±0.4% with a discrimination setting of 450 keV was measured.

Esteban, S.; Fleta, C.; Guardiola, C.; Jumilla, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Lozano, M.

2014-12-01