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1

Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via EBCHR  

SciTech Connect

A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

McKoon, R.H.

1994-11-01

2

Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via EBCHR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-...

R. H. McKoon

1994-01-01

3

Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via Electron Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR)  

SciTech Connect

A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6% - niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

McKoon, R.H.

1994-12-22

4

Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining  

SciTech Connect

A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using Virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

McKoon, R.H.

1994-12-15

5

Scrap tire recycling  

SciTech Connect

As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

1997-03-01

6

Recycling Municipal Ferrous Scrap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in steelmaking technology since World War II, especially since the 1960's, are impacting the traditional ferrous scrap industry. The increased demand for old scrap is due to growth in electric-arc furnace steelmaking capacity, reduced availability...

J. G. Early

1982-01-01

7

Issues in recycling galvanized scrap  

SciTech Connect

The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-02-10

8

Recycling TATB PBX. [Machining scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of recycling IHE has been successfully demonstrated on a large scale by processing over 750 kg of machining scrap. The content of machine cuttings in the recycled PBX lots was 50, 75, and 100%. Physical strengths were generally above normal and tensile strains were 0.29% or better.

A. G. Osborn; T. L. Stallings; H. D. Johnson

1978-01-01

9

Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

Not Available

1989-10-01

10

Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan.  

PubMed

It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained (i.e., phosphor coatings of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), batteries, polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, mercury-containing parts, liquid crystal display, high-lead content CRT funnel glass, and plastic containing flame-retardant bromine, etc.) in the scrap computers may seriously pollute the environment if they are not properly disposed of. Therefore, the EPA of Taiwan declared scrap personal computers the producer's recycling responsibility as of July 1997. Under this decree, the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to properly recover and recycle the scrapped computers which they originally sell. On June 1, 1998, a producer responsibility recycling program for scrap computers was officially implemented in Taiwan. Under this program, consumers can bring their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points and receive reward money. Currently, only six computer items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling program. They are notebooks, monitors, hard disks, power supplies, printed circuit boards and main frame shells. This article outlines the current scrap computer recycling system in Taiwan. PMID:10751692

Lee, C H; Chang, S L; Wang, K M; Wen, L C

2000-04-28

11

TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT MG-SCRAP RECYCLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, only high grade clean Mg-scrap without impurities can be recycled easily into high purity alloys. More complex handling is required for old magnesium-base or post consumer scrap e.g. automotive parts and electronic devices. The additional process steps determine the economical attractiveness of Mg-recycling. This article will provide a detailed overview of the current research activities of ecka granules -

Gerhard Hanko; Gernot Macher

2003-01-01

12

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

1992-01-01

13

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

1992-08-01

14

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

15

High Value Scrap Tire Recycle  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

Bauman, B. D.

2003-02-01

16

Federal Government policies that hinder increased recycling of ferrous scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A definitive federal recycling program is urgently needed. Recommendations to Congress by the Inst. of Scrap Iron and Steel are presented. ISIS recommends: the inclusion of the definitions of shortage and of inflationary impact in the existing Export Administration Act; the enforcement of tax equity in the mining of resources; and the direct competition of scrap iron and iron ore.

Cutler

1978-01-01

17

TATB PBX formulation (recycling scrap PBX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three 300-gallon batches of RX-03-BB containing machining scrap were processed. Portions of new TATB powder were mixed with the machining scrap in two of the batches. The third batch consisted of 100 percent scrap PBX and was made by the Holston processing method. Tensile strength of all three batches was adequate with the batch containing 50 percent new TATB powder

A. G. Osborn; T. L. Stallings

1977-01-01

18

TATB PBX Formulation (Recycling Scrap Pbx).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three 300-gallon batches of RX-03-BB containing machining scrap were processed. Portions of new TATB powder were mixed with the machining scrap in two of the batches. The third batch consisted of 100 percent scrap PBX and was made by the Holston processin...

A. G. Osborn T. L. Stallings

1977-01-01

19

Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities

Ching-Hwa Lee; Ssu-Li Chang; King-Min Wang; Lih-Chyi Wen

2000-01-01

20

Recycling of Neodymium Iron Boron Magnet Scrap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated methods of separating valuable rare-earth materials from Fe in neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnet scrap. The best separation of rare earths from bulk NdFeB magnet scrap was obtained by dissolution with H2SO4 followed...

J. W. Lyman G. R. Palmer

1993-01-01

21

Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and equipment for recycling metal and steel scrap. Citations discuss automatic scrap recycling, scrap metal reprocessing, contaminated metal scrap, and mass-produced building materials from scrap. The design and evaluation of recycling processes in automotive, aircraft, beverage, electronics, and milling industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

22

Metal recycling from scrap and waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of a total U.K. consumption of 2.5 million tonnes per annum of nonferrous metals, as much as 33% is recovered from scrap. The structure of the industry which makes this important contribution to the economy is briefly outlined, and the technology is described by which the various nonferrous metals are recovered in reusable form from waste materials. Data on

A. W. Fletcher

1976-01-01

23

Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

24

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

25

Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scarp metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives (with metal replacement). Findings will be presented in a report from the OECD Task Group. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A ``tiered`` concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conversatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration; Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-10-01

26

Recycling of metal bearing electronic scrap in a plasma furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recycling of electronic waste and the recovery of valuable components are large problems in the modern world economy. This paper presents the effects of melting sorted electronic scrap in a plasma furnace. Printed circuit boards, cables, and windings were processed separately. The characteristics of the obtained products (i.e., alloy metal, slag, dust, and gases) are presented. A method of their further processing in order to obtain commercial products is proposed. Because of the chemical composition and physical properties, the waste slag is environmentally inert and can be used for the production of abrasives. Process dusts containing large amounts of carbon and its compounds have a high calorific value. That makes it possible to use them for energy generation. The gas has a high calorific value, and its afterburning combined with energy recovery is necessary.

Jarosz, Piotr; Ma?ecki, Stanis?aw; Gargul, Krzysztof

2011-12-01

27

Recycling metal scrap. June 1970-April 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for June 1970-April 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. Analysis of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (This updated bibliography contains 341 citations, 63 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-05-01

28

Recycling metal scrap. June 1970-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX database). Report for June 1970-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (This updated bibliography contains 362 citations, 21 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

29

Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap me...

L. A. Nieves S. Y. Chen W. E. Murphie M. J. Lilly

1994-01-01

30

Minerals yearbook, 1993: Recycling iron and steel scrap. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, steel mills accounted for 81% of all scrap received from brokers, dealers, and other outside sources; steel foundries received 2%; and iron castings producers and miscellaneous users received 16%. The apparent total domestic consumption of ferrous scrap in 1993 was composed of 46.1 million tons net receipts (total receipts minus shipments) and 21.5 million tons of home scrap.

Houck, G.W.

1993-12-31

31

Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-02-01

32

Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

33

Environmental risk related to specific processes during scrap computer recycling and disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the generation of toxic chemicals related to specific processes in scrap computer recycling and disposal, such as thermal recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and the landfilling or dumping of cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Tube furnace pyrolysis was carried out to simulate different thermal treatment conditions for the

Jinhui Li; Pixing Shi; Hongshan Shan; Yijun Xie

2012-01-01

34

An overview of recycling and treatment of scrap computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to recover valuable materials and to minimize the adverse effects of hazardous materials contained in scrap computers, a dismantling practice is commonly adopted to treat scrap computers. By using the dismantling process, both useful and hazardous materials can be manually separated and retrieved. On the basis of the properties of the retrieved materials, they can be sent to

Ching-Hwa Lee; Chang-Tang Chang; Kuo-Shuh Fan; Tien-Chin Chang

2004-01-01

35

Recycling of neodymium iron boron magnet scrap. Report of Investigations\\/1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated methods of separating valuable rare-earth materials from Fe in neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnet scrap. The best separation of rare earths from bulk NdFeB magnet scrap was obtained by dissolution with H2SO4 followed by precipitation of recyclable rare-earth salts. By precipitating neodymium-alkali sulfate double salts as an intermediate that can be converted to a

J. W. Lyman; G. R. Palmer

1993-01-01

36

Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to reduce the required levels of product tax and subsidy. With such initial breakthroughs at hand to handle the complexity of scrap tire recycling technologies, there remains unique management and policy avenues left to explore if a multi-dimensional solution is to be successful in the long run. PMID:17276578

Chang, Ni-Bin

2007-02-05

37

Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

1993-11-01

38

Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap  

SciTech Connect

Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

Adam C. Powell, IV

2012-07-19

39

Polyethelene terephthalate (PET) scrap recycling. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of polyethelene terephthalate (PET) products. Discarded bottles and household PET scrap are primary sources of this material. Recycling machinery, processes, and programs are discussed. Cable insulation, sheet films, foam products, and other products made from recycled PET are described. The impact of recycling on resource conservation and waste disposal problems is evaluated. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-07-01

40

Cryogenic grinding: an efficient method for recycling scrap rubber  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic grinding represents an opportunity for expanding recycling capabilities to a broad range of compounds. Many materials that can be reduced to a powder by conventional coarse grinding can be reduced more efficiently by using a super-cold agent such as liquid nitrogen at -320/sup 0/F to embrittle plastic or rubber polymers before grinding. In addition, cryogenic grinding makes possible the size reduction of many materials that cannot be ground by conventional ambient grinding methods. Some experiences of cryogenic grinding in practice at United Tire and Rubber company, Limited, headquartered in Rexdale, Ontario, are noted. A schematic of such a system is shown.

Not Available

1980-06-01

41

Recycling of aluminium scrap for secondary Al-Si alloys.  

PubMed

An increasing amount of recycled aluminium is going into the production of aluminium alloy used for automotive applications. In these applications, it is necessary to control and remove alloy impurities and inclusions. Cleaning and fluxing processes are widely used during processing of the alloys for removal of inclusions, hydrogen and excess of magnesium. These processes use salt fluxes based in the system NaCl-KCl, injection of chlorine or mixture of chlorine with an inert gas. The new systems include a graphite wand and a circulation device to force convection in the melt and permit the bubbling and dispersion of reactive and cleaning agents. This paper discusses the recycling of aluminium alloys in rotary and reverberatory industrial furnaces. It focuses on the removal of magnesium during the melting process. In rotary furnaces, the magnesium lost is mainly due to the oxidation process at high temperatures. The magnesium removal is carried out by the reaction between chlorine and magnesium, with its efficiency associated to kinetic factors such as concentration of magnesium, mixing, and temperature. These factors are also related to emissions generated during the demagging process. Improvements in the metallic yield can be reached in rotary furnaces if the process starts with a proper salt, with limits of addition, and avoiding long holding times. To improve throughput in reverberatories, start the charging with high magnesium content material and inject chlorine gas if the molten metal is at the right temperature. Removal of magnesium through modern technologies can be efficiently performed to prevent environmental problems. PMID:20837560

Velasco, Eulogio; Nino, Jose

2010-09-13

42

Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: A worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of the different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the e-waste collection systems used in Europe and in the US. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present e-waste collection systems used in Asia and Latin America. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E-waste management between developed and developing countries is very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We made a comparison of the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. - Abstract: Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.

Reis de Oliveira, Camila, E-mail: Camilareis.oliveira@hotmail.com [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Moura Bernardes, Andrea, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGE3M) and Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gerbase, Annelise Engel, E-mail: agerbase@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2012-08-15

43

Recycling of neodymium iron boron magnet scrap. Report of Investigations/1993  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated methods of separating valuable rare-earth materials from Fe in neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnet scrap. The best separation of rare earths from bulk NdFeB magnet scrap was obtained by dissolution with H2SO4 followed by precipitation of recyclable rare-earth salts. By precipitating neodymium-alkali sulfate double salts as an intermediate that can be converted to a variety of useful products, many materials-handling and economic disadvantages found with direct precipitation with fluoride or oxalate were avoided. Iron was removed from magnet leach solutions by precipitation as a jarosite, eliminating a major disposal problem.

Lyman, J.W.; Palmer, G.R.

1993-01-01

44

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-04

45

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

46

Environmental risk related to specific processes during scrap computer recycling and disposal.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the generation of toxic chemicals related to specific processes in scrap computer recycling and disposal, such as thermal recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and the landfilling or dumping of cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Tube furnace pyrolysis was carried out to simulate different thermal treatment conditions for the identification of the by-products and potential environmental risk from thermal recycling ofPCBs. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a column test were used to study the leaching characteristics of lead from waste CRT glass, which is one of the most important environmental concerns arising from the disposal of e-waste. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to the benzene series when recycling PCBs under thermal conditions, especially for workers without any personal protection equipment. The impact of immersion on the leaching of lead from CRT leaded glass was more effective than the impact of washing only by acid rain. Thus when waste leaded glass has to be stored for some reason, the storage facility should be dry. PMID:23437653

Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Shan, Hongshan; Xie, Yijun

2012-12-01

47

A model for recovery of scrap monolithic uranium molybdenum fuel by electrorefining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program (RERTR) is toreduce enrichment at research and test reactors, thereby decreasing proliferation risk at these facilities. A new fuel to accomplish this goal is being manufactured experimentally at the Y12 National Security Complex. This new fuel will require its own waste management procedure,namely for the recovery of scrap from its manufacture. The new fuel is a monolithic uraniummolybdenum alloy clad in zirconium. Feasibility tests were conducted in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner using scrap U-8Mo fuel alloy. These tests proved that a uranium product could be recovered free of molybdenum from this scrap fuel by electrorefining. Tests were also conducted using U-10Mo Zr clad fuel, which confirmed that product could be recovered from a clad version of this scrap fuel at an engineering scale, though analytical results are pending for the behavior of Zr in the electrorefiner. A model was constructed for the simulation of electrorefining the scrap material produced in the manufacture of this fuel. The model was implemented on two platforms, Microsoft Excel and MatLab. Correlations, used in the model, were developed experimentally, describing area specific resistance behavior at each electrode. Experiments validating the model were conducted using scrap of U-10Mo Zr clad fuel in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner. The results of model simulations on both platforms were compared to experimental results for the same fuel, salt and electrorefiner compositions and dimensions for two trials. In general, the model demonstrated behavior similar to experimental data but additional refinements are needed to improve its accuracy. These refinements consist of a function for surface area at anode and cathode based on charge passed. Several approximations were made in the model concerning areas of electrodes which should be replaced by a more accurate function describing these areas.

Van Kleeck, Melissa A.

48

[Health risk assessment in the metal scrap recycle: the case of Brescia].  

PubMed

The recycle of metal scraps is one of the most important industrial activity of Brescia: almost 40% of the metal scraps produced in Italy are reprocessed in this Province. The melting process currently used produces air emissions containing dioxins, PCB and other pollutants which are dispersed in the atmosphere giving a contribution to the general environment pollution. This contribution has been and is being extensively studied in terms of air concentration and soil deposition but, because of its complexity and the difficulty to gather the necessary data, very little investigation has been made up to now on its impact on the health of workers and population. The difficulties are overcome by RAMET, a research Consortium established and financed by the main 24 metallurgical and siderurgical companies of Brescia, which can take advantage of the availability of the production facilities of its shareholders as pilot plants and has access to their database and experience. Starting from this unique favourable condition and in collaboration with the University of Brescia, RAMET is working on a research project having as main objective the assessment of the POPs dose adsorbed and the relevant consequences on workers and public health. The general scheme and organization of this project are given in this paper together with the outlines and the results of the main activities already completed or in progress. PMID:23213800

Corsaro, G B; Gabusi, V; Pilisi, A

49

Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

Lindberg, M.

2002-02-26

50

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

NONE

1996-07-01

51

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 2. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume II contains: Task 1.4, optimization of the vitreous phase for stabilization of radioactive species; Task 1.5, experimental testing of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes; and Task 1.6, conceptual design of a CEP facility.

NONE

1996-07-01

52

Polyethelene terephthalate (PET) scrap recycling. January 1973-May 1989 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-May 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of polyethylene terephthalate products. Discarded bottles and household PET scrap are primary sources of this material. Recycling machinery, processes, and programs are discussed. Cable insulation, sheet films, foam products, and other products made from recycled polyethelene terephthalate are described. The impact recycling this material on resource conservation and waste-disposal problems is evaluated. (This updated bibliography contains 270 citations, 61 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-06-01

53

Polyethelene terephthalate (PET) scrap recycling. January 1973-May 1988 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-May 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of polyethelene terephthalate products. Discarded bottles and household PET scrap are primary sources of this material. Recycling machinery, processes, and programs are discussed. Cable insulation, sheet films, foam products, and other products made from recycled polyethelene terephthalate are described. The impact recycling this material has on resource conservation and waste-disposal problems is evaluated. (This updated bibliography contains 209 citations, 34 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-05-01

54

Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. The initial effort has focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The notable non-actinide impurities were silicon and phosphorus, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. Among actinide impurities, uranium is of paramount concern because {sup 234}U is the daughter of {sup 2238}Pu by alpha decay, and is the largest actinide impurity. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} was first dissolved in refluxing HNO{sub 3}/HF and then the solution was filtered. The dissolved {sup 238}Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel in a glovebox environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in {sup 238}Pu values.

Schulte, L.D.; Silver, G.L.; Avens, L.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Espinoza, J.; Foltyn, E.M.; Rinehart, G.H.

1996-12-31

55

Purification of waste uranium for recycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes two separate efforts being conducted at Ames Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to apply existing metal refining techniques to the purification of U scrap. ORNL is examining pyrometallurgical methods for the purificat...

T. A. Lograsso D. W. Delaney G. W. Parker J. C. Mailen

1992-01-01

56

Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel by HNO3/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing 238PuO2 fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified 238PuO2 fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel.

Schulte, Louis D.; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ramsey, Kevin; Silver, Gary L.; Espinoza, Jacob; Rinehart, Gary H.

1998-01-01

57

High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of Uranium Scrap Cans Used in 321-M Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The facility also includes the 324-M storage building and the passageway connecting it to 321-M. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Solid Waste's Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control & Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. This report describes and documents the use of a portable HPGe detector and EG&G DART system that contains a high voltage power supply, signal processing electronics, a personal computer with Gamma-Vision software, and space to store and manipulate multiple 4096-channel gamma-ray spectra to assay for 235U content. The system was used to assay a large number of scrap cans used to store highly enriched uranium (HEU) chips and filings. This report includes a description of two efficiency calibration configurations and also the results of the assay. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.

Salaymeh, S. R.; Dewberry, R. A.; Casella, V.

2001-12-01

58

Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. 234U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of 238Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the 238PuO2 fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure 238PuO2 was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO3/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved 238Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the 238PuO2 recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in 238Pu values.

Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

1997-01-01

59

Benefits of recycling galvanized steel scrap for recovery of high-quality steel and zinc metal  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Metal Recovery Industries, Inc. (MRII), in cost-sharing collaboration, have developed an electrolytic process to separate and recover steel and zinc from galvanized steel scrap. This work has been supported by the US DOE. An assessment of available dezinc technology was begun in 1987 which (1) screened process concepts for separating and recovering zinc and steel from galvanized ferrous scrap, (2) selected electrochemical stripping in hot caustic as the most promising process, (3) evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of the selected process on the basis of fundamental electrochemical studies, (4) experimentally verified the technical and economic feasibility of the process in a phased evaluation from bench-scale controlled experiments through batch tests of actual scrap up to six ton lots, and (5) concluded that the process has technical and economic merit and requires larger- scale evaluation in a continuous mode as the final phase of process development. This work has attracted worldwide interest. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that the cost of the recovered ferrous scrap would be about $150/ton (at a base cost of $110/ton for galvanized scrap), including credit for the co-product zinc. Concentrations of zinc, lead, cadmium and other coating constituents on loose scrap are reduced by a minimum of 98%, with zinc, in particular, reduced to below 0.1%. Removal efficiencies on baled scrap with bulk densities between 60 and 245 pounds per cubic foot range from 80 to 90%. About 1000 tons of galvanized scrap bales have been treated in batch operation at MRII in Hamilton, Ontario. A pilot plant for continuous treatment of 40 ton/day of loose scrap is being built by MRII in East Chicago, Indiana, with operation starting in early 1992. 9 refs.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

1991-11-04

60

Scrap Tires: Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... up from 17% in 1990. These markets?both recycling and beneficial use?continue to grow. The remaining ... Disposal Even with all of the reuse and recycling efforts, almost one quarter of scrap tires end ...

61

Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report  

SciTech Connect

The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Metal Recycle; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1994-08-01

62

Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. {sup 234}U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of {sup 238}Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO{sub 3}/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved {sup 238}Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in {sup 238}Pu values.

Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H. [Advanced Technology Group NMT-6 Nuclear Materials Technology Division Mail Stop E510 Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Actinide Ceramics and Fabrication Group NMT-9 Nuclear Materials Technology Division Mail Stop E502 Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1997-01-10

63

Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. {sup 234}U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of {sup 238}Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO{sub 3}/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved {sup 238}Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in {sup 238}Pu values. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Schulte, L.D.; Silver, G.L.; Avens, L.R.; Jarvinen, G.D. [Advanced Technology Group NMT-6 Nuclear Materials Technology Division Mail Stop E510 Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States); Espinoza, J.; Foltyn, E.M.; Rinehart, G.H. [Actinide Ceramics and Fabrication Group NMT-9 Nuclear Materials Technology Division Mail Stop E502 Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States)

1997-01-01

64

Benefits of recycling galvanized steel scrap for recovery of high-quality steel and zinc metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Metal Recovery Industries, Inc. (MRII), in cost-sharing collaboration, have developed an electrolytic process to separate and recover steel and zinc from galvanized steel scrap. This work has been supported by the US DOE. An assessment of available dezinc technology was begun in 1987 which (1) screened process concepts for separating and recovering zinc and steel

F. J. Dudek; E. J. Daniels; W. A. Morgan

1991-01-01

65

Structural insulated panels produced from recycled Expanded-Polystrene (EPS) foam scrap. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents a research project undertaken to assess the feasibility of using scrap reground expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the manufacture of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in order to save material costs and reduce the amount of EPS waste products to be disposed. The project team, managed by Steven Winter Associates, Inc., a Norwalk, Connecticut-based building systems research and consulting

Grinnell

1996-01-01

66

Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Report on the Production and Use of Recycled Uranium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent allegations regarding radiation exposure to radionuclides present in recycled uranium sent to the gaseous diffusion plants prompted the Department of Energy to undertake a system-wide study of recycled uranium. Of particular interest, were the flow...

L. C. Lewis D. C. Barg C. L. Bendixsen J. P. Henscheid D. R. Wenzel

2000-01-01

67

Optimization of a microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment using recycled scrap metals as a cost-effective cathode material.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment is still hindered by the prohibitive cost of cathode material, especially when platinum is used to catalyze oxygen reduction. In this study, recycled scrap metals could be used efficiently as cathode material in a specially-designed MFC. In terms of raw power, the scrap metals ranked as follows: W/Co > Cu/Ni > Inconel 718 > carpenter alloy; however, in terms of cost and long term stability, Inconel 718 was the preferred choice. Treatment performance--assessed on real and synthetic wastewater--was considerably improved either by filling the anode compartment with carbon granules or by operating the MFC in full-loop mode. The latter option allowed reaching 99.7% acetate removal while generating a maximum power of 36 W m(-3) at an acetate concentration of 2535 mg L(-1). Under these conditions, the energy produced by the system averaged 0.1 kWh m(-3) of wastewater treated. PMID:23138054

Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Shen, Yujia; Ng, How Y

2012-10-16

68

Determining advanced recycling fees and subsidies in "E-scrap" reverse supply chains.  

PubMed

Primarily due to environmental concerns and legislative mandates, the disposition of end-of-life (EOL) electronics products has attracted much attention. Advanced recycling fees (ARFs) and government subsidies may play important roles in encouraging or curtailing the flows of recycled items. We present a Stackelberg-type model to determine ARFs and socially optimal subsidy fees in decentralized reverse supply chains where each entity independently acts according to its own interests. The model consists of one leader (the government) and two followers (a group of manufacturers, importers, and sellers (MISs) and a group of recyclers). To maximize social welfare, the government determines the ARFs paid by MIS and the subsidy fees for recyclers when MIS sells new products and recyclers process EOL products. We find that MIS and recyclers behave at the equilibrium status by choosing optimal selling quantity in the market and optimal reward money for customers bringing EOL products to recyclers. Under this approach the two fees achieve the maximum of social welfare at the equilibrium status, while both MIS and recyclers gain the maximum of profits. For comparative purposes, we also develop a conceptual model describing the current practice by which ARFs and the subsidy fees are determined on the basis of fund balance between revenues and costs along with recycling operations. We conclude that our results outperform current practice. PMID:21255904

Hong, I-Hsuan; Ke, Jhih-Sian

2011-01-20

69

Scrap tires  

SciTech Connect

Scrap tires, one small part of the country's massive solid waste problem, are causing a disproportional headache. A city the size of Newark, N.J., for example, can pay up to $700,000 a year just to bury its waste tires, assuming it can find landfills to accept them. Many landfills no longer do, and in some areas, it is actually illegal. So stockpiles of scrap tires mount up and illegal dumping runs rampant. Scrap tires represent less than 1 percent of the nation's total solid waste. While we generate approximately a ton of solid waste per year per person, or 250,000,000 tons, we generate only one 20-pound tire per person, or 2,500,000 tons. Despite this small percentage, these tires present a special disposal/reuse challenge because of their size, shape, and physicochemical nature. Classified as a special waste, they are not generally collected with household waste by municipal authorities. Notwithstanding the unique disposal/reuse challenges of scrap tires, it must be stressed that a tire is essentially a petrochemical product than can be reused, can be a source of recoverable petrochemicals, or can be used as a fuel with a higher Btu value than coal. Thus what appears as a waste disposal challenge is also a resource recovery opportunity. Unfortunately, at present, only 30 percent of the country's scrap tires are being reclaimed or recycled. In terms of options, there are three viable areas in which to approach the waste tire problem: whole tire applications; physically processed tire applications; and physicochemical processes.

Not Available

1988-12-01

70

Utilization of magnetic and electrostatic separation in the recycling of printed circuit boards scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of the technology is directly related to the growth of production and consumption of electrical\\/electronics equipment, especially of personal computers. This type of equipment has a relatively short average lifetime, 2–3 years. The amount of defective or obsolete equipment has been increasing substantially; consequently its disposition and\\/or recycling should be studied.In this work, printed circuit boards, which are

H. M. Veit; T. R. Diehl; A. P. Salami; J. S. Rodrigues; A. M. Bernardes; J. A. S. Tenório

2005-01-01

71

A model for recovery of scrap monolithic uranium molybdenum fuel by electrorefining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program (RERTR) is toreduce enrichment at research and test reactors, thereby decreasing proliferation risk at these facilities. A new fuel to accomplish this goal is being manufactured experimentally at the Y12 National Security Complex. This new fuel will require its own waste management procedure,namely for the recovery of scrap

Melissa A Van Kleeck

2011-01-01

72

The Scrap Map: An Environmental Publication for Grades K-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains materials for a 10-day teaching unit on solid waste recycling for grades K-6. Included are: (1) "The Scrap Map," which shows recycling cycles for metals and paper, and a cryptic word puzzle; (2) three pamphlets on recycling paper, nonferrous scrap metals, and scrap iron and steel; (3) a list of the chapters of the Institute…

Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc., Washington, DC.

73

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

DOEpatents

Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

1995-08-01

74

High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of Uranium Scrap Cans Used in 321-M Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used...

S. R. Salaymeh R. A. Dewberry V. Casella

2001-01-01

75

The report of the Joint Task Force on Uranium Recycle Materials Processing  

SciTech Connect

A Joint Task Force on Uranium Recycle Materials Processing was assembled by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study past and current practices relating to the processing of uranium recycle materials at DOE's Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the DOE operations at the RMI Company. The DOE facilities providing the uranium recycle material and selected end users of the recycle material were reviewed in a cursory manner. The Task Force determined that uranium recycle material produced by the DOE reprocessing sites will always contain trace levels of transuranics (e.g., plutonium and neptunium) and fission product (e.g., strontium and cesium) elements. However, the DOE processing sites such as the FMPC, Y-12 and RMI Company can safely handle and further process the recycle material if a clear understanding of the contaminant levels exists and available technology is utilized to assure environmental, safety, and health protection of both the plant worker and the general public. Irrespective of past practices, the Task Force judged that more attention should be given to the processing of uranium recycle material. The primary recommendation from this study is to develop formal specifications on maximum permissible levels of contaminants in feed materials. 6 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01

76

Evolution of isotopic composition of reprocessed uranium during the multiple recycling in light water reactors with natural uranium feed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex approach based on the consistent modeling of neutron-physics processes and processes of cascade separation of isotopes is applied for analyzing physical problems of the multiple usage of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle of light water reactors. A number of scenarios of multiple recycling of reprocessed uranium in light water reactors are considered. In the process, an excess absorption of neutrons by the 236U isotope is compensated by re-enrichment in the 235U isotope. Specific consumptions of natural uranium for re-enrichment of the reprocessed uranium depending on the content of the 232U isotope are obtained.

Smirnov, A. Yu.; Sulaberidze, G. A.; Alekseev, P. N.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Proselkov, V. N.; Chibinyaev, A. V.

2012-12-01

77

77 FR 73996 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating From Radiological...Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating from Radiological...procedures). This Draft PEA for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating from...

2012-12-12

78

Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Report on the Production and Use of Recycled Uranium  

SciTech Connect

Recent allegations regarding radiation exposure to radionuclides present in recycled uranium sent to the gaseous diffusion plants prompted the Department of Energy to undertake a system-wide study of recycled uranium. Of particular interest, were the flowpaths from site to site operations and facilities in which exposure to plutonium, neptunium and technetium could occur, and to the workers that could receive a significant radiation dose from handling recycled uranium. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site report is primarily concerned with two locations. Recycled uranium was produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant where highly enriched uranium was recovered from spent fuel. The other facility is the Specific Manufacturing Facility (SMC) where recycled, depleted uranium is manufactured into shapes for use by their customer. The SMC is a manufacturing facility that uses depleted uranium metal as a raw material that is then rolled and cut into shapes. There are no chemical processes that might concentrate any of the radioactive contaminant species. Recyclable depleted uranium from the SMC facility is sent to a private metallurgical facility for recasting. Analyses on the recast billets indicate that there is no change in the concentrations of transuranics as a result of the recasting process. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was built to recover high-enriched uranium from spent nuclear fuel from test reactors. The facility processed diverse types of fuel which required uniquely different fuel dissolution processes. The dissolved fuel was passed through three cycles of solvent extraction which resulted in a concentrated uranyl nitrate product. For the first half of the operating period, the uranium was shipped as the concentrated solution. For the second half of the operating period the uranium solution was thermally converted to granular, uranium trioxide solids. The dose reconstruction project has evaluated work exposure and exposure to the public as the result of normal operations and accidents that occurred at the INEEL. As a result of these studies, the maximum effective dose equivalent from site activities did not exceed seventeen percent of the natural background in Eastern Idaho. There was no year in which the radiation dose to the public exceeded the applicable limits for that year. Worker exposure to recycled uranium was minimized by engineering features that reduced the possibility of direct exposure.

L. C. Lewis; D. C. Barg; C. L. Bendixsen; J. P. Henscheid; D. R. Wenzel; B. L. Denning

2000-09-01

79

Pyrolysis process for scrap tires  

SciTech Connect

A pyrolysis system has been developed to recover useful material from scrap tires. An actual plant was constructed in 1979. The plant will be on trial for a year to demonstrate that the equipment of the plant satisfies the test specifications and that the recovered carbon black has the quality demanded by the rubber industry. After passing one year of testing, it will be put into commercial operation. This project is a full scale recycling for scrap tires supported by public agencies which also supported the pulverizing plant in Osaka. It is expected that the completion of the project will open a new course for recycling and disposal of waste.

Kawakami, S.; Inoue, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakai, T.

1980-01-01

80

MODELING SCRAP SOURCING DECISIONS GIVEN UNCERTAIN DEMAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive recovery and recycling of scrap will certainly play a central role in the long-term sustainable use of light metals. Yet, recognizing that producers are economic agents, environmental arguments alone are insufficient to promote scrap purchase and usage. Such efforts must be paralleled by economic incentives. This paper examines the potential for more efficient raw materials management through explicit

Preston Li; Randolph Kirchain

81

Utilization of Scrap Thermosets Using Pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastics are widely used materials, and their application increases considerably every year. Therefore, appropriate waste management policy should be used in relation to utilization\\/recycling of scrap plastic components. Currently, there are no clear utilization options for such scrap thermosetting materials, and landfill is the most commonly used method of their removal. However, it should be underlined that, in various products,

R. Sekula; S. Leszczynski

2008-01-01

82

Scrap tire utilization via surface modification  

SciTech Connect

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach to reusing scrap tire rubber, which will be described in this presentation. In addition to consuming scrap tires, this technology represents a new approach to material engineering. Furthermore, this method of rubber recycle is most efficient in terms of energy recovery. 4 figs.

Bauman, B.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (USA))

1990-01-01

83

[Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996  

SciTech Connect

A critical requirement in DOE`s efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP`s ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities.

NONE

1996-07-01

84

MAGNESIUM RECYCLING YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium recycling has been used to recover both new scrap and old scrap. It was used extensively in Germany during WWII to expand the magnesium supply. There were a large number of magnesium recyclers in the US who got their start smelting old scrap, old airplanes and old waste dumps from the WWII build up. As the world magnesium industry

Robert E. Brown

85

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be learning all about recycling and asking questions as you learn more about recycling. Afterward, you will be making recycling bins that we will use in our classroom. Click on each of the different links and research about recycling. Find out what recycling is, what can be recycled, and why we should recycle. As you find information, add it to the "describing wheel" that is given to you by Ms. Pollak. Answer the main question: What is recycling? Come ...

sgp0002

2010-03-27

86

Railroading Scrap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on the environmental benefits of recycling mainly iron and steel, as well as the current status of such recycling processes. It also examines some of the economic constraints working against recycling, and offers suggestions for correcting the problem. (Author/MA)|

Kakela, Peter

1975-01-01

87

New developments in materials recycling  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents promising technical solutions to complex recycling problems such as recovery of cobalt, nickel, and chromium from superalloy scrap; the separation, recovery, and reuse of nickel and chromium from stainless and specialty steel wastes; precious metal recovery from electronic scrap; an environmentally acceptable method for recycling lead-acid batteries; recovery of nonferrous metals from scrap automobiles; and rapid scrap identification methods suitable for today's modern alloys.

Horton, R.C.; Kenahan, C.B.

1984-04-01

88

Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)|

Sinker, Barbara

1986-01-01

89

Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

Sinker, Barbara

1986-01-01

90

Recycling the junk car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems approach to recycling junk cars as a major renewable resource is proposed, although this will require some legislative, technological, and economic changes. The volume of materials contained in automobiles makes them the major source of scrap steel, but recycling can also yield secondary supplies of zinc, copper, aluminum, rubber, and plastics. Economic considerations have historically singled out scrap

Harwood

1977-01-01

91

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can be recycled? 1. Click on link. Watch video. Recycle Guy Video 2. Click on link. Watch video. Talking Trash Video 3. Click on link. Watch video. Recycling At School Video 4. Click on link. Play game. Star Fall Recycling Game 5. Click on link. Play game. National Geographic Recycling Game 6. Click on link. Ask Ms. Owens how to do it. Things We Recycle Chart 7. Please see Miss Owens for instructions on the following ...

2011-04-07

92

PWR core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for thorium-uranium breeding recycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper was focused on core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle in current PWRs, without any major change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. The fuel cycle analysis indicates that Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle is technically feasible in current PWRs. A 4-loop, 193-assembly PWR core utilizing 17 x 17 fuel assemblies (FAs) was taken as the model core. Two mixed cores were investigated respectively loaded with mixed reactor grade Plutonium-Thorium (PuThOX) FAs and mixed reactor grade {sup 233}U-Thorium (U{sub 3}ThOX) FAs on the basis of reference full Uranium oxide (UOX) equilibrium-cycle core. The UOX/PuThOX mixed core consists of 121 UOX FAs and 72 PuThOX FAs. The reactor grade {sup 233}U extracted from burnt PuThOX fuel was used to fabrication of U{sub 3}ThOX for starting Thorium-. Uranium breeding recycle. In UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core, the well designed U{sub 3}ThOX FAs with 1.94 w/o fissile uranium (mainly {sup 233}U) were located on the periphery of core as a blanket region. U{sub 3}ThOX FAs remained in-core for 6 cycles with the discharged burnup achieving 28 GWD/tHM. Compared with initially loading, the fissile material inventory in U{sub 3}ThOX fuel has increased by 7% via 1-year cooling after discharge. 157 UOX fuel assemblies were located in the inner of UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core refueling with 64 FAs at each cycle. The designed UOX/PuThOX and UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core satisfied related nuclear design criteria. The full core performance analyses have shown that mixed core with PuThOX loading has similar impacts as MOX on several neutronic characteristic parameters, such as reduced differential boron worth, higher critical boron concentration, more negative moderator temperature coefficient, reduced control rod worth, reduced shutdown margin, etc.; while mixed core with U{sub 3}ThOX loading on the periphery of core has no visible impacts on neutronic characteristics compared with reference full UOX core. The fuel cycle analysis has shown that {sup 233}U mono-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel could save 13% of natural uranium resource compared with UOX once through fuel cycle, slightly more than that of Plutonium single-recycling with MOX fuel. If {sup 233}U multi-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel is implemented, more natural uranium resource would be saved. (authors)

Bi, G.; Liu, C.; Si, S. [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Inst., No. 29, Hongcao Road, Shanghai, 200233 (China)

2012-07-01

93

Homologation and functionalization of carbon monoxide by a recyclable uranium complex.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is in principle an excellent resource from which to produce industrial hydrocarbon feedstocks as alternatives to crude oil; however, CO has proven remarkably resistant to selective homologation, and the few complexes that can effect this transformation cannot be recycled because liberation of the homologated product destroys the complexes or they are substitutionally inert. Here, we show that under mild conditions a simple triamidoamine uranium(III) complex can reductively homologate CO and be recycled for reuse. Following treatment with organosilyl halides, bis(organosiloxy)acetylenes, which readily convert to furanones, are produced, and this was confirmed by the use of isotopically (13)C-labeled CO. The precursor to the triamido uranium(III) complex is formed concomitantly. These findings establish that, under appropriate conditions, uranium(III) can mediate a complete synthetic cycle for the homologation of CO to higher derivatives. This work may prove useful in spurring wider efforts in CO homologation, and the simplicity of this system suggests that catalytic CO functionalization may soon be within reach. PMID:22652572

Gardner, Benedict M; Stewart, John C; Davis, Adrienne L; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T

2012-05-31

94

Homologation and functionalization of carbon monoxide by a recyclable uranium complex  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) is in principle an excellent resource from which to produce industrial hydrocarbon feedstocks as alternatives to crude oil; however, CO has proven remarkably resistant to selective homologation, and the few complexes that can effect this transformation cannot be recycled because liberation of the homologated product destroys the complexes or they are substitutionally inert. Here, we show that under mild conditions a simple triamidoamine uranium(III) complex can reductively homologate CO and be recycled for reuse. Following treatment with organosilyl halides, bis(organosiloxy)acetylenes, which readily convert to furanones, are produced, and this was confirmed by the use of isotopically 13C-labeled CO. The precursor to the triamido uranium(III) complex is formed concomitantly. These findings establish that, under appropriate conditions, uranium(III) can mediate a complete synthetic cycle for the homologation of CO to higher derivatives. This work may prove useful in spurring wider efforts in CO homologation, and the simplicity of this system suggests that catalytic CO functionalization may soon be within reach.

Gardner, Benedict M.; Stewart, John C.; Davis, Adrienne L.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

95

Aqueous processing of U-10Mo scrap for high performance research reactor fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion program, which is part of the US government's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), supports the conversion of civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel and targets. The reason for conversion is to eliminate the use of any material that may pose a threat to the United States or other foreign countries. High performance research reactors (HPRRs) cannot make the conversion to a standard LEU fuel because they require a more dense fuel to meet their performance requirements. As a result, a more dense fuel consisting of a monolithic uranium-molybdenum alloy containing 10% (w/w) Mo with Al cladding and a Zr bonding-layer is being considered. Significant losses are expected in the fabrication of this fuel, so a means to recycle the scrap pieces is needed. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an aqueous-processing flowsheet for scrap recovery in the fuel fabrication process for high-density LEU-monolithic fuel based on data found in the literature. Experiments have been performed to investigate dissolution conditions for solutions containing approximately 20 g-U/L and 50 g-U/L with and without Fe(NO3)3. HNO3 and HF concentrations have been optimized for timely dissolution of the fuel scrap and prevention of the formation of the U-Zr2 intermetallic, explosive complex, while meeting the requirements needed for further processing.

Youker, Amanda J.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Maggos, Laura E.; Bakel, Allen J.; Vandegrift, George F.

2012-08-01

96

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

97

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

98

Uranium Recycle by Ion Exchange and Calcination - Summary of Design Development and Equipment Design  

SciTech Connect

Technical information for the process of recovery of uranium from uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solutions that was developed as part of the Onsite Uranium Recycle (OSUR) project conducted at the Savannah River Site in the 1980's is summarized. The process involves an ion-exchange process to load the uranyl species from solution onto a cation resin that is subsequently dried using a microwave oven, and then calcined using a rotary calciner to produce U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. The information in this report was compiled to support critical decisions for new facilities and processes at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The information includes a detailed description of the process and process equipment that were developed for the OSUR project including the technical bases for the materials selection and process conditions. Additional process considerations and recommendations to for a new-design facility are also provided.

Hathcock, D.J.; A.J. Duncan

2005-10-31

99

Characterization of shredded television scrap and implications for materials recovery.  

PubMed

Characterization of TV scrap was carried out by using a variety of methods, such as chemical analysis, particle size and shape analysis, liberation degree analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, sink-float test, and IR spectrometry. A comparison of TV scrap, personal computer scrap, and printed circuit board scrap shows that the content of non-ferrous metals and precious metals in TV scrap is much lower than that in personal computer scrap or printed circuit board scrap. It is expected that recycling of TV scrap will not be cost-effective by utilizing conventional manual disassembly. The result of particle shape analysis indicates that the non-ferrous metal particles in TV scrap formed as a variety of shapes; it is much more heterogeneous than that of plastics and printed circuit boards. Furthermore, the separability of TV scrap using density-based techniques was evaluated by the sink-float test. The result demonstrates that a high recovery of copper could be obtained by using an effective gravity separation process. Identification of plastics shows that the major plastic in TV scrap is high impact polystyrene. Gravity separation of plastics may encounter some challenges in separation of plastics from TV scrap because of specific density variations. PMID:16624540

Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

2006-04-19

100

Mechanical separation-oriented characterization of electronic scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever-increasing amount of electronic scrap and the steadily-decreasing contents of the precious metals used in electronics, as well as the ever-growing environmental awareness, challenges such conventional precious-metal-oriented recycling techniques as pyrometallurgy. Separation and beneficiation of various materials encountered in electronic scrap might provide a correct solution ahead. In this context, mechanical separation-oriented characterization of electronic scrap was conducted in

Shunli Zhang; Eric Forssberg

1997-01-01

101

Recycling polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the PolyUrethane Recycle and Recovery Council`s continuing evaluation of the technical and commercial viability of polyurethane recovery and recycling technologies. In North America, 240,000 tonnes of post-industrial and 16,000 tonnes of post-consumer polyurethane foam was recycled into carpet rebound underlay and other applications in 1993. Demand was so great in North America that 60,000 t of primarily post-industrial scarp was imported from Europe and the Far East. Polyurethane from the seats of the 9 million vehicles scrapped each year could yield 82,000 t of flexible post-consumer foam scrap: instrument and door panels could yield another 10,000 t of semi-flexible scrap.

NONE

1995-08-01

102

Recycle process for TATB PBX parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process was developed for recycling scrap TATB PBX parts into reusable PBX. Pressed densities of two lots of RX-03-BB formulated from scrap parts were found to be slightly above normal and physical strengths were adequate.

A. G. Osborn; T. L. Stallings; H. D. Johnson

1978-01-01

103

Application of scrap tires as earth reinforcement for repair of tropical residual soil slope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to recycle scrap tires and to design a more environmental friendly, cost effective slope repairs, prompted the study to look into the possibility of using scrap tires as earth reinforcement for slope repair. This paper describes work done on testing for tensile strength of scrap tires where currently there appeared to be no test standard available, design and

Bujang B. K. Huat; Azlan A. Aziz; Loh Wooi Chuan

2008-01-01

104

Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational

Michael H. Eley; Lavonne Crews; Ben Johnston; David Lee; James Colebaugh

1995-01-01

105

Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recycling systems are classified into those employing typically three methods, and the progress of each method is described.\\u000a In mechanical recycling, powders of phenolic materials are recovered via a mechanical process and reused as fillers or additives in virgin materials.\\u000a The effects to flowability, curability, and mechanical properties of the materials are explained. In feedstock recycling, monomers, oligomers, or oils

Junya Goto; Michael Santorelli

2010-01-01

106

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s learn how to reduce, reuse and recycle waste! BUILDING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RECYCLING 1. Learn the abc\\'s of recycling found here A is for Air. Be sure to click on each letter of the alphabet and read what it stands for. 2. Read the Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin in this Comic Book. 3. Steel is used to build cars, household appliances and cans. Read ...

Sykes, Miss

2005-10-20

107

Iron and steel recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Consumption of iron and steel scrap and the health of the scrap industry depend directly on the health of the steelmaking industry. The United States, as well as most of the world, is expected to consume increasing amounts of scrap as a steadily increasing population demands more steel products. World resources of scrap should be sufficient for the foreseeable future. An estimated 75 million metric tons (Mt) of scrap was generated during 1998 in the United States, and 35 Mt of old scrap and 18 Mt of new scrap was consumed. The recycling efficiency was calculated to be 52%, and the recycling rate was found to be 41%. (See appendix for definitions.)

Fenton, Michael D.

2001-01-01

108

Gold recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, 175 metric tons (t) of refined gold was recovered by U.S. refiners from old and new scrap. The overall recycling rate was 29 percent when scrap consumption was compared with apparent domestic supply. Sources of old scrap includes discarded jewelry, dental materials, plating solutions, and electronic equipment. A very high old scrap recycling efficiency of 96 percent was reached in 1998, the supply of old scrap peaked, gold prices were at an 18-year low, and substantial amounts of old scrap were exported. U.S. net exports of old scrap had a gold content of 28 t.

Amey, Earle B.

2001-01-01

109

Statistical analysis of metal scrap generation: the case of aluminium in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of metal scrap for recycling contributes to the supply of many of the key metals used in our society. Recycling provides environmental benefits in terms of energy and landfill savings, reduced volumes of waste, and reduced emissions. In this paper several models for estimating the potential arising of scrap from discarded metal-containing products are developed. The proposed models

M. T. Melo

1999-01-01

110

Recovery of copper from printed circuit boards scraps by mechanical processing and electrometallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constant growth in generation of solid wastes stimulates studies of recycling processes. The electronic scrap is part of this universe of obsolete and\\/or defective materials that need to be disposed of more appropriately, or then recycled. In this work, printed circuit boards, that are part of electronic scrap and are found in almost all electro-electronic equipments, were studied. Printed

Hugo Marcelo Veit; Andréa Moura Bernardes; Jane Zoppas Ferreira; Jorge Alberto Soares Tenório; Célia de Fraga Malfatti

2006-01-01

111

Tungsten recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, which is one of a series of reports on metals recycling, defines and quantifies the flow of tungsten-bearing materials in the United States from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition in 2000, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of tungsten's many diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 2000, an estimated 46 percent of U.S. tungsten supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of tungsten consumed from new scrap to that consumed from old scrap was estimated to be 20:80. Of all the tungsten in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 66 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

Shedd, Kim B.

2011-01-01

112

Cobalt recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is one of a series of reports on metals recycling. It defines and quantifies the 1998 flow of cobalt-bearing materials in the United States, from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of cobalt?s many and diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 1998, an estimated 32 percent of U.S. cobalt supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of cobalt consumed from new scrap to that from old scrap was estimated to be 50:50. Of all the cobalt in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 68 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

Shedd, Kim B.

2002-01-01

113

A Practical Recycling Project . . .  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

1973-01-01

114

Simultaneous evaluation of the effects of /sup 232/U and /sup 236/U on uranium recycling in boiling water reactors  

SciTech Connect

The effects of /sup 232/U and /sup 236/U on uranium recycling in boiling water reactors are studied with the two-dimensional lattice physics code TGBLA. A simple analytic expression is proposed for reactivity compensation factor K, taking into account the self-shielding effect of resonance absorption in /sup 236/U: K=a+b/(1+ce/sub 6/)/sup 1/2/, where e/sub 6/ denotes the /sup 236/U concentration. To output the same energy as the 3.0 wt% enrichment fuel free from /sup 236/U, the constants are determined to be a=0.06, b=0.23, and c=1.9. The introduction of 1ppb /sup 232/U increases the surface dose rate of the fuel assembly by 60% over the aged enriched natural uranium. Lead time is as important as cooling time in /sup 232/U production because of the chain that originates from the alpha decay of naturally occurring /sup 234/U. The natural uranium feed and the separative work requirement are evaluated on these bases, introducing typical recycling strategies, and it appears that uranium recycling saves 17 to 19% of the natural uranium but increases the separative work by 0 to 2%. The front-end cost analysis reveals the benefit of a concentrated utilization of reprocessed uranium, which results from the self-shielding effect of /sup 236/U and the assumption of a linear dependence of the front-end penalty on /sup 232/U concentration. Also studied are plutonium composition in irradiated fuels and the effects of extended burnup.

Hida, K.; Kusuno, S.; Seino, T.

1986-11-01

115

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an

Duerksen; Walter K

1988-01-01

116

Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Plunkert, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

117

Devulcanization of Scrap Tire Through Matrix Modification and Ultrasonication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an economical process for recycling used tires will alleviate the disposal program of the scrap tires. Vulcanized rubber, because of its three-dimensional structure, cannot flow into the manufacturing processes, therefore limiting the scope of recycling used tires. Devulcanization technology was investigated in order to develop a feasible process to minimize the stockpiles of waste tires. This process

DAEIK KIM

2003-01-01

118

Dezincing galvanized scrap  

SciTech Connect

A caustic leach dezincing process is being developed for upgrading galvanized stamping plant scrap into clean scrap with recovery of the zinc. With further development the technology could also process galvanized scrap from obsolete automobiles. This paper will review: (1) the status of recent pilot plant operations in East Chicago, Indiana and plans for a commercial demonstration facility with a dezincing capacity of up to 250,000 tonnes/year, (2) the economics of caustic dezincing, and (3) benefits of decreased cost of environmental compliance, raw material savings, and improved operations with use of dezinced scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Braun, C. [Metal Recovery Technologies, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1998-07-01

119

Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

1999-07-01

120

Germanium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the recycling flow of germanium in the United States in 2000, as well as other germanium material flow streams. Germanium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of germanium-containing fiber optic cables and from new and old scrap products of germanium-containing infrared imaging devices. In 2000, about 11.5 metric tons of germanium was recycled, about 40 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The germanium recycling rate was estimated to be 50 percent, and germanium scrap recycling efficiency, 76 percent.

Jorgenson, John D.

2006-01-01

121

Tantalum recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of tantalum in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which tantalum was recycled/reused. Tantalum was mostly recycled from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of tantalum-related electronic components and new and old scrap products of tantalum-containing cemented carbides and superalloys. In 1998, about 210 metric tons of tantalum was recycled/reused, with about 43% derived from old scrap. The tantalum recycling rate was calculated to be 21%, and tantalum scrap recycling efficiency, 35%.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2001-01-01

122

Recycling RIM polymers into automotive fascia  

SciTech Connect

This article reports an important discovery that scrap polymers may not have to be segregated for many of the recycling approaches for automotive thermoset poly-urethane polymers. Recycling painted parts has been a major impediment in most recycling alternatives, but that is not the case with the regrind approach to RIM (reaction injection molded) recycling. Scrap from painted, unpainted, filled, and unfilled polyurethane fascia, fenders, and side claddings can be collected as one resource. The flow of RIM scrap through the recycling process is illustrated.

Not Available

1994-08-01

123

H. R. 3059: A bill to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to States to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 25, 1991 to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to states to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires. Amounts from the fund will be available for making expenditures for purposes of conducting surveys of current scrap tire piles, developing tire management plans, and carrying out plans relating to the reduction and elimination of existing scrap tire piles, including recycling, recovering, and reusing scrap tires. Not in excess to 5% of the account may be used for payment of expenses for administration of the fund.

Not Available

1991-01-01

124

Method for Converting Uranium Oxides to Uranium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium...

W. K. Duerksen

1987-01-01

125

Recycling TATB PBX.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of recycling IHE has been successfully demonstrated on a large scale by processing over 750 kg of machining scrap. The content of machine cuttings in the recycled PBX lots was 50, 75, and 100%. Physical strengths were generally above norma...

A. G. Osborn H. D. Johnson T. L. Stallings

1978-01-01

126

Method for forming consumable electrodes from metallic chip scraps  

DOEpatents

The method relates to metallurgical recycling of waste products, preferably titanium alloys chips scrap. Accordingly after crushing and cleaning, the chip scrap is subjected to vacuum-thermal degassing (VTD); the chip scrap is pressed into briquettes; the briquettes are placed into a mould allowing sufficient remaining space for the addition of molten metal alloy; the mould is pre-heated before filling with the molten metal alloy; the mould remaining space is filled with molten metal alloy. After cooling, the electrode is removed from the mould. The method provides a means for 100% use of chip scrap in producing consumable electrodes having increased mechanical strength and reduced interstitial impurities content leading to improved secondary cast alloys.

Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich (St. Petersburg, RU); Podpalkin, Arcady Munjyvich (St. Petersburg, RU); Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich (St. Petersburg, RU); Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich (St. Petersburg, RU)

2005-10-11

127

Gold Recycling in the United States in 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1998, 175 metric tons (t) of refined gold was recovered by U.S. refiners from old and new scrap. The overall recycling rate was 29 percent when scrap consumption was compared with apparent domestic supply. Sources of old scrap included discarded jewelr...

E. B. Amey

1998-01-01

128

SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY METAL SOURCES, ARE STORED IN THESE BINS AND LIFTED TO SCALES BY AN ELECTRIC MAGNET. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

129

Process options and projected mass flows for the HTGR refabrication scrap recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two major uranium recovery processing options reviewed are (1) internal recovery of the scrap by the refabrication system and (2) transfer to and external recovery of the scrap by the head end of the reprocessing system. Each option was reviewed with respect to equipment requirements, preparatory processing, and material accountability. Because there may be a high cost factor on

S. M. Tiegs

1979-01-01

130

Combustion of plastics contained in electric and electronic scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic materials have been associated with electric and electronic applications since the early days of the electrical industry. Plastics can amount up to 30% of the scrap mass. Generally, they contains flame retardants such as halogenated compounds which can lead to the formation of different toxic products. Recycling, incineration and landfilling are the current methods used to treat these plastics.

N. Menad; Bo. Björkman; Eric G. Allain

1998-01-01

131

Statewide plan for utilization of scrap tires in Kansas. Final report, September 1993-May 1995  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the current and future supply of scrap tire rubber and the feasibility of using scrap tires in Kansas for various purposes. The goal was to determine if a sufficient quantity of recycled rubber existed and what the cost would be to meet the ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) requirements for 1995 and thereafter. The four tasks included in the study were: surveying scrap tire utilization plans in other states; inventory scrap tires in Kansas; estimating scrap tire generation in the future; and determiming cost effectiveness of various uses of scrap tires. Currently there are 4.5 to 5.5 million scrap tires in Kansas and the annual generation of scrap tires is estimated to be 2 to 3 million. The ISTEA mandate would require an estimated 367,000 scrap tires be recycled annually. KDOT has used more rubber in 1993 and 1994 than will be required by 1997 when the 20% required by ISTEA is in effect.

Nelson, R.G.; Hossain, M.

1995-05-01

132

Plastics recycling issues for the computer industry: progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastics recycling has long been a weakness in achieving a high level of product recyclability by the computer industry. However, advancements in the use of plastic materials with recycle content in new products and the recycling of plastic scrap generated from end-of-life (EOL) machines have had a positive impact on product recyclability. Progress is being achieved through the individual and

S. K. Ching; J. R. Kirby; O. D. Pitts

1996-01-01

133

Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2004-01-01

134

Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2003-01-01

135

Improving scrap tire processing  

SciTech Connect

The market for tire-derived materials is growing rapidly, with the largest market being tire-derived fuels. There is therefore a growing demand for higher quality products. This paper describes the processing and removal of steel from scrap tires.

Astafan, C.G. [Columbus McKinnon Corp., Sarasota, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

136

The Application of Life Cycle Assessment in China Recycling Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste and recycling resource management is one of the most important application areas of life cycle assessment. This article first points out the importance of using the life cycle assessment in waste and recycling resource decision making, and then analyses current life cycle studies in China of different types of recycling resources, such as scrap iron and steel, scrap nonferrous

Yue Zhang

2011-01-01

137

Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2009-01-01

138

Recycle Process for TATB PBX Parts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process was developed for recycling scrap TATB PBX parts into reusable PBX. Pressed densities of two lots of RX-03-BB formulated from scrap parts were found to be slightly above normal and physical strengths were adequate. (ERA citation 04:024445)

A. G. Osborn T. L. Stallings H. D. Johnson

1978-01-01

139

The concept of the use of recycled uranium for increasing the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel for light-water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper deals with investigation of the possibilities for reducing the risk of proliferation of fissionable materials by means of increasing the degree of protection of fresh fuel intended for light-water reactors against unsanctioned use in the case of withdrawal of a recipient country of deliveries from IAEA safeguards. It is shown that the use of recycled uranium for manufacturing export nuclear fuel makes transfer of nuclear material removed from the fuel assemblies for weapons purposes difficult because of the presence of isotope 232U, whose content increases when one attempts to enrich uranium extracted from fresh fuel. In combination with restricted access to technologies for isotope separation by means of establishing international centers for uranium enrichment, this technical measure can significantly reduce the risk of proliferation associated with export deliveries of fuel made of low-enriched uranium. The assessment of a maximum level of contamination of nuclear material being transferred by isotope 232U for the given isotope composition of the initial fuel is obtained. The concept of further investigations of the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel assemblies with recycled uranium intended for light-water reactors is suggested.

Alekseev, P. N.; Ivanov, E. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Rumyantsev, A. N.; Shmelev, V. M.; Borisevich, V. D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.; Sulaberidze, G. A.

2010-12-01

140

The steel scrap age.  

PubMed

Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age. PMID:23442209

Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

2013-03-07

141

Management of MSW in Spain and recovery of packaging steel scrap.  

PubMed

Packaging steel is more advantageously recovered and recycled than other packaging material due to its magnetic properties. The steel used for packaging is of high quality, and post-consumer waste therefore produces high-grade ferrous scrap. Recycling is thus an important issue for reducing raw material consumption, including iron ore, coal and energy. Household refuse management consists of collection/disposal, transport, and processing and treatment - incineration and composting being the most widely used methods in Spain. Total Spanish MSW production exceeds 21 million tons per year, of which 28.1% and 6.2% are treated in compost and incineration plants, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive study of incineration and compost plants in Spain, including a review of the different processes and technologies employed and the characteristics and quality of the recovered ferrous scrap. Of the total amount of packaging steel scrap recovered from MSW, 38% comes from compost plants and 14% from incineration plants. Ferrous scrap from incineration plants presents a high degree of chemical alteration as a consequence of the thermal process to which the MSW is subjected, particularly the conditions in which the slag is cooled, and accordingly its quality diminishes. Fragmentation and magnetic separation processes produce an enhancement of the scrap quality. Ferrous scrap from compost plants has a high tin content, which negatively affects its recycling. Cleaning and detinning processes are required prior to recycling. PMID:17161595

Tayibi, Hanan; Peña, Carmen; López, Félix A; López-Delgado, Aurora

2006-12-11

142

Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing  

SciTech Connect

Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01

143

Equipment for shredding rubber scrap  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a range of machines developed for shredding rubber scrap and discarded rubber articles into crumbs. Technical characteristics of the machine for shredding vulcanized pressed-rubber parts, used rubber articles and scrap from the shoe industry are presented. A machine for shredding rubber scrap from plants making rubber products and from the shoe industry is shown, as is one for producing rubber crumbs from the scrap during the roughing of tires. Another machine is examined which cuts tires with metallic cords.

Rozhkov, V.F.; Golikov, V.N.; Kurglov, V.I.; Cherepkova, R.V.

1987-07-01

144

Goodyear Scrap Tire Floating Breakwater Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scrap tires are proposed as a construction material for building large floating breakwater devices. The Goodyear scrap tire floating breakwater assemblies are formed by securing together modular bundles of tightly interlocked scrap tires with high strengt...

R. D. Candle

1974-01-01

145

Chromium Recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to illustrate the extent to which chromium was recycled in the United States in 1998 and to identify chromium-recycling trends. The major use of chromium was in the metallurgical industry to make stainless steel; substantially less chromium was used in the refractory and chemical industries. In this study, the only chromium recycling reported was that which was a part of stainless steel scrap reuse. In 1998, 20 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption of chromium was secondary (from recycling); the remaining 80 percent was based on net chromium commodity imports and stock adjustments. Chromite ore was not mined in the United States in 1998. In 1998, 75,300 metric tons (t) of chromium contained in old scrap was consumed in the United States; it was valued at $66.4 million. Old scrap generated contained 132,000 t of chromium. The old scrap recycling efficiency was 87 percent, and the recycling rate was 20 percent. About 18,000 t of chromium in old scrap was unrecovered. New scrap consumed contained 28,600 t of chromium, which yielded a new-to-old-scrap ratio of 28:72. U.S. chromium-bearing stainless steel scrap net exports were valued at $154 million and were estimated to have contained 41,000 t of chromium.

Papp, John F.

2001-01-01

146

Recovering cadmium and tellurium from thin-film photovoltaic device scrap. Report of investigations\\/1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) is investigating hydrometallurgical processing techniques to recycle metals from semiconductors and other advanced materials. Cadmium amd tellurium were recovered from mixed CdTe\\/CdS scrap produced in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic devices. Leaching the scrap for 90 min at 110 deg. C in 2.2Normal H2SO4 under 400 psig O2 yielded 97% Cd extraction; however, cadmium

W. K. Tolley; G. R. Palmer

1995-01-01

147

Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling\\u000a contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat\\u000a mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed\\u000a step, which retained

Byung-Taek Oh; Jai-Young Lee; Jeyong Yoon

2007-01-01

148

Off-gas recycle for long-term low temperature gas phase uranium decontamination  

SciTech Connect

In situ long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas phase decontamination is being developed and demonstrated at the K-25 site as a technology that has the potential to substantially lower these costs while reducing criticality and safeguards concerns and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The objective of gas phase decontamination is to employ a gaseous reagent to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to form volatile UF{sub 6}, which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The LTLT process permits the decontamination of the inside of gas-tight GDP process equipment at room temperature by substituting a long exposure to subatmospheric ClF{sub 3} for higher reaction rates at higher temperatures. Laboratory-scale experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of using LTLT gas phase decontamination with ClF{sub 3} to remove uranium deposits from this equipment. A mobile gas phase system is being designed to demonstrate the decontamination process on a full scale. If used to decontaminate the GDPs, the LTLT process would use large amounts of ClF{sub 3} and exhaust large volumes of by-product gases (ClF, C1O{sub 2}F, etc.). Initially, the excess ClF{sub 3} and reaction byproducts will be destroyed in a KOH scrubber. This paper describes a proposed system that could recover the excess ClF{sub 3}and regenerate the reaction by-products into ClF{sub 3} for use in decontamination of additional equipment. Use of this regeneration and recovery system would reduce raw material costs and also reduce the waste scrubber sludge disposal costs by reducing the amount of corrosive gases fed to the scrubber.

Bundy, R.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

1994-07-01

149

Manganese recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow and processing of manganese within the U.S. economy in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which manganese is recycled. Manganese was used mostly as an alloying agent in alloys in which it was a minor component. Manganese was recycled mostly within scrap of iron and steel. A small amount was recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Very little manganese was recycled from materials being recovered specifically for their manganese content. For the United States in 1998, 218,000 metric tons of manganese was estimated to have been recycled from old scrap, of which 96% was from iron and steel scrap. Efficiency of recycling was estimated as 53% and recycling rate as 37%. Metallurgical loss of manganese was estimated to be about 1.7 times that recycled. This loss was mostly into slags from iron and steel production, from which recovery of manganese has yet to be shown economically feasible.

Jones, Thomas S.

2001-01-01

150

Minnesota`s experience using shingle scrap in bituminous pavements. Final report, 1991-1996  

SciTech Connect

The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has experimented with the use of shingle scrap in hot mix asphalt (HMA) since 1990. To date, the source of the shingle scrap has been shingle manufacturers exclusively. The manufactured shingle scrap consists primarily of tab punch-outs but also contains some mis-colored and damaged shingles. Test sections were constructed on the Willard Munger Recreational Trail, T.H. 25 in Mayer, Minnesota and on County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 17, in Scott County, Minnesota. Not only are the test sections performing as well as the control sections, but using shingle scrap reduces the amount of virgin asphalt cement required in a bituminous mix, thus creating the potential for a cost savings when using shingle scrap in HMA. Based on the performance of these test sections, shingle manufacturing scrap is now an allowable salvage material in hot mix asphalt under Mn/DOT specification 2331.E2e, Recycled Mixture Requirements. This report outlines the history of shingle scrap use in Minnesota, presents laboratory and field performance data and contains the current Mn/DOT specifications allowing shingle scrap to be used as a salvage material in HMA pavements.

Janisch, D.W.; Turgeon, C.M.

1996-10-01

151

Characterization and recovery of polymers from mobile phone scrap.  

PubMed

Electronic scrap is part of a universally wide range of obsolete, defective, or used materials that need to be disposed of or recycled in an ecologically friendly manner. The present study focused on the polymers present in mobile phone scrap. In mobile phones, polymers are found in frames and in printed circuit boards (PCBs). The frames are mainly made of polymers whereas PCBs use a variety of material (polymers, ceramics, and metals) which makes recycling more difficult. As a first step, mobile phones were collected, separated by manufacturer/model, and weighed, and the principal polymer types identified. The frames and PCBs were processed separately. The metals in PCBs were separated out by an electrostatic separation process. The resulting polymeric material was identified and mixed with the polymers of frames to fabricate the samples. Two types of samples were made: one with polymeric frames, and the other with a mixture of frames and polymeric fraction from the PCBs. Both kinds of sample were fabricated by injection moulding. The samples were evaluated by mechanical tests (tensile, impact, and hardness) to verify the feasibility of recycling the polymers present in mobile phone scrap. The results demonstrated the technical viability of recovering polymers using mechanical processing followed by an injection process. PMID:21382879

Kasper, Angela C; Bernardes, Andréa M; Veit, Hugo M

2011-03-07

152

Puncturing the scrap tire problem  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of scrap tires is making major headway in the 1990s. In 1994, an estimated 55 percent of all scrap tires generated were diverted from landfills, compared to 11 percent five years ago. Within three to five years, the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC), an industry group, predicts that there will be markets for 100 percent of the estimated 250 million plus scrap tires generated in the U.S. annually. At that point, it should be possible to start making a serious dent in the estimated 800 to 850 million scrap tires stockpiled around the country. About 4.5 million scrap tires get transformed into ground rubber products. Despite that relatively small number, this category holds significant promise. It also is the area with perhaps the most entrepreneurial activity. The reason is clear when the value added from increasingly intensive processing of tires is examined. When scrap rubber is ground for use in asphalt, new tires or a host of other products - the value goes up tremendously. A quarter inch minus grind generally sells for 14 to 22 cents/lb., or $280 to $440/ton. With smallerpieces, the value continues to climb. An `80 mesh,` or rubber that passes through a screen with 80 holes/linear inch, sells for30 to 45 cents/ lb. ($600 to $900/ton), which is higher than prices for aluminum cans two years ago.

Steuteville, R.

1995-10-01

153

Uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Uranium compounds have been used as colorants since Roman times (Caley, 1948). Uranium was discovered as a chemical element\\u000a in a pitchblende specimen by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who published the results of his work in 1789. Pitchblende is an impure uranium oxide, consisting partly of the most reduced oxide uraninite (UO2) and partly of U3O8. Earlier mineralogists had considered this

Ingmar Grenthe; Janusz Drozdzynski; Takeo Fujino; Edgar C. Buck; Thomas E. Albrecht-Schmitt; Stephen F. Wolf

2011-01-01

154

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

155

Columbium (niobium) recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of columbium in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which columbium (niobium) was recycled/reused. Columbium was mostly recycled from products of columbium-bearing steels and superalloys; little was recovered from products specifically for their columbium content. In 1998, about 1,800 metric tons of columbium was recycled/reused, with about 55% derived from old scrap. The columbium recycling rate was calculated to be 22%, and columbium scrap recycling efficiency, 50%.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2001-01-01

156

Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

Hilliard, Henry E.

2001-01-01

157

EVALUATION OF FIRE HAZARDS WHILE REPACKAGING PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SCRAP IN HB-LINE  

SciTech Connect

The potential for a fire while repackaging plutonium-contaminated scrap was evaluated. The surface-to-mass ratio indicates the metal alone will not spontaneously ignite. Uranium hydride can form when uranium metal is exposed to water vapor or hydrogen; uranium hydride reacts rapidly and energetically with atmospheric oxygen. The plutonium-contaminated scrap has been inside containers qualified for shipping, and these containers are leak-tight. The rate of diffusion of water vapor through the seals is small, and the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate is low. Radiography of samples of the storage containers indicates no loose oxide/hydride powder has collected in the storage container to date. The frequently of a fire while repackaging the plutonium-contaminated scrap is extremely unlikely.

Hallman, D

2003-12-18

158

Vacuum recycling effect on minor elements in superalloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superalloy recycling is an economical and strategical necessity. Scrap recovery is examined from a thermodynamical and technological point of view with emphasis on air melting with oxygen blowing to remove titanium and aluminum before vacuum treatment; and non reactive melting of conditioned scraps in vacuum induction melting. The vacuum effect on the carbon\\/oxygen reaction, desulfurization and nitrogen removal, and heavy

J. F. Wadier; J. Morlet

1984-01-01

159

Optimal policy design in the iron and steel recycling industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an analytical framework is developed to allow the policy makers in the recycling industry to determine the optimal set of policies to obtain a variety of objectives. The scrap iron and steel recycling industry is modeled as an oligopsonistic spatial price equilibrium. Each recycling firm within the industry is modeled as a cost minimizing follower, and the

Anoushiravan Farhangi

1991-01-01

160

Copper Recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of copper from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap1) and used products (old scrap) in the year 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of copper supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of copper recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the U.S. refined copper supply was 2.53 million metric tons (Mt) of refined unalloyed copper. With adjustment for refined copper exports of 127,000 metric tons (t) of copper, the net U.S. refined copper supply was 2.14 Mt of copper. With this net supply and a consumer inventory decrease of 9,000 t of refined copper, 2.42 Mt of refined copper was consumed by U.S. semifabricators (brass mills, wire rod mills, ingot makers, and foundries and others) in 2004. In addition to the 2.42 Mt of refined copper consumed in 2004, U.S. copper semifabricators consumed 853,000 t of copper contained in recycled scrap. Furthermore, 61,000 t of copper contained in scrap was consumed by noncopper alloy makers, for example, steelmakers and aluminum alloy makers. Old scrap recycling efficiency for copper was estimated to be 43 percent of theoretical old scrap supply, the recycling rate for copper was 30 percent of apparent supply, and the new-scrap-to-old-scrap ratio for U.S. copper product production was 3.2 (76:24).

Goonan, Thomas G.

2009-01-01

161

Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap  

SciTech Connect

The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01

162

Trace Elements in Superalloys and the Implications for Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The more efficient use of recycled foundry scrap or revert alloy presents an alternative to substitution as a means of conserving strategic raw materials and represents more efficient utilisation of valuable resources. A major difficulty is the inferior f...

G. L. R. Durber P. N. Quested T. B. Gibbons

1984-01-01

163

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixtures is then cooled to a temperature less than -100/sup 0/C in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, W.K.

1987-01-01

164

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

1988-01-01

165

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

2003-02-26

166

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

2003-02-01

167

Newell's metals recycling tradition  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976, Newell Recycling Co., Inc.'s metals recycling facility in Atlanta has been processing everything from aluminum cans to automobiles. It is a full-service metals recycling center, handling both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Newell Recycling takes metal components and machinery and processes it into usable feedstock for metal smelters and steel mills. The facility is split into five basic processing operations: ferrous metal shredding; ferrous shearing and torching; a heavy media separation plant; a nonferrous warehouse; and aluminum can operations. The shredder is capable of handling 100 tons of steel an hour, but the actual amount varies depending on the market demand. Anywhere from between 7,000 and 9,000 tons a month are typically shredded at the facility. The Atlanta facility also processes aluminum and steel cans, demolition scrap, copper wire, brass, and over 200 other products.

Dabaie, M.

1994-11-01

168

Minerals yearbook, 1992: Materials recycling. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvious to the public: the collection, reprocessing, and remanufacture of materials into new products from post-consumer UBC's, scrap metal, glass containers, paper goods, increasingly plastics, as well as rubber tires and other used goods.

Tanner, A.O.

1992-01-01

169

Uranium  

SciTech Connect

The two important oxidation states for uranium in natural environments are 4+ and 6+. Compounds containing quadrivalent uranium are insoluble in mildly acidic to alkaline conditions; whereas, those containing the linearly uranyl moiety (O=U=O)2+, are highly soluble and mobile. In solution, UO22+ forms soluble complexes with carbonate, oxalate, and hydroxide; UO22+ is also highly susceptible to adsorption either by organic matter, Fe oxyhydroxides, or precipitation with various anions, such as silicate, vanadate, arsenate, and phosphate. In ground water systems U(VI) is reduced to U(IV) if an effective reductant is present, such as H2S. Other reducing agents may be fossil plants, methane, and transported humic material. Uranium minerals display an extraordinary range structural and chemical variability, resulting from the different chemical conditions under which U minerals are formed.

Grenthe, Ingmar; Buck, Edgar C.; Drozdynski, J.; Fujino, T.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas; Wolf, Steven F.

2006-07-31

170

Electrolytic method for recovery of lead from scrap batteries. Report of investigations  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale research at the Bureau of Mines has resulted in the successful development of a combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling all the lead in scrap batteries. The method reduces energy consumption and eliminates toxic emissions, in contrast to present pyrometallurgical smelting, and the lead produced is pure enough for use in maintenance-free batteries.

Cole, E.R. Jr.; Lee, A.Y.; Paulson, D.L.

1981-11-01

171

Recycling of plastic material in design world: examples from automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, plastic materials recycling, which has the environmental and economic values, discussion with studies and design applications especially automotive industry are included. Pollution of sources and recycling of scrap materials are the two strong reasons for recycling concept. The designers, consumers, producers and governments are constrained to comprehend recycling subject because of the fact of increasing on consumption

Ceyda Vatan

172

Electrolytic method for recovery of lead from scrap batteries: scale-up study using 20-liter multielectrode cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior work at the Bureau of Mines resulted in the successful development of a bench-scale, combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling the lead from scrap batteries using waste fluosilicic acid (HâSiFâ) as electrolyte. This paper describes larger scale experiments. Anodes cast from scrap battery lead were electrorefined in a 20-L multielectrode cell for 3 to 7 days. The anodes, containing 2

A. Y. Lee; E. R. Jr. Cole; D. L. Paulson

1984-01-01

173

Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

Plachy, Jozef

2003-01-01

174

Cadmium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 t, and an estimated 285 t was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

Plachy, Jozef

2003-01-01

175

Dry reclamation of wire scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for recovering plastic from plastic insulated wire scrap involving separating the plastic from short segments of the wire by agitating the segments in a heated dry powder medium until the metal is released from the plastic insulation, separating the metal from the plastic insulation leaving at least 0.5 percent by weight of the powder intermixed with the plastic

Scalco

1976-01-01

176

Scrap tires: STATEing the facts  

SciTech Connect

Starting with a piece of Minnesota legislation passed in 1984, state governments have spent the last 10 years attempting to clean up and find markets for decades worth of stockpiled tires, as well as the millions more generated each year. The US EPA estimates that 242 million scrap tires were generated in the US in 1990 alone. Of these, an alarming 188 million were disposed of illegally. At least 34 states have bans on the landfilling of whole, and in some cases even shredded, tires. Last year, 37 states considered scrap-tire-related bills, most of which were amendments to earlier legislation. Among the scrap tire legislation passed in the past year are comprehensive laws in Ohio and Colorado, including fees for the disposal of tires, most of which are paid by the consumer. Fees were increased in North Carolina and Texas, and a $2-per-tire fee was begun in Connecticut, while hauler registration requirements were enacted in California. This article discusses what five states are doing with the management of scrap tires. They are: Minnesota; Wisconsin; Texas; Oklahoma; and Illinois.

Dabaie, M.

1994-10-01

177

Uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1911, the atomic weight of uranium had been refined to 238.5 (Gmelin, vol. A2, 1980a). The natural isotope 235U was discovered in 1935 by mass spectrometry. The artificial isotope 239U, which is the precursor of 239Np and 239Pu, was postulated and identified by Hahn and coworkers (Hahn et al., 1937; Meitner et al., 1937) as a 23 min half-life

Ingmar Grenthe; Janusz Dro?d?yn?ski; Takeo Fujino; Edgar C. Buck; Thomas E. Albrecht-Schmitt; Stephen F. Wolf

2006-01-01

178

Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in low melt recovery. Laboratory scale consolidation experiments were performed using loose aluminum powder as a modeling material as well as shredded aluminum wire scrap. The processing parameters necessary to create consolidated aluminum material were determined. Additionally, re-melting experiments using consolidated and unconsolidated aluminum powder confirmed the hypothesis that metal recovery using consolidated material will significantly improve by as much as 20%. Based on this research, it is estimated that approximately 495 billion Btu/year can be saved by implementation of this technology in one domestic aluminum rolling plant alone. The energy savings are realized by substituting aluminum scrap for primary aluminum, which requires large amounts of energy to produce. While there will be an initial capital investment, companies will benefit from the reduction of dependence on primary aluminum thus saving considerable costs. Additionally, the technology will allow companies to maintain in-house alloy scrap, rather than purchasing from other vendors and eliminate the need to discard the light gauge scrap to landfills.

William Van Geertruyden

2005-09-22

179

Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility  

SciTech Connect

A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope {sup 230}Th from the decay of {sup 234}U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 {+-} 1.5 years.

Meyers, L A; Williams, R W; Glover, S E; LaMont, S P; Stalcup, A M; Spitz, H B

2012-03-16

180

Characterization of shredded television scrap and implications for materials recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of TV scrap was carried out by using a variety of methods, such as chemical analysis, particle size and shape analysis, liberation degree analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, sink-float test, and IR spectrometry. A comparison of TV scrap, personal computer scrap, and printed circuit board scrap shows that the content of non-ferrous metals and precious metals in TV scrap is much

Jirang Cui; Eric Forssberg

2007-01-01

181

Scrap: A Language for Systems Programming Scrap - 'N Taal Vir Stelselprogrammering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SCRAP language, which is a high level language that provides facilities for system programming, but can also be used in applications programming is discussed. The SCRAP is defined to meet the requirements of efficiency, modularity, readability, portab...

M. H. Vanrooyen

1982-01-01

182

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOEpatents

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

1987-07-30

183

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Oollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed. (Contains a minimum of 206 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-02-01

184

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed. (Contains a minimum of 220 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

185

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

186

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

187

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

188

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

189

Properties of concrete made with recycled epoxy\\/glass particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at evaluating the properties and effectiveness of concretes containing recycled epoxy\\/glass (EG) particles, which were chopped and grounded waste copper?clad laminates or printed circuit board scrap. Recycled EG particles are divided into two portions according to their size: a substitutive material for natural fine aggregate and ultra fine filler, according to the particle size of 150

Ran Huang

2008-01-01

190

Effective Technology for Recycling Metal. Proceedings of Two Special Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Association of Secondary Material Industries (NASMI) and the Bureau of Mines have cooperated to sponsor two technically-oriented workshops related to the role of metals recycling and air pollution control technology. The proceedings of these workshops, "Effective Technology and Research for Scrap Metal Recycling" and "Air Pollution…

National Association of Secondary Material Industries, Inc., New York, NY.

191

Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal de-coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact. Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to recycle. Direct re-melting of coated scrap results in the generation of gaseous emissions, with increased metal oxidation, contamination, and salt flux usage. By thermal de-coating of the scrap these problems are avoided. Thermal de-coating followed by remelting of aluminum scrap is now common practice, while painted magnesium scrap is not currently de-coated and recycled. This article presents observations during heating of the contaminated light metals together with the mass loss, evolved gases, and residue after de-coating in order to give a general description of the de-coating process. It is argued that the main behavior during de-coating may be described as two distinct regimes—scission and combustion—regardless of metal substrate and coating. Monitoring the combustion regime should assure optimum de-coating.

Kvithyld, Anne; Meskers, C. E. M.; Gaal, Sean; Reuter, Markus; Engh, Thorvald Abel

2008-08-01

192

R-20: new recycling technology for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

Recycled rubber can now be used because a new rubber recycle process converts cured scrap rubber to a fine powder characterized by a particle size range never before realized with good economics. The recycling process is carried out by mechanical means at ambient temperatures without the use of undesirable chemicals which are used for devulcanization. When the recycled rubber particles are used to extend high quality compounds, the degree of retention of key properties of the extended compounds surpasses that of compounds extended with conventional recycled materials. Tests using the recycled rubber in recapped tires and results are described.

Swor, R.A.; Newton, H.V.

1980-06-01

193

Recycling the junk car: a case study of the automobile as a renewable resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and industrial introduction of the auto shredder has made the junked car the most recycled postconsumer product. Historically some 6 to 8 million cars are scrapped annually and about 80 to 85% of these are recycled for their metal and material content. In the past three years, however, it has been estimated that more vehicles were recycled than

Harwood

1977-01-01

194

Solid waste reclamation and recycling: tires. 1964-December, 1981 (citations from the NTIS data base)  

SciTech Connect

Methods of processing scrap tires, such as shredding, shearing, radiation treatment, retreading, hydrogenation, extraction, and emulsifying are cited. Incentives for recycling are examined and markets for recycled products are discussed. The use of recycled tires in highways, embankments, construction materials, and other products are covered. (This updated bibliography contains 41 citations, 4 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1982-01-01

195

46 CFR 148.04-9 - Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture...Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-9 Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized;...

2010-10-01

196

46 CFR 148.04-9 - Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture...Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-9 Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized;...

2009-10-01

197

Progress in caustic dezincing of galvanized scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, processes are being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. In the process discussed here, zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. Pilot testing has been conducted in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana, now in its second generation, has dezinced in a continuous process mode about 1,800 tonnes of loose clips and shredded stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.05% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews caustic dezincing pilot plant performance and economics.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Technologies, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1997-08-01

198

Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China.  

PubMed

Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned. PMID:21959140

Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

2011-09-29

199

Evaluation for mulching use of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wooden timber from scrapped housing is not sufficiently recycled. Since timber made from Japanese cedar has been used in Towada, Aomori Prefecture for housing construction, we investigated the mulching method of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber. The main recycled chip diameter was comprised of two classes: 4.76 to 10 mm and 10 to 19 mm. They contained negligible amounts of heavy metals. By using 10 cm thick mulching chips, the growth of weeds was controlled due to a shading effect. It also contributed to making soil temperature and moisture stable, which are preferable for tree plantations at parks, orchards, and roadsides. Therefore, we concluded that Japanese cedar wooden chips are available for mulching when they were applied with a 10 cm mulching chips.

Okada, Hiroki; Baba, Mitsuhisa; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Sugiura, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

200

Recycling of wood–plastic composites prepared from poly(vinyl chloride) and wood flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study emphasizes on closed-loop recycling of wood plastic composite (WPC) which consists of two parts. The first part concentrates on re-processing industrial scrap of WPC profiles and its mixture with freshfeed. The ratio of WPC scrap:freshfeed at 30:70 was found to be the most appropriate. The second part involves recycling the WPC profiles up to seven passes. Reductions of

Nawadon Petchwattana; Sirijutaratana Covavisaruch; Jakkid Sanetuntikul

201

Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

2012-03-15

202

Influence of scrap rubber addition to Portland I concrete composites: Destructive and non-destructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was the recycling of rubber from automobile tyre treads, as a partial substitute of fine aggregates in concrete. Composites obtained were characterized by destructive and non-destructive testing, in order to find a liable application.According to results obtained, it was found that when weight proportion increased and particle size of scrap rubber decreased (0.59 and

C. Albano; N. Camacho; J. Reyes; J. L. Feliu; M. Hernández

2005-01-01

203

New Mechanistic Aspects ofthe Dehydrochlorination of PVC - Application of Dehydrochlorination to Plastic Mixtures and Electronic Scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dehydrochlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) is of interest from several points of view, e.g., the evolution of harmful substances during fires or waste incineration, reclaiming chemical raw materials from plastic waste, electronic scrap management and recycling of plastic waste mixtures. In this work some new mechanistic aspects of the decomposition of poly(vinyl chloride) are investigated by the combined application of

H. Bockhorn; A. Hornung; U. Hornung; P. Jakobstroer

1998-01-01

204

What do we know about metal recycling rates?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recycling of metals is widely viewed as a fruitful sustainability strategy, but little information is available on the degree to which recycling is actually taking place. This article provides an overview on the current knowledge of recycling rates for 60 metals. We propose various recycling metrics, discuss relevant aspects of recycling processes, and present current estimates on global end-of-life recycling rates (EOL-RR; i.e., the percentage of a metal in discards that is actually recycled), recycled content (RC), and old scrap ratios (OSRs; i.e., the share of old scrap in the total scrap flow). Because of increases in metal use over time and long metal in-use lifetimes, many RC values are low and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Because of relatively low efficiencies in the collection and processing of most discarded products, inherent limitations in recycling processes, and the fact that primary material is often relatively abundant and low-cost (which thereby keeps down the price of scrap), many EOL-RRs are very low: Only for 18 metals (silver, aluminum, gold, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, niobium, nickel, lead, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, tin, titanium, and zinc) is the EOL-RR above 50% at present. Only for niobium, lead, and ruthenium is the RC above 50%, although 16 metals are in the 25% to 50% range. Thirteen metals have an OSR greater than 50%. These estimates may be used in considerations of whether recycling efficiencies can be improved; which metric could best encourage improved effectiveness in recycling; and an improved understanding of the dependence of recycling on economics, technology, and other factors. ?? 2011 by Yale University.

Graedel, T. E.; Allwood, J.; Birat, J. -P.; Buchert, M.; Hageluken, C.; Reck, B. K.; Sibley, S. F.; Sonnemann, G.

2011-01-01

205

Minerals yearbook, 1992: Recycling-nonferrous metals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Because of the increasing importance of recycling to domestic metal supply and the intense public interest, the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) initiated this separate chapter on nonferrous metal recycling as part of its Annual Report series in 1991. A separate chapter on iron and steel scrap already has been part of this series for many years. The focus of this chapter is on aluminum, copper, lead, tin, and zinc recycling.

Carlin, J.F.; Edelstein, D.; Jolly, J.H.; Jolly, J.L.W.; Papp, J.F.

1994-01-01

206

Recycling Somalia from the Scrap Merchants of Mogadishu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2002 Kenya “reconciliation” conference established the current “transitional federal government” of Somalia which despite Ethiopian military support in 2006 has not been able to establish its claimed authority in Somalia since it lacks public support and is not regarded as a legitimate government by the majority of the Somali population. It is in fact an imposed regime for external

I. M. Lewis

2009-01-01

207

From Trash to Treasure: Recycling Scrap Metal into Steel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trash is having a global impact not only on land, but at sea--making its way into the ocean and creating large islands of floating debris. One such island is The Great Pacific Trash Patch, which is located in the North Pacific and is made up of floating trash and debris that is spread out in an area as much as one and a half times the size of the…

Cantu, Diana

2011-01-01

208

Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese\\u000a during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system,\\u000a where it may cause a neurological disorder that bears many similarities to Parkinson's disease. The aim of the study was to\\u000a investigate the

F. Lander; J. Kristiansen; J. M. Lauritsen

1999-01-01

209

Modelling the material flow of recycling processes for aluminium alloys by means of technical recycling quotas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of aluminium alloys used for different applications such as cars, packaging or buildings has risen considerably during the past 20 years. This will effect a growing amount of scrap being available for recycling in the future. The special properties of the metal aluminium require sophisticated processing of different types of aluminium containing material prior to re-melting and refining.

H. Hoberg; S. Wolf; J. Meier-Kortwig

210

Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals  

SciTech Connect

DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

Loewen, Eric Paul

2000-09-01

211

AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

212

Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included. (Contains a minimum of 76 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

213

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01

214

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

215

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

216

7th Annual waste reduction, prevention, recycling and composting symposium proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Technical papers from the Waste Reduction, Prevention, Recycling and Composting Symposium are presented. 21 of the 22 papers were selected for inclusion in the database. The majority of the papers focus on municipal wastes produced by the business sector; however, wastes generated in the residential and industrial sectors are also included. Topics addressed include workplace recycling, scrap tire and used oil recycling, employee education, construction and demolition waste reuse, composting, waste reduction, and market development for recycled products.

NONE

1996-08-01

217

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX)

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-01-01

218

High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of U-Al Alloy in Scrap Cans  

SciTech Connect

The Measurement Technology Department of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium-aluminum alloy (U-Al) fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The project included the dismantling and removal of all highly enriched uranium (HEU) to the extent practical. A large number of scrap cans was used by the facility to store HEU chips and filings for reprocessing. The scrap cans were designed to be critically safe, which made them extremely useful during the deactivation of the facility. These cans provided a geometrically safe container for placement of the residue, filings, chips, and sweepings of HEU remaining in the building and a fixed geometry for assay of UEU content in them. Since the results of the assays are essential for determining compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control and Accountability (MC and A), and to meet Criticality Safety Controls, and Waste Management purposes, it was important to obtain the best HEU gram value possible. We set up an assay station that consisted of a turntable and a portable HPGe gamma pulse height analysis system (Gamma-PHA). It was especially suited to obtain a transmission-corrected assay of 108 scrap cans in a fixed geometry that had contents of HEU ranging from less than 0.1 g up to 88 g. This paper includes a description of two efficiency calibration configurations to obtain an assay of 235U content in each scrap can. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.

Salaymeh, S.R.

2002-05-31

219

Monte Carlo approach to the detectability of a gamma source within a scrap-iron truckload  

SciTech Connect

Although the use and disposal of radioactive materials are regulated by appropriate national and international agencies, the possibility that such materials could enter the recycling process as scrap cannot be overlooked. Several incidents in recent years have demonstrated that given the many varied uses of radioactive materials in modern industry and medicine, it is possible for these materials to find a way into a scrap processor`s plant, where recycling may lead to internationally widespread contamination. This is a real problem that cannot be ignored. To the authors` knowledge, this problem has been tackled primarily on an experimental basis. A Monte Carlo approach to the modeling of a detection system for scrap-iron-loaded trucks is presented. The crucial point is the representation of system inhomogeneities, which inevitably introduces elements of uncertainty and subjectivity. Correspondingly, the results obtained, while physically reasonable, are such that their substance resides in the general behavior of the curves and in the orders of magnitude. To estimate detectability limits for real situations, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous loads are considered for various positions of shielded and unshielded gamma sources. A sensitivity analysis of the assumptions of the model has shown satisfactory results.

Marseguerra, M.; Zio, E. [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1999-06-01

220

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a) Metallic scrap management...are drained of free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap...

2013-07-01

221

Uranium and Thorium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The results of President Carter's policy on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are expected to slow the growth rate in energy consumption, put the development of the breeder reactor in question, halt plans to reprocess and recycle uranium and plutonium, and expand facilities to supply enriched uranium. (Author/MA)|

Finch, Warren I.

1978-01-01

222

ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so ; as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major ; portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and ; iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by ; treating the anion exchange resin, which

1959-01-01

223

Waste-tire and shingle scrap/bituminous paving test sections on the Willard Munger recreational trail gateway segment. Interim report, 1990-91  

SciTech Connect

The need to reduce our states dependence on land fills resulted in a unique cooperative venture by three state agencies. A partnership was forged between the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) to investigate the use of recycled tire rubber and processed asphalt shingle scrap. The result is a two mile section of the Willard Munger Recreational Trail in St. Paul constructed with asphalt paving mixtures which contain varying percentages of recycled tire rubber and shingle scrap. Conventional mixing and paving equipment was utilized for construction. The application appears to be a viable alternative to landfilling these materials. However, costs for the mixtures containing rubber increased from 35% to 50% over the cost of the conventional mixture. Since the use of shingle scrap was negotiated by the private companies involved, no comparable cost data is available.

Turgeon, C.M.

1991-02-01

224

Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2010-01-01

225

An Environmentally Benign Process Model Development for Printed Circuit Board Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delaminating and separation of obsolete printed circuit board (PCB) is essential for its recycling. This paper presents an alternative environmentally benign process method for PCB recycling. Applying the solvent system, e.g. carbon dioxide and water under certain pressure and temperature, the PCB scraps could be delaminated easily. The separation of PCB into copper foil, glass fiber and polymer will be

Hong-Chao Zhang; Xi Ouyang; Alex Abadi

2006-01-01

226

Copper Removal from Steel Scrap by Thermal Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a limited feasibility study to determine the practicality of removing copper from automobile scrap by thermal treatment. The tests indicated that adequate removal of copper cannot be effected by thermal treatment of scrap above the me...

R. R. Brown F. E. Block

1968-01-01

227

Depleted uranium management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

1994-08-01

228

Improving metal returns and eco-efficiency in electronics recycling - a holistic approach for interface optimisation between pre-processing and integrated metals smelting and refining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient recovery of precious and special metals from electronic scrap has significant benefits - economically, environmentally, but also under a resource conservation aspect. The yields of these metals could be substantially improved by higher collection rates, less scrap exports to regions with insufficient recycling structures, and by interface optimisation, as pointed out in this document

Christian Hagelüken

2006-01-01

229

Automobile shredder residue: Process developments for recovery of recyclable constituents  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to briefly outline the structure of the automobile shredder industry as a supplier of ferrous scrap, (2) to review the previous research that has been conducted for recycling automobile shredder residue (ASR), and (3) to present the results and implications of the research being conducted at ANL on the development of a process for the selective recovery and recycling of the thermoplastics content of ASR. 15 refs., 5 figs.

Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

1990-01-01

230

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as...172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at...

2009-10-01

231

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as...172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at...

2010-10-01

232

Responsible recycling  

SciTech Connect

The issues that affect the recycling of lead-acid batteries and the challenges that this issue brings to both the lead industry and to the battery manufacturers are covered. Topics include the lead market (its size and structure), the economic constraints on the recycling system, recycling rates for batteries, the technology of recycling, and future considerations.

Pugh, A. (Britannia Refined Metals, Northfleet (United Kingdom))

1993-05-01

233

Recycling: General studies. January 1987-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 87-Nov 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 177 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-10-01

234

Silver Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2000, the global silver supply deficit (the difference between mine and scrap supply and silver demand) was more than 3,000 metric tons. U.S. silver demand for photographic applications alone was nearly equal to annual U.S. silver production. Until 1968, the U.S. silver deficit was filled by withdrawals from the U.S. Treasury reserves. In 2000, the deficit was filled by destocking, imports, and recycling. Photographic wastes, spent catalysts, and electronic scrap are the major sources of materials for silver recycling. Nearly 1,800 tons of silver contained in these materials were available for recycling in 2000. Other recyclable silver-bearing materials include dental alloys, jewelry, and silverware. In 2000, an estimated 1,700 tons of silver were recovered from secondary sources in the United States. The U.S. recycling efficiency for old scrap was calculated to have been 97 percent in 2000; the recycling rate was estimated to be 32 percent.

Hilliard, Henry E.

2003-01-01

235

Silver recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2000, the global silver supply deficit (the difference between mine and scrap supply and silver demand) was more than 3,000 metric tons. U.S. silver demand for photographic applications alone was nearly equal to annual U.S. silver production. Until 1968, the U.S. silver deficit was filled by withdrawals from the U.S. Treasury reserves. In 2000, the deficit was filled by destocking, imports, and recycling. Photographic wastes, spent catalysts, and electronic scrap are the major sources of materials for silver recycling. Nearly 1,800 metric tons of silver contained in these materials were available for recycling in 2000. Other recyclable silver-bearing materials include dental alloys, jewelry, and silverware. In 2000, an estimated 1,700 tons of silver were recovered from secondary sources in the United States. The U.S. recycling efficiency for old scrap was calculated to have been 97 percent in 2000; the recycling rate was estimated to be 32 percent.

Hilliard, Henry E.

2003-01-01

236

The recycling and reclamation of metal-matrix composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of viable techniques for the recycling and reclamation of metal-matrix composites (MMCs) is critical to the commercialization of these advanced materials. The recycling of both MMC wrought alloy (6061) scrap and foundry alloy (high-silicon) returns has been studied. The MMC extrusion alloy scrap has been recycled back into direct-chill cast logs and the resulting billet has been tested to determine whether the composite properties are degraded by repeated recycling. Similarly, fluxing and degassing techniques have been developed so that MMC foundry alloy gates and risers produced in shape-casting may be recycled back into useful castings. These fluxing and degassing processes have been tested commercially. Ultimately, when either type of MMC scrap can no longer be recycled, the alumina particles in the wrought alloys or the silicon carbide particles in the foundry alloys may be removed by common salt or other fluxing techniques. Rotary salt furnace technology has been shown to be effective for this approach, and the results of large-scale trials are reported here.

Schuster, David M.; Skibo, Michael D.; Bruski, Richard S.; Provencher, Robert; Riverin, Gaston

1993-05-01

237

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Pacific Hide and Fur Recycling, Bannock County, Pocatello, ID. (First Remedial Action), (Amendment), April 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The site in Pocatello, Bannock County, Idaho, was used from the 1950's to 1979 as a recycling business primarily accepting scrap metal, including batteries, transformers, and capacitors containing PCBs, all of which were stored on the excavated pit floor ...

1992-01-01

238

Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

Liang Sai, E-mail: liangsai09@gmail.com [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-01-15

239

Recovery of copper from printed circuit boards scraps by mechanical processing and electrometallurgy.  

PubMed

The constant growth in generation of solid wastes stimulates studies of recycling processes. The electronic scrap is part of this universe of obsolete and/or defective materials that need to be disposed of more appropriately, or then recycled. In this work, printed circuit boards, that are part of electronic scrap and are found in almost all electro-electronic equipments, were studied. Printed circuit boards were collected in obsolete or defective personal computers that are the largest source of this kind of waste. Printed circuit boards are composed of different materials such as polymers, ceramics and metals, which makes the process more difficult. However, the presence of metals, such as copper and precious metals encourage recycling studies. Also the presence of heavy metals, as Pb and Cd turns this scrap into dangerous residues. This demonstrates the need to search for solutions of this kind of residue, in order to have it disposed in a proper way, without harming the environment. At the first stage of this work, mechanical processing was used, as comminution followed by size, magnetic and electrostatic separation. By this process it was possible to obtain a concentrated fraction in metals (mainly Cu, Pb and Sn) and another fraction containing polymers and ceramics. The copper content reached more than 50% in mass in most of the conductive fractions and significant content of Pb and Sn. At the second stage, the fraction concentrated in metals was dissolved with acids and treated in an electrochemical process in order to recover the metals separately, especially copper. The results demonstrate the technical viability of recovering copper using mechanical processing followed by an electrometallurgical technique. The copper content in solution decayed quickly in all the experiments and the copper obtained by electrowinning is above 98% in most of the tests. PMID:16757116

Veit, Hugo Marcelo; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Ferreira, Jane Zoppas; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares; de Fraga Malfatti, Célia

2006-05-07

240

EMISSIONS FROM BURNING CABINET MAKING SCRAPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an initial determination of differences in missions when burning ordinary cordwood compared to kitchen cabinet making scraps. he tests were performed in an instrumented woodstove testing laboratory on a stove that simulated units observed in use at a k...

241

Minerals Yearbook, 1991: Iron and Steel Scrap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mr. Brown, a physical scientist with 36 years of industry and U.S. Bureau of Mines experience, has been the commodity specialist for iron and steel scrap since 1986. Domestic survey data were prepared by Robert W. Thompson and Henry F. Sattlethight, Ferro...

R. E. Brown

1993-01-01

242

Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

243

Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

1995-06-06

244

Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

2010-10-01

245

Aluminum recycling in the automotive industry. (Latest citations from the Aluminum Industry Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design and development of processes to recycle aluminum from automobiles. Scrap separation, shredding, and processing are covered including new equipment. Aluminum market information is included with respect to material selection for automobiles and new products developed from recycled material. References also discuss changes in automobile design to increase recycling oppertunities. (Contains a minimum of 107 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-06-01

246

Recycling plastics and polymeric wastes. October 1976-November 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for October 1976-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling and uses of plastic and polymeric scraps and wastes. Topics include communition or grinding of scrap, degradation by heat or chemical reaction, compatibility of various plastics with one another, sorting problems, physical properties of reprocessed materials, economics, public awareness, waste minimization, waste re-use, and foreign experience in plastics recycling. New products made from recycled materials, and products expressly made to be recyclable are also discussed. (Contains 347 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

247

H. R. 3369: This Act shall be cited as the Automobile Recycling Study Act of 1991, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, September 19, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on September 19, 1991 to require a study on the potential for increased recycling of automobile components in the United States and the steps needed to increase the recycling. An average of 10,000,000 automobiles are scrapped each year. Most metal parts are currently recycled, but about 25% of a scrapped vehicle's weight is discarded in landfills. In order to increase the quantity of an automobile's materials that can be recycled, automobiles should be designed with recycling in mind.

Not Available

1991-01-01

248

Selenium Recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vast majority of selenium consumption in the United States is in dissipative uses, such as alloys, animal feeds, fertilizers, glass decolorizer, and pigments. The nondissipative use as a photoreceptor for xerographic copiers is declining. As a result of a lack of a substantial supply of selenium-containing scrap, there are no longer selenium recycling facilities in the United States. Selenium-containing materials collected for recycling, primarily selenium-containing photocopier drums, are exported for processing in other countries. Of the estimated 350 metric tons (t) of selenium products that went to the U.S. market in 2004, an estimated 300 t went to dissipative uses. An estimated 4 t was recovered from old scrap and exported for recycling.

George, Micheal W.; Wagner, Lorie A.

2009-01-01

249

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

250

Hanford recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals fo...

I. M. Leonard

1996-01-01

251

Chemical reclamation of scrap rubber. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolysis of the rubber, and pyrolysis data obtained in a bench-scale flow apparatus. An economic assessment of the plant was made in terms of late 1979 dollars, for ranges in scrap tire costs and prices for the principal products: carbon black and the fuel gases and oil. Profitability at these 1979 costs and prices is somewhat modest by chemical processing industry standards for new processes, but any increases in energy and carbon black prices would cause favorable changes in this assessment.

Frazier, G.C.; Chan, S.M.; Culberson, O.L.; Perona, J.J.; Larsen, J.W.

1984-01-01

252

Use of cryogenics in scrap processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been known that many materials become brittle at low temperatures. A substantial amount of research has been conducted during the past thirty-five years to determine the ductile-brittle transition temperature of many metals and alloys intended for low-temperature service. However, the application of low temperatures to scrap processing has taken place only in the past few years. A

J. H. Jr. Bilbrey; E. G. Valdez

1975-01-01

253

Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal. 2 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-04-11

254

Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal  

DOEpatents

A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to exposure additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-01-01

255

Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal  

DOEpatents

A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

256

Packing in a tradition of recycling: Manufacturer-turned-recycler Free-Flow Packaging Corp. , Redwood City, Calif  

SciTech Connect

Free-Flow Packaging Corp. recycles polystyrene. Loose-fill -- an industry name for expanded polystyrene (EPS) packaging modules, or what the public more commonly calls peanuts'' -- represents a material that can easily and economically be recycled over and over. The company manufactures a 100% recycled packaging peanut called FLO-PAK, as well as a variety of other EPS packaging products. Indeed, to date, Free-Flow Packaging has set up post-consumer EPS recycling operations at five of its 11 manufacturing facilities, both across the country and overseas. The corporation's original facility in Redwood City began this tradition when it first started processing industrial EPS scrap in 1978 and, later, pioneered the recycling of post-consumer EPS on site for use in its products in 1989. Now, only five years later, the result has produced a recycling operation that is truly successful, profitable, and closed-loop.

White, K.M.

1994-01-01

257

RECYCLING TODAY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have probably heard of recycling but what is it really and why is it so improtant to do? Please answer the questions below as well as visiting the different websites to explore what recycling really is. Form groups of 4 and explore the following websites as well as answer the questions which follow. The first website is of Recycle City where you will be exploring the City and how they recycle. Recyle City Why Recycling is Important Now please answer the following questions on paper. 1. What are the 3 R's? Explain in further ...

Smith, Miss

2010-12-03

258

S. 2462: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act of 1990. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, April 19, 1990  

SciTech Connect

S. 2462 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to require the producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year, to require the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out such recycling requirement, to establish a management and tracking system for such tires, and for other purposes.

Not Available

1990-01-01

259

H. R. 4147: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act of 1990. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, February 28, 1990  

SciTech Connect

H.R. 4147 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste disposal Act to require the producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year, to require the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out such recycling requirement, to establish a management and tracking system for such tires, and for other purposes.

Not Available

1990-01-01

260

Fluidized-bed combustion of scrap tires: Technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is presented in Section 2.0. Based on this discussion of its technical development, FBC is then presented as a means of scrap tire disposal. In Section 3.0, scrap tire disposal is reviewed in the categories of (1) physical applications, (2) chemical applications, (3) pyrolysis, and (4) incineration for thermal energy recovery. Scrap tire disposal

J. Y. Shang; J. S. Mei; J. E. Notestein

1981-01-01

261

Ferrous scrap preheating system: Phase 3, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Utilizing electric arc smelters for making steel has allowed many smaller manufacturers to compete with large integrated mills. The electric arc furnace melts scrap to produce steel. The subject of this report is a Scrap Preheater that heats and cleans the arc furnace scrap using its own low cost natural gas energy supply. Scrap preheating can increase the capacity of a given arc furnace and reduce the operating costs. In addition it reduces the air emissions and allows utilization of lower cost scrap. The program was divided into three phases and was to culminate with an operating prototype at a demonstration host site steel mill. A host site agreement was executed and critical components were tested. The prototype scrap preheater was completely designed. It was sized to preheat 30 tons of scrap in a scrap bucket in 30 minutes. Energy is supplied by a rich fume reactor that completely oxidizes organics from the scrap and auxiliary natural gas. There were several delays and changes in the project that resulted in the host site requesting to withdraw from the program. Extensive efforts were made to secure a replacement host site. However, when another host could not be found, the project was terminated.

NONE

1996-05-13

262

Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

263

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107...Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements...recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained...

2013-01-01

264

Benefit/Cost Analysis of Plutonium Recycle Options in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium...

H. Lowenberg J. B. Burnham F. Fisher W. H. Ray

1977-01-01

265

H. R. 3058: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling and Recovery Act of 1991, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 25, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act in order to provide for a scrap tire management and recovery program. The objectives of this legislation are to provide temporary federal incentives to eliminate scrap tire piles through environmentally sound methods, including recycling, recovery and reuse. All future scrap tires are to be managed by the states through programs that will manage and minimize the buildup of scrap tire piles in the future.

Not Available

1991-01-01

266

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-11-29

267

Expectations, substitution, and scrapping in a putty-clay model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a framework for analyzing the effect of changing expectations about future prices on a firm's choice of technique, and on its anticipated scrapping of capital equipment. Assuming a putty-clay technology, particular attention is paid to the way in which the scrapping age depends on the degree of ex ante input substitution. Numerical illustrations — based on data

Erik Biørn; Petter Frenger

1992-01-01

268

91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

269

PRODUCTION OF LOW ENRICHMENT URANIUM FUEL ELEMENT CORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of enriched gaseous uranium hexafluoride to uranium ; tetrafluoride with dissociated ammonia, reduction of uranium testrafluoride to ; metal with magnesium metal, vacuum casting of uranium ingots, and subsequent ; fabrication steps such as swaging and re other aspects of production such as: the ; reclamation and direct recycle of enriched metallic residues by the technique of ; atmospheric

F. L. Cuthbert; C. E. Crompton; J. O. Davis; C. E. Polson

1958-01-01

270

Scrap-tire consumption in New England and New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of scrap tires is one facet of the current solid waste dilemma that is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention in the northeast. Above-ground disposal in tire stockpiles has become a common phenomenon. One way to avoid continued stockpiling of scrap tires, and to reduce the number and size of existing piles, is to find ways to consume the tires. The economics of scrap tire consumption in the region has not yet been examined in great detail. The main goal of the paper is to describe the current pattern of scrap tire use and disposal in New England and New Jersey, and the changes expected in the near future. In the course of this description, various economic, regulatory and other factors emerge as significant forces shaping the consumption and disposal pattern. The concluding sections of the paper highlight some of these factors and identify policy options available to increase scrap tire consumption in the region.

Barad, A.

1991-02-01

271

Scrap tire reuse through surface-modification technology  

SciTech Connect

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach for reusing scrap tire rubber. The process involves the combination of scrap tire rubber particles with other materials to form higher value and higher performance composites. The process begins by grinding scrap tire to a fine particle size, and removing steel and fabric. The key to this approach is a proprietary surface-modification step which is critical for enhancing the compatibility with and bonding to other continuous phase matrix materials. Of all approaches for scrap tire rubber reuse, this approach offers the potential to recover (or save) the greatest amount of energy. Furthermore, this is the only approach which is clearly economically viable with current pricing and without a scrap tire tax. The process is environmentally innocuous, and capital requirements for large scale processing plants are projected to be modest. 7 figs.

Bauman, B.D.

1991-01-01

272

Vehicle recycling process  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vehicle recycling plant comprising a furnace, means for introducing a fuel into said furnace, a cupola disposed in close proximity to said furnace, and communicating therewith so that the hot gases discharged from the furnace are introduced into the cupola, means for conveying scrap vehicles above said furnace and into said cupola, substantially horizontal flue means communicating with both the cupola and the furnace for removing exhaust gases therefrom, a plurality of smelters disposed in said horizontal flue for melting down various components previously disassembled from the vehicles, a plurality of heat exchange means disposed in said horizontal flue for removing heat therefrom and converting it into various forms of energy, an enlarged horizontal flue portion disposed downstream of said heat exchange means, said enlarged flue portion containing a plurality of air vents for mixing ambient air with the flue gas and a scrubbing section for removing particulate material from the flue gas, vacuum pump means for drawing the flue gas through the horizontal stack and exhaust means for discharging the flue gas to the atmosphere.

Rhinehart; Paul E. (Winchester, VA)

1977-03-29

273

Potential Application of Recycled Rubber in Oil Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and indiscriminate disposal of scrap tyres inurban areas in Nigeria create serious health and environmentalproblems. The potential of using rubber recycled from scraptyres as an absorbent in crude oil clean up was investigated.Rubber particles of mesh sizes within the range of 0.15 to2.36 mm were used to absorb crude oil at different temperatures(5 to 40 °C). The rapid

F. A. Aisien; F. K. Hymore; R. O. Ebewele

2003-01-01

274

SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS-200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED SCRAP, CALLED "CABBAGES", ARE MELTED DOWN IN THE CAST SHOP,ALONG WITH RAW METAL AND ALLOYS. BALED SCRAP MELTS MORE RAPIDLY THAN LOOSE SCRAP. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

275

Shock Initiation of ``Virgin'' and ``Recycled'' PBX 9502 Measured with Embedded Electromagnetic Particle Velocity Gauges  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have completed a series of shock initiation experiments on two types of PBX 9502 (95 weight % dry aminated TATB explosive 5 weight % Kel-F 800 binder). ``Virgin'' PBX 9502 contains 100% newly formulated material. ``Recycled'' PBX 9502 contains 50% new material and 50% ground up PBX 9502 machining scraps. It was formulated because of the expense of manufacturing

R. L. Gustavsen; S. A. Sheffield; R. R. Alcon

2004-01-01

276

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

277

Vanadium recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of vanadium in the U.S. economy in 2004. This report includes a description of vanadium supply and demand in the United States and illustrates the extent of vanadium recycling and recycling trends. In 2004, apparent vanadium consumption, by end use, in the United States was 3,820 metric tons (t) in steelmaking and 232 t in manufacturing, of which 17 t was for the production of superalloys and 215 t was for the production of other alloys, cast iron, catalysts, and chemicals. Vanadium use in steel is almost entirely dissipative because recovery of vanadium from steel scrap is chemically impeded under the oxidizing conditions in steelmaking furnaces. The greatest amount of vanadium recycling is in the superalloy, other-alloy, and catalyst sectors of the vanadium market. Vanadium-bearing catalysts are associated with hydrocarbon recovery and refining in the oil industry. In 2004, 2,850 t of vanadium contained in alloy scrap and spent catalysts was recycled, which amounted to about 44 percent of U.S. domestic production. About 94 percent of vanadium use in the United States was dissipative (3,820 t in steel/4,050 t in steel+fabricated products).

Goonan, Thomas G.

2011-01-01

278

Auto industry targets fluff for recycling  

SciTech Connect

Automobiles have been one of the great recycling success stories. With car shredding operations routinely reaching recovery rates of up to 75% for decades--mostly through scrap metal reclamation--automobiles outpace most other commodities in terms of recyclability and stability of end uses. Not content to rest on its laurels, however, the automotive industry is now revving up to deal with the part of a car that is not yet easily recycled. This remaining 25%, known as automotive shredder residue (ASR) or ''fluff,'' presents a wide range of recycling challenges. Automobile fluff is the small and low-density material left over after the more easily recycled parts are taken away. Traditionally, fluff has been disposed of in municipal landfills. Today, as cars lose weight to gain fuel economy, plastic use has increased. There are now about 200 automotive shredders in the US, the largest of which produce more than 50,000 tons of fluff per year. Almost half of this fluff is made up of fabrics, fibers, and resilient foam cushioning. Just about one fourth is plastic and about 17% is fluids.

Lang, N.A.

1995-01-01

279

Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Electronic Scrap Concentrates Containing Precious Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines investigated hydrometallurgical procedures for removing base metals from mechanically processed fractions of obsolete military electronic scrap. Feed material was a minus 1/4-in nonmagnetic metallic concentrate produced by high-tension...

H. E. Hilliard B. W. Dunning H. V. Makar

1983-01-01

280

Halfthrough girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Half-through girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

281

Plutonium scrap recovery at Savannah River: Past, present, and vision of the future  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the changing requirement, plus environmental and regulatory commitments, SRP now has essentially completed its paradigm shift. SRP has been transformed from primarily a reprocessor of irradiated uranium targets to primarily a reprocessor of non-specification plutonium. This is the mission which will carry SRP into the 21st Century. Accomplishment of the defined goals for the three-pronged RandD program will achieve several objectives: exploit new processes for recovering low-grade scraps; enhance SRP's position to incorporate pyrochemical processes where they are attractive or beneficial to plant scrap recovery; provide SRL/SRP with a capability to develop compatible aqueous pyrochemical processes; identify material compatibility requirements for the incorporation of pyrochemical processes at SRP; promote development and demonstration of improved NDA instrumentation to accurately measure plutonium holdups in solid residues; identify and implement the technology required for reagent preparation and atmospheric quality control; provide a means to compare economic options for emerging new processes; and as a result, identify process steps which will also put SRP in a position to readily adapt to changing plutonium missions.

Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Blancett, A.L.; Lower, M.W.; Rudisill, T.S.

1988-01-01

282

Conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to boroilicate glass using the GMODS process  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium scrap and residue represent major national and international concerns because (1) significant environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) problems have been identified with their storage; (2) all plutonium recovered from the black market in Europe has been from this category; (3) storage costs are high; and (4) safeguards are difficult. It is proposed to address these problems by conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to a CRACHIP (CRiticality, Aerosol, and CHemically Inert Plutonium) glass using the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS). CRACHIP refers to a set of requirements for plutonium storage forms that minimize ES&H concerns. The concept is several decades old. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into a certified, qualified, homogeneous CRACHIP glass creates a stable chemical form that minimizes ES&H risks, simplifies safeguards and security, provides an easy-to-store form, decreases storage costs, and allows for future disposition options. GMODS is a new process to directly convert metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidize organics with the residue converted to glass; and convert chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, and other materials to glass. GMODS is an enabling technology that creates new options. Conventional glassmaking processes require conversion of feeds to oxide-like forms before final conversion to glass. Such chemical conversion and separation processes are often complex and expensive.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.; Elam, K.R.; Ferrada, J.J.

1995-11-28

283

Manufacture of strand board made from construction scrap wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of strand board made from construction scrap wood. The strand board was manufactured using Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga japonica) strands selected from construction scrap wood. The strands were oriented, and three-layer (face\\/core\\/face) strand board of three types was produced: one in which the

Andi Hermawan; Takeshi Ohuchi; Ryo Tashima; Yasuhide Murase

2007-01-01

284

Recovery of Metal Values from Car-Radiator Scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of car-radiator tubes (brass alloy coated with lead-tin layer) are rejected due to manufacturing failures. Metal values were successfully separated from scrap containing 55% copper, 25.5% zinc, 13.2% lead, and 6.3% tin. The scrap was completely leached with hot HCl solution containing HNO3 as an oxidant. Upon cooling, about 61% of the lead content was precipitated as lead

M. A. BARAKAT; M. H. H. MAHMOUD

2000-01-01

285

Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber – an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried

Rafat Siddique; Tarun R. Naik

2004-01-01

286

Contaminated scrap metal management on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of scrap metal are accumulating at the various Department of Energy (DOE) installations across the country as a result of ongoing DOE programs and missions in concert with present day waste management practices. DOE Oak Ridge alone is presently storing around 500,000 tons of scrap metal. The local generation rate, currently estimated at 1,400 tons\\/yr, is expected to

H. W. Hayden; M. J. Stephenson; J. K. Bailey; J. R. Weir; W. C. Gilbert

1993-01-01

287

Scrap? This Program Grows on It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high school industrial arts program in plastics recycling provided students direct contact with production methods of the plastics industry as well as awareness of governmental functions. Experimentation included fuel cells, paving and construction composites, soil composites, and watercraft flotation. (EA)

Schureman, Robert

1975-01-01

288

Scrap? This Program Grows on It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A high school industrial arts program in plastics recycling provided students direct contact with production methods of the plastics industry as well as awareness of governmental functions. Experimentation included fuel cells, paving and construction composites, soil composites, and watercraft flotation. (EA)|

Schureman, Robert

1975-01-01

289

Textile recycling  

SciTech Connect

The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

Jablonowski, E. (Killam Associates, Millburn, NJ (United States)); Carlton, J.

1995-01-01

290

Ferrous scrap preheating system. Phase 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Utilization of electric arc steel making has allowed many smaller producers to compete with the large mills. An electric arc furnace (EAF) melts scrap metal to produce a variety of steel products. Using scrap as the metal source is less costly than refining from ores, but the metal is of a lower quality due to impurities in the scrap. Over the years, methods have been developed to improve EAF metal quality and reduce the cost of production. As a result, an increasing share of total steel production is shifting to EAFs. By recent estimates, EAF production is growing at a rate of about 10% per year, and currently accounts for nearly one half of all US steel production (US Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute Project 2787-2, 1987). The subject of this report is Scrap Preheating, a new method of preheating scrap metal before it is charged into an EAF. In scrap preheating, a portion of the energy is supplied in a separate vessel, causing the EAF to use less energy, which shortens the heating time. The general effect is that the arc furnace can produce more steel in a given time at a reduced cost per ton of molten metal.

Not Available

1993-11-23

291

Recycled pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsars that have undergone a binary history have come to be known as "recycled pulsars". The very first binary pulsar to be discovered-the Hulse-Taylor pulsar-provided evidence for such a recycling. It is now widely accepted that the first-born neutron star dies a natural death as a pulsar due to its period lengthening. But eventually, it is spun back into life, once again, when it accretes matter and angular momentum from its companion. Such a spin up continues till the neutron star attains an "equilibrium period", which is determined by the strength of its magnetic field and the accretion rate. This article will attempt to give a historical perspective of how the various steps in the evolution of such a recycled neutron star were understood.

Srinivasan, G.

2010-03-01

292

Recycling of gold from electronics: Cost-effective use through ‘Design for Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

With over 300 tonnes of gold used in electronics each year, end-of-life electronic equipment offers an important recycling\\u000a potential for the secondary supply of gold. With gold concentrations reaching 300-350 g\\/t for mobile phone handsets and 200-250\\u000a g\\/t for computer circuit boards, this “urban mine” is significantly richer than what is available in primary ores.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a However, the “mineralogy” in scrap

Christian Hagelüken; Christopher W Corti

2010-01-01

293

Benefit Analysis of Reprocessing and Recycling Light Water Reactor Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The macro-economic impact of reprocessing and recycling fuel for nuclear power reactors is examined, and the impact of reprocessing on the conservation of natural uranium resources is assessed. The LWR fuel recycle is compared with a throwaway cycle, and ...

1976-01-01

294

Endocytic recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

After endocytosis, most membrane proteins and lipids return to the cell surface, but some membrane components are delivered to late endosomes or the Golgi. We now understand that the pathways taken by internalized molecules that eventually recycle to the cell surface can be surprisingly complex and can involve a series of sorting events that occur in several organelles. The molecular

Frederick R. Maxfield; Timothy E. McGraw

2004-01-01

295

Steel Recycling Institute (SRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Steel Recycling Institute (SRI) provides information and statistics on steel recycling; it was founded by a group of steel companies and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Originally a grassroots effort focused only on the recycling of steel cans, the SRI now promotes the recycling of all steel products. The SRI homepage provides online access to its three publications, The Dockside Recycler, The Recycling Magnet, and The Appliance Recycler. Recycling information is divided into four categories: cans, cars, appliances, and construction material. Users can use the recycling database to find the nearest steel recycling location. Links provides a large list of both commercial and non-commercial steel sites.

1998-01-01

296

REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-01-29

297

Disposition of Unirradiated Sodium Bonded EBR-II Driver Fuel Elements and HEU Scrap: Work Performed for FY 2007  

SciTech Connect

Specific surplus high enriched uranium (HEU) materials at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) will be transferred to a designated off-site receiving facility. The DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO) will determine which materials, if any, will be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors. These surplus HEU materials include approximately 7200 kg unirradiated sodium-bonded EBR-II driver fuel elements, and nearly 800 kg of HEU casting scrap from the process which formed various sodium-bonded fuels (including the EBR-II driver elements). Before the driver fuel can be packaged for shipment, the fuel elements will require removal of the sodium bond. The HEU scrap will also require repackaging in preparation for off-site transport. Preliminary work on this task was authorized by BWXT Y-12 on Nov 6, 2006 and performed in three areas: • Facility Modifications • Safety Documentation • Project Management

Karen A Moore

2007-04-01

298

Recycling BIOPOL–Composting and Material Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of biodegradable thermoplastics such as ZENECA's BIOPOL range of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers needs to be considered in terms of both material recycling and organic recycling by composting. BIOPOL can be recycled as regrind. The addition of BIOPOL to a model waste stream demonstrates that at the anticipated addition levels, BIOPOL should not have a deleterious effect on

M. K. Cox

1995-01-01

299

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section...Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices...practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a) Metallic...drained of free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For...

2009-07-01

300

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section...Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices...practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a) Metallic...drained of free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For...

2010-07-01

301

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements . For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches . You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2013-07-01

302

Computer Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given current rates of computer consumerism and technological advances, one might expect to find a lot of computers out there in the world. What happens to these old computers? This Topic in Depth explores this issue, reviews some options for recycling computers, and provides tips for anyone considering purchasing a refurbished computer. The first article from BBC News (1) reports on research which suggests that "the number of personal computers worldwide is expected to double by 2010 to 1.3 billion machines." The second article from Oasis, a project of the Irish eGovernment initiative, (2) reviews some of the issues surrounding waste from electrical and electronic equipment. This next article from PC World (3) gives some ideas for how to dispose of an old notebook computer. One option, of course, is to donate your notebook, which is discussed in this article from Tech Soup (4). Another resource for information on computer recycling and reuse is this website from CompuMentor (5). Given the current market for computers, many are considering refurbished computers. This article from Vnunet (6 ) explains what a refurbished computer is while the next website provides some tips for buying a refurbished computer (7 ). Finally, this article from About.com reports on the recently introduced National Computer Recycling Act (8).

303

Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

1996-07-01

304

Role of Air Gap in Scrap Dissolution Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the air gap formed between scrap and a solidified metal shell at the beginning of the scrap dissolution process has been investigated. The effect of air gap has been investigated for different Biot numbers (10 to 100) and ratios of air gap to liquid melt heat transfer coefficient (0.1 to 0.9). The predictions of the mathematical model are compared with the experimental results reported elsewhere. The role of air gap is found to be significant only for low Biot numbers (<50) and for low ratios of air gap to liquid melt heat transfer coefficient (<0.25).

Shukla, Ajay Kumar; Deo, Brahma; Robertson, D. G. C.

2013-07-01

305

Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method  

DOEpatents

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

1992-02-11

306

40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72 Section 761...Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person may dispose...removed: (a) In a scrap metal recovery oven: (1) The oven shall have at...

2013-07-01

307

ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN  

DOEpatents

A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by treating the anion exchange resin, which is saturated with uranium complex by adsorption from a sulfuric acid leach liquor from an ore bearing uranium, vanadium and iron, with one column volume of eluant prepared by passing chlorine into ammonium hydroxide until the chloride content is about 1 N and the pH is about 1. The resin is then eluted with 8 to 9 column volumes of 0.9 N ammonium chloride--0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The eluants are collected separately and treated with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate which is filtered therefrom. The uranium salt from the first eluant is contaminated with the major portion of ths vanadium and iron and is reworked, while the uranium recovered from the second eluant is relatively free of the undesirable vanadium and irons. The filtrate from the first eluant portion is discarded. The filtrate from the second eluant portion may be recycled after adding hydrochloric acid to increase the chloride ion concentration and adjust the pH to about 1.

McLEan, D.C.

1959-03-10

308

Recycling Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

309

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

310

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

311

End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.  

SciTech Connect

Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. Many of these materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals that are recovered. In addition, the number of hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles on the road is rapidly increasing. This trend will also introduce new materials for disposal at the end of their useful lives, including batteries. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), the Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC. (VRP) of the United States Council for Automotive Research, LLC. (USCAR), and the American Chemistry Council-Plastics Division (ACC-PD) are working to develop technology for recovering materials from end-of-life vehicles, including separating and recovering polymers and residual metals from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation and the world will most likely face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap, and thereby be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This will result in increased energy consumption and increased damage to the environment, including increased greenhouse gas emissions. The recycling of polymers, other organics, and residual metals in shredder residue saves the equivalent of over 23 million barrels of oil annually. This results in a 12-million-ton reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This document presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the recycling of automotive materials.

Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

2011-02-22

312

Assessment of damage to geomembrane liners by shredded scrap tires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a field and laboratory study performed to assess damage to the geomembrane liner caused by using shredded scrap tires as a leachate drainage layer material in landfills. The field testing was performed to assess the damage that occurred to the geomembrane liner during construction and included nine tests conducted with different combinations of tire

K. R. Reddy; R. E. Saichek

1998-01-01

313

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

314

Recovery of scandium from magnesium, aluminium and iron scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrometallurgical route for recovering of scandium from magnesium, aluminium and iron dross or scrap was developed and the extraction isotherm for scandium with HDEHP established. After a single stage of leaching, extraction and stripping, nearly 100% recovery of scandium as scandium oxide resulted, while the separation of magnesium from scandium was also nearly 100%. About 10% of the iron

A. Ditze; K. Kongolo

1997-01-01

315

Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?  

SciTech Connect

Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

Glaz, S.

1995-10-01

316

Bond strength of reinforcing steel bars milled from scrap metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many poor developing countries, reinforcing steel bars are milled using scrap metal from obsolete vehicle parts and machinery. In Ghana, these bars which are classified as mild steel, are normally milled with ribbed surfaces similar to standard high-yield steel bars to enhance their bond with concrete. Hitherto there has been inadequate information on the actual physical behaviour including the

Charles K Kankam

2004-01-01

317

Recycling: Additional Efforts Could Increase Municipal Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although recycling can generate environmental and economic benefits, the national recycling rate has increased only slightly since 2000, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While local governments have the primary role in operating rec...

2006-01-01

318

Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes.

1997-01-01

319

Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Pu from nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last year, as the Soviet Union began to crumble and the Bush-Gorbachev talks had advanced to consider the dismantling of actual warheads instead of mere delivery systems, Dr. Thomas L. Neff, a senior member of MIT's Center for International Studies, tinkered with the notion that one day soon the US could be buying Russian uranium from scrapped nuclear arms. He

Neff

1992-01-01

320

Reverse logistics system planning for recycling electrical appliances and computers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disposition of end-of-life home appliances has caused tremendous attention, Taiwan recently promulgated a Scrap Home Appliances and Computers Recycling Regulation that mandates manufacturers and importers to take back their products. Reverse logistics system planning shall become vital as the take-back rate increases and the service area expands in the future. This study utilizes a mixed integer programming model

Li-Hsing Shih

2001-01-01

321

Use of recycled glass as a raw material in the manufacture of Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrap glass is a solid waste from daily recycling. Most of the waste glass is sodium-lime-silicate glass which has, more or\\u000a less, similar chemical compositions to clay, a raw material in cement manufacturing. Therefore, we utilize the solid waste\\u000a in cement raw mix by replacing part of the clayey component. In this study, the effects of the glass in cement

Z. Xie; Y. Xi

2002-01-01

322

An econometric model of the U.S. secondary copper industry: Recycling versus disposal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper, a theoretical model of secondary recovery is developed that integrates microeconomic theories of production and cost with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The model equations are estimated for the U.S. secondary copper industry and used to assess the impacts that various policies and future events have on copper recycling rates. The alternatives considered are: subsidies for secondary production, differing energy costs, and varying ore quality in primary production. ?? 1990.

Slade, M. E.

1980-01-01

323

Aqueous metal recovery techniques from e-scrap: Hydrometallurgy in recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste of electric–electronic equipment (WEEE) with an annual growth rate of about 3–5% is the fastest growing waste stream in municipal wastes. Notwithstanding their environmental pollution potential, waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with their high content of base and precious metals, in particular, are regarded as a potential secondary resource when compared with ores. For the recovery of

A. Tuncuk; V. Stazi; A. Akcil; E. Y. Yazici; H. Deveci

324

Recycling Improves USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes are occurring in recycling that will improve the United States. There are significant improvements in the economy, environment and the health of Americans due to recycling efforts. Recycling will be shown as a superior option compared to landfill, incineration and virgin material processing. Many Case studies will be discussed that show how communities are making long-term decisions for recycling.

Luke Monroe

325

Visiting a Recycling Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling is perhaps the most well-known and successful part of the popular three-pronged resource conservation strategy known as 'reduce, reuse, and recycle'. This site provides some general information about recycling, and a video segment from the television program 'ZOOM', in which a cast member visits a material recovery center to watch the recycling process unfold.

2005-01-01

326

Iron EDTA chelate catalyzed oxidation of uranium  

SciTech Connect

Uranium ore deposits which contain uranium in the relatively insoluble tetravalent state are readily selectively leached in situ to recover relatively pure uranium compounds, by: (A) passing through the ore deposit a relatively dilute aqueous leach solution of ammonium bicarbonate, ferric ammonium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a source of oxygen, the leach solution converting the tetravalent uranium to hexavalent uranium which readily dissolves in the leach solution; (B) withdrawing the reacted leach solution enriched in dissolved uranium from the ore deposit; and (C) stripping the uranium from the withdrawn leach solution. The stripping of the uranium from the leach solution is preferably accomplished by countercurrent flow of the enriched leach solution to a column of base anion exchange material which preferentially extracts the uranium. Base anion exchange material loaded with uranium is separated from the leach solution and is treated with an aqueous alkaline eluant to extract the uranium and to regenerate the base anion exchange material. The stripped leach solution is adjusted by adding ammonium bicarbonate, peroxide, and ferric ammonium edta, and its ph corrected if necessary, and the leach solution is recycled through the ore deposit. The uranium bearing eluant is then acidified and treated with ammonia to precipitate relatively pure ammonium diuranate (Adu).

Jackovitz, J.F.; Panson, A.J.; Pantier, E.A.

1981-01-06

327

Electrolytic method for recovery of lead from scrap batteries: scale-up study using 20-liter multielectrode cell  

SciTech Connect

Prior work at the Bureau of Mines resulted in the successful development of a bench-scale, combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling the lead from scrap batteries using waste fluosilicic acid (H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/) as electrolyte. This paper describes larger scale experiments. Anodes cast from scrap battery lead were electrorefined in a 20-L multielectrode cell for 3 to 7 days. The anodes, containing 2 to 2.5 pct antimony, were ideal for obtaining firm and adherent slime blankets. Cathode deposits, assaying 99.99 pct Pb, were obtained, with current efficiencies near 99 pct. Sludge leaching was done in 100-L tanks followed by filtering in 61 cm square vacuum pan filters. Lead of greater than 99.99-pct purity was recovered from the filtrate by electrowinning in a 20-L multielectrode cell using insoluble PbO/sub 2/-Ti (lead dioxide-coated titanium) anodes and pure lead cathodes. The fluosilicic acid electrolyte depleted in lead was repeatedly recycled to leach more sludge, and there was no problem with impurity buildup. The amount of PbO/sub 2/ formed on the anodes during electrowinning was less than 1 pct of the total lead deposited on the cathodes, as long as the phosphorus concentration in the electrolyte was greater than 1.3 g/L. Emissions of lead in air were less than 10 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, well below the proposed OSHA limit of 50 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/.

Lee, A.Y.; Cole, E.R. Jr.; Paulson, D.L.

1984-01-01

328

Recycled pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a survey of ~4,150 square degrees, we discovered 26 previously unknown pulsars, including 7 "recycled" millisecond or binary pulsars. The most significant discovery of this survey is PSR J1909-3744, a 2.95 ms pulsar in an extremely circular 1.5 d orbit with a low-mass white dwarf companion. Though this system is a fairly typical low-mass binary pulsar (LMBP) system, it has several exceptional qualities: an extremely narrow pulse profile and stable rotation have enabled the most precise long-term timing ever reported, and a nearly edge-on orbit gives rise to a strong Shapiro delay which has allowed the most precise measurement of the mass of a millisecond pulsar: m p = (1.438 +/- 0.024) [Special characters omitted.] . Our accurate parallax distance measurement, d p = ([Special characters omitted.] ) kpc, combined with the mass of the optically-detected companion, m c = (0.2038 +/- 0.022) [Special characters omitted.] , will provide an important calibration for white dwarf models relevant to other LMBP companions. We have detected optical counterparts for two intermediate mass binary pulsar (IMBP) systems; taken together with optical detections and non-detections of several similar systems, our results indicate that the characteristic age t = c P /2 P consistently overestimates the time since the end of mass accretion in these recycled systems. We have measured orbital decay in the double neutron star system PSR B2127+11C in the globular cluster M15. This has allowed an improved measurement of the mass of the pulsar, m p = (1.3584 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , and companion, m c = (1.3544 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , as well as a test of general relativity at the 3% level. We find that the proper motions of this pulsar as well as PSR B2127+11A and PSR B2127+11B are consistent with each other and with one published measurement of the cluster proper motion. We have discovered three binary millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster M62 using the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These pulsars are the first objects discovered with the GBT. We briefly describe a wide-bandwidth coherent dedispersion backend used for some of the high precision pulsar timing observations presented here.

Jacoby, Bryan Anthony

2005-11-01

329

Recycling scheme for twin BWRs reactors  

SciTech Connect

To asses the advantages of reprocess and recycle the spent fuel from nuclear power reactors, against a once through policy, a MOX fuel design is proposed to match a generic scenario for twin BWRs and establish a fuel management scheme. Calculations for the amount of fuel that the plants will use during 40 years of operation were done, and an evaluation of costs using constant money method for each option applying current prices for uranium and services were made. Finally a comparison between the options was made, resulting that even the current high prices of uranium, still the recycling option is more expensive that the once through alternative. But reprocessing could be an alternative to reduce the amount of spent fuel stored in the reactor pools. (authors)

Ramirez-Sanchez, J. R.; Perry, R. T.; Gustavo Alonso, V.; Javier Palacios, H. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750 (Mexico)

2006-07-01

330

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

331

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

332

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

333

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

334

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01

335

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

336

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

337

A method for leaching or dissolving gold from ores or precious metal scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrometallurgical leaching of native gold from gold-bearing ores or the dissolution of gold metal during the recycling of electronic and precious metal scrap is performed every day using hazardous chemicals such as sodium cyanide or aqua regia. These chemicals represent health and safety risks for workers and a serious threat for the environment. However, even if several other reagents are known to dissolve gold at the laboratory scale, none of these are used industrially. Hot mixtures of hydrochloric acid with strong oxidizing compounds are known to generate in-situ nascent chlorine which is capable of dissolving gold efficiently. In this study, the authors investigated the capability of a hot mixture of hydrochloric acid and ground manganese (IV) oxide to dissolve gold metal either under atmospheric or pressurized conditions. The best result was obtained under a pressure of 639 kPa at 90°C with a dissolution rate of 0.250 g·cm-2h-1 and it was compared to that reported in the literature for other industrial reagents.

Geoffroy, Nicolas; Cardarelli, François

2005-08-01

338

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

339

Use of scrap rubber in asphalt pavement surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scrap tire rubber was mixed into an asphalt concrete wearing course to study the effect of ice disbonding from the pavement surface under traffic. Rubber contents of 0, 3, 6, and 12 percent by weight were studied. Initial laboratory ice disbonding test results led to the development of a new paving material, Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC), that uses larger pieces of rubber in a much denser asphalt concrete mix. Strength values doubled and ice disbonding performance was enhanced.

Eaton, Robert A.; Roberts, Richard J.; Blackburn, Robert R.

1991-12-01

340

Recovery of tungsten and vanadium from tungsten alloy scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation resulted in the development of a flowsheet for the recovery of tungsten and vanadium from a leach solution of tungsten alloy scrap. The leach solution contained 95 kg\\/m3 WO3, 0.175 kg\\/m3 V and some other impurities. In the purification step, MgCl2 combined with Al2(SO4)3 was employed to remove the majority of Si, Al, P and Fe from the

Lin Luo; Liu Kejun; Atsushi Shibayama; Wantai Yen; Toyohisa Fujita; Osamu Shindo; Akira Katai

2004-01-01

341

Novel applications of scrap tire for organic sorption\\/separations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study of the use of scrap tire material as a sorbent medium for sorption of volatile\\u000a organic chemicals from organic mixtures and water. The tire material was exposed to pure solvents to establish the sorption\\u000a characteristics for classes of organics. The overall rate and selectivity of sorption of a solvent in a polymeric

P. Rangarajan; P. Sisk; D. Bhattacharyya

1999-01-01

342

Use of scrap rubber in asphalt pavement surfaces. Special report  

SciTech Connect

Scrap tire rubber was mixed into an asphalt concrete wearing course to study the effect of ice disbonding from the pavement surface under traffic. Rubber contents of 0, 3, 6, and 12% by weight were studied. Initial laboratory ice disbonding test results led to the development of a new paving material, Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC), that uses larger pieces of rubber in a much denser asphalt concrete mix. Strength values doubled and ice disbonding performance was enhanced.

Eaton, R.A.; Roberts, R.J.; Blackburn, R.R.

1991-12-01

343

$200K energy program nets scrap firm $2M savings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luria Brothers' scrap-processing facility in Cleveland saved two million dollars in avoided energy expenses with a $200,000 energy-conservation program established in 1980. The company's goal of converting from No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas provided half of the savings. Other goals were to seek alternative utility rates to take advantage of load changes and to reduce demand by installing

Barber

1982-01-01

344

Surface-modification technology for scrap tire reuse  

SciTech Connect

This technical briefing report describes the DOE-Air Products project to develop the surface-modification technology for scrap tire rubber. It introduces the technology; discusses the project history, status, and feasibility studies; and reviews the potential benefits of the technology with respect to energy use and economics. Prelimary analyses indicate energy savings of approximately 60,000 Btu/lb by substituting surface-modified rubber in polyurethane systems.

Not Available

1992-09-01

345

The recycling dilemma for advanced materials use: Automobile materials substitution  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the difficulties associated with imposing recycling imperatives upon advanced materials development by examining the case of automotive materials substitution and its impacts upon the recyclability of the automobile. Parallels are drawn between today's issues, which focus upon the recyclability of the increasing polymeric fraction in automobile shredder fluff, and the junked automobile problem of the 1960's, when the problem of abandoned automobiles became a part of the environmental and legislative agenda in the US and overseas. In the 1960's, both the source and the resolution of the junk automobile problem arose through a confluence of technological and economic factors, rather than through any set of regulatory influences. The rise of electric arc furnace steelmaking and the development of the automobile shredder were sufficient to virtually eliminate the problem - so much so that today's problems are incorrectly viewed as novelties. Today's automobile recycling problem again derives from technological and economic factors, but regulatory influences have spurred some of them. While there are no lack of technological solutions to the problem of automobile shredder fluff, none of these solutions yet provides scrap processors with the kind of profit opportunity necessary to implement them. In some ways, it is implicit in advanced materials markets that there is little to no demand for recycled forms of these materials, and, in the absence of these markets, there are few reasons to expect that the solution to today's problems will be quite so neat.

Field, F.R. III; Clark, J.P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States))

1991-01-01

346

One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility  

SciTech Connect

Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

Malloy, M.G.

1997-11-01

347

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

348

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

White, Boyd W.

2000-01-01

349

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)|

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

350

Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements.

Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Jones, V.D.

1998-07-01

351

Challenges in metal recycling.  

PubMed

Metals are infinitely recyclable in principle, but in practice, recycling is often inefficient or essentially nonexistent because of limits imposed by social behavior, product design, recycling technologies, and the thermodynamics of separation. We review these topics, distinguishing among common, specialty, and precious metals. The most beneficial actions that could improve recycling rates are increased collection rates of discarded products, improved design for recycling, and the enhanced deployment of modern recycling methodology. As a global society, we are currently far away from a closed-loop material system. Much improvement is possible, but limitations of many kinds--not all of them technological--will preclude complete closure of the materials cycle. PMID:22879508

Reck, Barbara K; Graedel, T E

2012-08-10

352

Enriched Uranium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Wikipedia website provides information about the various concentrations of uranium used for different applications. Topics include a brief description of the grades of uranium and methods of isotope separation. There are also links to other aspects of uranium enrichment and related information. This information lays the foundation for informed discussion about the potential of nuclear energy and the risks of nuclear proliferation.

Wikipedia

353

Recycling Research. Tracking Trash.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An activity in which students research the effectiveness of recycling is presented. Students compare the types and amount of litter both before and after recycling is implemented. Directions for the activity and a sample data sheet are included. (KR)|

DeLago, Louise Furia

1991-01-01

354

Recycling Rules: Understanding Recycling and a MRF  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners simulate the separation techniques that materials recovery facilities (MRFs) use and then design their own series of recycling techniques. Learners identify four ways recyclable materials can be separated and sorted at a MRF: conveyor belts, blowers, flotation, and magnetism.

Keep America Beautiful, Inc.

2010-01-01

355

Recycling of automotive aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in

Jirang CUI; Hans J. ROVEN

2010-01-01

356

Recycling and the automobile  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

Holt, D.J.

1993-10-01

357

Rethink, Rework, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)|

Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

1991-01-01

358

Rethink, Rework, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

1991-01-01

359

Recycling calls for revaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop the value concept for recycling contexts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a conceptual discussion supported by empirical illustrations of value development for recycled paper and electric and electronics products. Findings – Demonstrates the fundamental effects of applying the economic value concept for recycling. Suggests that value can be seen as

Maria Huge Brodin; Helén Anderson

2008-01-01

360

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.  

PubMed

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low-grade precious metals and copper. It is expected that a mechanical recycling process will be developed for the upgrading of low metal content scraps. PMID:12758010

Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

2003-05-30

361

Public policies toward the use of scrap materials  

SciTech Connect

Proposals that have been considered to stimulate the flow of recycled materials are discussed. The thrust of proposals is that recycling rates are too low and that the Federal government should offer incentives to aid the competitive position of secondary materials sector. This paper examines principal economic arguments that have been offered in support of a Federal program of recycling incentives and analyzes some of the recent legislative proposals in light of available information on the structure of the secondary materials industry. Arguments advanced in support of recycling incentives is that tax equity should be established between recyclers and primary material producers. (Depletion deductions were supported in H.R. 148). A second argument is based upon market failure attributable to external diseconomies in primary material production (air and water pollution and disruption of scenic natural environments). Because resource recovery would lessen these environmental damages and create few new ones of its own, one may wish to subsidize the secondary materials industry. The force of this argument has been reduced by statutes such as the National Environmental Policy Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Act. The existing pattern of municipal subsidization of postconsumer waste disposal constitutes a deterrent to recycling. A final argument is that the existing structure of Federal regulation favors primary production over secondary material recovery and should be balanced with incentives for recycling. Specifically, the evaluation of recycling subsidies proposed in H.R. 148 and H.R. 10612 is made. H.R. 10612 would grant to purchasers of recyclable materials credits against income tax liabilities. Other approaches involve loan guarantees for recycling facilities, governmental stockpiling to stabilize supply and demand for secondary materials, and the creation of futures markets for secondary materials to reduce price uncertainty. (MCW)

Anderson, R.C.

1977-02-01

362

Solids loading evaluation for HB-line scrap recovery filters  

SciTech Connect

The HB-Line Scrap Recovery facility uses wire screen filters to remove solids from plutonium-containing solutions transferred from the slab tank dissolvers. At times, the accumulation of solids is large enough to cause blinding (i.e., pluggage) of the filters. If the solids contain undissolved plutonium, significant accumulation of fissile material could impact operations. To address this potential issue, experiments were performed to define the minimum solids required to completely blind a filter. The solids loading experiments were performed by arranging 25- and 10-{micro}m HB-Line filters in series to simulate the equipment in the scrap recovery process. Separate tests were performed using coarse and fine glass frit and cerium oxide powder suspended in 35 wt% sodium nitrate solution using a small turbine mixer. The solution and solids were transferred from a reservoir through the filter housings by vacuum. In each case, the 25-{micro}m filter blinded first and was full of wet cake. After drying and accounting for the sodium nitrate in the filter cake, the following results were obtained. The results of the solids loading tests demonstrated that at least 800 g of solids accumulated in the filter housing before flow stopped. The actual amount of collected material was dependent upon the physical properties of the solids such as density and particle size. The mass of solids collected by the blinded 25-{micro}m filter increased when successively finer solids were used in the experiments. Based on these results, one should anticipate that filters in the HB-Line Scrap Recovery Facility have the potential to collect similar quantities of material before transfer of solution from the dissolvers is severely impacted.

Crowder, M.L.

2000-08-08

363

Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant  

DOEpatents

A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

2002-11-05

364

Scrap tire disposal and utilization alternatives: a state-of-the-art report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review has been made of the available worldwide literature which describes techniques and equipment used in the disposal of scrap tires. The operational procedures, feasibility, and impact of each alternative technique are discussed, and current and projected uses of scrap tires are noted. The alternative disposal techniques include biodegradation, incineration, pyrolysis, hydrogenation, sanitary landfill, physical processes, whole-tire disposal and

G. L. Ochs; K. V. Coram

1975-01-01

365

Optimal batch quantity models for a lean production system with in-cycle rework and scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a manufacturing system, reworking of the defectives and management of waste or scrap are important issues that call for immediate attention to meet the basic objectives and requirements for lean production system. This paper deals with a manufacturing process where finished goods are occasionally produced along with undesirable defective items and scrap. As the system is not always perfect,

Pablo Biswas; Bhaba R. Sarker

2008-01-01

366

Application of pyrolized carbon black from scrap tires in pavement design (hot mix asphalt)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various concepts and techniques have been developing for efficient and economical disposal and utilization of scrap tires. One of these is pyrolysis of scrap tires by a cooking process in order to break down the rubber into salable byproducts. Tire pyrolysis yields approximately 25% carbon black (CB) and is named pyrolized carbon black (PCB) in this study. Due to relatively

1995-01-01

367

Study of thermal and mechanical properties of virgin and recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) before and after injection molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we compared the thermal properties (glass transition, melting point and crystallinity) and mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, elongation at break and impact strength) of post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with those of the virgin resin. We studied two types of scraps of recycled PET: one arising from homogeneous deposits of bottles and the other of heterogeneous deposits soiled

N. Torres; J. J. Robin; B. Boutevin

2000-01-01

368

Review of PennDOT Publication 408 for the use of recycled co-product materials: Summary recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to decrease the institutional or perceived institutional barriers for the use of recycled and co-product materials including glass, steel slag, foundry sand, fly ash, shingle tabs, reclaimed Portland cement concrete, and scrap tires in the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation`s (PennDOT) Publications 408, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Specifications. This report reviews potential uses of each material, identifies the project that used these materials, and provides direction for future specification development.

Van Tassel, E.L.; Tikalsky, P.J.; Christensen, D.W.

1999-04-30

369

CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE--LOW-TECH SOLUTIONS TO THE PADUCAH SCRAP METAL REMOVAL PROJECT ARE PROVIDING SAFE, COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP YARDS  

SciTech Connect

Between 1974 and 1983, contaminated equipment was removed from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) process buildings as part of an enrichment process upgrade program. The upgrades consisted of the dismantlement, removal, and on-site storage of contaminated equipment, cell components, and scrap material (e.g., metal) from the cascade facilities. Scrap metal including other materials (e.g., drums, obsolete equipment) not related to this upgrade program have thus far accumulated in nine contiguous radiologically-contaminated and non-contaminated scrap yards covering 1.05E5 m2 (26 acres) located in the northwestern portion of the PGDP. This paper presents the sequencing of field operations and methods used to achieve the safe removal and disposition of over 47,000 tonnes (53,000 tons) of metal and miscellaneous items contained in these yards. The methods of accomplishment consist of mobilization, performing nuclear criticality safety evaluations, moving scrap metal to ground level, inspection and segregation, sampling and characterization, scrap metal sizing, packaging and disposal, and finally demobilization. Preventing the intermingling of characteristically hazardous and non-hazardous wastes promotes waste minimization, allowing for the metal and materials to be segregated into 13 separate waste streams. Low-tech solutions such as using heavy equipment to retrieve, size, and package scrap materials in conjunction with thorough planning that integrates safe work practices, commitment to teamwork, and incorporating lessons learned ensures that field operations will be conducted efficiently and safely.

Watson, Dan; Eyman, Jeff

2003-02-27

370

Recycling used automotive oil filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

Peaslee, Kent D.

1994-02-01

371

Recycling Service Learning Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recycling project begins with students learning about waste and resources. They complete background assignments about the energy and materials required to manufacture paper, aluminum, etc. They study landfills and the issues related to space, pollution, etc. They look at what is different if these things are recycled. The students work in groups of two or three and adopt and academic building on campus. They educate the staff and faculty about recycling - what can be recycled and where. They arrange to pick-up paper from each office. My hope is that the college faculty, staff and students will eventually recycle paper at common bins and that our project will progress to adding other recyclables to our project.

Faatz, Renee

372

Factors Influencing Household Recycling Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate factors encouraging or deterring recycling, telephone interviews were used to study recycling behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of 221 randomly selected adults in a suburban city that had begun a citywide curbside recycling program within the past year. Approximately 40% reported participation in the curbside recycling program, and nearly 20% more claimed that their household had been recycling in

Stuart Oskamp; Maura J. Harrington; Todd C. Edwards; Deborah L. Sherwood; Shawn M. Okuda; Deborah C. Swanson

1991-01-01

373

Benchmarking survey for recycling.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

2005-06-01

374

Solvent recycle/contaminant reduction testing - Phase I, Task 3. Topical progress report, June 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment. This report describes the solvent recyle test program for EDTA/ammonium carbonate solvent.

NONE

1995-07-01

375

Bioleaching of electronic scrap by mixed culture of moderately thermophilic microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process for the metal recovery from electronic scrap using bacterial leaching was investigated. A mixed culture of moderately thermophilic microorganisms was enriched from acid mine drainages (AMDs) samples collected from several sulphide mines in Romania, and the bioleaching of electronic scrap was conducted both in shake flask and bioreactor. The results show that in the shake flask, the mixture can tolerate 50 g/L scrap after being acclimated to gradually increased concentrations of scrap. The copper extraction increases obviously in bioleaching of scrap with moderately thermophilic microorganisms supplemented with 0.4 g/L yeast extract at 180 r/min, 74% copper can be extracted in the pulp of 50 g/L scrap after 20 d. Compared with copper extractions of mesophilic culture, unacclimated culture and acclimated culture without addition of yeast extract, that of accliniated culture with addition of yeast extract is increased by 53%, 44% and 16%, respectively. In a completely stirred tank reactor, the mass fraction of copper and total iron extraction reach up to 81% and 56%, respectively. The results also indicate that it is necessary to add a large amount of acid to the pulp to extract copper from electronic scrap effectively.

Iv?nu?, D.; ?nu?, R. C., IV; C?lmuc, F.

2010-06-01

376

Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction  

SciTech Connect

We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

DUNCAN, D.R.

2000-04-20

377

URANIUM COMPOSITIONS  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to high purity uranium alloys characterized by improved stability to thermal cycling and low thermal neutron absorption. The high purity uranium alloy contains less than 0.1 per cent by weight in total amount of any ore or more of the elements such as aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, tin, lead, bismuth, niobium, and zinc.

Allen, N.P.; Grogan, J.D.

1959-05-12

378

URANIUM EXTRACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is ; described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble ; nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then ; contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a ; portion of the impurities

C. D. Harrington; J. V. Opie

1958-01-01

379

Characterization of pre-1957 avionic scrap for resource recovery  

SciTech Connect

Studies conducted to determine increased recovery and utilization methods of valuable constituents in a wide variety of domestic and industrial wastes are described. In this particular study, 36 units of obsolete electronic equipment from military aircraft were disassembled into their modular components by hand to determine materials distribution. Further modular disassembly into individual parts was used to identify metal composition. After identifying the metals in some of the more difficult to dismantle modules, similar modules were grouped together, shredded, mechanically separated, and using metal composition data from hand separation, classified along with the hand-separated materials. Although this equipment is normally classified as low-value iron-bearing aluminum, data were obtained that indicated the potential for moderately higher value classification. The electronic units were classified as to precious metals, copper, iron, and aluminum contents, and scrap values were estimated.

Dunning, B.W. Jr.; Ambrose, F.

1980-01-01

380

DOE (Department of Energy) funds awarded for scrap tire research  

SciTech Connect

After promising initial results in demonstrating the technical and commercial feasibility of modifying the surface of finely ground scrap tires to produce adhesion properties needed for reuse in polymers such as polyurethanes and epoxies, the US Department of Energy increased its research contract with Air Products and Chemicals to $850,000. The additional monies will be used to evaluate a second approach to surface modification that will extend the use of the rubber to other polymers and rubber formulations. Supplies to the surface-modified rubber particles should be available by late summer for customer evaluation. The initial applications for the new rubber particles are expected to include polyurethane, for the manufacture of carpet underlayment, shoe soles and newly developed polyurethane spare tires, improving the impact resistance of polystyrene, PVC and engineering plastics and automotive belts, gaskets and seals.

Not Available

1990-07-01

381

Uranium enrichment  

SciTech Connect

GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government.

Not Available

1989-01-01

382

Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.  

PubMed

Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate. PMID:19589669

Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

2009-07-08

383

An economic and technical assessment of black-dross and salt-cake-recycling systems for application in the secondary aluminum industry  

SciTech Connect

The secondary aluminum industry annually disposes of large amounts of dross residues and salt cake, which are by-products from the processing of scrap aluminum for reuse. These wastes contain as much as 50% salts and are presently disposed of in conventional landfills. As the costs of landfill space increase and the availability of landfill space decreases, disposal of the residues will increasingly compromise the economics of recycling aluminum. Alternative processes exist by which the major constituents of the various drosses and salt cakes can be recovered for recycling. In this study, we review available recycling technologies and processes relevant to the recycling of black dross and salt cake and discuss new concepts that have the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of recycling technologies.

Karvelas, D.; Daniels, E.; Jody, B.; Bonsignore, P.

1991-12-01

384

Households’ recycling efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Households’ recycling effort is often argued to be of an insignificant size. It is also frequently argued that this contribution, if significant, is not a cost to households, since it is voluntary. Thus households’ use of time and energy are frequently disregarded in cost-benefit analyses of stricter recycling targets. In this survey, based on 1162 interviews, we find that sorting

Annegrete Bruvoll; Bente Halvorsen; Karine Nyborg

2002-01-01

385

Economics of PC Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of personal computers (PCs) increases, their short life cycle and the fact that they contain many hazardous materials means that their retirement and disposal represents a significant environmental concern. Many communities are mandating the recycling of these PCs, to recover parts and materials, and to minimize the amount of waste landfilled or incinerated. An industry to recycle

Jane E. Boon; Jacqueline A. Isaacs; Surendra M. Gupta

386

Refuse recycling and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing sense of dissatisfaction over the waste of resources in traditional disposal methods has not yet overcome the economic barriers of recycling costs and the difficulties of marketing recycled materials. The author examines several waste-recovery technologies, such as incineration and waste-derived fuels, and the constraints which work against time. He describes two plants in the United Kingdom and the

1981-01-01

387

Is mandated recycling possible  

Microsoft Academic Search

If piles of potentially recyclable materials are accumulated as a result of a mandatory source separation program, what options exist for the community First, it could attempt to market the recyclables through normal commercial channels. Second, the community could attempt to market the materials at lower prices to the consumers, since any contribution above available disposal cost is a profit

Cutler

1988-01-01

388

Recycle of battery materials  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials.

Pemsler, J.P.; Spitz, R.A.

1981-01-01

389

Study on TV recyclability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the depletion of natural resources, the shortage of dumping sites and the environmental pollution caused by hazardous chemical substances, there is a growing demand for the recycling of discarded products. The electrical home appliance industry has continued its efforts to develop easy-to-recycle products. In order to recognize the effects of these improvements and to identify subjects for future

Takayuki Nishi; M. Hirano; T. Ohashi; K. Ueno; Y. Hiroshige

1999-01-01

390

AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY WASTEWATER RECYCLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of recycling certain categories of water used in the manufacture of airplanes was demonstrated. Water in four categories was continuously recycled in 380-liter (100-gallon) treatment plants; chemical process rinse water, dye-penetrant crack-detection rinse water, ...

391

Visiting a Recycling Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this ZOOM video segment, cast member Francesco follows the paper trail to find out what happens to his recyclables. He visits a material recovery center and learns how paper is recycled and the number of trees that are saved as a result.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-10-21

392

Recycling into Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit weaves art and science together to help students appreciate the importance of recycling. In this engaging activity, students collected items worthy of recycling from home, and with the help of the art teacher, used a loom to cr

Fioranelli, Debra

2000-10-01

393

Recycling at Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

Cummins, William M.

1988-01-01

394

Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)|

Weir, Phil

1996-01-01

395

Electrolytic method for recovery of lead from scrap batteries: scale-up study using 20-liter multielectrode cell. Report of investigations/1984  

SciTech Connect

Anodes cast from scrap battery lead were electrorefined in a 20-L multielectrode cell for 3 to 7 days. The anodes, containing 2 to 2.5 pct antimony, were ideal for obtaining firm and adherent slime blankets. Cathode deposits, assaying 99.99 pct Pb, were obtained, with current efficiencies near 99 pct. Sludge leaching was done in 100-L tanks followed by filtering in 61 cm square vacuum pan filters. Lead of greater than 99.99-pct purity was recovered from the filtrate by electrowinning in a 20-L multielectrode cell using insoluble PbO2-Ti (lead dioxide-coated titanium) anodes and pure lead cathodes. The fluosilicic acid electrolyte depleted in lead was repeatedly recycled to leach more sludge, and there was no problem with impurity buildup.

Lee, A.Y.; Cole, E.R. Jr.; Paulson, D.L.

1984-01-01

396

Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

Francis, A.J.

1998-12-31

397

Advance disposal fees and recycling: Partners or foes?  

SciTech Connect

A political trend of shifting government responsibilities from the federal to the state and local level is beginning to take hold in many municipalities this year. Evidence of this shift recently was codified by the passage of Congress`s unfunded mandates bills, which require a panel review of any federal government mandates that create a cost burden of at least $50 million on state and local government. Expecting to be freed from the yoke of the most costly unfunded federal laws, many states are taking a second look at their expensive recycling laws and considering reassessment of how funding mechanisms are structured. This search for ways to raise revenue has renewed the continuing debate over advance disposal fees (ADFs), which are included in the cost of a product to pay for its ultimate disposal or reuse. These ADFs have been used for several years in a majority of US states to help handle scrap tire disposal. Due to concern over fire hazards posed by the nation`s growing scrap tire piles, several states have implemented a $1--$2 fee on each tire to help pay for disposal, most of which have been reasonably successful.

Woods, R.

1995-05-01

398

Stationary and protable instruments for assay of HEU (highly enriched uranium) solids holdup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two NaI(Tl)-based instruments, one stationary and one portable, designed for automated assay of highly enriched uranium (HEU) solids holdup, are being evaluated at the scrap recovery facility of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The stationary instrument, a continuous monitor of HEU within the filters of the chip burner exhaust system, measures the HEU deposits that accumulate erratically and rapidly during

P. A. Russo; J. K. Jr. Sprinkle; M. M. Stephens; T. L. Brumfield; C. S. Gunn; D. R. Watson

1987-01-01

399

Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.

1997-03-01

400

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...You must submit the scrap pollution prevention plan to the...practicable) of undrained used oil filters, chlorinated plastics...materials must be identified in the pollution prevention plan. (2) Restricted...vehicle bodies, engine blocks, oil filters, oily...

2012-07-01

401

Emisiones al Aire de la Combustion de Llantas Usadas (Air Emissions from Scrap Tire Combustion).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusss air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmospher...

J. I. Reisman

1997-01-01

402

Separation and recovery of metals from zinc-treated superalloy scrap. Report of Investigations/1989  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines treated mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap by pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods to separate and recover metal values. Best results were obtained by leaching Zn-treated or atomized scrap with HC1-02 at 95 C and 50 psig O{sub 2}. This resulted in dissolving approximately 98% of the Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn while rejecting over 98% of the Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr as an insoluble refractory residue. Chlorine was successfully substituted for HC1 to leach Zn-treated scrap but unsuccessful for leaching atomized scrap. The leaching solution was treated by pH adjustment and hydrothermal precipitation at 200 C for 4 h to remove Al, Cr, Fe, and other contaminants as a filterable precipitate. Recovery of Co and Ni would be accomplished by solvent extraction and electrowinning. Chromium recovery as a ferroally was demonstrated.

Laverty, P.D.; Atkinson, G.B.; Desmond, D.P.

1989-01-01

403

Scrap Tire Disposal and Utilization Alternatives: A State-of-the-Art Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review has been made of the available worldwide literature which describes techniques and equipment used in the disposal of scrap tires. The operational procedures, feasibility, and impact of each alternative technique are discussed, and current and pro...

G. L. Ochs K. V. Coram

1975-01-01

404

75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...our planet, participating in curbside recycling and community composting programs, and...of recyclable and recycled materials. Recycling not only preserves our environment by...workers nationwide, and evolving our recycling practices can help create green...

2010-11-19

405

Manufacture of powders of titanium alloys and titanium-base refractory compounds from titanium alloy scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Electrolytic titanium powders (99.75% Ti) were prepared from titanium sponge scrap. It was established that electrolytic titanium powder is greatly superior in quality to calcium-hydride-thermic titanium powder.2.A study was made of the preparation of titanium alloy powders (Ti-Al, Ti-Al-V, Ti-Mn, Ti-Zr) by the electrolytic refining of scrap of standard titanium alloys.3.The optimum conditions for the hydrogenation and subsequent dehydrogenation of

A. N. Rubtsov; Yu. G. Olesov; V. S. Ustinov; O. G. Kiselev; V. I. Cherkashin; V. P. Glukhov

1970-01-01

406

Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

407

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil doesn't wear out--it just gets dirty. Students and the general public may not know that used oil can be reused or recycled. The fact is, used oil can be re-fined, blended with additives, and used again. When you consider that 1.4 billion gallons

White, Boyd W.

2000-11-01

408

Energy Return on Investment from Recycling Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) from recycling an initial batch of 800 t/y of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through a Recycle Center under a number of different fuel cycle scenarios. The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered. The scenarios represent a good cross section of the options available and the results contained in this paper and associated appendices will allow for other fuel cycle options to be considered.

None

2011-08-17

409

Motivation recycling: pre-recycling case study in Minsk, Belarus.  

PubMed

Given the aim of motivating householders to behave in a recycling-friendly manner, there is a need to understand consumers' recycling behaviour. This paper documents and analyses acceptability and awareness of a pre-recycling society, through a survey carried out in the region of Minsk, Belarus. The results show a large number of people have no strong awareness about separate collection of household waste for recycling. By analysing the pre-recycling behaviour of Minsk citizens and substantive comparison with literature studies of a more mature recycling society such as Sweden, we indicate common sociodemographic variables for both cases and determine that these sociodemographic characteristics will directly influence recycling behaviour in countries like Belarus. It is also noted that the lack of recycling habit cannot directly predict subsequent recycling behaviour on the stage of implementation the recycling system. PMID:20124319

Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Olsson, Monika

2010-02-02

410

Constitutive model development for lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rubber-soil (lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips) is a promising solution for the global scrap tire problem. It is also a promising material for various geotechnical engineering applications because of its advantageous properties such as lightweight, high permeability, high ductility and ease to cast. Intensive laboratory studies, mostly under triaxial testing, are conducted and a constitutive model is proposed. Firstly, the effective stress principle is proven applicable for Rubber-soil under normal engineering stress level although the inter-particle contact area is large. Secondly, because of the gravel-sized surface voids on the testing samples, membrane penetration is serious so an integrated remedy method is proposed, where the surface voids are patched up first and then a lubricated reinforced membrane is dressed on. It is found that the volumetric deformation of Rubber-soil is very recoverable even after 20% volume contraction but the over consolidation results illustrate a decreasing stiffness, which is believed due to volumetric damage. Shearing on the sample gives typical results as sands where clear phase transformation is observed, but the strains involved are higher and more recoverable. Besides, shear stiffness is observed decreasing with deformation, which is believed due to shear damage. There are other observations such as the difference in the curvatures of unloading and reloading curves in CD tests, which might be a frictional phenomenon. Based on the laboratory observations and on the analogy of a continuum spring-block system, a constitutive model termed as Analogical Model is proposed. Fifteen model parameters are involved but most of them are typical soil parameters. The remaining ones have clear physical meanings and can be easily calibrated. It is found that the model can satisfactorily capture many features observed from the experiments, such as hardening, softening, apparent permanent deformations, stiffness decay due to damage, cyclic damage that leads to accumulation of strains and the frictional phenomenon of different curvatures between unloading and reloading curves. The model utilizes the hypothesis of the competition between bond mobilization, friction activation and bond degradation. It is believed that this model may be generalized to other bonded frictional materials although there are still many rooms for improvement.

Tsoi, Wa Yeung

411

Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have ever wondered what happens to obsolete computers, check out these current awareness Websites. The disposal of computers is classified as hazardous waste, which has become an environmental concern as the number of obsolete computers rises. In fact, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the State of Massachusetts have banned computer equipment from landfills. Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers is an EPA-licensed computer recycling organization that reuses all acceptable components and systems or recycles damaged or unusable components. Rebuilt computer systems are given to "persons with disabilities and persons living in disadvantaged situations."

412

Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton\\/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of

B. J. Jody; E. J. Daniels; P. V. Bonsignore; E. L. Shoemaker

1992-01-01

413

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson featuring LOOP SCOOPS videos, students consider how the concept of needs vs. wants can help them think about ways to protect Earth's natural resources by reducing, reusing, and recycling materials.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

414

On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data. PMID:11376883

Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

2001-06-01

415

Use of soda-lime scrap-glass as a fluxing agent in a porcelain stoneware tile mix  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was directed towards determining the feasibility of using soda-lime scrap-glass as a fluxing agent in a porcelain stoneware tile mix. Both laboratory and industrial scale tests were carried out. Starting from a reference mix composition, different amounts (5–20 wt.%) of sodium feldspar were replaced with the same amounts of soda-lime scrap-glass. The soda-lime scrap-glass was added in the

A. Tucci; L. Esposito; E. Rastelli; C. Palmonari; E. Rambaldi

2004-01-01

416

Recycling of Magnesium Alloy Employing Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure magnesium was recycled from partially oxidized 50.5 wt pct Mg-Al scrap alloy and AZ91 Mg alloy (9 wt pct Al, 1 wt pct Zn). Refining experiments were performed using a eutectic mixture of MgF2-CaF2 molten salt (flux). During the experiments, potentiodynamic scans were performed to determine the electrorefining potentials for magnesium dissolution and magnesium bubble nucleation in the flux. The measured electrorefining potential for magnesium bubble nucleation increased over time as the magnesium content inside the magnesium alloy decreased. Potentiostatic holds and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to measure the electronic and ionic resistances of the flux. The electronic resistivity of the flux varied inversely with the magnesium solubility. Up to 100 pct of the magnesium was refined from the Mg-Al scrap alloy by dissolving magnesium and its oxide into the flux followed by argon-assisted evaporation of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. Solid oxide membrane electrolysis was also employed in the system to enable additional magnesium recovery from magnesium oxide in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. In an experiment employing AZ91 Mg alloy, only the refining step was carried out. The calculated refining yield of magnesium from the AZ91 alloy was near 100 pct.

Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter A.; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

2013-04-01

417

Electronic scraps - Recovering of valuable materials from parallel wire cables  

SciTech Connect

Every year, the number of discarded electro-electronic products is increasing. For this reason recycling is needed, to avoid wasting non-renewable natural resources. The objective of this work is to study the recycling of materials from parallel wire cable through unit operations of mineral processing. Parallel wire cables are basically composed of polymer and copper. The following unit operations were tested: grinding, size classification, dense medium separation, electrostatic separation, scrubbing, panning, and elutriation. It was observed that the operations used obtained copper and PVC concentrates with a low degree of cross contamination. It was concluded that total liberation of the materials was accomplished after grinding to less than 3 mm, using a cage mill. Separation using panning and elutriation presented the best results in terms of recovery and cross contamination.

Pinheiro Bezerra de Araujo, Mishene Christie [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo, Av Prof. Mello Moraes 2464, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Pinto Chaves, Arthur [Department of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo, Av Prof. Mello Moraes 2373, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Crocce Romano Espinosa, Denise [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo, Av Prof. Mello Moraes 2464, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo, Av Prof. Mello Moraes 2464, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: jtenorio@usp.br

2008-11-15

418

Recycling of nonmetallics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Amey, E. B.; Kelly, T. D.

1996-01-01

419

Method and apparatus for forming billets from metallic chip scraps  

DOEpatents

After recycled titanium alloy chips are crushed and cleaned, they are pressed into cylindrically briquettes with a relative density of 0.6, and placed into capsules. The capsules are heated and placed into a preheated pressing rig. The pressing rig repetitively applies axial force to the capsule, resulting in a relative density of at least 0.95. The product billets are used for consumable electrodes, secondary casting alloys, forgings, extruded semi-finished products and the like.

Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich (St. Petersburg, RU); Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich (St. Petersburg, RU); Kochkin, Victor Georgievich (St. Petersburg, RU); Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich (St. Petersburg, RU); Sidenko, Natalja Semenovna (St. Petersburg, RU)

2006-05-02

420

A new paradigm: near-complete recycling of spent fuel - A path to sustainable nuclear energy  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies indicate that maximized recycling, where more than 95% of the components of spent nuclear fuel are reused, can be economically justified and can reduce the mass of waste products by a substantial amount. The potentially removable and reusable components include the uranium, zirconium from the cladding, structural hardware, certain noble metal fission products, and the transuranic radionuclides. The approach to maximizing recycle and minimizing emissions and wastes should improve public acceptance of nuclear energy. (authors)

Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Spencer, Barry B.; Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Rd., P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6223 (United States)

2007-07-01

421

Compilation and preliminary interpretation of hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St. Charles County, Missouri - A progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1957 to 1966 the plant converted uranium-ore concentrates and recycles scrap to pure uranium trioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium metal. Residues from these operations were pumped to four large pits that had been excavated near the plant. Small springs and losing streams are present in the area. Water overlying the residue in the pits has a large concentration of

M. J. Kleeschulte; L. F. Emmett

1986-01-01

422

Cathode ray tube (CRT) recycling: current capabilities in China and research progress.  

PubMed

It is estimated that approximately 6,000,000 scrap TVs and 10,000,000 personal computers are generated each year in China. Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) from these machines consist of 85% glass (65% panel, 30% funnel and 5% neck glass). The leaded glass (funnel-24%, neck-30%) may seriously pollute the environment if it is not properly disposed of. In this paper, the past, current and future status of CRT dismantling technologies as well as the CRT glass recycling situation in China are presented and discussed. Recycling technology for waste CRTs in China is still immature. While the conventional CRT dismantling technologies have disadvantages from both economic and environmental viewpoints, some of the new and emerging treatments such as automatic optical sorting facilities that have been applied in developed countries offer advantages, and therefore should be transferred to China in the next few years to solve the CRT pre-processing problem. Meanwhile, because the demand for CRT glass closed-loop recycling is extremely limited, the authorities should take effective measures to improve CRT glass recycling rates and to facilitate a match to local conditions. Moreover, we also provide a broad review of the research developments in recycling techniques for CRT cullet. The challenge for the future is to transfer these environmentally friendly and energy-saving technologies into practice. PMID:22542858

Xu, Qingbo; Li, Guangming; He, Wenzhi; Huang, Juwen; Shi, Xiang

2012-04-28

423

Reducing the solid waste stream: reuse and recycling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) increased its solid waste diversion by 365 percent over FY 1992 in five solid waste categories - paper, cardboard, wood, metals, and miscellaneous. (LLNL`s fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30.) LLNL reused/ recycled 6,387 tons of waste, including 340 tons of paper, 455 tons of scrap wood, 1,509 tons of metals, and 3,830 tons of asphalt and concrete (Table1). An additional 63 tons was diverted from landfills by donating excess food, selling toner cartridges for reconditioning, using rechargeable batteries, redirecting surplus equipment to other government agencies and schools, and comporting plant clippings. LLNL also successfully expanded its demonstration program to recycle and reuse construction and demolition debris as part of its facility-wide, comprehensive solid waste reduction programs.

Wilson, K. L.

1997-08-01

424

Determining minimum alarm activities of orphan sources in scrap loads; Monte Carlo simulations, validated with measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portal monitoring radiation detectors are commonly used by steel industries in the probing and detection of radioactivity contamination in scrap metal. These portal monitors typically consist of polystyrene or polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillating detectors, one or more photomultiplier tubes (PMT), an electronic circuit, a controller that handles data output and manipulation linking the system to a display or a computer with appropriate software and usually, a light guide. Such a portal used by the steel industry was opened and all principal materials were simulated using a Monte Carlo simulation tool (MCNP4C2). Various source-detector configurations were simulated and validated by comparison with corresponding measurements. Subsequently an experiment with a uniform cargo along with two sets of experiments with different scrap loads and radioactive sources (137Cs, 152Eu) were performed and simulated. Simulated and measured results suggested that the nature of scrap is crucial when simulating scrap load-detector experiments. Using the same simulating configuration, a series of runs were performed in order to estimate minimum alarm activities for 137Cs, 60Co and 192Ir sources for various simulated scrap densities. The minimum alarm activities as well as the positions in which they were recorded are presented and discussed.

Takoudis, G.; Xanthos, S.; Clouvas, A.; Potiriadis, C.

2010-02-01

425

Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.  

PubMed

Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete. PMID:15219914

Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

2004-01-01

426

Disposal techniques with energy recovery for scrapped vehicle tires  

SciTech Connect

The scrap tire disposal problem is serious and widespread. However there are a number of promising management options, especially using the rubber as a supplemental fuel for existing combustors. The most cost-effective approach to dealing with Denver's tire stockpile appears to be shredding to a coarse size range, storing the shreds in a secure area, and marketing the rubber to nearby cement kilns, lime kilns, and boilers. This interim step would greatly reduce the volume of the pile, facilitate the Superfund evaluation, reduce fire and disease hazards, and simplify subsequent materials handling. Further processing to obtain rubber chips or crumbs may also be practical. However the industry and the markets would have to emerge over time. New power plants or pyrolysis facilities would be impeded by the low energy prices in Denver and the need for elaborate pollution controls. Landfilling could be considered as a last resort. Landfilling costs would be minimized if the tires are shredded. Chapter 2 discusses the tire disposal problem and the general options for tire management. Chapter 3 describes the methodology used to analyze Denver's situation and presents the results and conclusions obtained. This includes evaluation of strategies to implement the more promising resource recovery options in the Denver area. Chapter 4 summarizes the lessons learned and identifies impediments and uncertainties that need to be addressed in any future studies. The Appendix contains additional acknowledgments, a list of references, definitions for the acronyms and units used in the text, the agenda for the tire workshop, and a brief description of a stockpile fire near Denver in June 1987. 111 refs., 6 tabs.

Sladek, T.A.; Demos, E.K.

1987-06-01

427

Assessment of damage to geomembrane liners by shredded scrap tires  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a field and laboratory study performed to assess damage to the geomembrane liner caused by using shredded scrap tires as a leachate drainage layer material in landfills. The field testing was performed to assess the damage that occurred to the geomembrane liner during construction and included nine tests conducted with different combinations of tire chip size and thickness, both with a geotextile and without a geotextile overlying the geomembrane, and under different loading conditions. The laboratory testing was performed to characterize the shredded tires, particularly their size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, and chemical resistance. The laboratory testing also included performing simulation testing to determine the extent of damage that occurs to the geomembrane liner by the shredded tires under long-term waste-loading conditions. the damage that occurred to the geomembrane liners in both field tests and simulated laboratory tests was determined by visual observations as well as by conducting multi-axial tension tests, wide strip tension tests, and water vapor transmission tests on the exhumed geomembrane samples. Based on these results, a 0.46-m thick layer of secondary shred tire chips, with an average size of 7.6 cm, placed over a 543-g/m{sup 2} geotextile installed over a geomembrane liner using low-ground-pressure (<58 kPa) equipment was determined to provide adequate protection in the geomembrane liner during construction. The degree of protection offered under long-term loading conditions depends on the normal stress and the random orientation of the shredded tire chips at the geomembrane interface.

Reddy, K.R.; Saichek, R.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Materials Engineering

1998-12-01

428

Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

2000-02-29

429

Machining of uranium and uranium alloys  

SciTech Connect

Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

Morris, T.O.

1981-12-14

430

Recycling in a megacity.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of the 9/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and glass set aside by thoughtful New Yorkers was transported to materials recovery facilities (MRFs) and from there to landfills. Sending bales of plastics to landfills is not limited to New York City. It is an environmental paradox that the United States is digging up new oil fields in pristine areas and, at the same time, continues to convert greenfields to brownfields by burying nearly 20 million tons of plastic fuel annually. The study also determined that at the present rate of source separation, estimated to be less than 30% of the available recyclables in 1999, building large, modern MRFs may increase substantially the rate of New York City recycling and also allow single-stream collection of commingled recyclables, as is done in Phoenix, AZ. Single-stream collection simplifies separation at the source by citizens and increases the amount of collected recyclables. Also, because collection represents a large fraction of the costs of waste management, it may have a significant economic advantage. PMID:15115367

Themelis, Nickolas J; Todd, Claire E

2004-04-01

431

Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry ...

B. J. Jody E. J. Daniels P. V. Bonsignore E. L. Shoemaker

1992-01-01

432

URANIUM ALLOYS  

DOEpatents

Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

Seybolt, A.U.

1958-04-15

433

Criticality safety studies for low enrichment uranium lattices in water  

SciTech Connect

To calculate a nuclear criticality safety limit for a lattice of uranium pieces of uniform size and shape in water, an optimum lattice pitch search is typically performed to determine the pitch that will give the highest neutron multiplication factor and therefore ensure that a calculation of a nuclear criticality safety limit is conservative. When a safety limit for metal scarp of random size and shape is to be calculated, the size and shape of the metal that gives the highest neutron multiplication factor must also be determined. A criticality safety analysis for the shipment of low enriched uranium metal scrap is discussed in which an optimum triangular lattice pitch, metal size, and metal shape search were performed.

D'Aquila, D.M.

1988-01-01

434

Uranium industry annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01

435

Preheating and Cleaning of Scrap for Oxygen Steel Production with Synchronized Use of Converter Offgas. 1. Test Plant. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preheating of scrap for use in the allothermic KS process using excess converter offgas was the aim of the project. On the basis of the heating process that occurs directly in the scrap bucket, operating equipment and process posibilities for non-metallic...

H. G. Geck H. J. Selenz

1986-01-01

436

Recycling Opportunities for Neighbourhoods and Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses recycling paper, glass, plastics, and metals. It presents a community technology approach to recycling, and reviews present efforts in repair and renovation, reuse, and recycling. A final chapter on the appropriateness of recycling te...

C. Thomas

1981-01-01

437

PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

Galvanek, P. Jr.

1959-02-24

438

Development of a countywide recycling program for Polk County, Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

Designing a recycling program for a rural county presents many more challenges in terms of transportation of materials and funding sources. Rural counties and communities typically have much smaller budgets and resources to draw from. In order to create a program that could realistically be implemented and also have widespread support, it was decided to allow ample time for public involvement in the design process. A multi-faceted approach was adopted to facilitate participation by individuals involved in solid waste handling and the general public. The approach included the use of surveys, formation of an advisory committee, public meetings, presentations to civic groups, personal contacts, news releases, and a logo contest. The public involvement turned out to be invaluable. Throughout the year, many concepts and ideas were presented for feedback. Consequently, some aspects of the program were modified, some were scrapped altogether, and a few new ideas were added. Undoubtedly, the process of refinement will continue as the program moves into the implementation phase. The extensive public involvement has resulted in strong support for the countywide program from many sectors, including private haulers and recycling businesses, local officials and county board supervisors, civic groups, environmental groups, and the general public.

Not Available

1989-03-01

439

Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira (Miyazaki Medical College (Japan))

1994-01-01

440

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-11-01

441

Analysis of Long-Term Data on Uranium in Air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main function of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant uranium processing areas is to convert raw materials to rough shapes suitable for machining and finishing to an exact configuration. The Plant also recycles waste materials generated by the various manufacturi...

M. Sanders

1975-01-01

442

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of ; uranium is reported. In accordance with the method, the higher oxides of uranium ; may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UOâ), the latter converted into uranium ; tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UFâ converted to ; UFâ by reaction with a fluorinating agent, such

1957-01-01

443

Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reclamation and recycling of mercury from used mercury- containing products and treatment of byproduct mercury from gold mining is vital to the continued, though declining, use of this metal. Mercury is reclaimed from mercury-containing waste by treatment in multistep high-temperature retorts-the mercury is volatized and then condensed for purification and sale. Some mercury-containing waste, however, may be landfilled, and landfilled material represents loss of a recyclable resource and a threat to the environment. Related issues include mercury disposal and waste management, toxicity and human health, and regulation of mercury releases in the environment. End-users of mercury-containing products may face fines and prosecution if these products are improperly recycled or not recycled. Local and State environmental regulations require adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to regulate generation, treatment, and disposal of mercury-containing products. In the United States, several large companies and a number of smaller companies collect these products from a variety of sources and then reclaim and recycle the mercury. Because mercury has not been mined as a principal product in the United States since 1992, mercury reclamation from fabricated products has become the main source of mercury. Principal product mercury and byproduct mercury from mining operations are considered to be primary materials. Mercury may also be obtained as a byproduct from domestic or foreign gold-processing operations. In the early 1990s, U.S. manufacturers used an annual average that ranged from 500 to 600 metric tons of recycled and imported mercury for fabrication of automobile convenience switches, dental amalgam, fluorescent lamps, medical uses and thermometers, and thermostats. The amount now used for fabrication is estimated to be 200 metric tons per year or less. Much of the data on mercury is estimated because it is a low-volume commodity and its production, use, and disposal is difficult to track. The prices and volumes of each category of mercury-containing material may change dramatically from year to year. For example, the average price of mercury was approximately $150 per flask from 2000 until 2003 and then rose sharply to $650 per flask in fall 2004 and approximately $850 per flask in spring 2005. Since 1927, the common unit for measuring and pricing mercury has been the flask in order to conform to the system used at Almaden, Spain (Meyers, 1951). One flask weighs 34.5 kilograms, and 29 flasks of mercury are contained in a metric ton. In the United States, the chlorine-caustic soda industry, which is the leading end-user of elemental mercury, recycles most of its mercury in-plant as home scrap. Annual purchases of replacement mercury by the chlorine-caustic soda industry indicate that some mercury may be lost through evaporation to the environment, put into a landfill as industrial waste, or trapped within pipes in the plant. Impending closure of domestic and foreign mercury-cell chlorine-caustic soda plants and the shift to nonmercury technology for chlorine-caustic soda production could ultimately result in a significant volume of elemental mercury for recycling, sale, or storage. Globally, mercury is widely used in artisanal, or small-scale, gold mining. Most of that mercury is lost to the environment and is not recycled. The recycling rate for mercury was not available owing to insufficient data in 2000, and the efficiency of mercury recycling was estimated to be 62 percent.

Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

2005-01-01

444

Reciclagem de sucata de jóias para a recuperação hidrometalúrgica de prata Jewel scrap recycling for the silver hydrometallurgical recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muitos resíduos valiosos gerados na fabricação de jóias se perdem pela falta de conhecimento técnico para a recuperação dos metais preciosos utilizados na sua elaboração. Esse trabalho apresenta os resultados experimentais do uso de uma rota hidrometalúrgica, em escala de bancada laboratorial, para tratar amostras de sucatas de jóias à base de ouro (Au) com teores de prata (Ag) acima

Carol Elizabeth; Barrientos Rojas; Afonso Henriques Martins

2009-01-01

445

Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): A review  

SciTech Connect

Plastic solid waste (PSW) presents challenges and opportunities to societies regardless of their sustainability awareness and technological advances. In this paper, recent progress in the recycling and recovery of PSW is reviewed. A special emphasis is paid on waste generated from polyolefinic sources, which makes up a great percentage of our daily single-life cycle plastic products. The four routes of PSW treatment are detailed and discussed covering primary (re-extrusion), secondary (mechanical), tertiary (chemical) and quaternary (energy recovery) schemes and technologies. Primary recycling, which involves the re-introduction of clean scrap of single polymer to the extrusion cycle in order to produce products of the similar material, is commonly applied in the processing line itself but rarely applied among recyclers, as recycling materials rarely possess the required quality. The various waste products, consisting of either end-of-life or production (scrap) waste, are the feedstock of secondary techniques, thereby generally reduced in size to a more desirable shape and form, such as pellets, flakes or powders, depending on the source, shape and usability. Tertiary treatment schemes have contributed greatly to the recycling status of PSW in recent years. Advanced thermo-chemical treatment methods cover a wide range of technologies and produce either fuels or petrochemical feedstock. Nowadays, non-catalytic thermal cracking (thermolysis) is receiving renewed attention, due to the fact of added value on a crude oil barrel and its very valuable yielded products. But a fact remains that advanced thermo-chemical recycling of PSW (namely polyolefins) still lacks the proper design and kinetic background to target certain desired products and/or chemicals. Energy recovery was found to be an attainable solution to PSW in general and municipal solid waste (MSW) in particular. The amount of energy produced in kilns and reactors applied in this route is sufficiently investigated up to the point of operation, but not in terms of integration with either petrochemical or converting plants. Although primary and secondary recycling schemes are well established and widely applied, it is concluded that many of the PSW tertiary and quaternary treatment schemes appear to be robust and worthy of additional investigation.

Al-Salem, S.M. [Centre for CO-2 Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Process Engineering, University College London (UCL), Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.al-salem@ucl.ac.uk; Lettieri, P.; Baeyens, J. [Centre for CO-2 Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Process Engineering, University College London (UCL), Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

446

Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): a review.  

PubMed

Plastic solid waste (PSW) presents challenges and opportunities to societies regardless of their sustainability awareness and technological advances. In this paper, recent progress in the recycling and recovery of PSW is reviewed. A special emphasis is paid on waste generated from polyolefinic sources, which makes up a great percentage of our daily single-life cycle plastic products. The four routes of PSW treatment are detailed and discussed covering primary (re-extrusion), secondary (mechanical), tertiary (chemical) and quaternary (energy recovery) schemes and technologies. Primary recycling, which involves the re-introduction of clean scrap of single polymer to the extrusion cycle in order to produce products of the similar material, is commonly applied in the processing line itself but rarely applied among recyclers, as recycling materials rarely possess the required quality. The various waste products, consisting of either end-of-life or production (scrap) waste, are the feedstock of secondary techniques, thereby generally reduced in size to a more desirable shape and form, such as pellets, flakes or powders, depending on the source, shape and usability. Tertiary treatment schemes have contributed greatly to the recycling status of PSW in recent years. Advanced thermo-chemical treatment methods cover a wide range of technologies and produce either fuels or petrochemical feedstock. Nowadays, non-catalytic thermal cracking (thermolysis) is receiving renewed attention, due to the fact of added value on a crude oil barrel and its very valuable yielded products. But a fact remains that advanced thermo-chemical recycling of PSW (namely polyolefins) still lacks the proper design and kinetic background to target certain desired products and/or chemicals. Energy recovery was found to be an attainable solution to PSW in general and municipal solid waste (MSW) in particular. The amount of energy produced in kilns and reactors applied in this route is sufficiently investigated up to the point of operation, but not in terms of integration with either petrochemical or converting plants. Although primary and secondary recycling schemes are well established and widely applied, it is concluded that many of the PSW tertiary and quaternary treatment schemes appear to be robust and worthy of additional investigation. PMID:19577459

Al-Salem, S M; Lettieri, P; Baeyens, J

2009-07-03

447

Botswana's environmental policy on recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling operations have become one of the primary strategies for waste management, worldwide. Especially, recycling operations are viewed as among the most effective techniques for reducing the amount of municipal solid waste disposed at landfill sites. Botswana's environmental policy on recycling stipulates, among others, that all waste management authorities should provide information on the classification and quantities of controlled waste

C. Ketlogetswe; T. H. Mothudi

2005-01-01

448

Study on electronics recycling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discarding of electronics is a growing problem around the world. This paper first analyzes the possible limitations in current electronics recycling models and methods through the review of the literature, and this paper then presents a study of the complete electronics recycling process based on electronics features. The five main stages in the recycling process are described: collection, product

Weiwei Chen; Rui Kang; Diganta Das; Michael Pecht

2009-01-01

449

Recycling incineration: Evaluating the choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling

R. A. Denison; J. Ruston

1993-01-01

450

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Materials Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvio...

A. O. Tanner

1992-01-01

451

Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

2005-01-01

452

Public participation in plastics recycling schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without public contributions, recycling from domestic waste would not be possible. In order to support recycling projects it is important to try to understand who recycles, how they recycle, and why they recycle. This paper presents the results of a structured survey of 500 members of the public served by schemes to collect plastics waste for recycling. Data were gathered

Seonaidh McDonald; Rob Ball

1998-01-01

453

THE OPTIMAL LOCATION OF TWO RECYCLING CENTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose a municipality optimally locates two recycling\\/sorting centers to minimize the sum of the transportation costs from i) households to the recycling centers and ii) recycling centers to the landfill. Assume that all household waste is taken to a recycling center, sorted, and the non-recyclables are subsequently transported to the landfill. The landfill location and the proportion of waste recycled

Jannett Highfill; Michael McAsey; Libin Mou

454

Fuels from Recycling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)|

Tillman, David A.

1975-01-01

455

Recycling in a Megacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of the 9\\/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and

Nickolas J. Themelis; Claire E. Todd

2004-01-01

456

Recycling Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

Hallowell, Anne; And Others

457

Designing for recycling  

SciTech Connect

The instrument panel (IP) with its variety of materials is one of the most difficult parts of the automobile to recycle. Selection of materials to minimize material count and maximize separability is critical to cost-effective IP recycling. Choices of assembly and disassembly techniques also should consider recycling. Current practices for recycling automobiles focus on the recovery of usable parts and metals with other materials becoming landfill. New design practices or significant developments in recovery technology must occur to reduce the volume of landfill materials. Design practices will be most effective if they allow cost-effective recovery of desired materials from the plastic components before shredding. Recovery technology continues to improve, but most parts are shredded with the car and land-filled as automotive shredder residue (ASR). Shredding followed by mechanical separation conceptually is the most cost-effective option, but the typical instrument panel contains six or more plastic materials. This makes separation difficult and expensive to get acceptable material yields and purity.

NONE

1997-08-01

458

Computer Recycling Farm USA  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS conducted a study of plastic pollution at this rural US site in the Midwest.  The recycler was receiving computers from companies at a rate which greatly exceeded the capacity of the operation.  Approximately 50,000 computers remained outdoors on 15 acres for nearly a decade.  The site has sinc...

2010-08-13

459

Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boys and girls, grab your nose-plugs because today we are going to be digging through some garbage! We use a lot of garbage; the average American throws away nearly four pounds everyday. That\\'s a whopping 1,600 pounds a year! That means that every year, EACH one of you toss enough trash to equal the weight of all the students in our class...COMBINED! That\\'s a lot of garbage. Our world is big, but you might not have realized just how small it really is when it comes to holding all this trash. Would you want garbage in your backyard? Your playground? The park? There\\'s only so many places to store our waste. So, what do we do? We RECYCLE! What Does It Mean To Recycle? Recycling is taking things we use and would normally through into the trash can and putting them in a separate container. Instead of going to the dump, it goes to a recycling plant. Things like paper, newspaper, cardboard, plastic, glass, and aluminum are all products ...

Nicole

2008-11-19

460

DRAINAGE WATER RECYCLING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers in Ohio have developed a drainage water recycling approach that is called Wetland, Reservoir, SubIrrigation System, or WRSIS. This system directs surface runoff and subsurface drainage water to a constructed wetland where there is opportunity for some sediment and nutrient removal from t...

461

Recycling and Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky used recycled cypress from pickle vats to build its visitor center and then “paid back” nature by creating a cypress-tupelo swamp at one end of a lake on the park grounds.

Ket

2011-01-11

462

Recycled Insect Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

2007-01-01

463

WRAMS, sustainable water recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Reclamation and Management Scheme (WRAMS) at Sydney Olympic Park was built as part of the Olympic Games in 2000. The Scheme was designed to treat raw domestic sewage into recycled water which is then sold back to consumers. The main elements of WRAMS are a water reclamation plant, a water treatment plant, storm water collection, clean water storage

H. Chapman

2006-01-01

464

Measuring Recycling Guidance Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

PVC:  (Polyvinyl Chloride) Refers to the family of plastic copolymers, also known as vinyl. PVC is used to make products such as pipes, bottles, upholstery, and automotive parts. (U.S. EPA, 1995c)   From Measuring Recycling Guidance Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing "PVC"

2011-04-14

465

PREPARATION OF URANIUM MONOSULFIDE  

DOEpatents

A process is given for preparing uranium monosulfide from uranium tetrafluoride dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride. A hydrogen-hydrogen sulfide gas mixture passed through the solution precipitates uranium monosulfide. (AEC)

Yoshioka, K.

1964-01-28

466

Leaching studies for tin recovery from waste e-scrap  

SciTech Connect

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of developing Indo-Korean recycling technique consists of organic swelling pre-treatment technique for the liberation of thin layer of metallic sheet and the treatment of epoxy resin to remove/recover toxic soldering material. To optimize the parameters required for recovery of tin from waste PCBs, initially the bench scale studies were carried out using fresh solder (containing 52.6% Sn and 47.3% Pb) varying the acid concentration, temperature, mixing time and pulp density. The experimental data indicate that 95.79% of tin was leached out from solder material using 5.5 M HCl at fixed pulp density 50 g/L and temperature 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 165 min. Kinetic studies followed the chemical reaction controlled dense constant size cylindrical particles with activation energy of 117.68 kJ/mol. However, 97.79% of tin was found to be leached out from solder materials of liberated swelled epoxy resin using 4.5 M HCl at 90 Degree-Sign C, mixing time 60 min and pulp density 50 g/L. From the leach liquor of solder materials of epoxy resin, the precipitate of sodium stannate as value added product was obtained at pH 1.9. The Pb from the leach residue was removed by using 0.1 M nitric acid at 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 45 min and pulp density 10 g/L. The metal free epoxy resin could be disposed-of safely/used as filling material without affecting the environment.

Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: maniskrjha@gmail.com [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Choubey, Pankaj Kumar; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumari, Archana [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Lee, Jae-chun, E-mail: jclee@kigam.re.kr [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Vinay [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Jeong, Jinki [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

467

Recycling of early continents: the story from lead isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When plate tectonics, the formation and recycling of plates into the mantle, began on Earth is still an unresolved question. Modern-style steep subduction is well known, but how to track the initiation of the plate tectonics? One approach is to study the radiogenic lead isotope composition of the mantle, which can be done indirectly by determining isotope compositions of mantle-derived rocks. Uranium decays to lead, the isotopes of which are especially sensitive indicators of crustal contribution. Compared with the mantle, U-rich upper crust produces more and U-depleted lower crust less radiogenic lead. Within time, distinctive crustal isotope signatures are developed. Recycling of isotopically different lead affects the isotope signature of the mantle, and may be inherited into mantle-derived rocks. A time-fixed common lead model tested with 700 analyses of 2.7 ± 0.1 Ga granitoids from different Archean cratons shows that the lead isotope compositions of mantle-derived granitoids are in accordance with the age frame of their surrounding blocks. For example, the most radiogenic compositions are found in the Slave Province that includes the 4.0 Ga Acasta gneisses. The differences in Pb isotope compositions can be explained by sediment recycling at different-aged continetal margins. Recycling of crustal Pb through subduction-related processes gave rise to more radiogenic Pb isotope compositions in the mantle wedge. The inherited lead isotope signatures in these granitoids tell the story of crustal evolution. Increasingly radiogenic mantle sources may have generated by crustal recycling during accretion of island arcs and protocontinents into young (<3.2 Ga) continental margins. The extreme high- and low-radiogenic sources can be explained by recycling at old (>3.2 Ga) continental margins encompassing fragments of Early Archean protocrust. Crustal lead isotope signatures in the ca. 2.7 Ga mantle-derived granitoids indicate that plate tectonic processes involving crustal recycling into the mantle operated in the Neoarchean.

Halla, Jaana

2010-05-01

468

A new paradigm: near-complete recycling of spent fuel - A path to sustainable nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that maximized recycling, where more than 95% of the components of spent nuclear fuel are reused, can be economically justified and can reduce the mass of waste products by a substantial amount. The potentially removable and reusable components include the uranium, zirconium from the cladding, structural hardware, certain noble metal fission products, and the transuranic radionuclides. The

Guillermo D. Del Cul; Barry B. Spencer; Emory D. Collins

2007-01-01

469

Study of the radiotoxicity of actinides recycling in boiling water reactors fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the production and destruction, as well as the radiotoxicity of plutonium and minor actinides (MA) obtained from the multi-recycling of boiling water reactors (BWR) fuel are analyzed. A BWR MOX fuel assembly, with uranium (from enrichment tails), plutonium and minor actinides is designed and studied using the HELIOS code. The actinides mass and the radiotoxicity of the

J. L. François; J. R. Guzmán; C. Martín-del-Campo

2009-01-01

470

BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

FRANCIS,A.J.

1998-09-17

471

Uranium industry annual, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Uranium industry data collected in the EIA-858 survey provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of annual activities of the industry and include some information about industry plans over the next several years. This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities utility market requirements and related topics.

Not Available

1987-10-09

472