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1

Radiation Detectors Scintillator-Photodiode on the Base of A2B6 Crystals for Application in Homeland Security and Medical Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied comparative parameters of different scintillators: CsI(Tl), CdWO4, ZnSe(Te), ZnSe(Te,O) for dual-energy radiography applications. Detectors of the scintillator-photodiode type were obtained on the basis of CsI(Tl), CdWO4 and ZnSe(Te) crystals, and their comparative study was carried out, aiming at their use in X-ray multi-energy tomography. Because of their low afterglow level (10 ppm after 10 ms), CWO and

B. V. Grinyov; V. D. Ryzhikov; S. V. Naydenov; C. F. Smith; A. D. Opolonin; E. K. Lisetskaya; N. A. Shumeiko; N. L. Kurna; G. M. Onischenko; S. E. Tretyak; S. N. Galkin; E. F. Voronkin

2006-01-01

2

Measurement and spectrometry of fluxes of charged particles using a scintillator-photodiode-preamplifier (S-PD-PA) and new types of scintillators based on semiconductor AIIBVI compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillators based on AIIBVI compounds, having relative small effective atomic numbers, can be used for measurement and spectrometry of fluxes of light and heavy charged particles. In this paper we attempted to specify the possibilities and limitations of the development of new types of solid-state detectors of charged particles and corresponding instruments on the basis of CdS(Te) and ZnSe(Te) scintillator single crystals produced by STC RI of the Concern `Institute for Single Crystals'. Principal attention was paid to a promising system S-PD-PA, combined with modern computer facilities. For the best specimens of instruments, we obtained energy resolution for alpha- particles with E(alpha ) equals 5.15 MeV R(alpha ) equals 4- 5%, for electrons with Ee equals 0.624 MeV equals Re equals 11-12%, alpha to beta ratio (alpha) /(gamma) equals 1.0 +/- 0.1, beta to gamma ratio (beta) /(gamma) - more than 100. A possibility is discussed of a combined method of detection and spectrometry of electrons in the energy range of 0.015 - 3.0 MeV using a windowless silicon PIN-PD (0.01 - 3.0 MeV), as well as a scintillation detector comprising a scintillator and a PIN-PD (0.2 - 3.0 MeV).

Ryzhikov, V. D.; Chernikov, V. V.; Gal'Chinetskii, L. P.; Galkin, S. N.; Danshin, E. A.; Filimonov, A. E.; Lisetskaya, E. K.; Volkov, V. G.

1998-04-01

3

Detectors for multi-energy radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For multi-energy digital radiography, a sandwich structure is proposed, comprising "scintillator-photodiode" (S-PD) type detectors. This will allow obtaining information on an object simultaneously for two or three energies in the 20-400 keV X-ray range. Criteria have been formulated and a procedure proposed that determine requirements to detector characteristics for distinction of specified substances. Under this procedure, the following characteristics have been determined for two- and three-energy detecting systems. For a two-energy detector system used for organic substances (Zeff=6-8) and iron/steel (Zeff=26), the X-ray tube anode voltage VA=140 kV, sensitivity range of the low-energy detector (LED) and the high-energy detector (HED) 40-60 keV and 100-140 keV, respectively. The average detector sensitivity of LED should be closer to 40 keV, and that of HED - to 140 keV. There is a limitation that is imposed upon the detector sensitivity by sensitivity of the radiographic system. For such variant, LED are made on the basis of a photodiode and a ZnSe(Te) scintillator, ensuring good sensitivity in this range and transparence in the HED range. HED can be made on the S-PD base using CsI(Tl), CdWO4 or Cd2O2S. In a three-energy system, where elements with Zeff=6,7 and 8 should also be determined detector sensitivity ranges should be as follows: LED - 10-35 keV, medium-range energy detector (MED) - 40-80 keV, HED - 100-140 keV. Such subdivision into ranges is ensured by the use of a semiconductor sensor (e.g., silicon) as LED, S-PD with ZnSe(Te) as MED, and CsI(Tl), CdWO4 or Cd2O2S - as HED.

Ryzhikov, Volodimer D.; Kozin, Dmitro; Lysetskaya, Olena; Kostyukevich, Sergey

2004-01-01

4

New application of scintillator ZnSe(Te) in scintielectronic detectors for detection of neutrons, medical imaging, explosive detection, and NDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillators on the basis of AIIBVI compounds, such as ZnSe(Te), can be used for detection of secondary charged particles coming from nuclear reactions in which neutrons interact with target nuclei of atoms present in transparent materials of dispersion scintillation detectors matrices. Using unique properties of scintillator ZnSe(Te) we show possibility of increase detection efficiency for soft x-ray radiation (20 - 90 keV). The amorphous silicon flat panels and the photodiode arrays wide used for non-destructive testing and medical imaging (spatial resolution 20 - 400 mkm). By our estimations, using of such detectors in combination with thin film of ZnSe(Te) can increase efficiency of registration of x-ray radiation (for the source of 60-140kV) in 1,2 - 2 times. We obtained thin films (10-450mkm) of scintillator ZnSe(Te) on the different substrate materials and estimated the relative light yield of the layers deposited on the graphite and Al2O3 ceramic substrates and the bulk ZnSe(Te) crystal. Use of ZnSe(Te) in the low-energy "scintillator - photodiode" type detector allowed to increase accuracy of authentication of explosives (HEIMANN X-RAY INSPECTION SYSTEM EDtS10080). Using the dual energy digital radiography system prototype we obtained the x-ray images (60 projections of each object). These images are basic data for computer tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction of density and effective atomic number. The color identification palette provides clearly show variations of effective atomic number in biological and inorganic objects. So, for example, changes of calcium concentration in a bone. The research described in this publication was supported by STCU #4115 and NATO SfP-982823.

Ryzhikov, Volodymyr D.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Fedorov, Alexander G.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Kostioukevitch, Sergey A.

2008-08-01

5

A bench-top megavoltage fan-beam CT using CdWO{sub 4}-photodiode detectors. II. Image performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) is a potential imaging tool for positioning and dose delivery verification during image guided radiotherapy. The problem with many MVCT detectors, however, is their low detective quantum efficiency (DQE) which leads to poor low contrast resolution (LCR) and high image noise. This makes separating the tumors from the soft tissue background difficult. This manuscript describes the imaging performance of our bench-top MVCT scanner that uses an 80-element detector array consisting of CdWO{sub 4}-photodiode elements with a DQE of 19% in 6 MV and 26% in Co{sup 60} beams [T. T. Monajemi, S. Steciw, B. G. Fallone, and S. Rathee, 'Modelling scintillator-photodiodes as detectors for megavoltage CT', Med. Phys. 31, 1225-1234 (2004)] at zero frequency. The imaging experiments presented were carried out mainly in a Co{sup 60} teletherapy unit, while the beam hardening characteristics of the system were also presented for a 6 MV beam. During image evaluation, persistent ring artifacts, caused by air gaps at the ends of the eight-element detector blocks, were removed by using a calibration procedure. The measured contrast of a low contrast target with a 20 mm diameter was determined to be independent of dose, between 2.1 and 17 cGy. The measured LCR of a target with a nominal contrast of 2.8% was reduced from 2.3% to 1.2% when the contrast target diameter was reduced from 15 to 5 mm, using 17 cGy for imaging. The signal to noise ratio of this system is shown to be proportional to the square root of dose. Most importantly, a low contrast target with a diameter of 6 mm and a nominal contrast level of 1.5% is resolved with a radiation dose of 2.1 cGy in the Co{sup 60} beam. The spatial resolution in the Co{sup 60} beam is limited to one line pair per centimeter mainly due to the size of the Co{sup 60} source.

Monajemi, T.T.; Tu, D.; Fallone, B.G.; Rathee, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute and Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

2006-04-15

6

Transmutation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Ku?era, J.; K?s, P.; Marek, M.

2011-03-01

7

RADIATION DETECTOR  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

1960-05-10

8

Infrared Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography contains unclassified and unlimited citations on Infrared Detectors. These citations are studies and analyses pertaining to detection techniques, equipment, refrigeration systems, instrumentation, sensitivity, reliability, design, measure...

1974-01-01

9

Optical Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

10

MS Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

2005-11-01

11

Microwave detector  

DOEpatents

A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, Heiner W. (Moss Beach, CA); Cusson, Ronald Y. (Chapel Hill, NC); Johnson, Ray M. (San Ramon, CA)

1986-01-01

12

Detector construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for constructing radiation sensitive detectors are described. In one method, distinct layers of optical cement and plastics material are disposed between a semiconductor photodiode and a layer of rare earth phosphor in order to permit the phosphor and the plastics material to be peeled from the optical cement without damaging the photodiode in the event of a problem arising

1981-01-01

13

Traffic Detector Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the best current practices for the design, installation operation and maintenance of three types of traffic detectors. These detectors include the widely used inductive loop detector, the magnetometer and the magnetic detector. The H...

A. B. de Laski P. S. Parsonson

1985-01-01

14

Neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

2011-04-05

15

Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water ?erenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

16

Ion detector  

DOEpatents

An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber ype comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

Tullis, Andrew M. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01

17

Area detector amplifier module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the design of the Area Detector Amplifier Module (ADAM) is to obtain the high frequency response of a 2.5 × 10-7 sq cm pyro-electric detector with a 2 sq cm detector. The design essentially segments the 2 sq cm pyroelectric detector into over 107 detectors, adds a separate high gain amplifier in series with each detector, and

C. M. Redman

1976-01-01

18

Detector simulation needs for detector designers  

SciTech Connect

Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

Hanson, G.G.

1987-11-01

19

The DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ detector is a large general purpose detector for the study of short-distance phenomena in high energy antiproton-proton collisions, now in operation at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The detector focusses upon the detection of electrons, muons, jets and missing transverse momentum. We describe the design and performance of the major elements of the detector, including the tracking chambers, transition

S. Abachi; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; I. Adam; S. Ahn; H. Aihara; G. Alvarez; G. A. Alves; N. Amos; W. Anderson; Yu. Antipov; S. H. Aronson; R. Astur; R. E. Avery; A. Baden; J. Balderston; B. Baldin; J. Bantly; E. Barasch; J. F. Bartlett; K. Bazizi; T. Behnke; V. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; G. Blazey; S. Blessing; A. Boehnlein; F. Borcherding; J. Borders; N. Bozko; A. Brandt; R. Brock; A. Bross; D. Buchholz; V. Burtovoy; J. M. Butler; O. Callot; D. Chakraborty; S. Chekulaev; J. Chen; L.-P. Chen; W. Chen; B. C. Choudhary; J. H. Christenson; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; W. G. Cobau; J. Cochran; W. E. Cooper; C. Cretsinger; D. Cullen-Vidal; M. Cummings; D. Cutts; O. I. Dahl; B. Daniels; K. de; M. Demarteau; K. Denisenko; N. Denisenko; D. Denisov; S. Denisov; W. Dharmaratna; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; R. Dixon; P. Draper; Y. Ducros; S. Durston-Johnson; D. Eartly; P. H. Eberhard; D. Edmunds; A. Efimov; J. Ellison; V. D. Elvira; R. Engelmann; O. Eroshin; V. Evdokimov; S. Fahey; G. Fanourakis; M. Fatyga; J. Featherly; S. Feher; D. Fein; T. Ferbel; D. Finley; G. Finocchiaro; H. E. Fisk; E. Flattum; G. E. Forden; M. Fortner; P. Franzini; S. Fuess; E. Gallas; C. S. Gao; T. L. Geld; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; B. Gibbard; V. Glebov; J. F. Glicenstein; B. Gobbi; M. Goforth; M. L. Good; F. Goozen; H. Gordon; N. Graf; P. D. Grannis; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; N. Grossman; P. Grudberg; J. A. Guida; J. M. Guida; W. Guryn; N. J. Hadley; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; V. Hagopian; R. E. Hall; S. Hansen; J. Hauptman; D. Hedin; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; T. Heuring; R. Hirosky; K. Hodel; J. S. Hoftun; J. R. Hubbard; T. Huehn; R. Huson; S. Igarashi; A. S. Ito; E. James; J. Jiang; K. Johns; C. R. Johnson; M. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; M. Jones; H. Jöstlein; C. K. Jung; S. Kahn; S. Kanekal; A. Kernan; L. Kerth; A. Kirunin; A. Klatchko; B. Klima; B. Klochkov; C. Klopfenstein; V. Klyukhin; V. Kochetkov; J. M. Kohli; W. Kononenko; J. Kotcher; I. Kotov; J. Kourlas; A. Kozelov; E. Kozlovsky; G. Krafczyk; K. Krempetz; M. R. Krishnaswamy; P. Kroon; S. Krzywdzinski; S. Kunori; S. Lami; G. Landsberg; R. E. Lanou; P. Laurens; J. Lee-Franzini; J. Li; R. Li; Q. Z. Li-Demarteau; J. G. R. Lima; S. L. Linn; J. Linnemann; R. Lipton; Y.-C. Liu; D. Lloyd-Owen; F. Lobkowicz; S. C. Loken; S. Lokos; L. Lueking; A. K. A. Maciel; R. J. Madaras; R. Madden; E. Malamud; Ph. Mangeot; I. Manning; B. Mansoulié; V. Manzella; H.-S. Mao; M. Marcin; L. Markosky; T. Marshall; H. J. Martin; M. I. Martin; P. S. Martin; M. Marx; B. May; A. Mayorov; R. McCarthy; J. McKinley; D. Mendoza; X.-C. Meng; K. W. Merritt; A. Milder; A. Mincer; N. K. Mondal; M. Montag; P. Mooney; M. Mudan; G. T. Mulholland; C. Murphy; F. Nang; M. Narain; V. S. Narasimham; H. A. Neal; P. Nemethy; D. Nesic; K. K. Ng; D. Norman; L. Oesch; V. Oguri; E. Oltman; N. Oshima; D. Owen; M. Pang; A. Para; C. H. Park; R. Partridge; M. Paterno; A. Peryshkin; M. Peters; B. Pi; H. Piekarz; Yu. Pischalnikov; D. Pizzuto; A. Pluquet; V. Podstavkov; B. G. Pope; H. B. Prosper; S. Protopopescu; Y.-K. Que; P. Z. Quintas; G. Rahal-Callot; R. Raja; S. Rajagopalan; M. V. S. Rao; L. Rasmussen; A. L. Read; T. Regan; S. Repond; V. Riadovikov; M. Rijssenbeek; N. A. Roe; P. Rubinov; J. Rutherfoord; A. Santoro; L. Sawyer; R. D. Schamberger; J. Sculli; W. Selove; M. Shea; A. Shkurenkov; M. Shupe; J. B. Singh; V. Sirotenko; W. Smart; A. Smith; D. Smith; R. P. Smith; G. R. Snow; S. Snyder; M. Sosebee; M. Souza; A. L. Spadafora; S. Stampke; R. Stephens; M. L. Stevenson; D. Stewart; F. Stocker; D. Stoyanova; H. Stredde; K. Streets; M. Strovink; A. Suhanov; A. Taketani; M. Tartaglia; J. D. Taylor; J. Teiger; G. Theodosiou; J. Thompson; S. Tisserant; T. G. Trippe; P. M. Tuts; R. van Berg; M. Vaz; P. R. Vishwanath; A. Volkov; A. Vorobiev; H. D. Wahl; D.-C. Wang; L.-Z. Wang; H. Weerts; W. A. Wenzel; A. White; J. T. White; J. Wightman; S. Willis; S. J. Wimpenny; Z. Wolf; J. Womersley; D. R. Wood; Y. Xia; D. Xiao; P. Xie; H. Xu; R. Yamada; P. Yamin; C. Yanagisawa; J. Yang; C. Yoshikawa; S. Youssef; J. Yu; R. Zeller; S. Zhang; Y. H. Zhou; Q. Zhu; Y.-S. Zhu; D. Zieminska; A. Zieminski; A. Zinchenko; A. Zylberstejn

1994-01-01

20

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

SciTech Connect

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.

Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

1988-01-01

21

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

SciTech Connect

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and X-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacitance of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors.

Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtal, U.; Ziemann, T.

1989-02-01

22

Legri Operations. Detectors and Detector Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two years after launch (04.21.97), LEGRI is operating on Minisat-01 in a LEO orbit. The LEGRI detector plane is formed by two type of gamma-ray solid state detectors: HgI_2 and CdZnTe. Detectors are embedded in a box containing the FEE and DFE electronics. This box provides an effective detector passive shielding. Detector plane is multiplexed by a Coded Aperture System located at 54 cm and a Ta Collimator with a FCFOV of 22° and 2° angular resolution. The aim of this paper is to summarize the detector behaviour in three different time scales: before launch, during the in-orbit check-out period (IOC), and after two years of routine operation in space. Main results can be summarized as follows: A large fraction of the HgI_2 detectors presented during LEGRI IOC very high count ratios from their first switch-on (May 1997). Therefore, they induced saturation in the on-board mass memory. After some unsuccessful attempts to reduce the count ratios by setting up different thresholds during LEGRI IOC, all of them were switched off except nine detectors in column 4, with a higher degree of stability. Oppositely, the 17 CdZnTe detectors present a remarkable stability in both their count-ratios and spectral shapes. Details about CdZnTe ground energy calibration, in-flight calibration (using the Crab) and detector stability are discussed hereafter. Detector efficiency function has been computed with the fixed flight threshold used within the calibrated energy range (20-80 KeV). It presents a maximum at 60 KeV, and decreasing efficiencies in the lower and upper energy range ends. Both, non-linear threshold cutting and the drop in the detector efficiency explain the CdZnTe computed operational efficiency response.

Reglero, V.; Ballesteros, F.; Blay, P.; Porras, E.; Sánchez, F.; Suso, J.

2001-03-01

23

The MINOS detectors  

SciTech Connect

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized iron/scintillator calorimeters. The Far Detector has been operational for cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from July of 2003, the Near Detector from September 2004, and the NuMI beam started in early 2005. This poster presents details of the two detectors.

Habig, A.; Grashorn, E.W.; /Minnesota U., Duluth

2005-07-01

24

The upgraded DØ detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; de, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de La Taille, C.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; Demaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.

2006-09-01

25

Modelling solid-state linear X-ray sensors using a mixed-signal hardware description language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state linear X-ray sensors are used to produce high-quality X-ray digital images. A better understanding of effects observed in the different parts of this detector (scintillator, photodiodes, CCD shift registers, signal equalization function including ADC) can be reached by a more comprehensive understanding of how signals are generated in the devices. Behavioural models suitable for computer-aided analysis of each part

G. Borràs; K. Vuorinen; C. Odet; F. Gaffiot; G. Jacquemod

1998-01-01

26

New Charged Particle Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the program were to perform experimental investigations directed toward the design and fabrication of new charged particle detectors. The particle detectors are to be used in satellite, rocket, and laboratory experiments to study the mag...

V. J. Belanger

1970-01-01

27

Tin Can Radiation Detector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

Crull, John L.

1986-01-01

28

The OSMOND detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

Bateman, J. E.; Dalgliesh, R.; Duxbury, D. M.; Helsby, W. I.; Holt, S. A.; Kinane, C. J.; Marsh, A. S.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Spill, E. J.; Stephenson, R.

2013-01-01

29

Adaptive subspace detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the theory of generalized likelihood ratio tests (GLRTs) to adapt the matched subspace detectors (MSDs) of Scharf (1991) and of Scharf and Frielander (1994) to unknown noise covariance matrices. In so doing, we produce adaptive MSDs that may be applied to signal detection for radar, sonar, and data communication. We call the resulting detectors adaptive subspace detectors (ASDs).

S. Kraut; L. L. Scharf; L. T. McWhorter

2001-01-01

30

Gamma ray detector shield  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

1985-08-26

31

The upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov; J. Krane

2006-01-01

32

Atmospheric Cosmic Ray Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '6.1 Atmospheric Cosmic Ray Detectors' of Chapter '6 Detectors for Special Applications' with the content:

Blümer, J.; Engler, J.

33

Detectors for Digital Mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The X-ray detector is the heart of a digital mam-mography system. Its improved characteristics of dynamic range and signal-to-noise\\u000a ratio provide inherent advantages over screen-film technology. Detector technologies used for digital mammogra-phy can be\\u000a distinguished by the acquisition geometry into scanning or full-field detectors, by energy conversion mechanism into phosphor-based\\u000a and nonphosphor-based detectors and by how the detector signal is

Martin J. Yaffe

34

High-energy detector  

DOEpatents

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22

35

Traffic Detector Handbook. Field Manual For: Inductive Loop Detectors, Magnetometers, Magnetic Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the best current practices for the installation and maintenance of three types of traffic detectors. These detectors include the widely used inductive loop detector, the magnetometer and the magnetic detector. This field manual conso...

A. B. de Laski P. S. Parsonson

1985-01-01

36

Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements: Part 3. Infrared Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) supplies calibrations of IR photodector's spectral radiant power response from 1.8 micrometers to 20 micrometers. The spectral responsivity of a detector under test is determined by comparison to a...

A. L. Migdall G. P. Eppeldauer

1998-01-01

37

Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

Soler, F. J. P.

2011-10-01

38

Intelligent detector design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

Graf, N. A.

2011-01-01

39

Detectors (4/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

40

Detectors (5/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

41

Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si

A. Sher; S. S.-M. Lu; J. A. Moriarty; R. K. Crouch; W. E. Miller

1978-01-01

42

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

SciTech Connect

The encapulation of germanium detectors has been a long sought after goal. We have begun to develop encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented in the paper.

Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Phel, R.H.; Cork, C.P.; Luke, P.N.; Landis, D.A.; Pollard, M.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States))

1991-08-01

43

The CDFII Silicon Detector  

SciTech Connect

The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

Julia Thom

2004-07-23

44

Underwater Radiation Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. B...

L. W. Kruse R. P. McKnight

1984-01-01

45

A seismic activity detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic activity detector is described. It is specially adapted to gainranging seismometer amplifiers. To facilitate long time constants, the reference voltage generating circuit employs a digital potentiometer. The reference voltage is linearly related to the background noise over the detector's entire working range. The bandpass filter has plug-in frequency determining units for easy change of cut-off frequencies. A method

P. Mitlid

1979-01-01

46

Hand held radiation detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hand-held radiation detector is described for measuring localized radiation at extremely low levels, the detector comprising: a housing including two peripherally engaged, axially extending, tubular members, one of the members being entirely insulative, the other of the members being metallic; a radiation window at one end of the metallic tubular member, the window including a metallic portion in electrical

Wijangco

1984-01-01

47

Pyroelectric Detector Arrays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pyroelectric detector array and the method for making it is described. A series of holes formed through a silicon dioxide layer on the surface of a silicon substrate forms the mounting fixture for the pyroelectric detector array. A series of nontouching...

A. L. Fripp

1980-01-01

48

Instrumentation and Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter contains a broad introduction to astronomical instruments and detectors. The basic design principles for cameras, spectrometers, polarimeters, and interferometers are given, together with some practical material on instrument building techniques, including vacuum-cryogenic methods. Different detector technologies are introduced, such as CCDs and infrared arrays, together with basic information on semiconductors.

McLean, Ian S.; Larkin, James; Fitzgerald, Michael

49

MIC photon counting detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MIC photon counting detector, a very high resolution, large format system that has been developed for astronomical applications and has been proven on the major UK associated telescopes, is described. Additionally, though, this detector does have a number of applications in other fields such as bio-medical and x-ray imaging. The detector itself consists of a specially designed 40 mm diameter micro-channel plate intensifier fiber optically coupled to a CCD read-out system. Data is then centroided to 1/8th of a CCD pixel in both X and Y to provide high resolution. Accumulated data is stored in a micro-processor system with on-line display and reduction facilities. The maximum format available with the detector is 3072 X 2304 pixels, where each pixel is 10.6 micrometers square. The resolution is 27 micrometers FWHM when averaged over the field. Dependent upon the application, a dynamic range as high as 5 X 106 is achievable with this detector. The time resolution of the detector is in the range 1 ms to 12 ms. A very large format version of this detector is being designed that utilizes a 75 mm intensifier and has a maximum format of 6144 X 4608 pixels. It is expected that this detector will have the same performance figures as the 40 mm system.

Fordham, John L.; Bellis, J. G.; Bone, David A.; Norton, Timothy J.

1991-06-01

50

Crystalline Xenon Particle Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity necessary to measure single photon electrons may be achieved through ionization produced in a crystalline xenon based particle detector. Following crystal formation and the application of an electric field, the ionization drifts to the surface and can be extracted from the solid xenon. Quantification of the ions is accomplished by utilizing a silicon PIN diode scintillation detector with

J. A. Maxin; R. Blessitt; J. Gao; J. Miller; G. Salinas; J. Seifert; J. T. White

2004-01-01

51

The CLEO II detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CLEO II detector is being constructed as a replacement for the CLEO detector which has been in operation at the Cornell electron storage ring since 1979. The primary new component is an electromagnetic calorimeter constructed from optical quality crystals of thalium doped cesium iodide viewed by silicon photodiodes. A new, larger superconducting coil is being constructed so that this

Emery Nordberg

1988-01-01

52

Infrared Detector Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, part of the Spectroscopy Lab Suite, simulates optical transitions in a pumped infrared detector. In this simulated experiment, impurity states are initially populated with visible light. Infrared radiation can then then be detected by de-populating the impurity levels, causing the material to glow. The energy levels and transitions in this material detector can be changed.

Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean

2010-05-07

53

SCINTILLATION EXPOSURE RATE DETECTOR  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector for gamma and x rays is described. The detector comprises a scintillation crystal disposed between a tantalum shield and the input of a photomultiplier tube, the crystal and the shield cooperating so that their combined response to a given quantity of radiation at various energy levels is substantially constant.

Spears, W.G.

1960-11-01

54

Calorimetric Ionization Detector  

SciTech Connect

A new mode of operation for ionization detectors is described. The amount of ionization produced in a detector is determined by measuring the amount of heat generated during the carrier collection process. Very high detection sensitivities, including single carrier detection, may be achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Results from an experimental device operated at T = 0.3K is presented.

Luke, P.N.; Beeman, J.; Goulding, F.S.; Labov, S.E.; Silver, E.H.

1989-07-01

55

Future Developments of Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '8 Future Developments of Detectors' with the content:

Behnke, T.

56

Advanced far infrared detectors  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

Haller, E.E.

1993-05-01

57

The CLEO II detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CLEO II detector is being constructed as a replacement for the CLEO detector which has been in operation at the Cornell electron storage ring since 1979. The primary new component is an electromagnetic calorimeter constructed from optical quality crystals of thalium doped cesium iodide viewed by silicon photodiodes. A new, larger superconducting coil is being constructed so that this CsI shower counter will be placed inside the coil within the magnetic field. An improved drift chamber and vertex detector have already been constructed for CLEO II and are now installed in CLEO. New time of flight scintillation detectors are under construction and will be located just outside the drift chamber and just inside the CsI shower counter. A new steel yoke and hadron absorber as well as new muon detectors are being fabricated. This paper gives a brief description of these components and schedule of the project.

Nordberg, Emery

1988-03-01

58

The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system  

SciTech Connect

Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation.

Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

1992-01-01

59

The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system  

SciTech Connect

Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation.

Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.; Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

1992-05-01

60

ACCESS: Detector Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (overview Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. The flight detector controller boards have been installed into a ruggedized flight housing. They have been successfully vacuum tested for periods significantly longer than the flight length, and components have been heat-sunk and reinforced as necessary. Thermal stability tests have been performed, and results will be presented. Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL) executed initial characterization tests for the flight detector in 2007. These were repeated in 2012, to ensure and establish baseline performance. Current lab characterization tests at Johns Hopkins are ongoing, and results will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Foltz, R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Pelton, R. S.; Wright, E. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

2013-01-01

61

LHC detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

Dan Green

2003-09-15

62

Absolute radiation detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An absolute radiation detector (a cryogenic radiometer) is being developed to replace the existing UK primary national standard cryogenic radiometer with an improved uncertainty. The cryogenic radiometer will be capable of measuring black body radiation and laser radiation with an uncertainty approaching 10 ppm. From these measurements it will be possible to determine the fundamental constant, the Stefan Boltzmann constant, confirming the radiometer as an absolute detector, and link this determination to the SI unit of luminous intensity, the candela. Thus detector and source based scales/standards will be tied to an invariant physical quantity ensuring their long-term stability.

Martin, John E.

1996-11-01

63

PIN Diode Detectors  

SciTech Connect

A review of the application of PIN diodes as radiation detectors in particle counting, X- and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy, medical applications and charged particle spectroscopy is presented. As a practical example of its usefulness, a PIN diode and a low noise preamplifier are included in a nuclear spectroscopy chain for X-ray measurements. This is a laboratory session designed to review the main concepts needed to set up the detector-preamplifier array and to make measurements of X-ray energy spectra with a room temperature PIN diode. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with a high resolution cooled Si-Li detector.

Ramirez-Jimenez, F. J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 57150 (Mexico)

2008-07-02

64

Impurity conduction photoconductor detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radiation hardening of photoconductive infrared detectors for the application in space instrumentation is under development on the basis of the blocked impurity band concept. These detectors are Impurity Conduction Band (ICB) detectors based on thin epitaxial layers. Both linear and two dimensional arrays have been fabricated out of this material. Their internal structure and layout and their photoconductive performance are outlined. Current responsivities between 5 A/W and 10 A/W and noise equivalent power values in the order of 10 to the minus 17th power W/square root of Hz are obtained.

Engemann, D.; Faymonville, R.; Felten, R.; Frenzl, O.; Haschberger, D.

1992-12-01

65

Pendulum detector testing device  

DOEpatents

A detector testing device which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: 1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, 2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and 3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements.

Gonsalves, John M. (Modesto, CA)

1997-01-01

66

Detector array design  

SciTech Connect

Neutron scattering facility at Oak-Ridge National is used to measure residual stresses in many different materials. Neutron beam from the reactor can be used to penetrate the inner atomic distances of metals which then can be diffracted to a detector to measure the strain. The strain data later can be converted to stresses. The facility currently uses only one detector to carry the measurement. By designing an array of detectors data can be obtained at a much faster rate and or having a much better and improved resolution. The purpose of this report is to show design of such array of detectors and their movements (rotation) for possible maximum data collection at a faster rate.

Lari, S.

1996-02-01

67

Detector limitations, STAR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC) were in place, these factors would not seriously li...

D. G. Underwood

1998-01-01

68

Detector Technology Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inductive loop detectors are the most common technology for detecting vehicles. However, they have some disadvantages such as disruption to traffic flow during installation and maintenance, higher failure rate under particular conditions, and inflexibilit...

P. T. Martin Y. Feng X. Wang

2003-01-01

69

A Seismic Activity Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A seismic activity detector is described. It is specially adapted to gainranging seismometer amplifiers. To facilitate long time constants, the reference voltage generating circuit employs a digital potentiometer. The reference voltage is linearly related...

P. Mitlid

1979-01-01

70

Improved CO [lidar detector  

SciTech Connect

A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

1999-07-18

71

Liquid Scintillator Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper new developments and applications for the use of future liquid scintillator detectors like the proposed 50kt large LENA project are presented. New aspects of the scientific potential of LENA, including long baseline oscillation measurements, are discussed.

Oberauer, L.

2013-02-01

72

Ultraviolet Array Detector Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under this contract multiple tasks were performed in support of the development of Ultraviolet Array Detector Research. The Horizon Ultraviolet Program instrumentation was supported through a second Space shuttle launch. An Ebert-Fastie spectrometer was m...

M. Gangl M. Bullinger R. Cundiff J. McKay J. Middlestadt

1995-01-01

73

Pendulum detector testing device  

DOEpatents

A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs.

Gonsalves, J.M.

1997-09-30

74

Fiber optic detector  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

75

Advanced infrared detector materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief survey of the basic detector materials used in the more important infrared detector technologies including thermal, platinum silicide related, low-dimensional solid, and photon is given with the emphasis on the significance of their material aspects. The main thrust of the paper, however, considers recent advances in the materials aspects of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) and includes work on low temperature growth, p-type doping, and substrates.

Mullin, John B.

1991-09-01

76

Gaseous leak detector  

DOEpatents

In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the non linear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

Juravic, Jr., Frank E. (Aurora, IL)

1988-01-01

77

Gallium arsenide pixel detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV ?- beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e-.

Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; D'Auria, S.; da Vià, C.; del Papa, C.; Heijne, E. M.; Middelkamp, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Smith, K.; Snoeys, W.

1998-02-01

78

Alkali metal ionization detector  

DOEpatents

Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

Bauerle, James E. (Plum Borough, PA); Reed, William H. (Monroeville, PA); Berkey, Edgar (Murrysville, PA)

1978-01-01

79

Detectors for CBA  

SciTech Connect

We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise.

Baggett, N.; Gordon, H.A.; Palmer, R.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J. (eds.)

1983-05-01

80

Low impedance electrostatic detector  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An electrostatic detector comprising a detector electrode sensitive to electrostatic quantities such as fields, voltages, charges and the like, means for varying the capacitive coupling between the electrode and an electrostatic quantity to which the electrode is exposed, and an operational amplifier having an output and a pair of inputs, one of which is operatively associated with the amplifier summing node. A resistive feedback path is defined between the amplifier output and the summing node, the detector electrode is connected to the one amplifier input so that the detector electrode is operated directly into the amplifier summing node, and the other amplifier input is connected to an electrical reference, such as ground. As a result, the detector electrode is held at virtual ground and the amplifier is operated as a current to voltage converter to cause an output voltage to be generated equal to the product of the input current and the resistance of the feedback path. The detector can be employed in a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter for making surface voltage measurements and which employs any one of several capacitance modulation schemes.

1983-01-25

81

Progress in semiconductor drift detectors  

SciTech Connect

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

1985-01-01

82

Subspace Detectors: Efficient Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The optimum detector for a known signal in white Gaussian background noise is the matched filter, also known as a correlation detector [Van Trees, 1968]. Correlation detectors offer exquisite sensitivity (high probability of detection at a fixed false alarm rate), but require perfect knowledge of the signal. The sensitivity of correlation detectors is increased by the availability of multichannel data, something common in seismic applications due to the prevalence of three-component stations and arrays. When the signal is imperfectly known, an extension of the correlation detector, the subspace detector, may be able to capture much of the performance of a matched filter [Harris, 2006]. In order to apply a subspace detector, the signal to be detected must be known to lie in a signal subspace of dimension d {ge} 1, which is defined by a set of d linearly-independent basis waveforms. The basis is constructed to span the range of signals anticipated to be emitted by a source of interest. Correlation detectors operate by computing a running correlation coefficient between a template waveform (the signal to be detected) and the data from a window sliding continuously along a data stream. The template waveform and the continuous data stream may be multichannel, as would be true for a three-component seismic station or an array. In such cases, the appropriate correlation operation computes the individual correlations channel-for-channel and sums the result (Figure 1). Both the waveform matching that occurs when a target signal is present and the cross-channel stacking provide processing gain. For a three-component station processing gain occurs from matching the time-history of the signals and their polarization structure. The projection operation that is at the heart of the subspace detector can be expensive to compute if implemented in a straightforward manner, i.e. with direct-form convolutions. The purpose of this report is to indicate how the projection can be computed efficiently for continuous multichannel seismic data. The speed of the calculation is significant as it may become desirable to deploy subspace detectors numbering in the thousands. One application contemplated for these detectors is as screens against signals from repeating sources such as mines or aftershocks of large earthquakes. With many tens of stations and potentially hundreds of sources to screen, efficient implementations are desirable. Speed, of course, can be achieved by procuring faster computers or special-purpose hardware. The approach we examine here is the development of two efficient algorithms that can make the calculations run faster on any machine. In the first section, we describe the subspace detector as we use it for the detection of repeating seismic events, defining terms and the parameterization used in succeeding sections. This section also reviews how the correlation computations central to the matched filter and subspace detectors can be implemented as a collection of convolution operations. Convolution algorithms using fast Fourier transforms, such as the overlap-add and overlap-save methods, have long been known as efficient implementations of discrete-time finite-impulse-response filters [e.g. Oppenheim and Schafer, 1975]. These may be extended in a straightforward manner to implement multichannel correlation detectors. In the second section, we describe how multichannel data can be multiplexed to compute the required convolutions with a single pair of FFT operations instead of a pair for each channel. This approach increases speed approximately twofold. Seismic data, almost invariably, are oversampled. This characteristic provides an opportunity for increased efficiency by decimating the data prior to performing the correlation calculations. In the third section, we describe a bandpass transformation of the data that allows a more aggressive decimation of the data without significant loss of fidelity in the correlation calculation. The transformation computes a complex-analytic representation for the template waveforms and the

Harris, D B; Paik, T

2006-07-26

83

Imaging MAMA detector systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems with 1024 x 1024 pixel formats have been produced for visible and UV wavelengths; the UV types employ 'solar blind' photocathodes whose detective quantum efficiencies are significantly higher than those of currently available CCDs operating at far-UV and EUV wavelengths. Attention is presently given to the configurations and performance capabilities of state-of-the-art MAMA detectors, with a view to the development requirements of the hybrid electronic circuits needed for forthcoming spacecraft-sensor applications. Gain, dark noise, uniformity, and dynamic range performance data are presented for the curved-channel 'chevron', 'Z-plate', and helical-channel high gain microchannel plate configurations that are currently under evaluation with MAMA detector systems.

Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Kasle, David B.

1990-07-01

84

Microwave kinetic inductance detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature detectors have been a subject of intense interest to the scientific community over the last decade. These detectors work at very low temperatures, often well below 1 Kelvin, to minimize the noise in the measurement of photons. This leads to very powerful detectors applicable to a broad wavelength range. Since these detectors are so sensitive even single pixels and small arrays (up to several hundred pixels) enable deeper explorations of the cosmos than ever before. Instruments based on these technologies have been used at submillimeter, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. The scientific prospects for these detectors increase as they grow in pixel count. For some applications, especially for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization work, a large focal plane will not only increase efficiency but will also enable new and vital science. Current superconducting technologies, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), can currently deliver extremely high sensitivity in the submillimeter and read- noise free imaging spectroscopy at Optical/UV and X-ray wavelengths, but the largest arrays contain less that 100 pixels. In order to make real progress these arrays must contain many thousands of pixels. This is a formidable technical challenge. This thesis will explore a promising emerging technology called Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs make use of the change in the surface impedance of a superconductor as incoming photons break up Cooper pairs. This is accomplished by making the strip of superconductor part of a microwave resonant circuit, and monitoring the phase of a signal transmitted through (or past) the resonator. The primary advantage of this technology is that by using resonant circuits with high quality factors, passive frequency domain multiplexing will allow up to thousands of resonators to be read out through a single coaxial cable and a single HEMT amplifier. This eliminates the cryogenic electronics (SQUIDS) and wiring problems associated with current superconducting devices. Inexpensive and powerful room-temperature readout electronics can leverage the microwave integrated circuits developed for wireless communications.

Mazin, Benjamin A.

2005-11-01

85

The MINOS calibration detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the MINOS calibration detector (CalDet) and the procedure used to calibrate it. The CalDet, a scaled-down but functionally equivalent model of the MINOS Far and Near detectors, was exposed to test beams in the CERN PS East Area during 2001 2003 to establish the response of the MINOS calorimeters to hadrons, electrons and muons in the range 0.2 10 GeV/c. The CalDet measurements are used to fix the energy scale and constrain Monte Carlo simulations of MINOS.

Adamson, P.; Crone, G.; Jenner, L.; Nichol, R.; Saakyan, R.; Smith, C.; Thomas, J.; Kordosky, M.; Lang, K.; Vahle, P.; Belias, A.; Nicholls, T.; Pearce, G.; Petyt, D.; Barker, M.; Cabrera, A.; Hartnell, J.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Tagg, N.; Weber, A.; Falk Harris, E.; Harris, P. G.; Morse, R.; Symes, P.; Michael, D.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lee, R.; Boyd, S.

2006-01-01

86

Semiconductor neutron detector  

SciTech Connect

A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB); Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA); Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM); Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM)

2011-03-08

87

Radiation Detectors and Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of radiation detectors in the analysis of art objects represents a very special application in a true interdisciplinary field. Radiation detectors employed in this field detect, e.g., x-rays, ?-rays, ? particles, and protons. Analyzed materials range from stones, metals, over porcelain to paintings. The available nondestructive and noninvasive analytical methods cover a broad range of techniques. Hence, for the sake of brevity, this chapter will concentrate on few techniques: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced ?-ray Emission (PIGE).

Denker, Andrea

88

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

Anderson, D.F.

1984-01-31

89

Intelligent Detector Design  

SciTech Connect

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx}30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

Graf, Norman; Cassell, Ron; Johnson, Tony; McCormick, Jeremy [Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Magill, Steve; Kuhlmann, Steve [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2006-10-27

90

Intelligent Detector Design  

SciTech Connect

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx} 30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

Graf, N.; Cassell, R.; Johnson, T.; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Magill, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; /Argonne

2007-02-13

91

Glow discharge detector  

DOEpatents

A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

2002-01-01

92

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28

93

The KEDR detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KEDR detector is a universal magnetic detector designed for studying the c- and b-quarks and two-photon physics, and is employed at the VEPP-4M e + e - collider. A specific feature of the experiment is the measurement of absolute beam energy using two methods: the resonant depolarization and the faster but less precise Compton backscattering of laser photons. This allowed a large series of measurements to be performed, in which the accuracy of determination of such fundamental parameters of particles as mass and total and leptonic widths was improved.

Anashin, V. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Baldin, E. M.; Barladyan, A. K.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Baru, S. E.; Basok, I. Yu.; Bedny, I. V.; Beloborodova, O. L.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrov, A. V.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bondar, A. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Gulevich, V. V.; Dneprovsky, L. V.; Zhilich, V. N.; Zhulanov, V. V.; Karpov, G. V.; Karpov, S. V.; Kononov, S. A.; Kotov, K. Yu.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Kulikov, V. F.; Kuper, E. A.; Levichev, E. B.; Maksimov, D. A.; Malyshev, V. M.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Medvedko, A. S.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nikitin, S. A.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Oreshkin, S. B.; Orlov, I. O.; Osipov, A. A.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pivovarov, S. G.; Poluektov, A. O.; Pospelov, G. E.; Prisekin, V. G.; Rodyakin, V. A.; Ruban, A. A.; Savinov, G. A.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Smalyuk, V. V.; Snopkov, R. G.; Sokolov, A. V.; Sukharev, A. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tayursky, V. A.; Telnov, V. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Usov, Yu. V.; Kharlamova, T. A.; Shamov, A. G.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shekhtman, L. I.; Shusharo, A. I.; Yushkov, A. N.

2013-07-01

94

Cosmic ray detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work on the MSFC emulsion laboratory microscopes in which mechanical modifications previously made were verified is reviewed, as is a design study of a large area hybrid electronic/emulsion chamber balloon flight detector system. This design is built upon the experience obtained with the highly successful MSFC/UAH hybrid instrument flown by the JACEE consortium. The design included overall system design and specification, design and fabrication of a prototype large light diffusion for Cerenkov charge detector or scintillator, design of a multiwire proportional counter array and design of the gondola or flight support system.

Gregory, John C.

1987-02-01

95

Fissile material detector  

DOEpatents

A detector for fissile materials which provides for integrity monitoring of fissile materials and can be used for nondestructive assay to confirm the presence of a stable content of fissile material in items. The detector has a sample cavity large enough to enable assay of large items of arbitrary configuration, utilizes neutron sources fabricated in spatially extended shapes mounted on the endcaps of the sample cavity, incorporates a thermal neutron filter insert with reflector properties, and the electronics module includes a neutron multiplicity coincidence counter.

Ivanov, Alexander I. (Dubna, RU); Lushchikov, Vladislav I. (Dubna, RU); Shabalin, Eugeny P. (Dubna, RU); Maznyy, Nikita G. (Dubna, RU); Khvastunov, Michael M. (Dubna, RU); Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA)

2002-01-01

96

RADIATION WAVE DETECTOR  

DOEpatents

The detection of the shape and amplitude of a radiation wave is discussed, particularly an apparatus for automatically indicating at spaced lntervals of time the radiation intensity at a flxed point as a measure of a radiation wave passing the point. The apparatus utilizes a number of photomultiplier tubes surrounding a scintillation type detector, For obtainlng time spaced signals proportional to radiation at predetermined intervals the photolnultiplier tubes are actuated ln sequence following detector incidence of a predetermined radiation level by electronic means. The time spaced signals so produced are then separately amplified and relayed to recording means.

Wouters, L.F.

1958-10-28

97

Report of the compact detector subgroup  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates. (LSP)

Kirkby, J.; Kondo, T.; Olsen, S.L.

1988-01-01

98

The Upgraded D0 detector  

SciTech Connect

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS

2005-07-01

99

Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps, Detector Descriptions in GODL  

SciTech Connect

Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays. In addition to three built-in detector configurations, detector descriptions can also be read from files in the new GODL file format.

Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC

2005-07-06

100

A perceptual pitch detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pitch detector based on Licklider's (1979) duplex theory of pitch perception was implemented and tested on a variety of stimuli from human perceptual tests. It is believed that this approach accurately models how people perceive pitch. It is shown that it correctly identifies the pitch of complex harmonic and inharmonic stimuli and that it is robust in the face

Malcolm Slaney; Richard F. Lyon

1990-01-01

101

The CMS muon detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muon detection system of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is described. It consists of three different detector technologies: drift tubes in the barrel region, cathode strip chambers in the endcap region and resistive plate chambers in both barrel and endcap regions. The CMS muon detection system ensures excellent muon detection and efficient triggering in the pseudorapidity range 0

P. Giacomelli

2002-01-01

102

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, Dimitrios C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01

103

Extruded Plastic Scintillation Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light yield

Anna Pla-Dalmau; Alan D. Bross; Kerry L. Mellott

1999-01-01

104

Extruded plastic scintillation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of the raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light

Anna Pla-Dalmau; Alan D. Bross; Kerry L. Mellott

1999-01-01

105

Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors, which exploits the photocapacitive effect in MIS and MISIM devices, is reported. An (unoptimized) peak detectivity of ?3×1012 W?1 cm Hz1\\/2 has been measured in a prototype Si device.

A. Sher; R. K. Crouch; S. S.-M. Lu; W. E. Miller; John A. Moriarty

1978-01-01

106

Smoke Detector Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

107

DUMAND as muon detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DUMAND detector offers the unique possibility of investigating cosmic ray muons with energies above 10 trillion eV. The facility, which is being constructed in Caucasus, is designed to record both vertical and horizontal muons, with an effective area more than 200 sq m. Problems associated with the extremely high energy muon spectrum are examined. The large number of muons

V. V. Borog; R. P. Kokoulin; A. A. Petrukhin; V. V. Shestakov; V. I. Iumatov

1977-01-01

108

Electromagnetic radiation detector  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

Benson, Jay L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hansen, Gordon J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1976-01-01

109

Chemical Agent Detector Kits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TOP 8-2-555 establishes general procedures and guidance for determining the technical performance and safety aspects of chemical agent detector kits that are designed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the atmosphere, on the surfaces of various ...

1989-01-01

110

The Friendship Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After years of using Rube Goldberg-inspired projects to teach concepts of simple machines, the author sought a comparable project to reinforce electricity lessons in his ninth-grade Science and Technology course. The Friendship Detector gives students a chance to design, test, and build a complex circuit with multiple switches and battery-powered…

Cox, Scott

2012-01-01

111

Choosing a Motion Detector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)|

Ballard, David M.

1990-01-01

112

A new chaos detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new detector for chaos. It is simpler and numerically less intensive than previous methods. It is more robust than previous methods. It works well even with short data sets (200 time scalar points), in the presence of noise (as low as 4 dB signal to noise ratio in stationary additive white Gaussian noise), and with severe

Paul V. Mcdonough; Joseph P. Noonan; G. R. Hall

1995-01-01

113

The BABAR detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e- B Factory operating at the /?(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of /CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by /dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and by a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Boucham, A.; Boutigny, D.; De Bonis, I.; Favier, J.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Jeremie, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Le Flour, T.; Lees, J. P.; Lieunard, S.; Petitpas, P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zachariadou, K.; Palano, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Reinertsen, P. L.; Stugu, B.; Abbott, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Amerman, L.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Clark, A. R.; Dardin, S.; Day, C.; Dow, S. F.; Fan, Q.; Gaponenko, I.; Gill, M. S.; Goozen, F. R.; Gowdy, S. J.; Gritsan, A.; Groysman, Y.; Hernikl, C.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Jared, R. C.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Karcher, A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kipnis, I.; Kluth, S.; Kral, J. F.; Lafever, R.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lewis, S. A.; Lionberger, C.; Liu, T.; Long, M.; Luo, L.; Lynch, G.; Luft, P.; Mandelli, E.; Marino, M.; Marks, K.; Matuk, C.; Meyer, A. B.; Minor, R.; Mokhtarani, A.; Momayezi, M.; Nyman, M.; Oddone, P. J.; Ohnemus, J.; Oshatz, D.; Patton, S.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Perazzo, A.; Peters, C.; Pope, W.; Pripstein, M.; Quarrie, D. R.; Rasson, J. E.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Stone, R.; Strother, P. D.; Telnov, A. V.; von der Lippe, H.; Weber, T. F.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zizka, G.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Hawkes, C. M.; Kirk, A.; Knowles, D. J.; O'Neale, S. W.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Koch, H.; Krug, J.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Andress, J. C.; Barlow, N. R.; Bhimji, W.; Chevalier, N.; Clark, P. J.; Cottingham, W. N.; De Groot, N.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; Mass, A.; McFall, J. D.; Wallom, D.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Camanzi, B.; Harrison, T. J.; McKemey, A. K.; Tinslay, J.; Antohin, E. I.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Bukin, D. A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kolachev, G. M.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Mikhailov, S. F.; Onuchin, A. P.; Salnikov, A. A.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Telnov, V. I.; Yushkov, A. N.; Booth, J.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Pier, S.; Stoker, D. P.; Zioulas, G.; Ahsan, A.; Arisaka, K.; Buchanan, C.; Chun, S.; Faccini, R.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Prell, S. A.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Raven, G.; Sharma, V.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hale, D.; Hart, P. A.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; May, J.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; Beringer, J.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D. E.; Eisner, A. M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W. S.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. N.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hanson, J. E.; Hitlin, D. G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Metzler, S.; Oyang, J.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Weaver, M.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Jayatilleke, S. M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P.; Broomer, B.; Erdos, E.; Fahey, S.; Ford, W. T.; Gaede, F.; van Hoek, W. C.; Johnson, D. R.; Michael, A. K.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Park, H.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Sen, S.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, D. L.; Blouw, J.; Harton, J. L.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Warner, D. W.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kocian, M. L.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Behr, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Ferrag, S.; Fouque, G.; Gastaldi, F.; Matricon, P.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Renard, C.; Roussot, E.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Di Lodovico, F.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Falbo, M.; Bozzi, C.; Dittongo, S.; Folegani, M.; Piemontese, L.; Ramusino, A. C.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Xie, Y.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Fabbricatore, P.; Farinon, S.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musenich, R.; Pallavicini, M.; Parodi, R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Priano, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Bartoldus, R.; Dignan, T.; Hamilton, R.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Fischer, P. A.; Lamsa, J.; McKay, R.; Meyer, W. T.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Albert, J. N.; Beigbeder, C.; Benkebil, M.; Breton, D.; Cizeron, R.; Du, S.; Grosdidier, G.; Hast, C.; Höcker, A.; Lacker, H. M.; LePeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.

2002-02-01

114

Fully Integrated Headphone Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CMOS fully integrated headphone detector is presented in this paper. The circuit operation does not require any extra pin besides the output driver pins. It has detection capabilities for stereo loads, and works both in normal audio reproduction conditions and during the amplifier power-down mode. The power consumption of less than 9 muW, making the circuit highly suitable for

D. Guilherme; N. V. Caldeira; J. Risques

2006-01-01

115

High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors  

DOEpatents

A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-16

116

Double sided silicon strip detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new type of double sided silicon strip detectors was built that incorporates capacitive coupling of the strips to the readout electronics by integrating the capacitors into the detector design. The innovation was made possible by introducing a new detec...

C. Bauer H. Becker T. Boulos P. Cattaned H. Dietl

1990-01-01

117

Pin Pixel Detector: Neutron Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A pro...

J. E. Bateman J. F. Connolly G. E. Derbyshire D. M. Duxbury A. S. Marsh N. J. Rhodes E. M. Schoneveld J. E. Simmons R. Stephenson

2001-01-01

118

Future (underground) Water Cherenkov Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water Cherenkov detectors have been, and will continue, providing fascinating results in the fields of neutrino physics and astrophysics. Because its strong potential for a wide range of scientific subjects is well recognized, development of a large water Cherenkov detector has been carried out all over the world. The detector is well matured and basic technology to build the next generation, megaton-class detector is readily available. The physics potential and the status of technical development are reviewed.

Yokoyama, Masashi

2013-02-01

119

The GERmanium detector array, GERDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is a new experiment which is currently being built at the INFN LNGS Laboratory in Italy with the aim to search for neutrinoless double beta-decay of 76Ge. Unique features of the experiment are (1) to operate germanium detectors directly inside a bath of liquid argon, and (2) to use segmented germanium detectors. The background level

K. Kröninger

2008-01-01

120

ISS/IDS Detector Study  

SciTech Connect

This article summarises the results obtained by the detector working group of the 'International Scooping Study' (ISS) of a future neutrino oscillations facility. Special emphasis is put on far detectors, for which some of the main issues are identified. A detector R and D strategy in the context of the 'International Design Study' (IDS) for a neutrino factory is also presented.

Cervera-Villanueva, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, C.S.I.C.-Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

2008-02-21

121

SSC Muon Detector Group Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4..pi.. detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts;

D. Carlsmith; D. Groom; D. Hedin; T. Kirk; T. Ohsugi; D. Reeder; J. Rosner; S. Wojcicki

1986-01-01

122

New electronically black neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Two neutron detectors are described that can function in a continuous radiation background. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors.

Drake, D.M.; Feldman, W.C.; Hurlbut, C.

1986-03-01

123

Pixel Detectors for Charged Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pixel Detectors, as the current technology of choice for the innermost vertex de- tection, have reached a stage at which large detectors have been built for the LHC experiments and a new era of developments, both for hybrid and for monolithic or semi-monolithic pixel detectors is in full swing. This is largely driven by the requirements of the upgrade programme

N. Wermes

2008-01-01

124

Pixel detectors for charged particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pixel detectors, as the current technology of choice for the innermost vertex detection, have reached a stage at which large detectors have been built for the LHC experiments and a new era of developments, both for hybrid and for monolithic or semi-monolithic pixel detectors is in full swing. This is largely driven by the requirements of the upgrade programme for

Norbert Wermes

2009-01-01

125

The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range -3.4 < ? < 5.1. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

Christensen, Christian Holm; Gaardhøje, Jens Jørgen; Gulbrandsen, Kristján; Nielsen, Børge Svane; Søgaard, Carsten

126

Flat structure cooled detector assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long wavelength IR detectors need to be cooled at cryogenic temperature to achieve high performances. This specific need makes it difficult to integrate the detector because of high cost of dewar and cooling device designed to fulfill severe vibration conditions. A new era for IR detection could begin with flat structures allowing intrinsic vibration resistance for detectors to be plugged

Nathalie Reeb; Bernard Coutures; Nicolas Gerin; S. Reale; B. Guille

1994-01-01

127

Terahertz sources and detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the support of the US Army Research Office we are developing terahertz sources and detectors suitable for use in the spectroscopy of chemical and biological materials as well as for use in imaging systems to detect concealed weapons. Our technology relies on nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks that have been developed for this application include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These components rely on planar Schottky diodes and integrated diode circuits and are therefore easy to assemble and robust. They require no mechanical tuners to achieve high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper will review the range of performance that has been achieved with these terahertz components and briefly discuss preliminary results achieved with a spectroscopy system and the development of sources for imaging systems.

Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David W.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Bishop, William L.; Kurtz, David S.; Hui, Kai

2005-05-01

128

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17

129

First infrared radiation detector  

SciTech Connect

The first in the world noncooled photon detector designed for the detection of infrared radiation of wave length 8-12 micrometers (optimized wave length 10.6 micrometers) has been manufactured in the Plasma Physics and Laser Microsynthesis Institute, in close cooperation with the Technical Military Academy. The father of the technology is Professor Piotrowski from the Technical Military Academy while the construction and idea of utilization of the new instrument stem from the Plasma Physics and Laser Microsynthesis Institute in Warsaw. The elaboration of a new and really sensational technology was the logical outcome of research work carried out in Poland on cadmium-mercury telluride. And it was just on the basis of that new semiconductor that the noncooled infrared radiation detector has been constructed.

Not Available

1984-03-01

130

Semiconductor radiation detector  

SciTech Connect

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30

131

Triac failure detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A failure detector is provided for detecting unidirectional failures in triacs, particularly as used in power factor controllers for induction motors. In a first embodiment, the triac voltage waveform is sensed and upon detection of an unbalanced signal, corresponding to failure of the triac in either the positive or negative direction, the triac is turned full on in both directions. In a second embodiment, a pair of pulsed signals are derived, the pulse durations of which are proportional to the phase difference between the load current and voltage for each half cycle, and the triac is turned full on responsive to a difference in pulse duration between the half cycle signals. An unidirectional open circuit detector is adapted to use a signal from either of the first and second embodiment to turn the triac off in response to an open circuit failure in either direction.

Nola, F. J.

1983-08-01

132

Pulsed neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

Robertson, deceased, J. Craig (late of Albuquerque, NM); Rowland, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

1989-03-21

133

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

DOEpatents

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

134

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

DOEpatents

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05

135

Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perforated semiconductor neutron detectors are compact diode detectors that operate at low power and can be fashioned to have high thermal neutron detection efficiency. Fabricated from high-purity Si wafers, the perforations are etched into the diode surface with ICP-RIE and backfilled with 6LiF neutron reactive material. The intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency depends upon many factors, including the perforation geometry, size, and depth. Devices were fabricated from high resistivity 10k? cm n-type Si with conformal p-type shallow junction diffusions into the perforations, which demonstrate improved neutron detection performance over previous selectively diffused designs. A comparison was made to previous selectively diffused designs, and pulse height spectra show improved signal-to-noise ratio, higher neutron counting efficiency, and excellent gamma-ray discrimination. Devices with 20(average)?m wide 100?m deep sinusoidal trenches yielded intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiencies of 11.94±0.078%.

McGregor, D. S.; McNeil, W. J.; Bellinger, S. L.; Unruh, T. C.; Shultis, J. K.

2009-09-01

136

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01

137

Gated strip proportional detector  

DOEpatents

A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

1987-01-01

138

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

SciTech Connect

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

139

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

SciTech Connect

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05

140

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOEpatents

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principal of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, L.H.

1989-06-08

141

Occupancy and Motion Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a September 11 has changed the way people think about airport, aviation, and security in general. The threat is expanding interest\\u000a in more reliable systems to detect presence of people within the protected perimeters. The occupancy sensors detect the presence\\u000a of people (and sometimes animals) in a monitored area. Motion detectors respond only to moving objects. A distinction between\\u000a the two

Jacob Fraden

142

Dosimetry with diamond detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping

G. Gervino; C. Marino; F. Silvestri; A. Lavagno; F. Truc

2010-01-01

143

Vertex Detector Cable Considerations  

SciTech Connect

Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, 'pulsed power' is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

Cooper, William E.; /Fermilab

2009-02-01

144

Seismic intrusion detector system  

DOEpatents

A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

Hawk, Hervey L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hawley, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Portlock, John M. (Albuquerque, NM); Scheibner, James E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1976-01-01

145

The MAC detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAC detector at PEP recorded data for an integrated luminosity of 335 pb-1 between 1980 and 1986. The design of this low-cost MAgnetic Calorimeter was optimized for electron and muon identification, as well as for the measurement of hadronic energy flow. Muon identification is available over 96% of the solid angle, and MAC was the first detector to make large-scale use of gas-sampling calorimetry. Electromagnetic calorimetry in the central section employs alternating layers of lead and proportional wire chambers (PWCs), and hadron and the remaining electromagnetic calorimetry is accomplished with iron plate and PWC layers. A relatively small central drift chamber in an axial magnetic field provides pattern recognition and modest momentum determination. An outer blanket of drift tubes completes the muon identification system. During the latter two years of operation an innovative ``soda straw'' vertex chamber made more precise lifetime measurements possible. With an evolving trigger system and highly automated data acquisition system, this modest detector has exceeded most of its designers' expectations and has produced a gratifying spectrum of physics results.

Allaby, J. V.; Ash, W. W.; Band, H. R.; Baksay, L. A.; Blume, H. T.; Bosman, M.; Camporesi, T.; Chadwick, G. B.; Clearwater, S. H.; Coombes, R. W.; Delfino, M. C.; de Sangro, R.; Faissler, W. L.; Fernández, E.; Ford, W. T.; Gettner, M. W.; Goderre, G. P.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Y.; Gottschalk, B.; Groom, D. E.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hurst, R. B.; Johnson, J. R.; Kaye, H. S.; Lau, K. H.; Lavine, T. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Leedy, R. E.; Leung, S. P.; Lippi, I.; Loh, E. C.; Lynch, H. L.; Marini, A.; Marsh, J. S.; Maruyama, T.; Messner, R. L.; Meyer, O. A.; Michalowski, S. J.; Morcos, S.; Moromisato, J. H.; Morse, R. M.; Moss, L. J.; Muller, F.; Nelson, H. N.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Prepost, R.; Pyrlik, J.; Qi, N.; Read, A. L.; Rich, K.; Ritson, D. M.; Ronga, F.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Shambroom, W. D.; Sleeman, J. C.; Smith, J. G.; Venuti, J. P.; Verdini, P. G.; von Goeler, E.; Wald, H. B.; Weinstein, R.; Wiser, D. E.; Zdarko, R. W.

1989-09-01

146

Germanium detector array — GERDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GERDA will be a new experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) to study neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge at background levels <10-3 cts/(keV kg y) at Q=2039keV, two orders of magnitude lower than in the previous experiments. Bare Ge-diodes, enriched to 86% in 76Ge, are operated in liquid argon complemented by a water shield to reduce the external backgrounds. Intrinsic backgrounds will be suppressed by the pulse shape analysis and segmented electrodes. In GERDAs first phase, the detector array will consist of the existing and refurbished detectors of the previous Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments. After one year of measurement, the setup should allow us to scrutinize the claimed observation of 0??? decay in 76Ge. In its second phase, GERDA will use an additional set of new enriched 76Ge crystals, as segmented or point contact detectors. After 100 kg y the sensitivity will be T>1.5?1026y; this corresponds to an effective Majorana mass range from 0.1 eV to 0.2 eV.

Jochum, J.

2010-04-01

147

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOEpatents

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

Chu, Dahlon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Thelen, Jr., Donald C. (Bozeman, MT)

1998-01-01

148

Optical ionization detector  

DOEpatents

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

1994-03-29

149

Optical ionization detector  

DOEpatents

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01

150

Compact THz imaging detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe preliminary design, modeling and test results for the development of a monolithic, high pixel density, THz band focal plane array (FPA) fabricated in a commercial CMOS process. Each pixel unit cell contains multiple individual THz band antennae that are coupled to independent amplifiers. The amplified signals are summed either coherently or incoherently to improve detection (SNR). The sensor is designed to operate at room temperature using passive or active illumination. In addition to the THz detector, a secondary array of Visible or SWIR context imaging pixels are interposed in the same area matrix. Multiple VIS/SWIR context pixels can be fabricated within the THz pixel unit cell. This provides simultaneous, registered context imagery and "Pan sharpening" MTF enhancement for the THz image. The compact THz imaging system maximizes the utility of a ~ 300 ?m x 300 ?m pixel area associated with the optical resolution spot size for a THz imaging system operating at a nominal ~ 1.0 THz spectral frequency. RF modeling is used to parameterize the antenna array design for optimal response at the THz frequencies of interest. The quarter-wave strip balanced bow-tie antennae are optimized based on the semiconductor fabrication technology thin-film characteristics and the CMOS detector input impedance. RF SPICE models enhanced for THz frequencies are used to evaluate the predicted CMOS detector performance and optimal unit cell design architecture. The models are validated through testing of existing CMOS ROICs with calibrated THz sources.

Newman, J. Daniel; Lee, Paul P. K.; Sacco, Andrew P.; Chamberlain, Thomas B.; Willems, Dave A.; Fiete, Robert D.; Bocko, Mark V.; Ignotovic, Zeljko; Pipher, Judith L.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Rhodes, David B.; Ninkov, Zoran

2013-05-01

151

Mass spectrometry with cryogenic detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic detectors have recently been applied for the first time as ion detectors in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Because of their energy sensitivity cryogenic detectors are expected to have near 100% efficiency even for very large, slow-moving molecules, in contrast to microchannel plates whose efficiency drops considerably at large mass. Thus, cryogenic detectors could contribute to extending the mass range accessible by TOF-MS and help improving detection limits. In addition, the energy resolution provided by cryogenic detectors can be used for charge discrimination and studies of ion fragmentation, ion-detector interaction, and internal energies of large molecular ions. Cryogenic detectors could therefore prove to be a valuable diagnostic tool in TOF-MS. Here I summarize the results of recent demonstration experiments.

Frank, M.

2000-04-01

152

State of the art in semiconductor detectors  

SciTech Connect

The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs.

Rehak, P. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Gatti, E. (Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy))

1989-01-01

153

areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS  

SciTech Connect

areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

Rivers, Mark L. [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources and Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2010-06-23

154

MINOS: Design & detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MINOS is a 735 km long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment from Fermilab (IL, USA) to the Soudan mine (MN, USA). The experiment measures ? at various energies from Fermilab’s NuMI beam. The near and far detectors are almost identical steel scintillator sandwich tracking calorimeters. MINOS has been running in atmospheric mode since 2003 and in beam mode since February 2005. MINOS is designed to make precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric sector while also being able to improve the current limit on reactor sector oscillations. Several stages of calibration have to be performed to achieve this.

Symes, P. A.

2006-07-01

155

Flexible composite radiation detector  

SciTech Connect

A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Orler, Edward B. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-12-05

156

Pyroelectric demodulating detector  

SciTech Connect

A pyroelectric demodulating detector (also termed a pyroelectric demodulator) is disclosed which utilizes an electrical resistor stacked upon a pyroelectric element to demodulate an rf or microwave electrical input signal which is amplitude-modulated (AM). The pyroelectric demodulator, which can be formed as a hybrid or a monolithic device, has applications for use in AM radio receivers. Demodulation is performed by feeding the AM input signal into the resistor and converting the AM input signal into an AM heat signal which is conducted through the pyroelectric element and used to generate an electrical output signal containing AM information from the AM input signal.

Brocato, Robert W. (Sandia Park, NM)

2008-07-08

157

Photon detector system  

DOEpatents

A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

Ekstrom, Philip A. (Lexington, KY)

1981-01-01

158

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

159

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01

160

Improved ion detector  

DOEpatents

An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber type comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

Tullis, A.M.

1986-01-30

161

LCFI vertex detector design studies  

SciTech Connect

A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies CCD detectors for quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

Milstene, C.; /Fermilab; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

2005-12-01

162

Photon detectors with gaseous amplification  

SciTech Connect

Gaseous photon detectors, including very large 4{pi}-devices such as those incorporated in SLD and DELPHI, are finally delivering physics after many years of hard work. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photoelectrons. Among detector builders, there is hardly anybody who did not make mistakes in this area, and who does not have a healthy respect for the problems involved. This point is stressed in this paper, and it is suggested that only a very small operating phase space is available for running gaseous photon detectors in a very large system with good efficiency and few problems. In this paper the authors discuss what was done correctly or incorrectly in first generation photon detectors, and what would be their recommendations for second generation detectors. 56 refs., 11 figs.

Va`vra, J.

1996-08-01

163

Scalar top study: Detector optimization  

SciTech Connect

A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies pixel detectors for heavy quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

Milstene, C.; /Fermilab; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

2006-09-01

164

Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and

Franklin S. Felber; Norbert C. Wild; Scott Nunan; Dennis Breuner; Frank Doft

1998-01-01

165

Apfel's superheated drop detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of new approaches for radiation dosimetry is rare. A similar breakthrough occurred in 1979, when Robert Apfel invented the superheated drop detector, a miniature relative of the bubble chamber. A fundamental in high-energy particle physics, the bubble chamber utilizes a liquid briefly brought to a transient, radiation-sensitive superheated state by reducing its pressure. Mass boiling of the liquid is prevented by cyclic pressurization, drastically limiting the detection efficiency. In Apfel's detector, the liquid is kept in a steady superheated state by fractionating it into droplets and dispersing them in an immiscible host fluid, a perfectly smooth and clean container. The approach extends the lifetime of the metastable droplets to the point that practical application in radiation dosimetry is possible. Bubble formation is measured from the volume of vapor or by detecting individual vaporizations acoustically. Various halocarbons are employed and this permits a wide range of applications. Moderately superheated halocarbons are used for neutron measurements, since they are only nucleated by energetic neutron recoil particles. Highly superheated halocarbons nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and are used to detect photons and electrons. This paper reviews the radiation physics of superheated emulsions and their manifold applications.

D'Errico, Francesco

2001-05-01

166

PAU camera: detectors characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

2012-07-01

167

The Galileo Dust Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10 exp -19 and 10 exp -9 kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, and to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian magnetosphere. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multicoincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 1 000 000 times higher than that of previous in situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 4.2 kg, consumes 2.4 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 24 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On December 29, 1989 the instrument was switched-on. After the instrument had been configured to flight conditions cruise science data collection started immediately. In the period to May 18, 1990 at least 168 dust impacts have been recorded. For 81 of these dust grains masses and impact speeds have been determined. First flux values are given.

Gruen, Eberhard; Fechtig, Hugo; Hanner, Martha S.; Kissel, Jochen; Lindblad, Bertil-Anders; Linkert, Dietmar; Maas, Dieter; Morfill, Gregor E.; Zook, Herbert A.

1992-05-01

168

The MUSE instrument detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument (see Bacon et al., this conference) for ESO's Very Large Telescope VLT employs 24 integral field units (spectrographs). Each of these is equipped with its own cryogenically cooled CCD head. The heads are individually cooled by continuous flow cryostats. The detectors used are deep depletion e2v CCD231-84 with 4096x4112 active 15 ?m pixels. The MUSE Instrument Detector System is now in the final integration and test phase on the instrument. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and performance of the complex detector system including ESO's New General detector Controllers (NGC) for the 24 science detectors, the detector head electronics and the data acquisition system with Linux Local Control Units. NGC is sub-divided into 4 Detector Front End units each operating 6 CCDs. All CCDs are simultaneously read out through 4 ports to achieve short readout times at low noise levels. All science grade CCDs were thoroughly characterized on ESO's optical detectors testbench facility and the test results processed and documented in a semi-automated, reproducible way. We present the test methodology and the results that fully confirm the feasibility of these detectors for their use in this challenging instrument.

Reiss, Roland; Deiries, Sebastian; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Rupprecht, Gero

2012-09-01

169

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

170

In-line ion detector  

SciTech Connect

An in-line particle detector (IPD) uses secondary electrons for the detection of multiply charged ions with low to medium energy (10-10 keV). The ion detector does not physically intercept the ion beam line and is fully transparent to ions without applied voltages. The activation of the detector is performed by applying appropriate voltages to electrodes, which avoids any physical movement. Equipped with a channel electron multiplier, single particle counting is possible as well as measurement of currents. This detector therefore has a large dynamical range from about 10{sup -17} to 10{sup -3} A. The basic principle also allows for ion beam diagnostics.

Becker, R.; Kester, O. [IAP, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max von Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2008-02-15

171

Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps Detector Descritpions in GODL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator les and produces SIO or LCIO output les. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic elds, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterize...

W. Langeveid

2005-01-01

172

Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material.

Kania, D.R.

1997-05-16

173

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies  

SciTech Connect

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (>85%), high spatial resolution (<5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600 / in{sup 2}), low dead time (<4 {mu}s in{sup 2}), good timing resolution (<5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, <200 ps fwhm for time of flight), and good energy resolution (<100 keV fwhm), where these requirements are listed in decreasing order of importance. The ``high efficiency`` requirement also implies that the detector modules must pack together without inactive gaps. Several novel and emerging radiation detector technologies could improve the performance of PET detectors. Avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, metal channel dynode photomultiplier tubes, and new scintillators all have the potential to improve PET detectors significantly.

Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

1994-05-01

174

Preliminary detector design ST862-prototype neutron detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of fast neutrons has been accomplished with commercially available liquid scintillators in detectors. Liquid scintillators discriminate fast neutrons from gamma radiation by discarding pulses with short decay constants. However, pulse-timing methods require expensive, bulky equipment and a high degree of technical sophistication in the user. Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory have developed a new class of scintillating material, polymerizing crystals of CaF2Eu and liquid acrylate monomers with matched indexes of refraction. The new detectors avoid the pulse-timing methods of liquid detectors and allow detectors to be large and relatively light. Fast neutrons can be discriminated from gamma radiation solely on the basis of pulse height (i.e., energy deposition). Using these detectors, a hand-held neutron detection instrument is proposed that can operate on battery power for 8 to 12 hours and be easily used in field conditions for surveying vehicles and structures.

Miller, S. D.; Affinito, J. D.; Sisk, D. R.

1993-12-01

175

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (> 85%), high spatial resolution (< 5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600/in.2), low dead time (< 4 ?s in.2), good timing resolution (< 5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, < 200 ps fwhm for time of flight), and good energy resolution (< 100 keV fwhm), where these requirements are listed in order of decreasing importance. The ``high efficiency'' requirement also implies that the detector modules must pack together without inactive gaps. Several novel and emerging radiation detector technologies could improve the performance of PET detectors. Avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, metal channel dynode photomultiplier tubes, and new scintillators all have the potential to improve PET detectors significantly.

Moses, William W.; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Budinger, Thomas F.

1994-12-01

176

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged

David K. Balmer; Thomas W. Haverty; Carl W. Nordin; William H. Tyree

1996-01-01

177

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged

D. K. Balmer; T. W. Haverty; C. W. Nordin; W. H. Tyree

1995-01-01

178

A cascade detector for rapid face detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, LBP feature based svm detector and Haar feature based cascade detector are the two types of efficient detectors for face detection. In this paper, we proposed to improve the performance on Haar feature based cascade detector. First, we describe a new feature for cascade detector. The feature is called Separate Haar Feature. Secondly, we describe a new

Ning Jiang; Wenxin Yu; Shaopeng Tang; Satoshi Goto

2011-01-01

179

Absolute beam brightness detector  

SciTech Connect

In generally accepted emittance measurement, main attention is concentrated on emittance areas {epsilon}{sub x}, {epsilon}{sub y} occupied by desired part of ion beam in transverse phase space and shape of these areas. The absolute beam phase density (brightness) as usually is not measured directly and the average beam brightness B is calculated from a beam intensity I and the transverse emittances. In the ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) optimization, it is important to preserve the beam brightness because some aberration of ion optic and beam instabilities can decrease the brightness of the central part of ion beam significantly. For these brightness measurements, it is convenient to use an absolute beam brightness detector with the brightness determination from one short considered in this article.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2012-02-15

180

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, D.F.

1980-10-29

181

Porous material neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

2012-04-10

182

Event counting alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

183

Void/particulate detector  

DOEpatents

Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Karplus, Henry B. (Hinsdale, IL)

1985-01-01

184

Small passive chemical detector  

SciTech Connect

A novel technique has been developed for the detection of organic compounds in the environment. These detectors are passive'' in the sense that they do not contain any electronic or mechanical instrumentation. A visual color change of the devices after exposure to the target compounds of interest allows a quick identification and quantitative determination of the targets. The detection mechanism is based on colorimetry and combines two molecular biology techniques, Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) and Ouchterlony Double Diffusion in Two Dimensions. Preliminary studies have shown that the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol can be monitored by the formation of the blue colored complexes as a result of the reaction between an enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) and a substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate).

Hong, K.C.

1992-03-26

185

Neutron Detector Waveform Digitization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of a DoE Office of Nuclear Energy funded collaboration to design a next generation neutron elastic and inelastic scattering experiment, the Colorado School of Mines/Regis University group is responsible for developing and testing neutron detectors, pulse shape discrimination and read-out methods. This contribution will describe the test setup based on an n-ToF neutron selection using a ^244Cm-^13C source and the Regis Digitizer. Results on pulse shape discrimination from waveform digitization will be compared to other commercially available discrimination methods. We will also present our efforts to explore different types of algorithm for extraction of neutron assignment probabilities from the collected waveforms.

Toebbe, Jonathan; Gray, Fred; Grafil, Elliot; Greife, Uwe

2010-11-01

186

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

Angel, S.M.

1987-02-27

187

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

188

Temperature profile detector  

DOEpatents

A temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

189

Temperature profile detector  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

Tokarz, R.D.

1983-10-11

190

Radiation heat loss detector  

SciTech Connect

In a radiation heat loss detector, radiation from an extended surface area is detected with a sensor having a wide field of view closely matching that of an associated camera. By simultaneously photographing the surface area of interest and detecting the radiation from that same area, a clear record is provided for future use. A wide band radiation sensor is used. Compensation for environmental radiation is made by first viewing the environment with the sensor and holding the sensed signal and then subtracting that signal from the flux detected when the sensor faces the extended surface area. The date and time are also recorded on the photograph. A sonar device positioned on the camera provides a distance indication which, with a known field of view, allows for a determination of the total flux from the surface area, a determination of convective heat losses from the surface and a correction for atmospheric absorption of the radiant energy.

Pompei, F.

1982-08-10

191

Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing popularity of electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) in the structural analysis of large biological molecules and macro-molecular complexes and the need for simple, rapid and efficient readout, there is a persuasive need for improved detectors. Commercial detectors, based on phosphor/fibre optics-coupled CCDs, provide adequate performance for many applications, including electron diffraction. However, due to intrinsic light scattering within the phosphor, spatial resolution is limited. Careful measurements suggest that CCDs have superior performance at lower resolution while all agree that film is still superior at higher resolution. Consequently, new detectors are needed based on more direct detection, thus avoiding the intermediate light conversion step required for CCDs. Two types of direct detectors are discussed in this review. First, there are detectors based on hybrid technology employing a separate pixellated sensor and readout electronics connected with bump bonds-hybrid pixel detectors (HPDs). Second, there are detectors, which are monolithic in that sensor and readout are all in one plane (monolithic active pixel sensor, MAPS). Our discussion is centred on the main parameters of interest to cryoEM users, viz. detective quantum efficiency (DQE), resolution or modulation transfer function (MTF), robustness against radiation damage, speed of readout, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of independent pixels available for a given detector. PMID:17913494

Faruqi, A R; Henderson, R

2007-10-29

192

Detector Description Framework in LHCb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gaudi architecture and framework are designed to provide a common infrastructure and environment for simulation, filtering, reconstruction and analysis applications. In this context, a Detector Description Service was developed in LHCb in order to also provide easy and coherent access to the description of the experimental apparatus. This service centralizes every information about the detector, including geometry, materials, alignment,

Sebastien Ponce; Ivan Belyaev; Pere Mato Vila; Andrea Valassi

2003-01-01

193

Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

Buzulutskov, A.

2012-02-01

194

Biological Applications of Cryogenic Detectors  

SciTech Connect

High energy resolution and broadband efficiency are enabling the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In time-of-flight mass spectrometry cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above {approx}50 kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

Friedrich, S

2003-12-03

195

Biological applications of cryogenic detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy resolution and broadband efficiency enable the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In TOF-MS cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above ~50kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

Friedrich, Stephan

2004-03-01

196

Thin Film Charged Particle Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current charged particle detectors such as silicon barrierdetectors are unable to operate at high temperatures or in a high radiation background. It is possible to construct a new type of charged particle detector that does not suffer from these restrictions. This involves the stacking of several alternating conducting and insulating layers. It is then possible to estimate the number of charged particles that stop in any given conducting layer and hence the particle energy by measuring the current from the layer. Detectors based on this design have been built and tested with promising results. A new detector is currently under construction that would greatly reduce its size. This new detector is constructed by successively depositing thin films of nickel and alumina on a macor substrate. The linear particle accelerator, located at the Colorado School of Mines, will used to evaluate this new design.

Roy, Brian A.; Cecil, Ed

1998-04-01

197

Dense detector for baryon decay  

SciTech Connect

Our studies indicate that the dense detector represents a potentially powerful means to search for baryon decay and to study this process, if it occurs. The detector has good angular resolution and particle identification properties for both showering and non-showering events. Its energy resolution is particularly good for muons, but pion, electron and photon energies can also be measured with resolutions of at least 25 percent (standard deviation). The dense detector has strong logistical advantages over other proposed schemes. These advantages imply not only a lower cost but also faster construction and higher reliability. A particular advantage is that the dense detector can be prototyped in order to optimize its characteristics prior to the construction of a large module. Subsequent modules can also be added easily, while the initial detector continues operation.

Courant, H.; Heller, K.; Marshak, M.L.; Peterson, E.A.; Ruddick, K.; Shupe, M.

1981-01-01

198

40 CFR 1065.270 - Chemiluminescent detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Chemiluminescent detector. 1065.270 Section 1065.270...Measurements § 1065.270 Chemiluminescent detector. (a) Application. You may use a chemiluminescent detector (CLD) to measure NOX...

2013-07-01

199

21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section 872.6350 Food...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a...

2013-04-01

200

14 CFR 125.173 - Fire detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire detectors. 125.173 Section 125.173 Aeronautics...Airworthiness Requirements § 125.173 Fire detectors. Fire detectors must be made and installed in a manner that...

2013-01-01

201

24 CFR 242.74 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 242.74 Section 242.74 Housing...Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.74 Smoke detectors. Each occupied room must include such smoke detectors as are required by...

2013-04-01

202

49 CFR 236.334 - Point detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Point detector. 236.334 Section 236.334 Transportation...Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.334 Point detector. Point detector shall be maintained so that when switch...

2012-10-01

203

49 CFR 236.334 - Point detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point detector. 236.334 Section 236.334 Transportation...Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.334 Point detector. Point detector shall be maintained so that when switch...

2011-10-01

204

24 CFR 200.76 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 200.76 Section 200.76 Housing and Urban...Projects Property Requirements § 200.76 Smoke detectors. Smoke detectors and alarm devices must be installed in...

2013-04-01

205

Plastic neutron detectors.  

SciTech Connect

This work demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of semiconducting {pi}-conjugated organic polymers for fast neutron detection via n-p elastic scattering. Charge collection in conjugated polymers in the family of substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s (PPV) was evaluated using band-edge laser and proton beam ionization. These semiconducting materials can have high H/C ratio, wide bandgap, high resistivity and high dielectric strength, allowing high field operation with low leakage current and capacitance noise. The materials can also be solution cast, allowing possible low-cost radiation detector fabrication and scale-up. However, improvements in charge collection efficiency are necessary in order to achieve single particle detection with a reasonable sensitivity. The work examined processing variables, additives and environmental effects. Proton beam exposure was used to verify particle sensitivity and radiation hardness to a total exposure of approximately 1 MRAD. Conductivity exhibited sensitivity to temperature and humidity. The effects of molecular ordering were investigated in stretched films, and FTIR was used to quantify the order in films using the Hermans orientation function. The photoconductive response approximately doubled for stretch-aligned films with the stretch direction parallel to the electric field direction, when compared to as-cast films. The response was decreased when the stretch direction was orthogonal to the electric field. Stretch-aligned films also exhibited a significant sensitivity to the polarization of the laser excitation, whereas drop-cast films showed none, indicating improved mobility along the backbone, but poor {pi}-overlap in the orthogonal direction. Drop-cast composites of PPV with substituted fullerenes showed approximately a two order of magnitude increase in photoresponse, nearly independent of nanoparticle concentration. Interestingly, stretch-aligned composite films showed a substantial decrease in photoresponse with increasing stretch ratio. Other additives examined, including small molecules and cosolvents, did not cause any significant increase in photoresponse. Finally, we discovered an inverse-geometric particle track effect wherein increased track lengths created by tilting the detector off normal incidence resulted in decreased signal collection. This is interpreted as a trap-filling effect, leading to increased carrier mobility along the particle track direction. Estimated collection efficiency along the track direction was near 20 electrons/micron of track length, sufficient for particle counting in 50 micron thick films.

Wilson, Tiffany M.S; King, Michael J.; Doty, F. Patrick

2008-12-01

206

Preliminary detector design ST862-prototype neutron detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detection of fast neutrons has been accomplished with commercially available liquid scintillators in detectors. Liquid scintillators discriminate fast neutrons from gamma radiation by discarding pulses with short decay constants. However, pulse-timing...

S. D. Miller J. D. Affinito D. R. Sisk

1993-01-01

207

Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector  

SciTech Connect

In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135 deg. C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm O glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm O Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's '72-inch' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

Mulholland, G.T. [Applied Cryogenics Technology, Ovilla TX 75154 (United States); Harigel, G.G. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2004-06-23

208

Triple Coincidence Radioxenon Detector  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is on e of the world’s most sensitive systems for monitoring the four radioxenon isotopes 133Xe, 133mXE, 131mXe and 135Xe. However, due to size, weight and power specifications appropriate to meet treaty-monitoring requirements; the ARSA is unsuitable for rapid deployment using modest transportation means. To transition this technology to a portable unit can be easily and rapidly deployed can be achieved by significant reductions in size, weight and power consumption if concentration were not required. As part of an exploratory effort to reduce both the size of the air sample and the gas processing requirement PNNL has developed an experimental nuclear detector to test and qualify the use of triple coincidence signatures (beta, conversion electron, x-ray) from two of the radioxenon isotopes (135Xe and 133Xe) as well as the more traditional beta-gamma coincidence signatures used by the ARSA system. The additional coincidence requirement allows for reduced passive shielding, and makes it possible for unambiguous detection of 133Xe and 153Xe in the presence of high 222Rn backgrounds. This paper will discuss the experimental setup and the results obtained for a 133Xe sample with and without 222Rn as an interference signature.

McIntyre, Justin I.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Morris, Scott J.; Reeder, Paul L.

2004-09-22

209

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector is designed comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient. 6 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1993-11-09

210

Microwave hematoma detector  

DOEpatents

The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA)

2001-01-01

211

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1993-01-01

212

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-03-04

213

Detectors of thermal infrared radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the different types of detectors for thermal IR radiation are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the ongoing trends to higher operating temperature and increasing array size. It is concluded that Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloy, used in intrinsic photon detectors, is the principal material for first-generation thermal imaging systems and probably will retain this role in the next generation of both missile guidance systems and thermal imagers. Its future role may be threatened by PtSi Schottky barrier arrays or thermal detector arrays.

Elliott, C. T.

1988-01-01

214

Seal system with integral detector  

DOEpatents

There is disclosed a seal system for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials, which is tamper-indicating, which indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to by-pass the seal, which is unique and cost effective, said seal system comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

Fiarman, Sidney (Port Jefferson, NY)

1985-01-01

215

Modern detectors for radiation monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of using modern photon and neutron detectors for developing radiation monitors, specifically, LaBr3, Bi4Ge3O12, CdWO4, LiI, ZnO, Lu2SiO5(Ce), CdTe, and HgI2, microtubes from organic scintillators, nanomaterials, and detectors based on gaseous and solid-state electronic multipliers\\u000a are examined. A comparison is made of conventional detectors based on NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl), plastic scintillators, and 3He counters. The advantages of the

A. V. Shumakov; A. S. Sviridov; S. V. Kolesnikov

2011-01-01

216

NOvA Near Detector  

SciTech Connect

The NOvA experiment will study sub-dominant {nu}{sub {mu}}{r_reversible}{nu}{sub e} oscillations using two detectors with 810 km long-baseline. The NuMI beam energy spectrum is measured by the near detector located at the same off-axis angle at FNAL where the effects of neutrino oscillations are negligible. Contamination of NC background to the {nu}{sub e} CC, and {nu}{sub {mu}} CC interaction cross-sections are also studied by the near detector with the high performance of particle identifications.

Ishitsuka, M. [Physics Department, Indiana University, 727 E. Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

2007-12-21

217

The micro void neutron detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gas-filled Micro Void Particle Detector is based on gas-filled micro voids placed in an external electric field. This detector presents common features of solid state and gas filled devices as internal amplification, unlimited size and shape, dense, high efficiency parallax reducing structure. The gas filling in the void and/or the wall of the micro void serves as radiation detector. The working principle was tested on syntactic foam composed of glass micro bubbles embedded in an epoxy matrix.

Kocsis, Menyhért

2004-08-01

218

Flux Detectors versus Concentration Detectors: Two Types of Chemoreceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose-response curves relating the external stimulus concentration to receptor occupancy differ in two types of chemoreceptor organs. In 'concentration detectors' the receptor molecules at the receptor cell membrane are directly exposed to the external stimulus concentration; these organs exhibit the well-known hyperbolic dose-response relationship reflecting the association-dissociation of stimulus and receptor molecules. In contrast, 'flux detectors' accumulate the stimulus molecules

Karl-Ernst Kaissling

1998-01-01

219

Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of ?-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.

Kshetri, R.

2012-04-01

220

Muon chambers of Argus detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new universal ARGUS detector created to study e+e- interactions on the DORIS-II collider. The detector consists of a central drift chamber, time-of-flight counters, and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The detector is enclosed on all sides by three layers of muon counters for registration of muons. The entire system of muon chambers of the ARGUS detector has operated stably from October 1982 until today. The background loads of the muon chambers during an experiment are not great. The average number of signals in the chambers is 0.98 per start-up. The operation of the muon chambers has been constantly monitored according to the counting response of the tubes for cosmic particles, and the quality of the gas has been monitored by comparing the positions of the peaks from Fe 55 radioactive sources in test proportional counters at the inlet and outlet of the gas channel.

Aref'ev, A.V.

1986-09-01

221

Introductory Lectures on Tracking Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory lectures are presented concerning the use of tracking methods in high energy particle and nuclear physics. General performance issues are discussed. The various technologies used to construct tracking detectors are surveyed. Some future directions are indicated.

Haber, Carl

2003-07-01

222

Reactor Monitoring with Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the use of neutrino detectors to monitor nuclear reactors is currently a very active field of research. While neutrino detectors located close to reactors have been used to provide information about the global performance of the reactors, a general improvement of the technique is needed in order to use it in a practical way to monitor the fissile contents of the fuel of the nuclear reactors or the thermal power delivered. I describe the current status of the Angra Neutrino Project, aimed to building a low-mass neutrino detector to monitor the Angra II reactor of the Brazilian nuclear power plant Almirante Alvaro Ramos in order to explore new approaches to reactor monitoring with neutrino detectors.

Casimiro Linares, Edgar

2011-09-01

223

The ATLAS TRT Barrel Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS TRT barrel is a tracking drift chamber using 52,544 individual tubular drift tubes. It is one part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, which consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4 to 20 cm, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT) from 56 to 108 cm. The TRT barrel covers the central pseudo-rapidity region |?|< 1, and the TRT while endcaps cover the forward and backward eta regions. These TRT systems provide a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. This paper describes the recently-completed construction of the TRT Barrel detector, including the quality control procedures used in the fabrication of the detector.

ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hanson, G.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rø; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

2008-02-01

224

MCT IR detectors in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the status of MCT IR technology in France at Leti and Sofradir. This concerns first evolution of crystal growth of large CZT for substrates, and MCT epilayers grown by LPE and MBE. A focus will be made on extrinsic doping of MCT with Indium and Arsenic for device fabrication. Evolution of detector technology will also be considered for detectors that operate from NIR/SWIR to VLWIR, moving from an n on p vacancy doped technology to a fully extrinsically doped p on n device architecture. Last results on 3rd generation detectors such as multicolor FPAs, HOT detectors and 2D or 3D FPAs that use MCT APD will also be described. Moving to larger FPAs, pixel pitch reduction become mandatory and technology evolution to achieve this goal will be presented .Then, cost reduction achievement through more compact systems that operate at higher temperature and/or integrate optical functions inside the cryostat will also be considered.

Destéfanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe; Vuillermet, Michel; Billon Lanfrey, David

2011-05-01

225

Development of DEPFET Macropixel detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) Macropixel detectors have been designed for X-ray applications and the prototypes with 1×1 mm2 pixel size have been fabricated. The prototype applies a newly designed DEPFET structure with drain-clear-gate (DCG) as the readout element of a silicon drift detector. Therefore, the size of Macropixel detectors can be adjusted to match the requirement of the instrument on spatial resolution from about 50×50 ?m2 to several square millimeters. The measured energy resolution for Mn-K? peak at room temperature is 191 eV with a prototype single pixel. In this paper we present the DEPFET Macropixel detector concept as well as the static and dynamic test results.

Zhang, Chen; Lechner, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Porro, Matteo; Richter, Rainer; Treis, Johannes; Strüder, Lothar; Nan Zhang, Shuang

2006-11-01

226

SSC detector solenoid  

SciTech Connect

A detector utilizing a superconducting solenoid is being discussed for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). A useful field volume of 8 m diameter x 16 m length at 1.5-2 T (--1 GJ at 2T) is required. It has been decided that all of the particle physics calorimetry will be inside the bore of the solenoid and that there is no need for the coil and cryostat to be ''thin'' in radiation lengths. An iron yoke will reduce the excitation required and will provide muon identification and a redundant momentum measurement of the muons. The authors have developed a conceptual design to meet these requirements. The magnet will use a copper-stabilized Nb-Ti conductor sized for a cryostable pool boiling heat flux --0.025 W/cm/sup 2/. A thermosiphon from a storage vessel above the cryostat will be used to prevent bubble stagnation in the liquid helium bath. The operating current, current density, coil subdivision and dump resistor have been chosen to guarantee that the coil will be undamaged should a quench occur. The axial electromagnetic force will be reacted by metallic support links; the stainless steel coil case will support the radial force. The 5000 metric tons of calorimetry will be supported from the iron yoke through a trussed cylindrical shell structure separate from the cryostat. The coil and case, radiation shield and stainless vacuum vessel would be fabricated and cryogenically tested as two 8-m sections. These would be lowered into the underground experimental hall and installed into the iron flux return yoke to provide the required 16-m length.

Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Kephart, R.D.; Krebs, H.J.; Stone, M.E.; Theriot, E.D.; Wands, R.H.

1989-03-01

227

Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) provide a promising solution to the problem of producing large format arrays of ultra\\u000a sensitive detectors for astronomy. Traditionally KIDs have been constructed from superconducting quarter-wave resonant elements\\u000a capacitively coupled to a co-planar feed line [1]. Photon detection is achieved by measuring the change in quasi-particle\\u000a density caused by the splitting of Cooper pairs in the

Simon Doyle; P. Mauskopf; J. Naylon; Adrian Porch; C. Duncombe

2008-01-01

228

Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency. PMID:21524337

Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

2011-04-28

229

Integrating Pixel Array Detector Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray experiments are very frequently detector limited at storage ring synchrotron radiation sources, and will be even more so at future x-ray free electron laser and energy recovery linac sources. Limitations most frequently arise from the inability of detectors to efficiently collect and process data at the rates at which the data can be generated. Two bump-bonded silicon pixel array detectors (PADs) are being developed at Cornell University that will greatly enhance data collection capabilities. In these PADs x-rays are converted to electrical signals in a pixelated layer of high resistivity silicon, each pixel of which is connected by a metal solder ``bump'' to a corresponding pixel in a CMOS silicon integrated circuit. Each CMOS pixel contains its own data handling and processing electronics. Since all pixels operate in parallel, the PAD is capable of handling extremely high data throughput. The PAD pixels feature integrating analog front-end electronics which allow extremely high instantaneous count-rates, yet sufficiently high signal-to-noise to be able to detect single x-ray photons. The first PAD is designed for coherent x-ray imaging experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. This detector frames continuously at the LCLS rate of 120 Hz, where the data for each frame can arrive in femtoseconds. The second detector, a result of a collaboration with the Area Detector Systems Corporation, is designed for high throughput protein crystallography experiments. Both detectors are described, and test data is provided. The capabilities of the detectors suggest a variety of new applications, some of which will be discussed.

Gruner, Sol

2009-03-01

230

LHCb detector status and upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb experiment is a specialized experiment for B and D physics at the CERN LHC. The layout of the experiment and the various components are described, with an overview of their performance. Global running conditions and performance are also shown. The motivation for the foreseen detector upgrade is presented, together with the proposed new detectors, to be installed during Long Shutdown 2, in 2018.

Callot, O.

2013-05-01

231

STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade Development  

SciTech Connect

We report on the development and prototyping efforts undertaken with the goal of producing a micro-vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL. We present the basic detector requirements and show a sensor development path, conceptual mechanical design candidates and readout architecture. Prototyping and beam test results with current generation MimoSTAR-2 sensors and a readout system featuring FPGA based on-the-fly hit finding and data sparsification are also presented.

Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu,Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard; Szelezniak, Michal; Sun, Xiangming

2008-01-28

232

Directional detector of gamma rays  

DOEpatents

A directional detector of gamma rays comprises a strip of an electrical cuctor of high atomic number backed with a strip of a second electrical conductor of low atomic number. These elements are enclosed within an electrical conductor that establishes an electrical ground, maintains a vacuum enclosure and screens out low-energy gamma rays. The detector exhibits a directional sensitivity marked by an increased output in the favored direction by a factor of ten over the output in the unfavored direction.

Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL); Levert, Francis E. (Chicago, IL)

1979-01-01

233

Modeling of diamond radiation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries.

Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A.

2004-11-01

234

Modeling of diamond radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries.

Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A. [Physics Department, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

2004-11-15

235

The HELIOS silicon detector array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype detector array has been constructed for use in the Helical Orbit Spectrometer (HELIOS) at the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory. HELIOS is a high-resolution spectrometer for use in studying reactions in inverse kinematics on hydrogen or helium targets. HELIOS consists of a large bore, 3T superconducting solenoid oriented with the magnetic and beam axes aligned. The detector array is comprised of four modules each with six 1.2 x 5.6cm position sensitive silicon detectors. On each module, the detectors were affixed with conductive epoxy and wire bonded to custom made multi-layer printed circuit boards. To keep the radial extent of the detectors to a minimum, the modules were assembled on a hollow 1.6 x 1.6 x 68.8 cm aluminum rail centered on the beam axis located upstream from the target. To characterize the timing, position, and energy resolutions, the detectors were evaluated at the Western Michigan University Accelerator Laboratory using elastic proton-proton scattering. The construction, assembly and preliminary testing of the array will be discussed.

Marley, S. T.

2008-10-01

236

A Comparison of Affine Region Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a snapshot of the state of the art in affine covariant region detectors, and compares their performance on a set of test images under varying imaging conditions. Six types of detectors are included: detectors based on affine normalization around Harris (Mikolajczyk and Schmid, 2002; Schaffalitzky and Zisserman, 2002) and Hessian points (Mikolajczyk and Schmid, 2002), a detector

Krystian Mikolajczyk; Tinne Tuytelaars; Cordelia Schmid; Andrew Zisserman; Jiri Matas; Frederik Schaffalitzky; Timor Kadir; Luc J. Van Gool; J. Matas

2005-01-01

237

Neutrino Spectrum at the Far Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrino oscillation experiments often employ two identical detectors to minimize errors due to inadequately known neutrino beam. We examine various systematics effects related to the prediction of the neutrino spectrum in the `far' detector on the basis of the spectrum observed at the `near' detector. We propose a novel method of the derivation of the far detector spectrum. This method

M. Szleper; A. Para

2001-01-01

238

Reliability Studies of Planar Silicon Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For future large scale, long term applications of silicon particle detectors in high energy physics experiments, e.g. in proton or electron colliders, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of such detectors. An automated measurement apparatus has been built, which is used to test planar silicon detectors for several days or weeks, both with and without irradiation. Defective detectors were

Claus Goessling; Erik H. M. Heijne; Pierre Jarron; H. Andrew Parker; Nicola Redaelli; Leonardo Rossi

1986-01-01

239

The Mark II detector for the SLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mark II detector has been upgraded in preparation for its role as the first detector to take data at the Stanford Linear Collider. The new detector components include the central drift chamber, the time-of-flight system, the coil, the endcap electromagnetic calorimeters and the beam energy and luminosity measuring devices. There have also been improvements in detector hermeticity. All of

G. Abrams; C. E. Adolphsen; C. Akerlof; J. P. Alexander; M. Alvarez; D. Averill; A. R. Baden; J. Ballam; B. C. Barish; T. Barklow; B. A. Barnett; J. Bartelt; D. Blockus; W. de Boer; G. Bonvicini; C. Boswell; A. Boyarski; J. Boyer; B. Brabson; K. Braune; A. Breakstone; J. M. Brom; F. Bulos; P. R. Burchat; D. L. Burke; F. Butler; F. Calvino; R. J. Cence; J. Chapman; M. Chmeissani; D. Cords; D. P. Coupal; P. Dauncey; H. C. Destaebler; D. E. Dorfan; J. M. Dorfan; P. S. Drell; D. C. Drewer; J. Fay; G. J. Feldman; D. Fernandes; E. Fernandez; R. C. Field; W. T. Ford; C. Fordham; R. Frey; D. Fujino; K. K. Gan; C. Gatto; E. Gero; G. Gidal; T. Glanzman; G. Goldhaber; J. J. Gomez Cadenas; X. Gong; G. Gratta; A. Green; P. Grosse-Wiesmann; J. Haggerty; G. Hanson; R. Harr; B. Harral; F. A. Harris; C. M. Hawkes; K. Hayes; C. Hearty; D. Herrup; C. A. Heusch; T. Himel; D. A. Hinshaw; M. Hoenk; S.-O. Holmgren; S. J. Hong; D. Hutchinson; J. Hylen; W. R. Innes; R. G. Jacobsen; M. Jaffre; J. A. Jaros; C. K. Jung; I. Juricic; J. A. Kadyk; D. Karlen; J. Kent; M. King; S. R. Klein; L. Koepke; D. Koetke; A. Koide; S. Komamiya; W. Koska; L. A. Kowalski; W. Kozanecki; J. F. Kral; M. Kuhlen; L. Labarga; A. J. Lankford; R. R. Larsen; M. E. Levi; Z. Li; A. M. Litke; V. Lüth; G. R. Lynch; J. A. McKenna; J. A. J. Matthews; T. Mattison; B. D. Milliken; K. C. Moffeit; L. Müller; C. T. Munger; W. N. Murray; J. Nash; M. E. Nelson; D. Nitz; H. Ogren; R. A. Ong; K. F. O'Shaughnessy; S. I. Parker; C. Peck; J. Perl; M. L. Perl; F. Perrier; A. Petersen; M. Petradza; R. Pitthan; F. C. Porter; P. Rankin; J. D. Richman; K. Riles; F. R. Rouse; D. R. Rust; H. F. W. Sadrozinski; M. W. Schaad; W. B. Schmidke; B. A. Schumm; A. S. Schwarz; A. Seiden; J. G. Smith; A. Snyder; E. Soderstrom; D. P. Stoker; R. Stroynowski; M. Swartz; R. E. Taylor; R. Thun; G. H. Trilling; R. Tschirhart; M. Turala; R. van Kooten; S. Vejcik; H. Veltman; P. Voruganti; S. R. Wagner; S. Watson; P. Weber; A. Weigend; A. J. Weinstein; A. J. Weir; S. Weisz; S. L. White; E. Wicklund; R. C. Wolf; D. R. Wood; M. Woods; G. Wormser; R. Wright; D. Y. Wu; M. Yurko; C. Zaccardelli; C. von Zanthier

1989-01-01

240

Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.  

PubMed Central

We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks per square centimeter per hour) is proportional to the surface alpha-activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha-emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha-activity should be proportional to the accumulated (210)Po, and hence to the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to a) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, b) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass-implanted polonium activities, and c) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted (210)Po activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type. Preliminary comparisons of the models used to translate track rate densities to average long-term radon concentrations differ between the two studies. Further calibration of the retrospective detectors' models for interpretation of track rate density may allow the pooling of studies that use glass-based retrospective radon detectors to determine historic residential radon exposures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Field, R W; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

1999-01-01

241

Gadolinium Doped Water Cherenkov Detector for use as Neutron Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background characterization is imperative to the success of rare event physics research such as neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches. There are a number of different ways to measure backgrounds from muon-induced processes and other forms of high energy events. In our current research, we are constructing a research and development project for the feasibility of a Gadolinium doped water Cherenkov detector as a neutron detector. We are constructing a 46 liter acrylic housing for the Gd-doped water consisting of two acrylic cone sections connected to a middle acrylic cylinder to increase volume while still using 5 inch photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) on either end. I will present the challenges of a Gd-doped water detector and the reasons why our design should be much more successful than past metal housed detectors. I will also discuss our current progress and future goals of our detector including its use in characterizing the background in the future underground laboratory in the Sanford Lab, soon to be DUSEL.

Davis, Patrick; Woltman, Brian; Mei, Dongming; Sun, Yongchen; Thomas, Keenan; Perevozchikov, Oleg

2010-11-01

242

Scientific Detectors for Astronomy 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every three years, the leading experts in detectors for astronomy gather together to exchange information and form professional relationships. This series of meetings is entitled Scientific Detectors for Astronomy. The meeting has been held six times, with the last four publishing hardcover proceedings. Nearly all leading astronomical observatories and manufacturers attend this meeting, with participants from every continent of the world. The 2005 meeting in Taormina, Italy was attended by 127 professionals who develop and use the highest quality detectors for wavelengths from x-ray to sub-mm, with emphasis on optical and infrared detectors. The meeting consisted of overview talks, technical presentations, poster sessions and roundtable discussions. In addition, a strong cultural programme exposed the participants to the host region while fostering the enhancement of professional relationships. These proceedings capture the technical content and the spirit of the 2005 workshop. The 87 papers cover a wide range of detector technologies including CCDs, CMOS, APDs, and sub-mm detectors. There are papers on observatory status and plans, special applications, detector testing and characterization, and electronics. A special feature of these proceedings is the inclusion of pedagogical overview papers, which were written by teams of leading experts from different institutions. These proceedings are appropriate for a range of expertise levels, from undergraduates to professionals working in the field. The information presented in this book will serve as a valuable reference for many years to come. This workshop was organized by the Scientific Workshop Factory, Inc. and the INAF- Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania. Link: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,5-102-22-91528896-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

Beletic, Jenna E.; Beletic, James W.; Amico, Paola

2006-03-01

243

Principle of operation of micro pattern detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstrip Gas Chambers (MSGC's), Small Gap and Groove detectors with an optional GEM foil are a recent development of gaseous micro-pattern detectors providing a cost efficient solution for a tracking detector. They provide good spatial resolution (~35 ?m) and can operate in high radiation environments (up to ~104 particles/mm2). The laboratory course on micro pattern detectors tried to give an understanding of the layout and basic functioning of these detectors. .

Cattai, A.; Malina, R.

2000-09-01

244

Independent detector testing laboratory and the NGST detector characterization project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory (IDTL) has been established by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Johns Hopkins University (JHU), and it will assist the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) mission in choosing and operating the best near-infrared detectors. The NGST is the centerpiece of the NASA Office of Space Science theme, the Astronomical Search for Origins, and the highest priority astronomy project for the next decade, according to the National Academy of Science. NGST will need to have the sensitivity to see the first light in the Universe to determine how galaxies formed in the web of dark matter that existed when the Universe was in its infancy (z ~10-20). To achieve this goal, the NGST Project must pursue an aggressive technology program and advance infrared detectors to performance levels beyond what is now possible. As part of this program, NASA has selected the IDTL to verify comparative performance between prototype NGST detectors developed by Rockwell Scientific (HgCdTe) and Raytheon (InSb). The IDTL is charged with obtaining an independent assessment of the ability of these two competing technologies to achieve the demanding specifications of the NGST program within the 0.6-5 ?m bandpass and in an ultra-low background (<0.01 e-/s/pixel) environment. We describe the NGST Detector Characterization Project that is being performed in the IDTL. In this project, we will measure first-order detector parameters, i.e. dark current, read noise, QE, intra-pixel sensitivity, linearity, as functions of temperature, well size, and operational mode.

Figer, Donald F.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Regan, Michael W.; Balleza, Jesus C.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Bergeron, Louis E.; Greene, Gretchen R.; Kim, Sungsoo; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Morse, Ernie; Pelton, Russell; Reeves, Thomas; Sharma, Utkarsh; Stemniski, P.; Stockman, Hervey S.; Telewicz, M.

2003-03-01

245

The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory and the JWST Detector Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory (IDTL) is jointly operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Johns Hopkins University (JHU), and is assisting the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission in choosing and operating the best near-infrared detectors. The JWST is the centerpiece of the NASA Office of Space Science theme, the Astronomical Search for Origins, and the highest priority astronomy project for the next decade, according to the National Academy of Science. JWST will need to have the sensitivity to see the first light in the Universe to determine how galaxies formed in the web of dark matter that existed when the Universe was in its infancy (z ~10-20). To achieve this goal, the JWST Project must pursue an aggressive technology program and advance infrared detectors to performance levels beyond what is now possible. As part of this program, NASA has selected the IDTL to verify comparative performance between prototype JWST detectors developed by Rockwell Scientific (HgCdTe) and Raytheon (InSb). The IDTL is charged with obtaining an independent assessment of the ability of these two competing technologies to achieve the demanding specifications of the JWST program within the 0.6-5 ? m bandpass and in an ultra-low background (<0.01 e-/s/pixel) environment. We describe the JWST Detector Characterization Project that is being performed in the IDTL. In this project, we will measure first-order detector parameters, i.e. dark current, read noise, QE, intra-pixel sensitivity, linearity, as functions of temperature, well size, and operational mode.

Figer, D. F.; Rauscher, B. J.; Regan, M. W.; Balleza, J.; Barkhouser, R.; Bergeron, L.; Greene, G. R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Morse, E.; Reeves, T.; Stockman, H. S.

2002-12-01

246

Near infrared detectors for SNAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large format (1k × 1k and 2k × 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 ?m. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Borysow, M.; Brown, M. G.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Bower, C.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarlé, G.

2006-07-01

247

Near infrared detectors for SNAP  

SciTech Connect

Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

2006-05-23

248

Detector problems at the SSC  

SciTech Connect

During the last couple of years there has been considerable concern expressed among the US high energy community as to whether detector limitations would prevent one from being able to fully exploit a luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ at a hadron-hadron high energy collider. As a result of these concerns, a considerable amount of work has been done recently in trying to understand the nature of potential difficulties and the required R and D that needs to be performed. A lot of this work has been summarized in the 1984 DPF Summer Study at Snowmass. This paper attempts to review some of these results. This work is limited to the discussion of detector problems associated with the study of high energy hadron-hadron collisions. We shall start with the discussion of the desirable features of the detectors and of the SSC environment in which they will have to work. After a brief discussion of the model 4..pi.. detectors, we shall discuss specific detector aspects: lepton identification, tracking, calorimetry and computing and triggering. We shall end with some remarks about possible future course of events. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Wojcicki, S.G.

1985-02-01

249

Capacitor-type micrometeoroid detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor micrometeroid detector consists of a thin dielectric capacitor fabricated on a silicon wafer. In operation, the device is charged to a voltage level sufficiently near breakdown that micrometeoroid impacts will cause dielectric deformation or heating and subsequent arc-over at the point of impact. Each detector is capable of recording multiple impacts because of the self-healing characteristics of the device. Support instrumentation requirements consist of a voltage source and pulse counters that monitor the pulse of recharging current following every impact. An investigation has been conducted in which 0.5 to 5 micron diameter carbonized iron spheres traveling at velocities of 4 to 10 Km/sec were impacted on to detectors with either a dielectric thickness of 0.4 or 1.0 micron. This study demonstrated that an ion microprobe tuned to sufficiently high resolution can detect Fe remaining on the detector after the impact. Furthermore, it is also possible to resolve Fe ion images free of mass interferences from Si, for example, giving its spatial distribution after impact. Specifically this technique has shown that significant amounts of impacting particles remain in the crater and near it which can be analyzed for isotopic content. Further testing and calibration could lead to quantitive analysis. This study has shown that the capacitor type micrometeroid detector is capable of not only time and flux measurements but can also be used for isotopic analysis.

Wortman, J. J.; Griffis, D. P.; Bryan, S. R.; Kinard, W.

250

Silicon single photon imaging detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-photon imaging detectors promise the ultimate in sensitivity by eliminating read noise. These devices could provide extraordinary benefits for photon-starved applications, e.g., imaging exoplanets, fast wavefront sensing, and probing the human body through transluminescence. Recent implementations are often in the form of sparse arrays that have less-than-unity fill factor. For imaging, fill factor is typically enhanced by using microlenses, at the expense of photometric and spatial information loss near the edges and corners of the pixels. Other challenges include afterpulsing and the potential for photon self-retriggering. Both effects produce spurious signal that can degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. This paper reviews development and potential application of single-photon-counting detectors, including highlights of initiatives in the Center for Detectors at the Rochester Institute of Technology and MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Current projects include single-photon-counting imaging detectors for the Thirty Meter Telescope, a future NASA terrestrial exoplanet mission, and imaging LIDAR detectors for planetary and Earth science space missions.

Figer, D. F.; Aull, B. F.; Schuette, D. R.; Hanold, B. J.; Kolb, K.; Lee, J.

2011-09-01

251

Report on Advanced Detector Development  

SciTech Connect

Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

James K. Jewell

2012-09-01

252

Passive environmental radon detector study  

SciTech Connect

There are three stages at which the ambient air concentrations of radon-222 are monitored around the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites: before, during, and after construction. Pre-remedial-action measurements are taken for approximately 1 year. Monitoring is conducted during the entire duration of construction, and post-remedial-action monitoring is performed for approximately 1 year. Currently, the UMTRA Project uses Radtrak[reg sign] brand alpha-track radon detectors for these environmental measurements. The purposes of radon monitoring around the UMTRA sites are (1) to determine background values around the site and pre-remedial-action conditions, (2) to control construction activities and monitor off-site releases, and (3) to compare post-remedial-action concentrations with pre-remedial-action values to demonstrate that radon concentrations have been reduced to approximately background levels. The Technical Assistance Contractor to the DOE for the UMTRA Project evaluated the performance of four different types of passive environmental radon detectors under both controlled laboratory conditions and field conditions at an unremediated UMTRA site. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy and precision of four different passive, timeintegrating, environmental radon detectors in an effort to determine which brand of detector is best suited to measure environmental outdoor radon concentrations for the UMTRA Project. Voluntary manufacturer participation in the study was solicited by placing an advertisement in the Commerce Business Daily. All manufacturers participating in the study supplied the detectors and analysis free of charge.

Not Available

1992-03-01

253

Passive environmental radon detector study  

SciTech Connect

There are three stages at which the ambient air concentrations of radon-222 are monitored around the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites: before, during, and after construction. Pre-remedial-action measurements are taken for approximately 1 year. Monitoring is conducted during the entire duration of construction, and post-remedial-action monitoring is performed for approximately 1 year. Currently, the UMTRA Project uses Radtrak{reg_sign} brand alpha-track radon detectors for these environmental measurements. The purposes of radon monitoring around the UMTRA sites are (1) to determine background values around the site and pre-remedial-action conditions, (2) to control construction activities and monitor off-site releases, and (3) to compare post-remedial-action concentrations with pre-remedial-action values to demonstrate that radon concentrations have been reduced to approximately background levels. The Technical Assistance Contractor to the DOE for the UMTRA Project evaluated the performance of four different types of passive environmental radon detectors under both controlled laboratory conditions and field conditions at an unremediated UMTRA site. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy and precision of four different passive, timeintegrating, environmental radon detectors in an effort to determine which brand of detector is best suited to measure environmental outdoor radon concentrations for the UMTRA Project. Voluntary manufacturer participation in the study was solicited by placing an advertisement in the Commerce Business Daily. All manufacturers participating in the study supplied the detectors and analysis free of charge.

Not Available

1992-03-01

254

The EXO-200 detector, part I: detector design and construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EXO-200 is an experiment designed to search for double beta decay of 136Xe with a single-phase, liquid xenon detector. It uses an active mass of 110 kg of xenon enriched to 80.6% in the isotope 136 in an ultra-low background time projection chamber capable of simultaneous detection of ionization and scintillation. This paper describes the EXO-200 detector with particular attention to the most innovative aspects of the design that revolve around the reduction of backgrounds, the efficient use of the expensive isotopically enriched xenon, and the optimization of the energy resolution in a relatively large volume.

Auger, M.; Auty, D. J.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bartoszek, L.; Baussan, E.; Beauchamp, E.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Breidenbach, M.; Chauhan, D.; Cleveland, B.; Conley, R.; Cook, J.; Cook, S.; Coppens, A.; Craddock, W.; Daniels, T.; Davis, C. G.; Davis, J.; deVoe, R.; Dobi, A.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dunford, M.; Fairbank, W., Jr.; Farine, J.; Fierlinger, P.; Franco, D.; Giroux, G.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Hagemann, C.; Hall, C.; Hall, K.; Hargrove, C.; Herrin, S.; Hodgson, J.; Hughes, M.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kirk, J.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Leonard, D. S.; Leonard, F.; LePort, F.; Mackay, D.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M.; Merkle, K.; Mong, B.; Montero Díez, M.; Müller, A. R.; Neilson, R.; Odian, A.; O'Sullivan, K.; Ouellet, C.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Prescott, C. Y.; Pushkin, K.; Rivas, A.; Rollin, E.; Rowson, P. C.; Sabourov, A.; Sinclair, D.; Skarpaas, K.; Slutsky, S.; Stekhanov, V.; Strickland, V.; Swift, M.; Tosi, D.; Twelker, K.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Walton, T.; Weber, M.; Wichoski, U.; Wodin, J.; Wright, J. D.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.

2012-05-01

255

The GERmanium detector array, GERDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is a new experiment which is currently being built at the INFN LNGS Laboratory in Italy with the aim to search for neutrinoless double beta-decay of 76Ge. Unique features of the experiment are (1) to operate germanium detectors directly inside a bath of liquid argon, and (2) to use segmented germanium detectors. The background level is expected to be two orders of magnitude below that of recent experiments. This results in an estimated sensitivity to the half-life of T1/2 > 13.5 · 1025 y for the envisioned exposure of 100 kg·y, corresponding to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of approximately 130 meV.

Kröninger, K.

2008-05-01

256

Visual detectors since the ZGS  

SciTech Connect

With the termination of the ZGS program and with the guidance of the Baltay Committee review of the HEP program at Argonne, the future role of the HEP Division was identified with its potential to provide engineering and facilities capabilities, allied with the full-time commitment of research physicists, to collaborations with university groups on experiments at other facilities. To see how well this has worked over the some 15 years since the ZGS, the author reviews the contributions of Argonne to a number of large tracking detector experiments; these may be regarded s the successors to the bubble chamber experiments of the 1950--1970 period and are reasonably referred to as visual detectors. In all of the detectors to be considered, the physical scale is large and the design and construction depend for success on sound engineering expertise and availability of extensive services backed up by skilled technician effort.

Musgrave, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

1996-05-01

257

SVX/silicon detector studies  

SciTech Connect

AC coupled silicon detectors, being used for the DO upgrade, may have substantial voltage across the coupling capacitor. Failed capacitors can present {approximately}50 V to the input of the SVX, Silicon Vertex, device. We measured the effects that failed detector coupling capacitors have on the SVXD (rad soft 3{mu}m), SVXH (rad hard 1.2{mu}m), and SVXIIb (rad soft 1.2{mu}m) amplifier / readout devices. The test results show that neighboring channels saturate when an excessive voltage is applied directly to a SVX channel. We believe that the effects are due to current diffusion within the SVX substrate rather than surface currents on the detectors. This paper discusses the magnitude of the saturation and a possible solution to the problem.

Bagby, L.; Johnson, M.; Lipton, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Gu, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ (China)

1995-11-01

258

Quantum transition-edge detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small perturbations to systems near critical points of quantum phase transitions can induce drastic changes in the system properties. Here I show that this sensitivity can be exploited for weak-signal detection applications. This is done by relating a widely studied signature of quantum chaos and quantum phase transitions known as the Loschmidt echo to the minimum error probability for a quantum detector and noting that the echo, and therefore the error, can be significantly reduced near a critical point. Three examples, namely, the quantum Ising model, the optical parametric oscillator model, and the Dicke model, are presented to illustrate the concept. For the latter two examples, the detectable perturbation can exhibit a Heisenberg scaling with respect to the number of detectors, even though the detectors are not entangled and no special quantum state preparation is specified.

Tsang, Mankei

2013-08-01

259

Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) proposes to use personnel dosimetry radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for safeguards purposes. It plans to place these YES/NO monitors at barrier penetration points declared closed under IAEA safeguards to detect the passage of plutonium-bearing nuclear material, usually spent fuel. For this application, commercially available dosimeters were surveyed as well as other radiation detectors that appeared suitable and likely to be marketed in the near future. No primary advantage was found in a particular detector type because in this application backgrounds vary during long counting intervals. Secondary considerations specify that the monitor be inexpensive and easy to tamper-proof, interrogate, and maintain. On this basis radiophotoluminescent, thermoluminescent, and electronic dosimeters were selected as possible routine monitors; the latter two may prove useful for data-base acquisition.

Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

1981-01-01

260

Calibration methods for explosives detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airport security has become an important concern to cultures in every corner of the world. Presently, efforts to improve airport security have brought additional technological solutions, in the form of advanced instrumentation for the detection of explosives, into use at airport terminals in many countries. This new generation of explosives detectors is often used to augment existing security measures and provide a more encompassing screening capability for airline passengers. This paper describes two calibration procedures used for the Thermedics' EGIS explosives detectors. The systems were designed to screen people, electronic components, luggage, automobiles, and other objects for the presence of concealed explosives. The detectors have the ability to detect a wide range of explosives in both the vapor state or as surface adsorbed solids, therefore, calibrations were designed to challenge the system with explosives in each form.

MacDonald, Stephen J.; Rounbehler, David P.

1992-05-01

261

Modern halogen leak detectors /Review/  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The halogen method is one of the basic techniques of leak detection for monitoring airtightness in such objects as refrigeration equipment and aerosol containers. Sensitivity has been improved by heated platinum emitters which stabilize background currents. Methods for protecting the region in which the gas is selected include placing the sensitive element in a new flow gauge and keeping the chamber at a certain distance from the tested surface. Chromatograph separating columns both increase sensitivity and distinguish test materials on a background of extraneous halogen-containing materials. Solid-state platinum diodes have been used as the sensitive elements of halogen leak detectors. Leak detectors based on electron-capture practically eliminate the effect of contamination of the surrounding atmosphere on leak detector sensitivity. A technique of vacuum testing is based on the high affinity of halogen-containing materials for electrons.

Evlampiev, A. I.; Karpov, V. I.; Levina, L. E.

1980-09-01

262

Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

Agouridis, Dimitrios C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01

263

Airport detectors and orthopaedic implants.  

PubMed

As a result of the rising threats of terrorism, airport security has become a major issue. Patients with orthopaedic implants are concerned that they may activate alarms at airport security gates. A literature overview showed that the activation rate of the alarm by hand-held detectors is higher than for arch detectors (100% versus 56%). Arch detection rate has significantly increased from 0% before 1995 up to 83.3% after 1994. Reported factors which influence detection rates are implant mass, implant combinations, implant volume, transfer speed, side of implant, detector model, sensitivity settings, material and tissue masking. Detection rate has been improved by more sensitive devices and improved filter software. Doctors should be able to objectively inform patients. A form is presented which will easily inform the airport security staff. PMID:16184989

van der Wal, Bart C H; Grimm, Bernd; Heyligers, Ide C

2005-08-01

264

A novel threshold Cherenkov detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are studying a novel threshold Cherenkov detector system for the discrimination between charged pions and kaons in an experiment on CP breaking at LEAR, CERN. Cherenkov UV-light is produced in an FC72 radiator and detected in a row of 2 cm diameter quartz tubes filled with TMAE vapour at 45°C. Inside a tube a wire is stretched along the axis as anode and a nichrome spiral functions as cathode. Computer simulations have shown that good pion/kaon discrimination can be obtained. First results obtained with a small quartz-tube light detector are presented.

Okx, W. J. C.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Looman, M.; Tanner, N. W.

1988-12-01

265

The CDF layer 00 detector  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Layer 00 detector consists of single-sided silicon sensors assembled on the beampipe, forming the innermost of eight silicon layers in the CDF detector for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. Radiation tolerant p-in-n silicon with 25(50) {micro}m implant(readout) pitch are mounted on a lightweight, cooled support structure and connect to electronics outside the tracking volume via long, fine-pitch cables. Layer 00 will significantly improve the impact parameter resolution and enhance the longevity of the silicon system, benefiting a large portion of the physics program for Run II.

Timothy K. Nelson

2001-12-07

266

The micro slit gas detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the first tests with a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of slits opened in a copper metallized kapton foil with 30?m anode strips suspended in these openings. In this way, the multiplication process is similar to a standard MSGC. The fundamental difference is the absence of an insulating substrate around the anode. Also the material budget is significantly reduced, and the problems related to charging-up or polarization are removed. Ageing properties of this detector are under study.

Claude Labbé, J.; Gómez, F.; Nún~ez, T.; Pazos, A.; Vázquez, P.

1999-06-01

267

CDMS WIMP detector Fabrication Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less than 20% of the matter content in the Universe is made up of what we know as ordinary matter, the rest is dominated by Dark Matter. The major candidate constituent of Dark Matter is the Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP). The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment uses photo-lithographically patterned Ge detectors with Transition Edge Sensors (TES) that are operated at 50mK temperature, to look for possible recoil with the slow moving WIMPs in our galaxy. This talk will present recent advances in the detector technology with a new dedicated nano-fabrication facility set up at Texas A&M University.

Jastram, Andrew

2012-03-01

268

Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer system: Automatic Whistler Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, unique system has been developed for the automatic detection and analysis of whistlers. The Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer (AWDA) system has two purposes: (1) to automatically provide plasmaspheric electron densities extracted from whistlers and (2) to collect statistical data for the investigation of whistler generation and propagation. This paper presents the details of and the first results

J. Lichtenberger; C. Ferencz; L. Bodnár; D. Hamar; P. Steinbach

2008-01-01

269

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (>85%), high spatial resolution (<5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600 / in(sup 2)), low dead time (<4 (mu)s in(sup 2)), good timing resolution (<5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, <...

W. W. Moses S. E. Derenzo T. F. Budinger

1994-01-01

270

SPECTACULAR SCIENCE: The Lie Detector’s Ambivalent Powers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectacular science is a mode of scientific inquiry that is created and sustained by popular culture. In this article, I provide evidence for this claim by examining the history of the lie detector. Throughout the 20th century, the technology was nurtured by newspaper and magazine articles, movies, comic books, television shows, and advertisements. Analysis of this rich archive reveals the

Geoffrey C. Bunn

2007-01-01

271

Direct detector for terahertz radiation  

DOEpatents

A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

2008-09-02

272

Handheld Concealed Weapons Detector Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort entailed the development of an enhanced, hand held, low- cost (less than $1,000 production cost), ultra-sound based Concealed Weapons Detector (CWD), which included the building of a working model for further test and evaluation. Development o...

N. Wild

2003-01-01

273

Near Infrared Detectors for SNAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characrerized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized ...

C. Bebek D. Cole M. Borysow M. Schubnell M. G. Brown N. Barron

2006-01-01

274

Evolving predictive visual motion detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometrical organization of a visual sensor is of major importance for the later processing of sensed stimuli. We present an approach to evolve artificial visual detectors which adapt their size and orientation according to the experienced sensory stimulation. The criterion for the introduced optimization method is given by a Reichardt correlation measure on the input signal. Under the described

Jonas Ruesch; Alexandre Bernardino

2009-01-01

275

Airport detectors and orthopaedic implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the rising threats of terrorism, airport security has become a major issue. Patients with orthopaedic implants are concerned that they may activate alarms at airport security gates. A literature overview showed that the activation rate of the alarm by hand-held detectors is higher than for arch detec- tors (100% versus 56%). Arch detection rate has sig-

Bart C. H. VAN DER WAL; Bernd GRIMM; Ide C. HEYLIGERS

276

Development of a Portable Phosphorous Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of an alkali flame detector (AFD) are described in relation to use as a portable phosphorus (7723140) detector. Operating principles are reviewed and tabulated data on AFD sensitivity toward a variety of pesticides is included. Differe...

F. K. Davey

1974-01-01

277

Test data analysis on trapezoidal MSGC detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the analysis of experimental data obtained during the october tests at CERN with the trapezoidal MSGC detectors. The resolution and efficiency of the MSGC detectors have been estimated using the track reconstruction from eight planes ...

A. M. Bergdolt J. M. Brom J. Coffin F. Djama H. Eberle

1996-01-01

278

Calibration of Lemair Mercury Vapor Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project was initiated to calibrate the Lemair Mercury Vapor Detector. The detector was calibrated using the sampling and generating procedure reported by Nelson. A modification of the analytical procedure was necessary to insure complete mercury recover...

E. J. Smith P. Diamond

1968-01-01

279

Technology Assessment for the Advanced Life Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes an assessment of technology available to develop a noninvasive life detector for use on the battlefield. The detectors determine if casualties wearing chemical protective overgarments are alive or dead without further exposing eithe...

W. D. Burrows D. T. George

1988-01-01

280

A neutron detector based on microchannel plates  

SciTech Connect

We propose a large-area neutron detector design based on microchannel plates (MCPs). Two characteristics of the MCP make it ideal as a high-rate neutron detector: (1) its signals can have a very fast rise time, and (2) it can count at a high rate. The MCP-based detector could use both the high-voltage power supplies and the readout electronics designed for a neutron detector based on the multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC).

MacArthur, D.W.

1987-06-01

281

Highly sensitive detector for submillimeter wavelength range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly sensitive detector of submillimeter wavelength radiation is reported. The detector consists of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and a metallic single-electron transistor (SET). The SET detects change in the potential distribution induced by photon absorption within the QD. We have fabricated and studied this detector at wavelengths longer than 200 ?m. High sensitivity, ~10-20 W/Hz in terms of noise equivalent power, is found. Further optimization of the detector design is suggested.

Hashiba, H.; Antonov, V.; Kulik, L.; Komiyama, S.; Stanley, C.

2004-12-01

282

Some aspects of permalloy chevron strip detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of thick-permalloy chevron-strip detector (287 columns) on YSm garnet (6.5mu stripe width) has been examined for the cases of dc and pulse current drives in high detector current region. Relations between a detector window Vw (defined as a voltage difference between the ONE and Zero states) and a detector current Id are shown in Fig. 1. These data

S. Yoshizawa; M. Kasai; M. Hiroshima; N. Saito

1975-01-01

283

Portable, Single-Mirror, Air Fluorescence Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully designed and tested a mobile, single-mirror air flourescence detector and a mobile vertical laser system. They can both run autonomously. Both the laser and the detector have been tested at several remote locations in weather ranging from blizzard conditions to desert heat. The detector and laser were used to measure the atmospheric clarity in the Millard County area in central Utah for six months with laser-detector separations of 12km and 36km.

Cannon, C.; Martens, K.; Riehle, R.; Thomas, J.; Thomas, S.; Wiencke, L.; HiRes Collaboration

2003-07-01

284

The H1 detector at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

General aspects of the H1 detector at the electron-proton storage ring HERA as well as technical descriptions of the magnet, luminosity system, trigger, slow-control, data acquisition and off-line data handling are given. The three major components of the detector, the tracking, calorimeter and muon detectors, will be described in a forthcoming article. The present paper describes the detector that was

I. Abt; T. Ahmed; S. Aid; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; R. D. Appuhn; C. Arnault; M. Arpagaus; A. Babaev; H. Bärwolff; J. Bán; E. Banas; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; M. Barth; U. Bassler; F. Basti; D. E. Baynham; J.-M. Baze; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; D. Bederede; H.-J. Behrend; C. Beigbeder; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; H. Bergstein; R. Bernard; G. Bernardi; R. Bernet; R. Bernier; U. Berthon; G. Bertrand-Coremans; M. Besançon; R. Beyer; J.-C. Biasci; P. Biddulph; V. Bidoli; E. Binder; P. Binko; J.-C. Bizot; V. Blobel; F. Blouzon; H. Blume; K. Borras; V. Boudry; C. Bourdarios; F. Brasse; W. Braunschweig; D. Breton; H. Brettel; V. Brisson; D. Bruncko; C. Brune; U. Buchner; L. Büngener; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; P. Burmeister; A. Busata; G. Buschhorn; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; F. Charles; M. Charlet; R. Chase; D. Clarke; A. B. Clegg; M. Colombo; V. Commichau; J. F. Connolly; U. Cornett; J. A. Coughlan; A. Courau; M.-C. Cousinou; Ch. Coutures; A. Coville; G. Cozzika; D. A. Cragg; L. Criegee; H. I. Cronström; N. H. Cunliffe; J. Cvach; A. Cyz; S. Dagoret; J. B. Dainton; M. Danilov; A. W. E. Dann; D. Darvill; W. D. Dau; J. David; M. David; R. J. Day; E. Deffur; B. Delcourt; L. Del Buono; F. Descamps; M. Devel; J. P. Dewulf; A. De Roeck; P. Dingus; K. Djidi; C. Dollfus; J. D. Dowell; H. B. Dreis; A. Drescher; U. Dretzler; J. Duboc; A. Ducorps; D. Düllmann; O. Dünger; H. Duhm; B. Dulny; F. Dupont; R. Ebbinghaus; M. Eberle; J. Ebert; T. R. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; B. W. H. Edwards; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; S. Eichenberger; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; N. N. Ellis; R. J. Ellison; E. Elsen; A. Epifantsev; M. Erdmann; W. Erdmann; G. Ernst; E. Evrard; G. Falley; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; D. Feeken; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; Z. Y. Feng; I. F. Fensome; J. Fent; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; K. Finke; K. Flamm; W. Flauger; M. Fleischer; M. Flieser; P. S. Flower; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; B. Fominykh; M. Forbush; J. Formánek; J. M. Foster; G. Franke; E. Fretwurst; W. Fröchtenicht; P. Fuhrmann; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; K. Gadow; K. Gamerdinger; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; E. Gazo; A. Gellrich; M. Gennis; U. Gensch; H. Genzel; R. Gerhards; K. Geske; I. Giesgen; D. Gillespie; W. Glasgow; L. Godfrey; J. Godlewski; U. Goerlach; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; A. M. Goodall; I. Gorelov; P. Goritchev; L. Gosset; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; C. Gregory; H. Greif; M. Grewe; G. Grindhammer; A. Gruber; C. Gruber; S. Günther; J. Haack; M. Haguenauer; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; D. Hammer; O. Hamon; M. Hampel; D. Handschuh; K. Hangarter; E. M. Hanlon; M. Hapke; U. Harder; J. Harjes; P. Hartz; P. E. Hatton; R. Haydar; W. J. Haynes; J. Heatherington; V. Hedberg; C. R. Hedgecock; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; H. Henschel; R. Herma; I. Herynek; W. Hildesheim; P. Hill; D. L. Hill; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; K. C. Hoeger; R. B. Hopes; R. Horisberger; A. Hrisoho; J. Huber; Ph. Huet; H. Hufnagel; N. Huot; J.-F. Huppert; M. Ibbotson; D. Imbault; H. Itterbeck; M.-A. Jabiol; A. Jacholkowska; C. Jacobsson; M. Jaffré; T. Jansen; P. Jean; J. Jeanjean; L. Jönsson; K. Johannsen; D. P. Johnson; L. Johnson; P. Jovanovic; H. Jung; P. I. P. Kalmus; D. Kant; G. Kantel; S. Karstensen; S. Kasarian; R. Kaschowitz; P. Kasselmann; U. Kathage; H. H. Kaufmann; G. Kemmerling; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; W. Ko; T. Kobler; J. Koch; T. Köhler; J. Köhne; M. Kolander; H. Kolanoski; F. Kole; J. Koll; S. D. Kolya; B. Koppitz; V. Korbel; M. Korn; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; F. Krivan; D. Krücker; U. Krüger; U. Krüner-Marquis; M. Kubantsev; J. P. Kubenka; T. Külper; H.-J. Küsel; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kurca; J. Kurzhöfer; B. Kuznik; B. Laforge; F. Lamarche; R. Lander; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; R. Langkau; P. Lanius; J.-F. Laporte; L. Laptin; H. Laskus; A. Lebedev; M. Lemler; U. Lenhardt; A. Leuschner; C. Leverenz; S. Levonian; D. Lewin; Ch. Ley; A. Lindner; G. Lindström; F. Linsel; J. Lipinski; B. Liss; P. Loch; A. B. Lodge; H. Lohmander; G. C. Lopez; J.-P. Lottin; V. Lubimov; K. Ludwig; D. Lüers; N. Lugetski; B. Lundberg; K. Maeshima; N. Magnussen; E. Malinovski; S. Mani; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; J. Martens; F. Martin; G. Martin; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; V. Masbender; S. Masson; A. Mavroidis; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; J. Meissner; D. Mercer; T. Merz; C. A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; S. Mikocki; J. L. Mills; V. Milone; J. Möck; E. Monnier; B. Montés; F. Moreau; J. Moreels; B. Morgan; J. V. Morris; J. M. Morton; K. Müller; P. Murín; S. A. Murray; V. Nagovizin; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; P. Nayman; A. Nepeipivo; P. Newman; D. Newman-Coburn; D. Newton; D. Neyret; H. K. Nguyen; F. Niebergall; C. Niebuhr; R. Nisius; T. Novák; H. Nováková; G. Nowak; G. W. Noyes; M. Nyberg

1997-01-01

285

Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector  

DOEpatents

A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

1987-01-01

286

Characterization of the COS FUV Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes the results derived from the COS calibration Program 12676, "COS/FUV Characterization of Detector Effects". This program surveyed the COS FUV detectors in order to determine the best locations for future science operations. Specifically, these data were used to: 1) derive on orbit bad pixel maps over the accessible region of the FUV detectors, and; 2) derive gain maps which are used to model the expected lifetime of different detector locations

Massa, Derck; Sanhow, David; Ely, Justin; Oliveira, C.; Aloisi, A.; Osten, R.; Proffitt, C.

2013-10-01

287

A CFAR adaptive matched filter detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive algorithm for radar target detection using an antenna array is proposed. The detector is derived in a manner similar to that of the generalized likelihood-ratio test (GLRT) but contains a simplified test statistic that is a limiting case of the GLRT detector. This simplified detector is analyzed for performance to signals on boresight, as well as when the

F. C. Robey; DANIEL R FUHRMANN; EDWARD J. KELLY; RAMON NITZBERG

1992-01-01

288

24 CFR 965.805 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 965.805 Section 965.805 ...PROVISIONS Fire Safety § 965.805 Smoke detectors. (a) Performance requirement...battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector, or such greater number as may...

2009-04-01

289

24 CFR 891.555 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 891.555 Section 891.555 ...Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.555 Smoke detectors. (a) Performance requirement...battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector, in proper working condition, on...

2013-04-01

290

24 CFR 965.805 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 965.805 Section 965.805 ...PROVISIONS Fire Safety § 965.805 Smoke detectors. (a) Performance requirement...battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector, or such greater number as may...

2010-04-01

291

24 CFR 965.805 - Smoke detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke detectors. 965.805 Section 965.805 ...PROVISIONS Fire Safety § 965.805 Smoke detectors. (a) Performance requirement...battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector, or such greater number as may...

2013-04-01

292

A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

2007-01-01

293

The fine grained detector readout electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fine Grained Detector (FGD) readout electronics was designed to record a snapshot of the detector activity before, during and after the neutrino beam spill produced by the J-PARC accelerator complex in Tokai, Japan. The FGD is a key element of T2K near detector currently being constructed. It will act as an active target detecting charged particles produced within its

F. Retière

2010-01-01

294

Present status of the MINOS calibration detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that is comprised of two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab in Chicago and the Soudan mine in Northern Minnesota. A correct energy calibration between the two detectors is crucial for the accurate determination of oscillation parameters. A key role in the detector response calibration programme is played by the Calibration Detector. This

P. S. Miyagawa

2002-01-01

295

Silicon vertex detector for superheavy elements identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon vertex detector for superheavy elements (SHE) identification has been proposed. It will be constructed using very thin silicon detectors about 5 ?m thickness. Results of test of 7.3 ?m four inch silicon strip detector (SSD) with fission fragments and ? particles emitted by 252Cf source are presented

Kordyasz, A. J.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kisieli?ski, M.; Bednarek, A.; Hady?ska-Klek, M.; Wieloch, A.; Sosin, Z.; Atanasov, D.; Sarnecki, J.; Brzozowski, A.; Jagielski, J.; Teodorczyk, M.; Gajewski, M.; Wi?niewska, A.; Krzy?ak, K.; Gawlik, G.; Zagojski, A.

2012-07-01

296

Ion Technique for Identifying Gamma Detector Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent demands for radiation detector materials with better energy resolution at room temperature have prompted research efforts on both accelerated material discovery and efficient analysis techniques. Ions can easily deposit their energy in thin films or small crystals, and the radiation response can be used to identify material properties relevant to detector performance. In an effort to identify gamma detector

Yanwen Zhang; Xia Xiang; Julie L. Rausch; Xiaotao T. Zu; William J. Weber

2009-01-01

297

Detection Limits and Selectivity in Electrochemical Detectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses three aspects of electrochemical detectors: (1) signal and noise generation and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) improvement of qualitative information content, and (3) control of selectivity of the detector. Explains electronic principles of detectors and detection limits. Lists current applications and research. (ML)|

Weber, Stephen G.; Long, John T.

1988-01-01

298

IC-compatible ionizing-radiation detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of MOS ionization dosimetry device, which offers several major advantages over present detectors, is described. This device is fabricated using radiation-hardened CMOS processing technology, allowing integration of the ionization detector with radiation-hardened integrated circuits. The detector can be used as part of a circuit element which either switches state at a precisely controlled radiation level or provides

W. R. Jr. Dawes; J. R. Schwank

1981-01-01

299

LASERMETHANETM — A Portable Remote Methane Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. and Anritsu Corporation jointly developed a new version of a portable remote methane detector. Using this detector, the operator can easily check a gas leak from a distance by hand-scanning the laser beam. To the best of the author's knowledge, an old version of the detector released in 2001 was world's first handheld device providing remote

Takaya Iseki

300

Full Detector Simulation Using SLIC and LCDD  

SciTech Connect

Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) and Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD) provide a flexible and powerful package for full detector simulations. This paper outlines the main features of SLIC and LCDD and explains the structure of an LCDD document used for detector description input.

McCormick, J.; /SLAC

2005-08-18

301

Quantum Opportunities in Gravitational Wave Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Direct observation of gravitational waves should open a new window into the Universe. Gravitational wave detectors are the most sensitive position meters ever constructed. The quantum limit in gravitational wave detectors opens up a whole new field of study. Quantum opportunities in gravitational wave detectors include applications of quantum optics techniques and new tools for quantum measurement on truly macroscopic (human) scales.

Mavalvala, Negris (MIT)

2012-03-14

302

Depth encoding multicrystal detectors for PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detector unit having a depth encoding scheme was designed and an experimental study has been performed to test the new idea for a positron camera detector. The detector unit consists of a multistage rectangular block of scintillation crystals optically coupled at the bottom face to four photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in a 2×2 array or to a position sensitive photomultiplier

H. Murayama; I. Ishibashi; H. Uchida; T. Omura; T. Yamashita

1998-01-01

303

Integrated infrared detectors and readout circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard process for manufacturing mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) involves hybridising detectors onto a readout integrated circuit (ROIC). Wafer scale processing is used to fabricate both the detector arrays and the ROICs. The detectors are usually made by growing epitaxial MCT on to a suitable substrate, which is then diced and hybridised on to the

John W. Cairns; Louise Buckle; Graham J. Pryce; Janet E. Hails; Jean Giess; Mark A. Crouch; David J. Hall; Alan Hydes; Andrew Graham; Andrew J. Wright; Colin J. Hollier; David J. Lees; Neil T. Gordon; Timothy Ashley

2006-01-01

304

Recent results from diamond microstrip detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its promising radiation hardness, fast charge collection and extremely low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high radiation, high temperature and aggressive chemical environments. We have built the first Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for tests in high energy particle beams. These detectors consist

C. Bauer; I. Baumann; C. Colledani; J. Conway; P. Delpierre; F. Djama; W. Dulinski; A. Fallou; K. K. Gan; R. S. Gilmore; E. Grigoriev; G. Hallewell; S. Han; T. Hessing; J. Hrubec; D. Husson; H. Kagan; D. Kania; R. Kass; W. Kinnison; K. T. Knöpfle; M. Krammer; T. J. Llewellyn; P. F. Manfredi; L. S. Pan; H. Pernegger; M. Pernicka; V. Re; S. Roe; A. Rudge; M. Schaeffer; S. Schnetzer; S. Somalwar; V. Speziali; R. Stone; R. J. Tapper; R. Tesarek; W. Trischuk; R. Turchetta; G. B. Thomson; R. Wagner; P. Weilhammer; C. White; M. Zoeller

1995-01-01

305

Radiation hardness studies of CVD diamond detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inherent properties of diamond make it an ideal material for tracking detectors especially in the high rate, high radiation environments of future colliders such as the LHC. In order to survive in this environment, detectors must be radiation hard. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond and performed radiation hardness tests on them. The signal

C. Bauer; I. Baumann; C. Colledani; J. Conway; P. Delpierre; F. Djama; W. Dulinski; A. Fallou; K. K. Gan; R. S. Gilmore; E. Grigoriev; G. Hallewell; S. Han; T. Hessing; K. Honschied; J. Hrubec; D. Husson; H. Kagan; D. Kania; R. Kass; W. Kinnison; K. T. Knöpfle; M. Krammer; T. J. Llewellyn; P. F. Manfredi; L. S. Pan; H. Pernegger; M. Pernicka; R. Plano; V. Re; S. Roe; A. Rudge; M. Schaeffer; S. Schnetzer; S. Somalwar; V. Speziali; R. Stone; R. J. Tapper; R. Tesarek; W. Trischuk; R. Turchetta; G. B. Thomson; R. Wagner; P. Weilhammer; C. White; H. Ziock; M. Zoeller

1995-01-01

306

Physics Capabilities of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article I summarize the physics potential of future atmospheric neutrino detectors. I consider two types of detectors - magnetized iron calorimeter pursued by the INO collaboration and a large volume liquid argon time projection chamber. I discuss the hierarchy and octant sensitivity in these detectors in view of moderately large values of ?13 measured by reactor experiments.

Goswami, Srubabati

2013-04-01

307

Proton irradiation of various resistivity silicon detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future high energy physics experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider will use high precision silicon detectors for tracking purposes. The hadronic component of the radiation received threatens the lifetime of these detectors and it is vital to choose the silicon starting material to maximise the performance and lifetime. Ion-implanted silicon detectors with various initial resistivities and germanium concentrations have been

S. J. Bates; B. Dezillie; C. Furetta; M. Glaser; F. Lemeilleur; E. Leon-Florian

1995-01-01

308

3D silicon strip detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10Neq/cm, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10Neq/cm. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5?m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr?-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

Part Of This Work Is Performed Within The Framework Of Rd50; Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kühn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola; Part of this work is performed within the framework of RD50

2009-06-01

309

Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector are described in this paper. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurement...

P. Bonanos

1990-01-01

310

The ATLAS Detector Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

2012-12-01

311

Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector  

SciTech Connect

Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ? has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

2007-10-09

312

Superconducting detector research at NRL.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has started a new research program on particle and radiation detectors based on the unique properties of superconductors. The work arises from the needs, interests, and capabilities of several NRL groups in the fields of astrophysics, nuclear physics, radiation science, and low-temperature materials. The initial, exploratory research involves a variety of detection techniques including superconducting tunneling junctions, granular thin films, magnetic penetration depth bolometers, and various devices using superheating effects. While the initial goal is to improve the energy resolution of the devices beyond what is available in conventional cooled semiconductor detectors (about 100 eV), the eventual aim is to produce arrays of detecting elements with both position and energy resolution.

Fritz, G. G.; King, S. E.

313

Massively parallel MRI detector arrays.  

PubMed

Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas via reception, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called "ultimate" SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

2013-02-07

314

The Borexino detector: Photomultipliers system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borexino, a real-time device for low energy solar neutrino spectroscopy has completed the construction phase at the middle of 2006 in the underground laboratories at Gran Sasso, Italy. The detector has been filled with 1300 tons of highly purified scintillator and 2400 tons of ultra-pure water as external shield and since May 16th is under data taking. The experimental goal is the direct measurement of the flux of Be7 solar neutrinos of all flavors via neutrino-electron scattering in an ultra-pure scintillation liquid. The poster describes the design of the Borexino detector and the features of the construction phase. It also presents in deep details the photomultiplier detection apparatus: the device electrical performances, the encapsulation design, the mechanical support, the R&D ageing test and finally the 'in situ' installation procedure.

Lombardi, Paolo; Borexino Collaboration

2008-11-01

315

Massively parallel MRI detector arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas via reception, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called "ultimate" SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays.

Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L.

2013-04-01

316

Modeling of CVD Diamond Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond's properties make it a prime candidate for future use in particle detectors such as at the Compact Muon Solenoid at the LHC. Diamond is radiation hard, has a low thermal conductivity, and has a large bandgap. When a fast moving particle passes through the diamond, ionization occurs, leaving a trail of charge carriers in the diamond. By applying an external electric field, these secondary particles are induced to move towards the electrodes. The movement of these charge carriers induces a current, which can be measured. This is the detection mechanism for diamond detectors. A simulation of this detection mechanism was created using GEANT, a platform developed by CERN for simulating the passage of particles through materials. The program uses Monte-Carlo methods to simulate the ionization process through the material. It is capable of tracking each secondary produced. By using this information and the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we are able to simulate the detection mechanism.

Tune, Travis

2011-10-01

317

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

1994-05-03

318

The BiPo detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BiPo detector is intended to measure extremely low radioactive contaminations of 208Tl and 214Bi in very thin layers like the SuperNEMO double beta decay source foils. A modular prototype with 20 capsules (the so-called BiPo1) is running in the Modane Underground Laboratory (France). New approaches based on a more compact geometry (BiPo2) and on the use of the Phoswich technique have been also taken into account and the corresponding prototypes are running at the Modane set-up too. First measurements for samples of interest, with a sensitivity unreachable by Ge detectors, have started. Description of prototypes, results validating the detection techniques and estimates of sensitivity are presented here.

Cebrian, S.; SuperNEMO Collaboration

2010-01-01

319

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

320

Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in

Norbert Wilde; Steve Niederhaus; Hon Lam; Chris Lum

2002-01-01

321

Neutrino Factory Near Detector Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simulation with GENIE MC generator of the Neutrino Factory baseline near detector interaction rates for the purely leptonic process ??+e--->?e+?- and for ??+N-->?-+X scattering in view of measuring the first one and suppressing the second one for neutrino flux estimation. A set of most sensitive measurable quantities are discussed and their selective power against experimental uncertainties is examined.

Karadzhov, Yordan

2010-03-01

322

CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R3B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ˜300MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator – photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma–ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations.

Pietras, B.; Gascón, M.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Bendel, M.; Bloch, T.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I.; Fiori, E.; Gernhäuser, R.; González, D.; Kröll, T.; Le Bleis, T.; Montes, N.; Nácher, E.; Robles, M.; Perea, A.; Vilán, J. A.; Winkel, M.

2013-11-01

323

The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PHENIX (Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment) Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the central magnet (CM) and the muon magnet (MM). Muon identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons. Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status.

Yamamoto, R. M.; Bowers, J. M.; Harvey, A. R.

1995-05-01

324

Antimonide superlattice barrier infrared detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unipolar barriers can block one carrier type but allow the un-impeded flow of the other. They can be used to implement the barrier infra-red detector (BIRD) design for increasing the collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, and reducing dark current generation without impeding photocurrent flow. In particular, the InAs/GaSb/AlSb material system, which can be epitaxially grown on GaSb or InAs substrates, is well suited for implementing BIRD structures, as there is considerable flexibility in forming a variety of alloys and superlattices, and tailoring band offsets. We describe our efforts to achieve high-performance long wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared photodetectors based on the BIRD architecture. Specifically, we report a 10 ?m cutoff device based on a complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design. The detector, without anti-reflection coating, exhibits a responsivity of 1.5 A/W and a dark current density of 1×10-5 A/cm2 at 77K under 0.2 V bias. It reaches 300 K background limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) operation at 101 K, with a black-body BLIP D* value of 2.6×1010 cm-Hz1/2/W for 2? field of view under 0.2 V bias.

Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Nguyen, Jean; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Lee, Michael C.; Yang, Baohau; Gunapala, Sarath D.

2009-08-01

325

The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem  

SciTech Connect

The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status.

Yamamoto, R.M.; Bowers, J.M.; Harvey, A.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-05-19

326

Composite polycrystalline semiconductor neutron detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite polycrystalline semiconductor detectors bound with different binders, both inorganic molten glasses, such as B2O3, PbO/B2O3, Bi2O3/PbO, and organic polymeric binders, such as isotactic polypropylene (iPP), polystyrene or nylon-6, and coated with different metal electrodes were tested at room temperature for ?-particles and very weak thermal neutron sources. The detector materials tested were natural occurring hexagonal BN and cubic LiF, where both are not containing enriched isotopes of 10B or 6Li. The radiation sources were 5.5 MeV ?'s from 241Am, 5.3 MeV from 210Po and also 4.8 MeV from 226Ra. Some of these detectors were also tested with thermal neutrons from very weak 227Ac9Be, 241Am 10Be sources and also from a weak 238Pu+9Be and somewhat stronger 252Cf sources. The neutrons were thermalized with paraffin. Despite very low signal to noise ratio of only ˜2, the neutrons could be counted by subtracting the noise from the signal.

Schieber, M.; Zuck, A.; Marom, G.; Khakhan, O.; Roth, M.; Alfassi, Z. B.

2007-08-01

327

A xenon ionization detector for digital radiography.  

PubMed

Xenon gas x-ray detectors have been used successfully in CT scanners; however, they have been found to be unsuitable for digital radiography. We have designed and built a new type of xenon x-ray detector array and tested its suitability for digital radiography. The detector consists of two parallel plates separated by a 0.5-mm gap, filled with xenon gas at a pressure of about 30 atm. One of the plates is the high-voltage electrode, while the other is a circuit board etched to form an array of metal collector strips focused on the x-ray source. Since there are no metal septa separating the individual detector elements, the dose efficiency of the detector is high, but image degradation will occur due to cross-talk between detector elements. Measurements of the cross-talk show that about an 18% reduction in contrast will occur, when a low contrast object, subtending one detector element, is imaged. We have also measured a detector MTF of 14% at 2 lp/mm, a signal of 10 pC for a 1-mR x-ray exposure at the detector entrance, a 6% nonlinearity in the detector signal over about 3 orders of magnitude in x-ray exposure, and a charge collection time (time response) of about 0.1 ms. From these results it is concluded that this new detector design is feasible for digital radiography. PMID:7087908

Drost, D J; Fenster, A

328

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOEpatents

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

1996-08-20

329

Space mid-IR detectors from DRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detector was invented in the early 1980's and subsequently developed by our team. The original arsenic-doped silicon (Si:As) detectors addressed the need for low-noise, radiation-tolerant, mid-IR detectors for defense surveillance from space. We have since developed large-format BIB focal plane arrays to address high-background requirements of ground-based telescopes and missile interceptors, low-background requirements of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), and very low background requirements of the mid-IR instruments for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and Terrestrial Planet Finder. Most of these applications employ Si:As BIB detectors, but antimony-doped silicon (Si:Sb) BIB detectors are used for some SIRTF bands. Other demonstrated types including phosphorus (Si:P) and gallium-doped (Si:Ga) BIB detectors may have application niches. We have proposed development of a BIB detector type utilizing both Si:As and Si:P layers to optimize dark current vs. wavelength performance. Wavelength response for silicon BIB detectors extend to a maximum of ~40 microns (Si:Sb), but we have also demonstrated germanium BIB detectors for wavelengths extending to several hundred microns. We are currently developing germanium BIB detector arrays for astrophysics applications, including space telescopes beyond NGST.

Hogue, Henry H.; Guptill, Matthew L.; Reynolds, David; Atkins, Ernest W.; Stapelbroek, Maryn G.

2003-03-01

330

Southwest Research Institute intensified detector development capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging detectors for wavelengths between 10 nm and 105 nm generally rely on microchannel plates (MCPs) to provide photon detection (via the photo-electric effect) and charge amplification. This is because silicon-based detectors (CCD or APS) have near zero quantum detection efficiency (QDE) over this wavelength regime. Combining a MCP based intensifier tube with a silicon detector creates a detector system that can be tuned to the wavelength regime of interest for a variety of applications. Intensified detectors are used in a variety of scientific (e.g. Solar Physics) and commercial applications (spectroscopic test instrumentation, night vision goggles, low intensity cameras, etc.). Building an intensified detector requires the mastery of a variety of technologies involved in integrating and testing of these detector systems. We report on an internally funded development program within the Southwest Research Institute to architect, design, integrate, and test intensified imaging detectors for space-based applications. Through a rigorous hardware program the effort is developing and maturing the technologies necessary to build and test a large format (2k × 2k) UV intensified CCD detector. The intensified CCD is designed around a commercially available CCD that is optically coupled to a UV Intensifier Tube from Sensor Sciences, LLC. The program aims to demonstrate, through hardware validation, the ability to architect and execute the integration steps necessary to produce detector systems suitable for space-based applications.

Wilkinson, Erik; Vincent, Michael; Kofoed, Christopher; Andrews, John; Brownsberger, Judith; Siegmund, Oswald

2012-09-01

331

Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the concept of a superlinear threshold detector, a detector that has a higher probability to detect multiple photons if it receives them simultaneously rather than at separate times. Highly superlinear threshold detectors in quantum key distribution systems allow eavesdropping the full secret key without being revealed. Here, we generalize the detector control attack, and analyze how it performs against quantum key distribution systems with moderately superlinear detectors. We quantify the superlinearity in superconducting single-photon detectors based on earlier published data, and gated avalanche photodiode detectors based on our own measurements. The analysis shows that quantum key distribution systems using detector(s) of either type can be vulnerable to eavesdropping. The avalanche photodiode detector becomes superlinear toward the end of the gate. For systems expecting substantial loss, or for systems not monitoring loss, this would allow eavesdropping using trigger pulses containing less than 120 photons per pulse. Such an attack would be virtually impossible to catch with an optical power meter at the receiver entrance.

Lydersen, Lars; Maroey, Oystein; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); University Graduate Center, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 24, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-09-15

332

GaAs detectors for medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray detectors for use with a scanning radiographic device have been developed based on the technique of compensated semi-insulating GaAs. The main detector feature is a linear current-voltage characteristic due to the use of Ohmic contacts. The detector consists of two identical detectors connected to power supplies with different polarities in order to minimize the detector leakage current. Testing of the detectors has been carried out at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The detector was used with the digital X-ray apparatus ``LDRD SIBERIA-N''. The detector parameters have been studied, looking at the dependence with radiation dose, with the applied bias voltage and with the gamma photon energy, using photons in the range of 60-120keV. Images of a test-object were obtained with a resolution of 1.4 line pairs per mm for a detector with 400?m pitch and 2.8 line pairs per mm for a detector with 200?m pitch.

Ayzenshtat, G. I.; Babichev, E. A.; Baru, S. E.; Groshev, V. R.; Savinov, G. A.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Vorobiev, A. P.

2003-08-01

333

Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

Bowden, N. S.

2011-08-01

334

Aging tests of MSGC detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MSGC aging effects have been systematically studied to determine optimal performance in the design framework of the CMS forward tracker. Tests were conducted on prototypes under various operating conditions (glass substrates, Cr or Au strips, Ar-DME or Ne-DME gas mixtures, gas set-up purity, and others), using an X-ray generator for irradiation. The different steps of our investigations are summarized. They demonstrate the complexity of the aging phenomenon as well as the difficulty of getting stable behavior of MSGC detectors under high rates of irradiation.

Boulogne, Isabelle; Daubie, Evelyne; Defontaines, Francis; Grard, Fernand

2003-12-01

335

Detector challenges at the LHC.  

PubMed

The best way to study the existence of the Higgs boson, supersymmetry and grand unified theories, and perhaps the physics of dark matter and dark energy, is at the TeV scale. This is the energy scale that will be explored at the Large Hadron Collider. This machine will generate the energy and rate of collisions that might provide evidence of new fundamental physics. It also brings with it the formidable challenge of building detectors that can record a large variety of detailed measurements in the inhospitable environment close to the collisions points of the machine. PMID:17637659

Stapnes, Steinar

2007-07-19

336

Nanocomposite scintillator, detector, and method  

DOEpatents

A compact includes a mixture of a solid binder and at least one nanopowder phosphor chosen from yttrium oxide, yttrium tantalate, barium fluoride, cesium fluoride, bismuth germanate, zinc gallate, calcium magnesium pyrosilicate, calcium molybdate, calcium chlorovanadate, barium titanium pyrophosphate, a metal tungstate, a cerium doped nanophosphor, a bismuth doped nanophosphor, a lead doped nanophosphor, a thallium doped sodium iodide, a doped cesium iodide, a rare earth doped pyrosilicate, or a lanthanide halide. The compact can be used in a radiation detector for detecting ionizing radiation.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); McKigney, Edward A. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-04-28

337

Neutrino Factory Near Detector Simulation  

SciTech Connect

We present a simulation with GENIE MC generator of the Neutrino Factory baseline near detector interaction rates for the purely leptonic process nu{sub m}u+e{sup -}->nu{sub e}+mu{sup -} and for nu{sub m}u+N->mu{sup -}+X scattering in view of measuring the first one and suppressing the second one for neutrino flux estimation. A set of most sensitive measurable quantities are discussed and their selective power against experimental uncertainties is examined.

Karadzhov, Yordan [Department of Atomic Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria)

2010-03-30

338

High gas flow alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

1996-05-07

339

Hybrid gamma cascade detector system  

SciTech Connect

Emulsion chambers provide a unique opportunity to observe gamma ray sources in the 0.1--10 TeV energy range. A new hybrid detector system is proposed, employing a scintillator ribbon fiber counter system to provide particle arrival time and direction information as well as an energy estimate, supplementing the accurate particle identification and energy determination capabilities of the emulsion chamber. The counter system is intended to be self-contained and undemanding, and will work efficiently in long-duration balloon flights.

Jeffrey Wilkes, R. (Dept. of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA (US))

1991-04-05

340

Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

Leonard, F. L.

2012-03-01

341

Portable Air Flourescence Detector System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and tested a one mirror portable air flourescence detector. The system is placed in two "connex" type shipping containers. One shipping container houses the camera, mirror, and associated electronics and the other contains the control center. It requires no grid power or external network communication to operate. It could be deployed nearly anywhere. This system has been tested in three remote locations. Currently, it is charecterizing atmospheric clarity in the Pahvant Valley Region of central Utah. In this test, the instrument observes scattered light from a vertical calibration laser 36 km away.

Riehle, Robertsen A.

2002-10-01

342

High-performance infrared detectors at Sofradir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of an InfraRed (IR) system is based on a high spatial resolution and on a high thermal resolution. An increase in spatial resolution means an increase in number of pixels, a decrease in detector pitch and an increase in the detector pixel MTF. Regarding thermal resolution increase, it will be achieved mainly by an increase in the maximum quantity of charges which can be stored in the silicon read-out circuits for 2D staring arrays. At present, only cooled detectors answer this need of high performance detectors, such as 2D arrays with TV format resolution and high NETD. In this paper these trends regarding high performance are discussed and recent IRFPA results at Sofradir are presented. Finally, a comparison with uncooled detectors, also processed at Sofradir, is presented, to outline the remaining gap between both types of detectors.

Tribolet, Philippe M.; Chorier, Philippe; Manissadjian, Alain; Costa, Patricia; Chatard, Jean-Pierre

2000-07-01

343

Radiation tests with foxfet biased microstrip detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silicon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN have to survive large particle fluxes up to a few 1014 particles per cm2. These high fluxes cause dramatic changes in the behaviour of the silicon detectors, like inversion of n-type silicon to p-type silicon. Here, we report on the high-voltage behaviour of silicon mictrostrip detectors up to doses of about 1014 particles/cm2, and the changes in the depletion voltage and inter-strip capacitance. The CMS baseline choice for the biasing element of the AC-coupled microstrip detectors is a polysilicon resistor. The silicon detectors, tested here, are Foxfet biased. We measured the changes in the Foxfet characteristics. Such detectors have been reported to show, after irradiation, a noise which is higher than expected. Using a fast amplifier (PREMUX chip), we also measure a higher noise.

Hammarstrom, R.; Kellogg, R.; Mannelli, M.; Piperov, S.; Runolfsson, O.; Schmitt, B.

1998-11-01

344

The CLEO III Silicon Microvertex Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upgrade of the CLEO detector has finished with the installation of the new silicon detector in February 2000. The detector is a four layer barrel-style device with double-sided silicon detectors. It spans the radial distance from 2.5 cm to 10.2 cm and cover 93% of the solid angle surrounding the interaction region. The innermost layer is 16 cm, the outermost is 55 cm long. Important features of the new design are a very small radiation length of the detector material and new front-end electronics to deal with the capacitive load of the long silicon wafer chains. First results of the detector performance will be presented.

Lee, Jik

345

High sensitivity neutron detector for Z  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed, calibrated, and tested a high sensitivity neutron detector that can be operated in the harsh x-ray bremsstrahlung environment that exists in experiments conducted on the 20 MA Z z-pinch facility located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The detector uses a scintillator coupled to a microchannel-plate photomultiplier tube detector and extensive x-ray shielding.

Ruggles, L. E.; Porter, J. L.; Simpson, W. W.; Vargas, M. F.; Zagar, D. M.; Hartke, R.; Buersgens, F.; Symes, D. R.; Ditmire, T.

2004-10-01

346

Development of a Plasma Panel Muon Detector  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detector technology based on Plasma Display Panels (PDP), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays is being investigated. Emerging from this well established television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micropattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally a fast, high resolution detector comprised of an array of plasma discharge cells operating in a hermetically sealed gas mixture. We report on the PPS development effort, including proof-of-principle results of laboratory signal observations.

Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Dai, T. [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University; Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; White, Sebastion [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan

2010-01-01

347

Trends in pixel detectors: tracking and imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

For large-scale applications, hybrid pixel detectors, in which sensor and read-out chip are separate entities, constitute the state of the art in pixel detector technology to date. They have been developed and start to be used as tracking detectors and also imaging devices in radiography, autoradiography, protein crystallography and in X-ray astronomy. A number of trends and possibilities for future

Norbert Wermes

2004-01-01

348

The CDF Run II Silicon Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the CDF particle physics detector, the precision tracking and vertexing is performed by the silicon detector. It is a 722,432 channel device with ap7 m2 of silicon sensors. It continues to operate well and is used in routine data taking. However this detector operates in the harsh radiation environment of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The effects of long term

A. Mitr

2006-01-01

349

The precision tracker of the OPERA detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precision Tracker of the muon spectrometer of the OPERA detector consists of ?10000 aluminum drift tubes of 8m length. They have an outer diameter of 38mm and a wall thickness of 0.85mm. The challenge of the detector design originates from the 8m length of the drift tubes, a detector length, which has not been used before. Tight mechanical tolerances

R. Zimmermann; J. Ebert; C. Hagner; B. Koppitz; V. Saveliev; W. Schmidt-Parzefall; J. Sewing; Y. Zaitsev

2005-01-01

350

High-resolution electronic particle detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-energy physics currently presents a heavy demand on high-accuracy particle detectors in the micrometer or tens of micrometer range. The most important developments in the measurement of momenta of charged particles in detectors being used around high-energy colliders are based on solid-state or gaseous electronics and are the subject of this review. In the field of gaseous detectors, it appears

Georges Charpak; Fabio Sauli

1984-01-01

351

School Cosmic Ray Outreach Detector (SCROD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our studies of applying novel detector technologies developed for LHC-era experiments to cosmic ray detection. In particular, we are investigating usage of scintillating tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers and avalanche photodiode readout as part of a robust, inexpensive cosmic air shower detector. In the near future, we are planning to deploy detector stations based on this technology at area high schools and colleges as part of an outreach and education effort, known as SCROD.

Anchordoqui, L.; Cook, J.; MacLeod, J.; McCauley, T.; Moussienko, I.; Paul, T.; Reucroft, S.; Swain, J.; Terry, R.

352

Astronomical polarimeter with 2-D detector arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how fast (50-100 kHz) piezoelastic modulation of the full Stokes vector can be used in combination with large CCD-type detector arrays with long integration times. The technique is to use an optical demodulation system (replacing the lockin amplifiers in corresponding single-channel detector systems). This allows the CCD detectors to be used with integration times and readout rates

J. O. Stenflo; Hanspeter Povel

1985-01-01

353

Performance of the GRETA prototype detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A working, two-dimensionally segmented Ge detector is one of the crucial elements in the development of GRETA – a next-generation 4? germanium detector array that uses three-dimensional positions and energies to of individual interactions of ? rays in the detector to reconstruct the full energies and direction vectors of the individual ? rays by employing tracking algorithms. The three-dimensional position

K. Vetter; A. Kuhn; I. Y. Lee; R. M. Clark; M. Cromaz; M. A. Deleplanque; R. M. Diamond; P. Fallon; A. O. Macchiavelli; M. R. Maier; F. S. Stephens; C. E. Svensson; H. Yaver

2000-01-01

354

Active microphonic noise cancellation in radiation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new adaptive filtering technique to reduce microphonic noise in radiation detectors is presented. The technique is based on system identification that actively cancels the microphonic noise. A sensor is used to measures mechanical disturbances that cause vibration on the detector assembly, and the digital adaptive filtering estimates the impact of these disturbances on the microphonic noise. The noise then can be subtracted from the actual detector measurement. In this paper the technique is presented and simulations are used to support this approach.

Zimmermann, Sergio

2013-11-01

355

Low-noise preamplifier for photoconductive detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance infrared detectors such as arsenic-doped silicon (Si:As) and bismuth-doped silicon (Si:Bi) have been successfully used in ground-based infrared telescope systems in the 2–20 ?m range. Optimum performance (BLIP operation) of these detectors is obtained by using a special feedback amplifier. The advantages of such a system are discussed in conjunction with preliminary data on Si:As and Si:Bi detectors.

E. L. Dereniak; R. R. Joyce; R. W. Capps

1977-01-01

356

Digital detectors for mammography: the technical challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the different techniques available and competing for full-field digital mammography. The detectors are described in their principles: photostimulable storage phosphor plates inserted as a cassette in a conventional mammography unit, dedicated active matrix detectors (i.e., flat-panel, thin-film transistor-based detectors) and scanning systems, using indirect and direct X-ray conversion. The main parameters that characterize the performances of the

A. Noel; F. Thibault

2004-01-01

357

Dead Layers in Charged-Particle Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of dead-layer thickness measurements on silicon surface-barrier and ion-implanted detectors and a comparison of various methods for measuring dead-layer thicknesses. Our experimental arrangement and estimates of experimental error are discussed. Data on dead-layer thicknesses of n-type and p-type surface-barrier detectors and boron-implanted position-sensitive detectors are given. A linear relation was observed between the dead-layer thickness

E. Elad; C. N. Inskeep; R. A. Sareen; P. Nestor

1973-01-01

358

ATLAS Inner Detector Event Data Model  

SciTech Connect

The data model for event reconstruction (EDM) in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment is presented. Different data classes represent evolving stages in the reconstruction data flow, and specific derived classes exist for the sub-detectors. The Inner Detector EDM also extends the data model for common tracking in ATLAS and is integrated into the modular design of the ATLAS high-level trigger and off-line software.

ATLAS; Akesson, F.; Costa, M.J.; Dobos, D.; Elsing, M.; Fleischmann, S.; Gaponenko, A.; Gnanvo, K.; Keener, P.T.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.; Siebel, M.; Wildauer, A.

2007-12-12

359

The Ibis-Picsit detector onboard Integral  

Microsoft Academic Search

PICsIT is the high-energy detector layer of the IBIS Imager, composed of 4096 CsI(Tl) scintillator detectors 8.4 x 8.4x 300 mm in size with PhotoDiode readout. The detector operates in the 175 keV-20.4 MeV range and its data generation modes make it possible to collect information from single events and multiple coincident events. PICsIT is surrounded by the active BGO

C. Labanti; G. Di Cocco; G. Ferro; F. Gianotti; A. Mauri; E. Rossi; J. B. Stephen; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio

2003-01-01

360

Status of the DEAP-3600 Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment, part of the DEAP/CLEAN program, is a single-phase liquid argon detector currently under construction at SNOLAB. The detector will contain 3600 kg of argon, giving it a target sensitivity of 10-46 cm^2 for spin-independent dark matter scattering on nucleons. I will discuss the highlights of our research and development efforts as well as the design and construction status of the full detector.

Sonley, Thomas

2012-03-01

361

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time is described. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by uv photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the uv photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector. 4 figs.

Huston, G.C.

1989-11-27

362

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

1992-01-01

363

The CMD2 cryogenic magnetic detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CMD-2 cryogenic magnetic detector used in a set of experiments on the VEPP-2M electron-positron collider at energies as\\u000a great as 1.4 GeV is described. The design of the detector subsystems and the algorithms for reconstructing tracks in the drift\\u000a chamber and the CsI and BGO calorimeters are presented. The spatial and energy resolutions of the detector systems have been

E. V. Anashkin; V. M. Aul’chenko; R. R. Akhmetshin; V. Sh. Banzarov; L. M. Barkov; S. E. Baru; N. S. Bashtovoi; D. V. Bondarev; A. E. Bondar’; A. V. Bragin; N. I. Gabyshev; D. A. Gorbachev; A. A. Grebenyuk; D. N. Grigor’ev; D. A. Epifanov; I. V. Zhuravkov; V. G. Zavarzin; A. S. Zaitsev; S. G. Zverev; F. V. Ignatov; V. F. Kazanin; S. V. Karpov; G. M. Kolachev; P. P. Krokovnyi; A. S. Kuz’min; I. B. Logashenko; P. A. Lukin; K. Yu. Mikhailov; V. A. Monich; M. A. Nikulin; A. B. Nomerotskii; V. S. Okhapkin; S. G. Pivovarov; A. S. Popov; T. A. Purlats; S. I. Redin; N. M. Ryskulov; A. A. Ruban; A. L. Sibidanov; V. P. Smakhtin; A. N. Skrinskii; I. G. Snopkov; E. P. Solodov; P. Yu. Stepanov; A. I. Sukhanov; V. M. Titov; V. E. Fedorenko; G. V. Fedotovich; B. I. Khazin; A. G. Shamov; Yu. M. Shatunov; B. A. Shvarts; B. N. Shuvalov; D. V. Chernyak; S. I. Eidel’man; Yu. V. Yudin

2006-01-01

364

Recirculating cross-correlation detector  

DOEpatents

A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

1985-01-18

365

Neutron detector resolution for scattering  

SciTech Connect

A resolution function has been determined for scattered neutron experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). This function accounts for the shifting and broadening of the resonance peak due to the additional path length, traveled by the neutron after scattering and prior to detection, along with the broadening of the resonance peak due to the bounce target. This resolution function has been parameterized both in neutron energy and size of the sample disk. Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon (MCNP) modeling has been used to determine the shape of the detector resolution function while assuming that the sample nucleus has an infinite mass. The shape of the function for a monoenergetic neutron point source has been compared to the analytical solution. Additionally, the parameterized detector resolution function has been used to broaden the scatter yield calculated from Evaluated Neutron Data File ENDF/B-VI cross section data for {sup 238}U. The target resolution function has been empirically determined by comparison of the broadened scatter yield and the experimental yield for {sup 238}U. The combined resolution function can be inserted into the SAMMY code to allow resonance analysis for scattering measurements.

Kolda, S.A. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1997-03-01

366

BF3 Neutron Detector Tests  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world; thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and detection capabilities are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the efficiency of BF3 tubes at a pressure of 800 torr. These measurements were made partially to validate models of the RPM system that have been modified to simulate the performance of BF3-filled tubes. While BF3 could be a potential replacement for 3He, there are limitations to its use in deployed systems.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2009-12-09

367

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

Voigtman, Edward G. (Gainesville, FL); Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jurgensen, Arthur R. (Gainesville, FL)

1983-01-01

368

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

1983-11-08

369

The FPGA Pixel Array Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proposed design for a reconfigurable x-ray Pixel Array Detector (PAD) is described. It operates by integrating a high-end commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA) into a 3-layer device along with a high-resistivity diode detection layer and a custom, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) layer. The ASIC layer contains an energy-discriminating photon-counting front end with photon hits streamed directly to the FPGA via a massively parallel, high-speed data connection. FPGA resources can be allocated to perform user defined tasks on the pixel data streams, including the implementation of a direct time autocorrelation function (ACF) with time resolution down to 100 ns. Using the FPGA at the front end to calculate the ACF reduces the required data transfer rate by several orders of magnitude when compared to a fast framing detector. The FPGA-ASIC high-speed interface, as well as the in-FPGA implementation of a real-time ACF for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments has been designed and simulated. A 16×16 pixel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated and is being tested.

Hromalik, Marianne S.; Green, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

2013-02-01

370

Saturation of CVD Diamond Detectors  

SciTech Connect

A 5 x 0.25 mm Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond detector, with a voltage bias of + 250V, was excited by a 400 nm laser (3.1 eV photons) in order to study the saturation of the wafer and its surrounding electronics. In a first experiment, the laser beam energy was increased from a few tens of a pJ to about 100 µJ, and the signal from the diamond was recorded until full saturation of the detection system was achieved. Clear saturation of the detection system was observed at about 40 V, which corresponds with the expected saturation at 10% of the applied bias (250V). The results indicate that the interaction mechanism of the 3.1 eV photons in the diamond (Ebandgap = 5.45 eV) is not a multi-photon process but is linked to the impurities and defects of the crystal. In a second experiment, the detector was irradiated by a saturating first laser pulse and then by a delayed laser pulse of equal or smaller amplitude with delays of 5, 10, and 20 ns. The results suggest that the diamond and associated electronics recover within 10 to 20 ns after a strong saturating pulse.

Lucile S. Dauffy; Richard A. Lerche; Greg J. Schmid; Jeffrey A. Koch; Christopher Silbernagel

2005-01-01

371

STJ detectors for protein detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has become an essential spectrometry for a research field of bioscience. However, the mass limit of the conventional TOF-MS spectrometer frequently prevent us from measuring the mass values for large biomolecules without chemical or enzymatic digestion. Overcoming the circumstance, a TOF-MS instrument with superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors (Super TOF-MS) were developed. The direct observation of the kinetic energy for each ion by Super TOF-MS leads to the two considerable capabilities: the observation of large proteins up to 1 MDa and the ionic charge-state discrimination of them, which are impossible with conventional ion detectors. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the these advantages of Super TOF-MS is a powerful tool at performing a fragment analysis of, for example, immunoglobulin G (IgG) which is a large protein playing a key role in an immune system.

Kobayashi, Y.; Ukibe, M.; Chiba-Kamoshida, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Shiki, S.; Suzuki, K.; Ohkubo, M.

2008-09-01

372

Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at the University of Liverpool. A 137Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented.

Nelson, L.; Dimmock, M. R.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.

2007-04-01

373

Neutron detector characterization for SCINTIA array  

SciTech Connect

SCINTIA is a new detector array of organic scintillators under development at the Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). The present design of SCINTIA includes NE213, p-terphenyl and Li glass neutron detectors positioned in a spherical configuration around the target. The properties of a novel p-terphenyl neutron detector to be used with SCINTIA have been investigated using photon sources and neutrons from a time tagged {sup 252}Cf(sf) source. The results show that the p-terphenyl crystal has better energy resolution, increased proton light output and neutron efficiency when compared to a similar size NE213 equivalent neutron detector. (authors)

Matei, C.; Hambsch, F. J.; Oberstedt, S. [EC-JRC - Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

2011-07-01

374

The H1 detector at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General aspects of the H1 detector at the electron-proton storage ring HERA as well as technical descriptions of the magnet, luminosity system, trigger, slow-control, data acquisition and off-line data handling are given. The three major components of the detector, the tracking, calorimeter and muon detectors, will be described in a forthcoming article. The present paper describes the detector that was used from 1992 to the end of 1994. After this a major upgrade of some components was undertaken. Some performance figures from luminosity runs at HERA during 1993 and 1994 are given.

Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arnault, C.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Banas, E.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Basti, F.; Baynham, D. E.; Baze, J.-M.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Bederede, D.; Behrend, H.-J.; Beigbeder, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernard, R.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bernier, R.; Berthon, U.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biasci, J.-C.; Biddulph, P.; Bidoli, V.; Binder, E.; Binko, P.; Bizot, J.-C.; Blobel, V.; Blouzon, F.; Blume, H.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Breton, D.; Brettel, H.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchner, U.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, P.; Busata, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Charlet, M.; Chase, R.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Commichau, V.; Connolly, J. F.; Cornett, U.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Coutures, Ch.; Coville, A.; Cozzika, G.; Cragg, D. A.; Criegee, L.; Cronström, H. I.; Cunliffe, N. H.; Cvach, J.; Cyz, A.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Darvill, D.; Dau, W. D.; David, J.; David, M.; Day, R. J.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; del Buono, L.; Descamps, F.; Devel, M.; Dewulf, J. P.; de Roeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Djidi, K.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Dretzler, U.; Duboc, J.; Ducorps, A.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Dulny, B.; Dupont, F.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Edwards, B. W. H.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Epifantsev, A.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Ernst, G.; Evrard, E.; Falley, G.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Feng, Z. Y.; Fensome, I. F.; Fent, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Finke, K.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flower, P. S.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fröchtenicht, W.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gadow, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gažo, E.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Gensch, U.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Geske, K.; Giesgen, I.; Gillespie, D.; Glasgow, W.; Godfrey, L.; Godlewski, J.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Gosset, L.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregory, C.; Greif, H.; Grewe, M.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Günther, S.; Haack, J.; Haguenauer, M.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hammer, D.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Handschuh, D.; Hangarter, K.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, U.; Harjes, J.; Hartz, P.; Hatton, P. E.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Hedgecock, C. R.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hill, D. L.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Hopes, R. B.; Horisberger, R.; Hrisoho, A.; Huber, J.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Huppert, J.-F.; Ibbotson, M.; Imbault, D.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffré, M.; Jansen, T.; Jean, P.; Jeanjean, J.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jovanovic, P.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kantel, G.; Karstensen, S.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kemmerling, G.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Kobler, T.; Koch, J.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Koll, J.; Kolya, S. D.; Koppitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krivan, F.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, U.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubenka, J. P.; Külper, T.; Küsel, H.-J.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Laforge, B.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J.-F.; Laptin, L.; Laskus, H.; Lebedev, A.; Lemler, M.; Lenhardt, U.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Liss, B.; Loch, P.; Lodge, A. B.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lottin, J.-P.; Lubimov, V.; Ludwig, K.; Lüers, D.; Lugetski, N.; Lundberg, B.; Maeshima, K.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, F.; Martin, G.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masbender, V.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.

1997-02-01

375

Correlation measurements with on-off detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general method to detect nonclassical radiation fields with systems of on-off detectors. We especially study higher order correlations for the identification of nonclassical radiation. This allows us to directly characterize quantum correlations by the statistics measured with systems of on-off detectors. Additionally, we generalize our method to multiple detector systems for measurements of correlations between light fields. We also consider multimode radiation fields and isolate nonclassicality in terms of the space time correlations. Finally, we present results for the quantum statistics using on-off detectors operating in nonlinear detection modes.

Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.; Agarwal, G. S.

2013-10-01

376

Silicon tracking detectors—historical overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor detectors have been known for more than 50 years, however their tracking capabilities, exhibiting spatial resolution in the 5 10 ?m range, began to be explored only in the beginning of the 1980s, when experimental physics began to search for detectors to measure short-living particles. The introduction of planar technology provided a boost to the industrial production and use of silicon strip detectors. The next essential step came with the development of a dedicated VLSI readout, which allowed for integration of detectors and electronics. Efforts towards obtaining two-dimensional detectors were initiated right from the beginning, with CCD devices being the subject of early investigation. A second line of development involved pixel devices with thick sensitive layers—they began to be successfully implemented in experiments towards the end of the 1990s. Radiation effects in detectors and electronics were recognized early, however it took many years to understand the physics of radiation damage—currently, we possess detectors and electronics capable of surviving doses of 10 Mrad and fluxes of 1014 neutrons/cm2, or higher. Nowadays, all particle physics spectrometers have inbuilt vertex detectors, which deliver excellent results. The application of silicon tracking detectors has expanded to nuclear physics, solid-state physics, astrophysics, biology and medicine.

Turala, M.

2005-04-01

377

The status of detectors at the SSC  

SciTech Connect

The announcement of the location of the SSC at the site near Waxahachie, Texas was made in January, 1989. Since then a great many important steps have been taken toward the start of the new Laboratory. Some 900 people have been brought to the site as the starting nucleus of the staff that will ultimate number about 2200. A design baseline has been completed that includes a conceptual design for the accelerator, and the detectors. Also, the process has begun to determine the configuration of detectors that will be built for the SSC. This process has several steps, and now the first of these has been taken: The detector collaborations have submitted the Expression of Interest to the Laboratory. These were reviewed by Laboratory management and the Physics Advisory Committee in July, 1990 and recommendations were made to the collaborations. Decisions were deferred for all of the detectors. But perhaps the most significant recommendation was the request to reduce the size and cost of the general purpose detectors. The detector collaborations are now reviewing their initial designs to prepare for the Letters of Intent, the next step in the detector planning process. This is clearly a difficult and crucial step in that the redesign of the detectors must be done with minimal reduction in detector quality. It is an interesting time in the development of the new laboratory, and a crucial time for the ultimate physics that will be done at the SSC.

Stefanski, R.

1990-09-01

378

Radiation experience with the CDF silicon detectors  

SciTech Connect

The silicon detectors of the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider are operated in a harsh radiation environment. The lifetime of the silicon detectors is limited by radiation damage, and beam-related incidents are an additional risk. This article describes the impact of beam-related incidents on detector operation and the effects of radiation damage on electronics noise and the silicon sensors. From measurements of the depletion voltage as a function of the integrated luminosity, estimates of the silicon detector lifetime are derived.

Husemann, Ulrich; /Rochester U.

2005-11-01

379

Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV (at 1 keV) and 5 eV (at 7 keV), creating some overlap with part of the NFI 1 energy window. Both narrow field imagers have a 0.5 arcmin field of view. Their imaging capabilities are matched to the XEUS optics of 2 to 5 arcsec leading to 1 arcsec pixels. The detector arrays will be cooled by a closed cycle system comprising a mechanical cooler with a base temperature of 2.5 K and either a low temperature 3He sorption pump providing the very low temperature stage and/or an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). The ADR cooler is explicitly needed to cool the NFI 2 array. The narrow field imager 1} Currently a 48 times 48 element array of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) is envisaged. Its operating temperature is in the range between 30 and 350 mK. Small, single Ta STJs (20-50 mum on a side) have shown 3.5 eV (FWHM) resolution at E = 525 eV and small arrays have been successfully demonstrated (6 times 6 pixels), or are currently tested (10 times 12 pixels). Alternatively, a prototype Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID), consisting of a linear superconducting Ta absorber of 20 times 100 mum2, including a 20 times 20 mum STJ for readout at either end, has shown a measured energy resolution of 2.4 eV (FWHM) at E = 500 eV. Simulations involving the diffusion properties as well as loss and tunnel rates have shown that the performance can be further improved by slight modifications in the geometry, and that the size of the DROIDS can be increased to 0.5-1.0 mm without loss in energy resolution. The relatively large areas and good energy resolution compared to single STJs make DROIDS good candidates for the basic elements of the NFI 1 detector array. With a DROID-based array of 48 times 10 elements covering the NFI 1 field of view of 0.5 arcmin, the number of signal wires would already be reduced by a factor 2.4 compared to a 48 times 48 array of single pixels. While the present prototype DROIDS are still covered with a 480 nm thick SiOx insulation layer, this layer could easily be reduced in thickness or omitted. The detection efficiency of such a device with a 500 nm thick Ta absorber would be >80% in the energy range of 100-3000eV, without any disturbing contributions from other layers as in single STJs. Further developments involve devices of lower Tc-superconductors for better energy resolution and faster diffusion (e.g. Mo). The narrow field imager 2 The NFI 2 will consist of an array of 32 times 32 detector pixels. Each detector is a microcalorimeter which consists of a a superconducting to normal phase transition edge thermometer (transition edge sensor, TES) with an operating temperature of 100 mK, and an absorber which allows a detection efficiency of >90% and a filling factor of the focal plane in excess of 90%. Single pixel microcalorimeters with a Ti/Au TES have already shown an energy resolution of 3.9 eV at 5.89 keV in combination with a thermal response time of 100 mus. These results imply that they the high-energy requirement for XEUS can be met, in terms of energy resolution and response time. It has been demonstrated that bismuth can be applied as absorber material without impeding on the detector performance. Bi increases the stopping power in excess of 90 % and allows for a high filling factor since the absorber is can be modeled in the shape of a mushroom, allowing that the wiring to the detector and the thermal support structure are placed under the hat of the mushroom. In order to realize the NFI 2 detector array, there are two major development areas. Firstly, there is the development of micromachined Si and SiN structures that will provide proper cooling for each of the pixels and the production of small membranes to support the

Hoevers, H.; Verhoeve, P.

380

Two-Detector Mode MGA Analysis of Plutonium using Single Ge Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium gamma-ray data analysis using MGA in the two-detector mode can provide information more refined than the gamma-ray analysis using MGA in the one-detector mode. Prior to the introduction of the new type of ORTEC coaxial detector, which has good r...

2001-01-01

381

X-Ray Detector: An x-ray radiation detector design code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-Ray Detector (XRD) is an x-ray detector design code. It is intended to aid in the rapid design of x-ray detector packages. The design capabilities of XRD include filters, x-ray mirrors, x-ray diodes, silicon PIN diodes, GaAs PIN diodes, photoconducting ...

R. B. Spielman

1990-01-01

382

Far-Infrared Detectors for CLARREO Interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic-doped Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors are a mature detector technology for the infrared spectral range of 5 to 28 micrometers for low-background astronomy [Spitzer, ISO, WISE, JWST, and other observatories] and for higher-background astronomy from terrestrial telescopes. These detectors operate below 10 K (typically using cryogenic cooling) and achieve detectivity, bandwidth, and linearity performance at least an order of magnitude over uncooled detectors such as pyroelectrics or bolometers. To address specific requirements for long-duration, full-spectrum Earth radiance studies, a joint development effort between DRS Technologies and NASA Langley Research Center has now extended BIB detector wavelength sensitivity to at least 50 micrometers and raised operating temperature above 10 K for long-duration orbital operation with existing space-capable cryocoolers. In parallel DRS has demonstrated a large-area BIB detector design with negligible internal losses and gains for use in a 99.9% QE, two-detector light trap for a Fourier Transform Spectrometer application. The application of BIB detectors with these improved features to CLARREO provides major benefits: 1) Light trapping combined with high internal QE detectors results in instrument spectral radiance results that are insensitive to operating environment variations or radiation induced drift in detector characteristics over orbital lifetime. 2) Order-of-magnitude improved detectivity allows order-of-magnitude reduction in the time to acquire an interferogram - significantly reducing scene smear associated with the time of flight over the Earth. These improvements in detector capability enable the most accurate and precise full Earth spectrum radiance measurements.

Hogue, H. H.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Muzilla, M. S.

2008-12-01

383

Amorphous Silicon Based Neutron Detector  

SciTech Connect

Various large-scale neutron sources already build or to be constructed, are important for materials research and life science research. For all these neutron sources, neutron detectors are very important aspect. However, there is a lack of a high-performance and low-cost neutron beam monitor that provides time and temporal resolution. The objective of this SBIR Phase I research, collaboratively performed by Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE), the University of Toledo (UT) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is to demonstrate the feasibility for amorphous silicon based neutron beam monitors that are pixilated, reliable, durable, fully packaged, and fabricated with high yield using low-cost method. During the Phase I effort, work as been focused in the following areas: 1) Deposition of high quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) at high deposition rate and with low device shunting; 2) Fabrication of Si/SiO2/metal/p/i/n/metal/n/i/p/metal/SiO2/ device for the detection of alpha particles which are daughter particles of neutrons through appropriate nuclear reactions; and 3) Testing of various devices fabricated for alpha and neutron detection; As the main results: · High quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films have been successfully deposited using VHF PECVD on various low-cost substrates; · Various single-junction and double junction detector devices have been fabricated; · The detector devices fabricated have been systematically tested and analyzed. · Some of the fabricated devices are found to successfully detect alpha particles. Further research is required to bring this Phase I work beyond the feasibility demonstration toward the final prototype devices. The success of this project will lead to a high-performance, low-cost, X-Y pixilated neutron beam monitor that could be used in all of the neutron facilities worldwide. In addition, the technologies developed here could be used to develop X-ray and neutron monitors that could be used in the future for security checks at the airports and other critical facilities. The project would lead to devices that could significantly enhance the performance of multi-billion dollar neutron source facilities in the US and bring our nation to the forefront of neutron beam sciences and technologies which have enormous impact to materials, life science and military research and applications.

Xu, Liwei

2004-12-12

384

High P/sub T/ detectors for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

Summarized in this report is some of the work done at the recent Workshop on Experiments, Detectors, and Experimental Areas for the Supercollider held at Berkeley. The major goal was to develop an understanding of what complement of detectors would provide the capability for a well-balanced physics program at the SSC. Unlike earlier studies which had emphasized individual components such as tracking, calorimetry, etc., the intention was to focus on complete detectors. The particular detectors discussed in this paper are: the large solenoid detectors, the compact solenoid detectors, the non-magnetic detectors, the dipole detectors and muon detectors. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs. (LSP)

Trilling, G.H.

1987-11-01

385

Neutron detectors for active interrogation of highly enriched uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the results of our effort to optimize three neutron detector systems for active interrogation of highly enriched uranium: 1) a large-area detector for maximum total efficiency, 2) modular detectors for maximum flexibility in configuring a detector system for an application, and 3) a portable detector. All three systems contained He tubes, polyethylene to moderate the neutrons, and cadmium

C. E. Moss; C. A. Goulding; C. L. Hollas; W. L. Myers

2003-01-01

386

Neutron detectors for active interrogation of highly enriched uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the results of our effort to optimize three neutron detector systems for active interrogation of highly enriched uranium: 1) a large-area detector for maximum absolute efficiency; 2) modular detectors for maximum flexibility in configuring a detector system for an application; and 3) a portable detector. All three systems contained 3He tubes, polyethylene to moderate the neutrons, and cadmium

C. E. Moss; C. A. Goulding; C. L. Hollas; W. L. Myers

2004-01-01

387

Predicted performance of a prototype solar neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operating characteristics of a solar neutron detector designed to observe neutrons produced in solar flares are presented. The detector's performance is predicted using Monte Carlo computer simulations. The detector system has a very high efficiency in comparison to other types of neutron detectors and it is capable of measuring the neutron's energy accurately. The detector consists of a neutron

Geoffrey Nelson Pendleton

1988-01-01

388

Ion chamber gamma burst detector  

SciTech Connect

A gamma ray burst detector of x-ray photons 2 to 10 keV is designed to maximize area, 100 m/sup 2/, and sensitivity, 10/sup -10/ ergs cm/sup -2/ s/sup 1/2/ modest directionality, 2 x 10/sup -4/ sr, and minimize thickness, 3 mg cm/sup -2/, as a plastic space balloon ion chamber. If the log N - log S curve for gamma bursts extends as the -3/2 power, the sensitivity is limited by gamma-burst peak overlap in time so that the question of the size spectrum and isotropy is maximally tested. Supernova type I prompt x-ray bursts of congruent to 3-ms duration should be detected at a rate of several per day from supernova at a distance greater than 100 Mpc.

Colgate, S.A.

1981-08-25

389

Satellite surface gas component detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite Surface Contamination (OSC) has unneglectable effects on solar-array output power, connections between solar-array, thermal blanket's functions, payloads' and optical sensors' performances onboard the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites (especially long lifetime satellites). It can even influence their actual life. There are many kinds of examples in our country and overseas. In order to ensure satellites for long time working normally, we have set out to monitor and analyze the satellite surface gas. To be an effective instrument, Satellite Surface Gas Component Detector (SSGCD) is used to monitor the "in-situ" surface gas for the emergence and the variety with the change of time and position, as well as to monitor and identify the gas component and its density. Through the data processing with Ground Data Processing Unit (GDPU), we can evaluate the degree of the influence resulted from OSC, and provide services for orbital fault analysis and disposal.

Zeng, Hong; Qin, GuoTai; Zhang, Long

2008-11-01

390

Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors  

SciTech Connect

This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved.

Hoekstra, P.

1996-04-01

391

TTC distribution for LHC detectors  

SciTech Connect

At each of the CERN LHC experiments, timing, trigger and control (TTC) signals must be distributed to numerous electronic systems from a single location in the vicinity of the central trigger processor. A multichannel optical distribution system has been developed which can broadcast the signals to several thousand destinations from a few relatively high power laser sources over a passive optical fiber network with uncontrolled path lengths. The system delivers the LHC timing reference and first-level trigger decisions with the corresponding bunch and event numbers. It incorporates facilities to compensate for particle flight times and detector, electronics and propagation delays. In addition it provides for the simultaneous transmission of synchronized broadcast commands and individually-addressed controls and parameters, such as channel masks and calibration data.

Taylor, B.G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

1998-06-01

392

SWS-Detector Glitch Effect Correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe how the ISO-SWS (Infrared Space Observatory – Short Wavelength Spectrometer) software packages detect various glitch events i.e. high energy particle hits effecting the SWS detectors. A rough classification of glitch types is given. The events cause an instantaneous change in the slope of the SWS detector read outs followed by a distortion of the further samples, so called

E. Wieprecht; E. Wiezorrek; L. Haser

2000-01-01

393

Asymptotic efficiency of linear multiuser detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demodulation of data streams transmitted synchronously by several users over a Gaussian multiple access channel is considered. Each user modulates a different signal from a linearly independent signal set. The asymptotic efficiency criterion is used to evaluate the perfomance of different detection rules. The two currently most important detectors are presented and compared: the optimum multiuser detector whose complexity is

Ruxandra Lupas-Golaszewski; Sergio Verdu

1986-01-01

394

Low-noise techniques in detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We concentrate in this review on the fundamentals of low-noise techniques and on understanding the limits in the charge signal measurements. Charge collection and signal formation in detectors, the origin and properties of noise, noise and amplification of charge, and detectors and signal processing are discussed. (AIP)

V. Radeka

1988-01-01

395

In situ calibration of TFTR neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results of the TFTR fission detector calibration performed in December 1988. A NBS-traceable, remotely controlled 252Cf neutron source was moved toroidally through the TFTR vacuum vessel. Detection efficiencies for two 235U detectors were measured for 930 locations of the neutron point source in toroidal scans at 16 different major radii and vertical heights. These scans effectively simulated the

H. W. Hendel; R. W. Palladino; Cris W. Barnes; M. Diesso; J. S. Felt; D. L. Jassby; L. C. Johnson; L.-P. Ku; Q. P. Liu; R. W. Motley; H. B. Murphy; J. Murphy; E. B. Nieschmidt; J. A. Roberts; T. Saito; R. J. Waszazak; K. M. Young

1990-01-01

396

Some recent developments in particle detectors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the recent developments in particle detectors, the emphasis is on those based on the detection of ultraviolet or vacuum ultraviolet photons. The combination of wire chambers and photoionizable vapours, or photocathodes obtained by the condensation of such vapours, permits the building of a new class of Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detectors and BaF2 calorimeters.

Charpak, G.

1983-08-01

397

Fundamental study of impact ionization plasma detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact ionization plasma detectors are commonly used for cosmic dust research on board spacecraft. There seems to be no scientific background on their shape, area, and applied high voltage; they are determined empirically. To design a dust detector having large aperture and lightweight to collect dust effectively for the future mission, we are to study fundamental physics of dust impact

H. Ohashi; K. Muranaga; S. Sasaki; K. Nogami; H. Shibata

2004-01-01

398

Metal Detectors and Feeling Safe at School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that metal detectors bestow an organizational stigma to schools. One symptom of this is students’ heightened level of fear at school. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and a matched-pair design, this study finds that metal detectors are negatively correlated with students’ sense of safety at school, net of the level

Billie Gastic

2011-01-01

399

Basic analysis of a metal detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal detectors are extensively used to find undesirable metal objects in processed food. In such a typical metal detector, the coils are coaxially arranged with the transmitting coil in the center and two receiving coils on the sides. The receiving coils are connected to a differential amplifier. When the magnetic field generated in the transmitting coil is disturbed by metal

S. Yamazaki; H. Nakane; A. Tanaka

2002-01-01

400

Underwater muon detection using a Cerenkov detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the results of measurements of the intensity of cosmic rays in the ocen at depths of up to 5 km using a detector registering individual muons from their Cerenkov radiation in natural water surrounding the detector. Based on the experimental results, an expression is obtained which relates the intensity of a vertical flux of cosmic muons to

V. M. Fedorov

1990-01-01

401

Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) technology is one of emerging technologies that will change our life. A lot of attractive applications in security, medicine, biology, astronomy, and non-destructive materials testing have been demonstrated already. However, the realization of THz emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. As a result, THz radiation is resistant to the techniques commonly employed in these well established neighbouring bands. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of THz radiation detectors and focal plane arrays are discussed. Historical impressive progress in THz detector sensitivity in a period of more than half century is analyzed. More attention is put on the basic physical phenomena and the recent progress in both direct and heterodyne detectors. After short description of general classification of THz detectors, more details concern Schottky barrier diodes, pair braking detectors, hot electron mixers and field-effect transistor detectors, where links between THz devices and modern technologies such as micromachining are underlined. Also, the operational conditions of THz detectors and their upper performance limits are reviewed. Finally, recent advances in novel nanoelectronic materials and technologies are described. It is expected that applications of nanoscale materials and devices will open the door for further performance improvement in THz detectors.

Rogalski, A.; Sizov, F.

2011-09-01

402

Alternate Configurations for Blocked Impurity Band Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Silicon Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors are highly efficient, radiation-hardened photodetectors that operate in the range of 5-40 m. To further extend BIB coverage to 40-350 m, Ge and GaAs BIB detectors are under development; however, these new dete...

J. C. Garcia

2004-01-01

403

Novel CZT detectors for homeland security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development and test of a novel type of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector: Dual Anode Detectors. Our work focuses on large volume (10 × 20 × 20 mm3) CZT crystals contacted with dual anodes, and either a segmented cathode or four lateral contacts, and a monolithic cathode. The charge induced on all contacts can be used

Alfred Garson; Qiang Li; Michael Groza; Ira V. Jung; Victor Buliga; Arnold Burger; Henric Krawczynski

2008-01-01

404

A PHOSWICH WELL DETECTOR FOR RADIOXENON MONITORING  

SciTech Connect

Devices to measure the amount of radioactive xenon in the atmosphere have been installed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System to detect nuclear weapons testing. These devices extract small samples of xenon from large volumes of air and look for characteristic radioxenon isotopes emitting beta and gamma radiation in coincidence. To detect these coincidences, they currently employ a complex system of separate beta and gamma detectors which is very sensitive, but which requires careful calibration and gain matching of several detectors and photomultiplier tubes to achieve desired detection limits. An alternative to separate beta and gamma detectors is the use of a single phoswich detector in which beta-gamma coincidences are detected by pulse shape analysis. The phoswich detector consists of a plastic scintillator (absorbing betas) optically coupled to a CsI(Tl) scintillator (absorbing gammas) and thus requires only a single photomultiplier tube and electronics readout channel, greatly simplifying setup and calibration. In this paper, we present the results from an experimental evaluation of two phoswich well detector prototypes, including energy resolution, 2 D beta/gamma energy histograms from a variety of test sources, and background count rates. From these measurements, we derive detector properties such as coincidence detection efficiency, background rejection and the ability to separate beta only, gamma only, and coincidence events. We will further discuss setup and calibration procedures and compare them to those for existing detector systems.

Hennig, Wolfgang; Tan, Hui; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Warburton, William K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Gleyzer, A.

2007-08-21

405

Concept detectors: how good is good enough?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, semantic concept based video retrieval systems of- ten show insufficient performance for real-life applications. Clearly, a big share of the reason is the lacking performance of the detectors of these concepts. While concept detectors are on their endeavor to improve, following important ques- tions need to be addressed: \\

Robin Aly; Djoerd Hiemstra

2009-01-01

406

Modelling orthogonal strip HPGe detector systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of orthogonal planar strip high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors offers the advantages of good energy and three dimensional spatial resolution of photon interactions. The use of such devices for Positron emission Tomography (PET) are being investigated by the SmartPET collaboration. This paper presents initial results for algorithms developed to analyse the detector signals which recover the interaction position

Paul R. Smith; Andrew Berry; Toby E. Beveridge; Chris J. Hall; John E. Gillam; Greg Potter; Paul J. Nolan; Robert A. Lewis

2007-01-01

407

The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and construction of the large Drift Chamber for the KLOE experiment at the Frascati ?-factory, DA?NE, are described. The relevant aspects of the various elements of the detector are reviewed together with a description of the track reconstruction program and of the calibration procedures. The performance of the detector based on measurements with cosmic rays and with e+e?

M. Adinolfi; F. Ambrosino; A. Andryakov; A. Antonelli; M. Antonelli; C. Bacci; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Bankamp; F. Bellini; G. Bencivenni; S. Bertolucci; C. Bini; C. Bloise; V. Bocci; F. Bossi; P. Branchini; S. A Bulychjov; G. Cabibbo; A. Calcaterra; R. Caloi; P. Campana; G. Capon; A. Cardini; M. Casarsa; V. Casavola; G. Cataldi; F. Ceradini; F. Cervelli; G. Chiefari; P. Ciambrone; E De Lucia; R De Sangro; P De Simone; S Dell'Agnello; A. Denig; A. Di Domenico; C. Di Donato; S Di Falco; A. Doria; E. Drago; G. Felici; A. Ferrari; M L. Ferrer; G. Finocchiaro; G. Fischer; C. Forti; A. Franceschi; P. Franzini; C. Gatti; P. Gauzzi; S. Giovannella; V. Golovatyuk; E. Gorini; F. Grancagnolo; E. Graziani; M. Incagli; L. Ingrosso; Y. Y. Jiang; W. Kluge; V. Kulikov; C. Kuo; F. Lacava; G. Lanfranchi; J. Lee-Franzini; T. Lomtadze; C. Luisi; M. Martemianov; M. Matsyuk; W. Mei; A. Menicucci; R. Messi; S. Moccia; M. Moulson; S. Müller; F. Murtas; M. Napolitano; A. Nedosekin; L. Pacciani; P. Pagès; M. Palutan; M. Panareo; L. Paoluzi; E. Pasqualucci; L. Passalacqua; M. Passaseo; A. Passeri; V. Patera; E. Petrolo; G. Petrucci; D. Picca; M. Piccolo; G. Pirozzi; M. Pollack; L. Pontecorvo; M. Primavera; E. Santovetti; G. Saracino; F. Schönleber; B. Sciascia; A. Sciubba; I. Sfiligoi; T. Spadaro; S. Spagnolo; E. Spiriti; U von Hagel; P. Valente; B. Valeriani; G. Venanzoni; S. Veneziano; A. Ventura

2002-01-01

408

ATLAS pixel detector electronics and sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silicon pixel tracking system for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is described and the performance requirements are summarized. Detailed descriptions of the pixel detector electronics and the silicon sensors are given. The design, fabrication, assembly and performance of the pixel detector modules are presented. Data obtained from test beams as well as studies using cosmic rays are also discussed.

Aad, G.; Ackers, M.; Alberti, F. A.; Aleppo, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alonso, J.; Anderssen, E. C.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arms, K. E.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M. B.; Bazalova, M.; Beccherle, R. B.; Becks, K. H.; Behera, P. K.; Bellina, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Biesiada, J. B.; Blanquart, L.; Boek, J.; Boyd, G. R.; Breugnon, P.; Buchholz, P.; Butler, B.; Caccia, M.; Capsoni, A. C.; Caso, C.; Cauz, D.; Cepeda, M.; Cereseto, R.; Cervetto, M.; Chu, M. L.; Citterio, M.; Clemens, J. C.; Coadou, Y. C.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Coelli, S.; Correard, S.; Cristinziani, M.; Cuneo, S.; D'Auria, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; Dardin, S.; DeLotto, B.; DeSanctis, U.; DeVivie DeRegie, J. B.; DelPapa, C.; Delpierre, P.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dietsche, W.; Djama, F.; Dobos, D.; Donega, M.; Dopke, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Eyring, A.; Fasching, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fernando, W.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Flick, T.; Gagliardi, G.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garelli, N.; Gariano, G. G.; Gaycken, G. G.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Gilchriese, M.; Giordani, M. P.; Giugni, D.; Glitza, K. W.; Gössling, C.; Golling, T.; Goozen, F.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Grah, C.; Gray, H. M.; Gregor, I. M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grybel, K.; Gutierrez, P.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hartman, N.; Havranek, M.; Heinemann, B.; Henß, T.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffmann, D.; Holder, M.; Honerbach, W.; Horn, C.; Hou, S.; Huang, G. S.; Huegging, F.; Hughes, E. W.; Ibragimov, I.; Ilyashenko, I.; Imhaeuser, M.; Izen, J. M.; Jackson, J.; Jana, D.; Jared, R. C.; Jez, P.; Johnson, T.; Joseph, J.; Kagan, H.; Karagounis, M.; Kass, R. D.; Keil, M.; Kersten, S.; Kind, P.; Klaiber-Lodewigs, J.; Klingbeil, L.; Klingenberg, R.; Korn, A.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kostyukhina, I.; Krasel, O.; Krüger, H.; Krueger, K.; Kudlaty, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kvasnicka, O.; Lantzsch, K.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S. L.; Lee, S. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzen, G.; Lepidis, J.; Levêque, J.; Leyton, M.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Loureiro, K. F.; Lüke, D.; Luisa, L.; Lys, J.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Manca, F. M.; Mandelli, E.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marshall, Z.; Martinez, G.; Masetti, L.; Maß, M.; Mathes, M.; McKay, R.; Meddeler, G.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meroni, C.; Metcalfe, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Miller, D. W.; Miller, W.; Montesano, S.; Monti, M. M.; Morettini, P.; Moss, J. M.; Mouthuy, T.; Nechaeva, P.; Ockenfels, W.; Odino, G. A.; Olcese, M.; Osculati, B.; Parodi, F.; Pekedis, A.; Perez, K.; Peric, I.; Pizzorno, C.; Popule, J.; Post, R.; Ragusa, F.; Rahimi, A. M.; Raith, B.; Rajek, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Richardson, J. D.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rossi, L. P.; Rottländer, I.; Rovani, A. R.; Rozanov, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruscino, E. R.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabatini, F. S.; Saleem, M.; Sandvoss, S.; Sanny, B.; Santi, L.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schreiner, A.; Schultes, J.; Schwartzman, A.; Seibert, R.; Seidel, S. C.; Severini, H.; Shanava, S.; Sicho, P.; Skubic, P.; Smith, A. C.; Smith, D. S.; Snow, J.; Stahl, T.; Stockmanns, T.; Strandberg, S.; Strauss, M.; Ta, D.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teng, P. K.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Thadome, J.; Tic, T.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasi, F.; Toms, K.; Tran, C.; Treis, J.; Triplett, N.; Troncon, C.; Vacavant, L.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Vegni, G.; Vernocchi, F.; Vigeolas, E.; Virzi, J.; Viscione, E.; Vrba, V.; Walbersloh, J.; Walkowiak, W.; Weber, J.; Weber, T. F.; Weingarten, J.; Weldon, C.; Wermes, N.; Werthenbach, U.; Wirth, J. S.; Witharm, R.; Witt, B.; Wittgen, M.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wunstorf, R.; Wyckoff, J.; Yao, W.-M.; Young, C.; Zaidan, R.; Zdrazil, M.; Zetti, F.; Zhong, J.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zizka, G.; Zoeller, M. M.

2008-07-01

409

ATLAS pixel detector electronics and sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silicon pixel tracking system for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is described and the performance requirements are summarized. Detailed descriptions of the pixel detector electronics and the silicon sensors are given. The design, fabrication, assembly and performance of the pixel detector modules are presented. Data obtained from test beams as well as studies using cosmic rays

G. Aad; M. Ackers; F. A. Alberti; M. Aleppo; G. Alimonti; J. Alonso; E. C. Anderssen; A. Andreani; A. Andreazza; J.-F. Arguin; K. E. Arms; D. Barberis; M. B. Barbero; M. Bazalova; R. B. Beccherle; K. H. Becks; P. K. Behera; F. Bellina; J. Beringer; K. Bernardet; J. B. Biesiada; L. Blanquart; J. Boek; G. R. Boyd; P. Breugnon; P. Buchholz; B. Butler; M. Caccia; A. C. Capsoni; C. Caso; D. Cauz; M. Cepeda; R. Cereseto; M. Cervetto; M. L. Chu; M. Citterio; J. C. Clemens; Y. C. Coadou; M. Cobal; A. Coccaro; S. Coelli; S. Correard; M. Cristinziani; S. Cuneo; S. D'Auria; M. Dameri; G. Darbo; S. Dardin; B. DeLotto; U. DeSanctis; J. B. DeVivie DeRegie; C. DelPapa; P. Delpierre; B. Di Girolamo; W. Dietsche; F. Djama; D. Dobos; M. Donega; J. Dopke; K. Einsweiler; A. Eyring; D. Fasching; L. Feligioni; D. Ferguson; W. Fernando; P. Fischer; M. J. Fisher; T. Flick; G. Gagliardi; E. Galyaev; K. K. Gan; M. Garcia-Sciveres; N. Garelli; G. G. Gariano; G. G. Gaycken; C. Gemme; P. Gerlach; M. Gilchriese; M. P. Giordani; D. Giugni; K. W. Glitza; C. Gössling; T. Golling; F. Goozen; I. Gorelov; G. Gorfine; C. Grah; H. M. Gray; I. M. Gregor; J. Grosse-Knetter; K. Grybel; P. Gutierrez; G. D. Hallewell; N. Hartman; M. Havranek; B. Heinemann; T. Henß; M. R. Hoeferkamp; D. Hoffmann; M. Holder; W. Honerbach; C. Horn; S. Hou; G. S. Huang; F. Huegging; E. W. Hughes; I. Ibragimov; I. Ilyashenko; M. Imhaeuser; J. M. Izen; J. Jackson; D. Jana; R. C. Jared; P. Jez; T. Johnson; J. Joseph; H. Kagan; M. Karagounis; R. D. Kass; M. Keil; S. Kersten; P. Kind; J. Klaiber-Lodewigs; L. Klingbeil; R. Klingenberg; A. Korn; V. V. Kostyukhin; I. Kostyukhina; O. Krasel; H. Krüger; K. Krueger; J. Kudlaty; T. Kuhl; O. Kvasnicka; K. Lantzsch; T. Lari; S. L. Latorre; S. C. Lee; T. Lenz; G. Lenzen; J. Lepidis; J. Levêque; M. Leyton; D. Lopez Mateos; K. F. Loureiro; D. Lüke; L. Luisa; J. Lys; R. J. Madaras; P. Mättig; F. M. Manca; E. Mandelli; M. Marcisovsky; Z. Marshall; G. Martinez; L. Masetti; M. Maß; M. Mathes; R. McKay; G. Meddeler; R. Meera-Lebbai; C. Meroni; J. Metcalfe; W. T. Meyer; D. W. Miller; W. Miller; S. Montesano; M. M. Monti; P. Morettini; J. M. Moss; T. Mouthuy; P. Nechaeva; W. Ockenfels; G. A. Odino; M. Olcese; B. Osculati; F. Parodi; A. Pekedis; K. Perez; I. Peric; C. Pizzorno; J. Popule; R. Post; F. Ragusa; A. M. Rahimi; B. Raith; S. Rajek; K. Reeves; I. Reisinger; J. D. Richardson; E. I. Rosenberg; L. P. Rossi; I. Rottländer; A. R. Rovani; A. Rozanov; O. Runolfsson; E. R. Ruscino; A. F. Saavedra; F. S. Sabatini; M. Saleem; S. Sandvoss; B. Sanny; L. Santi; M. I. Scherzer; C. Schiavi; A. Schreiner; J. Schultes; A. Schwartzman; R. Seibert; S. C. Seidel; H. Severini; S. Shanava; P. Sicho; P. Skubic; A. C. Smith; D. S. Smith; J. Snow; T. Stahl; T. Stockmanns; S. Strandberg; M. Strauss; D. Ta; F. Tegenfeldt; P. K. Teng; R. Ter-Antonyan; J. Thadome; T. Tic; L. Tomasek; M. Tomasek; F. Tomasi; K. Toms; C. Tran; J. Treis; N. Triplett; C. Troncon; L. Vacavant; S. Vahsen; J. Valenta; G. Vegni; F. Vernocchi; E. Vigeolas; J. Virzi; E. Viscione; V. Vrba; J. Walbersloh; W. Walkowiak; J. Weber; T. F. Weber; J. Weingarten; C. Weldon; N. Wermes; U. Werthenbach; J. S. Wirth; R. Witharm; B. Witt; M. Wittgen; J. Wuestenfeld; R. Wunstorf; J. Wyckoff; W.-M. Yao; C. Young; R. Zaidan; M. Zdrazil; F. Zetti; J. Zhong; M. Ziolkowski; G. Zizka; M. M. Zoeller

2008-01-01

410

Points of View in Testing Flame Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general principles for type testing the fire detectors which are already in use in the assessment of heat and smoke detectors are summarized. These include the so-called basic tests and the trial tests. The trial tests were intended to include all tes...

M. Schnell

1976-01-01

411

The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BABAR detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e? collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O'Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.

2013-11-01

412

Psychology and the lie detector industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicates that although the lie detector industry is already a major area of applied psychology, few professional polygraphers have psychological training and few psychologists know enough about the industry to monitor its practices. The theory and methods of polygraphic interrogation are analyzed. It is argued that although it is unlikely that the polygraphic lie detector could have the claimed near-perfect

David T. Lykken

1974-01-01

413

Green River Community College Cosmic Ray Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Washington Area Large scale Time coincidence Array (WALTA) researches high-energy cosmic ray and has placed particle detector arrays around the Seattle area to increase the accuracy of muon information. Green River Community College is one of the schools in collaboration with WALTA and offers its students under-graduate research by working with the particle detector arrays, data collecting and reporting.

Andrea Roma; Crissy Harrington; Mirela Isic; Andrew Adams; Ron Draper

2008-01-01

414

Systolic architectures for radar CFAR detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss several advances in the evolution of radar CFAR (constant false alarm rate) detectors, from the classical mean-level detector to more recent designs using order statistics, or sorted data values. These algorithms can be implemented by modifying the existing running window order statistic filtering techniques used in signal\\/image processing. Although the signal processing theory of CFAR detection is

Jenq-Neng Hwang; James A. Ritcey

1991-01-01

415

Systolic architectures for radar CFAR detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors, which are adaptive threshold detectors used to compensate for unknown noise environments, are discussed. Although the signal processing theory for CFAR detection is advanced, applications lag because of the high throughput required in radar. This intensive computational requirement (a data rate of at least 20 MHz for most search radars) cannot be met

J.-N. Hwang; J. A. Ritcey

1990-01-01

416

Transparent delta Gas Detector for Heavy Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small, 50x60x50 mm/sup 3/ gas chamber was realized to be used as transparent delta detector in front of solid state position sensitive detectors (PSD). It has two rectangular openings, covered by thin polypropylene foils (t approx. = 000 A). The electri...

F. Bonomo C. Tuve J. Romanski R. Barna D. De Pasquale

1988-01-01

417

Full LCD Detector Simulation with GISMO  

SciTech Connect

We present a status update of a full simulation package using GISMO. This package is a functioning tool producing simulation data for the two standard LCD detector designs, in a framework allowing easy changes to the detector designs. The simulation engine, GISMO, is separated from the application code, GISMOAPPS, to allow for a future upgrade to GEANT4 within the same framework.

Cassell, R.

2004-10-11

418

Wavelet detectors for model-based imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the model-based aspects of the estimator correlator (EC) detector in the wavelet domain. Ideas from group theory are used to develop and describe underlying properties. By applying group representation theory to the detector development, insight into the optimal processing structure of the EC is gained. In the absence of a priori model information, the EC detector reduces to the wavelet domain or matched filter detector. With a priori information incorporated into the model, the EC becomes a weighted wavelet detector. Implementing the EC in the wavelet domain provides range-Doppler (wavelet) images at different stages of processing. This allows the opportunity to simultaneously exploit the vast body of knowledge of wavelets, scattering function theory, and range-Doppler processing techniques. Ambiguity function theory is used to evaluate performance capabilities of these wavelet-based detectors using various narrowband and wideband transmit signals. This paper shows that the weighted wavelet detector serves as a classifier as well by using the scattering function model as a basis for pattern recognition. An example of the effectiveness of the weighted wavelet detector with narrowband and wideband signals for a multi- highlight image model is presented and results are discussed.

Olson, Teresa L.; Sibul, Leon H.

1997-07-01

419

Gaseous detectors of ultraviolet and visible photons  

SciTech Connect

We describe simple methods of manufacturing in a laboratory gaseous detectors of visible photons with GaAs(Cs) and SbCs photocathodes and Ti getters. Covered by CsI protective layers they are robust enough to be stable under ordinary experimental conditions. First attempts to use these detectors for crystal scintillator and fiber readout are presented.

Peskov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Borovik-Romanov, A. [Institute for Physical Problems (Russia); Volynshikova, T. [Insitute of Metallurgy and Alloys (Russia)

1994-06-01

420

IMB detector - the first 30 days  

SciTech Connect

A large water Cherenkov detector, located 2000 feet below ground, has recently been turned on. The primary purpose of the device is to measure nucleon stability to limits 100 times better than previous measurements. The properties of the detector are described along with its operating characteristics.

Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.; Cortez, B.G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Gajewski, W.; Goldhaber, M.; Greenberg, J.; Haines, T.J.; Jones, T.W.

1983-01-01

421

The pyroelectric detector of infrared radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyroelectric detector is a thermal sensor of infra-red radiation requiring no bias. While in principle a pure capacitor (hence theoretically noiseless), the detector has a varying noise contribution as a function of frequency due to a load resistor, series loss resistance, and amplifier. The actual sensor is a pyroelectric crystal exhibiting spontaneous polarization. The spontaneous polarization and dielectric constant

H. P. Beerman

1969-01-01

422

Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required.

Fitzsimmons, M.; Pynn, R.

1997-07-01

423

Sofradir latest developments for infrared space detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sofradir is one of the leading companies that develop and produce infrared detectors. Space applications have become a significant activity and Sofradir relies now on 20 years of experience in development and production of MCT infrared detectors of 2nd and 3rd generation for space applications. Thanks to its capabilities and experience, Sofradir is now able to offer high reliability infrared

Philippe Chorier; Anne Delannoy

2011-01-01

424

High-performance infrared detectors at Sofradir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an InfraRed (IR) system is based on a high spatial resolution and on a high thermal resolution. An increase in spatial resolution means an increase in number of pixels, a decrease in detector pitch and an increase in the detector pixel MTF. Regarding thermal resolution increase, it will be achieved mainly by an increase in the maximum

Philippe M. Tribolet; Philippe Chorier; Alain Manissadjian; Patricia Costa; Jean-Pierre Chatard

2000-01-01

425

Sofradir SWIR hyperspectral detectors for space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of SWIR detectors for space applications is strongly growing those last years, mainly because of the increasing need for environmental missions in the SWIR detection range. For now more than 10 years, Sofradir is involved in that field, developing and improving its SWIR detectors technology, leading to a mature technology that enable to address most of missions needs

Yoanna-Reine Nowicki-Bringuier; Philippe Chorier

2009-01-01

426

Cooled IR detectors calibration analysis and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

As far as high performance IR detector are concerned, MWIR cooled 2D arrays are more and more used for high quality systems which need the uniformity and quality of the response in order to offer a good non uniformity corrections (NUC) and a stable IR detector calibrations. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the state of the art

Patrice Fillon; Agnes Combette; Philippe Tribolet

2005-01-01

427

Radiation hardness of the PIBETA detector components  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined long term changes in signal amplitude gain, energy resolution and detection efficiency for the active components of the PIBETA detector system. Beam defining plastic scintillation counters were operated in a ~1 MHz stopped $\\\\pi^+$ beam for a period of 297 days, accumulating radiation doses of up to 2 Mrad. Detectors in the charged particle tracking system--a pair

E. Frlez; T. A. Campbell; I. J. Carey; D. Pocanic

2002-01-01

428

Preliminary results from the CMD2 detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new general-purpose detector CMD-2 (calorimetric magnetic detector) has started experiments at the upgraded e+e- collider VEPP-2M (collider for electron-positron beams) at Novosibirsk. During early runs an integrated luminosity of about 400 inverse nanobarns has been collected in the center of mass energy range 400-1030 MeV.

B. I. Khazin; R. R. Akhmetshin; G. A. Aksenov; E. V. Anashkin; V. M. Aulchenko; B. O. Baibusinov; V. S. Banzarov; L. M. Barkov; S. E. Baru; N. S. Bashtovoi; A. E. Bondar; S. I. Eidelman; V. E. Fedorenko; G. V. Fedotovitch; A. A. Grebeniuk; D. N. Grigoriev; P. M. Ivanov; I. A. Koop; A. S. Kuzmin; M. Yu. Lelchuk; L. A. Leontyev; A. P. Lysenko; A. V. Maksimov; Yu. I. Merzlyakov; A. B. Nomerotsky; V. S. Okhapkin; E. A. Perevedentsev; S. G. Pivovarov; T. A. Purlats; S. I. Redin; N. I. Root; N. M. Ryskulov; Yu. M. Shatunov; A. I. Shekhtman; M. A. Shubin; B. A. Shwartz; V. A. Sidorov; A. N. Skrinsky; V. P. Smakhtin; I. G. Snopkov; E. P. Solodov; V. M. Titov; I. B. Vasserman; Yu. V. Yudin; V. G. Zavarzin; I. V. Zhuravkov; D. H. Brown; J. P. Miller; B. L. Roberts; W. A. Worstell; J. A. Thompson; C. H. Yang; P. B. Cushman; S. K. Dhawan; V. W. Hughes

1992-01-01

429

Dielectron physics with ALICE Transition Radiation Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of ALICE will serve to identify and track electrons in the central region. In this contribution, after a brief introduction of TRD, we review the detector performance concerning electron\\/pion identification as well as J\\/? and ? detection.

Prashant Shukla

2006-01-01

430

Electron multiplier-ion detector system  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to an improved ion detector for use in mass spectrometers for pulse counting signal ions which may have a positive or a negative charge. The invention combines a novel electron multiplier with a scintillator type of ion detector. It is a high vacuum, high voltage device intended for use in ion microprobe mass spectrometers. (auth)

Dietz, L.A.

1975-08-01

431

Detecting MALDI ions with a cryogenic detector  

SciTech Connect

Progress in cryogenic detector technology has led to the development of new devices appropriate for use as ion detectors. We have recently begun to evaluate one type of cryogenic detector called a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector. Initial tests were conducted by replacing a microchannel plate ion detector in a matrix-assisted-laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) with a STJ detector. In those initial tests we showed that 1) the STJ detector produces pulses appropriate for timing large ions and 2) the height of the pulses is proportional to ion energy and thus useful for deducing ion charge. We now report additional STJ ion energy measurements that help to reveal some aspects of ion fragmentation in MALDI mass spectrometry. The height of the output pulse from a STJ detector is related approximately linearly to ion energy, thus doubly charged ions in a MALDI:TOF-MS produce pulses about twice as large as singly charged ions. Cryogenic detectors show excellent energy resolution for X rays, but poorer energy resolution is observed when MALDI ions are analyzed. The cause for the poor energy resolution of MALDI ions is not fully understood; nevertheless, it appears feasible to use STJ detectors to study the energy distribution of MALDI ions. The detectors appear to be sensitive enough to measure individual ion impacts and processes which influence ion energy such as in-source fragmentation and the deficit of ion energy caused by accelerating ions through a MALDI plume. In this study, we show how a STJ detector can be used to measure the time of flight of macroglobulin ions (725,000 Daltons), determine ion charge using detector pulse height and investigate in-source fragmentation patterns. It is found that the energy response of the STJ detector not only provides a way to assign charge to ions but also provides a way to examine fragmentation patterns for MALDI ions. The simple model described above appears to account for the flight times and expected energy of the ions that lead to clusters of crescent shaped data points. Work is under way to investigate the fragmentation of multiply charged ions.

Benner, W. Henry

1997-09-12

432

Encapsulation of germanium detectors for space flight  

SciTech Connect

A hermetic enclosure for a high-purity germanium detector was developed as part of the detector assembly for the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer flown on the WIND satellite. High G forces during launch ({approximately}100G), long term stability (lifetime of at least 5 years), passive cooling and low energy photon detection were critical parameters addressed. These design parameters dictated rigid containment of the detector and the selection of enclosure materials, hermetic high voltage and signal feedthroughs, electrical contacts to the detector and enclosure seals. Sealing of the germanium detector within a valveless hermetic enclosure was achieved with a custom vacuum bell-jar press equipped with a vacuum isolated hydraulic ram. Both vacuum and nitrogen gas filled encapsulations (pressurized to 2 atmospheres) were examined; nitrogen gas filled encapsulations were more rugged.

Cork, C.P.; Landis, D.A.; Luke, P.N.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Pehl, R.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-06-01

433

Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays  

SciTech Connect

We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain.

Salazar, Humberto [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue., 72570 (Mexico); Villasenor, Luis [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana, Edificio C3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Mich., 58040 (Mexico)

2006-09-25

434

Sofradir latest developments for infrared space detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sofradir is one of the leading companies that develop and produce infrared detectors. Space applications have become a significant activity and Sofradir relies now on 20 years of experience in development and production of MCT infrared detectors of 2nd and 3rd generation for space applications. Thanks to its capabilities and experience, Sofradir is now able to offer high reliability infrared detectors for space applications. These detectors cover various kinds of applications like hyperspectral observation, earth observations for meteorological or scientific purpose and science experiments. In this paper, we present a review of latest Sofradir's development for infrared space applications. A presentation of Sofradir infrared detectors answering hyperspectral needs from visible up to VLWIR waveband will be made. In addition a particular emphasis will be placed on the different programs currently running, with a presentation of the associated results as they relate to performances and qualifications for space use.

Chorier, Philippe; Delannoy, Anne

2011-05-01

435

Novel photosensors for neutrino detectors and telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume and the photosensitive area of next generation detectors of the numerous rarely occurring phenomena will greatly exceed the sizes of the current experiments. These phenomena include cosmic neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, long-baseline neutrino beams from accelerators, geo-neutrinos, geo-reactor neutrinos, and hypothetic proton decays. Similar requirements hold for a new type of a large scanning device for homeland security and nuclear proliferation control, and for the future widely accessible medical imaging devices. Photon detectors are the most important component of such detectors. Existing photosensors are based on vacuum tubes and dynode electron multipliers that are essentially hand-made, expensive and nearly impossible to produce in large enough quantities. Silicon detectors are too small for experiments requiring a very large photosensitive area. Our laboratory is developing novel detectors with a large photosensitive area that can be mass-produced, similar to large flat panel TV displays.

Ferenc, Daniel; Lorenz, Eckart

2007-06-01

436

Pulse filtering for thick mercuric iodide detectors  

SciTech Connect

Mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) is a semiconductor material of interest as a gamma-ray spectrometer due to its large band gap and high atomic number, properties which allow room temperature operation and provide high gamma-ray cross section. At EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM), single crystals of mercuric iodide are grown by vapor sublimation and fabricated into detectors of 0.2-12.0 mm thickness. Thin detectors (< 1 mm) produce a good energy resolution (--1%-5% at 662 keV) and work well a x-ray detectors but have low gamma-ray efficiency. Detectors of 1 mm-1 cm thickness provide higher gamma ray efficiency but are limited by poor hole transport properties which degrade detector performance. When conventional pulse shaping is used, energy resolutions of 6%-12% and peak-to-valley ratio < 3:1 are typical for detectors of 1-5 mm thickness. Detectors of -- 1-cm thickness typically produce > 10% resolution and peak-to-valley ratios < 2:1. The authors have investigated a number of electronic pulse filtering techniques for thick mercuric iodide detectors and have achieved improved spectral response for detectors of 1-5 mm thickness and gamma ray energies up to 1.5 MeV. Conventional gaussian and gated integration filters were considered as well as more sophisticated filter combinations in order to develop methods of reducing charge measurement errors caused by poor hole collection. When using these techniques, energy resolutions of 3%-6% and peak-to-valley ratios of 5:1 are common. In this paper they discuss these approaches and present results with thick detectors.

Gerrish, V.M.; Williams, D.J.; Beyerle, A.G.

1987-02-01

437

Issues concerning solid state detectors for EXAFS  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) is a commonly used technique in conjunction with x-ray synchrotron radiation for studying the local atomic structure of dilute elements in biological, geological and materials systems. Due to the nature of the EXAFS technique, and the difficulties associated with the detection of low energy x-rays, EXAFS has been used primarily in the energy range above 5 keV. However, there are a number of elements of interest with K- or L-absorption edges below 5 keV, which have not been easily accessible with existing EXAFS instrumentation. Several characteristics of solid state detectors must be optimized for use in low energy EXAFS measurements. The detector entrance window, or ``dead layer,`` must be as thin as possible to minimize the attenuation of the fluorescent signal. The detector spectral backgrounds must be minimized so that the tailing background on the low energy side of the scattered photopeak is as low as possible to maximize the S/N of the fluorescent photopeak. Based on our work, a thin Pd surface barrier contact on a Si(Li) detector offers the thinnest detector dead layer and also the lowest spectral background for the Si(Li) and Ge detectors studied to date. To maximize the S/N, the detectors must be operated at as high a count rate as possible, without compromising detector energy resolution. High count rates can be achieved using multiple detector arrays; close packing of the detector elements can further increase the S/N by utilizing the ``best`` portion of the scattered polarized synchrotron beam.

Rossington, C.S.; Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.

1991-10-01

438

21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205 Section 870.4205...4205 Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect...

2013-04-01

439

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 Transportation...Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube devices,...

2010-10-01

440

40 CFR 1065.260 - Flame-ionization detector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Flame-ionization detector. 1065.260 Section 1065.260 ...Measurements § 1065.260 Flame-ionization detector. (a) Application. Use a flame-ionization detector (FID) analyzer to measure...

2013-07-01

441

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2011-10-01

442

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exceptions for radiation detectors. 173.310 Section 173.310 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube...

2012-10-01

443

Advances in infrared technology - quantum well versus thermal detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of uncooled thermal and deeply cooled QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector) detectors are briefly presented. Different types of QWIP detectors have been mentioned. The limits of detectivity both for thermal and photon detectors are discussed.

B. Wiecek

2002-01-01

444

47 CFR 15.35 - Measurement detector functions and bandwidths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Measurement detector functions and bandwidths. 15.35 Section 15.35 Telecommunication... Measurement detector functions and bandwidths. The conducted and radiated emission...detector function and related measurement bandwidths, unless otherwise...

2012-10-01

445

VERDI: A versatile readout ASIC for radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present the circuit VERDI (VErsatile Readout for Detector Integration), an integrated circuit developed for the readout of different families of radiation detectors, from nitrogen-cooled Ge and Si(Li) detectors, to silicon drift detectors (SDDs), scintillation detectors, photomultipliers tubes and others. The circuit may represent a suitable solution when a compact integration between a multi-element detector and the

A. Celani; L. Bombelli; C. Fiorini; T. Frizzi; R. Nava; J. Pavlick; M. Kastner; M. Morichi; B. Roberson; B. Zakrzewski; O. Evrard; C. Cherukuri; S. Assouak

2010-01-01

446

Silicon detectors for charged particles manufactured by conventional planar technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of detectors were developed by conventional planar technology: a p+-n-n+ ion-implanted detector and a n+p-p+ diffused detector. There was no observable difference in the quality of the detectors manufactured in this way. Both detectors were investigated for alpha and beta spectroscopy and exhibited good energy resolution. With an additional deposition of a 6LiF converter layer the detectors can

D. Sueva; V. Spassov; N. Chikov; E. I. Vipirev; I. Ivanov

1993-01-01

447

Bolometric detectors: optimization for differential radiometers.  

PubMed

A differential radiometer can be constructed by placing two matched bolometric detectors in an ac bridge, thus producing a signal that is proportional to the difference in power incident on the two detectors. In conditions of large and time-varying common-mode radiative load, the common-mode response resulting from imperfectly matched detectors can limit the stability of the difference signal. For semiconductor thermistor bolometers we find that the bridge can always be trimmed to null the common-mode response for a given instantaneous value of the radiative load. However, subsequent changes in the commonmode radiative load change the operating point of the detectors, giving rise to a second-order common-mode response. This response can be minimized by increasing the electrical-power dissipation in the detectors at the cost of sensitivity. For the case that we are analyzing, and for mismatches in detector parameters that are typical of randomly paired detectors, common-mode rejection ratios in excess of 10(3) can be achieved under 20% changes in radiative load. PMID:20802585

Glezer, E N; Lange, A E; Wilbanks, T M

1992-12-01

448

Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector  

SciTech Connect

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 x 150 {micro}m{sup 2}. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

2008-12-01

449

Muon Energy Calibration of the MINOS Detectors  

SciTech Connect

MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for conclusive evidence of neutrino oscillations and to measure the oscillation parameters precisely. MINOS comprises two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab and Soudan. The Calibration Detector at CERN is a third MINOS detector used as part of the detector response calibration programme. A correct energy calibration between these detectors is crucial for the accurate measurement of oscillation parameters. This thesis presents a calibration developed to produce a uniform response within a detector using cosmic muons. Reconstruction of tracks in cosmic ray data is discussed. This data is utilized to calculate calibration constants for each readout channel of the Calibration Detector. These constants have an average statistical error of 1.8%. The consistency of the constants is demonstrated both within a single run and between runs separated by a few days. Results are presented from applying the calibration to test beam particles measured by the Calibration Detector. The responses are calibrated to within 1.8% systematic error. The potential impact of the calibration on the measurement of oscillation parameters by MINOS is also investigated. Applying the calibration reduces the errors in the measured parameters by {approx} 10%, which is equivalent to increasing the amount of data by 20%.

Miyagawa, Paul S.; /Oxford U.

2004-09-01

450

RADIOXENON MEASUREMENTS WITH THE PHOSWATCH DETECTOR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Many of the radioxenon detector systems used in the International Monitoring System and in other applications employ beta/gamma coincidence detection to achieve high sensitivity. In these systems, the coincidence detection is implemented by requiring simultaneous signals from separate beta and gamma detectors. While very sensitive to small amounts of radioxenon, this approach requires careful calibration and gain matching of several detectors and photomultiplier tubes. An alternative approach is the use of a phoswich detector in which beta-gamma coincidences are detected by pulse shape analysis. The phoswich requires only a single photomultiplier tube and thus is easier to set up and calibrate, and can be assembled into a more compact and robust system. In the past, we have developed a COTS detector system, named PhosWatch, which consists of a CsI(Tl)/BC-404 phoswich detector, digital readout electronics, and on-board software to perform the pulse shape analysis. Several units of this system have been manufactured and are now evaluated at several radioxenon research laboratories. In this paper, we will report results from production tests and some of the evaluations, including a side-by-side comparison of a SAUNA detector and a PhosWatch system using atmospheric radioxenon samples. In addition, we will show initial results obtained with a higher speed version of the readout electronics, digitizing at 500 MHz and thus able to better resolve the fast pulses from the BC-404.

Hennig, Wolfgang; Warburton, William K.; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Sabourov, K.; Cooper, Matthew W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Gleyzer, A.; Bean, Marc; Korpach, E.; Ungar, R. Kurt; Zhang, W.; Mekarski, P.; Ward, Rebecca; Biegalski, S.; Haas, Derek A.

2009-09-22

451

Neutron-chamber detectors and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detector applications in nuclear safeguards and waste management have included measuring neutrons from fission and (?, n) reactions with well-moderated neutron proportional counters, often embedded in a slab of polyethylene. Other less-moderated geometries are useful for detecting both bare and moderated fission-source neutrons with good efficiency. The neutron chamber is an undermoderated detector design comprising a large, hollow, polyethylene-walled chamber containing one or more proportional counters. Neutron-chamber detectors are relatively inexpensive, can have large apertures, usually through a thin chamber wall, and offer very good detection efficiency per dollar. For 10% of the cost, a neutron-chamber detector may give one-half the total detection efficiency of a slab detector for detecting neutrons from a distant, bare source. A nuclear-safeguards pedestrian monitor detects concealed plutonium using two such chamber detectors to form a walk-through portal. Neutron-chamber detectors have also been used for monitoring vehicles and for assaying large crates of transuranic waste. Our Monte Carlo calculations for a new application (monitoring low-density waste for concealed plutonium) illustrate the advantages of the hollow-chamber design for detecting moderated fission sources.

Fehlau, Paul E.; Atwater, Henry F.; Coop, Kenneth L.

1990-12-01

452

Nuclear Electronics: Superconducting Detectors and Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the commercialisation of superconducting particles and radiation detectors set to occur in the very near future, nuclear analytical instrumentation is taking a big step forward. These new detectors have a high degree of accuracy, stability and speed and are suitable for high-density multiplex integration in nuclear research laboratories and astrophysics. Furthermore, superconducting detectors can also be successfully applied to food safety, airport security systems, medical examinations, doping tests & forensic investigations. This book is the first to address a new generation of analytical tools based on new superconductor detectors demonstrating outstanding performance unsurpassed by any other conventional devices. Presenting the latest research and development in nanometer technologies and biochemistry this book: * Discusses the development of nuclear sensing techniques. * Provides guidance on the design and use of the next generation of detectors. * Describes cryogenic detectors for nuclear measurements and spectrometry. * Covers primary detectors, front-end readout electronics and digital signal processing. * Presents applications in nanotechnology and modern biochemistry including DNA sequencing, proteinomics, microorganisms. * Features examples of two applications in X-ray electron probe nanoanalysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This comprehensive treatment is the ideal reference for researchers, industrial engineers and graduate students involved in the development of high precision nuclear measurements, nuclear analytical instrumentation and advanced superconductor primary sensors. This book will also appeal to physicists, electrical and electronic engineers in the nuclear industry.

Polushkin, Vladimir

2004-06-01

453

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

454

Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++[1], GAMANL[2], GRPANL[3] and MGAU[4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

Lavietes, A. D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, E. H.

1999-02-01

455

Detector Simulations for the COREA Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COREA (COsmic ray Research and Education Array in Korea) project aims to build a ground array of particle detectors distributed over the Korean Peninsular, through collaborations of high school students, educators, and university researchers, in order to study the origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays. COREA array will consist of about 2000 detector stations covering several hundreds of km2 area at its final configuration and detect electrons and muons in extensive air-showers triggered by high energy particles. During the initial pase COREA array will start with a small number of detector stations in Seoul area schools. In this paper, we have studied by Monte Carlo simulations how to select detector sites for optimal detection efficiency for proton triggered air-showers. We considered several model clusters with up to 30 detector stations and calculated the effective number of air-shower events that can be detected per year for each cluster. The greatest detection efficiency is achieved when the mean distance between detector stations of a cluster is comparable to the effective radius of the air-shower of a given proton energy. We find the detection efficiency of a cluster with randomly selected detector sites is comparable to that of clusters with uniform detector spacing. We also considered a hybrid cluster with 60 detector stations that combines a small cluster with ?l ? 100 m and a large cluster with ?l ? 1 km. We suggest that it can be an ideal configuration for the initial phase study of the COREA project, since it can measure the cosmic rays with a wide energy range, i.e., 1016eV ?E ? 1019eV, with a reasonable detection rate.

Lee, Sungwon; Kang, Hyesung

2006-12-01

456

Air/fuel ratio detector  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for detecting the air/fuel ratio of exhaust gas with a detector comprising an electrochemical cell sensor element and an oxygen pump element. Each element is in the form of an oxygen-ion-conductive solid electrolyte having a porous electrode formed on both sides thereof. The electrochemical cell sensor element being disposed to face the pump element with a small gap therebetween, exposed to the exhaust gas and an air compartment which is open to the atmosphere being formed on that side of the pump element which is opposite to the small gap. An electric current is caused to flow through the oxygen pump element so that oxygen is pumped into the small gap from the air compartment or in the opposite direction, thereby producing an electromotive force in the sensor element. The electromotive force and the current flowing through the pump element is used as a basis for detecting the air/fuel ratio of the exhaust gas. The improvement described here is wherein a sufficient amount of current to pump oxygen from the air compartment into the small gap is caused to flow through the oxygen pump element so as to produce an abrupt change in the electromotive force of the sensor element at a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. The electromotive force of the sensor element is used to determine whether a present air/fuel ratio is in the fuel-rich or fuel-lean region.

Yamada, T.; Hirate, S.

1986-10-07

457

Nano-Mechanical Infrared Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 0.7 m and 100 m. It extends from visible light to THz waves. Because fundamentally different phenomena can be observed within the IR region, four sub-bands are usually distinguished: near-IR (NIR), mid-wave-IR (MWIR), long-wave-IR (LWIR) and very long-wave-IR (VLWIR). Although somewhat different definitions exist in literature, wavelengths from 0.7 m to 2.5 m belong to NIR, from 2.5 m to 8 m belong to MWIR, from 8 m to 14 m belong to LWIR and wavelengths above 14 m belong to VLWIR. The IR photon energies range from 1.77 eV for 0.7 m photons to 0.0124 eV for 100 m photons. The significance and practical applications of IR detectors are related to two distinct phenomena: emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects at T > 0 K and interaction of electromagnetic waves with vibrational modes of molecular bonds. Thermal imaging and molecular spectroscopy are, respectively, the two major fields that critically depend on the ability to detect IR radiation.

Grbovic, Dragoslav [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Hunter, Scott [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL

2011-01-01

458

The NA62 RICH detector  

SciTech Connect

The NA62 experiment is designed to measure the very rare kaon decay K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} at the CERN SPS with a 10% accuracy. The Standard Model prediction for the Branching Ratio is (8.5 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -11}. One of the challenging aspect of the experiment is the suppression of the K{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +} v{sub {mu}} background at the 10{sup -12} level. To satisfy this requirement a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH), able to separate {pi}{sup {+-}} from {mu}{sup {+-}} in the momentum range between 15 and 35 GeV/c, with a {mu}, rejection factor better than 10{sup -2}, is needed. The RICH must also have a time resolution of about 100 ps to disentangle accidental time associations of beam particles with pions. The RICH will have a very long focal length (17 m) and will be filled with Ne gas at atmospheric pressure. Two test beams were held at CERN in 2007 and 2009 with a RICH prototype. The results of the two test beams will be presented: the {mu}, mis-identification probability is found to be about 0.7% and the time resolution better than 100 ps in the whole momentum range. (authors)

Cassese, A. [INFN Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)

2011-07-01

459

Handheld erythema and bruise detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual inspection of intact skin is commonly used when assessing persons for pressure ulcers and bruises. Melanin masks skin discoloration hindering visual inspection in people with darkly pigmented skin. The objective of the project is to develop a point of care technology capable of detecting erythema and bruises in persons with darkly pigmented skin. Two significant hardware components, a color filter array and illumination system have been developed and tested. The color filter array targets four defined wavelengths and has been designed to fit onto a CMOS sensor. The crafting process generates a multilayer film on a glass substrate using vacuum ion beam splitter and lithographic techniques. The illumination system is based upon LEDs and targets these same pre-defined wavelengths. Together, these components are being used to create a small, handheld multispectral imaging device. Compared to other multi spectral technologies (multi prisms, optical-acoustic crystal and others), the design provides simple, low cost instrumentation that has many potential multi spectral imaging applications which require a handheld detector.

Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Duckworth, Mark G.; Yi, Dingrong; Caspall, Jayme J.; Wang, Jiwu; Zhao, Futing

2008-04-01

460

Minefield reconnaissance and detector system  

DOEpatents

A multi-sensor system is described for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like. A remote sensor platform has a plurality of metal detector sensors and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors. The remote sensor platform is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit and signals from the remote sensor platform are sent to the processing and control unit where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps to obtain a probability score for each of the pluralities of sensors. These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step by comparing score sets to a probability table which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess for controlling a marker device to mark the location of found objects. 7 figures.

Butler, M.T.; Cave, S.P.; Creager, J.D.; Johnson, C.M.; Mathes, J.B.; Smith, K.J.

1994-04-26