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1

Modeling scintillator-photodiodes as detectors for megavoltage CT.  

PubMed

The use of cadmium tungstate (CdWO4) and cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] scintillation detectors is studied in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT). A model describing the signal acquired from a scintillation detector has been developed which contains two steps: (1) the calculation of the energy deposited in the crystal due to MeV photons using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code; and (2) the transport of the optical photons generated in the crystal voxels to photodiodes using the optical Monte Carlo code DETECT2000. The measured detector signals in single CdWO4 and CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals of base 0.275 x 0.8 cm2 and heights 0.4, 1, 1.2, 1.6 and 2 cm were, generally, in good agreement with the signals calculated with the model. A prototype detector array which contains 8 CdWO4 crystals, each 0.275 x 0.8 x 1 cm3, in contact with a 16-element array of photodiodes was built. The measured attenuation of a Cobalt-60 beam as a function of solid water thickness behaves linearly. The frequency dependent modulation transfer function [MTF(f)], noise power spectrum [NPS(f)], and detective quantum efficiency [DQE(f)] were measured for 1.25 MeV photons (in a Cobalt-60 beam). For 6 MV photons, only the MTF(f) was measured from a linear accelerator, where large pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in the output of the linear accelerator did not allow the measurement of the NPS(f). A two-step Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the detector's MTF(f), NPS(f) and DQE(f). The DQE(0) of the detector array was found to be 26% and 19% for 1.25 MeV and 6 MV photons, respectively. For 1.25 MeV photons, the maximum discrepancies between the measured and modeled MTF(f), relative NPS(f) and the DQE(f) were found to be 1.5%, 1.2%, and 1.9%, respectively. For the 6 MV beam, the maximum discrepancy between the modeled and the measured MTF(f) was found to be 2.5%. The modeling is sufficiently accurate for designing appropriate detectors for MVCT. PMID:15191313

Monajemi, T T; Steciw, S; Fallone, B G; Rathee, S

2004-05-01

2

Scintillator-photodiode type detectors for multi-energy scanning introscopy  

E-print Network

Results of experimental studies of detector arrays S-PD (scintillator-photodiode) and PRD (scintillator-photoreceiving device) used for X-ray digital radiography have shown that there exist further possibilities to increase spatial resolution of this system up to 2-3 line pairs per mm. Theoretical analysis and experimental studies show that the two-energy detection method not only allows one to detect organics on the background of metal, but also substantially increases (by 3-5 times) the detection ability of the system as a whole, especially if parameters of the S-PD pair are optimized, in particular, when ZnSe(Te) is used in the low-energy circuit. A possibility to distinguish, in principle, between substances with insignificant differences in atomic number has been theoretically proven -- by transition to multi-energy radiography. 3D-imaging has been realized using S-PD detector arrays.

Ryzhikov, V D; Kozin, D N; Lisetskaya, E K; Opolonin, A D; Svishch, V M; Kulik, T V

2002-01-01

3

Scintillator-photodiode type detectors for multi-energy scanning introscopy  

E-print Network

Results of experimental studies of detector arrays S-PD (scintillator-photodiode) and PRD (scintillator-photoreceiving device) used for X-ray digital radiography have shown that there exist further possibilities to increase spatial resolution of this system up to 2-3 line pairs per mm. Theoretical analysis and experimental studies show that the two-energy detection method not only allows one to detect organics on the background of metal, but also substantially increases (by 3-5 times) the detection ability of the system as a whole, especially if parameters of the S-PD pair are optimized, in particular, when ZnSe(Te) is used in the low-energy circuit. A possibility to distinguish, in principle, between substances with insignificant differences in atomic number has been theoretically proven -- by transition to multi-energy radiography. 3D-imaging has been realized using S-PD detector arrays.

V. D. Ryzhikov; S. V. Naydenov; D. N. Kozin; E. K. Lisetskaya; A. D. Opolonin; V. M. Svishch; T. V. Kulik

2002-07-23

4

Detector array with improved spatial resolution for digital radiographic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The film radiographic inspection remains among the most reliable methods for inspection of pipelines and metalwares. The worldwide trend of transition from film radiography to digital radiography requires creation of advanced digital radiography systems. The main direction of digital radiography systems development is improvement of spatial resolution. The pixel size of the X-ray film is several microns, while solid-state detector pixels have dimensions of several hundred or several thousand microns. For the most common detectors of "scintillator-photodiode" type, it is impossible in principle to obtain the film pixel sizes. However, the detecting ability for substances that differ by their density and atomic number achieved using "scintillator-photodiode" detectors is by several orders higher. Using a standard experiment scheme with dual-energy detector arrays, our aim was to show that it could be possible to substantially increase the accuracy of supervision of the inspected object. For obtaining shadow X-ray images, a receiving-detecting circuit with a detector array was developed for 200 mm scanning field. Using model digital radiographic systems and standard testing we have evaluated spatial resolution (not worse than 1.25 line pairs/mm) and detecting ability (better than 0.2 mm steel wire behind 6 mm steel).

Ryzhikov, Volodymyr D.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Galkin, Serhiy M.; Volkov, Volodymyr G.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Kostioukevitch, Serhiy A.

2011-09-01

5

Detectors  

DOEpatents

The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

6

Dual-energy radiography of bone tissues using ZnSe-based scintielectronic detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detectors of the scintillator-photodiode type were obtained on the basis of CsI(Tl), CdWO 4 and ZnSe(Te) crystals, and their comparative study was carried out, aiming at their use in X-ray computer tomography (CT). Because of their low afterglow level (10 ppm after 10 ms), CWO and ZnSe crystals are preferable for this application. A drawback of CWO is its lower (by 3 times) light output as compared with CsI(Tl). ZnSe has low transparence to intrinsic radiation; however, up to energies of 60-70 keV it is superior, as for the whole complex of its parameter, to materials traditionally used for CT detectors. The use of a dual-energy receiving-detecting circuit with a detector pair ZnSe/CsI or ZnSe/CdWO allows efficient distinction between muscular and bone tissues, which supports our earlier theoretical assumptions that this method could be successfully used for separate detection of materials differing in their effective atomic number Zeff and local density (e.g., calcium contents in bone densitometry).

Grinyov, B.; Ryzhikov, V.; Lecoq, P.; Naydenov, S.; Opolonin, A.; Lisetskaya, E.; Galkin, S.; Shumeiko, N.

2007-02-01

7

Semiconductor Detectors (Solid State Detectors)  

E-print Network

Semiconductor Detectors (Solid State Detectors) energy, position particles & photons energy loss conversion electron-hole pairs energetic "cheap" improved resolution #12;Semiconductor Detectors (Solid State electrons holes ni = Nc Nv exp -Eg 2kT = AT 3/ 2 exp -Eg 2kT #12;Semiconductor Detectors how

Peletier, Reynier

8

Particle Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; Introduction; 1. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter; 2. Characteristic properties of detectors; 3. Units of radiation measurements and radiation sources; 4. Accelerators; 5. Main physical phenomena used for particle detection and basic counter types; 6. Historical track detectors; 7. Track detectors; 8. Calorimetry; 9. Particle identification; 10. Neutrino detectors; 11. Momentum measurement and muon detection; 12. Ageing and radiation effects; 13. Example of a general-purpose detector: Belle; 14. Electronics; 15. Data analysis; 16. Applications of particle detectors outside particle physics; 17. Glossary; 18. Solutions; 19. Resumé; Appendixes; Index.

Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris

2008-03-01

9

Particle Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; Introduction; 1. Interactions of particles and radiation with matter; 2. Characteristic properties of detectors; 3. Units of radiation measurements and radiation sources; 4. Accelerators; 5. Main physical phenomena used for particle detection and basic counter types; 6. Historical track detectors; 7. Track detectors; 8. Calorimetry; 9. Particle identification; 10. Neutrino detectors; 11. Momentum measurement and muon detection; 12. Ageing and radiation effects; 13. Example of a general-purpose detector: Belle; 14. Electronics; 15. Data analysis; 16. Applications of particle detectors outside particle physics; 17. Glossary; 18. Solutions; 19. Resumé; Appendixes; Index.

Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris

2011-09-01

10

MS Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

2005-11-01

11

Photon detectors  

SciTech Connect

J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

Va`vra, J.

1995-10-01

12

Pyroelectric detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multi-agency, long-term Global Change programs, and specifically NASA's Earth Observing system, will require some new and advanced photon detector technology which must be specifically tailored for long-term stability, broad spectral range, cooling constraints, and other parameters. Whereas MCT and GaAs alloy based photovoltaic detectors and detector arrays reach most impressive results to wavelengths as long as 12 microns when cooled to below 70 K, other materials, such as ferroelectrics and pyroelectrics, appear to offer special opportunities beyond 12 microns and above 70 K. These materials have found very broad use in a wide variety of room temperature applications. Little is known about these classes of materials at sub-room temperatures and no photon detector results have been reported. From the limited information available, researchers conclude that the room temperature values of D asterisk greater than or equal to 10(exp 9) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W may be improved by one to two orders of magnitude upon cooling to temperatures around 70 K. Improvements of up to one order of magnitude appear feasible for temperatures achievable by passive cooling. The flat detector response over a wavelength range reaching from the visible to beyond 50 microns, which is an intrinsic advantage of bolometric devices, makes for easy calibration. The fact that these materials have been developed for reduced temperature applications makes ferro- and pyroelectric materials most attractive candidates for serious exploration.

Haller, Eugene E.; Beeman, Jeffrey; Hansen, William L.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.

1990-01-01

13

Pyroelectric detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-agency, long-term Global Change programs, and specifically NASA's Earth Observing system, will require some new and advanced photon detector technology which must be specifically tailored for long-term stability, broad spectral range, cooling constraints, and other parameters. Whereas MCT and GaAs alloy based photovoltaic detectors and detector arrays reach most impressive results to wavelengths as long as 12 microns when cooled to below 70 K, other materials, such as ferroelectrics and pyroelectrics, appear to offer special opportunities beyond 12 microns and above 70 K. These materials have found very broad use in a wide variety of room temperature applications. Little is known about these classes of materials at sub-room temperatures and no photon detector results have been reported. From the limited information available, researchers conclude that the room temperature values of D asterisk greater than or equal to 10(exp 9) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W may be improved by one to two orders of magnitude upon cooling to temperatures around 70 K. Improvements of up to one order of magnitude appear feasible for temperatures achievable by passive cooling. The flat detector response over a wavelength range reaching from the visible to beyond 50 microns, which is an intrinsic advantage of bolometric devices, makes for easy calibration. The fact that these materials have been developed for reduced temperature applications makes ferro- and pyroelectric materials most attractive candidates for serious exploration.

Haller, Eugene E.; Beeman, Jeffrey; Hansen, William L.; Hubbard, G. Scott; McMurray, Robert E., Jr.

1990-07-01

14

Microwave detector  

DOEpatents

A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, Heiner W. (Moss Beach, CA); Cusson, Ronald Y. (Chapel Hill, NC); Johnson, Ray M. (San Ramon, CA)

1986-01-01

15

Hydrogen detector  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

Kanegae, Naomichi (Mito, JP); Ikemoto, Ichiro (Mito, JP)

1980-01-01

16

Detector Detail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game requires users to match the âÂÂshower shapesâ and the energies of particles produced in a particle collision. There is also a movie (or animated gif) in the Calorimetry section which allows students to see the workings of the detector. It is part of a collection of games that allows students to explore concepts in particle physics.

2008-07-23

17

Vertex detectors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10{sup {minus}13} s, among them the {tau} lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation.

Lueth, V.

1992-07-01

18

Neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

2011-04-05

19

Angle detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.

Parra, G. T. (inventor)

1978-01-01

20

Flame Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific Instruments, Inc. has now developed a second generation, commercially available instrument to detect flames in hazardous environments, typically refineries, chemical plants and offshore drilling platforms. The Model 74000 detector incorporates a sensing circuit that detects UV radiation in a 100 degree conical field of view extending as far as 250 feet from the instrument. It operates in a bandwidth that makes it virtually 'blind' to solar radiation while affording extremely high sensitivity to ultraviolet flame detection. A 'windowing' technique accurately discriminates between background UV radiation and ultraviolet emitted from an actual flame, hence the user is assured of no false alarms. Model 7410CP is a combination controller and annunciator panel designed to monitor and control as many as 24 flame detectors. *Model 74000 is no longer being manufactured.

1990-01-01

21

National Detector Dog Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Detector Dog Manual covers background information, procedures, health care, and training related to detector dog activities. The procedures have a national focus to guide detector dog activities, and they are supplemental to general operation...

2004-01-01

22

Detector simulation needs for detector designers  

SciTech Connect

Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

Hanson, G.G.

1987-11-01

23

Coded IR proximity detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coded IR proximity detector is able to generate an electrical signal when the distance between the detector and a certain object becomes shorter than a preset value. The detector may be used as an automotive indicator and control. The detector consists of four parts: a controller, a transmitter, a receiver and the optical system, used both for transmission and

Tudor Zisu; Sorin Miclos

2001-01-01

24

Gas detectors for neutrons  

SciTech Connect

The principles involved in gas detectors for neutrons and the techniques for position encoding in such detectors are reviewed. This forms the basis for a discussion of the limitations on gas detector position resolution and maximum data rates, and of the aging effects in such detectors. Current capabilities and possible areas for improvement are noted.

Crawford, R.K.

1995-07-01

25

Advanced UV Detectors and Detector Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gallium Nitride (GaN) with its wide energy bandgap of 3.4 eV holds excellent promise for solar blind UV detectors. We have successfully designed, fabricated and tested GaN p-i-n detectors and detector arrays. The detectors have a peak responsivity of 0.14A/W at 363 nm (3.42 eV) at room temperature. This corresponds to an internal quantum efficiency of 56%. The responsivity decreases by several orders of magnitude to 0.008 A/W at 400 nm (3.10 eV) giving the excellent visible rejection ratio needed for solar-blind applications.

Pankove, Jacques I.; Torvik, John

1998-01-01

26

The upgraded DØ detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; De, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; DeMaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.

2006-09-01

27

Infrared Detector: Card Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes the physics of a simple infra-red detector. A simulation is used to illustrate energy level dependence and electron transitions in the detector. Discussion problems and comparison with other physical applications are included.

Zollman, Dean

2010-08-10

28

Tin Can Radiation Detector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

Crull, John L.

1986-01-01

29

Asynchronous Failure Detectors  

E-print Network

Failure detectors -- oracles that provide information about process crashes -- are an important abstraction for crash tolerance in distributed systems. The generality of failure-detector theory, while providing great ...

Cornejo, Alejandro

2013-01-30

30

Asynchronous failure detectors  

E-print Network

Failure detectors - oracles that provide information about process crashes - are an important abstraction for crash tolerance in distributed systems. Although current failure-detector theory provides great generality and ...

Cornejo, Alejandro

31

Asynchronous Failure Detectors  

E-print Network

Failure detectors -- oracles that provide information about process crashes -- are an important abstraction for crash tolerance in distributed systems. The generality of failure-detector theory, while providing great ...

Cornejo, Alejandro

2013-10-10

32

500 MHz neutron detector  

SciTech Connect

A {sup 10}B-loaded scintillation detector was built for neutron transmission measurements at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center. The efficiency of the detector is nearly 100% for neutron energies from 0 to 1 keV. The neutron moderation time in the scintillator is about 250 ns and is energy independent. The detector and data processing system are designed to handle an instantaneous rate as high as 500 MHz. The active area of the detector is 40 cm in diameter.

Yen, Yi-Fen; Bowman, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Matsuda, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

1993-12-01

33

Transient fault detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present fault detectors for transient faults, (i.e., corruptions of the memory of the processors, but not of the code of\\u000a the processors). We distinguish fault detectors for tasks (i.e., the problem to be solved) from failure detectors for implementations (i.e., the algorithm that solves the problem). The aim of our fault detectors is to detect a memory corruption as

Joffroy Beauquier; Sylvie Delaët; Shlomi Dolev; Sébastien Tixeuil

2007-01-01

34

The upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

2006-01-01

35

Tevatron detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

36

Gamma ray detector shield  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

1985-08-26

37

Detectors for lightwave communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightwave communication links need photodetectors and optical receivers to demodulate the optical signals and to convert them into electrical outputs. Photodetectors include simple thermal detectors, which respond to the energy of the incident radiation, and photon detectors, which respond to the arrival rate of the photons. The photon detectors which were found to be most suitable for lightwave communication at

Hans Melchior

1977-01-01

38

Differential optical proximity detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Updated detector can operate under ambient light and uses multiple detectors to locate objects in several different spacial volumes. Sensitivity is approved by scanning field-of-view twice: once with coherent light source turned on and once with background light only. Detector outputs for two cases are amplified and subtracted for each photodiode sensor in array, to eliminate effect of background light.

Johnston, A. R.; Shimada, K.; Tippins, H. H., Jr.

1977-01-01

39

Optical detectors for spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modes of operation of photoconductive and photoemissive array detectors are described, and their performance characteristics compared and contrasted, with emphasis on their suitability for use as detectors for optical spectroscopy. The prospects for future developments of the array detectors are discussed.

Timothy, J. G.

1983-01-01

40

High-energy detector  

DOEpatents

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22

41

Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

Soler, F. J. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2011-10-06

42

BATSE spectroscopy detector calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the channel-to-energy calibration of the Spectroscopy Detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). These detectors consist of NaI(TI) crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes whose output in turn is measured by a pulse height analyzer. The calibration of these detectors has been complicated by frequent gain changes and by nonlinearities specific to the BATSE detectors. Nonlinearities in the light output from the NaI crystal and in the pulse height analyzer are shifted relative to each other by changes in the gain of the photomultiplier tube. We present the analytical model which is the basis of our calibration methodology, and outline how the empirical coefficients in this approach were determined. We also describe the complications peculiar to the Spectroscopy Detectors, and how our understanding of the detectors' operation led us to a solution to these problems.

Band, D.; Ford, L.; Matteson, J.; Lestrade, J. P.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

1992-01-01

43

Detectors (4/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

None

2011-10-06

44

Detectors (5/5)  

ScienceCinema

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

None

2011-10-06

45

Detectors of gravitational waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational waves Motion of test bodies in a g.w. field Energy carried by gravitational waves Gravitational-wave sources Spinning star Double-star systems Fall into a Schwarzschild black hole Radiation from gravitational collapse Gravitational-wave detectors The nonresonant detectors The resonant detectors Electromechnical transducers Piezoelectric ceramic The capacitor The inductor Data analysis The Brownian noise The back-action The wide-band noise, data analysis and optimization The resonant transducer The Wiener-Kolmogoroff filter The cross-section and the effective temperature The antenna bandwidth The gravitational-wave experiments in the world The laser interferometers The resonant detectors

Pizzella, G.

46

Smoke Detectors and Legislation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, one of a series for use in public education, provides an in-depth review of the current status of state and local smoke detector legislation. First, for the community considering a smoke detector law or ordinance, six decision points are discussed: which residential occupancy sub-classes will be affected; what the time factors are for…

National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

47

Optical proximity detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensitive, relatively inexpensive instrument uses phase-detection techniques to sense presence of objects. Phase-sensitive detectors, LED, photodiode with response matched to LED output, and filtering lens allow detector to operate over narrow radiation band, giving selectivity over stray light.

Hermann, W. A.; Johnston, A. R.

1977-01-01

48

Transient detector apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient detector apparatus utilizing peak and slope detectors to determine the presence of transient signal in a logic signal. Individual slope measurements of the input signal are compared with a logic criteria to establish the occurrence of a transient. The peak voltage and pulse width of a transient are digitized in order to time tag or isolate a transient

Lapeyrolerie

1985-01-01

49

The TESLA Detector  

E-print Network

For the superconducting linear collider TESLA a multi purpose detector has been designed. This detector is optimised for the important physics processes expected at a next generation linear collider up to around 1 TeV and is designed for the specific environment of a superconducting collider.

Klaus Moenig

2001-11-05

50

Pyroelectric detector arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pryoelectric detector array and the method for making it are described. A series of holes formed through a silicon dioxide layer on the surface of a silicon substrate forms the mounting fixture for the pyroelectric detector array. A series of nontouching strips of indium are formed around the holes to make contact with the backside electrodes and form the output terminals for individual detectors. A pyroelectric detector strip with front and back electrodes, respectively, is mounted over the strip. Biasing resistors are formed on the surface of the silicon dioxide layer and connected to the strips. A metallized pad formed on the surface of the layer is connected to each of the biasing resistors and to the film to provide the ground for the pyroelectric detector array.

Fripp, A. L.; Robertson, J. B.; Breckenridge, R. A. (inventors)

1982-01-01

51

Pyroelectric detector arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pyroelectric detector array and the method for using it are described. A series of holes formed through a silicon dioxide layer on the surface of a silicon substrate forms the mounting fixture for the pyroelectric detector array. A series of nontouching strips of indium are formed around the holes to make contact with the backside electrodes and form the output terminals for individual detectors. A pyroelectric detector strip with front and back electrodes, respectively, is mounted over the strips. Biasing resistors are formed on the surface of the silicon dioxide layer and connected to the strips. A metallized pad formed on the surface of layer is connected to each of the biasing resistors and to the film to provide the ground for the pyroelectric detector array.

Fripp, A. L.; Robertson, J. B.; Breckenridge, R. (inventors)

1982-01-01

52

Nanomechanical resonance detector  

DOEpatents

An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

2013-10-29

53

Barrier infrared detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1959, Lawson and co-workers publication triggered development of variable band gap Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) alloys providing an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Over the five decades, this material system has successfully fought off major challenges from different material systems, but despite that it has more competitors today than ever before. It is interesting however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. They may promise to be more manufacturable, but never to provide higher performance or, with the exception of thermal detectors, to operate at higher temperatures. In the last two decades a several new concepts of photodetectors to improve their performance have been proposed including trapping detectors, barrier detectors, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage detectors. This paper describes the present status of infrared barrier detectors. It is especially addressed to the group of III-V compounds including type-II superlattice materials, although HgCdTe barrier detectors are also included. It seems to be clear that certain of these solutions have merged as a real competitions of HgCdTe photodetectors.

Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

2014-06-01

54

ACCESS: Detector Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (overview Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. The flight detector controller boards have been installed into a ruggedized flight housing. They have been successfully vacuum tested for periods significantly longer than the flight length, and components have been heat-sunk and reinforced as necessary. Thermal stability tests have been performed, and results will be presented. Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL) executed initial characterization tests for the flight detector in 2007. These were repeated in 2012, to ensure and establish baseline performance. Current lab characterization tests at Johns Hopkins are ongoing, and results will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Foltz, R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Pelton, R. S.; Wright, E. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

2013-01-01

55

The HOTWAXS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

Bateman, J. E.; Derbyshire, G. E.; Diakun, G.; Duxbury, D. M.; Fairclough, J. P. A.; Harvey, I.; Helsby, W. I.; Lipp, J. D.; Marsh, A. S.; Salisbury, J.; Sankar, G.; Spill, E. J.; Stephenson, R.; Terrill, N. J.

2007-10-01

56

Impurity conduction photoconductor detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radiation hardening of photoconductive infrared detectors for the application in space instrumentation is under development on the basis of the blocked impurity band concept. These detectors are Impurity Conduction Band (ICB) detectors based on thin epitaxial layers. Both linear and two dimensional arrays have been fabricated out of this material. Their internal structure and layout and their photoconductive performance are outlined. Current responsivities between 5 A/W and 10 A/W and noise equivalent power values in the order of 10 to the minus 17th power W/square root of Hz are obtained.

Engemann, D.; Faymonville, R.; Felten, R.; Frenzl, O.; Haschberger, D.

1992-12-01

57

Ultrafast neutron detector  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector of very high temporal resolution is described. It may be used to measure distributions of neutrons produced by fusion reactions that persist for times as short as about 50 picoseconds.

Wang, C.L.

1985-06-19

58

Pocked surface neutron detector  

DOEpatents

The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-04-08

59

Lightning Current Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightning Current Detector (LCD) was developed to monitor the magnitude of lightning strikes. Information it supplies is useful in evaluating lightning protection designs for such systems as telephone cables, radio broadcast towers, power transmission equipment and oil well towers.

1981-01-01

60

SRAM Detector Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Custom proton sensitive SRAM chips are being flown on the BMDO Clementine missions and Space Technology Research Vehicle experiments. This paper describes the calibration procedure for the SRAM proton detectors and their response to the space environment.

Soli, G. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Beuhler, M. G.

1994-01-01

61

Inverter ratio failure detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (inventors)

1974-01-01

62

The DELPHI microvertex detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main characteristics of the DELPHI Microvertex Detector are presented. The performance in terms of impact parameter resolution, association efficiency, and ambiguity is evaluated after two years of data taking at LEP.

M. Caccia; H. Borner; V. Chabaud; H. Dijkstra; P. Eerola; E. Gross; B. Hyams; R. Horisberger; L. Hubbeling; M. Karlsson; G. Maehlum; I. Roditi; J. Straver; W. Trischuk; P. Weilhammer; Y. Dufour; P. Brueckman; P. JaLOcha; P. Kapusta; M. TuraLA; A. Zalewska; J. Lindgren; R. Orava; K. Österberg; C. Ronnqvist; H. Saarikko; J. P. Saarikko; T. Tuuva; B. D'Almagne; P. Bambade; F. Couchot; F. Fulda; A. Amery; P. S. L. Booth; A. R. Campion; R. McNulty; N. A. Smith; A. Andreazza; M. Battaglia; P. Biffi; V. Bonvicini; W. Kucewicz; C. Meroni; N. Redaelli; A. Stocchi; C. Troncon; G. Vegni; P. Dauncey; M. Mazzucato; M. Pegoraro; A. Peisert; M. Baubillier; J. Chauveau; W. da Silva; J. F. Genat; F. Rossel; T. Adye; R. Apsimon; L. Denton; G. E. Kalmus; J. Lidbury; P. Seller; M. Tyndel; W. Dulinski; D. Husson; A. Lounis; M. Schaeffer; R. Turchetta; R. Brenner; E. Sundell; M Schäffer

1992-01-01

63

PHENIX detector overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PHENIX detector is designed to perform a broad study of A-A, p-A, and p-p collisions to investigate nuclear matter under extreme conditions. A wide variety of probes, sensitive to all timescales, are used to study systematic variations with species and energy as well as to measure the spin structure of the nucleon. Designing for the needs of the heavy-ion and polarized-proton programs has produced a detector with unparalleled capabilities. PHENIX measures electron and muon pairs, photons, and hadrons with excellent energy and momentum resolution. The detector consists of a large number of subsystems that are discussed in other papers in this volume. The overall design parameters of the detector are presented.

Adcox, K.; Adler, S. S.; Aizama, M.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akikawa, H.; Alexander, J.; Al-Jamel, A.; Allen, M.; Alley, G.; Amirikas, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Arai, Y.; Archuleta, J. B.; Archuleta, J. R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Aronson, S. H.; Autrey, D.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Baldisseri, A.; Banning, J.; Barish, K. N.; Barker, A. B.; Barnes, P. D.; Barrette, J.; Barta, F.; Bassalleck, B.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V. V.; Bazilevsky, A.; Begay, R.; Behrendt, J.; Belikov, S.; Belkin, R.; Bellaiche, F. G.; Belyaev, S. T.; Bennett, M. J.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhaganatula, S.; Biggs, J. C.; Bland, A. W.; Blume, C.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J. G.; Boose, S.; Borel, H.; Borland, D.; Bosze, E.; Botelho, S.; Bowers, J.; Britton, C.; Britton, L.; Brooks, M. L.; Brown, A. W.; Brown, D. S.; Bruner, N.; Bryan, W. L.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Burward-Hoy, J.; Butsyk, S. A.; Cafferty, M. M.; Carey, T. A.; Chai, J. S.; Chand, P.; Chang, J.; Chang, W. C.; Chappell, R. B.; Chavez, L. L.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christ, T.; Chujo, T.; Chung, M. S.; Chung, P.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D. J.; Cobigo, Y.; Cole, B. A.; Constantin, P.; Conway, R.; Cook, K. C.; Crook, D. W.; Cunitz, H.; Cunningham, R.; Cutshaw, M.; D'Enterria, D. G.; Dabrowski, C. M.; Danby, G.; Daniels, S.; Danmura, A.; David, G.; Debraine, A.; Delagrange, H.; Demoss, J.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dinesh, B. V.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Du Rietz, R.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Ebisu, K.; Echave, M. A.; Efremenko, Y. V.; El Chenawi, K.; Emery, M. S.; Engo, D.; Enokizono, A.; Enosawa, K.; En'yo, H.; Ericson, N.; Esumi, S.; Evseev, V. A.; Ewell, L.; Fackler, O.; Fellenstein, J.; Ferdousi, T.; Ferrierra, J.; Fields, D. E.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fox, B.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frank, S.; Franz, A.; Frantz, J. E.; Frawley, A. D.; Fried, J.; Freidberg, J. P.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Fung, S.-Y.; Gadrat, S.; Gannon, J.; Garpman, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T. F.; Gentry, R.; Ghosh, T. K.; Giannotti, P.; Glenn, A.; Godoi, A. L.; Gonin, M.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Greene, S. V.; Griffin, V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gupta, S. K.; Guryn, W.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, S.; Halliwell, J.; Hamagaki, H.; Hance, R. H.; Hansen, A. G.; Hara, H.; Harder, J.; Hart, G. W.; Hartouni, E. P.; Harvey, A.; Hawkins, L.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayashi, H.; Hayashi, N.; He, X.; Heine, N.; Heistermann, F.; Held, S.; Hemmick, T. K.; Heuser, J. M.; Hibino, M.; Hicks, J. S.; Higuchi, R.; Hill, J. C.; Hirano, T.; Ho, D. S.; Hoade, R.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Honaguchi, T.; Hunter, C. T.; Hurst, D. E.; Hutter, R.; Ichihara, T.; Ikonnikov, V. V.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M. S.; Davis Isenhower, L.; Donald Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Issah, M.; Ivanov, V. I.; Jacak, B. V.; Jackson, G.; Jackson, J.; Jaffe, D.; Jagadish, U.; Jang, W. Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Jia, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Johnson, J.; Johnson, S. C.; Jones, J. P.; Jones, K.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Kahn, S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kandasamy, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kann, M. R.; Kapoor, S. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karadjev, K. V.; Kashikhin, V.; Kato, S.; Katou, K.; Kehayias, H.-J.; Kelley, M. A.; Kelly, S.; Kennedy, M.; Khachaturov, B.; Khanzadeev, A. V.; Khomutnikov, A.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Kochetkov, V.; Koehler, D.; Kohama, T.; Komkov, B. G.; Kopytine, M. L.; Koseki, K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kotchetkov, D.; Koutcheryaev, Iou. A.; Kozlov, A.; Kozlov, V. S.; Kravtsov, P. A.; Kroon, P. J.; Kuberg, C. H.; Kudin, L. G.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Kuriatkov, V. V.; Kurita, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Labounty, J. J.; Lacey, R.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, V. A.; Lebedev, V. D.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M. J.; Lenz, M.; Lenz, W.; Li, X. H.; Li, Z.; Libby, B.; Libkind, M.; Liccardi, W.; Lim, D. J.; Lin, S.; Liu, M. X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lockner, E.; Longbotham, N.; Lopez, J. D.; Machnowski, R.; Maguire, C. F.; Mahon, J.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Manko, V. I.; Mao, Y.; Marino, S.; Mark, S. K.; Markacs, S.; Markushin, D. G.; Martinez, G.; Martinez, X. B.; Marx, M. D.; Masaike, A.; Matathias, F.; Matsumoto, T.; McGaughey, P. L.; McCain, M. C.; Mead, J.; Melnikov, E.; Melnikov, Y.; Meng, W. Z.; Merschmeyer, M.; Messer, F.; Messer, M.; Miake, Y.; Miftakhov, N. M.; Migluolio, S.; Milan, J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Minuzzo, K.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R. E.; Mishra, G. C.

64

Gaseous dark matter detectors  

E-print Network

Dark matter (DM) detectors with directional sensitivity have the potential of yielding an unambiguous positive observation of WIMPs as well as discriminating between galactic DM halo models. In this paper, we introduce the ...

Martoff, C. J.

65

Improved CO [lidar detector  

SciTech Connect

A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

1999-07-18

66

Two new flame detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new IR flame detectors equipped with pyroelectric sensors are demonstrated. Both detectors are totally new on the world market. With the help of a new method of flame detection it is possible to distinguish flame from all interference radiation with great reliability. Applications: indoor and outdoor fire detection applications such as warehouses, hangars, ships, oil refineries etc. for fires involving all carbonaceous materials such as petrol, oil products, alcohol, wood and plastics.

Tar, D.

1985-02-01

67

The DELPHI Microvertex detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DELPHI Microvertex detector, which has been in operation since the start of the 1990 LEP run, consists of three layers of silicon microstrip detectors at average radii of 6.3, 9.0 and 11.0 cm. The 73728 readout strips, oriented along the beam, have a total active area of 0.42 m2. The strip pitch is 25 mum and every other strip

N. Bingefors; H. Borner; R. Boulter; M. Caccia; V. Chabaud; H. Dijkstra; P. Eerola; E. Gross; R. Horisberger; L. Hubbeling; B. Hyams; M. Karlsson; G. Maehlum; K. Ratz; I. Roditi; J. Straver; W. Trischuk; P. Weilhammer; Y. Dufour; P. Brückman; P. Jalocha; P. Kapusta; M. Turala; A. Zalewska; J. Lindgren; R. Orava; K. Österberg; C. Ronnqvist; H. Saarikko; J. P. Saarikko; T. Tuuva; B. D'Almagne; P. Bambade; F. Couchot; F. Fulda; A. Amery; P. S. L. Booth; A. R. Campion; R. McNulty; N. A. Smith; A. Andreazza; M. Battaglia; P. Biffi; V. Bonvicini; W. Kucewicz; C. Meroni; N. Redaelli; A. Stocchi; C. Troncon; G. Vegni; P. Dauncey; M. Mazzucato; M. Pegoraro; A. Peisert; M. Baubillier; J. Chauveau; W. da Silva; J. F. Genat; F. Rossel; T. Adye; R. Apsimon; J. Bizell; L. Denton; G. E. Kalmus; J. Lidbury; P. Seller; M. Tyndel; W. Dulinski; D. Husson; A. Lounis; M. Schaeffer; R. Turchetta; R. Brenner; E. Sundell

1993-01-01

68

The DMTPC detector  

E-print Network

Directional detection of Dark Matter allows for unambiguous direct detection of WIMPs as well as discrimination between various Dark Matter models in our galaxy. The DMTPC detector is a low-pressure TPC with optical readout designed for directional direct detection of WIMPs. By using CF4 gas as the active material, the detector also has excellent sensitivity to spin-dependent interactions of Dark Matter on protons.

G. Sciolla; J. Battat; T. Caldwell; B. Cornell; D. Dujmic; P. Fisher; S. Henderson; R. Lanza; A. Lee; J. Lopez; A. Kaboth; G. Kohse; J. Monroe; T. Sahin; R. Vanderspek; R. Yamamoto; H. Yegoryan; S. Ahlen; D. Avery; K. Otis; A. Roccaro; H. Tomita; A. Dushkin; H. Wellenstein

2008-11-18

69

Compact infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broadband IR detector integrated into compact package for pollution monitoring and weather prediction is small, highly responsive, and immune to high noise. Sensing material is transparent sheet metalized with reflecting coating and overcoated with black material on same side. Pulse produced by chopping of infrared source beam creates transient "thermal lens" that temporarily defocuses laser beam probe. Detector monitoring beam measures defocusing which parallels infrared intensity.

Gupta, A.; Hong, S.; Moacanin, J.

1981-01-01

70

Gamma ray detector modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

71

Signal Formation in Various Detectors  

E-print Network

In this write up we present the general theory of the signal formation in various detectors. We follow a pedagogical analysis and presentation such that the results could easily understood and applied by the interested reader to the different detector configurations. We include few applications to gaseous detectors, namely, Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) and microstrip pattern detector of the micromegas type.

Manolis Dris; Theo Alexopoulos

2014-06-12

72

A vertex detector for SLD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SLAC Linear Collider is currently being commissioned. A second-generation detector for SLC, known as SLD, is now under construction. In the centre of this 4000 ton detector there will be a vertex detector (VXD) consisting of 4 barrels of 2-dimensional CCDs, approximately 250 CCDs in total. This detector will be used as a tracking microscope, able to pinpoint the

C. J. S. Damerell; R. L. English; A. R. Gillman; A. L. Lintern; D. Phillips; G. Rong; C. Sutton; F. J. Wickens; G. Agnew; P. Clarke; S. Hedges; S. J. Watts

1989-01-01

73

Development of lightning current detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightning current detector to record the maximum current amplitude of a lightning strike to the 150 meter weather tower at KSC was developed. The principle of operation of the detector is discussed, materials chosen to build the detector are described, and calibration tests performed on the detector are given. Field results of the detectors from two separate lightning strikes to the tower are included.

Livermore, S.

1976-01-01

74

Microwave kinetic inductance detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature detectors have been a subject of intense interest to the scientific community over the last decade. These detectors work at very low temperatures, often well below 1 Kelvin, to minimize the noise in the measurement of photons. This leads to very powerful detectors applicable to a broad wavelength range. Since these detectors are so sensitive even single pixels and small arrays (up to several hundred pixels) enable deeper explorations of the cosmos than ever before. Instruments based on these technologies have been used at submillimeter, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. The scientific prospects for these detectors increase as they grow in pixel count. For some applications, especially for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization work, a large focal plane will not only increase efficiency but will also enable new and vital science. Current superconducting technologies, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), can currently deliver extremely high sensitivity in the submillimeter and read- noise free imaging spectroscopy at Optical/UV and X-ray wavelengths, but the largest arrays contain less that 100 pixels. In order to make real progress these arrays must contain many thousands of pixels. This is a formidable technical challenge. This thesis will explore a promising emerging technology called Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs make use of the change in the surface impedance of a superconductor as incoming photons break up Cooper pairs. This is accomplished by making the strip of superconductor part of a microwave resonant circuit, and monitoring the phase of a signal transmitted through (or past) the resonator. The primary advantage of this technology is that by using resonant circuits with high quality factors, passive frequency domain multiplexing will allow up to thousands of resonators to be read out through a single coaxial cable and a single HEMT amplifier. This eliminates the cryogenic electronics (SQUIDS) and wiring problems associated with current superconducting devices. Inexpensive and powerful room-temperature readout electronics can leverage the microwave integrated circuits developed for wireless communications.

Mazin, Benjamin A.

2005-11-01

75

Superconductor IR detector research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A development status report is presented for efforts in the testing and characterization of high temperature superconducting thin films (HTSTFs) in the role of IR detectors. While none of the HTSTFs thus far tested was specifically formulated to serve in an IR sensing capacity, the results obtained have confirmed the ability of the test apparatus devised to obtain accurate, reliable, and repeatable detector performance data. The initial HTSTF tests were conducted on BaCuO films sputtered on strontium titanate substrates. Chips made from the films were 5 x 5 mm and approximately 2 microns thick.

Meuser, L. H.; Thiede, D. A.; McDonald, P.; Garcia, J.

1989-10-01

76

Radiation Detectors and Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of radiation detectors in the analysis of art objects represents a very special application in a true interdisciplinary field. Radiation detectors employed in this field detect, e.g., x-rays, ?-rays, ? particles, and protons. Analyzed materials range from stones, metals, over porcelain to paintings. The available nondestructive and noninvasive analytical methods cover a broad range of techniques. Hence, for the sake of brevity, this chapter will concentrate on few techniques: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced ?-ray Emission (PIGE).

Denker, Andrea

77

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

78

Gaseous Radiation Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction; 2. Electromagnetic interactions of charged particles with matter; 3. Interactions of photons and neutrons with matter; 4. Drift and diffusion of charges in gases; 5. Collisional excitations and charge multiplication in uniform fields; 6. Parallel plate counters; 7. Proportional counters; 8. Multiwire proportional chambers; 9. Drift chambers; 10. Time projection chambers; 11. Multitube arrays; 12. Resistive plate chambers; 13. Micro-pattern gas detectors; 14. Cherenkov ring imaging; 15. Miscellaneous detectors and applications; 16. Time degeneracy and aging; Further reading; References; Index.

Sauli, Fabio

2014-06-01

79

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

Anderson, D.F.

1984-01-31

80

Cosmic ray detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on the MSFC emulsion laboratory microscopes in which mechanical modifications previously made were verified is reviewed, as is a design study of a large area hybrid electronic/emulsion chamber balloon flight detector system. This design is built upon the experience obtained with the highly successful MSFC/UAH hybrid instrument flown by the JACEE consortium. The design included overall system design and specification, design and fabrication of a prototype large light diffusion for Cerenkov charge detector or scintillator, design of a multiwire proportional counter array and design of the gondola or flight support system.

Gregory, John C.

1987-01-01

81

Glow discharge detector  

DOEpatents

A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

2002-01-01

82

The Upgraded D0 detector  

SciTech Connect

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U./Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco deQuito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS; ,

2005-07-01

83

Detector assembly with a diamond detector for recording neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BDPN-1K detector assembly for neutron radiation comprises the detector and a preamplifier connected by a 10-m-long cable. The detector can be disassembled. Before the sensitive surface of the diamond there is placed a cover with a converter disk cemented to it; this disk is a UâOâ layer applied to an aluminum foil. Since the detector can be disassembled, the

A. E. Luchanskii; S. S. Martynov; V. S. Khrunov; V. A. Chekhlaev

1988-01-01

84

Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps, Detector Descriptions in GODL  

E-print Network

Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays. In addition to three built-in detector configurations, detector descriptions can also be read from files in the new GODL file format.

Langeveld, W

2005-01-01

85

Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps, Detector Descriptions in GODL  

SciTech Connect

Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays. In addition to three built-in detector configurations, detector descriptions can also be read from files in the new GODL file format.

Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC

2005-07-06

86

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, D.C.

1980-12-17

87

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

DOEpatents

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

Myneni, G.R.

1999-08-03

88

Eventually consistent failure detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of unreliable failure detecto was introduced by Chandra and Toueg [2] as a mechanism that provides (possibly incorrect) information about process failures. This mechanism has been used to solve different problems in async hronous systems, in particular the Consensus problem.In this paper, we present a new class of unreliable failure detectors, which we call Eventually Consistent and denote

Mikel Larrea; Antonio Fernández; Sergio Arévalo

2001-01-01

89

Activation neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable

T. S. Ambardanishvili; M. A. Kolomiitsev; T. Y. Zakharina; V. J. Dundua; N. V. Chikhladze

1976-01-01

90

Comparing salient point detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of salient points in content-based retrieval allows an image index to represent local properties of the image. Classic corner detectors can also be used for this purpose but they have drawbacks when are applied to various natural images mainly because visual features do not need to be corners and corners may gather in small regions. In this paper,

Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew

2003-01-01

91

ATLAS detector control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS Detector Control System (DCS) is largely based on industry standard components, protocols, and software packages: CAN bus, OPC server, and the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system PVSS. Current analysis covers development and tests of DCS components for the liquid argon purity monitors and the Level-1 calorimeter trigger.

Andrey Belkin

2004-01-01

92

Optical detector calibrator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

93

Leak detector uses ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Probe located on outer wall of vacuum-jacketed fluid lines detects leaks on inner wall. Probe picks up and amplifies vibrations that occur when gas rushes through leak and converts them to audible signal or CRT display. System is considerably simpler to use than helium leak detectors and allows rapid checks to be made as part of routine maintenance.

Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.; Keir, A. R.

1978-01-01

94

Differential light detector.  

PubMed

A sensitive differential light detector is described which consists of two antiparallel silicon photovoltaic diodes and a current-to-voltage converter. The device is optimized to the detection of small differences in intensity. The noise and signal transfer features are considered, and an application example is given. PMID:18699480

Hofmann, K P; Emeis, D

1979-02-01

95

The Galileo Dust Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10-19 and 10-9 kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the Sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian

Eberhard Gruen; Hugo Fechtig; Martha S. Hanner; Jochen Kissel; Bertil-Anders Lindblad; Dietmar Linkert; Dieter Maas; Gregor E. Morfill; Herbert A. Zook

1992-01-01

96

Smoke Detector Resource Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is one of a series developed for public education on smoke detectors. First, basic facts are given including guidelines for selection and purchasing, installation, maintenance, and what to do if the alarm goes off. Second, five case studies are presented which are examples of public education programs. (The script to one slide…

Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.; Powell, Pamela, Ed.

97

High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors  

DOEpatents

A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-16

98

Neutron detectors at IPNS  

SciTech Connect

The heart of each time-of-flight neutron scattering instrument is its complement of detectors and the associated encoding and counting electronics. Currently there are ten fully-scheduled neutron scattering instruments in operation at IPNS, with three more instruments under development. Six of these instruments use position-sensitive neutron detectors (PSDs) of various types. These PSDs include a 30 cm {times} 30 cm, {approximately}3 mm resolution, neutron Anger camera area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 2.5 cm dia, {approximately}0.7 mm resolution, microchannel-plate area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 20 cm {times} 20 cm, {approximately}5 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a 40 cm {times} 40 cm, {approximately}4 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a flat 25 cm long, {approximately}1.6 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSD; and 160 cylindrical {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSDs, each of which is 1.27 cm in dia and 60 cm long and has {approximately}14 mm resolution. In addition to these PSDs, {approximately}750 standard cylindrical {sup 3}He proportional counters of various sizes are utilized on IPNS instruments, and {approximately}20 BF{sub 3} pulsed ion chambers are in use as beam monitors. This paper discusses these various detectors and associated electronics, with emphasis on the instrumental specifications and the reasons for the selection of the different types of detectors. Observed performance of these detectors is also discussed. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Crawford, R.K.; Haumann, J.R.; Ostrowski, G.E.

1990-01-01

99

Status of the KEDR detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e+e?-collider in the energy range 2E=2.0–12GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J\\/? meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results

V. V. Anashin; V. M Aulchenko; B. O Baibusinov; V. Balashov; E. M Baldin; L. M Barkov; A. K Barladyan; M. Yu Barnyakov; S. E Baru; I. V. Bedny; D. M Beilin; A. E Blinov; V. E Blinov; D. V. Bondarev; A. E Bondar; A. R Buzykaev; P. Cantoni; A. G Chilingarov; L. V. Dneprovsky; S. I. Eidelman; D. A Epifanov; P. L Frabetti; P. B Gaidarev; V. R Groshev; S. V. Karpov; V. A Kiselev; S. G Klimenko; G. M Kolachev; S. A Kononov; V. N Kozlov; E. A Kravchenko; V. F Kulikov; L. M Kurdadze; A. S Kuzmin; S. A Kuznecov; F. Lanni; M. Yu Lelchuk; L. A Leontiev; E. B Levichev; V. M Malyshev; P. F Manfredi; A. L Maslennikov; G. D Minakov; V. P Nagaslaev; A. Naumenkov; S. A Nikitin; A. Nomerotsky; A. P Onuchin; S. B Oreshkin; R. Ovechkin; F. Palombo; S. V. Peleganchuk; S. S. Petrosyan; S. V. Pivovarov; A. O Poluektov; G. E Pospelov; I. Ya Protopopov; V. Re; L. V. Romanov; N. I. Root; A. A. Ruban; G. A Savinov; A. G Shamov; D. Shatilov; M. A Shubin; A. I. Shusharo; B. A Shwartz; V. A Sidorov; Yu. I. Skovpen; V. P Smakhtin; R. G Snopkov; A. V. Sokolov; A. M Soukharev; A. A. Talyshev; V. A Tayursky; V. I. Telnov; Yu. A Tikhonov; K. Yu Todyshev; Yu. V. Usov; A. I. Vorobyev; A. N Yushkov; A. V. Zatcepin; V. N Zhilich

2002-01-01

100

Evaluation of Interest Point Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different low-level feature detectors exist and it is widely agreed that the evaluation of detectors is important. In this paper we introduce two evaluation criteria for interest points: repeatability rate and information content. Repeatability rate evaluates the geometric stability under different transformations. Information content measures the distinctiveness of features. Different interest point detectors are compared using these two criteria.

Cordelia Schmid; Roger Mohr; Christian Bauckhage

2000-01-01

101

New electronically black neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Two neutron detectors are described that can function in a continuous radiation background. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors.

Drake, D.M.; Feldman, W.C.; Hurlbut, C.

1986-03-01

102

Pulsed discharge helium ionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulsed discharge helium ionization detector (PDHID) (patent pending) for gas chromatography has been developed. This detector uses a non-radioactive pulsed high voltage discharge source for generation of electrons and pulsed collection of these electrons. We have evaluated this detector for the analysis of a wide range of chemical compounds. In this paper the analytes are passed through the discharge

W. E. Wentworth; S. V. Vasnin; S. D. Stearns; C. J. Meyer

1992-01-01

103

Semiconductor polycrystalline alpha detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to check possible novel neutron detectors based on composite semiconductor detectors containing nuclides with large cross sections for neutron, we tested their response to alpha particles. In the present paper we describe results obtained with composite samples made of hexagonal Boron Nitride particles bound with Polystyrene or Nylon-6. The samples were tested under 5.5 MeV alpha particle radiation emitted from 241Am source and 4.8MeV alpha particle of 226Ra source. Some of the responses of these composite detectors to thermal neutrons were already reported and here we shall show some newer results obtained with thermal neutrons, from a low intensity 241Am - 9Be and also from a medium intensity 252Cf source, which were thermalized using 10 cm thick paraffin. The Alpha detection experiments show that all the tested samples, regardless of the binder, show a well-defined peak around the 270 energy channel. There was very little polarization of the alpha radiation, since the amplitude of the alpha peak is reduced after ~ 2min from start of the irradiation, from 100% to 95% and it stayed stable at this level for another 10 minutes. The alpha spectrum detected from a PbI II single crystal is also shown for comparison. The neutron spectrum obtained by the composite BN samples showed an apparent peak around the 150 energy channel. The Signal to noise ratio for neutron detection from radionuclide shown here is about 2 only, whereas recent results to be published later, obtained with our composite BN detectors from a neutron beam of about 10 7 sec -1cm -2 is ~2 5. The 1.4 and 1.7 MeV alpha peaks resulting from the nuclear reaction of thermal neutrons with 10B of the boron nitride detector are not buried in the noise range. The capacitance noise requires small contact areas, therefore for large area detectors it is necessary to produce an electronic read-out device which can add up a multitude of small (less than 10sq.mm) pixilated contacts.

Schieber, M.; Roth, M.; Zuck, A.; Marom, G.; Khakhan, O.; Alfassi, Z. B.

2006-08-01

104

Gated strip proportional detector  

DOEpatents

A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

1987-01-01

105

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30

106

Integrated Dual Imaging Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of image detector was designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The integrated Dual Imaging detector (IDID) consists of a lenslet array and a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a commercial charge coupled device (CCD). The IDID simplifies the design and operation of solar vector magnetographs and the imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmosphere and solar research. When used in a solar telescope, the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface. Other applications include environmental monitoring, robot vision, and medical diagnoses (through the eye). Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 5) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout and display of both images; and (4) laptop computer signal processing to produce polarization maps in field situations.

Rust, David M.

1999-01-01

107

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

DOEpatents

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05

108

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

DOEpatents

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

109

Carbon nanotube terahertz detector.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) technologies are promising for diverse areas such as medicine, bioengineering, astronomy, environmental monitoring, and communications. However, despite decades of worldwide efforts, the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum still continues to be elusive for solid state technology. Here, we report on the development of a powerless, compact, broadband, flexible, large-area, and polarization-sensitive carbon nanotube THz detector that works at room temperature. The detector is sensitive throughout the entire range of the THz technology gap, with responsivities as high as ?2.5 V/W and polarization ratios as high as ?5:1. Complete thermoelectric and opto-thermal characterization together unambiguously reveal the photothermoelectric origin of the THz photosignal, triggered by plasmonic absorption and collective antenna effects, and suggest that judicious design of thermal management and quantum engineering of Seebeck coefficients will lead to further enhancement of device performance. PMID:24875576

He, Xiaowei; Fujimura, Naoki; Lloyd, J Meagan; Erickson, Kristopher J; Talin, A Alec; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Jiang, Qijia; Kawano, Yukio; Hauge, Robert H; Léonard, François; Kono, Junichiro

2014-07-01

110

Detector KEDR tagger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KEDR Tagging System is designed to enhance the detector ability to study the two-photon processes e+e-?e+e-X. The collider magnetic elements (dipoles and lenses) form a magnetic spectrometer for the scattered electrons and positrons. Its energies are measured with 8 blocks of the drift tube hodoscope which are placed beside of the vacuum chamber. This allows to determine an invariant mass of the system X with resolution 3-15 Mev for W=300÷3000 MeV at the beam energies Eb=1.5-5.0 GeV. Recently the TS was upgraded with triple-GEM 2-dimensional detectors and a laser Compton scattering calibration system. The energy resolution for the scattered e± at the level 3?10-4 was demonstrated.

Zhilich, V. N.; KEDR Collaboration

2012-04-01

111

Triac failure detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A failure detector is provided for detecting unidirectional failures in triacs, particularly as used in power factor controllers for induction motors. In a first embodiment, the triac voltage waveform is sensed and upon detection of an unbalanced signal, corresponding to failure of the triac in either the positive or negative direction, the triac is turned full on in both directions. In a second embodiment, a pair of pulsed signals are derived, the pulse durations of which are proportional to the phase difference between the load current and voltage for each half cycle, and the triac is turned full on responsive to a difference in pulse duration between the half cycle signals. An unidirectional open circuit detector is adapted to use a signal from either of the first and second embodiment to turn the triac off in response to an open circuit failure in either direction.

Nola, F. J.

1983-08-01

112

Triac failure detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A failure detector is provided for detecting unidirectional failures in triacs, particularly as used in power factor controllers for induction motors. In a first embodiment, the triac voltage waveform is sensed and upon detection of an unbalanced signal, corresponding to failure of the triac in either the positive or negative direction, the triac is turned full on in both directions. In a second embodiment, a pair of pulsed signals are derived, the pulse durations of which are proportional to the phase difference between the load current and voltage for each half cycle, and the triac is turned full on responsive to a difference in pulse duration between the half cycle signals. An unidirectional open circuit detector is adapted to use a signal from either of the first and second embodiment to turn the triac off in response to an open circuit failure in either direction.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1983-01-01

113

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOEpatents

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

114

The BES detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e+e- annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency

J. Z. Bai; Q. Bian; G. M. Chen; L. J. Chen; S. N. Chen; Y. Q. Chen; Z. Q. Chen; Y. K. Chi; H. C. Cui; X. Z. Cui; S. S. Deng; Y. W. Deng; H. L. Ding; B. Z. Dong; X. S. Dong; X. Du; Z. Z. Du; C. Feng; Z. Feng; Z. S. Fu; C. S. Gao; M. L. Gao; S. Q. Gao; W. X. Gao; Y. N. Gao; S. D. Gu; W. X. Gu; Y. Z. Guan; H. F. Guo; Y. N. Guo; Y. Y. Guo; S. W. Han; Y. Han; W. Hao; J. He; K. R. He; M. J. He; X. J. Hou; G. Y. Hu; J. S. Hu; J. W. Hu; D. Q. Huang; Y. Z. Huang; Q. P. Jia; C. H. Jiang; Q. Ju; Y. F. Lai; P. F. Lang; D. S. Li; F. Li; H. Li; Jia Li; J. T. Li; Jin Li; L. L. Li; P. Q. Li; Q. M. Li; R. B. Li; S. Q. Li; W. Li; Z. X. Li; G. N. Liang; F. C. Lin; S. Z. Lin; W. Lin; Q. Liu; R. G. Liu; W. Liu; X. Liu; Z. A. Liu; Z. Y. Liu; C. G. Lu; W. D. Lu; Z. Y. Lu; J. G. Lu; D. H. Ma; E. C. Ma; J. M. Ma; H. S. Mao; Z. P. Mao; X. C. Meng; H. L. Ni; J. Nie; Z. D. Nie; W. P. Niu; L. J. Pan; N. D. Qi; J. J. Qian; Y. H. Qu; Y. K. Que; G. Rong; T. Z. Ruan; Y. Y. Shao; B. W. Shen; D. L. Shen; J. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; J. P. Sheng; H. Z. Shi; X. F. Song; H. S. Sun; F. K. Tang; S. Q. Tang; W. H. Tian; F. Wang; G. Y. Wang; J. G. Wang; J. Y. Wang; L. S. Wang; L. Z. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; S. M. Wang; S. Q. Wang; T. J. Wang; X. W. Wang; Y. Y. Wang; Z. H. Wang; Z. J. Wang; C. L. Wei; Z. Z. Wei; J. W. Wu; S. H. Wu; S. Q. Wu; W. M. Wu; X. D. Wu; Z. D. Wu; D. M. Xi; X. M. Xia; J. Xiao; P. P. Xie; X. X. Xie; J. G. Xu; R. S. Xu; Z. Q. Xu; B. C. Xuan; S. T. Xue; J. Yan; S. P. Yan; W. G. Yan; C. Z. Yang; C. M. Yang; C. Y. Yang; X. F. Yang; X. R. Yang; M. H. Ye; C. H. Yu; C. S. Yu; Z. Q. Yu; B. Y. Zhang; C. D. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; C. Y. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; G. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; H. L. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; L. S. Zhang; S. Q. Zhang; Y. P. Zhang; Y. M. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; M. Zhao; P. D. Zhao; P. P. Zhao; W. R. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; Z. Q. Zhao; J. P. Zheng; L. S. Zheng; M. Zheng; W. S. Zheng; Z. P. Zheng; G. P. Zhong; G. P. Zhou; H. S. Zhou; J. Zhou; Li Zhou; Lin Zhou; M. Zhou; Y. S. Zhou; Y. H. Zhou; G. S. Zhu; Q. M. Zhu; S. G. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; B. A. Zhuang

1994-01-01

115

Detector limitations, STAR  

SciTech Connect

Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

Underwood, D. G.

1998-07-13

116

Transient Fault Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

)Joffroy Beauquier1Sylvie Delaet1Shlomi Dolev2?S'ebastien Tixeuil11Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, Batiment 490, Universit'e de Paris Sud,F91405 Orsay Cedex, France. Email: fjb, delaet, tixeuilg@lri.fr.2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Ben-Gurion University,Beer-Sheva, 84105, Israel. Email: dolev@cs.bgu.ac.il.Abstract. In this paper we present failure detectors that detect transientfailures, i.e. corruption of the system state without...

Joffroy Beauquier; Sylvie Delaët; Shlomi Dolev; Sébastien Tixeuil

1998-01-01

117

Development of Portable Detectors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the “Contractor”) and Sense Holdings, Inc. (the “Participant”) was for the development of hand-held detectors with high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of explosives, toxic industrial chemicals and materials, and other materials of interest for security applications. The two parties built a series of demonstration and prototype handheld sensors based upon micoelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with electronic readout.

None

2006-12-01

118

Detector Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.

Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

2003-01-01

119

Micromechanical Uncooled Photon Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the development of uncooled infrared detectors operate as micromechanical thermal detectors or micromechanical quantum detectors. The authors report on a new method for photon detection using electronic (photo-induced) stresses in semiconductor microstructures. Photo-induced stress in semiconductor microstructures, is caused by changes in the charge carrier density in the conduction band and photon detection results from the measurement of the photo-induced bending of semiconductor microstructures. Small changes in position (displacement) of microstructures are routinely measured in atomic force microscopy (AFM) where atomic imaging of surfaces relies on the measurement of small changes (< 10{sup -9} m) in the bending of microcantilevers. Changes in the conduction band charge carrier density can result either from direct photo-generation of free charge carriers (electrons, holes) or from photoelectrons emitted from thin metal film surfaces in contact with a semiconductor microstructure which forms a Schottky barrier. In their studies, they investigated three systems: (1) Si microstructures, (2)InSb microstructures and (3) Si microstructures coated with a thin film of Pt. They found that for Si the photo-induced stress results in a contraction of the crystal lattice due to the presence of excess electron-hole-pairs while for InSb photo-induced stress causes the crystal lattice to expand. They present their results and discuss their findings.

Datskos, P.G.

2001-09-04

120

Compact THz imaging detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe preliminary design, modeling and test results for the development of a monolithic, high pixel density, THz band focal plane array (FPA) fabricated in a commercial CMOS process. Each pixel unit cell contains multiple individual THz band antennae that are coupled to independent amplifiers. The amplified signals are summed either coherently or incoherently to improve detection (SNR). The sensor is designed to operate at room temperature using passive or active illumination. In addition to the THz detector, a secondary array of Visible or SWIR context imaging pixels are interposed in the same area matrix. Multiple VIS/SWIR context pixels can be fabricated within the THz pixel unit cell. This provides simultaneous, registered context imagery and "Pan sharpening" MTF enhancement for the THz image. The compact THz imaging system maximizes the utility of a ~ 300 ?m x 300 ?m pixel area associated with the optical resolution spot size for a THz imaging system operating at a nominal ~ 1.0 THz spectral frequency. RF modeling is used to parameterize the antenna array design for optimal response at the THz frequencies of interest. The quarter-wave strip balanced bow-tie antennae are optimized based on the semiconductor fabrication technology thin-film characteristics and the CMOS detector input impedance. RF SPICE models enhanced for THz frequencies are used to evaluate the predicted CMOS detector performance and optimal unit cell design architecture. The models are validated through testing of existing CMOS ROICs with calibrated THz sources.

Newman, J. Daniel; Lee, Paul P. K.; Sacco, Andrew P.; Chamberlain, Thomas B.; Willems, Dave A.; Fiete, Robert D.; Bocko, Mark V.; Ignotovic, Zeljko; Pipher, Judith L.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Rhodes, David B.; Ninkov, Zoran

2013-05-01

121

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOEpatents

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

1998-08-11

122

Intersubband Terahertz Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology at frequencies between 1 and 10 Terahertz lags far behind that at lower end higher frequencies. Intersubband dynamics of electrons and wide semiconductor quantum wells offer opportunities to fabricate Terahertz detectors in extremely high performance, new functionalities, and moderate cryogenic requirements. In this talk, I will first review the relevant physics of intersubband transitions in wide quantum wells, as well as existing detectors based on intersubband transitions. I will then discuss the theory and development of so-called "Tunable antenna coupled intersubband THz" (TACIT) detectors. These are four-terminal phototransistors, in which Terahertz radiation absorbed via an intersubband transition changes the in-plane resistance between a source and drain. The goal of our current research program is to demonstrate a TACIT heterodyne receiver for 1.6 Terahertz which is suitable for space-based THz astrophysics missions, and which operates at lattice temperatures in excess of 20 Calvin while requiring local oscillator power < 1 microwatt. Such a device would eliminate the need to fly either liquid helium, required to cool state of the art superconducting hot-electron bolometer mixers, or few-mW Terahertz sources, required to pump Schottky diode receivers.

Sherwin, Mark S.

2002-03-01

123

Optical ionization detector  

DOEpatents

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01

124

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOEpatents

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

Chu, Dahlon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Thelen, Jr., Donald C. (Bozeman, MT)

1998-01-01

125

areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS  

SciTech Connect

areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

Rivers, M. (UC)

2011-09-23

126

Detector Mount Design for IGRINS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

2014-06-01

127

Photon detector for MEGA  

SciTech Connect

During the past year, we have continued work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, a search for the rare decay {mu} {yields} e{gamma} to a sensitivity of a few parts in 10{sup 13}. The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.38 MeV photon produced in a {mu} {yields} e{gamma} decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 {times} 5 mm{sup 2}, a directional resolution of 10{degrees}, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of 7%. It will consists of four independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin Pb foils to convert photons into e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs, and thereby, determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The inner drift chamber layer includes a delay line cathode to determine the z coordinates needed for track reconstruction. An MWPC located between two Pb layers identifies the conversion layer so that energy loss corrections may be applied, while plastic scintillators provide timing information. Our, group together with a group from the University of Houston, is responsible for the design and construction of the photon detector, as well as developing the computer codes necessary for Monte Carlo simulations and data analysis. During the past year, our efforts have focused primarily on two tasks, delay line cathode read-out and software development. This report describes our recent work on delay lines and data analysis along with a discussion of the new plans for multiplexing in the photon arm.

Gagliardi, C.A.; Tribble, R.E.

1991-01-01

128

Micro UV detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

2004-09-01

129

Micro-UV detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

2004-12-01

130

Silicon detectors and electronics for pixel hybrid photon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon sensors and their corresponding readout electronics have been designed in the framework of the LHCb Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detector project. They are specified to detect low-energy photoelectrons created by Cherenkov light incident on a hybrid photon detector. The design of the sensor and electronics will be described, in particular the specific steps taken to meet the special requirements of the detector. Measurements on the electronics will be presented, together with results from assemblies constructed with sensor and electronics chips using a special bump-bonding technique tailored to match the detector fabrication process.

Wyllie, K.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Campbell, M.; Castro Carballo, M.; Gys, T.; Jolly, S.; Moritz, M.; Newby, C.; Piedigrossi, D.; Somerville, L.

2004-09-01

131

Long wavelength infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long wavelength infrared detection is achieved by a detector made with layers of quantum well material bounded on each side by barrier material to form paired quantum wells, each quantum well having a single energy level. The width and depth of the paired quantum wells, and the spacing therebetween, are selected to split the single energy level with an upper energy level near the top of the energy wells. The spacing is selected for splitting the single energy level into two energy levels with a difference between levels sufficiently small for detection of infrared radiation of a desired wavelength.

Vasquez, Richard P. (inventor)

1993-01-01

132

Ionizing Radiation Detector  

DOEpatents

A CdZnTe (CZT) crystal provided with a native CdO dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals is disclosed. A two step process is provided for forming the dielectric coating which includes etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water after attaching electrical contacts to the crystal surface.

Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-11-18

133

Wire-inhomogeneity detector  

DOEpatents

A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

1982-08-31

134

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

135

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01

136

Active Pyroelectric Infrared Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A noncontact pyroelectric infrared detector is described. A pyroelectric film that also has piezoelectric properties is held in place so that it is free to vibrate. It is electrically stimulated to vibrate at a resonance frequency. The vibrating film forms part of a balanced bridge circuit. As thermal radiation impinges on the film the pyroelectric effect causes the resonance frequency to change, thereby unbalancing the bridge circuit. A differential amplifier tracks the change in voltage across the bridge. The resulting voltage signal is further processed by a bandpass filter and a precision rectifier. The device allows for DC or static temperature measurements without the use of a mechanical chopping device.

Zuckerwar, Allan J. (inventor); Zalameda, Joseph N. (inventor); Mina, Joseph M. (inventor)

1995-01-01

137

Flexible composite radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Orler, Edward B. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-12-05

138

Moderate temperature detector development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

P-side backside reflecting constant, photodiode characterization, and photodiode diffusion and G-R currents were investigated in an effort to develop an 8 m to 12 m infrared quantum detector using mercury cadmium telluride. Anodization, phosphorus implantation, and the graded band gap concept were approaches considered for backside formation. Variable thickness diodes were fabricated with a back surface anodic oxide to investigate the effect of this surface preparation on the diffusion limited zero bias impedance. A modeling technique was refined to thoroughly model diode characteristics. Values for the surface recombination velocity in the depletion region were obtained. These values were improved by implementing better surface damage removal techniques.

Marciniec, J. W.; Briggs, R. J.; Sood, A. K.

1981-01-01

139

Minerva Detector Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current and future neutrino oscillation experiments depend on precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections. Minerva is a neutrino scattering experiment at Fermilab. Minerva was designed to make precision measurements of low energy neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on a variety of different materials (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O). In Order to make these measurements, it is crucial that the detector is carefully calibrated.This talk will describe how MINERvA uses muons from upstream neutrino interactions as a calibration source to convert electronics output to absolute energy deposition.

Rakotondravohitra, Laza

2013-04-01

140

Photon detectors with gaseous amplification  

SciTech Connect

Gaseous photon detectors, including very large 4{pi}-devices such as those incorporated in SLD and DELPHI, are finally delivering physics after many years of hard work. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photoelectrons. Among detector builders, there is hardly anybody who did not make mistakes in this area, and who does not have a healthy respect for the problems involved. This point is stressed in this paper, and it is suggested that only a very small operating phase space is available for running gaseous photon detectors in a very large system with good efficiency and few problems. In this paper the authors discuss what was done correctly or incorrectly in first generation photon detectors, and what would be their recommendations for second generation detectors. 56 refs., 11 figs.

Va`vra, J.

1996-08-01

141

Improved detectivity of pyroelectric detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High detectivity single-element SBN pyroelectric detectors were fabricated. The theory and technology developments related to improved detector performance were identified and formulated. Improved methods of material characterization, thinning, mounting, blackening and amplifier matching are discussed. Detectors with detectivities of 1.3 x 10 to the 9th power square root of Hz/watt at 1 Hz are reported. Factors limiting performance and recommendations for future work are discussed.

Marshall, D. E.; Gelpey, J. C.; Marciniec, J. W.; Chiang, A. M.; Maciolek, R. B.

1978-01-01

142

Encapsulated scintillation detector  

SciTech Connect

An encapsulated scintillation detector is disclosed in which a detector crystal or the like is encapsulated in a hermetically sealed housing having a light-transmitting window at one end. In some instances, the window is mounted in a window assembly by a compression seal established by the differential coefficient of expansion and contraction during the cooling of the assembly. In other instances, the window is chemically bonded to the ring with or without a compression seal. The window is mounted within a ring, which is in turn welded to the end of a tubular body portion of the housing along thin weld flanges to reduce the amount of weld heat which must be applied. A thermal barrier is provided to resist the flow of welding heat from the weld to the seal between the ring and the window. Such thermal barrier includes a zone of relatively thin section located between the weld zone and the seal through which weld heat must flow. The zone of relatively thin cross section is, in some embodiments, provided by a groove cut partially through the wall of the ring. A layer of low friction material such as teflon is positioned between the tubular body and the crystal to minimize friction resisting relative axial movement created by differential coefficients of thermal expansion.

Toepke, I.L.

1983-05-10

143

Barrier infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

144

A centrality detector concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision “centrality”. In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This paper describes the concept of a centrality detector for heavy ion experiment, which measures the total mass number of all fragments by measuring their deflection in the magnetic field of the collider elements.

Tarafdar, Sourav; Citron, Zvi; Milov, Alexander

2014-12-01

145

PAU camera: detectors characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

2012-07-01

146

LIGO Detector Commissioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial LIGO interferometer design was based on more than 20 years of experience with test interferometers, but the increase in scale, new operating environments and extreme technical requirements presented challenges for commissioning. Detector installation began in 1998 with injection optics at Hanford, WA. By 1999, light was resonating in a single 2-km Fabry-Perot arm cavity. Subsequent engineering runs tested stability and analyzed environmental influences, particularly the earth tides and the microseism. By October 2000, the first lock of a kilometer-scale, power recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer was obtained, using an automated system to analyze optical signals and reconfigure control loops as the mirrors are drawn into position. The many control loops that minimize length and angle fluctuations of the mirrors relative to the laser light were tuned and noise sources were identified and reduced iteratively as sensitivity improved by several orders of magnitude. Following installation of the last LIGO mirror in 2001, engineering run 7 provided the first triple-coincidence operation of LIGO's interferometers at Hanford and Livingston, LA in early 2002. Clear signals of mirrors recoiling from the Brownian motion of the suspension-wire violin modes first emerged from the noise during science run 1 in September 2002, at approximately the expected amplitude. Detector robustness has steadily improved and uninterrupted locking on a dark fringe for more than a day has been achieved. The support of the US National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement No. PHY-0107417 is gratefully acknowledged.

Raab, Frederick

2003-04-01

147

Photon drag detectors  

SciTech Connect

A photon drag detector having a block of semi-conductor material with two opposite faces through one of which a beam of radiation can enter and from the other of which it can emerge; spaced end electrodes in contact with said block, one adjacent to each of said opposite faces; at least two intermediate electrodes in contact with said block, arranged intermediate and spaced from said end electrodes and spaced from each other; an dan impedance connecting said end electrodes; whereby the change in sensitivity of the detector with the position of the beam in the said block can be made small. The block of semi-conductor material is typically bar shaped with the opposite faces substantially parallel end faces of the bar. The bar is conveniently cylindrical. The electrodes are preferably ring electrodes, embracing the block and parallel with the planes of the opposite faces. The semi-conductor may be P-doped germanium of about 30 ohm centimeter resistivity, and the impedance may be a resistance in the range from about 100 to about 400 ohm.

Edwards, J. G.; Roddie, A. G.

1985-04-30

148

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

149

Burst Populations and Detector Sensitivity  

E-print Network

The F_T (peak bolometric photon flux) vs. E_p (peak energy) plane is a powerful tool to compare the burst populations detected by different detectors. Detector sensitivity curves in this plane demonstrate which burst populations the detectors will detect. For example, future CZT-based detectors will show the largest increase in sensitivity for soft bursts, and will be particularly well-suited to study X-ray rich bursts and X-ray Flashes. Identical bursts at different redshifts describe a track in the F_T-E_p plane.

David L. Band

2003-12-12

150

GLAS 532nm Optical Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents fabrication and testing of 532nm optical detectors. Testing procedures included 532nm quantum efficiency, detector gain, and photon counting performance, in particular, photon counting efficiency. 532nm quantum efficiency was measured to be 36% to 39% for the detectors fabricated. Detectors with a GaAs APD anode had measured gains of 12,000 to 15,000 maximum. Photon counting efficiency for the detector with an APD anode was measured to be approximately 80% with a detector gain of 11,000. Measurements made on an identical detector, not fabricated under this contract, had a photon counting efficiency exceeding 90% with a gain of 13,000. A formula is derived in which the photon counting efficiency is determined by the system preamp noise and the peak single photon pulse height which is proportional to detector gain. This formula agrees well with the measured results and indicates that a detector gain of 15,000 is sufficient to provide a counting efficiency of 99.6%.

LaRue, Ross A.

1997-01-01

151

Efficiencies of Quantum Optical Detectors  

E-print Network

We propose a definition for the efficiency that can be universally applied to all classes of quantum optical detectors. This definition is based on the maximum amount of optical loss that a physically plausible device can experience while still replicating the properties of a given detector. We prove that detector efficiency cannot be increased using linear optical processing. That is, given a set of detectors, as well as arbitrary linear optical elements and ancillary light sources, it is impossible to construct detection devices that would exhibit higher efficiencies than the initial set.

Daniel Hogg; Dominic W. Berry; A. I. Lvovsky

2014-08-01

152

Tomography of Spatial Mode Detectors  

E-print Network

Transformation and detection of photons in higher-order spatial modes usually requires complicated holographic techniques. Detectors based on spatial holograms suffer from non-idealities and should be carefully calibrated. We report a novel method for analyzing the quality of projective measurements in spatial mode basis inspired by quantum detector tomography. It allows us to calibrate the detector response using only gaussian beams. We experimentally investigate the inherent inaccuracy of the existing methods of mode transformation and provide a full statistical reconstruction of the POVM (positive operator valued measure) elements for holographic spatial mode detectors.

Bobrov, Ivan; Markov, Anton; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergey

2014-01-01

153

Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material.

Kania, D.R.

1997-05-16

154

Construction of the CDF silicon vertex detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical details and methods used in constructing the Collision Detector Facility (CDF) silicon vertex detector are presented. Attention is given to the foam-carbon fiber composite structure used to support the silicon microstrip detectors and the procedure for achievement of 5-?m detector alignment. The construction of the beryllium barrel structure, which houses the detector assemblies, is also described. In addition, the

J. Skarha; B. Barnett; C. Boswell; F. D. Snider; A. Spies; J. Tseng; S. Vejcik; H. Carter; B. Flaugher; B. Gonzales; M. Hrycyk; C. Nelson; S. Segler; T. Shaw; S. Tkaczyk; K. Turner; T. R. Wesson; W. C. Carithers; R. Ely; C. Haber; S. Holland; S. Kleinfelder; T. Merrick; O. Schneider; W. Wester; M. Wong; D. Amidei; P. F. Derwent; M. Gold; J. Matthews; N. Bacchetta; D. Bisello; G. Busetto; A. Castro; M. Loreti; L. Pescara; F. Bedeschi; V. Bolognesi; S. Dell'Agnello; S. Galeotti; M. Mariotti; A. Menzione; G. Punzi; F. Raffaelli; L. Ristori; F. Tartarelli; N. Turini; H. Wenzel; F. Zetti; M. Bailey; A. F. Garfinkel; N. M. Shaw; P. Tipton; G. Watts

1991-01-01

155

Wavelet CFAR detector for automatic target detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanner Research, Inc. has developed an arbitrary-scale wavelet constant false alarm rate detector (CFAR) for automatic target recognition (ATR). The proposed effort will be the first exploration of the connection between a traditional CFAR detector and a wavelet transient detector. Traditional CFAR detectors use a fixed, pre-selected kernel scale. Our detector will instead automatically select the scale most beneficial scale

Dongwei Chen

1999-01-01

156

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

157

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, D.F.

1980-10-29

158

Temperature profile detector  

DOEpatents

A temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

159

Temperature profile detector  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

Tokarz, R.D.

1983-10-11

160

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOEpatents

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

Angel, S.M.

1987-02-27

161

Event counting alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

162

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

163

Absolute beam brightness detector  

SciTech Connect

In generally accepted emittance measurement, main attention is concentrated on emittance areas {epsilon}{sub x}, {epsilon}{sub y} occupied by desired part of ion beam in transverse phase space and shape of these areas. The absolute beam phase density (brightness) as usually is not measured directly and the average beam brightness B is calculated from a beam intensity I and the transverse emittances. In the ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) optimization, it is important to preserve the beam brightness because some aberration of ion optic and beam instabilities can decrease the brightness of the central part of ion beam significantly. For these brightness measurements, it is convenient to use an absolute beam brightness detector with the brightness determination from one short considered in this article.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2012-02-15

164

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01

165

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-12-15

166

Event counting alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

1996-08-27

167

Space-based detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parallel session C5 on Space-Based Detectors gave a broad overview over the planned space missions related to gravitational wave detection. Overviews of the revolutionary science to be expected from LISA was given by Alberto Sesana and Sasha Buchman. The launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload "LISA Technology Package" will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical bench of LPF was presented by Christian Killow and the performance of the LPF optical metrology system by Paul McNamara. While LPF will not yet be sensitive to gravitational waves, it may nevertheless be used to explore fundamental physics questions, which was discussed by Michele Armano. Some parts of the LISA technology that are not going to be demonstrated by LPF, but under intensive development at the moment, were presented by Oliver Jennrich and Oliver Gerberding. Looking into the future, Japan is studying the design of a mid-frequency detector called DECIGO, which was discussed by Tomotada Akutsu. Using atom interferometry for gravitational wave detection has also been recently proposed, and it was critically reviewed by Peter Bender. In the nearer future, the launch of GRACE Follow-On (for Earth gravity observation) is scheduled for 2017, and it will include a Laser Ranging Interferometer as technology demonstrator. This will be the first inter-spacecraft laser interferometer and has many aspects in common with the LISA long arm, as discussed by Andrew Sutton.

Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Robertson, D. I.; Ward, H.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Bryant, J.; Cruise, A. M.; Dixon, G.; Hoyland, D.; Smith, D.; Bogenstahl, J.; McNamara, P. W.; Gerndt, R.; Flatscher, R.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Hewitson, M.; Gerberding, O.; Barke, S.; Brause, N.; Bykov, I.; Danzmann, K.; Enggaard, A.; Gianolio, A.; Vendt Hansen, T.; Heinzel, G.; Hornstrup, A.; Jennrich, O.; Kullmann, J.; Møller-Pedersen, S.; Rasmussen, T.; Reiche, J.; Sodnik, Z.; Suess, M.; Armano, M.; Sumner, T.; Bender, P. L.; Akutsu, T.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

2014-12-01

168

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused

Gray

1988-01-01

169

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused

Gray; Kenneth E

1989-01-01

170

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a

Gray

1989-01-01

171

ISO/LWS: Detector status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of the long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory is to perform spectrometry in the wavelength range 45 to 200 microns using two resolution modes. The resolution will be around 200 in the medium resolution mode while it will reach 10(exp 4) in the high resolution mode. The sensitivity of this instrument will be close to 10(exp -18) W/sq. root Hz. A schematic view of the focal plane unit is presented. The detectors divide the wavelength range into ten spectral channels. The spectral range and position of each detector is indicated. Each detector will cover approximately a spectral bandwidth sufficient to allow for a 50 percent redundancy in the case of detector failure. There are three types of detectors. SW1 is a Ge:Be photoconductor covering the 45 to 55 micron region. LW1, SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5 are unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductors which cover the 50 to 120 micron region. LW2, LW3, LW4, LW5 are uniaxially stressed Ge:GA photoconductors covering the range from 100 to 200 microns. The stress applied to each detector will be adjusted in order to get the peak response in the corresponding wavelength range, and to minimize the dark current of the shorter wavelength stressed detectors. Stressed and unstressed detectors are located alternatively in order to receive the first and second order of the diffracted beam.

Lenaour, C.; Delettrez, C.; Griffin, M.; Ade, P.; Robinson, D.; Vickers, D.

1989-01-01

172

Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps  

SciTech Connect

Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays.

Langeveld, W

2004-08-20

173

Plasmonic terahertz detectors for biodetection  

E-print Network

Plasmonic terahertz detectors for biodetection N. Pala and M.S. Shur A report is presented on the biodetection capabilities of plasmonic ter- ahertz detectors. Large changes in the terahertz response. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (TDS) [1], terahertz dielectric spec- troscopy [2], surface

Pala, Nezih

174

Detector simulation for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

Detector simulation activities for SSC detector designs are described. Topics include the extensive work to date using existing programs. In addition, the several efforts to extend the capabilities of today's programs are described, as the practical and experimental use of new computing platforms for simulation. Finally, progress in the field is compared with the recommendations of the first workshop in this series in 1987.

Price, L.E.

1991-01-01

175

Biological Applications of Cryogenic Detectors  

SciTech Connect

High energy resolution and broadband efficiency are enabling the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In time-of-flight mass spectrometry cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above {approx}50 kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

Friedrich, S

2003-12-03

176

The D0 detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector.

Bross, A.D.

1995-02-01

177

Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments  

SciTech Connect

Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1990-08-01

178

Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

179

Space Radiation Detector with Spherical Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of the invention, each detector stack includes one or more detectors configured to detect a particle traversing the sphere.

Wrbanek, John D. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor); Wrbanek, Susan Y. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

180

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector is designed comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient. 6 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1993-11-09

181

Optical Flameout Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device has been developed which monitors the presence of a flame within a combustion chamber. The optical flameout detection system responds to gross changes in combustor light intensity which is monitored in two spectral bands. A photomultiplier tube makes optical measurements in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum and a silicon photodiode covers the visible region. The detectors, located outside the combustion chamber, receive the light energy radiated from the combustion process through fiber optic probes designed to operate in a high pressure environment. The optical fibers are aimed diagonally through the center of the injector at the combustion chamber wall downstream of the injector. The probe observes events occurring within a narrow conical-shaped field of view so that the system can quickly detect longitudinal movement of the flame front away from the injector. If a change in intensity of the flame is detected, the fuel supply to the combustion chamber is shut off limiting the amount of unburned fuel in the combustion chamber which could reignite.

Borg, Stephen E. (Inventor); West, James W. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert M. (Inventor); Harper, Samuel E., Jr. (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

182

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-03-04

183

Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector  

SciTech Connect

A transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1993-01-01

184

Measuring GBAR with emulsion detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation of the AEgIS experiment is to test the universality of free fall with antimatter. The goal is to reach a relative uncertainty of 1% for the measurement of the earth's gravitational acceleration \\bar {g} on an antihydrogen beam. High vertex position resolution is required for a position detector. An emulsion based detector can measure the annihilation vertex of antihydrogen atoms with a resolution of 1-2 ?m, which if realized in the actual experiment will enable a 1% measurement of \\bar {g} with less than 1000 \\bar {H} atoms. Developments and achievements on emulsion detectors for the AEgIS experiment are presented here.

Ariga, T.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Belov, A. S.; Berggren, K.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, H.; di Domizio, S.; di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Knecht, A.; Krasniký, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lehner, S.; Magnani, A.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petrá?ek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Storet, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špa?ek, M.; Testera, G.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zavaterelli, S.; Zmeskal, J.

2014-05-01

185

Advanced detectors and signal processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continued progress is reported toward development of a silicon on garnet technology which would allow fabrication of advanced detection and signal processing circuits on bubble memories. The first integrated detectors and propagation patterns have been designed and incorporated on a new mask set. In addition, annealing studies on spacer layers are performed. Based on those studies, a new double layer spacer is proposed which should reduce contamination of the silicon originating in the substrate. Finally, the magnetic sensitivity of uncontaminated detectors from the last lot of wafers is measured. The measured sensitivity is lower than anticipated but still higher than present magnetoresistive detectors.

Greve, D. W.; Rasky, P. H. L.; Kryder, M. H.

1986-01-01

186

Seal system with integral detector  

DOEpatents

There is disclosed a seal system for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials, which is tamper-indicating, which indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to by-pass the seal, which is unique and cost effective, said seal system comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

Fiarman, Sidney (Port Jefferson, NY)

1985-01-01

187

The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector  

SciTech Connect

A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the detector in the radiation environment are discussed. The device has been taking colliding beams data since May of 1992, performing at its best design specifications and enhancing the physics program of CDF.

Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B. [and others

1993-09-01

188

Solid state neutron detector array  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors. 7 figs.

Seidel, J.G.; Ruddy, F.H.; Brandt, C.D.; Dulloo, A.R.; Lott, R.G.; Sirianni, E.; Wilson, R.O.

1999-08-17

189

Seal system with integral detector  

DOEpatents

A seal system is disclosed for materials where security is of the essence, such as nuclear materials. The seal is tamper-indicating, indicates changes in environmental conditions that evidence attempts to bypass the seal, is unique and cost effective. The seal system is comprised of a seal where an optical signal is transmitted through a loop, with a detector to read said signal, and one or more additional detectors designed to detect environmental changes, these detectors being operatively associated with the seal so that detection of a break in the optical signal or detection of environmental changes will cause an observable change in the seal.

Fiarman, S.

1982-08-12

190

Solid state neutron detector array  

DOEpatents

A neutron detector array is capable of measuring a wide range of neutron fluxes. The array includes multiple semiconductor neutron detectors. Each detector has a semiconductor active region that is resistant to radiation damage. In one embodiment, the array preferably has a relatively small size, making it possible to place the array in confined locations. The ability of the array to detect a wide range of neutron fluxes is highly advantageous for many applications such as detecting neutron flux during start up, ramp up and full power of nuclear reactors.

Seidel, John G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ruddy, Frank H. (Monroeville, PA); Brandt, Charles D. (Mount Lebanon, PA); Dulloo, Abdul R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lott, Randy G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sirianni, Ernest (Monroeville, PA); Wilson, Randall O. (Greensburg, PA)

1999-01-01

191

The GlueX Detector  

SciTech Connect

The GlueX detector is being built along with the new experimental Hall D at Jefferson lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade project which received CD-3 approval in fall 2008. GlueX is a fixed target experiment built around a 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid having charged particle tracking and calorimetry with large acceptance. A high rate DAQ system consisting of pipeline electronics will allow the detector to operate at high luminosity (10{sup 8} tagged {lambda}/sec on target). Details on the photon beam and GlueX detector are given including capabilities in resolutions and rates.

Lawrence, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (United States)

2009-12-17

192

Modulated voltage metastable ionization detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The output current from a metastable ionization detector (MID) is applied to a modulation voltage circuit. An adjustment is made to balance out the background current, and an output current, above background, is applied to an input of a strip chart recorder. For low level concentrations, i.e., low detected output current, the ionization potential will be at a maximum and the metastable ionization detector will operate at its most sensitive level. When the detected current from the metastable ionization detector increases above a predetermined threshold level, a voltage control circuit is activated which turns on a high voltage transistor which acts to reduce the ionization potential. The ionization potential applied to the metastable ionization detector is then varied so as to maintain the detected signal level constant. The variation in ionization potential is now related to the concentration of the constituent and a representative amplitude is applied to another input of said strip chart recorder.

Carle, G. C.; Kojiro, D. R.; Humphrey, D. E. (inventors)

1985-01-01

193

Reactor Monitoring with Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the use of neutrino detectors to monitor nuclear reactors is currently a very active field of research. While neutrino detectors located close to reactors have been used to provide information about the global performance of the reactors, a general improvement of the technique is needed in order to use it in a practical way to monitor the fissile contents of the fuel of the nuclear reactors or the thermal power delivered. I describe the current status of the Angra Neutrino Project, aimed to building a low-mass neutrino detector to monitor the Angra II reactor of the Brazilian nuclear power plant Almirante Alvaro Ramos in order to explore new approaches to reactor monitoring with neutrino detectors.

Casimiro Linares, Edgar

2011-09-01

194

A reliable liquid helium detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector and indicator system, utilizing commercial perforated germanium cryogenic thermometer as level sensor containing adjustable level discriminator with indicators, operates reliably over pressure range from 50 to 900 mm Hg without electronic adjustments.

Krawczonek, W. M.; Stephenson, B.

1972-01-01

195

Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

Been, J. F.

1972-01-01

196

Moving belt metal detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed a prototype metal detection survey system that will increase the search speed of conventional technology while maintaining high sensitivity. Higher search speeds will reduce the time to clear roads of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IED) and to locate unexploded ordnance (UXO) at Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) sites, thus reducing remediation costs. The new survey sensor system is called the moving belt metal detector (MBMD) and operates by both increasing sensor speed over the ground while maintaining adequate sensor dwell time over the target for good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reducing motion-induced sensor noise. The MBMD uses an array of metal detection sensors mounted on a flexible belt similar to a tank track. The belt motion is synchronized with the forward survey speed so individual sensor elements remain stationary relative to the ground. A single pulsed transmitter coil is configured to provide a uniform magnetic field along the length of the receivers in ground contact. Individual time-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) receivers are designed to sense a single time-gate measurement of the total metal content. Each sensor module consists of a receiver coil, amplifier, digitizing electronics and a low power UHF wireless transmitter. This paper presents the survey system design concepts and metal detection data from various targets at several survey speeds. Although the laboratory prototype is designed to demonstrate metal detection survey speeds up to 10 m/s, higher speeds are achievable with a larger sensor array. In addition, the concept can be adapted to work with other sensor technologies not previously considered for moving platforms.

Nelson, Carl V.; Mendat, Deborah P.; Huynh, Toan B.

2006-05-01

197

The detector simulation toolkit HORUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, X-ray detectors used and developed at synchrotron sources and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have become increasing powerful and versatile. However, as the capabilities of modern X-ray cameras grew so did their complexity and therefore their response functions are far from trivial. Since understanding the detecting system and its behavior is vital for any physical experiment, the need for dedicated powerful simulation tools arose. The HPAD Output Response fUnction Simulator (HORUS) was originally developed to analyze the performance implications of certain design choices for the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) and over the years grew to a more universal detector simulation toolkit covering the relevant physics in the energy range from below 1 keV to a few hundred keV. HORUS has already been used to study possible improvements of the AGIPD for X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) at the European XFEL and its performance at low beam energies. It is currently being used to study the optimum detector layout for Coherent Diffration Imaging (CDI) at the European XFEL. Simulations of the charge summing mode of the Medipix3 chip have been essential for the improvements of the charge summing mode in the Medipix3 RX chip. HORUS is universal enough to support arbitrary hybrid pixel detector systems (within limitations). To date, the following detector systems are predefined within HORUS: The AGIPD, the Large Pixel Detector (LPD), the Cornell-Stanford Pixel Array Detector (CSPAD), the Mixed-Mode (MMPAD) and KEKPAD, and the Medipix2, Medipix3 and Medipix3 RX chips.

Becker, J.; Pennicard, D.; Graafsma, H.

2012-10-01

198

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

DOEpatents

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

199

Gated high speed optical detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and test of two gated, high speed optical detectors for use in high speed digital laser communication links are discussed. The optical detectors used a dynamic crossed field photomultiplier and electronics including dc bias and RF drive circuits, automatic remote synchronization circuits, automatic gain control circuits, and threshold detection circuits. The equipment is used to detect binary encoded signals from a mode locked neodynium laser.

Green, S. I.; Carson, L. M.; Neal, G. W.

1973-01-01

200

Ion chamber gamma burst detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of burst detection is examined with respect to the space distribution of gamma-ray bursts and to early X-ray bursts from Type I supernovae. An ion-chamber burst detector for the 2-10 keV energy range is proposed in the form of a system of three mutually orthogonal gas-filled Mylar space balloons. The proposed balloon detector has an area of 100

S. A. Colgate

1982-01-01

201

Calibration of the IMB Detector  

SciTech Connect

The IMB detector (named after its founding institutions: University of California, Irvine, the University of Michigan and Brookhaven National Laboratory) collected data on a wide range of phenomena for over eight years. It was the first and the largest of the ring imaging water Cherenkov detectors. The detector consisted of 8000 metric tons of ultra-pure water instrumented with 2048 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs were placed on the roof, floor, and walls of the detector in a lattice of approximately 1 m spacing. It made measurements of contained events that ranged in energy from 15 MeV up to 1.5 GeV. This paper describes the calibration of the IMB detector. This procedure was accurate and stable over a wide range of physical variables. It was used with little change throughout the entire eight-year lifetime of the experiment. The IMB calibration is a model for future large-scale detectors that employ the water Cherenkov technique.

Becker-Szendy, R.; Bionta, R.M.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Claus, R.; Cortez, B.; Dye, S.T.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Gajewski, W.; Ganezer, K.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T.J.; Halverson, P.G.; Hazen, E.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Kropp, W.R.; Learned, J.G.; Losecco, J.M.; Matsuno, S.; /UC, Irvine /Michigan U. /Brookhaven /Boston U. /Hawaii U. /University Coll. London /Warsaw U. /Cleveland State U. /Notre Dame U. /Louisiana State U. /Maryland U. /AT-T Bell Labs, Holmdel /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab /LLNL, Livermore /New Mexico U. /SLAC /Adelaide U. /CERN /Cal State, Dominguez Hills

2012-04-03

202

Physics and Detector Response Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the complexity and resolution of modern detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing detector systems composed of many disparate subsystems requires ef?cient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. Comparisons of different technology options, or geometric layouts, are facilitated if the results can be obtained with a common simulation and reconstruction framework. We have developed efficient and ?exible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development with a minimal investment of time and effort. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system. The reconstruction software and analysis environment are written in Java, providing a modern, object-oriented platform which is independent of the computing operating system.

Graf, Norman A.; McCormick, Jeremy

203

Construction of the CDF silicon vertex detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical details and methods used in constructing the CDF silicon vertex detector are presented. This description includes a discussion of the foam-carbon fiber composite structure used in silicon microstrip detectors and the procedure for achievement of 5 micron detector alignment. The construction of the beryllium barrel structure, which houses the detector assemblies, is also described. In addition, the 10 micron

J. Skarha; B. Barnett; C. Boswell; F. Snider; A. Spies; J. Tseng; S. Vejcik; H. Carter; B. Flaugher; B. Gonzales; M. Hrycyk; C. Nelson; S. Segler; T. Shaw; S. Tkaczyk; K. Turner; T. Wesson; W. Carithers; R. Ely; C. Haber; S. Holland; S. Kleinfelder; T. Merrick; O. Schneider; W. Wester; M. Wong; D. Amidei; P. Derwent; M. Gold; J. Matthews; N. Bacchetta; D. Bisello; G. Busetto; A. Castro; M. Loreti; L. Pescara; F. Bedeschi; V. Bolognesi; S. Galeotti; M. Mariotti; A. Menzione; G. Punzi; F. Raffaelli; L. Risotri; F. Tartarelli; N. Turini; H. Wenzel; F. Zetti; M. Bailey; A. Garfinkel; N. Shaw; P. Tipton; G. Watts

1992-01-01

204

scienceessays IDTL personnel and detector characterization  

E-print Network

) and Gretchen Green (detector head engineer). 18 news Independent Detector Testing Laboratory -- D o n F i g e rnews 3 scienceessays IDTL personnel and detector characterization system. From left to right and Johns Hopkins University (JHU) created the Independent Detector Testing Laboratory (IDTL), located

Figer, Donald F.

205

A Comparison of Affine Region Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a snapshot of the state of the art in affine covariant region detectors, and compares their performance on a set of test images under varying imaging conditions. Six types of detectors are included: detectors based on affine normalization around Harris (Mikolajczyk and Schmid, 2002; Schaffalitzky and Zisserman, 2002) and Hessian points (Mikolajczyk and Schmid, 2002), a detector

Krystian Mikolajczyk; Tinne Tuytelaars; Cordelia Schmid; Andrew Zisserman; Jiri Matas; Frederik Schaffalitzky; Timor Kadir; Luc J. Van Gool; J. Matas

2005-01-01

206

Further characterization of IRAS doped silicon detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements made on several doped-silicon detectors are reported. Topics discussed include: Si:Sb detector, the effects of detector bias on dielectric relaxation; characterization of spontaneous noise and gamma-induced spikes and their circumvention; and the time response of two detectors to step changes in the background photon flux density. Several potential system programs are indicated.

1977-01-01

207

Reliability Studies of Planar Silicon Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For future large scale, long term applications of silicon particle detectors in high energy physics experiments, e.g. in proton or electron colliders, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of such detectors. An automated measurement apparatus has been built, which is used to test planar silicon detectors for several days or weeks, both with and without irradiation. Defective detectors were

Claus Goessling; Erik H. M. Heijne; Pierre Jarron; H. Andrew Parker; Nicola Redaelli; Leonardo Rossi

1986-01-01

208

Using near detector(s) to predict the far detector events in NOvA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The NOvA experiment is designed to search for a non-vanishing mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} with unprecedented sensitivity and has the potential to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy and constrain CP-violation phase. NOvA will use two functionally identical detectors at near and far locations to eliminate sensitivity to modeling of neutrino flux and cross-sections. The near detector will measure neutrino rate to constrain backgrounds expected in the far detector which will search for appearance of electron neutrinos and/or anti-neutrinos using Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam. This report describes initial thoughts on how the available beams and detectors may be used to reach the NOvA goals.

Djurcic, Zelimir; /Argonne

2011-01-01

209

Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography  

E-print Network

We introduce the concept of a superlinear threshold detector, a detector that has a higher probability to detect multiple photons if it receives them simultaneously rather than at separate times. Highly superlinear threshold detectors in quantum key distribution systems allow eavesdropping the full secret key without being revealed. Here, we generalize the detector control attack, and analyze how it performs against quantum key distribution systems with moderately superlinear detectors. We quantify the superlinearity in superconducting single-photon detectors based on earlier published data, and gated avalanche photodiode detectors based on our own measurements. The analysis shows that quantum key distribution systems using detector(s) of either type can be vulnerable to eavesdropping. The avalanche photodiode detector becomes superlinear towards the end of the gate, allowing eavesdropping using trigger pulses containing less than 120 photons per pulse. Such an attack would be virtually impossible to catch with an optical power meter at the receiver entrance.

Lars Lydersen; Nitin Jain; Christoffer Wittmann; Øystein Marøy; Johannes Skaar; Christoph Marquardt; Vadim Makarov; Gerd Leuchs

2011-06-10

210

Metal detector technology data base  

SciTech Connect

The tests described in this report were conducted to obtain information on the effects target characteristics have on portal type metal detector response. A second purpose of the tests was to determine the effect of detector type and settings on the detection of the targets. Although in some cases comparison performance of different types and makes of metal detectors is found herein, that is not the primary purpose of the report. Further, because of the many variables that affect metal detector performance, the information presented can be used only in a general way. The results of these tests can show general trends in metal detection, but do little for making accurate predictions as to metal detector response to a target with a complex shape such as a handgun. The shape of an object and its specific metal content (both type and treatment) can have a significant influence on detection. Thus it should not be surprising that levels of detection for a small 100g stainless steel handgun are considerably different than for detection of the 100g stainless steel right circular cylinder that was used in these tests. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Porter, L.K.; Gallo, L.R.; Murray, D.W.

1990-08-01

211

Near infrared detectors for SNAP  

SciTech Connect

Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

2006-05-23

212

Detector problems at the SSC  

SciTech Connect

During the last couple of years there has been considerable concern expressed among the US high energy community as to whether detector limitations would prevent one from being able to fully exploit a luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ at a hadron-hadron high energy collider. As a result of these concerns, a considerable amount of work has been done recently in trying to understand the nature of potential difficulties and the required R and D that needs to be performed. A lot of this work has been summarized in the 1984 DPF Summer Study at Snowmass. This paper attempts to review some of these results. This work is limited to the discussion of detector problems associated with the study of high energy hadron-hadron collisions. We shall start with the discussion of the desirable features of the detectors and of the SSC environment in which they will have to work. After a brief discussion of the model 4..pi.. detectors, we shall discuss specific detector aspects: lepton identification, tracking, calorimetry and computing and triggering. We shall end with some remarks about possible future course of events. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Wojcicki, S.G.

1985-02-01

213

Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) proposes to use personnel dosimetry radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for safeguards purposes. It plans to place these YES/NO monitors at barrier penetration points declared closed under IAEA safeguards to detect the passage of plutonium-bearing nuclear material, usually spent fuel. For this application, commercially available dosimeters were surveyed as well as other radiation detectors that appeared suitable and likely to be marketed in the near future. No primary advantage was found in a particular detector type because in this application backgrounds vary during long counting intervals. Secondary considerations specify that the monitor be inexpensive and easy to tamper-proof, interrogate, and maintain. On this basis radiophotoluminescent, thermoluminescent, and electronic dosimeters were selected as possible routine monitors; the latter two may prove useful for data-base acquisition.

Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

1981-01-01

214

Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

Agouridis, Dimitrios C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01

215

Visual detectors since the ZGS  

SciTech Connect

With the termination of the ZGS program and with the guidance of the Baltay Committee review of the HEP program at Argonne, the future role of the HEP Division was identified with its potential to provide engineering and facilities capabilities, allied with the full-time commitment of research physicists, to collaborations with university groups on experiments at other facilities. To see how well this has worked over the some 15 years since the ZGS, the author reviews the contributions of Argonne to a number of large tracking detector experiments; these may be regarded s the successors to the bubble chamber experiments of the 1950--1970 period and are reasonably referred to as visual detectors. In all of the detectors to be considered, the physical scale is large and the design and construction depend for success on sound engineering expertise and availability of extensive services backed up by skilled technician effort.

Musgrave, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

1996-05-01

216

Ion chamber gamma burst detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of burst detection is examined with respect to the space distribution of gamma-ray bursts and to early X-ray bursts from Type I supernovae. An ion-chamber burst detector for the 2-10 keV energy range is proposed in the form of a system of three mutually orthogonal gas-filled Mylar space balloons. The proposed balloon detector has an area of 100 sq m, a sensitivity of 2 x 10 to the -10th erg/sq cm, a directionality of 0.0001 sr, and a Mylar thickness of 3 mg/sq cm. It is shown that the detector can extend the gamma-burst log N - log S curve down to a presumed temporal-confusion limit and can detect expected prompt Type I supernovae in galaxies at 100 Mpc at a rate of at least one per day.

Colgate, S. A.

217

Thermoelectric single-photon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect a single photon is the ultimate level of sensitivity in the measurement of optical radiation. Sensors capable of detecting single photons and determining their energy have many scientific and technological applications. Kondo-enhanced Seebeck effect cryogenic detectors are based on thermoelectric heat-to-voltage conversion and voltage readout. We evaluate the prospects of CeB6 and (La,Ce)B6 hexaboride crystals for their application as a sensitive element in this type of detectors. We conclude that such detectors can register a single UV photon, have a fast count rate (up to 45 MHz) and a high spectral resolution of 0.1 eV. We calculate the electric potential generated along the thermoelectric sensor upon registering a UV single photon.

Kuzanyan, A. A.; Petrosyan, V. A.; Kuzanyan, A. S.

2012-03-01

218

Corner detector using invariant analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corner detection has been shown to be very useful in many computer vision applications. Some valid approaches have been proposed, but few of them are accurate, efficient and suitable for complex applications (such as DSP). In this paper, a corner detector using invariant analysis is proposed. The new detector assumes an ideal corner of a gray level image should have a good corner structure which has an annulus mask. An invariant function was put forward, and the value of which for the ideal corner is a constant value. Then, we could verify the candidate corners by compare their invariant function value with the constant value. Experiments have shown that the new corner detector is accurate and efficient and could be used in some complex applications because of its simple calculation.

Zhu, Chengfei; Li, Shuxiao; Song, Yi; Chang, Hongxing

2013-07-01

219

Characterization of liquid scintillation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five scintillation detectors of different scintillator size and type were characterized. The pulse height scale was calibrated in terms of electron light output units using photon sources. The response functions for time-of-flight (TOF)-selected monoenergetic neutrons were experimentally determined and also simulated with the NRESP code over a wide energy range. A comparison of the measured and calculated response functions allows individual characteristics of the detectors to be determined and the response matrix to be reliably derived. Various applications are discussed.

Schmidt, D.; Asselineau, B.; Böttger, R.; Klein, H.; Lebreton, L.; Neumann, S.; Nolte, R.; Pichenot, G.

2002-01-01

220

Tunable quantum well infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel infrared detector (20, 20', 20), is provided, which is characterized by photon-assisted resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum wells (22a, 22b) separated by barrier layers (28) in an intrinsic semiconductor layer (24) formed on an n.sup.+ substrate (26), wherein the resonance is electrically tunable over a wide band of wavelengths in the near to long infrared region. An n.sup.+ contacting layer (34) is formed over the intrinsic layer and the substrate is n.sup.+ doped to provide contact to the quantum wells. The detector permits fabrication of arrays (30) (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) for use in imaging and spectroscopy applications.

Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

1990-01-01

221

The bar PANDA MVD silicon strip detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bar PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility will study annihilation reactions of antiprotons. The Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) as part of the tracking system will permit precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. It is made of silicon pixel detectors and double-sided silicon strip detectors. The unique data acquisition concept without a central trigger poses a challenge to all sub-detectors. Developments for the MVD strip detector cover the evaluation of prototype sensors as well as the readout chain, ranging from the front-end for the trigger-less readout over the Module Data Concentrator ASIC to the off-detector electronics.

Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Sohlbach, H.; Zaunick, H.-G.

2013-02-01

222

The Collider Detector at Fermilab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) studies high energy particle collisions at Fermilab. The website features CDF Physics Results, providing publications, reprints, and conference proceedings from CDF working groups. A CDF for the Public section includes a High Energy Physics Tour for laymen, and links to all CDF collaborators.

Laboratory, Fermi N.

2003-10-10

223

Coal-rock interface detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coal-rock interface detector is presented which employs a radioactive source and radiation sensor. The source and sensor are separately and independently suspended and positioned against a mine surface of hydraulic pistons, which are biased from an air cushioned source of pressurized hydraulic fluid.

Rose, S. D.; Crouch, C. E.; Jones, E. W. (inventors)

1979-01-01

224

Radiation energy detector and analyzer  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detector array and a method for measuring the spectral content of radiation. The radiation sensor or detector is an array or stack of thin solid-electrolyte batteries. The batteries, arranged in a stack, may be composed of independent battery cells or may be arranged so that adjacent cells share a common terminal surface. This common surface is possible since the polarity of the batteries with respect to an adjacent battery is unrestricted, allowing a reduction in component parts of the assembly and reducing the overall stack length. Additionally, a test jig or chamber for allowing rapid measurement of the voltage across each battery is disclosed. A multichannel recorder and display may be used to indicate the voltage gradient change across the cells, or a small computer may be used for rapidly converting these voltage readings to a graph of radiation intensity versus wavelength or energy. The behavior of the batteries when used as a radiation detector and analyzer are such that the voltage measurements can be made at leisure after the detector array has been exposed to the radiation, and it is not necessary to make rapid measurements as is now done.

Roberts, T.G.

1981-09-15

225

Direct detector for terahertz radiation  

DOEpatents

A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

2008-09-02

226

Spectroscopy using thermionic diode detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic principles of the thermionic diode technique and the potential of the detector in laser spectroscopy are discussed. Furthermore different types of set-ups, effective detection schemes and hints for the construction and preparation of thermionic diodes are given.

K. Niemax

1985-01-01

227

The B AB AR detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B AB AR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e +e - B Factory operating at the ?(4 S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by d E/d x measurements in the tracking detectors and by a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Boucham, A.; Boutigny, D.; De Bonis, I.; Favier, J.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Jeremie, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Le Flour, T.; Lees, J. P.; Lieunard, S.; Petitpas, P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zachariadou, K.; Palano, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Reinertsen, P. L.; Stugu, B.; Abbott, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Amerman, L.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Clark, A. R.; Dardin, S.; Day, C.; Dow, S. F.; Fan, Q.; Gaponenko, I.; Gill, M. S.; Goozen, F. R.; Gowdy, S. J.; Gritsan, A.; Groysman, Y.; Hernikl, C.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Jared, R. C.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Karcher, A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kipnis, I.; Kluth, S.; Kral, J. F.; Lafever, R.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lewis, S. A.; Lionberger, C.; Liu, T.; Long, M.; Luo, L.; Lynch, G.; Luft, P.; Mandelli, E.; Marino, M.; Marks, K.; Matuk, C.; Meyer, A. B.; Minor, R.; Mokhtarani, A.; Momayezi, M.; Nyman, M.; Oddone, P. J.; Ohnemus, J.; Oshatz, D.; Patton, S.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Perazzo, A.; Peters, C.; Pope, W.; Pripstein, M.; Quarrie, D. R.; Rasson, J. E.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Stone, R.; Strother, P. D.; Telnov, A. V.; von der Lippe, H.; Weber, T. F.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zizka, G.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Hawkes, C. M.; Kirk, A.; Knowles, D. J.; O'Neale, S. W.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Koch, H.; Krug, J.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Andress, J. C.; Barlow, N. R.; Bhimji, W.; Chevalier, N.; Clark, P. J.; Cottingham, W. N.; De Groot, N.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; Mass, A.; McFall, J. D.; Wallom, D.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Camanzi, B.; Harrison, T. J.; McKemey, A. K.; Tinslay, J.; Antohin, E. I.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Bukin, D. A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Kolachev, G. M.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Mikhailov, S. F.; Onuchin, A. P.; Salnikov, A. A.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Telnov, V. I.; Yushkov, A. N.; Booth, J.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Pier, S.; Stoker, D. P.; Zioulas, G.; Ahsan, A.; Arisaka, K.; Buchanan, C.; Chun, S.; Faccini, R.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Prell, S. A.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Raven, G.; Sharma, V.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hale, D.; Hart, P. A.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; May, J.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; Beringer, J.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D. E.; Eisner, A. M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W. S.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. N.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hanson, J. E.; Hitlin, D. G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Metzler, S.; Oyang, J.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Weaver, M.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Jayatilleke, S. M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P.; Broomer, B.; Erdos, E.; Fahey, S.; Ford, W. T.; Gaede, F.; van Hoek, W. C.; Johnson, D. R.; Michael, A. K.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Park, H.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Sen, S.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, D. L.; Blouw, J.; Harton, J. L.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Warner, D. W.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kocian, M. L.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Behr, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Ferrag, S.; Fouque, G.; Gastaldi, F.; Matricon, P.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Renard, C.; Roussot, E.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Di Lodovico, F.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Falbo, M.; Bozzi, C.; Dittongo, S.; Folegani, M.; Piemontese, L.; Ramusino, A. C.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Xie, Y.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Fabbricatore, P.; Farinon, S.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musenich, R.; Pallavicini, M.; Parodi, R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Priano, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Bartoldus, R.; Dignan, T.; Hamilton, R.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Fischer, P. A.; Lamsa, J.; McKay, R.; Meyer, W. T.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Albert, J. N.; Beigbeder, C.; Benkebil, M.; Breton, D.; Cizeron, R.; Du, S.; Grosdidier, G.; Hast, C.; Höcker, A.; Lacker, H. M.; LePeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.

2002-02-01

228

Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

Gruber, C. L.

1977-01-01

229

The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amongst its complement of particles and fields instruments, the Galileo spacecraft carries an Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) designed to measure the characteristics of particle populations important in determining the size, shape, and dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. To do this the EPD provides 4p angular coverage and spectral measurements for Z = 1 ions from 20 keV to 55 MeV,

D. J. Williams; R. W. McEntire; S. Jaskulek; B. Wilken

1992-01-01

230

An inexpensive vehicle speed detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-power minicomputer can plug into automobile cigarette lighter. It measures time it takes observed car to travel premeasured distance and provides immediate readout of speed. Potentially, detector could be manufactured for less than $200 per unit and would have very low maintenance cost.

Broussard, P., Jr.

1973-01-01

231

Induction loop detector systems crosstalk  

E-print Network

. Tests were also conducted to measure the potential of crosstalk within a controller cabinet and in twisted and untwisted lead wires. As a part of this ongoing research, attention was also given to determine the distance of no spillover at detector unit...

Bhagat, Victor

2012-06-07

232

Sputtered film thermistor IR detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermistor infrared detector or bolometer is the detector of choice in many classical remote sensing applications such as horizon sensing, noncontact thermometry, and industrial applications. In recent years, the authors have developed a thin film process where the thermistor material is deposited from a target directly onto the substrate. This is an advance over the labor intensive ceramic technology, where sintered flakes of the thermistor are bonded to the substrate. The thin film technique permits a variety of device constructions and configurations. Detectors fabricated on heat-sunk ceramic substrates can withstand high operating temperatures and large incident optical power, in both pulsed and CW laser measurements. For dc or low frequency measurements, the films can be deposited onto a thermally isolated membrane with applications in motion sensing, gas detection, and temperature measurement. Utilizing advances in micromachining a 2D array of thermally isolated microbolometer sensors, integrated onto a silicon wafer containing readout circuitry may be achieved. This paper describes the construction of the sputtered film thermistor detectors, their operation, and applications.

Baliga, Shankar B.; Rost, Martin R.; Doctor, Alan P.

1994-07-01

233

UV and Optical Detectors: Status and Prospects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

UV and visible detectors - status and prospects. The status and prospects for UV and visible detectors for space astrophysics missions will be described, based on the findings of the NASA working group roadmap report, hopefully updated.

Woodgate, Bruce; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

234

Detector For FM Voice Or Digital Signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frequency-modulation (FM) detector operates with either analog audio (usually voice) signals or digital signals sent by differential minimum-shift keying (DMSK). Performance expected similar to conventional limiter/discriminator FM detectors. Detector operates at baseband, obviating need for band-pass filtering at intermediate frequency. Baseband version made in very-large-scale integrated circuit. New detector useful in mobile communications, where trend is toward integrated voice and data service.

Davarian, Faramaz

1989-01-01

235

Effective placement of detectors at diamond interchanges  

E-print Network

traffic conditions within given limitations. A critical element which provides input to actuated control is the detector (traffic sensor) component of the system. Traffic detectors sense vehicular and pedestrian arrival demand and convey these actuations... traffic conditions within given limitations. A critical element which provides input to actuated control is the detector (traffic sensor) component of the system. Traffic detectors sense vehicular and pedestrian arrival demand and convey these actuations...

Prabhakar, Dayakar

2012-06-07

236

A neutron detector based on microchannel plates  

SciTech Connect

We propose a large-area neutron detector design based on microchannel plates (MCPs). Two characteristics of the MCP make it ideal as a high-rate neutron detector: (1) its signals can have a very fast rise time, and (2) it can count at a high rate. The MCP-based detector could use both the high-voltage power supplies and the readout electronics designed for a neutron detector based on the multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC).

MacArthur, D.W.

1987-06-01

237

Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector  

DOEpatents

A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

1987-01-01

238

Pixel detectors: New detectors for X-ray scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress in micro electronic and the avaibility to develop custom electronic chips allow to realize a new kind of 2D detectors, the pixel detectors. They can be considered as an array of photon counters with a size of some tenth of millimeters. They allow to obtain images with a higher dynamical range allowing to study complex diffraction systems including weak diffusion. Les progrès de la microélectronique et la possibilité de développer des circuits électroniques dédiés ont rendu possible le developpernent de nouveaux détecteurs 2D, les détecteurs à pixels. Ils peuvent être considérés comme un pavage de compteurs de photons d'une taille de quelques dixièmes de millimètres. Ils permettent d'obtenir des images avec une plus grande dynamique afin d'étudier des systèmes mélant une diffraction complexe et une diffusion faible.

Bérar, J.-F.; Blanquart, L.; Boudet, N.; Breugnon, P.; Caillot, B.; Clemens, J.-C.; Koudobine, I.; Delpierre, P.; Mouget, C.; Potheau, R.; Valin, I.

2002-07-01

239

Solid State Detectors for High Radiation Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '7.2 Solid State Detectors for High Radiation Environments' of Chapter '7 Applications of Detectors in Technology; Medicine and Other Fields' with the content:

Kramberger, G.

240

24 CFR 965.805 - Smoke detectors.  

...subpart must be equipped with at least one battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detector...but not less than one for each area, of battery-operated or hard-wired smoke detectors...of alarm devices. (2) If needed, battery-operated smoke detectors, except...

2014-04-01

241

The Semiconductor Tracker Detector Control System  

E-print Network

The Semiconductor Tracker Detector Control System Requirements Document Reference cmproj #12; ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Issue: Draft 1.0 Detector Control System Date: November 21, 1996 1: requested by SCT page 2 #12; ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Issue: Draft 1.0 Detector Control System Date

California at Santa Cruz, University of

242

Quantum Opportunities in Gravitational Wave Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Direct observation of gravitational waves should open a new window into the Universe. Gravitational wave detectors are the most sensitive position meters ever constructed. The quantum limit in gravitational wave detectors opens up a whole new field of study. Quantum opportunities in gravitational wave detectors include applications of quantum optics techniques and new tools for quantum measurement on truly macroscopic (human) scales.

Mavalvala, Negris (MIT) [MIT

2012-03-14

243

A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

2007-01-01

244

Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

2013-11-19

245

THE ULTRACRYOGENIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTOR AURIGA  

E-print Network

at liquid Helium temperature have been dedicated to test several components, to calibrate the detectorTHE ULTRACRYOGENIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTOR AURIGA G.A.PRODI, J.P.ZENDRI, G.FONTANA, R discuss the latest results of the AURIGA gravitational wave detector at the INFN National Laboratories

246

Applying the helium ionization detector in chromatography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High noise levels and oversensitivity of helium detector make flame-ionization and thermal-conductivity detectors more suitable for chromotography. Deficiencies are eliminated by modifying helium device to operate in saturation rather than multiplication mode. Result is low background current, low noise, high stability, and high sensitivity. Detector analyzes halocarbons, hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and inorganics without requiring expensive research-grade helium.

Gibson, E. K.; Andrawes, F. F.; Brazell, R. S.

1981-01-01

247

Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors  

E-print Network

on the surface of an elastomer was fabricated and characterized. The detector has a sensitivity of the order the fabrication and perfor- mance of a thermal detector based on an elastomeric diffraction grating. The device with dyes. A class of strain gauge based on an operating prin- ciple similar to the detector described here

Prentiss, Mara

248

Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1  

E-print Network

Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Page 1 of 20 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Distribution authorized to all. Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Submitted by Nicolas Roy University) 393 8351 Email nroy@usc.edu Date: April 27, 2010 Work performed at USC #12;Veterinary Seizure Detector

Levi, Anthony F. J.

249

Full Detector Simulation Using SLIC and LCDD  

SciTech Connect

Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) and Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD) provide a flexible and powerful package for full detector simulations. This paper outlines the main features of SLIC and LCDD and explains the structure of an LCDD document used for detector description input.

McCormick, J.; /SLAC

2005-08-18

250

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01

251

Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF)  

SciTech Connect

A description of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is given. It is a calorimetric detector, which covers almost the complete solid angle around the interaction region with segmented calorimeter ''towers''. A 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid, 3m in diameter and 5m long, provides a uniform magnetic field in the central region for magnetic analysis of charged particles. The magnetic field volume is filled with a large cylindrical drift chamber and a set of Time Projection Chambers. Muon detection is accomplished with drift chambers outside the calorimeters in the central region and with large magnetized steel toroids and associated drift chambers in the forward-backward regions. The electronics has a large dynamic range to allow measurement of both high energy clusters and small energy depositions made by penetrating muons. Interesting events are identified by a trigger system which, together with the rest of the data acquisition system, is FASTBUS based.

Jensen, H.B.

1985-10-01

252

Terahertz Detectors based on graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we present magnetotransport an magnetooptical data obtained in the magnetic field range 0T < B < 7T at detectors patterned in Corbino geometry on epitaxial graphene wafer using a Ge detector. We observed the cyclotron resonance of charge carriers in these wafers by measurement of the transmission of THz wafes through the unpatterned squares (about 4 × 4mm2) of the wafers as a function of the magnetic field B applied perpendicular to the wafer. Further, we performed measurements of the photocunductivity of graphene-based devices shaped in Corbino geometry, induced by terahertz (THz) radiation generated by a p-Ge laser (emitting in the energy range 7.5meV <= Eph <= 11meV). Our photoconductivity measurement imply that graphene devices are suitable for the detection of terahertz radiation.

Gouider, Fathi; Salman, Majdi; Göthlich, Markus; Schmidt, Hennrik; Ahlers, Franz-J.; Haug, Rolf; Nachtwei, Georg

2013-08-01

253

Electro-optic Lightning Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, alignment, calibration, and field deployment of a solid-state lightning detector is described. The primary sensing component of the detector is a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) electro-optic crystal that is attached in series to a flat plate aluminum antenna; the antenna is exposed to the ambient thundercloud electric field. A semiconductor laser diode (lambda = 685 nm), polarizing optics, and the crystal are arranged in a Pockels cell configuration. Lightning-caused electric field changes are related to small changes in the transmission of laser light through the optical cell. Several hundred lightning electric field change excursions were recorded during five thunderstorms that occurred in the summer of 1998 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in northern Alabama.

Koshak, William J.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

1996-01-01

254

Electro-Optic Lightning Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, alignment, calibration, and field deployment of a solid-state lightning detector is described. The primary sensing component of the detector is a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) electro-optic crystal that is attached in series to a flat plate aluminum antenna; the antenna is exposed to the ambient thundercloud electric field. A semiconductor laser diode (lambda = 685 nm), polarizing optics, and the crystal are arranged in a Pockels cell configuration. Lightning-caused electric field changes are then related to small changes in the transmission of laser light through the optical cell. Several hundred lightning electric field change excursions were recorded during 4 thunderstorms that occurred in the summer of 1998 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Northern Alabama.

Koshak, Willliam; Solakiewicz, Richard

1998-01-01

255

Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors  

E-print Network

Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/P12002

2010-01-01

256

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

Gray, K.E.

1988-07-28

257

Massively Parallel MRI Detector Arrays  

PubMed Central

Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

2013-01-01

258

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

259

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOEpatents

An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

1994-05-03

260

Nonequilibrium superconductivity for particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

A considerable amount of attention has been devoted to nonequilibrium superconductivity over the last 10 to 15 years. A fairly complete and quantatitive understanding of the experimental and theoretical aspects of the subject has emerged. In this paper aspects of nonequilibrium superconductivity which are relevant to a majority of particle detector applications will be reviewed, and new calculations, more specific to actual detector applications, will be presented. The primary focus is on ionizing particles for which the characteristic energy is greater than typical superconducting energy gap values, ..delta.., of about 1 MeV. Thus microwave and far-infrared detection is excluded, although many of the results and consequences may also apply in those cases. 36 refs., 1 fig.

Gray, K.E.

1987-10-01

261

Hybrid detectors for subpixel targets.  

PubMed

Subpixel detection is a challenging problem in hyperspectral imagery analysis. Since the target size is smaller than the size of a pixel, detection algorithms must rely solely on spectral information. A number of different algorithms have been developed over the years to accomplish this task, but most detectors have taken either a purely statistical or a physics-based approach to the problem. We present two new hybrid detectors that take advantage of these approaches by modeling the background using both physics and statistics. Results demonstrate improved performance over the well known AMSD and ACE subpixel algorithms in experiments that include multiple targets, images, and area types--especially when dealing with weak targets in complex backgrounds. PMID:17848772

Broadwater, Joshua; Chellappa, Rama

2007-11-01

262

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

263

Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

2009-10-23

264

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1996-06-11

265

New Generation Atmospheric Cherenkov Detectors  

E-print Network

High energy gamma-ray astronomy has been established during the last decade through the launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) and the success of its ground-based counterpart, the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique. In the aftermath of their important and surprising scientific results a worldwide effort developing and designing new generation atmospheric Cherenkov detectors is underway. These novel instruments will have higher sensitivity at E > 250 GeV, but most importantly, will be able to close the unexplored energy gap between 20 GeV and 250 GeV. Several ground-based detectors are proposed or under construction. Aspects of the techniques used and sensitivity are discussed in this overview paper. The instruments cover largely complementary energy ranges and together are expected to explore the gamma-ray sky between 20 GeV and 100 TeV with unprecedented sensitivity.

Frank Krennrich

1999-01-25

266

The STAR detector magnet subsystem  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) Accelerator currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory will have large detectors at two of its six intersection regions. One of these detectors, known as STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC), weighs 1100 tons and is being built around a large solenoid magnet. The magnet is 7.32 in in diameter, 7.25 m long and utilizes three different sizes of room temperature aluminum coils. The magnet will operate with a field set from 0.25 T to 0.5 T and have a field uniformity of better than 1000 ppm over a portion of its interior region. This paper describes the magnet design, fabrication and assembly requirements and presents the current construction status.

Brown, R.L.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J. [and others

1997-07-01

267

Plasma Panel Based Radiation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a gaseous micropattern radiation detector under current development. It has many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels (PDPs). It comprises a dense matrix of small, gas plasma discharge cells within a hermetically sealed panel. As in PDPs, it uses non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, refractory metal electrodes, and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing these devices primarily as thin, low-mass detectors with gas gaps from a few hundred microns to a few millimeters. The PPS is a high gain, inherently digital device with the potential for fast response times, fine position resolution (< 50 m RMS) and low cost. In this paper we report here on prototype PPS experimental results in detecting betas, protons and cosmic muons, and we extrapolate on the PPS potential for applications including detection of alphas, heavy-ions at low to medium energy, thermal neutrons and X-rays.

Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University; Ferretti, Claudio [University of Michigan; Bentefour, E [Ion Beam Applications; Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan

2013-01-01

268

Astrophysics with the MACRO Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MACRO (underline Monopole, underline Astrophysics, and underline Cosmic underline Ray underline Observatory) is a large area multipurpose underground detector designed to search for rare events in the cosmic radiation. It has been optimized to look for supermassive magnetic monopoles as predicted by Grand Unified Theories (GUT) of the electroweak and strong interactions. Additional scientific goals of MACRO are met by analyzing other penetrating cosmic particles, such as muons and neutrinos. Among these goals are searches for cosmic sources of high energy (E_nu > 1 GeV) neutrinos and muons, indirect searches for WIMPs, the search for low energy (E_nu > 7 MeV) stellar collapse neutrinos, and investigations of various aspects of the high energy underground muon flux. MACRO has also made extensive studies of the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, which is suggestive of neutrino oscillations. MACRO is a deep underground experiment built in a tunnel under the Gran Sasso Mountain in Italy, approximately 100 km east of Rome. The mountain serves as a filter to reject unwanted background cosmic rays, thus facilitating the detection of rare events. The detector has been built and equipped with electronics during the years 1988 - 1995. It was completed in August 1995 and since the fall of 1995 has been running in its final configuration. The MACRO detector is running smoothly. The experiment is not in a long-term running a data analysis phase. In this talk I will discuss current analysis results from the MACRO detector, including improved limits on the monopole flux, astrophysical point sources of neutrinos and muons, and WIMPs. I will also discuss the status of the studies of atmospheric neutrinos and their implications concerning neutrino oscillations.

Mufson, S. L.; MACRO Collaboration

1999-04-01

269

Neutrino Factory Near Detector Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simulation with GENIE MC generator of the Neutrino Factory baseline near detector interaction rates for the purely leptonic process ??+e-??e+?- and for ??+N??-+X scattering in view of measuring the first one and suppressing the second one for neutrino flux estimation. A set of most sensitive measurable quantities are discussed and their selective power against experimental uncertainties is examined.

Karadzhov, Yordan

2010-03-01

270

The B AB AR detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e? B Factory operating at the ?(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located

B. Aubert; A. Bazan; A. Boucham; D. Boutigny; I. De Bonis; J. Favier; J.-M. Gaillard; A. Jeremie; Y. Karyotakis; T. Le Flour; J. P. Lees; S. Lieunard; P. Petitpas; P. Robbe; V. Tisserand; K. Zachariadou; A. Palano; G. P. Chen; J. C. Chen; N. D. Qi; G. Rong; P. Wang; Y. S. Zhu; G. Eigen; P. L. Reinertsen; B. Stugu; B. Abbott; G. S. Abrams; L. Amerman; A. W. Borgland; A. B. Breon; D. Brown; J. Button-Shafer; A. R. Clark; S. Dardin; C. Day; S. F. Dow; Q. Fan; I. Gaponenko; M. S. Gill; F. R. Goozen; S. J. Gowdy; A. Gritsan; Y. Groysman; C. Hernikl; R. G. Jacobsen; R. C. Jared; R. W. Kadel; J. Kadyk; A. Karcher; L. T. Kerth; I. Kipnis; S. Kluth; J. F. Kral; R. Lafever; C. LeClerc; M. E. Levi; S. A. Lewis; C. Lionberger; T. Liu; M. Long; L. Luo; G. Lynch; P. Luft; E. Mandelli; M. Marino; K. Marks; C. Matuk; A. B. Meyer; R. Minor; A. Mokhtarani; M. Momayezi; M. Nyman; P. J. Oddone; J. Ohnemus; D. Oshatz; S. Patton; M. Pedrali-Noy; A. Perazzo; C. Peters; W. Pope; M. Pripstein; D. R. Quarrie; J. E. Rasson; N. A. Roe; A. Romosan; M. T. Ronan; V. G. Shelkov; R. Stone; P. D. Strother; A. V. Telnov; H. von der Lippe; T. F. Weber; W. A. Wenzel; G. Zizka; P. G. Bright-Thomas; C. M. Hawkes; A. Kirk; D. J. Knowles; S. W. O'Neale; A. T. Watson; N. K. Watson; T. Deppermann; H. Koch; J. Krug; M. Kunze; B. Lewandowski; K. Peters; H. Schmuecker; M. Steinke; J. C. Andress; N. R. Barlow; W. Bhimji; N. Chevalier; P. J. Clark; W. N. Cottingham; N. De Groot; N. Dyce; B. Foster; A. Mass; J. D. McFall; D. Wallom; F. F. Wilson; K. Abe; C. Hearty; J. A. McKenna; D. Thiessen; B. Camanzi; T. J. Harrison; A. K. McKemey; J. Tinslay; E. I. Antohin; V. E. Blinov; A. D. Bukin; D. A. Bukin; A. R. Buzykaev; M. S. Dubrovin; V. B. Golubev; V. N. Ivanchenko; G. M. Kolachev; A. A. Korol; E. A. Kravchenko; S. F. Mikhailov; A. P. Onuchin; A. A. Salnikov; S. I. Serednyakov; Yu. I. Skovpen; V. I. Telnov; A. N. Yushkov; J. Booth; A. J. Lankford; M. Mandelkern; S. Pier; D. P. Stoker; G. Zioulas; A. Ahsan; K. Arisaka; C. Buchanan; S. Chun; R. Faccini; D. B. MacFarlane; S. A. Prell; Sh. Rahatlou; G. Raven; V. Sharma; S. Burke; D. Callahan; C. Campagnari; B. Dahmes; D. Hale; P. A. Hart; N. Kuznetsova; S. Kyre; S. L. Levy; O. Long; A. Lu; J. May; J. D. Richman; W. Verkerke; M. Witherell; S. Yellin; J. Beringer; J. DeWitt; D. E. Dorfan; A. M. Eisner; A. Frey; A. A. Grillo; M. Grothe; C. A. Heusch; R. P. Johnson; W. Kroeger; W. S. Lockman; T. Pulliam; W. Rowe; H. Sadrozinski; T. Schalk; R. E. Schmitz; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; E. N. Spencer; M. Turri; W. Walkowiak; M. Wilder; D. C. Williams; E. Chen; G. P. Dubois-Felsmann; A. Dvoretskii; J. E. Hanson; D. G. Hitlin; Yu. G. Kolomensky; S. Metzler; J. Oyang; F. C. Porter; A. Ryd; A. Samuel; M. Weaver; S. Yang; R. Y. Zhu; S. Devmal; T. L. Geld; S. Jayatilleke; G. Mancinelli; B. T. Meadows; M. D. Sokoloff; P. Bloom; B. Broomer; E. Erdos; S. Fahey; W. T. Ford; F. Gaede; W. C. van Hoek; D. R. Johnson; A. K. Michael; U. Nauenberg; A. Olivas; P. Rankin; J. Roy; S. Sen; J. G. Smith; D. L. Wagner; J. Blouw; J. L. Harton; M. Krishnamurthy; A. Soffer; W. H. Toki; D. W. Warner; R. J. Wilson; J. Zhang; T. Brandt; J. Brose; G. Dahlinger; M. Dickopp; R. S. Dubitzky; P. Eckstein; H. Futterschneider; M. L. Kocian; R. Krause; R. Müller-Pfefferkorn; K. R. Schubert; R. Schwierz; B. Spaan; L. Wilden; L. Behr; D. Bernard; G. R. Bonneaud; F. Brochard; J. Cohen-Tanugi; S. Ferrag; G. Fouque; F. Gastaldi; P. Matricon; P. Mora de Freitas; C. Renard; E. Roussot; S. T'Jampens; C. Thiebaux; G. Vasileiadis; M. Verderi; A. Anjomshoaa; R. Bernet; F. Di Lodovico; F. Muheim; S. Playfer; J. E. Swain; M. Falbo; C. Bozzi; S. Dittongo; M. Folegani; L. Piemontese; A. C. Ramusino; E. Treadwell; F. Anulli; R. Baldini-Ferroli; A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; D. Falciai; G. Finocchiaro; P. Patteri; I. M. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; Y. Xie; A. Zallo; S. Bagnasco; A. Buzzo; R. Contri; G. Crosetti; P. Fabbricatore; S. Farinon; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; S. Minutoli; M. R. Monge; R. Musenich; M. Pallavicini; R. Parodi; S. Passaggio; F. C. Pastore; C. Patrignani; M. G. Pia; C. Priano; E. Robutti; A. Santroni; R. Bartoldus; T. Dignan; U. Mallik; J. Cochran; H. B. Crawley; P. A. Fischer; J. Lamsa; R. McKay; W. T. Meyer; E. I. Rosenberg; J. Albert; C. Beigbeder; M. Benkebil; D. Breton; R. Cizeron; S. Du; G. Grosdidier; C. Hast; A. Höcker; H. M. Lacker; V. LePeltier; A. M. Lutz; S. Plaszczynski; M. H. Schune; S. Trincaz-Duvoid; K. Truong; A. Valassi; G. Wormser; O. Alford; D. Behne; R. M. Bionta; J. Bowman; V. Brigljevi?; A. Brooks; V. A. Dacosta; O. Fackler; D. Fujino; M. Harper; D. J. Lange; M. Mugge; T. G. O'Connor; H. Olson; L. Ott; E. Parker; B. Pedrotti; M. Roeben; X. Shi; K. van Bibber; T. J. Wenaus; D. M. Wright; C. R. Wuest; B. Yamamoto; M. Carroll; P. Cooke; J. R. Fry; E. Gabathuler; R. Gamet; M. George; M. Kay; S. McMahon

2002-01-01

271

Characterizing Detectors for JWST's NIRCam  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIRCam uses Teledyne H2RG 2048x2048 HgCdTe detector arrays. Eight arrays have a cut-off wavelength of 2.5 microns and two have a cut-off of 5 microns. We describe characterization testing of these arrays, including linearity, latent image, dark current, and read noise measurements at temperatures from 32-42K. We also present metrology measurements showing the surface flatness, coplanarity, and pixel locations in

Douglas M. Kelly; E. T. Young; C. W. Engelbracht; K. Misselt; M. J. Rieke; J. A. Stansberry; C. Willmer

2009-01-01

272

Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

1990-01-01

273

Near infrared detectors for SNAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large format (1k × 1k and 2k × 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova\\/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 mum. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in

M. Schubnell; N. Barron; C. Bebek; M. Borysow; D. Cole; D. Figer; W. Lorenzon; C. Bower; N. Mostek; S. Mufson; S. Seshadri; R. Smith; G. Tarlé

2006-01-01

274

Recent topics on gaseous detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Started in the late sixties by the invention of the multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC), the development of modern gaseous detectors has continued for decades and is still blooming, with the introduction of new generations of innovative devices having superior position accuracy, time resolutions and rate capability. Motivated mostly by the requirements of high energy physics, the novel devices find however applications in many other fields, such as astrophysics and medical diagnostics.

Sauli, Fabio

2010-11-01

275

Lanthanum Bromide Detectors for Safeguards Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Lanthanum bromide has advantages over other popular inorganic scintillator detectors. Lanthanum bromide offers superior resolution, and good efficiency when compared to sodium iodide and lanthanum chloride. It is a good alternative to high purity germanium detectors for some safeguards applications. This paper offers an initial look at lanthanum bromide detectors. Resolution of lanthanum bromide will be compared lanthanum chloride and sodium-iodide detectors through check source measurements. Relative efficiency and angular dependence will be looked at. Nuclear material spectra, to include plutonium and highly enriched uranium, will be compared between detector types.

Wright, J.

2011-05-25

276

Field-Induced-Gap Infrared Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semimetals become semiconductors under applied magnetic fields. New detectors require less cooling equipment because they operate at temperatures higher than liquid-helium temperatures required by extrinsic-semiconductor detectors. Magnetic fields for detectors provided by electromagnets based on recently-discovered high-transition-temperature superconducting materials. Detector material has to be semiconductor, in which photon absorbed by exciting electron/hole pair across gap Eg of forbidden energies between valence and conduction energy bands. Magnetic- and compositional-tuning effects combined to obtain two-absorber detector having narrow passband. By variation of applied magnetic field, passband swept through spectrum of interest.

Elliott, C. Thomas

1990-01-01

277

Modulated-Voltage Metastable-Ionization Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New detector retains sensitivity of conventional ones but automatically reduces voltage to prevent current saturation at higher values, enabling quantitative determination of relative concentrations approaching 100 percent. Detector includes feedback circuitry to prevent current saturation. When detector current begins to exceed threshold, detector high voltage reduced to keep current from rising much more. Recorder output shows detector-current and voltage-reduction signals from gas mixture with constituents both above and below threshold concentration. Those above threshold cause both current and voltage-reduction peaks. Those below threshold give rise to current peaks only.

Carle, Glenn C.; Kojiro, Daniel R.; Humphry, Donald E.

1988-01-01

278

Stressed detector arrays for airborne astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of stressed Ge:Ga detector arrays for far-infrared astronomy from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) is discussed. Researchers successfully constructed and used a three channel detector array on five flights from the KAO, and have conducted laboratory tests of a two-dimensional, 25 elements (5x5) detector array. Each element of the three element array performs as well as the researchers' best single channel detector, as do the tested elements of the 25 channel system. Some of the exciting new science possible with far-infrared detector arrays is also discussed.

Stacey, G. J.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Geis, N.; Poglitsch, A.; Rumitz, M.

1989-01-01

279

Pillar Structured Thermal Neutron Detector  

SciTech Connect

This work describes an innovative solid state device structure that leverages advanced semiconductor fabrication technology to produce an efficient device for thermal neutron detection which we have coined the 'Pillar Detector'. State-of-the-art thermal neutron detectors have shortcomings in simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low operating voltage while maintaining adequate fieldability performance. By using a three dimensional silicon PIN diode pillar array filled with isotopic {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B), a high efficiency device is theoretically possible. Here we review the design considerations for going from a 2-D to 3-D device and discuss the materials trade-offs. The relationship between the geometrical features and efficiency within our 3-D device is investigated by Monte Carlo radiation transport method coupled with finite element drift-diffusion carrier transport simulations. To benchmark our simulations and validate the predicted efficiency scaling, experimental results of a prototype device are illustrated. The fabricated pillar structures reported in this work are composed of 2 {micro}m diameter silicon pillars with a 2 {micro}m spacing and pillar height of 12 {micro}m. The pillar detector with a 12 {micro}m height achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 7.3% at a reverse bias of -2 V.

Nikolic, R; Conway, A; Reinhardt, C; Graff, R; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C

2008-06-10

280

The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem  

SciTech Connect

The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status.

Yamamoto, R.M.; Bowers, J.M.; Harvey, A.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-05-19

281

CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R3B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ?300 MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator - photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma-ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations.

Pietras, B.; Gascón, M.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Bendel, M.; Bloch, T.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I.; Fiori, E.; Gernhäuser, R.; González, D.; Kröll, T.; Le Bleis, T.; Montes, N.; Nácher, E.; Robles, M.; Perea, A.; Vilán, J. A.; Winkel, M.

2013-11-01

282

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOEpatents

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

1996-08-20

283

Focal plane detectors possible detector technologies for OWL/AIRWATCH  

SciTech Connect

New satellite-born projects OWL and AIRWATCH will need single-photon focal-plane detectors of a million pixels in a design which is optimized to the focusing optics and electronics at acceptable cost. We discuss different phototube possibilities and their pros and cons with crude cost estimates. We conclude that a multichannel-photomultiplier solution is safe. A better compromise may be to adapt a 6 or 9 inch X-ray image intensifier tube or develop a 12 inch image intensifier for detecting individual photons, and adapt the optics to have many mirror modules. The possibility of developing super-large-area phototubes is also discussed.

Flyckt, Esso [Photonis SAS, BP250, F-18106 Brive (France)

1998-06-15

284

Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the concept of a superlinear threshold detector, a detector that has a higher probability to detect multiple photons if it receives them simultaneously rather than at separate times. Highly superlinear threshold detectors in quantum key distribution systems allow eavesdropping the full secret key without being revealed. Here, we generalize the detector control attack, and analyze how it performs against quantum key distribution systems with moderately superlinear detectors. We quantify the superlinearity in superconducting single-photon detectors based on earlier published data, and gated avalanche photodiode detectors based on our own measurements. The analysis shows that quantum key distribution systems using detector(s) of either type can be vulnerable to eavesdropping. The avalanche photodiode detector becomes superlinear toward the end of the gate. For systems expecting substantial loss, or for systems not monitoring loss, this would allow eavesdropping using trigger pulses containing less than 120 photons per pulse. Such an attack would be virtually impossible to catch with an optical power meter at the receiver entrance.

Lydersen, Lars; Maroey, Oystein; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); University Graduate Center, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 24, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-09-15

285

Quantum key distribution with dual detectors  

SciTech Connect

To improve the performance of a quantum-key-distribution (QKD) system, high speed, low dark count single photon detectors (or low-noise homodyne detectors) are required. However, in practice, a fast detector is usually noisy. Here, we propose a dual-detector method to improve the performance of a practical QKD system with realistic detectors: the legitimate receiver randomly uses either a fast (but noisy) detector or a quiet (but slow) detector to measure the incoming quantum signals. The measurement results from the quiet detector can be used to bound the eavesdropper's information, while the measurement results from the fast detector are used to generate a secure key. We apply this idea to various QKD protocols. Simulation results demonstrate significant improvements of the secure key rate in the lower loss regime in both Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with ideal single photon source and Gaussian-modulated coherent states protocol; while for decoy-state BB84 protocol with weak coherent source, the improvement is moderate. We also discuss various practical issues in implementing the dual-detector scheme.

Qi, Bing; Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Qian, Li [Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control (CQIQC), Department of Physics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 3G4 (Canada)

2007-05-15

286

Detectors for Linear Colliders: Detector design for a Future Electron-Positron Collider (4/4)  

ScienceCinema

In this lecture I will discuss the issues related to the overall design and optimization of a detector for ILC and CLIC energies. I will concentrate on the two main detector concepts which are being developed in the context of the ILC. Here there has been much recent progress in developing realistic detector models and in understanding the physics performance of the overall detector concept. In addition, I will discuss the how the differences in the detector requirements for the ILC and CLIC impact the overall detector design.

None

2011-10-06

287

Microgap ultra-violet detector  

DOEpatents

A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

288

A terahertz plasmon cavity detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity of a plasmonic detector is enhanced by integrating a broadband log-periodic antenna with a two-dimensional plasma cavity that is defined by source, drain, and multiple gates of a GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistor. Both narrow-band terahertz detection and a rich harmonic spectrum are evident. With a bolometric sensor in the channel, we report responsivity, on resonance at 235-240 GHz and at 20 K, of up to 7 kV/W and a noise equivalent power of 5×10-10 W/Hz1/2.

Dyer, G. C.; Vinh, N. Q.; Allen, S. J.; Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J.; Reno, J. L.; Shaner, E. A.

2010-11-01

289

A terahertz plasmon cavity detector  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity of a plasmonic detector is enhanced by integrating a broadband log-periodic antenna with a two-dimensional plasma cavity that is defined by source, drain, and multiple gates of a GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistor. Both narrow-band terahertz detection and a rich harmonic spectrum are evident. With a bolometric sensor in the channel, we report responsivity, on resonance at 235-240 GHz and at 20 K, of up to 7 kV/W and a noise equivalent power of 5x10{sup -10} W/Hz{sup 1/2}.

Dyer, G. C.; Vinh, N. Q.; Allen, S. J. [Institute for Terahertz Science and Technology, UC Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J. [Kingsborough College, City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11235 (United States); Reno, J. L.; Shaner, E. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2010-11-08

290

High gas flow alpha detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

1996-05-07

291

HFI Bolometer Detectors Programmatic CDR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programmatic Critical Design Review (CDR) of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) Bolometer Detector on the Planck Surveyor is presented. The topics include: 1) Scientific Requirements and Goals; 2) Silicon Nitride Micromesh 'Spider-Web' Bolometers; 3) Sub-Orbital Heritage: BOOMERANG; 4) Noise stability demonstrated in BOOMERANG; 5) Instrument Partners; 6) Bolometer Environment on Planck/HFI; 7) Bolometer Modules; and 8) Mechanical Interface. Also included are the status of the receivables and delivery plans with Europe. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

Lange, Andrew E.

2002-01-01

292

Detector challenges at the LHC.  

PubMed

The best way to study the existence of the Higgs boson, supersymmetry and grand unified theories, and perhaps the physics of dark matter and dark energy, is at the TeV scale. This is the energy scale that will be explored at the Large Hadron Collider. This machine will generate the energy and rate of collisions that might provide evidence of new fundamental physics. It also brings with it the formidable challenge of building detectors that can record a large variety of detailed measurements in the inhospitable environment close to the collisions points of the machine. PMID:17637659

Stapnes, Steinar

2007-07-19

293

Nanocomposite scintillator, detector, and method  

DOEpatents

A compact includes a mixture of a solid binder and at least one nanopowder phosphor chosen from yttrium oxide, yttrium tantalate, barium fluoride, cesium fluoride, bismuth germanate, zinc gallate, calcium magnesium pyrosilicate, calcium molybdate, calcium chlorovanadate, barium titanium pyrophosphate, a metal tungstate, a cerium doped nanophosphor, a bismuth doped nanophosphor, a lead doped nanophosphor, a thallium doped sodium iodide, a doped cesium iodide, a rare earth doped pyrosilicate, or a lanthanide halide. The compact can be used in a radiation detector for detecting ionizing radiation.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); McKigney, Edward A. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-04-28

294

Small area detectors at the European XFEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detectors to be used at the European XFEL have to deal with the unique time structure of the machine, delivering up to 2700 pulses, with a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, ten times per second, the very high photon flux and the need to combine single-photon sensitivity and a large dynamic range. This represents a challenge not only for the large-area 2D imaging detectors but also for the smaller-area detectors and makes the use of standard commercial devices impossible. Dedicated solutions are therefore envisaged for small imaging- or strip-detectors. In this contribution the focus is put on two particular small-area detector solutions which are planned to be used at the European XFEL, a strip detector for hard X-rays (with energy 3 < E < 25 keV) and an imaging detector for soft X-rays (0.25 < E < 3 keV). Hard X-rays photon-beam diagnostics as well as hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy at the European XFEL make use of strip detectors as detectors for beam spectrometers or as energy-dispersive detectors in combination with an energy-dispersive element. The European XFEL is establishing cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen to develop a new version of the Gotthard detector best suited to the European XFEL needs. The use case and the required detector specifications are illustrated. Starting from the present detector version, the modifications planned to adapt it to the European XFEL running conditions are described. These include the capability of running at an increased rate and to provide a veto signal to the large 2D imaging detectors, in order to be able to remove non-interesting images already at early stages of the DAQ system. In another particular application, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a Micro-Channel Plate detector matched to a delay-line readout is foreseen to be used. In this case the European XFEL is aiming for a highly customized solution provided by the German company Surface Concept. The use case is described, the science-driven detector specifications are illustrated and the expected detector performance is shown.

Turcato, M.; Gessler, P.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Meyer, M.; Nordgren, J.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Youngman, C.

2014-05-01

295

Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector  

E-print Network

The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost element of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-01

296

Low Temperature Detectors: Principles and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Despite the added cost and complexity of operating at sub-Kelvin temperatures, there are many measurement applications where the sensitivity and precision provided by low temperature detectors greatly outweigh any disadvantages. As a result, low temperature detectors are now finding wide application for measurements ranging from cosmology to homeland defense. In this tutorial I will introduce the basic operating principles and fundamental performance limits of several types of low temperature detectors.

Hilton, G. C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder CO (United States)

2009-12-16

297

Reverse Schottky-asymmetry spin current detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By reversing the Schottky barrier-height asymmetry in hot-electron semiconductor-metal-semiconductor ballistic spin filtering spin detectors, we have achieved the following: (1) demonstration of >50% spin polarization in silicon, resulting from the increase of detection efficiency by elimination of the ferromagnet/silicon interface on the transport channel detector contact and (2) evidence of spin transport at temperatures as high as 260 K, enabled by an increase in detector Schottky barrier height.

Lu, Yuan; Appelbaum, Ian

2010-10-01

298

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

1992-01-01

299

High sensitivity neutron detector for Z  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed, calibrated, and tested a high sensitivity neutron detector that can be operated in the harsh x-ray bremsstrahlung environment that exists in experiments conducted on the 20 MA Z z-pinch facility located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The detector uses a scintillator coupled to a microchannel-plate photomultiplier tube detector and extensive x-ray shielding.

Ruggles, L. E.; Porter, J. L.; Simpson, W. W.; Vargas, M. F.; Zagar, D. M.; Hartke, R.; Buersgens, F.; Symes, D. R.; Ditmire, T.

2004-10-01

300

Detector and front-end integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SSC is a high luminosity hadron collider and produces high data rates. Extensive data processing and storage will be required close to the detector elements before the read-out of the entire event. We will review different ``generic'' front-end architectures for various detector subsystems. A few challenging technical questions like interconnects and the integration of Silicon detectors with the electronics are discussed. The merits of using bipolar or CMOS technology are reviewed.

Sadrozinski, Hartmut F.-W.

1990-08-01

301

Development of a Plasma Panel Muon Detector  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detector technology based on Plasma Display Panels (PDP), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays is being investigated. Emerging from this well established television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micropattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally a fast, high resolution detector comprised of an array of plasma discharge cells operating in a hermetically sealed gas mixture. We report on the PPS development effort, including proof-of-principle results of laboratory signal observations.

Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Dai, T. [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University; Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; White, Sebastion [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan

2010-01-01

302

Xenon ionization detector for digital radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenon gas x-ray detectors have been used successfully in CT scanners; however, they have been found to be unsuitable for digital radiography. We have designed and built a new type of xenon x-ray detector array and tested its suitability for digital radiography. The detector consists of two parallel plates separated by a 0.5-mm gap, filled with xenon gas at a

D. J. Drost; A. Fenster

1982-01-01

303

Calibration of the GLAST Burst Monitor Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will augment the capabilities of GLAST for the detection of cosmic gamma-ray bursts by extending the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) towards lower energies by 2 BGO-detectors (150 keV to 30 MeV) and 12 NaI(Tl) detectors (10 keV to 1 MeV). The physical detector response of

Andreas von Kienlin; Elisabetta Bissaldi; Giselher G. Lichti; Helmut Steinle; Michael Krumrey; Martin Gerlach; Gerald J. Fishman; Charles Meegan; Narayana Bhat; Michael S. Briggs; Roland Diehl; Valerie Connaughton; Jochen Greiner; R. Marc Kippen; Chryssa Kouveliotou; William Paciesas; Robert Preece; Colleen Wilson-Hodge

2011-01-01

304

Calibration of the GLAST Burst Monitor detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will augment the capabilities of GLAST for the detection of cosmic gamma-ray bursts by extending the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) towards lower energies by 2 BGO-detectors (150 keV to 30 MeV) and 12 NaI(Tl) detectors (10 keV to 1 MeV). The physical detector response of

Andreas von Kienlin; Elisabetta Bissaldi; Giselher G. Lichti; Helmut Steinle; Michael Krumrey; Martin Gerlach; Gerald J. Fishman; Charles Meegan; Narayana Bhat; Michael S. Briggs; Roland Diehl; Valerie Connaughton; Jochen Greiner; R. Marc Kippen; Chryssa Kouveliotou; William Paciesas; Robert Preece; Colleen Wilson-Hodge

2007-01-01

305

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller

2007-02-01

306

The Ibis-Picsit detector onboard Integral  

Microsoft Academic Search

PICsIT is the high-energy detector layer of the IBIS Imager, composed of 4096 CsI(Tl) scintillator detectors 8.4 x 8.4x 300 mm in size with PhotoDiode readout. The detector operates in the 175 keV-20.4 MeV range and its data generation modes make it possible to collect information from single events and multiple coincident events. PICsIT is surrounded by the active BGO

C. Labanti; G. Di Cocco; G. Ferro; F. Gianotti; A. Mauri; E. Rossi; J. B. Stephen; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio

2003-01-01

307

Performance improvements for pyroelectric infrared detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the newest layouts and the basic properties of pyroelectric single-element detectors and linear arrays with up to 512 responsive elements which are built on the basis of lithium tantalate. The research aimed to develop detectors with a signal-to-noise ratio that is as high as possible thereby ensuring optimum adjustment of the detectors to their planned application. Typical

Volkmar Norkus; Dmitri Chvedov; Gerald Gerlach; Reinhard Köhler

2006-01-01

308

ATLAS Inner Detector Event Data Model  

SciTech Connect

The data model for event reconstruction (EDM) in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment is presented. Different data classes represent evolving stages in the reconstruction data flow, and specific derived classes exist for the sub-detectors. The Inner Detector EDM also extends the data model for common tracking in ATLAS and is integrated into the modular design of the ATLAS high-level trigger and off-line software.

ATLAS; Akesson, F.; Costa, M.J.; Dobos, D.; Elsing, M.; Fleischmann, S.; Gaponenko, A.; Gnanvo, K.; Keener, P.T.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.; Siebel, M.; Wildauer, A.

2007-12-12

309

The ATLAS Inner Detector commissioning and calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATLAS Inner Detector is a composite tracking system consisting of silicon\\u000apixels, silicon strips and straw tubes in a 2 T magnetic field. Its\\u000ainstallation was completed in August 2008 and the detector took part in data-\\u000ataking with single LHC beams and cosmic rays. The initial detector operation,\\u000ahardware commissioning and in-situ calibrations are described. Tracking\\u000aperformance has

B. Abbott; J. Abdallah; A. A. Abdelalim; A. Abdesselam; O. Abdinov; B. Abi; M. Abolins; H. Abramowicz; H. Abreu; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; T. N. Addy; J. Adelman; C. Adorisio; P. Adragna; T. Adye; J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra; S. P. Ahlen; F. Ahles; A. Ahmad; M. Ahsan; G. Aielli; T. Akdogan; G. Akimoto; A. V. Akimov; A. Aktas; M. S. Alam; S. Albrand; M. Aleksa; C. Alexa; G. Alexander; G. Alexandre; T. Alexopoulos; M. Alhroob; M. Aliev; G. Alimonti; J. Alison; M. Aliyev; P. P. Allport; J. Almond; A. Aloisio; R. Alon; A. Alonso; M. G. Alviggi; K. Amako; C. Amelung; A. Amorim; V. Andrei; X. S. Anduaga; A. Angerami; F. Anghinolfi; N. Anjos; A. Annovi; A. Antonaki; M. Antonelli; S. Antonelli; J. Antos; B. Antunovic; F. Anulli; S. Aoun; G. Arabidze; I. Aracena; Y. Arai; A. T. H. Arce; S. Arfaoui; T. Argyropoulos; M. Arik; A. J. Armbruster; O. Arnaez; C. Arnault; A. Artamonov; D. Arutinov; M. Asai; S. Asai; R. Asfandiyarov; S. Ask; D. Asner; L. Asquith; K. Assamagan; A. Astvatsatourov; G. Atoian; B. Auerbach; K. Augsten; M. Aurousseau; N. Austin; G. Avolio; R. Avramidou; C. Ay; G. Azuelos; Y. Azuma; M. A. Baak; A. M. Bach; H. Bachacou; K. Bachas; M. Backes; E. Badescu; P. Bagnaia; Y. Bai; T. Bain; O. K. Baker; M. D. Baker; S Baker; F. Baltasar Dos; Santos Pedrosa; E. Banas; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; D. Banfi; A. Bangert; V. Bansal; S. P. Baranov; T. Barber; E. L. Barberio; D. Barberis; M. Barbero; D. Y. Bardin; T. Barillari; M. Barisonzi; T. Barklow; N. Barlow; B. M. Barnett; R. M. Barnett; A. Baroncelli; A. J. Barr; F. Barreiro; P. Barrillon; R. Bartoldus; D. Bartsch; R. L. Bates; L. Batkova; J. R. Batley; A. Battaglia; M. Battistin; F. Bauer; H. S. Bawa; M. Bazalova; B. Beare; T. Beau; P. H. Beauchemin; R. Beccherle; P. Bechtle; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; M. Beckingham; K. H. Becks; A. J. Beddall; V. A. Bednyakov; C. Bee; M. Begel; S. Behar Harpaz; P. K. Behera; C. Belanger-Champagne; P. J. Bell; G. Bella; L. Bellagamba; F. Bellina; M. Bellomo; A. Belloni; K. Belotskiy; O. Beltramello; S. Ben Ami; O. Benary; D. Benchekroun; M. Bendel; B. H. Benedict; N. Benekos; Y. Benhammou; D. P. Benjamin; M. Benoit; J. R. Bensinger; K. Benslama; S. Bentvelsen; M. Beretta; D. Berge; E. Bergeaas; N. Berger; F. Berghaus; E. Berglund; J. Beringer

2010-01-01

310

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

Voigtman, Edward G. (Gainesville, FL); Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Jurgensen, Arthur R. (Gainesville, FL)

1983-01-01

311

Liquid-phase chromatography detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

1983-11-08

312

Direct digital conversion detector technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

1995-06-01

313

Metal detector depth estimation algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper looks at depth estimation techniques using electromagnetic induction (EMI) metal detectors. Four algorithms are considered. The first utilizes a vertical gradient sensor configuration. The second is a dual frequency approach. The third makes use of dipole and quadrapole receiver configurations. The fourth looks at coils of different sizes. Each algorithm is described along with its associated sensor. Two figures of merit ultimately define algorithm/sensor performance. The first is the depth of penetration obtainable. (That is, the maximum detection depth obtainable.) This describes the performance of the method to achieve detection of deep targets. The second is the achievable statistical depth resolution. This resolution describes the precision with which depth can be estimated. In this paper depth of penetration and statistical depth resolution are qualitatively determined for each sensor/algorithm. A scientific method is used to make these assessments. A field test was conducted using 2 lanes with emplaced UXO. The first lane contains 155 shells at increasing depths from 0" to 48". The second is more realistic containing objects of varying size. The first lane is used for algorithm training purposes, while the second is used for testing. The metal detectors used in this study are the: Geonics EM61, Geophex GEM5, Minelab STMR II, and the Vallon VMV16.

Marble, Jay; McMichael, Ian

2009-05-01

314

Field induced gap infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

Elliott, C. Thomas (inventor)

1990-01-01

315

Array of germanium detectors for nuclear safeguards  

SciTech Connect

Our gamma-ray spectrometer system, designed for field use, offers high efficiency and high resolution for safeguards applications. The system consists of three 40% high-purity germanium detectors and a LeCroy 3500 data-acquisition system that calculates a composite spectrum for the three detectors. The LeCroy 3500 mainframe can be operated remotely from the detector array with control exercised through moderns and the telephone system. System performance with a mixed source of /sup 125/Sb, /sup 154/Eu, and /sup 155/Eu confirms the expected efficiency of 120% with an overall resolution that is between the resolution of the best detector and that of the worst.

Moss, C.E.; Bernard, W.; Dowdy, E.J.; Garcia, C.; Lucas, M.C.; Pratt, J.C.

1983-01-01

316

An introduction to blocked impurity band detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blocked impurity band detectors fabricated using standard silicon technologies offer the possibility of combining high sensitivity and high accuracy in a single detector operating in a low background environment. The solid state photomultiplier described by Petroff et al., which is a new type of blocked impurity band detector, offers even higher sensitivity as well as operation in the visible spectral region. The principle of operation and possible application of blocked impurity band detectors for stellar seismology and the search for extra-solar planets are described.

Geist, Jon

1988-01-01

317

The status of detectors at the SSC  

SciTech Connect

The announcement of the location of the SSC at the site near Waxahachie, Texas was made in January, 1989. Since then a great many important steps have been taken toward the start of the new Laboratory. Some 900 people have been brought to the site as the starting nucleus of the staff that will ultimate number about 2200. A design baseline has been completed that includes a conceptual design for the accelerator, and the detectors. Also, the process has begun to determine the configuration of detectors that will be built for the SSC. This process has several steps, and now the first of these has been taken: The detector collaborations have submitted the Expression of Interest to the Laboratory. These were reviewed by Laboratory management and the Physics Advisory Committee in July, 1990 and recommendations were made to the collaborations. Decisions were deferred for all of the detectors. But perhaps the most significant recommendation was the request to reduce the size and cost of the general purpose detectors. The detector collaborations are now reviewing their initial designs to prepare for the Letters of Intent, the next step in the detector planning process. This is clearly a difficult and crucial step in that the redesign of the detectors must be done with minimal reduction in detector quality. It is an interesting time in the development of the new laboratory, and a crucial time for the ultimate physics that will be done at the SSC.

Stefanski, R.

1990-09-01

318

The LiC detector toy program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note describes the "LiC Detector Toy" ("LiC" for Linear Collider) software tool which has been developed for detector design studies, aiming at investigating the resolution of reconstructed track parameters for the purpose of comparing and optimizing various detector setups. It consists of a simplified simulation of the detector measurements, taking into account multiple scattering, followed by full single track reconstruction using the Kalman filter. The tool is written in M ATLAB and may be installed on a laptop. It can easily be used as a black-box tool by non-experts, but also adapted to individual needs.

Regler, Meinhard; Valentan, Manfred; Frühwirth, Rudolf

2007-10-01

319

Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV (at 1 keV) and 5 eV (at 7 keV), creating some overlap with part of the NFI 1 energy window. Both narrow field imagers have a 0.5 arcmin field of view. Their imaging capabilities are matched to the XEUS optics of 2 to 5 arcsec leading to 1 arcsec pixels. The detector arrays will be cooled by a closed cycle system comprising a mechanical cooler with a base temperature of 2.5 K and either a low temperature 3He sorption pump providing the very low temperature stage and/or an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). The ADR cooler is explicitly needed to cool the NFI 2 array. The narrow field imager 1} Currently a 48 times 48 element array of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) is envisaged. Its operating temperature is in the range between 30 and 350 mK. Small, single Ta STJs (20-50 mum on a side) have shown 3.5 eV (FWHM) resolution at E = 525 eV and small arrays have been successfully demonstrated (6 times 6 pixels), or are currently tested (10 times 12 pixels). Alternatively, a prototype Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID), consisting of a linear superconducting Ta absorber of 20 times 100 mum2, including a 20 times 20 mum STJ for readout at either end, has shown a measured energy resolution of 2.4 eV (FWHM) at E = 500 eV. Simulations involving the diffusion properties as well as loss and tunnel rates have shown that the performance can be further improved by slight modifications in the geometry, and that the size of the DROIDS can be increased to 0.5-1.0 mm without loss in energy resolution. The relatively large areas and good energy resolution compared to single STJs make DROIDS good candidates for the basic elements of the NFI 1 detector array. With a DROID-based array of 48 times 10 elements covering the NFI 1 field of view of 0.5 arcmin, the number of signal wires would already be reduced by a factor 2.4 compared to a 48 times 48 array of single pixels. While the present prototype DROIDS are still covered with a 480 nm thick SiOx insulation layer, this layer could easily be reduced in thickness or omitted. The detection efficiency of such a device with a 500 nm thick Ta absorber would be >80% in the energy range of 100-3000eV, without any disturbing contributions from other layers as in single STJs. Further developments involve devices of lower Tc-superconductors for better energy resolution and faster diffusion (e.g. Mo). The narrow field imager 2 The NFI 2 will consist of an array of 32 times 32 detector pixels. Each detector is a microcalorimeter which consists of a a superconducting to normal phase transition edge thermometer (transition edge sensor, TES) with an operating temperature of 100 mK, and an absorber which allows a detection efficiency of >90% and a filling factor of the focal plane in excess of 90%. Single pixel microcalorimeters with a Ti/Au TES have already shown an energy resolution of 3.9 eV at 5.89 keV in combination with a thermal response time of 100 mus. These results imply that they the high-energy requirement for XEUS can be met, in terms of energy resolution and response time. It has been demonstrated that bismuth can be applied as absorber material without impeding on the detector performance. Bi increases the stopping power in excess of 90 % and allows for a high filling factor since the absorber is can be modeled in the shape of a mushroom, allowing that the wiring to the detector and the thermal support structure are placed under the hat of the mushroom. In order to realize the NFI 2 detector array, there are two major development areas. Firstly, there is the development of micromachined Si and SiN structures that will provide proper cooling for each of the pixels and the production of small membranes to support the

Hoevers, H.; Verhoeve, P.

320

Efficiency of composite boron nitride neutron detectors in comparison with helium-3 detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been clearly demonstrated that the composite boron nitride (BN) semiconductor polycrystalline bulk detectors with BN grains embedded in a polymer matrix operate as an effective detector of thermal neutrons even if they contain natural boron only. A reasonable signal to noise ratio has been achieved with detector thickness of about 1 mm. A Monte Carlo simulation of neutron

J. Uher; S. Pospisil; V. Linhart; M. Schieber

2007-01-01

321

Novel integrated paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) as a miniaturized photometric detector in HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel low power, low cost, highly sensitive, miniaturized light emitting diode (LED) based flow detector has been used as optical detector for the detection of sample components in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This colorimetric detector employs two LEDs, one operating in normal mode as a light source and the other is reverse biased to work as a light

Martina O'Toole; King-Tong Lau; Benjamin Shazmann; Roderick Shepherd; Pavel N. Nesterenko; Brett Paull; Dermot Diamond

2006-01-01

322

Amorphous Silicon Based Neutron Detector  

SciTech Connect

Various large-scale neutron sources already build or to be constructed, are important for materials research and life science research. For all these neutron sources, neutron detectors are very important aspect. However, there is a lack of a high-performance and low-cost neutron beam monitor that provides time and temporal resolution. The objective of this SBIR Phase I research, collaboratively performed by Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE), the University of Toledo (UT) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is to demonstrate the feasibility for amorphous silicon based neutron beam monitors that are pixilated, reliable, durable, fully packaged, and fabricated with high yield using low-cost method. During the Phase I effort, work as been focused in the following areas: 1) Deposition of high quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) at high deposition rate and with low device shunting; 2) Fabrication of Si/SiO2/metal/p/i/n/metal/n/i/p/metal/SiO2/ device for the detection of alpha particles which are daughter particles of neutrons through appropriate nuclear reactions; and 3) Testing of various devices fabricated for alpha and neutron detection; As the main results: · High quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films have been successfully deposited using VHF PECVD on various low-cost substrates; · Various single-junction and double junction detector devices have been fabricated; · The detector devices fabricated have been systematically tested and analyzed. · Some of the fabricated devices are found to successfully detect alpha particles. Further research is required to bring this Phase I work beyond the feasibility demonstration toward the final prototype devices. The success of this project will lead to a high-performance, low-cost, X-Y pixilated neutron beam monitor that could be used in all of the neutron facilities worldwide. In addition, the technologies developed here could be used to develop X-ray and neutron monitors that could be used in the future for security checks at the airports and other critical facilities. The project would lead to devices that could significantly enhance the performance of multi-billion dollar neutron source facilities in the US and bring our nation to the forefront of neutron beam sciences and technologies which have enormous impact to materials, life science and military research and applications.

Xu, Liwei

2004-12-12

323

Intravascular imaging with a storage phosphor detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop and test an intravascular positron imaging system based on a storage phosphor detector for imaging and detecting vulnerable plaques of human coronary arteries. The radiotracer F18-FDG accumulates in vulnerable plaques with inflammation of the overlying cap. The vulnerable plaques can, therefore, be imaged by recording positrons emitted from F18-FDG with a detector inserted into the artery. A prototype intravascular detector was constructed based on storage phosphor. The detector uses a flexible storage phosphor tube with 55 mm length, 2 mm diameter and 0.28 mm wall thickness. The intravascular detector is guided into the vessel using x-ray fluoroscopy and the accumulated x-ray signal must be erased prior to positron imaging. For this purpose, a light diffuser, 0.9 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length, was inserted into the detector tube. The light diffuser was connected to a laser source through a 2 m long optical fiber. The diffuser redirected the 0.38 W laser light to the inner surface of the phosphor detector to erase it. A heart phantom with 300 cm3 volume and three coronary arteries with 3.2 mm diameter and with several plaques was constructed. FDG solution with 0.5 µCi cm-3 activity concentration was filled in the heart and coronary arteries. The detector was inserted in a coronary artery and the signal from the plaques and surrounding background activity was recorded for 2 min. Then the phosphor detector was extracted and read out using a storage phosphor reader. The light diffuser erased the signal resulting from fluoroscopic exposure to level below that encountered during positron imaging. Vulnerable plaques with area activities higher than 1.2 nCi mm-2 were visualized by the detector. This activity is a factor of 10-20 lower than that expected in human vulnerable plaques. The detector was able to image the internal surface of the coronary vessels with 50 mm length and 360° circumference. Spatial resolution was 0.6-1.2 mm FWHM with a readout pixel resolution of 80 µm. The detector is flexible, reusable and easy to handle; it provides virtually real-time imaging. An intravascular imaging detector based on storage phosphor has shown a potential for imaging human coronary artery plaques. The detector provides the sensitivity, spatial resolution, flexibility and short imaging times necessary for clinical applications. Future research will decrease the detector diameter from 2 mm to 1 mm, and will apply the design to in vivo animal experiments.

Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Petrek, Peter; Matthews, Kenneth L., II; Fritz, Shannon G.; Bujenovic, L. Steven; Xu, Tong

2010-05-01

324

High P/sub T/ detectors for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

Summarized in this report is some of the work done at the recent Workshop on Experiments, Detectors, and Experimental Areas for the Supercollider held at Berkeley. The major goal was to develop an understanding of what complement of detectors would provide the capability for a well-balanced physics program at the SSC. Unlike earlier studies which had emphasized individual components such as tracking, calorimetry, etc., the intention was to focus on complete detectors. The particular detectors discussed in this paper are: the large solenoid detectors, the compact solenoid detectors, the non-magnetic detectors, the dipole detectors and muon detectors. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs. (LSP)

Trilling, G.H.

1987-11-01

325

Study of bubble damage detectors for neutron detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter. Our experiments also

C.-Q. Tu; S.-L. Guo; Y.-L. Wang; X.-H. Hao; C.-M. Chen; J.-L. Su

1997-01-01

326

Magnetic tape lightning current detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development and application tests of a low cost, passive, peak lightning current detector (LCD) found it to provide measurements with accuracies of + or - 5 percent to + or - 10 percent depending on the readout method employed. The LCD uses magnetic audio recording tape to sense the magnitude of the peak magnetic field around a conductor carrying lightning currents. The test results showed that the length of audio tape erased was linearly related to the peak simulated lightning currents in a round conductor. Accuracies of + or - 10 percent were shown for measurements made using a stopwatch readout technique to determine the amount of tape erased by the lightning current. Where more accurate data are desired, the tape is played and the output recorded on a strip chart, oscilloscope, or some other means so that measurements can be made on that recording. Conductor dimensions, tape holder dimensions, and tape formulation must also be considered to obtain a more accurate result.

Crouch, K. E.; Jafferis, W.

1980-01-01

327

Low-cost radon detector  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a detector for alpha particles produced by radioactive decay in a test medium. It comprises: a solid state diode having a depletion layer disposed close enough to the test medium that alpha particles emitted in the test medium deposit energy in the depletion layer; a first amplifier connected to amplify a signal produced by the diode. The first amplifier being operable to produce an output pulse upon energy being deposited in the depletion layer; a second amplifier having at least one connection in common with the first amplifier. The second amplifier having inputs connected other than to the signal produced by the diode. Both the first and second amplifiers produce output pulses due to transients and only the first amplifier produces output pulses due to alpha particles; and means to sense output pulses occurring on the first amplifier only, and to ignore output pulses occurring on both the first and second amplifiers.

Simon, W.E.; Powers, T.L.; Ernsberger, G.W.

1989-10-03

328

Lithium-6 foil neutron detector  

SciTech Connect

A neutron detection apparatus is provided which includes a selected number of flat surfaces of lithium-6 foil, and which further includes a gas mixture in contact with each of the flat surfaces for selectively reacting to charged particles emitted by or radiated from the lithium foil. A container is provided to seal the lithium foil and the gas mixture in a volume from which water vapor and atmospheric gases are excluded, the container having one or more walls which are transmissive to neutrons. Monitoring equipment in contact with the gas mixture detects reactions taking place in the gas mixture, and, in response to such reactions, provides notice of the flux of neutrons passing through the volume of the detector.

Young, C.A.

1982-12-21

329

Radiation detectors: needs and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Important applications for x- and ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy are found in prospecting, materials characterization, environmental monitoring, the life sciences, and nuclear physics. The specific requirements vary for each application with varying degrees of emphasis on either spectrometer resolution, detection efficiency, or both. Since no one spectrometer is ideally suited to this wide range of needs, compromises are usually required. Gas and scintillation spectrometers have reached a level of maturity, and recent interest has concentrated on semiconductor spectrometers. Germanium detectors are showing continuing refinement and are the spectrometers of choice for high resolution applications. The new high-Z semiconductors, such as CdTe and HgI/sub 2/, have shown steady improvement but are limited in both resolution and size and will likely be used only in applications which require their unique properties.

Armantrout, G.A.

1981-01-01

330

Ion chamber gamma burst detector  

SciTech Connect

A gamma ray burst detector of x-ray photons 2 to 10 keV is designed to maximize area, 100 m/sup 2/, and sensitivity, 10/sup -10/ ergs cm/sup -2/ s/sup 1/2/ modest directionality, 2 x 10/sup -4/ sr, and minimize thickness, 3 mg cm/sup -2/, as a plastic space balloon ion chamber. If the log N - log S curve for gamma bursts extends as the -3/2 power, the sensitivity is limited by gamma-burst peak overlap in time so that the question of the size spectrum and isotropy is maximally tested. Supernova type I prompt x-ray bursts of congruent to 3-ms duration should be detected at a rate of several per day from supernova at a distance greater than 100 Mpc.

Colgate, S.A.

1981-08-25

331

High spatial resolution particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

2012-09-04

332

14 CFR 125.173 - Fire detectors.  

...Fire detectors must be made and installed in a manner that assures their ability to resist, without failure, all vibration, inertia, and other loads to which they may be normally subjected. Fire detectors must be unaffected by exposure to fumes, oil,...

2014-01-01

333

14 CFR 121.275 - Fire detectors.  

...Fire detectors must be made and installed in a manner that assures their ability to resist, without failure, all vibration, inertia, and other loads to which they may be normally subjected. Fire detectors must be unaffected by exposure to fumes, oil,...

2014-01-01

334

Applications of {sup 3}He neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Neutron detectors with {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters are described. The use of these detectors in measuring the probability of neutron emission (in particular, multiparticle neutron emission) after the {beta} decay of neutron-rich nuclei and in studying rare events of spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei is considered.

Testov, D. A., E-mail: dumon@jinr.r [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Briancon, Ch. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (France); Dmitriev, S. N.; Yeremin, A. V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Pyatkov, Yu. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Sokol, E. A. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation)

2009-01-15

335

Infrared receiver having a cooled radiation detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infrared receiver having an infrared radiation detector cooled by means of a cold-gas engine, the thermal contact between a cooling surface of the cold-gas engine and the radiation detector being obtained by an elastic thermally conducting bridge. The cylindrical bridge is comprised of a plurality of turns of a metal strip. Due to the presence of the bridge, a

Van Antwerpen

1985-01-01

336

Nucleonic coal detector with independent, hydropneumatic suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a nucleonic, coal interface detector which measures the depth of coal on the roof and floor of a coal mine is presented. The nucleonic source and the nucleonic detector are on independent hydropneumatic suspensions to reduce the measurement errors due to air gap.

Jones, E. W.; Handy, K.

1977-01-01

337

Metal Detectors and Feeling Safe at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that metal detectors bestow an organizational stigma to schools. One symptom of this is students' heightened level of fear at school. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and a matched-pair design, this study finds that metal detectors are negatively correlated with students' sense…

Gastic, Billie

2011-01-01

338

The pyroelectric detector of infrared radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyroelectric detector is a thermal sensor of infra-red radiation requiring no bias. While in principle a pure capacitor (hence theoretically noiseless), the detector has a varying noise contribution as a function of frequency due to a load resistor, series loss resistance, and amplifier. The actual sensor is a pyroelectric crystal exhibiting spontaneous polarization. The spontaneous polarization and dielectric constant

H. P. Beerman

1969-01-01

339

Device for calibrating a radiation detector system  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a device for calibrating a radiation detector system that is used for measuring the radionuclide intake of those exposed to radioactive materials. In particular, the present invention relates to a device that simulates a human chest and lungs with a modicum of internal radiation for use in calibrating radiation detectors.

McFee, M.C; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

1993-09-23

340

Helium leak detector improved sensitivity speed choke  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve the best of steady sensitivity of a leak detector and the best opening of the valve for quick clean up, a gate valve was installed with a predetermined hole drilled in the seat plate and positioned between a diffusion pump and pumping system isolation valve. The technique was tried on a cold trapped mass spectrometer leak detector.

F. Juravic

1983-01-01

341

New type of Cherenkov Imaging Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging Cherenkov counter is developed to measure the velocities of several secondary particles simultaneously over wide ranges in gamma. This detector, called the ORCID (Optical Readout Cherenkov Imaging Detector) distinguished from other CID's by its readout system, which uses a lens to refocus and reduce a mirror image onto an image intensifier. The image intensifier is in turn coupled

B. Robinson

1980-01-01

342

A New Type of Cherenkov Imaging Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging Cherenkov counter is being developed to measure the velocities of several secondary particles simultaneously over wide ranges in gamma (gamma ? E\\/m), 20 < gamma < 100, and in particle angles (200 mrad × 200 mrad per unit). This detector, called ORCID (Optical Readout Cherenkov Imaging Detector) is distinguished from other CID's by its readout system, which uses

Barry Robinson

1981-01-01

343

Si:As BIB detector arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of the results obtained on arsenic-doped silicon blocked impurity band (BIB) detectors and arrays since the invention of the BIB concept a few years ago are presented. After a brief introduction and a description of the BIB concept, data will be given on single detector performance. Then different arrays that were fabricated will be described and test data presented.

Bharat, R.; Petroff, M. D.; Speer, J. J.; Stapelbroek, M. G.

1986-01-01

344

Sofradir SWIR hyperspectral detectors for space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of SWIR detectors for space applications is strongly growing those last years, mainly because of the increasing need for environmental missions in the SWIR detection range. For now more than 10 years, Sofradir is involved in that field, developing and improving its SWIR detectors technology, leading to a mature technology that enable to address most of missions needs

Yoanna-Reine Nowicki-Bringuier; Philippe Chorier

2009-01-01

345

New particle ID detector for Crystal  

E-print Network

MWPC Chambers PMTs MWPC=133mm 500mm PMT support ring beam · PID-II ­ removable! (redesigned MWPCNew particle ID detector for Crystal Ball at MAMI-C Daniel Watts, University of Edinburgh John ¡ · Good separation of p, with little overhead in material before MWPC and CB detectors PID-I #12;MWPC

Edinburgh, University of

346

Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) technology is one of emerging technologies that will change our life. A lot of attractive applications in security, medicine, biology, astronomy, and non-destructive materials testing have been demonstrated already. However, the realization of THz emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. As a result, THz radiation is resistant to the techniques commonly employed in these well established neighbouring bands. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of THz radiation detectors and focal plane arrays are discussed. Historical impressive progress in THz detector sensitivity in a period of more than half century is analyzed. More attention is put on the basic physical phenomena and the recent progress in both direct and heterodyne detectors. After short description of general classification of THz detectors, more details concern Schottky barrier diodes, pair braking detectors, hot electron mixers and field-effect transistor detectors, where links between THz devices and modern technologies such as micromachining are underlined. Also, the operational conditions of THz detectors and their upper performance limits are reviewed. Finally, recent advances in novel nanoelectronic materials and technologies are described. It is expected that applications of nanoscale materials and devices will open the door for further performance improvement in THz detectors.

Rogalski, A.; Sizov, F.

2011-09-01

347

Resource Letter PD-1 on Particle Detectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to guide college physicists to literature on nuclear and sub-nuclear particle detectors. The paper contains a discussion of (1) interactions of particles with matter and (2) individual particle detectors, each section being followed by an annotated bibliography of selected reference materials. Rankings are given to the articles on the…

Trower, W. Peter

1970-01-01

348

The most powerful scintillator supernovae detector: LVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Large Volume Detector (LVD) in the Gran Sasso underground Laboratory is a multipurpose detector consisting of a large volume of liquid scintillator interleaved with limited streamer tubes. In this paper we discuss its power to study low-energy cosmic neutrinos. The results show that the first LVD tower (368 tons of liquid scintillator) is well suited to detect neutrinos

M. Aglietta; B. Alpat; E. D. Alyea; P. Antonioli; G. Anzivino; G. Badino; Y. Ban; G. Bari; M. Basile; A. Benelli; V. S. Berezinsky; L. Bergamasco; S. Bianco; A. Bizzetti; G. Bruni; Y. Cao; G. Cara Romeo; R. Casaccia; C. Castagnoli; A. Castellina; K. Chen; R. Chen; J. A. Chinellato; L. Cifarelli; G. Cini; S. Cong; A. Contin; V. L. Dadikin; M. Dardo; A. De Silva; M. Deutsch; L. G. Dos Santos; R. I. Enikeev; F. L. Fabbri; W. Fulgione; P. Galeotti; P. L. Ghia; P. Giusti; F. Grianti; S. Gu; E. S. Hafen; P. Haridas; G. Iacobucci; N. Inoue; F. F. Khalchukov; E. V. Korolkova; P. V. Kortchaguin; V. B. Kortchaguin; V. A. Kudryavtsev; G. Landi; K. Lau; X. Lin; L. Lu; J. Ma; Z. Ma; G. Maccarrone; A. S. Malguin; Z. Mao; M. A. Markov; T. Massam; B. Mayes; N. Mengotti Silva; A. Misaki; G. H. Mo; B. Monteleoni; C. Morello; J. Moromisato; R. Nania; G. Navarra; L. Panaro; D. Parks; P. G. Pelfer; L. Periale; P. Picchi; P. Pinna; L. Pinsky; I. A. Pless; M. Pu; J. Pyrlyk; J. Qiu; V. G. Ryasny; O. G. Ryazhskaya; O. Saavedra; K. Saitoh; D. Sanders; G. Sartorelli; S. Sarwar; D. Shen; V. P. Talochkin; H. Tang; J. Tang; W. Tian; G. C. Trinchero; A. Turtelli; I. Uman; P. Vallania; S. Vernetto; E. von Goeler; L. Votano; T. Wada; F. Wang; H. Wang; S. Wang; R. Weathers; R. Weinstein; M. Widgoff; L. Xu; Z. Xu; V. F. Yakushev; I. Yamamoto; G. Yi; A. Zallo; G. T. Zatsepin; X. Zhou; Q. Zhu; X. Zhu; B. Zhuan; A. Zichichi

1992-01-01

349

Astronomical imaging with infrared array detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in astronomy which have resulted from the use of IR-sensitive two-dimensional array detectors are reviewed. The technological aspects of IR array detectors are discussed. Observations of star formation regions, planetary nebulae, the Galactic center, activity in other galaxies, and the collision of two galaxies are examined. Pictures illustrating IR imagery from various observatories are presented.

Ian Gatley; D. L. Depoy; A. M. Fowler

1988-01-01

350

Hybrid direct conversion detectors for digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid pixel detector arrays that convert X-rays directly into charge signals are under development at NOVA for application to digital mammography. This technology also has wide application possibilities in other fields of radiology and in industrial imaging for applications in nondestructive evaluation and inspection. These detectors have potentially superior properties compared to either emulsion based film, which has nonlinear response

Shi Yin; T. O. Tumer; D. Maeding; J. Mainprize; G. Mawdsley; M. J. Yaffe; W. J. Hamilton

1999-01-01

351

[The design of handheld fast ECG detector].  

PubMed

A new handheld fast ECG detector based on low gain amplifier, the high resolution analog to digital converter, the real-time digital filter, fast P-QRS-T wave detection and abstraction algorithm was designed. The results showed that the ECG detector can meet the requirements of fast detecting heart rate and ECG P-QRS-T waveforms. PMID:23777065

Shi, Bo; Zhang, Genxuan; Tsau, Young

2013-03-01

352

A Chemiluminescence Detector for Ozone Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ozone detector was built and evaluated for its applicability in smog chamber studies. The detection method is based on reaction of ozone with ethylene and measurement of resultant chemiluminescence. In the first phase of evaluation, the detector's response to ozone was studied as a function of several instrument parameters, and optimum…

Carroll, H.; And Others

353

Construction of the forward pixel detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment is scheduled for data taking in 2008 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It has an all-silicon tracking system with a Pixel Detector as the innermost component. The silicon Pixel Detector is made of two disks on each side of the interaction point with three barrel layers in between. It will play a crucial role in realizing the physics potential at LHC by providing a 3D space resolution on the order of ten microns for pattern recognition and track reconstruction. The disks are collectively called the Forward Pixel Detector and are being assembled at Fermilab, USA The detector modules for the disks alone consist of eighteen million pixels. The design and present status of the Forward Pixel Detector is presented here.

Malik, S.

2008-05-01

354

Test results of heavily irradiated Si detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large use of silicon microstrip detectors is foreseen for the intermediate part of the CMS tracker. A specific research and development program has been carried out with the aim of finding design layouts and technological solutions for allowing silicon microstrip detectors to be reliably used on a high radiation level environment. As a result of this work single sided, AC-coupled, polysilicon biased, 300 ? m thick, p + on n substrate detectors were chosen. Irradiation tests have been performed on prototypes up to fluence 2×10 14 n/cm 2. The detector performances do not significantly change if the detectors are biased well above the depletion voltage. S/ N is reduced by less than 20%, still enough to insure a good efficiency and space resolution. Multiguard structures has been developed in order to reach high voltage operation (above 500 V).

Albergo, S.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G. M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Connotte, J.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; de Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W. H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Karimaki, V.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Martignon, G.; Mc Evoy, B.; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

1999-02-01

355

IR imaging using uncooled microcantilever detectors.  

PubMed

Uncooled bimaterial microcantilever detectors were fabricated and used to obtain infrared (IR) images of objects at temperatures ranging from room temperature to a few hundred degrees C. Images were obtained using both single 50 micro m x 50 micro m microcantilever IR detectors and arrays of microcantilever detectors. Thermal radiation from the target object was imaged onto the detector and the resulting temperature change caused microcantilever bending due to the bimaterial effect. This micromechanical bending was measured using two different non-contact optical readout techniques and IR images were obtained. A smaller size (20 micro m x 20 micro m) microcantilever IR detector was also used to capture IR images of near room temperature objects. PMID:12801701

Senesac, L R; Corbeil, J L; Rajic, S; Lavrik, N V; Datskos, P G

2003-01-01

356

Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (review)  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

A. Buzulutskov

2011-12-28

357

Neutron Position Sensitive Detectors for the ESS  

E-print Network

The European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden will become the world's leading neutron source for the study of materials. The instruments are being selected from conceptual proposals submitted by groups from around Europe. These instruments present numerous challenges for detector technology in the absence of the availability of Helium-3, which is the default choice for detectors for instruments built until today and due to the extreme rates expected across the ESS instrument suite. Additionally a new generation of source requires a new generation of detector technologies to fully exploit the opportunities that this source provides. The detectors will be sourced from partners across Europe through numerous in-kind arrangements; a process that is somewhat novel for the neutron scattering community. This contribution presents briefly the current status of detectors for the ESS, and outlines the timeline to completion. For a conjectured instrument suite based upon instruments recommended for construction, ...

Kirstein, Oliver; Stefanescu, Irina; Etxegarai, Maddi; Anastasopoulos, Michail; Fissum, Kevin; Gulyachkina, Anna; Höglund, Carina; Imam, Mewlude; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Khaplanov, Anton; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kolya, Scott; Nilsson, Björn; Ortega, Luis; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Piscitelli, Francesco; Ramos, Judith Freita; Robinson, Linda; Scherzinger, Julius

2014-01-01

358

Near Detectors for a Neutrino Factory  

SciTech Connect

The baseline design for a Neutrino Factory includes the need for one or more near detectors.The near detectors must be designed to carry out measurements essential to the sensitivity of the oscillation-physics program. In addition, the intense neutrino beam delivered by the Neutrino Factory makes it possible to carry out a unique neutrino-physics program at the near detectors. This program includes fundamental electroweak and QCD physics. The near detector must also be capable of searching for new physics, for example by detecting tau-leptons which are particularly sensitive probes of non-standard interactions at source and at detection. This paper is extracted from the Near Detector chapter of the Neutrino Factory Interim Design Report.

Morfin, Jorge G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States)

2011-11-23

359

A novel electron tunneling infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pneumatic infrared detector, originally developed by Golay in the late 1940s, uses the thermal expansion of one cm(exp 3) of xenon at room temperature to detect the heat deposited by infrared radiation. This detector was limited by thermal fluctuations within a 10 Hz bandwidth, but suffered from long thermal time constants and a fragile structure. Nevertheless, it represents the most sensitive room temperature detector currently available in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR). Fabrication of this type of detector on smaller scales has been limited by the lack of a suitably sensitive transducer. Researchers designed a detector based on this principle, but which is constructed entirely from micromachined silicon, and uses a vacuum tunneling transducer to detect the expansion of the trapped gas. Because this detector is fabricated using micromachining techniques, miniaturization and integration into one and two-dimensional arrays is feasible. The extreme sensitivity of vacuum tunneling to changes in electrode separation will allow a prototype of this detector to operate in the limit of thermal fluctuations over a 10 kHz bandwidth. A calculation of the predicted response and noise of the prototype is presented with the general formalism of thermal detectors. At present, most of the components of the prototype have been fabricated and tested independently. In particular, a characterization of the micromachined electron tunneling transducer has been carried out. The measured noise in the tunnel current is within a decade of the limit imposed by shot noise, and well below the requirements for the operation of an infrared detector with the predicted sensitivity. Assembly and characterization of the prototype infrared detector will be carried out promptly.

Kenny, T. W.; Waltman, S. B.; Reynolds, J. K.; Kaiser, W. J.

1990-01-01

360

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter Panofsky Prize presentation American;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University Original #12;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University TES

California at Berkeley, University of

361

14 CFR 125.171 - Fire-detector systems.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-detector systems. 125.171 Section 125...Special Airworthiness Requirements § 125.171 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided in each...

2014-01-01

362

14 CFR 121.273 - Fire-detector systems.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-detector systems. 121.273 Section 121...Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.273 Fire-detector systems. Enough quick-acting fire detectors must be provided in each...

2014-01-01

363

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube devices, or ionization chambers, herein referred to as “radiation detectors,” that contain only Division...

2012-10-01

364

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube devices, or ionization chambers, herein referred to as “radiation detectors,” that contain only Division...

2013-10-01

365

49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions for radiation detectors. Radiation detectors, radiation sensors, electron tube devices, or ionization chambers, herein referred to as “radiation detectors,” that contain only Division...

2011-10-01

366

Recent Development of TlBr Gamma-Ray Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planar detectors, strip detectors, and double-sided strip detectors were fabricated from TlBr crystals grown by the traveling molten zone method using zone-purified material. The detector performance including the leakage current, energy reso- lutions, and timing performance were evaluated in order to assess the capability of the detectors for PET and SPECT applications. The TlBr detectors exhibited excellent spectroscopic performance at

Keitaro Hitomi; Tsutomu Tada; Seong-Yun Kim; Yan Wu; Tomonobu Tanaka; Tadayoshi Shoji; Hiromichi Yamazaki; Keizo Ishii

2011-01-01

367

Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 × 150 ?m2. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

Kumar, A.

2009-03-01

368

Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

369

A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

2004-01-01

370

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

371

Muon Energy Calibration of the MINOS Detectors  

SciTech Connect

MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for conclusive evidence of neutrino oscillations and to measure the oscillation parameters precisely. MINOS comprises two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab and Soudan. The Calibration Detector at CERN is a third MINOS detector used as part of the detector response calibration programme. A correct energy calibration between these detectors is crucial for the accurate measurement of oscillation parameters. This thesis presents a calibration developed to produce a uniform response within a detector using cosmic muons. Reconstruction of tracks in cosmic ray data is discussed. This data is utilized to calculate calibration constants for each readout channel of the Calibration Detector. These constants have an average statistical error of 1.8%. The consistency of the constants is demonstrated both within a single run and between runs separated by a few days. Results are presented from applying the calibration to test beam particles measured by the Calibration Detector. The responses are calibrated to within 1.8% systematic error. The potential impact of the calibration on the measurement of oscillation parameters by MINOS is also investigated. Applying the calibration reduces the errors in the measured parameters by {approx} 10%, which is equivalent to increasing the amount of data by 20%.

Miyagawa, Paul S.; /Oxford U.

2004-09-01

372

Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector  

SciTech Connect

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 x 150 {micro}m{sup 2}. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

2008-12-01

373

New class of biological detectors for WIMPs  

E-print Network

Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) may constitute a large fraction of the matter in the Universe. There are excess events in the data of DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, CRESST-II, and recently CDMS-Si, which could be consistent with WIMP masses of approximately 10 GeV/c2. However, for MDM > 10 GeV/c2 null results of the CDMS-Ge, XENON, and LUX detectors may be in tension with the potential detections for certain dark matter scenarios and assuming a certain light response. We propose the use of a new class of biological dark matter (DM) detectors to further examine this light dark matter hypothesis, taking advantage of new signatures with low atomic number targets, Two types of biological DM detectors are discussed here: DNA-based detectors and enzymatic reactions (ER) based detectors. In the case of DNA-based detectors, we discuss a new implementation. In the case of ER detectors, there are four crucial phases of the detection process: a) change of state due to energy deposited by a particle; b) amplification d...

Drukier, A K; Chonofsky, M; Church, G M; Fagaly, R L; Freese, K; Lopez, A; Sano, T; Savage, C; Wong, W P

2014-01-01

374

Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++ [1], GAMANL [2], GRPANL [3]and MGAU [4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

1999-02-01

375

Comparative NIR Detector Characterization for NGST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

List of publications for final perfomance report are: Detectors for the JWST Near-Infrared Spectrometer Rauscher, B.J., Strada, P., Regan, M.W., Figer, D.F., Jakobsen, P., Moseley, H.S., & Boeker, T. 2004, SPIE Detectors for the JWST Near-Infrared Spectrometer Rauscher, B.J., Strada, P., Regan, M.W., Figer, D.F., Jakobsen, P., Moseley, H.S., & Boeker, T. 2004, AAS, 203, 124.07 Independent Testing of JWST Detector Prototypes Figer, D.F., Rauscher, B. J., Regan, M. W., Morse, E., Balleza, J., Bergeron, L., & Stockman, H. S. 2003 , SPIE, 5 167 The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory and the NGST Detector Program Figer, D.F., Agronin, M., Balleza, J., Barkhouser, R., Bergeron, L., Greene, G. R., McCandliss, S. R., Rauscher, B. J., Reeves, T., Regan, M. W., Sharma, U., Stockman, H. S. 2003, SPIE, 4850,981 Intra-Pixel Sensitivity in NIR Detectors for NGST Sharma, U., Figer, D.F., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Agronin, M., Balleza, J., Barkhouser, R., Bergeron, L., Greene, G. R., McCandliss, S. R., Rauscher, B. J., Reeves, T., Regan, M. W., Stockman, H. S. 2003, SPIE, 4850,1001 NIRCAM Image Simulations for NGST Wavefiont SensinglPS A. Sivaramakrishnan, D. Figer, H. Bushouse, H. S. Stockman (STScI),C. Ohara , D. Redding (JPL), M. Im (IPAC), & J. Offenberg (Raytheon) 2003, SPIE, 4850,388 Ultra-Low Background Operation of Near-Infrared Detectors for NGS Rauscher, B. J., Figer, D. F., Agronin, M., Balleza, J., Barkhouser, R., Bergeron, L., Greene, G. R., McCandliss, S. R., Reeves, T., Regan, M. W., Sharma, U., Stockman, H. S. 2003, SPIE, 4850,962 The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory and the JWST Detector Program Figer, D.F. et a1.2003, AAS201, #131.05

Greenhouse, Matthew (Technical Monitor); Figer, Donald

2004-01-01

376

Minefield reconnaissance and detector system  

DOEpatents

A multi-sensor system (10) for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like. A remote sensor platform (12) has a plurality of metal detector sensors (22) and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors (24). The remote sensor platform (12) is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit (14) and signals from the remote sensor platform (12) are sent to the processing and control unit (14) where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps (34, 36) to obtain a probability "score" for each of the pluralities of sensors (22, 24). These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step (38) by comparing score sets to a probability table (130) which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess (40) for controlling a marker device (76) to mark the location of found objects.

Butler, Millard T. (Albuquerque, NM); Cave, Steven P. (Albuquerque, NM); Creager, James D. (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, Charles M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mathes, John B. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Kirk J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

377

Handheld erythema and bruise detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual inspection of intact skin is commonly used when assessing persons for pressure ulcers and bruises. Melanin masks skin discoloration hindering visual inspection in people with darkly pigmented skin. The objective of the project is to develop a point of care technology capable of detecting erythema and bruises in persons with darkly pigmented skin. Two significant hardware components, a color filter array and illumination system have been developed and tested. The color filter array targets four defined wavelengths and has been designed to fit onto a CMOS sensor. The crafting process generates a multilayer film on a glass substrate using vacuum ion beam splitter and lithographic techniques. The illumination system is based upon LEDs and targets these same pre-defined wavelengths. Together, these components are being used to create a small, handheld multispectral imaging device. Compared to other multi spectral technologies (multi prisms, optical-acoustic crystal and others), the design provides simple, low cost instrumentation that has many potential multi spectral imaging applications which require a handheld detector.

Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Duckworth, Mark G.; Yi, Dingrong; Caspall, Jayme J.; Wang, Jiwu; Zhao, Futing

2008-03-01

378

Xenon Gamma Detector Project Support  

SciTech Connect

This project provided funding of $48,500 for part of one year to support the development of compressed xenon spectrometers at BNL. This report describes upgrades that were made to the existing detector system electronics during that period, as well as subsequent testing with check sources and Special Nuclear Materials. Previous testing of the equipment extended only up to the energy of 1.3 MeV, and did not include a spectrum of Pu-239. The new electronics allowed one-button activation of the high voltage ramp that was previously controlled by manual adjustments. Mechanical relays of the charging circuit were replaced by a tera-ohm resistor chain and an optical switch. The preamplifier and shaping amplifier were replaced by more modern custom designs. We found that the xenon purity had not been degraded since the chamber was filled 10 years earlier. The resulting spectra showed significantly better resolution than sodium iodide spectra, and could be analyzed quite effectively by methods using peak area templates.

Vanier,P.E.; Forman, L.

2008-04-01

379

The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amongst its complement of particles and fields instruments, the Galileo spacecraft carries an Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) designed to measure the characteristics of particle populations important in determining the size, shape, and dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. To do this the EPD provides 4pi angular coverage and spectral measurements for Z greater than or equal to 1 ions from 20 keV to 55 MeV, for electrons from 15 keV to greater than 11 MeV, and for the elemental species helium through iron from approximately 10 keV/nucl to 15 MeV/nucl. Two bidirectional telescopes, mounted on a stepping platform, employ magnetic deflection, energy loss versus energy, and time-of-flight techniques to provide 64 rate channels and pulse height analysis of priority selected events. The EPD data system provides a large number of possible operational modes from which a small number will be selected to optimize data collection during the many encounter and cruise phases of the mission. The EPD employs a number of safeing algorithms that are to be used in the event that its self-checking procedures indicate a problem. The instrument and its operation are described.

Williams, D. J.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Wilken, B.

1992-01-01

380

The SNAP near infrared detectors  

SciTech Connect

The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will measure precisely the cosmological expansion history over both the acceleration and deceleration epochs and thereby constrain the nature of the dark energy that dominates our universe today. The SNAP focal plane contains equal areas of optical CCDs and NIR sensors and an integral field spectrograph. Having over 150 million pixels and a field-of-view of 0.34 square degrees, the SNAP NIR system will be the largest yet constructed. With sensitivity in the range 0.9-1.7 {micro}m, it will detect Type Ia supernovae between z = 1 and 1.7 and will provide follow-up precision photometry for all supernovae. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-off tuned to 1.7 {micro}m, will permit passive cooling at 140 K while maintaining noise below zodiacal levels. By dithering to remove the effects of intrapixel variations and by careful attention to other instrumental effects, we expect to control relative photometric accuracy below a few hundredths of a magnitude. Because SNAP continuously revisits the same fields we will be able to achieve outstanding statistical precision on the photometry of reference stars in these fields, allowing precise monitoring of our detectors. The capabilities of the NIR system for broadening the science reach of SNAP are discussed.

Tarle, G.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, Anne; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.; Harvey, P.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Lampton, M.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; Miguel, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tomasch, A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.; Wang, G.

2002-07-29

381

Minefield reconnaissance and detector system  

DOEpatents

A multi-sensor system is described for detecting the presence of objects on the surface of the ground or buried just under the surface, such as anti-personnel or anti-tank mines or the like. A remote sensor platform has a plurality of metal detector sensors and a plurality of short pulse radar sensors. The remote sensor platform is remotely controlled from a processing and control unit and signals from the remote sensor platform are sent to the processing and control unit where they are individually evaluated in separate data analysis subprocess steps to obtain a probability score for each of the pluralities of sensors. These probability scores are combined in a fusion subprocess step by comparing score sets to a probability table which is derived based upon the historical incidence of object present conditions given that score set. A decision making rule is applied to provide an output which is optionally provided to a marker subprocess for controlling a marker device to mark the location of found objects. 7 figures.

Butler, M.T.; Cave, S.P.; Creager, J.D.; Johnson, C.M.; Mathes, J.B.; Smith, K.J.

1994-04-26

382

A panoramic photon-counting detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics and implementation of the Laval Image Photon-Counting System (LIPS) are described. LIPS is a flexible, compact, and transportable two-dimensional detector system which is currently in use in the spectroscopic mode on the 1.6 m telescope at the Mont Megantic Observatory. The detector is described, including the quantum efficiency, resolution, linearity, noise characteristics, and distortions. The data acquisition and display module is considered, including the computer, image display unit, Direct Memory Access Board which controls the detector, and control and data-acquisition program. Spectroscopy using LIPS is briefly addressed. The present assessment of the system and its future use are discussed.

Durand, Daniel; Hardy, Eduardo; Couture, Jean

1987-07-01

383

Imperfect Detectors in Linear Optical Quantum Computers  

E-print Network

We discuss the effects of imperfect photon detectors suffering from loss and noise on the reliability of linear optical quantum computers. We show that for a given detector efficiency, there is a maximum achievable success probability, and that increasing the number of ancillary photons and detectors used for one controlled sign flip gate beyond a critical point will decrease the probability that the computer will function correctly. We have also performed simulations of some small logic gates and estimate the efficiency and noise levels required for the linear optical quantum computer to function properly.

Scott Glancy; J. M. LoSecco; H. M. Vasconcelos; C. E. Tanner

2002-01-11

384

Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice LWIR Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hole-Impeded-Doping-Superlattice (HIDS) InAs devices proposed for use as photoconductive or photovoltaic detectors of radiation in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) range of 8 to 17 micrometers. Array of HIDS devices fabricated on substrates GaAs or Si. Radiation incident on black surface, metal contacts for picture elements serve as reactors, effectively doubling optical path and thereby increasing absorption of photons. Photoconductive detector offers advantages of high gain and high impedance; photovoltaic detector offers lower noise and better interface to multiplexer readouts.

Maserjian, Joseph

1991-01-01

385

Ghost imaging with a single detector  

SciTech Connect

We experimentally demonstrate pseudothermal ghost imaging and ghost diffraction using only a single detector. We achieve this by replacing the high-resolution detector of the reference beam with a computation of the propagating field, following a recent proposal by Shapiro [Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008)]. Since only a single detector is used, this provides experimental evidence that pseudothermal ghost imaging does not rely on nonlocal quantum correlations. In addition, we show the depth-resolving capability of this ghost imaging technique.

Bromberg, Yaron; Katz, Ori; Silberberg, Yaron [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

2009-05-15

386

Fan-less long range alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

1994-05-10

387

Development of a plasma panel radiation detector  

E-print Network

This article reports on an investigation of a radiation detector based on plasma display panel technology. The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a variant of micropattern gas radiation detectors. PPS components are non-reactive and intrinsically radiation-hard materials, such as glass substrates, metal electrodes and inert gas mixtures. Plasma display panels used as detectors were tested with cosmic ray muons, beta rays and gamma rays, protons, and thermal neutrons. The results demonstrated risetimes and time resolution of a few nanoseconds, as well as spatial resolution compatible with the pixel pitch.

Ball, R; Ben-Moshe, M; Benhammou, Y; Bensimon, R; Chapman, J W; Etzion, E; Ferretti, C; Friedman, P S; Levin, D S; Silver, Y; Varner, R L; Weaverdyck, C; Wetzel, R; Zhou, B; Anderson, T; McKinny, K; Bentefour, E H

2014-01-01

388

MCP detector development for WSO-UV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrographs of WSO-UV cover the wavelength range of 102 - 310 nm. The essential requirements for the associated detectors are high quantum effciency, solar blindness, and single photon detection. To achieve this, we develop a microchannel plate detector in a sealed tube. We plan to use cesium activated gallium nitride as semitransparent photocathode, a stack of two microchannel plates and a cross strip anode with advanced readout electronics. Challenges are the degradation of the photocathode under atmospheric conditions and the sealing process. We present the detector concept, details of the transfer and sealing processes under UHV, and the current status.

Diebold, Sebastian; Barnstedt, Jürgen; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf; Ganz, Philipp; Hermanutz, Stephan; Kalkuhl, Christoph; Kappelmann, Norbert; Pfeifer, Marc; Schaadt, Daniel; Schanz, Thomas; Tanirah, Omar; Werner, Klaus

2012-09-01

389

Status and problems of semiconductor detectors  

SciTech Connect

A brief review is given of the types of silicon and germanium detectors used or presently being developed for nuclear experiments. Large-area silicon and germanium detector telescopes for use in long-range particle detection and identification are emphasized. Large area position-sensitive detectors are also described. Some results are presented regarding radiation damage and damage repair by annealing. Evidence is also presented for the importance of producing large area silicon crystals of adequate quality to reduce trapping problems to negligible proportions.

Walton, J.T.; Goulding, F.S.; Haller, E.E.; Pehl, R.H.

1981-03-01

390

Silicon Detectors Applied to Medical Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this laboratory we will see some to those characteristics of silicon detectors which make them very useful in the fields of Medical Physics. One of the application of these devices that we will work with is in detecting low energy X-ray radiation (from 6 to 30KeV). In this laboratory we will learn something of the aquisition system (LabVIEW), the readout system (PCI-1200 card, buffer, RX64 chip and the silicon detector on the printed circuit board) and the measurements of the X rays (coming from a radiation source) for different positions of the detector, in searching for improving the efficiency of detection.

Montaño Zetina, Luis Manuel

2003-07-01

391

Operational Experience with the CMS Pixel Detector  

E-print Network

In the first LHC running period the CMS-pixel detector had to face various operational challenges and had to adapt to the rapidly changing beam conditions. In order to maximize the physics potential and the quality of the data, online and offline calibrations were performed on a regular basis. The detector performed excellently with an average hit efficiency above 99% for all layers and disks. In this contribution the operational challenges of the silicon pixel detector in the first LHC run and the current long shutdown are summarized and the expectations for 2015 are discussed.

János Karancsi

2014-11-15

392

Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision  

SciTech Connect

This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

Spieler, H.

1984-10-01

393

Fast-timing methods for semiconductor detectors  

SciTech Connect

The basic parameters are discussed which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

Spieler, H.

1982-03-01

394

Ghost imaging with a single detector  

E-print Network

We experimentally demonstrate pseudothermal ghost imaging and ghost diffraction using only a single single-pixel detector. We achieve this by replacing the high resolution detector of the reference beam with a computation of the propagating field, following a recent proposal by Shapiro [J. H. Shapiro, arXiv:0807.2614 (2008)]. Since only a single detector is used, this provides an experimental evidence that pseudothermal ghost imaging does not rely on non-local quantum correlations. In addition, we show the depth-resolving capability of this ghost imaging technique.

Yaron Bromberg; Ori Katz; Yaron Silberberg

2008-12-14

395

The 'LiC Detector Toy' program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiC is a simple but powerful and flexible software tool, written in MatLab, for basic detector design studies (geometries, material budgets) by determining the resolution of reconstructed track parameters. It is based on a helix track model including multiple scattering, and consists of a simplified simulation of the detector followed by track reconstruction using the Kalman filter. After a short description of LiC's main characteristics, we demonstrate its capabilities by applying this tool in a performance study of the LDC and SiD detector concepts at the International Linear Collider (ILC).

Regler, M.; Mitaroff, W.; Valentan, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Höfler, R.

2008-07-01

396

Recent developments in semiconductor gamma-ray detectors  

SciTech Connect

The successful development of lithium-drifted Ge detectors in the 1960's marked the beginning of the significant use of semiconductor crystals for direct detection and spectroscopy of gamma rays. In the 1970's, high-purity Ge became available, which enabled the production of complex detectors and multi-detector systems. In the following decades, the technology of semiconductor gamma-ray detectors continued to advance, with significant developments not only in Ge detectors but also in Si detectors and room-temperature compound-semiconductor detectors. In recent years, our group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a variety of gamma ray detectors based on these semiconductor materials. Examples include Ge strip detectors, lithium-drifted Si strip detectors, and coplanar-grid CdZnTe detectors. These advances provide new capabilities in the measurement of gamma rays, such as the ability to perform imaging and the realization of highly compact spectroscopy systems.

Luke, Paul N.; Amman, Mark; Tindall, Craig; Lee, Julie S.

2003-10-28

397

Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors  

DOEpatents

Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

Weinberg, David M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harding, L. Dean (Chubbuck, ID); Larsen, Eric D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

398

Thermal detector model for cryogenic composite detectors for the dark matter experiments CRESST and EURECA  

E-print Network

The CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) and the EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) experiments are direct dark matter search experiments where cryogenic detectors are used to detect spin-independent, coherent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle)-nucleon scattering events by means of the recoil energy. The cryogenic detectors use a massive single crystal as absorber which is equipped with a TES (transition edge sensor) for signal read-out. They are operated at mK-temperatures. In order to enable a mass production of these detectors, as needed for the EURECA experiment, a so-called composite detector design (CDD) that allows decoupling of the TES fabrication from the optimization procedure of the absorber single-crystal was developed and studied. To further investigate, understand and optimize the performance of composite detectors a detailed thermal detector model which takes into account the CDD has been developed.

S. Roth; C. Ciemniak; C. Coppi; F. v. Feilitzsch; A. Guetlein; C. Isaila; J. -C. Lanfranchi; S. Pfister; W. Potzel; W. Westphal

2008-09-30

399

Large area germanium detector arrays for lung counting: what is the optimum number of detectors?  

PubMed

Using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) torso phantom to calibrate a lung counting system can lead to the conclusion that three large area (i.e. >70 mm diameter) Ge detectors will outperform a four-detector array and provide a lower MDA as a four-detector array of large area Ge detectors covers a significant portion of inactive tissue (i.e. non-lung tissue). The lungs of the LLNL phantom, which are approximately 10 cm too short compared with real lungs, also suggests that a two-detector array could be used under limited circumstances. When tested with modified lungs that are more human-like, it was found that the four-detector array showed the best counting efficiency and the lowest MDA. Fortunately, these findings indicate that, although the LLNL phantom's lungs are too short, there is no adverse impact on the calibration of a lung counter. PMID:17151008

Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry M

2007-01-01

400

Neutron-chamber detectors and applications  

SciTech Connect

Detector applications in Nuclear Safeguards and Waste Management have included measuring neutrons from fission and (alpha,n) reactions with well-moderated neutron proportional counters, often embedded in a slab of polyethylene. Other less-moderated geometries are useful for detecting both bare and moderated fission-source neutrons with good efficiency. The neutron chamber is an undermoderated detector design comprising a large, hollow, polyethylene-walled chamber containing one or more proportional counters. Neutron-chamber detectors are relatively inexpensive; can have large apertures, usually through a thin chamber wall; and offer very good detection efficiency per dollar. Neutron-chamber detectors have also been used for monitoring vehicles and for assaying large crates of transuranic waste. Our Monte Carlo calculations for a new application (monitoring low-density waste for concealed plutonium) illustrate the advantages of the hollow-chamber design for detecting moderated fission sources. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Fehlau, P.E.; Atwater, H.F.; Coop, K.L.

1990-01-01

401

Bolometeric detector arrays for CMB polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the development of antenna coupled bolometers for CMB polarization experiments. The necessary components of a bolometric CMB polarimeter - a beam forming element, a band defining filter, and detectors - are all fabricated on a silicon chip with photolithography.

Kuo, C. L.; Bock, J. J.; Day, P.; Goldin, A.; Golwala, S.; Holmes, W.; Irwin, K.; Kenyon, M.; Lange, A. E.; LeDuc, H. G.; Rossinot, P.; Sterb, J.; Vayonakis, A.; Wang, G.; Yun, M.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2005-01-01

402

The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent  

E-print Network

The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle ow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which st...

Abe, Toshinori; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David; Attree, Derek J.; Burger, Jochen; Bailey, David; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Ball, Markus; Ballin, James; Barbi, Mauricio; Barlow, Roger; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassignana, Daniela; Bates, Richard; Baudot, Jerome; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Jeannine; Beckmann, Moritz; Bedjidian, Marc; Behnke, Ties; Belkadhi, Khaled; Bellerive, Alain; Bentvelsen, Stan; Bergauer, Thomas; Berggren, C.Mikael U.; Bergholz, Matthias; Bernreuther, Werner; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhuyan, Bipul; Biebel, Otmar; Bilki, Burak; Blair, Grahame; Blumlein, Johannes; Bo, Li; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boos, Eduard; Boudry, Vincent; Bouquet, Bernard; Bouvier, Joel; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brogna, Andrea; Buchholz, Peter; Buesser, Karsten; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Buzulutskov, A.F.; Caccia, Massimo; Caiazza, Stefano; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caldwell, Allen; Callier, Stephane L.C.; Calvo Alamillo, Enrique; Campbell, Michael; Campbell, Alan J.; Cappellini, Chiara; Carloganu, Cristina; Castro, Nuno; Castro Carballo, Maria Elena; Chadeeva, Marina; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Paoti; Charpy, Alexandre; Chen, Xun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Hongfang; Cheon, Byunggu; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, B.C.; Christen, Sandra; Ciborowski, Jacek; Ciobanu, Catalin; Claus, Gilles; Clerc, Catherine; Coca, Cornelia; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Cornat, Remi; Cornebise, Patrick; Corriveau, Francois; Cvach, Jaroslav; Czakon, Michal; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Da Silva, Wilfrid; Dadoun, Olivier; Dam, Mogens; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daubard, Guillaume; David, Dorte; David, Jacques; De Boer, Wim; De Groot, Nicolo; De Jong, Sijbrand; De Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Masi, Rita; De Roeck, Albert; Decotigny, David; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Deng, Zhi; Desch, Klaus; Dieguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dima, Mihai-Octavian; Dissertori, Gunther; Dixit, Madhu S.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris A.; Dollan, Ralph; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doublet, Philippe; Doyle, Tony; Doziere, Guy; Dragicevic, Marko; Drasal, Zbynek; Drugakov, Vladimir; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Dulucq, Frederic; Dumitru, Laurentiu Alexandru; Dzahini, Daniel; Eberl, Helmut; Eckerlin, Guenter; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eigen, Gerald; Eklund, Lars; Elsen, Eckhard; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Engels, Jan; Evrard, Christophe; Fabbri, Riccardo; Faber, Gerard; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Feege, Nils; Feng, Cunfeng; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Garcia, Marcos; Filthaut, Frank; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien L.; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Fouz, Mary-Cruz; Frank, Sebastian; Frey, Ariane; Frotin, Mickael; Fujii, Hirofumi; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fujita, Yowichi; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gaddi, Andrea; Gaede, Frank; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallas, Abraham; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gamba, Diego; Gao, Yuanning; Garrido Beltran, Lluis; Garutti, Erika; Gastaldi, Franck; Gaur, Bakul; Gay, Pascal; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerwig, Hubert; Gibbons, Lawrence; Ginina, Elena; Giraud, Julien; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Gladilin, Leonid; Goldstein, Joel; Gonzalez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Gournaris, Filimon; Greenshaw, Tim; Greenwood, Z.D.; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Philippe; Grondin, Denis; Grunewald, Martin; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gurtu, Atul; Haas, Tobias; Haensel, Stephan; Hajdu, Csaba; Hallermann, Lea; Han, Liang; Hansen, Peter H.; Hara, Takanori; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harz, Martin; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hauschild, Michael; He, Qing; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heinze, Isa; Helebrant, Christian; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hertenberger, Ralf; Herve, Alain; Higuchi, Takeo; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hironori, Kazurayama; Hlucha, Hana; Hommels, Bart; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Wei-Shu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huang, Xingtao; Huppert, Jean Francois; Ide, Yasuhiro; Idzik, Marek; Iglesias Escudero, Carmen; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Igonkina, Olga; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Ikuno, Toshinori; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Imhoff, Marc; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Eiji

2010-01-01

403

CVD diamond soft x-ray detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class of wide band-gap semiconductor offers an attractive alternative to Si and X-ray diode (XRD) detector technologies for x-ray detection in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments. Because diamond presents high thermal conductivity, resistance and breakdown field, fast charge collection, low leakage current, wide band-gap, low dielectric constant, large carrier drift velocity and outstanding radiation hardness. Using chemical vapor deposited (CVD) technology, 1 mm×1 mm×2 mm, 1 mm×1 mm×3 mm diamond was synthesized. And the detectors were fielded with metal-semiconductor-metal structure. Characteristics of the detectors have been studied on a pulse laser equipment. The results indicate that the rise time and FWHM of the detector reach 60 ps and 120 ps respectively.

Hou, Lifei; Yang, Guohong; Liu, Shenye

2010-10-01

404

Present status of microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor diode detectors coated with neutron reactive materials have been investigated as neutron detectors for many decades, and are fashioned mostly as planar diodes coated with boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 fluoride (6LiF) or gadolinium (Gd). Although effective, these detectors are limited in efficiency (the case for boron and LiF coatings) or in the ability to distinguish background radiations from neutron-induced interactions (the case for Gd coatings). Over the past decade, a renewed effort has been made to improve diode designs to achieve up to a 10-fold increase in neutron detection efficiency over the simple planar diode designs. These new semiconductor neutron detectors are fashioned with a matrix of microstructured patterns etched deeply into the substrate and, subsequently, backfilled with neutron reactive materials. Intrinsic thermal-neutron detection efficiencies exceeding 40% have been achieved with devices no thicker than 1 mm while operating on less than 5 V.

McGregor, Douglas S.; Bellinger, Steven L.; Shultis, J. Kenneth

2013-09-01

405

24 CFR 200.76 - Smoke detectors.  

...Smoke detectors and alarm devices must be installed in accordance with standards and criteria acceptable to the Commissioner for the protection of occupants in any dwelling or facility bedroom or other primary sleeping...

2014-04-01

406

He Puff System For Dust Detector Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

Local detection of surface dust is needed for the safe operation of next-step magnetic fusion devices such as ITER. An electrostatic dust detector, based on a 5 cm x 5 cm grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 50 V, has been developed to detect dust on remote surfaces and was successfully tested for the first time on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). We report on a helium puff system that clears residual dust from this detector and any incident debris or fibers that might cause a permanent short circuit. The entire surface of the detector was cleared of carbon particles by two consecutive helium puffs delivered by three nozzles of 0.45 mm inside diameter. The optimal configuration was found to be with the nozzles at an angle of 30o with respect to the surface of the detector and a helium backing pressure of 6 bar. __________________________________________________

B. Rais, C.H. Skinner A.L. Roquemore

2010-10-01

407

One hundred anode microchannel plate ion detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-hundred-anode microchannel plate detector is constructed on a 10 cm × 15 cm printed circuit board and attached to a homebuilt matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ringing and cross talk between anodes have been successfully eliminated and preliminary mass spectra of peptide ions recorded. With one hundred anodes on the printed circuit board, spatial information about the ion beam can also be readily determined with this detector. During operation, the detector anode assembly loses sensitivity after ions strike it for a considerable period of time due to charging of the non-conductive regions between anodes. However, this effect can be minimized by deflecting matrix ions away from the detector.

He, Yi; Poehlman, John F.; Alexander, Andrew W.; Boraas, Kirk; Reilly, James P.

2011-08-01

408

New infrared detectors and solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inventions and published papers related to the project are listed. The research with thin films of LaF3 deposited on GaAs substrates is reported along with improvements in photocapacitative MIS infrared detectors.

Sher, A.

1979-01-01

409

Performance of an AGATA asymmetric detector  

SciTech Connect

Each major technical advance in gamma-ray detection devices has resulted in significant new insights into the structure of atomic nuclei. The next major step in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves achieving the goal of a 4{pi} ball of germanium detectors by using the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented germanium crystals. The resulting spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for nuclear electromagnetic radiation. Collaborations have been established in Europe (AGATA)[1] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA)[2] to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the first AGATA (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array) asymmetric detector that has been tested at the University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector.

Boston, A. J.; Dimmock, M. R.; Unsworth, C.; Boston, H. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Grint, A. N.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, M.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Slee, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. H.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

2008-11-11

410

Future of Semiconductor Based Thermal Neutron Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Thermal neutron detectors have seen only incremental improvements over the last decades. In this paper we overview the current technology of choice for thermal neutron detection--{sup 3}He tubes, which suffer from, moderate to poor fieldability, and low absolute efficiency. The need for improved neutron detection is evident due to this technology gap and the fact that neutrons are a highly specific indicator of fissile material. Recognizing this need, we propose to exploit recent advances in microfabrication technology for building the next generation of semiconductor thermal neutron detectors for national security requirements, for applications requiring excellent fieldability of small devices. We have developed an innovative pathway taking advantage of advanced processing and fabrication technology to produce the proposed device. The crucial advantage of our Pillar Detector is that it can simultaneously meet the requirements of high efficiency and fieldability in the optimized configuration, the detector efficiency could be higher than 70%.

Nikolic, R J; Cheung, C L; Reinhardt, C E; Wang, T F

2006-02-22

411

Induction charge detector with multiple sensing stages.  

PubMed

An induction charge detector yields the net charge and the time of flight of a particle. The unique ability to independently measure these two parameters sets apart this rather simple detection technique. The main shortcoming of this instrument is its high charge detection limit, resulting from the intrinsic noise of the detector electronics and the low signal associated with the charge to measure. The goal of the present work is to lower the detection limit of this detector. This article describes an induction charge detector whose main novelty is a sequence of aligned cylindrical electrodes for measuring the charge of a particle n times. In a time domain analysis, this feature reduces both the detection limit and the standard error of the charge measurement by factors of square root of 2 and square root of n. More importantly, sensing stages could be added to arbitrarily lower the detection limit in a frequency domain analysis. PMID:17477649

Gamero-Castaño, Manuel

2007-04-01

412

Jet energy resolution of the SDC detector  

SciTech Connect

We have answered the PAC question ( Demonstrate the jet energy resolution of your proposed detector by studying decays Z {yields} jet + jet and Z{prime} {yields} jet + jet, M{sub Z{prime}} = 1 TeV.'') using a general program called SSCSIM. This program is a tool for investigating simple questions involving the relations between detector parameters and physics capabilities of a detector. A different package called ANLSIM developed by our colleagues at Argonne has also been used to answer this question. The results as expected are very similar. In this note we will try to document our procedures. Our tentative conclusion from this study is that physics induced effects, out-of-cone fluctuations and underlying event fluctuations, dominate the resolution. Pushing the detector performance to the limits of technology improves the effective resolution by at most 20%. 20 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Para, A.; Beretvas, A.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Green, D.; Yeh, G.P. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Wu, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Iso, H. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan))

1990-12-06

413

OSIRIS-REx OCAMS detector assembly characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission carries a suite of three cameras referred to as OCAMS. The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) at Utah State University is providing the CCD-based detector assemblies for OCAMS to the Lunar Planetary Lab (LPL) at the University of Arizona. Working with the LPL, SDL has designed the electronics to operate a 1K by 1K frame transfer Teledyne DALSA Multi-Pinned Phase (MPP) CCD. The detector assembly electronics provides the CCD clocking, biasing, and digital interface with the OCAMS payload Command Control Module (CCM). A prototype system was built to verify the functionality of the detector assembly design and to characterize the detector system performance at the intended operating temperatures. The characterization results are described in this paper.

Hancock, J.; Crowther, B.; Whiteley, M.; Burt, R.; Watson, M.; Nelson, J.; Fellows, C.; Rizk, B.; Kinney-Spano, E.; Perry, M.; Hunten, M.

2013-09-01

414

Coherent neutrino scattering in dark matter detectors  

E-print Network

Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus and weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus interaction signatures are expected to be quite similar. This paper discusses how a next-generation ton-scale dark matter detector could ...

Anderson, Alexander John

415

Portable detector set discloses helium leak rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable helium detector measuring helium leak rates makes possible the use of the inert gas helium as a tracer. This helps solve safety and contamination problems in detecting leaks in closed fluid systems.

Anderson, G. E.

1967-01-01

416

Using NAI detectors for tomographic gamma scanning  

SciTech Connect

The authors examined two approaches for using NaI detectors to perform transmission corrections used in the tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) and segmented gamma scanner (SGS) nondestructive assay methods. They found that a material-basis-set (MBS) fit using empirical logarithmic response spectra is quite accurate. Because this is a gross count technique, it gives sensitivities (for equal numbers of detectors) that are roughly ten times better than those obtained using Germanium detectors. The authors also found that simple continuum subtraction can be used in MBS fits using the energy-group-analysis technique only when the Pu transmission is greater than 10%. Both approaches for using NaI detectors require a knowledge of the Pu (or other) isotopics to obtain full accuracy.

Estep, R.J.; Melton, S.

1997-03-01

417

Detector Position Estimation for PET Scanners  

PubMed Central

Physical positioning of scintillation crystal detector blocks in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners is not always exact. We test a proof of concept methodology for the determination of the six degrees of freedom for detector block positioning errors by utilizing a rotating point source over stepped axial intervals. To test our method, we created computer simulations of seven Micro Crystal Element Scanner (MiCES) PET systems with randomized positioning errors. The computer simulations show that our positioning algorithm can estimate the positions of the block detectors to an average of one-seventh of the crystal pitch tangentially, and one-third of the crystal pitch axially. Virtual acquisitions of a point source grid and a distributed phantom show that our algorithm improves both the quantitative and qualitative accuracy of the reconstructed objects. We believe this estimation algorithm is a practical and accurate method for determining the spatial positions of scintillation detector blocks. PMID:22505789

Pierce, Larry; Miyaoka, Robert; Lewellen, Tom; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul

2012-01-01

418

Thermopile Detector Arrays for Space Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermopile detectors are widely used in uncooled applications where small numbers of detectors are required, particularly in low-cost commercial applications or applications requiring accurate radiometry. Arrays of thermopile detectors, however, have not been developed to the extent of uncooled bolometer and pyroelectric/ferroelectric arrays. Efforts at JPL seek to remedy this deficiency by developing high performance thin-film thermopile detectors in both linear and two-dimensional formats. The linear thermopile arrays are produced by bulk micromachining and wire bonded to separate CMOS readout electronic chips. Such arrays are currently being fabricated for the Mars Climate Sounder instrument, scheduled for launch in 2005. Progress is also described towards realizing a two-dimensional thermopile array built over CMOS readout circuitry in the substrate.

Foote, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Krueger, T. R.; McCann, T. A.; Chacon, R.; Jones, E. W.; Dickie, M. R.; Schofield, J. T.; McCleese, D. J.; Gaalema, S.

2004-01-01

419

One hundred anode microchannel plate ion detector  

SciTech Connect

A one-hundred-anode microchannel plate detector is constructed on a 10 cm x 15 cm printed circuit board and attached to a homebuilt matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ringing and cross talk between anodes have been successfully eliminated and preliminary mass spectra of peptide ions recorded. With one hundred anodes on the printed circuit board, spatial information about the ion beam can also be readily determined with this detector. During operation, the detector anode assembly loses sensitivity after ions strike it for a considerable period of time due to charging of the non-conductive regions between anodes. However, this effect can be minimized by deflecting matrix ions away from the detector.

He Yi; Poehlman, John F.; Alexander, Andrew W.; Boraas, Kirk; Reilly, James P. [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47403 (United States)

2011-08-15

420

Magnetic Czochralski silicon as detector material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has intrinsically high oxygen concentration. Therefore Cz-Si is considered as a promising material for the tracking systems in future very high luminosity colliders. In this contribution a brief overview of the Czochralski crystal growth is given. The fabrication process issues of Cz-Si are discussed and the formation of thermal donors is especially emphasized. N +/p -/p + and p +/n -/n + detectors have been processed on magnetic Czochralski (MCz-Si) wafers. We show measurement data of AC-coupled strip detectors and single pad detectors as well as experimental results of intentional TD doping. Data of spatial homogeneity of electrical properties, full depletion voltage and leakage current, is shown and n and p-type devices are compared. Our results show that it is possible to manufacture high quality n +/p -/p + and p +/n -/n + particle detectors from high-resistivity Cz-Si.

Härkönen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Nordlund, H. K.; Tuominen, E.

2007-09-01

421

Monolithic short wave infrared (SWIR) detector array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monolithic self-scanned linear detector array was developed for remote sensing in the 1.1- 2.4-micron spectral region. A high-density IRCCD test chip was fabricated to verify new design approaches required for the detector array. The driving factors in the Schottky barrier IRCCD (Pdsub2Si) process development are the attainment of detector yield, uniformity, adequate quantum efficiency, and lowest possible dark current consistent with radiometric accuracy. A dual-band module was designed that consists of two linear detector arrays. The sensor architecture places the floating diffusion output structure in the middle of the chip, away from the butt edges. A focal plane package was conceptualized and includes a polycrystalline silicon substrate carrying a two-layer, thick-film interconnecting conductor pattern and five epoxy-mounted modules. A polycrystalline silicon cover encloses the modules and bond wires, and serves as a radiation and EMI shield, thermal conductor, and contamination seal.

1983-01-01

422

Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical detection system is described comprising in combination: (a) a multielement, microelectrode array detector containing means for acquiring a plurality of signals; (b) electronic means for receiving said signals and converting said signals into a readout or display providing information with respect to the nature and concentration of elements present in a solution being tested. Also described is the means of making the above described microelectrode detector.

Glass, R.S.; Perone, S.P.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Kimmons, J.F.

1992-12-31

423

Modified transmission type four-detector polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four detectors polarimeter is originally invented by Azzam et. al. We have modified their idea and developed a new four detectors polarimeter of a transmission type (T-FDP) which has some advantages over the conventional one. Further modification of our T-FDP to the M-TFDP is reported. The alignment procedure of the optical system is also discussed as the application of the M-TFDP to ellipsometry.

Kawabata, Shuichi

2004-10-01

424

Molecular Expressions: How a Metal Detector Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This java simulation illustrates the operation of a metal detector. An animation shows the creation of a pulsed magnetic field from the detector, the induced currents in a metal object, and the resultant magnetic signal. Text explains the animation. This animation is part of a large collection of tutorial materials on electricity and magnetism and optics. This resource is part of a larger collection on electricity and magnetism by the same authors.

Davidson, Michael

2007-11-03

425

Cadmium zinc telluride charged particle nuclear detectors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the improvements in understanding of transport phenomena in cadmium zinc telluride radiation sensors achieved through studies of alpha particle response and spatially resolved photoconductivity mapping. Alpha particle response waveforms and photocurrent profiles both indicate non-uniformities in the electric field which may have detrimental effects on detector performance. Identifying and eliminating the sources of these nonuniformities will ultimately lead to improved detector performance.

Toney, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)]|[Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); James, R.B.; Antolak, A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-02-01

426

X-ray detectors for digital radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital radiography offers the potential of improved image quality as well as providing opportunities for advances in medical image management, computer-aided diagnosis and teleradiology. Image quality is intimately linked to the precise and accurate acquisition of information from the x-ray beam transmitted by the patient, i.e. to the performance of the x-ray detector. Detectors for digital radiography must meet the

M J Yaffe; J A Rowlands

1997-01-01

427

Single-sided CZT strip detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report progress in the study of thick CZT strip detectors for 3-D imaging and spectroscopy and discuss two approaches to device design. Unlike double-sided strip detectors, these devices feature both row and column contacts implemented on the anode surface. This electron-only approach circumvents problems associated with poor hole transport in CZT that normally limit the thickness and energy range

John R. Macri; Louis-Andre Hamel; Manuel Julien; Richard S. Miller; Burçin Dönmez; Mark L. McConnell; James M. Ryan; Mark Widholm

2004-01-01

428

Cathode depth sensing in CZT detectors  

E-print Network

Measuring the depth of interaction in thick Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors allows improved imaging and spectroscopy for hard X-ray imaging above 100 keV. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) will employ relatively thick (5 - 10 mm) CZT detectors, which are required to perform the broad energy-band sky survey. Interaction depth information is needed to correct events to the detector "focal plane" for correct imaging and can be used to improve the energy resolution of the detector at high energies by allowing event-based corrections for incomplete charge collection. Background rejection is also improved by allowing low energy events from the rear and sides of the detector to be rejected. We present experimental results of interaction depth sensing in a 5 mm thick pixellated Au-contact IMARAD CZT detector. The depth sensing was done by making simultaneous measurements of cathode and anode signals, where the interaction depth at a given energy is proportional to the ratio of cathode/anode signals. We demonstrate how a simple empirical formula describing the event distributions in the cathode/anode signal space can dramatically improve the energy resolution. We also estimate the energy and depth resolution of the detector as a function of the energy and the interaction depth. We also show a depth-sensing prototype system currently under development for EXIST in which cathode signals from 8, 16 or 32 crystals can be read-out by a small multi-channel ASIC board that is vertically edge-mounted on the cathode electrode along every second CZT crystal boundary. This allows CZT crystals to be tiled contiguously with minimum impact on throughput of incoming photons. The robust packaging is crucial in EXIST, which will employ very large area imaging CZT detector arrays.

J. Hong; E. C. Bellm; J. E. Grindlay; T. Narita

2003-10-16

429

Estimate of large CZT detector absolute efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simulation of the spectroscopic performance of two large CZT coplanar detectors, 1.5 × 1.5 cm2 area and 1.0 cm thick, with coplanar anodes. A code, based on the GEANT libraries and classical Monte Carlo sampling, was developed to simulate experimental scenarios. This code adapts the GEANT capabilities for simulating complex detection systems for spectroscopic studies. Detectors

J. M. Perez; Z. He; D. K. Wehe; Y. F. Du

2002-01-01

430

CZT imaging detectors for ProtoEXIST  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the detector development for a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray (20-600 keV) telescope, ProtoEXIST. ProtoEXIST is a pathfinder for both technology and science of the proposed implementation of the Black Hole Finder Probe, Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey telescope (EXIST). The principal technology challenge is the development of large area, close-tiled modules of imaging CZT detectors (1000 cm2 for ProtoEXIST1).

J. Hong; J. E. Grindlay; N. Chammas; A. Copete; R. G. Baker; S. D. Barthelmy; N. Gehrels; W. R. Cook III; J. A. Burnham; F. A. Harrison; J. Collins; W. W. Craig

2006-01-01

431

Graphene vertical hot-electron terahertz detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and analyze the concept of the vertical hot-electron terahertz (THz) graphene-layer detectors (GLDs) based on the double-GL and multiple-GL structures with the barrier layers made of materials with a moderate conduction band off-set (such as tungsten disulfide and related materials). The operation of these detectors is enabled by the thermionic emissions from the GLs enhanced by the electrons heated by incoming THz radiation. Hence, these detectors are the hot-electron bolometric detectors. The electron heating is primarily associated with the intraband absorption (the Drude absorption). In the frame of the developed model, we calculate the responsivity and detectivity as functions of the photon energy, GL doping, and the applied voltage for the GLDs with different number of GLs. The detectors based on the cascade multiple-GL structures can exhibit a substantial photoelectric gain resulting in the elevated responsivity and detectivity. The advantages of the THz detectors under consideration are associated with their high sensitivity to the normal incident radiation and efficient operation at room temperature at the low end of the THz frequency range. Such GLDs with a metal grating, supporting the excitation of plasma oscillations in the GL-structures by the incident THz radiation, can exhibit a strong resonant response at the frequencies of several THz (in the range, where the operation of the conventional detectors based on A3B5 materials, in particular, THz quantum-well detectors, is hindered due to a strong optical phonon radiation absorption in such materials). We also evaluate the characteristics of GLDs in the mid- and far-infrared ranges where the electron heating is due to the interband absorption in GLs.

Ryzhii, V.; Satou, A.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

2014-09-01

432

New type of Cherenkov Imaging Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imaging Cherenkov counter is developed to measure the velocities of several secondary particles simultaneously over wide ranges in gamma. This detector, called the ORCID (Optical Readout Cherenkov Imaging Detector) distinguished from other CID's by its readout system, which uses a lens to refocus and reduce a mirror image onto an image intensifier. The image intensifier is in turn coupled to an optical CCD array.

Robinson, B.

1980-05-01

433

Optical Link of the Atlas Pixel Detector  

E-print Network

The on-detector optical link of the ATLAS pixel detector contains radiation-hard receiver chips to decode bi-phase marked signals received on PIN arrays and data transmitter chips to drive VCSEL arrays. The components are mounted on hybrid boards (opto-boards). We present results from the irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 32 Mrad (1.2 x 10^15 p/cm^2) and the experience from the production.

K. K. Gan

2007-12-06

434

A new active thermal neutron detector.  

PubMed

This communication presents the main results about the design and in-house fabrication of a new solid-state neutron detector, which produces a DC output signal proportional to the thermal neutron fluence rate. The detector has been developed within the framework of the 3-y project NESCOFI@BTF of INFN (CSN V). Due to its sensitivity, photon rejection, low cost and minimum size, this device is suited to be used in moderator-based spectrometers. PMID:24345462

Bedogni, R; Bortot, D; Pola, A; Introini, M V; Gentile, A; Esposito, A; Gómez-Ros, J M; Palomba, M; Grossi, A

2014-10-01

435

UV detector based on polycrystalline diamond films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike other conventional photoconductive detectors, diamond-based devices provide high discrimination between UV and visible radiation. In this work we present the optical and electrical properties of devices based on randomly oriented diamond films, synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. It was observed that the UV detectors displayed low dark currents, high discrimination for wavelengths longer than 230 nm, high sensitivity and speed.

Girija, K. G.; Nuwad, J.

2013-02-01

436

Status of the isophot detector development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ISOPHOT is one of the four focal plane experiments of the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Scheduled for a 1993 launch, it will operate extrinsic silicon and germanium photoconductors at low temperature and low background during the longer than 18 month mission. These detectors cover the wavelength range from 2.5 to 200 microns and are used as single elements and in arrays. A cryogenic preamplifier was developed to read out a total number of 223 detector pixels.

Wolf, J.; Lemke, D.; Burgdorf, M.; Groezinger, U.; Hajduk, CH.

1989-01-01

437

Summary Scientific Performance of EUCLID Detector Prototypes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) plan to partner to build the EUCLID mission. EUCLID is a mission concept for studying the Dark Energy that is hypothesized to account for the accelerating cosmic expansion. For the past year, NASA has been building detector prototypes at Teledyne Imaging Sensors. This talk will summarize the measured scientific performance of these detector prototypes for astrophysical and cosmological applications.

Rauscher, Bernard J.

2011-01-01

438

Cosmic Ray Nuclei (CRN) detector investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Ray Nuclei (CRN) detector was designed to measure elemental composition and energy spectra of cosmic radiation nuclei ranging from lithium to iron. CRN was flown as part of Spacelab 2 in 1985, and consisted of three basic components: a gas Cerenkov counter, a transition radiation detector, and plastic scintillators. The results of the experiment indicate that the relative abundance of elements in this range, traveling at near relativistic velocities, is similar to those reported at lower energy.

Meyer, Peter; Muller, Dietrich; Lheureux, Jacques; Swordy, Simon

1991-01-01

439

A calibrated detector for the vacuum ultraviolet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detector has been made using a guard-ring photodiode and a phosphor disk and the reproducibility and stability of the phosphor examined. The absolute quantum efficiency of the detector at wavelengths between 584 AA(0.65%) and 1216 AA(0.83%) has been obs. using a thermopile and a rare gas ionization chamber. The theory of a new mode of use of the ionization

J. D. Branch; D. W. O. Heddle; M. J. H. Mogridge

1971-01-01

440

Hadronic interactions in the MINOS detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, will study neutrino flavor transformations using a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and a Far detector located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The MINOS collaboration also constructed the Ca1Det (calibration detector), a smaller version of the Near and Far detectors, to determine the topological and signal response to hadrons, electrons and muons. The detector was exposed to test-beams in the CERN Proton Synchrotron East Hall during 2001--2003, where it collected events at momentum settings between 200 MeV/c and 10 GeV/c. In this dissertation we present results of the Ca1Det experiment, focusing on the topological and signal response to hadrons. We briefly describe the MINOS experiment and its vi iron-scintillator tracking-sampling calorimeters as a motivation for the CalDet experiment. We discuss the operation of the CalDet in the beamlines as well as the trigger and particle identification systems used to isolate the hadron sample. The method used to calibrate the MINOS detectors is described and validated with test-beam data. The test-beams were simulated to model the muon flux, energy loss upstream of the detector and the kaon background. We describe the procedure used to discriminate between pions and muons on the basis of the event topology. The hadron samples were used to benchmark the existing GEANT3 based hadronic shower codes and determine the detector response and resolution for pions and protons. We conclude with comments on the response to single hadrons and to neutrino induced hadronic showers.

Kordosky, Michael Alan

441

a Subminiature Scintillation Detector for Catheter Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of a subminiature scintillation detector to be inserted in a catheter for lesion localization in nuclear medicine SPECT has been studied. Measurements on a simple laboratory setup have been performed and compared with Monte Carlo results. Further simulations, at 30keV and 140keV, concerning a configuration reproducing severe clinical conditions have shown poor lesion detectability. Several factors affecting the response have to be investigated to improve the capability of lesion localization characterizing such detector.

Scafè, R.; Montani, L.; Burgio, N.; Iurlaro, G.; Santagata, A.; Ciavola, C.; Alonge, G.

2006-04-01

442

Shielding and grounding in large detectors  

SciTech Connect

Prevention of electromagnetic interference (EMI), or ``noise pickup,`` is an important design aspect in large detectors in accelerator environments. Shielding effectiveness as a function of shield thickness and conductivity vs the type and frequency of the interference field is described. Noise induced in transmission lines by ground loop driven currents in the shield is evaluated and the importance of low shield resistance is emphasized. Some measures for prevention of ground loops and isolation of detector-readout systems are discussed.

Radeka, V.

1998-09-01

443

MTD detector using convolutional neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detector based on joint time-frequency signal analysis and convolutional neural networks is proposed for radar detection in highly complex and nonstationary cluttered environments. This detector is coherent and monocell, i.e. it works with the complex envelope of the echoes from the same range cell, and exhibits joint CFAR and MTD characteristics. It includes a pre-processing time-frequency block which provides

J. Grajal; A. G. Quintas; G. Lopez-Risueno

2005-01-01

444

Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

Howcroft, Caius L.F.; /Cambridge U.

2004-12-01

445

Silicon detectors for the sLHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In current particle physics experiments, silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers. A foreseeable large-scale application for such detectors consists of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the super-LHC or sLHC, where silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The mission statement of the CERN RD50 Collaboration is the development of radiation-hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity colliders. As a consequence, the aim of the R&D programme presented in this article is to develop silicon particle detectors able to operate at sLHC conditions. Research has progressed in different areas, such as defect characterisation, defect engineering and full detector systems. Recent results from these areas will be presented. This includes in particular an improved understanding of the macroscopic changes of the effective doping concentration based on identification of the individual microscopic defects, results from irradiation with a mix of different particle types as expected for the sLHC, and the observation of charge multiplication effects in heavily irradiated detectors at very high bias voltages.

Affolder, A.; Aleev, A.; Allport, P. P.; Andricek, L.; Artuso, M.; Balbuena, J. P.; Barabash, L.; Barber, T.; Barcz, A.; Bassignana, D.; Bates, R.; Battaglia, M.; Beimforde, M.; Bernardini, J.; Betancourt, C.; Bilei, G. M.; Bisello, D.; Blue, A.; Bohm, J.; Bolla, G.; Borgia, A.; Borrello, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Boscardin, M.; Bosma, M. J.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Breindl, M.; Broz, J.; Bruzzi, M.; Brzozowski, A.; Buhmann, P.; Buttar, C.; Campabadal, F.; Candelori, A.; Casse, G.; Charron, S.; Chren, D.; Cihangir, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; Cortina Gil, E.; Costinoaia, C. A.; Creanza, D.; Cristobal, C.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; de Boer, W.; De Palma, M.; Demina, R.; Dierlamm, A.; Díez, S.; Dobos, D.; Doherty, F.; Dolenc Kittelmann, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dragoi, C.; Driewer, A.; Dutta, S.; Eckstein, D.; Eklund, L.; Eremin, I.; Eremin, V.; Erfle, J.; Fadeeva, N.; Fahrer, M.; Fiori, F.; Fleta, C.; Focardi, E.; Forshaw, D.; Fretwurst, E.; Frey, M.; Bates, A. G.; Gallrapp, C.; Garcia, C.; Gaubas, E.; Genest, M.-H.; Giolo, K.; Glaser, M.; Goessling, C.; Golubev, A.; Gorelov, I.; Grégoire, G.; Gregori, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinstein, S.; Groza, A.; Guskov, J.; Hansen, T. E.; Härkönen, J.; Hartjes, F. G.; Hartmann, F.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Horisberger, R.; Houdayer, A.; Hynds, D.; Ilyashenko, I.; Junkes, A.; Kadys, A.; Kaminski, P.; Karpenko, A.; Kaska, K.; Kazuchits, N.; Kazukauskas, V.; Kharchuk, A.; Khivrich, V.; Kierstead, J.; Klanner, R.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffeman, E.; Köhler, M.; Kohout, Z.; Korjenevski, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kozlowski, R.; Kozubal, M.; Kramberger, G.; Kühn, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kwan, S.; La Rosa, A.; Lacasta, C.; Lange, J.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lastovetsky, V.; Lazanu, I.; Lazanu, S.; Lebel, C.; Lefeuvre, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Leroy, C.; Li, Z.; Lindström, G.; Litovchenko, A.; Litovchenko, P.; Lozano, M.; Luczynski, Z.; Luukka, P.; Macchiolo, A.; Macraighne, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Makarenko, L. F.; Mandic, I.; Maneuski, D.; Manna, N.; Marco, R.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Marunko, S.; Masek, P.; Mathieson, K.; Matysek, M.; Mekki, J.; Messineo, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Militaru, O.; Minano, M.; Miyamoto, J.; Moll, M.; Monokhov, E.; Mori, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Muenstermann, D.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Naletko, A.; Nisius, R.; OShea, V.; Pacifico, N.; Pantano, D.; Parkes, C.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, D.; Pawlowski, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Pernegger, H.; Petasecca, M.; Piemonte, C.; Pignatel, G. U.; Pintilie, I.; Pintilie, L.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Placekett, R.; Pöhlsen, Th.; Polivtsev, L.; Popule, J.; Pospisil, S.; Preiss, J.; Radicci, V.; Radu, R.; Raf, J. M.; Rando, R.; Richter, R.; Roeder, R.; Roger, R.; Rogozhkin, S.; Rohe, T.; Ronchin, S.; Rott, C.; Roy, A.; Rummler, A.; Ruzin, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F. W.; Sakalauskas, S.; Samadashvili, N.; Scaringella, M.; Schumm, B.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Sibille, J.; Sicho, P.; Slavicek, T.; Solar, M.; Soldevila-Serrano, U.; Son, S.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Spencer, N.; Spiegel, L.; Srivastava, A.; Steinbrueck, G.; Stewart, G.; Stolze, D.; Storasta, J.; Surma, B.; Svensson, B. G.; Tan, P.; Tomasek, M.; Toms, K.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsvetkov, A.; Tuboltsev, Yu.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Tuuva, T.; Tylchin, M.; Uebersee, H.; Ullán, M.; Vaitkus, J. V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Verbitskaya, E.; Vila Alvarez, I.; Visser, J.; Vossebeld, J.; Vrba, V.; Walz, M.; Weigell, P.; Wiik, L.; Wilhelm, I.; Wunstorf, R.; Zaluzhny, A.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zelazko, J.; Zen, M.; Zhukov, V.; Zontar, D.; Zorzi, N.

2011-12-01

446

Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.

Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M.-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

2012-11-01

447

Neutron Detection with Water Cerenkov Based Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Legitimate cross border trade involves the transport of an enormous number of cargo containers. Especially following the September 11 attacks, it has become an international priority to verify that these containers are not transporting Special Nuclear Material (SNM) without impeding legitimate trade. Fission events from SNM produce a number of neutrons and MeV-scale gammas correlated in time. The observation of consistent time correlations between neutrons and gammas emitted from a cargo container could, therefore, constitute a robust signature for SNM, since this time coincident signature stands out strongly against the higher rate of uncorrelated gamma-ray backgrounds from the local environment. We are developing a cost effective way to build very large neutron detectors for this purpose. We have recently completed the construction of two new water Cherenkov detectors, a 250 liter prototype and a new 4 ton detector. We present both the results from our prototype detector and an update on the newly commissioned large detector. We will also present pictures from the construction and outline our future detector development plans.

Dazeley, S; Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Carr, D; Ouedraogo, S; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Tripathi, M

2009-05-13

448

CZT imaging detectors for ProtoEXIST  

E-print Network

We describe the detector development for a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray (20 - 600 keV) telescope, ProtoEXIST. ProtoEXIST is a pathfinder for both technology and science of the proposed implementation of the Black Hole Finder Probe, Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey telescope (EXIST). The principal technology challenge is the development of large area, close-tiled modules of imaging CZT detectors (1000 cm2 for ProtoEXIST1). We review the updates of the detector design and package concept for ProtoEXIST1 and report the current development status of the CZT detectors, using calibration results of our basic detector unit - 2 x 2 x 0.5 cm CZT crystals with 2.5 mm pixels (8 x 8 array). The current prototype (Rev1) of our detector crystal unit (DCU) shows ~4.5 keV electronics noise (FWHM), and the radiation measurements show the energy resolution (FWHM) of the units is 4.7 keV (7.9%) at 59.5 keV, 5.6 keV (4.6%) at 122 keV, and 7.6 keV (2.1%) at 356 keV. The new (Rev2) DCU with revised design is expected to improve the resolution by ~30%.

J. Hong; J. E. Grindlay; N. Chammas; A. Copete; R. G. Baker; S. D. Barthelmy; N. Gehrels; W. R. Cook; J. A. Burnham; F. A. Harrison; J. Collins; W. W. Craig

2006-08-31

449

Pulsed discharge detector: theory and applications.  

PubMed

The pulsed discharge detector (PDD) is a significant advancement in gas chromatography (GC) detector design which can be operated in three different modes: pulsed discharge helium ionization (He-PDPID), pulsed discharge electron capture (PDECD) and helium ionization emission (PDED). The He-PDPID can detect permanent gases, volatile inorganics and other compounds which give little or no response with the flame ionization detector (FID) and has significantly better limits of detection (minimum detectable quantities (MDQs) in low picogram range) than can be achieved with a thermal conductivity detector (typically not lower than 1 ng). The PDECD has similar or better sensitivity (MDQs of 10(-15) to 10(-12) g) than radioactive source ECD but does not require licensing, wipe tests and other administrative or safety requirements which have increased over security concerns. The PDED shows promise as an extremely selective and sensitive elemental detector but a commercial unit is not presently available. In this report, the theory of operation, applications of the PDD and the practical aspects of using this novel detector are presented. PMID:15503926

Forsyth, D S

2004-09-24

450

Comparison of Detector Technologies for CAPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, several different detectors are examined for use in a Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS), a conceptual study for a possible future space-based system. Each detector will be examined for its future (25 years or more in the future) ability to find and track near-Earth Objects (NEOs) from a space-based detection platform. Within the CAPS study are several teams of people who each focus on different aspects of the system concept. This study s focus is on detection devices. In particular, evaluations on the following devices have been made: charge-coupled devices (CCDs), charge-injected devices (CIDs), superconducting tunneling junctions (STJs), and transition edge sensors (TESs). These devices can be separated into two main categories; the first category includes detectors that are currently being widely utilized, such as CCDs and CIDs. The second category includes experimental detectors, such as STJs and TESs. After the discussion of the detectors themselves, there will be a section devoted to the explicit use of these detectors with CAPS.

Stockum, Jana L.

2005-01-01

451

Developing Novel Detector Technology: Dr. Donald Figer, director of RIT's  

E-print Network

will be quadrupled for low-light level applications. Quantum- limited imaging detectors will also be useful for grDeveloping Novel Detector Technology: Dr. Donald Figer, director of RIT's Rochester Imaging Detector Laboratory and professor of imaging science, is a national expert in detector technology

Figer, Donald F.

452

The evaporative cooling system for the ATLAS inner detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the evaporative system used to cool the silicon detector structures of the inner detector sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The motivation for an evaporative system, its design and construction are discussed. In detail the particular requirements of the ATLAS inner detector, technical choices and the qualification and manufacture of final components

D. Attree; B. Anderson; E. C. Anderssen; V. Akhnazarov; R. J. Apsimon; P. Barclay; L. E. Batchelor; R. L. Bates; M. Battistin; J. Bendotti; S. Berry; A. Bitadze; J. P. Bizzel; P. Bonneau; M. Bosteels; J. M. Butterworth; S. Butterworth; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; A. Catinaccio; F. Corbaz; H. O. Danielsson; E. Danilevich; N. Dixon; S. D. Dixon; F. Doherty; O. Dorholt; M. Doubrava; K. Egorov; K. Einsweiler; A. C. Falou; P. Feraudet; P. Ferrari; K. Fowler; J. T. Fraser; R. S. French; M. Galuska; F. Gannaway; G. Gariano; M. D. Gibson; M. Gilchriese; D. Giugni; J. Godlewski; I. Gousakov; B. Gorski; G. D. Hallewell; N. Hartman; R. J. Hawkings; S. J. Haywood; N. P. Hessey; I. Ilyashenko; S. Infante; J. N. Jackson; T. J. Jones; J. Kaplon; S. Katunin; S. Lindsay; L. Luisa; N. Massol; F. Mc Ewan; S. J. Mc Mahon; C. Menot; J. Mistry; J. Morris; D. M. Muskett; K. Nagai; A. Nichols; R. Nicholson; R. B. Nickerson; S. L. Nielsen; P. E. Nordahl; M. Olcese; M. Parodi; F. Perez-Gomez; H. Pernegger; E. Perrin; L. P. Rossi; A. Rovani; E. Ruscino; H. Sandaker; A. Smith; V. Sopko; S. Stapnes; M. Stodulski; J. Tarrant; J. Thadome; D. Tovey; M. Turala; M. Tyndel; V. Vacek; E. van der Kraaij; G. H. A. Viehhauser; E. Vigeolas; P. S. Wells; S. Wenig; P. Werneke

2008-01-01

453

Method of fabricating a self-powered radiation detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed of fabricating a self-powered nuclear radiation detector assembly, comprising detector portion of accurately predetermined dimensions and a cable portion connected to the detector portion to carry the signal current which is generated in a radiation flux field to remote monitor means. The detector portion consists of a radiation responsive elongated central emitter electrode which is insulated

K. C. Playfoot; R. F. Bauer; Y. Sekella

1983-01-01

454

Low-Power Multi-Aspect Space Radiation Detector System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of all of these detector technologies will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the deep space radiation field.

Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave; Freeman, Jon C.; Burkebile, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

455

THE 15 LAYER SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR TRACKER IN EXPERIMENT 896.  

SciTech Connect

Large linear silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for use in several experiments. Recently 15 detectors were used as a tracking device in BNL-AGS heavy ion experiment (E896). The detectors were successfully operated in a 6.2 T magnetic field. The behavior of the detectors, such as drift uniformity, resolution, and charge collection efficiency are presented. The effect of the environment on the detector performance is discussed. Some results from the experimental run are presented. The detectors performed well in an experimental environment. This is the first tracking application of these detectors.

PANDY,S.U.

1998-11-08

456

Electro-Optic Lightning Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric field measurements are fundamental to the study of thunderstorm electrification, thundercloud charge structure, and the determination of the locations and magnitudes of charges deposited by lightning. Continuous field observations can also be used to warn of impending electrical hazards. For example, the USAF Eastern Range (ER) and NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida currently operate a ground-based network of electric field mill sensors to warn against lightning hazards to space vehicle operations/launches. The sensors provide continuous recordings of the ambient field. Others investigators have employed flat-plate electric field antennas to detect changes In the ambient field due to lightning. In each approach, electronic circuitry is used to directly detect and amplify the effects of the ambient field on an exposed metal conductor (antenna plate); in the case of continuous field recordings, the antenna plate is alternately shielded and unshielded by a grounded conductor. In this work effort, an alternate optical method for detecting lightning-caused electric field changes is Introduced. The primary component in the detector is an anisotropic electro-optic crystal of potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (chemically written as KH2PO4 (KDP)). When a voltage Is placed across the electro-optic crystal, the refractive Indices of the crystal change. This change alters the polarization state of a laser light beam that is passed down the crystal optic axis. With suitable application of vertical and horizontal polarizers, a light transmission measurement is related to the applied crystal voltage (which in turn Is related to the lightning caused electric field change). During the past two years, all critical optical components were procured, assembled, and aligned. An optical housing, calibration set-up, and data acquisition system was integrated for breadboard testing. The sensor was deployed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the summer of 1998 to collect storm data. Because solid-state technology is used, future designs of the sensor will be significantly scaled down In physical dimension and weight compared to the present optical breadboard prototype. The use of fiber optics would also provide significant practical improvements.

Koshak, William J.; Solakiewica, R. J.

1998-01-01

457

Uncooled detectors optimized for unattended applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SCD has recently presented an uncooled detector product line based on the high-end VOx bolometer technology. The first FPA launched, named BIRD - short for Bolometer Infra Red Detector, is a 384x288 (or 320x240) configurable format with 25?m pitch. Typical NETD values for these FPAs range at 50mK with an F/1 aperture and 60 Hz frame rate. These detectors also exhibit a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec, as reported previously. In this paper, the special features of BIRD optimized for unattended sensor applications are presented and discussed. Unattended surveillance using sensors on unattended aerial vehicles (UAV's) or micro air vehicles (MAV's) , unattended ground vehicles (UGV's) or unattended ground sensor (UGS) are growing applications for uncooled detectors. This is due to their low power consumption, low weight, negligible acoustic noise and reduced price. On the other hand, uncooled detectors are vulnerable to ambient drift. Even minor temperature fluctuations are manifested as fixed pattern noise (FPN). As a result, frequent, shutter operation must be applied, with the risk of blocking the scenery in critical time frames and loosing information for various scenarios. In order to increase the time span between shutter operations, SCD has incorporated various features within the FPA and supporting algorithms. This paper will discuss these features and present some illustrative examples. Minimum power consumption is another critical issue for unattended applications. SCD has addressed this topic by introducing the "Power Save" concept. For very low power applications or for TEC-less (Thermo-Electric-Cooler) applications, the flexible dilution architecture enables the system to operate the detector at a number of formats. This, together with a smooth frame rate and format transition capability turns SCD's uncooled detector to be well suited for unattended applications. These issues will be described in detail as well.

Malkinson, E.; Fraenkel, A.; Mizrahi, U.; Ben-Ezra, M.; Bikov, L.; Adin, A.; Zabar, Y.; Seter, D.; Kopolovich, Z.

2005-10-01

458

Physics detector simulation facility system software description  

SciTech Connect

Large and costly detectors will be constructed during the next few years to study the interactions produced by the SSC. Efficient, cost-effective designs for these detectors will require careful thought and planning. Because it is not possible to test fully a proposed design in a scaled-down version, the adequacy of a proposed design will be determined by a detailed computer model of the detectors. Physics and detector simulations will be performed on the computer model using high-powered computing system at the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF). The SSCL has particular computing requirements for high-energy physics (HEP) Monte Carlo calculations for the simulation of SSCL physics and detectors. The numerical calculations to be performed in each simulation are lengthy and detailed; they could require many more months per run on a VAX 11/780 computer and may produce several gigabytes of data per run. Consequently, a distributed computing environment of several networked high-speed computing engines is envisioned to meet these needs. These networked computers will form the basis of a centralized facility for SSCL physics and detector simulation work. Our computer planning groups have determined that the most efficient, cost-effective way to provide these high-performance computing resources at this time is with RISC-based UNIX workstations. The modeling and simulation application software that will run on the computing system is usually written by physicists in FORTRAN language and may need thousands of hours of supercomputing time. The system software is the glue'' which integrates the distributed workstations and allows them to be managed as a single entity. This report will address the computing strategy for the SSC.

Allen, J.; Chang, C.; Estep, P.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Marquez, M.; Mestad, S.; Pan, J.; Traversat, B.

1991-12-01

459

Physics detector simulation facility system software description  

SciTech Connect

Large and costly detectors will be constructed during the next few years to study the interactions produced by the SSC. Efficient, cost-effective designs for these detectors will require careful thought and planning. Because it is not possible to test fully a proposed design in a scaled-down version, the adequacy of a proposed design will be determined by a detailed computer model of the detectors. Physics and detector simulations will be performed on the computer model using high-powered computing system at the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF). The SSCL has particular computing requirements for high-energy physics (HEP) Monte Carlo calculations for the simulation of SSCL physics and detectors. The numerical calculations to be performed in each simulation are lengthy and detailed; they could require many more months per run on a VAX 11/780 computer and may produce several gigabytes of data per run. Consequently, a distributed computing environment of several networked high-speed computing engines is envisioned to meet these nee