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1

Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and

McKoon

1993-01-01

2

Scrap tire recycling  

SciTech Connect

As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

1997-03-01

3

Issues in recycling galvanized scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The

P. J. Koros; D. A. Hellickson; F. J. Dudek

1995-01-01

4

Issues in recycling galvanized scrap  

SciTech Connect

The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-02-10

5

Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

Not Available

1989-10-01

6

Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan.  

PubMed

It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained (i.e., phosphor coatings of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), batteries, polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, mercury-containing parts, liquid crystal display, high-lead content CRT funnel glass, and plastic containing flame-retardant bromine, etc.) in the scrap computers may seriously pollute the environment if they are not properly disposed of. Therefore, the EPA of Taiwan declared scrap personal computers the producer's recycling responsibility as of July 1997. Under this decree, the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to properly recover and recycle the scrapped computers which they originally sell. On June 1, 1998, a producer responsibility recycling program for scrap computers was officially implemented in Taiwan. Under this program, consumers can bring their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points and receive reward money. Currently, only six computer items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling program. They are notebooks, monitors, hard disks, power supplies, printed circuit boards and main frame shells. This article outlines the current scrap computer recycling system in Taiwan. PMID:10751692

Lee, C H; Chang, S L; Wang, K M; Wen, L C

2000-04-28

7

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

1992-01-01

8

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

1992-08-01

9

Recycling zinc by dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the increased cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The designed ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana has designed in a continuous process mode 900 tonnes of loose stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.1% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews pilot plant performance and the economics of recycling galvanized steel and recovering zinc using a caustic process.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1995-06-01

10

High Value Scrap Tire Recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

Bauman

2003-01-01

11

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

12

Chemical recycling of scrap composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

1994-01-01

13

Upgrading nonferrous metal scrap for recycling purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reusing materials in the post-consumer phase of a product is very important; however, it is often difficult to separate the metals, resulting in a scrap that is high in impurities and limited in application. To prevent the mixing of scrap, separation at the source is required. Recently, several techniques for separating nonferrous metals have become available, including eddy-current separation to separate nonferrous metals from a mixture of waste, fluid-bed separation to separate light and heavy metals, and image analysis to separate cast and wrought alloys.

Nijhof, Gerrit H.; Rem, Peter C.

1999-08-01

14

Innovative technologies for recycling contaminated concrete and scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and decommissioning of US DOE`s surplus facilities will generate enormous quantities of concrete and scrap metal. A solicitation was issued, seeking innovative technologies for recycling and reusing these materials. Eight proposals were selected for award. If successfully developed, these technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019.

Bossart, S.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Moore, J. [USDOE Oak Ridge Operations Office, TN (United States)

1993-09-01

15

Investigating the recycling of nickel hydride battery scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New nickel hydride alloys have been developed to replace the cadmium-containing negative electrodes of nickel-cadmium batteries. The new, cadmium free alloys promise enhanced electrochemical properties as well as reduced environmental toxicity. Rechargeable batteries using nickel hydride electrodes are strong candidates for electric vehicle applications. The U.S. Bureau of Mines is investigating hydrometallurgical technology that separates and recovers purified metallic components present in nickel hydride battery scrap. A preliminary investigation of acid dissolution and metal recovery techniques using whole batteries and electrode rolls has shown potential options that will allow the successful recycling of much of the battery fabrication scrap.

Lyman, Jane W.; Palmer, Glenn R.

1993-05-01

16

UTILIZATION OF SCRAP PREPREG WASTES AS A REINFORCEMENT IN A WHOLLY RECYCLED PLASTIC - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Foster-Miller proposes to utilize scrap prepreg waste as a reinforcement in recycled polyethylene. By reinforcing recycled plastics such as polyethylene with scrap prepreg and suitable binders, an economical useful product can be obtained. At the same time, this innovation ...

17

The recycling of standard quality wrought aluminum alloys from low-grade contaminated scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades an increasingly large fraction of the worlds wrought aluminum alloys supply has come from the aluminum scrap recovered from industrial waste and discarded post-consumer items. However, replacing even a minor part of primary aluminum in wrought alloys with recycled counterpart originated from lower grades of scrap (typically scrap contaminated with various non-metallic impurities) without influencing the quality of the allay is very demanding from a metallurgical point of view. This article discusses the two approaches for achieving the requested chemical composition of wrought alloys made from recycled aluminum: (i) before melting, by combining the appropriate qualities and quantities of scrap, primary aluminum, and the alloying elements and (ii) during melting, by diluting impurity content with primary aluminum to the needed level and adding, at the same time, the necessary amount of alloying elements for achieving their standard concentration in diluted melts.

Kevorkjjan, Varuan

2010-08-01

18

Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to reduce the required levels of product tax and subsidy. With such initial breakthroughs at hand to handle the complexity of scrap tire recycling technologies, there remains unique management and policy avenues left to explore if a multi-dimensional solution is to be successful in the long run. PMID:17276578

Chang, Ni-Bin

2008-02-01

19

Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

1993-11-01

20

Recycling of metal scrapsa positive concept leading to augmentation of reserve base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling gives the industry a means to create treasure out of trash. Recycling of used metals in the form of scrap or secondary\\u000a articles has assumed significance, especially in developing countries like India where reprocessing to recover metal is needed\\u000a to meet the raw material deficit as well as conservation of minerals. For India, where labour is cheap, the metal

Pradeep Kumar Jain

21

The Study for Recycling NORM - Contaminated Steel Scraps from Steel Industry  

SciTech Connect

Since 1994, most of the major steel industries in Taiwan have installed portal monitor to detect the abnormal radiation in metal scrap feed. As a result, the discovery of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has increased in recent years. In order to save the natural resources and promote radiation protection, an experimental melting process for the NORM contaminated steel scraps was carried out by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Taiwan, ROC. The experimental melting process has a pretreatment step that includes a series of cutting and removal of scales, sludge, as well as combustible and volatile materials on/in the steel scraps. After pretreatment the surface of the steel scraps are relatively clean. Then the scraps are melted by a pilot-type induction furnace. This experiment finally produced seven ingots with a total weight of 2,849 kg and 96.8% recovery. All of the surface dose rates are of the background values. The activity concentrations of these ingots are also below the regulatory criteria. Thus, these NORM-bearing steel scraps are ready for recycling. This study has been granted by the regulatory authority.

Tsai, K. F.; Lee, Y. S.; Chao, H. E.

2003-02-24

22

Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap  

SciTech Connect

Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

Adam C. Powell, IV

2012-07-19

23

Direct recycling of 1050 aluminum alloy scrap material mixed with 6060 aluminum alloy chips by hot extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method for the direct recycling of aluminum scrap by hot extrusion is investigated. 1050 aluminum alloy material\\u000a in the form of pins remained as scrap after a lateral extrusion process and was mixed with 6060 aluminum alloy chips resulting\\u000a from a turning operation. Contrary to the conventional method of re-melting aluminum scrap to produce secondary aluminum,

V. Gley; N. Ben Khalifa; A. E. Tekkaya

2010-01-01

24

Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: a worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation.  

PubMed

Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles. PMID:22552043

de Oliveira, Camila Reis; Bernardes, Andra Moura; Gerbase, Annelise Engel

2012-08-01

25

Toxicity tests of soil contaminated by recycling of scrap plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation studied the toxicity of soil contaminated by untreated discharge from a factory that recycles used plastics. The nearby agricultural areas and freshwater fish ponds were polluted with high concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn. Water extracts from the contaminated soil retarded root growth of Brassica chinensis (Chinese white cabbage) and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) where their seeds

M. H. Wong; V. W. Chui

1990-01-01

26

Cryogenic grinding: an efficient method for recycling scrap rubber  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic grinding represents an opportunity for expanding recycling capabilities to a broad range of compounds. Many materials that can be reduced to a powder by conventional coarse grinding can be reduced more efficiently by using a super-cold agent such as liquid nitrogen at -320/sup 0/F to embrittle plastic or rubber polymers before grinding. In addition, cryogenic grinding makes possible the size reduction of many materials that cannot be ground by conventional ambient grinding methods. Some experiences of cryogenic grinding in practice at United Tire and Rubber company, Limited, headquartered in Rexdale, Ontario, are noted. A schematic of such a system is shown.

Not Available

1980-06-01

27

Recycling of aluminium scrap for secondary Al-Si alloys.  

PubMed

An increasing amount of recycled aluminium is going into the production of aluminium alloy used for automotive applications. In these applications, it is necessary to control and remove alloy impurities and inclusions. Cleaning and fluxing processes are widely used during processing of the alloys for removal of inclusions, hydrogen and excess of magnesium. These processes use salt fluxes based in the system NaCl-KCl, injection of chlorine or mixture of chlorine with an inert gas. The new systems include a graphite wand and a circulation device to force convection in the melt and permit the bubbling and dispersion of reactive and cleaning agents. This paper discusses the recycling of aluminium alloys in rotary and reverberatory industrial furnaces. It focuses on the removal of magnesium during the melting process. In rotary furnaces, the magnesium lost is mainly due to the oxidation process at high temperatures. The magnesium removal is carried out by the reaction between chlorine and magnesium, with its efficiency associated to kinetic factors such as concentration of magnesium, mixing, and temperature. These factors are also related to emissions generated during the demagging process. Improvements in the metallic yield can be reached in rotary furnaces if the process starts with a proper salt, with limits of addition, and avoiding long holding times. To improve throughput in reverberatories, start the charging with high magnesium content material and inject chlorine gas if the molten metal is at the right temperature. Removal of magnesium through modern technologies can be efficiently performed to prevent environmental problems. PMID:20837560

Velasco, Eulogio; Nino, Jose

2011-07-01

28

Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: A worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of the different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the e-waste collection systems used in Europe and in the US. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present e-waste collection systems used in Asia and Latin America. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E-waste management between developed and developing countries is very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We made a comparison of the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. - Abstract: Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.

Reis de Oliveira, Camila, E-mail: Camilareis.oliveira@hotmail.com [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Moura Bernardes, Andrea, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGE3M) and Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gerbase, Annelise Engel, E-mail: agerbase@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2012-08-15

29

An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius.  

PubMed

This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined. PMID:24433820

Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

2014-10-01

30

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

31

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-04

32

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC`s

T. R. Muth; J. Moore; D. Olson; B. Mishra

1994-01-01

33

Physical upgrading of scrap from Ni-Cd batteries. A first step toward an integrated metal-recycling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the initial stages of an integrated, metal-recycling process for Ni-Cd batteries (potable, sealed type), that is with the dismantling of spent cells and the physical processing of their resulting scrap. The experiments herein are focused on the performance of a customised shredder and granulometric analysis as to the ability of optimising the waste stream prior to

L. I. C. Barros; C. Guimaraes; F. Margarido; A. M. G. Pacheco

1999-01-01

34

A model for recovery of scrap monolithic uranium molybdenum fuel by electrorefining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program (RERTR) is toreduce enrichment at research and test reactors, thereby decreasing proliferation risk at these facilities. A new fuel to accomplish this goal is being manufactured experimentally at the Y12 National Security Complex. This new fuel will require its own waste management procedure,namely for the recovery of scrap from its manufacture. The new fuel is a monolithic uraniummolybdenum alloy clad in zirconium. Feasibility tests were conducted in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner using scrap U-8Mo fuel alloy. These tests proved that a uranium product could be recovered free of molybdenum from this scrap fuel by electrorefining. Tests were also conducted using U-10Mo Zr clad fuel, which confirmed that product could be recovered from a clad version of this scrap fuel at an engineering scale, though analytical results are pending for the behavior of Zr in the electrorefiner. A model was constructed for the simulation of electrorefining the scrap material produced in the manufacture of this fuel. The model was implemented on two platforms, Microsoft Excel and MatLab. Correlations, used in the model, were developed experimentally, describing area specific resistance behavior at each electrode. Experiments validating the model were conducted using scrap of U-10Mo Zr clad fuel in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner. The results of model simulations on both platforms were compared to experimental results for the same fuel, salt and electrorefiner compositions and dimensions for two trials. In general, the model demonstrated behavior similar to experimental data but additional refinements are needed to improve its accuracy. These refinements consist of a function for surface area at anode and cathode based on charge passed. Several approximations were made in the model concerning areas of electrodes which should be replaced by a more accurate function describing these areas.

Van Kleeck, Melissa A.

35

Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

Lindberg, M.

2002-02-26

36

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 2. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume II contains: Task 1.4, optimization of the vitreous phase for stabilization of radioactive species; Task 1.5, experimental testing of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes; and Task 1.6, conceptual design of a CEP facility.

NONE

1996-07-01

37

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

NONE

1996-07-01

38

Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. The initial effort has focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The notable non-actinide impurities were silicon and phosphorus, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. Among actinide impurities, uranium is of paramount concern because {sup 234}U is the daughter of {sup 2238}Pu by alpha decay, and is the largest actinide impurity. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} was first dissolved in refluxing HNO{sub 3}/HF and then the solution was filtered. The dissolved {sup 238}Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel in a glovebox environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in {sup 238}Pu values.

Schulte, L.D.; Silver, G.L.; Avens, L.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Espinoza, J.; Foltyn, E.M.; Rinehart, G.H.

1996-12-31

39

Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: Full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.  

PubMed

Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole. PMID:25241019

Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

2014-12-01

40

Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel by HNO{sub 3}/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. A sufficient quantity of purified {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments allowing more time for neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 to precipitate resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel.

Schulte, L.D.; Espinoza, J.M.; Ramsey, K.B.; Rinehart, G.H.; Silver, G.L.; Purdy, G.M.; Jarvinen, G.D.

1997-11-01

41

Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. 234U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of 238Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the 238PuO2 fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure 238PuO2 was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO3/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved 238Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the 238PuO2 recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in 238Pu values.

Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

1997-01-01

42

UTILIZATION OF SCRAP PREPREG WASTES AS A REINFORCEMENT IN A WHOLLY RECYCLED PLASTIC - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Foster-Miller is proposing to combine Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) commingled plastics with a high performance reinforcement (scrap prepreg) to form a durable and cost competitive wood substitute with superior moisture, rodent and insect resistance. This proposed technology ...

43

Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report  

SciTech Connect

The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Metal Recycle; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1994-08-01

44

Scrap Tires: Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... up from 17% in 1990. These markets?both recycling and beneficial use?continue to grow. The remaining ... Disposal Even with all of the reuse and recycling efforts, almost one quarter of scrap tires end ...

45

Purification of waste uranium for recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two separate efforts being conducted at Ames Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to apply existing metal refining techniques to the purification of U scrap. ORNL is examining pyrometallurgical methods for the purification of hottops'' from the Vacuum Arc Remelt (VAR) operation. The initial effort was to determine promising approaches by examining the literature. This was

T. A. Lograsso; D. W. Delaney; G. W. Parker; J. C. Mailen

1992-01-01

46

Purification of waste uranium for recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two separate efforts being conducted at Ames Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to apply existing metal refining techniques to the purification of U scrap. ORNL is examining pyrometallurgical methods for the purification of ``hottops`` from the Vacuum Arc Remelt (VAR) operation. The initial effort was to determine promising approaches by examining the literature. This was

T. A. Lograsso; D. W. Delaney; G. W. Parker; J. C. Mailen

1992-01-01

47

Purification of waste uranium for recycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes two separate efforts being conducted at Ames Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to apply existing metal refining techniques to the purification of U scrap. ORNL is examining pyrometallurgical methods for the purification of hottops'' from the Vacuum Arc Remelt (VAR) operation. The initial effort was to determine promising approaches by examining the literature. This was followed by the development of a preliminary flowsheet and the design of equipment to test the flowsheet. Small-scale equipment was then constructed and evaluated, modifications were made, and an initial test of the flowsheet was conducted. It is expected that the methods developed in these small-scale tests, if promising, will be further developed for use at Y-12 for production scale purification of U-Nb scrap.

Lograsso, T.A.; Delaney, D.W. (Ames Lab., IA (United States)); Parker, G.W.; Mailen, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-01-01

48

Optimization of a microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment using recycled scrap metals as a cost-effective cathode material.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment is still hindered by the prohibitive cost of cathode material, especially when platinum is used to catalyze oxygen reduction. In this study, recycled scrap metals could be used efficiently as cathode material in a specially-designed MFC. In terms of raw power, the scrap metals ranked as follows: W/Co > Cu/Ni > Inconel 718 > carpenter alloy; however, in terms of cost and long term stability, Inconel 718 was the preferred choice. Treatment performance--assessed on real and synthetic wastewater--was considerably improved either by filling the anode compartment with carbon granules or by operating the MFC in full-loop mode. The latter option allowed reaching 99.7% acetate removal while generating a maximum power of 36 W m(-3) at an acetate concentration of 2535 mg L(-1). Under these conditions, the energy produced by the system averaged 0.1 kWh m(-3) of wastewater treated. PMID:23138054

Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Shen, Yujia; Ng, How Y

2013-01-01

49

Scrap tires  

SciTech Connect

Scrap tires, one small part of the country's massive solid waste problem, are causing a disproportional headache. A city the size of Newark, N.J., for example, can pay up to $700,000 a year just to bury its waste tires, assuming it can find landfills to accept them. Many landfills no longer do, and in some areas, it is actually illegal. So stockpiles of scrap tires mount up and illegal dumping runs rampant. Scrap tires represent less than 1 percent of the nation's total solid waste. While we generate approximately a ton of solid waste per year per person, or 250,000,000 tons, we generate only one 20-pound tire per person, or 2,500,000 tons. Despite this small percentage, these tires present a special disposal/reuse challenge because of their size, shape, and physicochemical nature. Classified as a special waste, they are not generally collected with household waste by municipal authorities. Notwithstanding the unique disposal/reuse challenges of scrap tires, it must be stressed that a tire is essentially a petrochemical product than can be reused, can be a source of recoverable petrochemicals, or can be used as a fuel with a higher Btu value than coal. Thus what appears as a waste disposal challenge is also a resource recovery opportunity. Unfortunately, at present, only 30 percent of the country's scrap tires are being reclaimed or recycled. In terms of options, there are three viable areas in which to approach the waste tire problem: whole tire applications; physically processed tire applications; and physicochemical processes.

Not Available

1988-12-01

50

Structural insulated panels produced from recycled Expanded-Polystrene (EPS) foam scrap. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a research project undertaken to assess the feasibility of using scrap reground expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the manufacture of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in order to save material costs and reduce the amount of EPS waste products to be disposed. The project team, managed by Steven Winter Associates, Inc., a Norwalk, Connecticut-based building systems research and consulting firm included: Thermal Foams, Inc., a Buffalo-based manufacturer of EPS products; BASF Corp., the world`s largest producer of EPS beads; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which performed thermal tests (ASTM C-518); RADCO, Inc. which performed material properties tests: density (ASTM C-303), flexural strength (ASTM C-203), tensile strength (ASTM D-1623), and transverse load test of SIPs panels (ASTM E-72). The report documents the manufacturing and testing process and concludes that there was relatively little difference in the thermal and structural characteristics under normal loading conditions of the panels tested with varying amount of regrind (from 10% - 25%) and those made with 100% virgin beads. The report recommends that additional tests be undertaken, but suggests that, based on the test results, reground EPS can be successfully used in the cores of SIPs in amounts up to 25%.

Grinnell, A.

1996-11-01

51

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, comprehensive executive summary. Final report, September 30, 1993--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

R&D activities have demonstrated Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to be a robust, one-step process process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. The feed size and composition compatible with CEP have been increased in a short period of time, and additional R&D should lead to the ability to accept a drum (and larger?) size feed of completely uncharacterized waste. Experiments have validated the CPU (Catalytic Processing Unit). Two commercial facilities have been commissioned and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. Expansion of CEP to transuranic and high level wastes should be the next step in the development and deployment of CEP for recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities.

NONE

1997-06-01

52

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

DOEpatents

Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

1995-08-01

53

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

DOEpatents

A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

1995-08-01

54

Evolution of isotopic composition of reprocessed uranium during the multiple recycling in light water reactors with natural uranium feed  

SciTech Connect

A complex approach based on the consistent modeling of neutron-physics processes and processes of cascade separation of isotopes is applied for analyzing physical problems of the multiple usage of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle of light water reactors. A number of scenarios of multiple recycling of reprocessed uranium in light water reactors are considered. In the process, an excess absorption of neutrons by the {sup 236}U isotope is compensated by re-enrichment in the {sup 235}U isotope. Specific consumptions of natural uranium for re-enrichment of the reprocessed uranium depending on the content of the {sup 232}U isotope are obtained.

Smirnov, A. Yu., E-mail: a.y.smirnoff@rambler.ru; Sulaberidze, G. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P. N.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A., E-mail: neva@dhtp.kiae.ru; Proselkov, V. N.; Chibinyaev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15

55

Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel based on reprocessed uranium and plutonium mixture in thermal reactors  

SciTech Connect

REMIX fuel consumption in WWER-1000 is considered. REMIX fuel is fabricated from non-separated mixture of uranium and plutonium obtained during NPP spent fuel reprocessing with further makeup by enriched natural uranium. It makes possible to recycle several times the total amount of uranium and plutonium obtained from spent fuel with 100% loading of the WWER-1000 core. The stored SNF could be also involved in REMIX fuel cycle by enrichment of regenerated uranium. The same approach could be applied to closing the fuel cycle of CANDU reactors. (authors)

Fedorov, Y.S.; Bibichev, B.A.; Zilberman, B.Y. [RPA - V.G.Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Baryshnikov, M.V.; Kryukov, O.V.; Khaperskaya, A.V. [State Corporation ROSATOM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

56

Scrap tire utilization via surface modification  

SciTech Connect

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach to reusing scrap tire rubber, which will be described in this presentation. In addition to consuming scrap tires, this technology represents a new approach to material engineering. Furthermore, this method of rubber recycle is most efficient in terms of energy recovery. 4 figs.

Bauman, B.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (USA))

1990-01-01

57

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be learning all about recycling and asking questions as you learn more about recycling. Afterward, you will be making recycling bins that we will use in our classroom. Click on each of the different links and research about recycling. Find out what recycling is, what can be recycled, and why we should recycle. As you find information, add it to the "describing wheel" that is given to you by Ms. Pollak. Answer the main question: What is recycling? Come ...

sgp0002

2010-03-27

58

Scrap tire management in the mid south region  

SciTech Connect

The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

Blumenthal, M. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-08-01

59

Ecological vulnerability: seasonal and spatial assessment of trace metals in soils and plants in the vicinity of a scrap metal recycling factory in Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The concentrations of selected heavy metals in the soil and vegetation in the immediate vicinity of a metal scrap recycling factory were determined in the dry and wet seasons using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that the soil pH in all the sites indicated slight acidity (from 5.07 to 6.13), high soil organic matter content (from 2.08 to 5.60 %), and a well-drained soil of sandy loam textural composition. Soil heavy metal content in the dry season were 0.84-3.12 mg/kg for Pb, 0.26-0.46 mg/kg for Cd, 9.19-24.70 mg/kg for Zn, and 1.46-1.97 mg/kg for Cu. These values were higher than those in the wet season which ranged from 0.62-0.69 mg/kg for Pb, 0.67-0.78 mg/kg for Cd, 0.84-1.00 mg/kg for Zn, and 1.26-1.45 mg/kg for Cu. Except for cadmium in the dry season, the highest concentrations occurred in the northern side of the factory for all the elements in both seasons. An increase in the concentrations of the elements up to 350 m in most directions was also observed. There was no specific pattern in the level of the metals in the leaves of the plant used for the study. However, slightly elevated values were observed in the wet season (Pb 0.53 mg/kg, Cd 0.59 mg/kg, Cu 0.88 mg/kg) compared with the dry season values (Pb 0.50 mg/kg, Cd 0.57 mg/kg, Cu 0.83 mg/kg). This study showed that the elevated concentrations of these metals might be associated with the activities from the recycling plant, providing the basis for heavy metal pollution monitoring and control of this locality that is primarily used for agricultural purposes. PMID:25034233

Owoade, O K; Awotoye, O O; Salami, O O

2014-10-01

60

WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

1993-12-01

61

Recycle process for depleted-uranium machining chips by vacuum-induction remelt. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the effort described in this report was to develop a method by which oxidized machining chips of depleted uranium, DU-3\\/4 titanium, generated in the production of large caliber penetrators, could be recycled as part of the charge in melting and casting of the alloy. The melting of this material was carried out by means of vacuum-induction techniques.

C. E. Latham-Brown; D. Vanderkooi

1987-01-01

62

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can be recycled? 1. Click on link. Watch video. Recycle Guy Video 2. Click on link. Watch video. Talking Trash Video 3. Click on link. Watch video. Recycling At School Video 4. Click on link. Play game. Star Fall Recycling Game 5. Click on link. Play game. National Geographic Recycling Game 6. Click on link. Ask Ms. Owens how to do it. Things We Recycle Chart 7. Please see Miss Owens for instructions on the following ...

2011-04-07

63

Contaminated nickel scrap processing  

SciTech Connect

The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

1994-12-01

64

PWR core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for thorium-uranium breeding recycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper was focused on core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle in current PWRs, without any major change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. The fuel cycle analysis indicates that Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle is technically feasible in current PWRs. A 4-loop, 193-assembly PWR core utilizing 17 x 17 fuel assemblies (FAs) was taken as the model core. Two mixed cores were investigated respectively loaded with mixed reactor grade Plutonium-Thorium (PuThOX) FAs and mixed reactor grade {sup 233}U-Thorium (U{sub 3}ThOX) FAs on the basis of reference full Uranium oxide (UOX) equilibrium-cycle core. The UOX/PuThOX mixed core consists of 121 UOX FAs and 72 PuThOX FAs. The reactor grade {sup 233}U extracted from burnt PuThOX fuel was used to fabrication of U{sub 3}ThOX for starting Thorium-. Uranium breeding recycle. In UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core, the well designed U{sub 3}ThOX FAs with 1.94 w/o fissile uranium (mainly {sup 233}U) were located on the periphery of core as a blanket region. U{sub 3}ThOX FAs remained in-core for 6 cycles with the discharged burnup achieving 28 GWD/tHM. Compared with initially loading, the fissile material inventory in U{sub 3}ThOX fuel has increased by 7% via 1-year cooling after discharge. 157 UOX fuel assemblies were located in the inner of UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core refueling with 64 FAs at each cycle. The designed UOX/PuThOX and UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core satisfied related nuclear design criteria. The full core performance analyses have shown that mixed core with PuThOX loading has similar impacts as MOX on several neutronic characteristic parameters, such as reduced differential boron worth, higher critical boron concentration, more negative moderator temperature coefficient, reduced control rod worth, reduced shutdown margin, etc.; while mixed core with U{sub 3}ThOX loading on the periphery of core has no visible impacts on neutronic characteristics compared with reference full UOX core. The fuel cycle analysis has shown that {sup 233}U mono-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel could save 13% of natural uranium resource compared with UOX once through fuel cycle, slightly more than that of Plutonium single-recycling with MOX fuel. If {sup 233}U multi-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel is implemented, more natural uranium resource would be saved. (authors)

Bi, G.; Liu, C.; Si, S. [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Inst., No. 29, Hongcao Road, Shanghai, 200233 (China)

2012-07-01

65

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals  

SciTech Connect

Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC`s vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC`s rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines.

Muth, T.R. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, J.; Olson, D.; Mishra, B. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

66

Uranium Recycle by Ion Exchange and Calcination - Summary of Design Development and Equipment Design  

SciTech Connect

Technical information for the process of recovery of uranium from uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solutions that was developed as part of the Onsite Uranium Recycle (OSUR) project conducted at the Savannah River Site in the 1980's is summarized. The process involves an ion-exchange process to load the uranyl species from solution onto a cation resin that is subsequently dried using a microwave oven, and then calcined using a rotary calciner to produce U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. The information in this report was compiled to support critical decisions for new facilities and processes at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The information includes a detailed description of the process and process equipment that were developed for the OSUR project including the technical bases for the materials selection and process conditions. Additional process considerations and recommendations to for a new-design facility are also provided.

Hathcock, D.J.; A.J. Duncan

2005-10-31

67

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent.

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-01-01

68

Aqueous processing of U-10Mo scrap for high performance research reactor fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion program, which is part of the US government's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), supports the conversion of civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel and targets. The reason for conversion is to eliminate the use of any material that may pose a threat to the United States or other foreign countries. High performance research reactors (HPRRs) cannot make the conversion to a standard LEU fuel because they require a more dense fuel to meet their performance requirements. As a result, a more dense fuel consisting of a monolithic uranium-molybdenum alloy containing 10% (w/w) Mo with Al cladding and a Zr bonding-layer is being considered. Significant losses are expected in the fabrication of this fuel, so a means to recycle the scrap pieces is needed. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an aqueous-processing flowsheet for scrap recovery in the fuel fabrication process for high-density LEU-monolithic fuel based on data found in the literature. Experiments have been performed to investigate dissolution conditions for solutions containing approximately 20 g-U/L and 50 g-U/L with and without Fe(NO3)3. HNO3 and HF concentrations have been optimized for timely dissolution of the fuel scrap and prevention of the formation of the U-Zr2 intermetallic, explosive complex, while meeting the requirements needed for further processing.

Youker, Amanda J.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Maggos, Laura E.; Bakel, Allen J.; Vandegrift, George F.

2012-08-01

69

Recycling polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the PolyUrethane Recycle and Recovery Council`s continuing evaluation of the technical and commercial viability of polyurethane recovery and recycling technologies. In North America, 240,000 tonnes of post-industrial and 16,000 tonnes of post-consumer polyurethane foam was recycled into carpet rebound underlay and other applications in 1993. Demand was so great in North America that 60,000 t of primarily post-industrial scarp was imported from Europe and the Far East. Polyurethane from the seats of the 9 million vehicles scrapped each year could yield 82,000 t of flexible post-consumer foam scrap: instrument and door panels could yield another 10,000 t of semi-flexible scrap.

NONE

1995-08-01

70

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

71

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

72

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s learn how to reduce, reuse and recycle waste! BUILDING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RECYCLING 1. Learn the abc\\'s of recycling found here A is for Air. Be sure to click on each letter of the alphabet and read what it stands for. 2. Read the Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin in this Comic Book. 3. Steel is used to build cars, household appliances and cans. Read ...

Miss Sykes

2005-10-20

73

Comparative life cycle assessment of beneficial applications for scrap tires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle assessment is used to determine the most environmentally beneficial alternatives for reuse of scrap tires, based\\u000a on the concept of industrial ecology. Unutilized scrap tires can be a major source of pollution, and in the past decade Federal\\u000a and state governments in the United States have encouraged the recycling and reuse of scrap tires in a number of

Joseph FikselBhavik; Bhavik R. Bakshi; Anil Baral; Erika Guerra; Bernhard DeQuervain

2011-01-01

74

75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...The West Coast Recycling Group (WCRG...operate a scrap metal shredding and recycling facility. The...being used as a concrete recycling facility. The...industrial land and a heavy equipment storage...include scrap metal sorting and...

2010-11-02

75

Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational efficiency. In conducting the study, various elements were implemented. These included sampling and sorting representative samples of the waste stream; visually inspecting each refuse bin, recycle bin, and roll-off; interviewing employees and recycling coordinators of other companies; touring local material recycling facilities; contacting experts in the field; and performing a literature search.

Eley, Michael H.; Crews, Lavonne; Johnston, Ben; Lee, David; Colebaugh, James

1995-01-01

76

Recycled Uranium Mass Balance Project Y-12 National Security Complex Site Report  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to summarize the findings of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) Mass Balance Project and to support preparation of associated U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) site reports. The project was conducted in support of DOE efforts to assess the potential for health and environmental issues resulting from the presence of transuranic (TRU) elements and fission products in recycled uranium (RU) processed by DOE and its predecessor agencies. The United States government used uranium in fission reactors to produce plutonium and tritium for nuclear weapons production. Because uranium was considered scarce relative to demand when these operations began almost 50 years ago, the spent fuel from U.S. fission reactors was processed to recover uranium for recycling. The estimated mass balance for highly enriched RU, which is of most concern for worker exposure and is the primary focus of this project, is summarized in a table. A discrepancy in the mass balance between receipts and shipments (plus inventory and waste) reflects an inability to precisely distinguish between RU and non-RU shipments and receipts involving the Y-12 Complex and Savannah River. Shipments of fresh fuel (non-RU) and sweetener (also non-RU) were made from the Y-12 Complex to Savannah River along with RU shipments. The only way to distinguish between these RU and non-RU streams using available records is by enrichment level. Shipments of {le}90% enrichment were assumed to be RU. Shipments of >90% enrichment were assumed to be non-RU fresh fuel or sweetener. This methodology using enrichment level to distinguish between RU and non-RU results in good estimates of RU flows that are reasonably consistent with Savannah River estimates. Although this is the best available means of distinguishing RU streams, this method does leave a difference of approximately 17.3 MTU between receipts and shipments. Slightly depleted RU streams received by the Y-12 Complex from ORGDP and PGDP are believed to have been returned to the shipping site or disposed of as waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation. No evidence of Y-12 Complex processing of this material was identified in the historical records reviewed by the Project Team.

NONE

2000-12-01

77

Extreme Recycling  

E-print Network

oil becomes fertilizer; food scraps get composted. Right now, Kamikatsu has an amazing 80% recycling rate. Impressive, yes but not good enough for the die-hard Kamikatsuites. Their goal: a Zero G environment. Zero G for Zero Garbage. #hacker #japan...

Hacker, Randi

2009-01-14

78

Electrorefining of aluminium scrap from chloride melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of aluminium of primary quality from scrap by electrorefining may become an option of strategic importance. Two important requirements are: (i) substantial energy savings compared to electrowinning, and (ii) easy recycling of alloying elements and molten electrolyte without ecological hazards. The use of molten chloride instead of fluoride electrolytes is preferred as emissions are low, purification of contaminated

V. Schwarz; H. Wendt

1995-01-01

79

Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

1999-10-26

80

Recycling technologies for thermoset composite materialscurrent status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies for recycling thermoset composite materials are reviewed. Mechanical recycling techniques involve the use of grinding techniques to comminute the scrap material and produce recyclate products in different size ranges suitable for reuse as fillers or partial reinforcement in new composite material. Thermal recycling processes involve the use of heat to break the scrap composite down and a range

S. J. Pickering

2006-01-01

81

Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Plunkert, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

82

Broadening the markets for scrap tire rubber  

SciTech Connect

Only a couple years ago was the first time that the U.S. first recycled more scrap tires than it discarded. More experienced processors using improved technology and resourceful manufacturers continue to discover more uses of old tires. Soon, they`ll chip away at the 800 million tires stockpiled around the country, not just work to keep up with the waste tires generated each year. After years ago, asphalt roads and highways looked like the answer. This report profiles the utilization of scrap tires.

Hilts, M.E. [ed.

1996-01-01

83

Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

1999-07-01

84

Illinois scrap-tire management study  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the mandate under Public Act 85-1196 (HB 3389), the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources initiated a study that reports on feasible methods for recycling of scrap motor vehicle tires which may be available to municipalities and counties. The study answers that mandate. It examines various methods for the recovery or reuse of motor vehicle tires. In addition, the study provides a detailed economic analysis of two alternative systems judged to be effective uses of scrap tires that can be implemented at this time. Finally, a discussion of policy issues is provided to assist the State of Illinois in determining which combination of uses and legislation would be an effective means of controlling the growing problem of scrap tires.

Wietting, N.E.

1989-10-01

85

Release of Residues from Melting NORM-Contaminated Steel Scrap - A German Approach  

SciTech Connect

As many raw materials like crude oil, natural gas, mineral sands, phosphor ores and others are contaminated by radionuclides from the Uranium and/or Thorium decay chain (NORM), also plants for processing these materials became contaminated during operation. When plants are shut down, large quantities of pipes, valves, pumps and other components have to be scrapped. As scrap yards and steel mills are equipped by large detector systems to avoid an input of radioactivity into the steel cycle, decontamination is required before recycling. Siempelkamp is operating a melting plant for processing NORM and/or chemically/ toxically contaminated steel scrap. Beside the decontaminated steel as output, residues like slag and filter dust have to be managed within the range of licensed values. Based on the European Safety Standard the European member states have to implement radiation exposure from work activities with NORM in their Radiation Protection Ordinances (RPO). The German government revised the RPO in July 2001. Part 3 describes exposure limits for workers and for the public. Exposures from residues management have to meet 1 mSv/year. Brenk Systemplanung has performed calculations for assessing the radiation exposure from residues of the Siempelkamp melting plant. These calculations have been based on the input of metal from different origins and include all relevant exposure pathways in a number of scenarios. The calculations have been based on the dose criterion of 1 mSv/y as required by the German RPO. The methods and results will be presented.

Quade, U.; Thierfeldt, S.; Wvrlen, S.

2003-02-24

86

Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described.

Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

1994-12-31

87

Hanford recycling  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall DOE recycling contract at the Hanford site and a central group to control the contract. 0 Using a BOA or MTS contract as a way to get proceeds from recycling back to site facilities to provide incentives for recycling. . Upgrading tracking mechanisms to track and recycle construction waste which is presently buried in onsite pits. . Establishing contract performance measures which hold each project accountable for specific waste reduction goals. * Recycling and reusing any material or equipment possible as buildings are dismantled.

Leonard, I.M.

1996-09-01

88

H. R. 3059: A bill to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to States to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 25, 1991 to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to states to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires. Amounts from the fund will be available for making expenditures for purposes of conducting surveys of current scrap tire piles, developing tire management plans, and carrying out plans relating to the reduction and elimination of existing scrap tire piles, including recycling, recovering, and reusing scrap tires. Not in excess to 5% of the account may be used for payment of expenses for administration of the fund.

Not Available

1991-01-01

89

Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits  

SciTech Connect

In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1993-08-01

90

EVALUATION OF FIRE HAZARDS WHILE REPACKAGING PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SCRAP IN HB-LINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for a fire while repackaging plutonium-contaminated scrap was evaluated. The surface-to-mass ratio indicates the metal alone will not spontaneously ignite. Uranium hydride can form when uranium metal is exposed to water vapor or hydrogen; uranium hydride reacts rapidly and energetically with atmospheric oxygen. The plutonium-contaminated scrap has been inside containers qualified for shipping, and these containers are leak-tight.

Hallman

2003-01-01

91

An economic analysis of a light and heavy water moderated reactor synergy: burning americium using recycled uranium  

SciTech Connect

An economic analysis is presented for a proposed synergistic system between 2 nuclear utilities, one operating light water reactors (LWR) and another running a fleet of heavy water moderated reactors (HWR). Americium is partitioned from LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be transmuted in HWRs, with a consequent averted disposal cost to the LWR operator. In return, reprocessed uranium (RU) is supplied to the HWRs in sufficient quantities to support their operation both as power generators and americium burners. Two simplifying assumptions have been made. First, the economic value of RU is a linear function of the cost of fresh natural uranium (NU), and secondly, plutonium recycling for a third utility running a mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor fleet has been already taking place, so that the extra cost of americium recycling is manageable. We conclude that, in order for this scenario to be economically attractive to the LWR operator, the averted disposal cost due to partitioning americium from LWR spent fuel must exceed 214 dollars per kg, comparable to estimates of the permanent disposal cost of the high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent LWR fuel. (authors)

Wojtaszek, D.; Edwards, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

2013-07-01

92

Field Evaluation of a Leachate Collection System Constructed with Scrap Tires  

E-print Network

of scrap tires have prompted researchers to investigate beneficial reuses. One important application is beneficially reused in construction, and another 9% is recycled Rubber Manufacturers Association 2004Field Evaluation of a Leachate Collection System Constructed with Scrap Tires Ahmet H. Aydilek1

Aydilek, Ahmet

93

Proposed rulemaking exemption from licensing requirements for smelted alloys containing residual technetium-99 and low-enriched uranium. Draft environmental statement  

SciTech Connect

This environmental statement is concerned with the costs and benefits to be incurred in the exemption from federal (NRC) licensing requirements for smelted alloys containing residual technetium-99 and low enriched uranium at concentrations of 5 ppM and 17.5 ppM, respectively. The contaminated metals considered explicitly in the statement for smelting are the scrap copper, nickel, and iron resulting from the improvement and upgrading of the Department of Energy's gaseous diffusion plants. The environmental impacts considered are primarily the radiological doses derived from the smelted metal by the general public including foundary and fabrication workers. Economic impacts associated with building and operating the facilities to smelt the scrap are also considered. In addition, the energy savings through recycling of these materials back into the commercial marketplace instead of burying them is estimated. The principal alternatives to this proposed action are the sale of surface decontaminated scrap, recycle of decontaminated equipment, burial of contaminated scrap, surface storage of contaminated scrap; and issuance of either a general or specific license for scrap disposal.

Not Available

1980-10-01

94

SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY METAL SOURCES, ARE STORED IN THESE BINS AND LIFTED TO SCALES BY AN ELECTRIC MAGNET. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

95

Role of molten salt flux in melting of used beverage container (UBC) scrap  

SciTech Connect

Recycling of aluminum scrap, such as Used Beverage Container (UBC) scrap is steadily increasing. In secondary remelting of such scrap, it is a common practice to use protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of the suspended metal droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. The molten salt also reacts with metal. This causes metal loss and change of resulting metal composition. In this paper, role of molten salt fluxes in melting of UBC scrap is discussed, and selection criteria for molten salt are provided.

Ye, J.; Sahai, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31

96

Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2004-01-01

97

Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2003-01-01

98

Statewide plan for utilization of scrap tires in Kansas. Final report, September 1993-May 1995  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the current and future supply of scrap tire rubber and the feasibility of using scrap tires in Kansas for various purposes. The goal was to determine if a sufficient quantity of recycled rubber existed and what the cost would be to meet the ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) requirements for 1995 and thereafter. The four tasks included in the study were: surveying scrap tire utilization plans in other states; inventory scrap tires in Kansas; estimating scrap tire generation in the future; and determiming cost effectiveness of various uses of scrap tires. Currently there are 4.5 to 5.5 million scrap tires in Kansas and the annual generation of scrap tires is estimated to be 2 to 3 million. The ISTEA mandate would require an estimated 367,000 scrap tires be recycled annually. KDOT has used more rubber in 1993 and 1994 than will be required by 1997 when the 20% required by ISTEA is in effect.

Nelson, R.G.; Hossain, M.

1995-05-01

99

Puncturing the scrap tire problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of scrap tires is making major headway in the 1990s. In 1994, an estimated 55 percent of all scrap tires generated were diverted from landfills, compared to 11 percent five years ago. Within three to five years, the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC), an industry group, predicts that there will be markets for 100 percent of the estimated

Steuteville

1995-01-01

100

Improving scrap tire processing  

SciTech Connect

The market for tire-derived materials is growing rapidly, with the largest market being tire-derived fuels. There is therefore a growing demand for higher quality products. This paper describes the processing and removal of steel from scrap tires.

Astafan, C.G. [Columbus McKinnon Corp., Sarasota, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

101

Recycled Coarse Aggregate Produced by Pulsed Discharge in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, the recycling ratio of concrete scraps has been kept over 98 % after the Law for the Recycling of Construction Materials was enforced in 2000. In the present, most of concrete scraps were recycled as the Lower Subbase Course Material. On the other hand, it is predicted to be difficult to keep this higher recycling ratio in the near future because concrete scraps increase rapidly and would reach to over 3 times of present situation in 2010. In addition, the demand of concrete scraps as the Lower Subbase Course Material has been decreased. Therefore, new way to reuse concrete scraps must be developed. Concrete scraps normally consist of 70 % of coarse aggregate, 19 % of water and 11 % of cement. To obtain the higher recycling ratio, the higher recycling ratio of coarse aggregate is desired. In this paper, a new method for recycling coarse aggregate from concrete scraps has been developed and demonstrated. The system includes a Marx generator and a point to hemisphere mesh electrode immersed in water. In the demonstration, the test piece of concrete scrap was located between the electrodes and was treated by the pulsed discharge. After discharge treatment of test piece, the recycling coarse aggregates were evaluated under JIS and TS and had enough quality for utilization as the coarse aggregate.

Namihira, Takao; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Kuroki, Kaori; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Yuichi; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Ohtsu, Masayasu

102

Recycling\\/disposal alternatives for depleted uranium wastes. Final report 12 Jun-12 Sep 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

All depleted uranium (DU) waste generated during test activities and from unused war reserve is subject to disposal as low-level radioactive waste. At present there is no operational alternative to sending DU wastes to commercial disposal sites for burial. Because of the uncertainties associated with the use of commercial sites in the future, the Air Force is seeking to identify

S. A. Bucci; J. Y. Nalbandian; D. M. Kagan

1981-01-01

103

Microwave assisted Platinum recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of recycled platinum is a multi-step process of repeated dissolving of the scrap metal, precipitation of Platinum salts and thermal treatment of the salts to obtain a pure metal. As a new process, microwave heating is applied for dissolving platinum as well as for decomposition of the Pt-salts into sponge Platinum metal. The goal of microwave heating is reduction

M. A. Willert-Porada; T. Gerdes; A. Schmidt

2011-01-01

104

Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing  

SciTech Connect

Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01

105

7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture...INSPECTION Standards Definitions 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2013-01-01

106

7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture...INSPECTION Standards Definitions 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2014-01-01

107

7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2010-01-01

108

7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture...INSPECTION Standards Definitions 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2012-01-01

109

7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture...INSPECTION Standards Definitions 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2010-01-01

110

7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2013-01-01

111

7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2012-01-01

112

7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2014-01-01

113

7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture...INSPECTION Standards Definitions 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2011-01-01

114

Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year. Equipment may become contaminated when NORM-containing scale or sludge accumulates inside water-handling equipment. The primary radionuclides of concern in these NORM wastes are radium-226 and radium-228. NORM-contaminated equipment generated by the petroleum industry currently is managed several ways. Some equipment is routinely decontaminated for reuse; other equipment becomes scrap metal and may be disposed of by burial at a licensed landfill, encapsulation inside the wellbore of an abandoned well, or shipment overseas for smelting. In view of the increased regulatory activities addressing NORM, the economic burden of managing NORM-contaminated wastes, including radioactive scrap metal, is likely to continue to grow. Efforts to develop a cost-effective strategy for managing radioactive scrap metal should focus on identifying the least expensive disposition options that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. Specifically, efforts should focus on better characterizing the quantity of radioactive scrap available for recycle or reuse, the radioactivity concentration levels, and the potential risks associated with different disposal options.

Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.

1995-08-01

115

Characterization of emissions from scrap metal processing facilities  

SciTech Connect

To prepare its members for the permitting requirements under Title 5 of the Clean Act, the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) commissioned a project to develop a Title 5 applicability workbook. A critical element in the preparation of the workbook was the characterization of emissions from processes and equipment typically found in the scrap metal processing industry. This paper describes the approach to the preparation of the workbook with emphasis on characterization of specific emission units which are deemed important for Title 5. The paper describes the methodology employed for acquiring existing emissions information from equipment manufacturers, vendors, and scrap recycling facility operators. The data were aggregated and analyzed to develop a variety of emission tabulations for pollutants requiring analysis under Title 5. The project also involved a survey of numerous state and local air pollution agencies to determine regulatory requirements regarding critical issues in the scrap processing industry. The paper describes a methodology for determining Title 5 applicability with emphasis on the use of emission tabulations and example worksheets. Emissions data are presented for metal shredders to demonstrate the methodology and procedures developed during the project. Finally, the paper discusses the structure of the Title 5 applicability workbook and its dissemination to a major industry trade association.

Norco, J.E. [Versar, Inc., Lombard, IL (United States); Tyler, T. [Inst. of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

116

Automatic sorting of lightweight metal scrap by sensing apparent density and three-dimensional shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the automatic sorting of lightweight metal scrap has been developed to aid the recycling of scrap metal. The sorting system enables separation of relatively large metal pieces according to the differences in their apparent density and three-dimensional (3D) shape. Shape parameters such as width, height, volume, and projected area of irregular-shaped metal pieces moving along a

Shigeki Koyanaka; Kenichiro Kobayashi

2010-01-01

117

Recovering cadmium and tellurium from thin-film photovoltaic device scrap. Report of investigations\\/1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) is investigating hydrometallurgical processing techniques to recycle metals from semiconductors and other advanced materials. Cadmium amd tellurium were recovered from mixed CdTe\\/CdS scrap produced in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic devices. Leaching the scrap for 90 min at 110 deg. C in 2.2Normal H2SO4 under 400 psig O2 yielded 97% Cd extraction; however, cadmium

W. K. Tolley; G. R. Palmer

1995-01-01

118

An Industrial Method for Determining the Amount of Organics in Representative Samples of Aluminum Scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recycling plants, especially those specializing in the recycling of low-grade aluminum scrap for wrought aluminum alloys, timely and accurate information about the amount of organics and other impurities in the incoming scrap is an important parameter in achieving both economic benefits and standard metallurgical quality of the recycled metal. To use aluminum scrap combined with organics as a source of aluminum for producing wrought aluminum alloys of standard quality, its metallurgical composition and the content of organic and other impurities should be quickly and cost-effectively analyzed on representative samples. In this work, an industrial thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis of representative scrap samples was developed as an efficient analytical methodology for analyzing the humidity and organic impurities in incoming scrap. When performed in continuous mode, under a flowing atmosphere of argon with 1 wt.% of oxygen, this methodology enables a routine measurement of the humidity, the quantity of organics, and the carbon content in representative samples of incoming scrap in less than 15 min within an accuracy of 0.5%.

Kevorkijan, Varuzan; Skapin, Sreco Davor; Dosler, Urban

2012-08-01

119

Minnesota`s experience using shingle scrap in bituminous pavements. Final report, 1991-1996  

SciTech Connect

The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has experimented with the use of shingle scrap in hot mix asphalt (HMA) since 1990. To date, the source of the shingle scrap has been shingle manufacturers exclusively. The manufactured shingle scrap consists primarily of tab punch-outs but also contains some mis-colored and damaged shingles. Test sections were constructed on the Willard Munger Recreational Trail, T.H. 25 in Mayer, Minnesota and on County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 17, in Scott County, Minnesota. Not only are the test sections performing as well as the control sections, but using shingle scrap reduces the amount of virgin asphalt cement required in a bituminous mix, thus creating the potential for a cost savings when using shingle scrap in HMA. Based on the performance of these test sections, shingle manufacturing scrap is now an allowable salvage material in hot mix asphalt under Mn/DOT specification 2331.E2e, Recycled Mixture Requirements. This report outlines the history of shingle scrap use in Minnesota, presents laboratory and field performance data and contains the current Mn/DOT specifications allowing shingle scrap to be used as a salvage material in HMA pavements.

Janisch, D.W.; Turgeon, C.M.

1996-10-01

120

Puncturing the scrap tire problem  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of scrap tires is making major headway in the 1990s. In 1994, an estimated 55 percent of all scrap tires generated were diverted from landfills, compared to 11 percent five years ago. Within three to five years, the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC), an industry group, predicts that there will be markets for 100 percent of the estimated 250 million plus scrap tires generated in the U.S. annually. At that point, it should be possible to start making a serious dent in the estimated 800 to 850 million scrap tires stockpiled around the country. About 4.5 million scrap tires get transformed into ground rubber products. Despite that relatively small number, this category holds significant promise. It also is the area with perhaps the most entrepreneurial activity. The reason is clear when the value added from increasingly intensive processing of tires is examined. When scrap rubber is ground for use in asphalt, new tires or a host of other products - the value goes up tremendously. A quarter inch minus grind generally sells for 14 to 22 cents/lb., or $280 to $440/ton. With smallerpieces, the value continues to climb. An `80 mesh,` or rubber that passes through a screen with 80 holes/linear inch, sells for30 to 45 cents/ lb. ($600 to $900/ton), which is higher than prices for aluminum cans two years ago.

Steuteville, R.

1995-10-01

121

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

122

Information scraps : understanding and design  

E-print Network

In this thesis I investigate information scraps - personal information whose content has been scribbled on Post-it notes, scrawled on the corners of sheets of paper, stuck in our pockets, sent in e-mail messages to ourselves, ...

Bernstein, Michael (Michael Scott)

2008-01-01

123

EVALUATION OF FIRE HAZARDS WHILE REPACKAGING PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SCRAP IN HB-LINE  

SciTech Connect

The potential for a fire while repackaging plutonium-contaminated scrap was evaluated. The surface-to-mass ratio indicates the metal alone will not spontaneously ignite. Uranium hydride can form when uranium metal is exposed to water vapor or hydrogen; uranium hydride reacts rapidly and energetically with atmospheric oxygen. The plutonium-contaminated scrap has been inside containers qualified for shipping, and these containers are leak-tight. The rate of diffusion of water vapor through the seals is small, and the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate is low. Radiography of samples of the storage containers indicates no loose oxide/hydride powder has collected in the storage container to date. The frequently of a fire while repackaging the plutonium-contaminated scrap is extremely unlikely.

Hallman, D

2003-12-18

124

Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap  

SciTech Connect

The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01

125

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

2003-02-01

126

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

2003-02-26

127

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

1996-12-31

128

Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys  

DOEpatents

Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

1982-09-27

129

Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys  

DOEpatents

Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN); Creech, Edward T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Northcutt, Walter G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01

130

Mild chemical oxidation of reactive uranium for disposal or recovery  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities (thousands of drums) of waste uranium metal or alloyed metals as scrap or chips and turnings are generated annually in the DOE complex. The high surface areas of this waste renders it highly reactive with both air and moisture. Storage of the materials is hazardous and expensive, but most DOE sites are forced to store the waste, because no adequate treatment or recycle technology is available. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) currently has over 200 55-gal drums of reactive uranium awaiting treatment or recovery. To address this problem, LANL has developed a process for the low-temperature conversion of waste uranium metal to uranium oxide. The basis of our technology is a mild solution oxidation using sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Divided uranium metal or alloys are excellent candidates for this type of oxidation because of their high chemical reactivity. uranium turnings react rapidly with dilute solutions of sodium hypochlorite to form an insoluble uranium (VI) oxide, UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, as a finely divided yellow powder. The resulting powder is suitable for disposal after solidification or for recycle. Designs for a suitable reactor system for this process have been completed in the Waste Management Group at LANL. The skid-mounted mobile unit will be capable of treating up to 100 kg of metal or alloy per batch. This paper summarizes the details of the process, including formation and characterization of the uranium product, identification of process operating conditions, and reactor design. Included is a description of the steps for permitting the process.

Sauer, N.N.; Lussiez, G.

1994-12-31

131

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

1988-01-01

132

Optimization of scrap tire pyrolysis using a continuous-feed steam environment  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of the generation of scrap tires produced in the United States are on the order of 2 million tons per year. Although these tires contain a high percentage of useful hydrocarbons, steel and carbon black, approximately 70% are not effectively recycled. Recently, pyrolytic recycling of scrap tire (thermal decomposition in the absence of O{sub 2}) is receiving renewed interest because of its ability to produce valuable hydrocarbon products. We have developed a process which permits a continuous feed processing of scrap tires in a non-combustible stream environment. This system utilizes a soft seal system that operates at atmospheric pressures while minimizing any fugitive emissions. This process increases the efficiency and control of present approaches by lowering the energy requirements while maximizing the collection of valuable products. Initial bench-scale results will be presented.

Burrell, T.W.; Frank, S.R.; Rich, M.L. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

133

Recycling of plastic material in design world: examples from automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, plastic materials recycling, which has the environmental and economic values, discussion with studies and design applications especially automotive industry are included. Pollution of sources and recycling of scrap materials are the two strong reasons for recycling concept. The designers, consumers, producers and governments are constrained to comprehend recycling subject because of the fact of increasing on consumption

Ceyda Vatan

134

How Much Sorting Is Enough Identifying Economic and Scrap?Reuse Benefits of Sorting Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryOne strategy for mitigating the effects of rapidly growing global materials consumption is intensified recycling. A key barrier to recycling is the ability to segment or sort constituents within end?of?life products. Various sorting technologies hold promise, but each must demonstrate added value to achieve wide?scale deployment. Potential factors affecting such value include the mix of scrap supply, the nature and

Preston Li; Jeffrey Dahmus; Sigrid Guldberg; Hans Ole Riddervold; Randolph Kirchain

2011-01-01

135

Non-Junk Junk Money: Technical Efficiency and Productivity across Junk and Scrap Dealerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some forms of environmentalism has generated many positive responses from concerned communities. Sophisticated theories addressing various aspects of environmental policy abound. At the practical level private economic agents following their self-interests confront the challenge of cleaning up the environment through recycling and other waste management programs. Among these agents are what I call here junk and scrap dealerships. But cleaning

Voxi Heinrich S. Amavilah

2004-01-01

136

Quality of ferrous scrap from MSW incinerators: a case study of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of packaging steel from municipal solid waste (MSW) plays an important role in scrap recycling. Post-consumer packaging steel quality depends strongly on the procedure and the technology employed for its collection and recovery. Household refuse management systems include classification, compost and incineration plants. In Spain, MSW incineration is carried out by nine incinerators that generate a total of

Aurora Lpez-Delgado; Carmen Pea; V??ctor Lpez; Flix A Lpez

2003-01-01

137

7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2013-01-01

138

7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) 29.3034 Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2014-01-01

139

7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) 29.3034 Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2013-01-01

140

7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) 29.3034 Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2010-01-01

141

7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture...36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2012-01-01

142

7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2010-01-01

143

7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2014-01-01

144

7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2012-01-01

145

7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2011-01-01

146

7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture...36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2013-01-01

147

7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) 29.3034 Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2011-01-01

148

7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture...36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2014-01-01

149

7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture...36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2011-01-01

150

7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) 29.3034 Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

2012-01-01

151

Scrap tires: STATEing the facts  

SciTech Connect

Starting with a piece of Minnesota legislation passed in 1984, state governments have spent the last 10 years attempting to clean up and find markets for decades worth of stockpiled tires, as well as the millions more generated each year. The US EPA estimates that 242 million scrap tires were generated in the US in 1990 alone. Of these, an alarming 188 million were disposed of illegally. At least 34 states have bans on the landfilling of whole, and in some cases even shredded, tires. Last year, 37 states considered scrap-tire-related bills, most of which were amendments to earlier legislation. Among the scrap tire legislation passed in the past year are comprehensive laws in Ohio and Colorado, including fees for the disposal of tires, most of which are paid by the consumer. Fees were increased in North Carolina and Texas, and a $2-per-tire fee was begun in Connecticut, while hauler registration requirements were enacted in California. This article discusses what five states are doing with the management of scrap tires. They are: Minnesota; Wisconsin; Texas; Oklahoma; and Illinois.

Dabaie, M.

1994-10-01

152

CHEMICAL RECLAMATION OF SCRAP RUBBER  

EPA Science Inventory

A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolys...

153

H. R. 871: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 6, 1991  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to encourage greater recycling of scrap tires. Americans generate more than 250 million scrap tires annually. Currently, 2 1/2 to 3 billion scrap tires are stockpiled across America. H.R.871 was introduced into the US House of Representatives on February 6, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to require producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year. This legislation calls for the administrator of the EPA to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out these recycling requirements, and to establish a management and tracking system for such tires.

Not Available

1991-01-01

154

Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility  

SciTech Connect

A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope {sup 230}Th from the decay of {sup 234}U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 {+-} 1.5 years.

Meyers, L A; Williams, R W; Glover, S E; LaMont, S P; Stalcup, A M; Spitz, H B

2012-03-16

155

Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, in the water, and in the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling rate for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent?almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from diecasting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Kramer, Deborah A.

2001-01-01

156

Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Kramer, Deborah A.

2002-01-01

157

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOEpatents

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

1987-07-30

158

77 FR 73996 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DOE radiological areas, for recycling pursuant to improved procedures...prepared the Draft PEA for Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating...facilities for the purpose of recycling. The suspension was imposed...Protection of the Public and the Environment. Initially, the...

2012-12-12

159

Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Tires. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development, management, economic analysis, and environmental impacts of reclamation and recycling of scrap tires. The design and evaluation of recycling processes are examined. Recycled products for use in construction materials, embankment fills, fuel supplements, and material substitutions are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-08-01

160

Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China.  

PubMed

Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned. PMID:21959140

Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

2012-01-01

161

7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations...Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco....

2011-01-01

162

7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations...Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco....

2010-01-01

163

7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations...Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco....

2012-01-01

164

7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations...Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco....

2013-01-01

165

7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations...Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco....

2014-01-01

166

Recycling Trends in the Plastics Manufacturing and Recycling Companies in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the findings from a study on the consumption of recycled materials and recycling practices in the plastics manufacturing industry and recycling companies in Malaysia. The findings were obtained from a survey conducted in twenty plastic manufacturing companies and detailed case studies in three recycling companies. The survey conducted in the plastic manufacturing companies` shows that the consumption rate for poly-olefins (PP and PE) is the highest among the resin types and the industrial sector that consumes the most plastic materials is the electrical and electronics sector. The consumption of recycled materials is high among the local manufacturing companies (80%) which are largely due to cost savings; about 20% of these companies conducted in-house recycling. The study has also shown that the medium scale industry consumes the most recycled materials as compared to the large and small scale industry. The rate of disposal for plastic materials in the local industry is approximately 5%. The detailed case studies conducted in the recycling companies have successfully identified the main processes involved in plastic recycling namely manual sorting, cleaning, drying, meshing/pelletising and packaging. These recycling companies obtained recycled materials from various sources including industrial scrap, dumping sites, local producers as well as imported sources. Pricing of recycled materials were based on classification according to grade and quality of the recycled materials. The study has reflected the extent of in-house recycling trends in the local plastic manufacturing companies and their dependency on the supply from the local recycling companies.

Wahab, D. A.; Abidin, A.; Azhari, C. H.

167

Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

2012-03-15

168

From Trash to Treasure: Recycling Scrap Metal into Steel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trash is having a global impact not only on land, but at sea--making its way into the ocean and creating large islands of floating debris. One such island is The Great Pacific Trash Patch, which is located in the North Pacific and is made up of floating trash and debris that is spread out in an area as much as one and a half times the size of the

Cantu, Diana

2011-01-01

169

Discussion of and reply to ``Processing of scrap tires: Technology and market applications``  

SciTech Connect

Publication of this paper by Michael H. Blumenthal provides an excellent overview of scrap tire market opportunities, processing options, and some legislative background. The authors present some comments and areas that need addition coverage or clarification. These include the following: durability of new tires made from recycled rubber; cost data; tire derived fuel; landfilling of tires; composition of tires; processing equipment; and processing problems. This article also contains Mr. Blumenthal`s reply to the comments and questions.

Cosulich, J. [Los Angeles County Sanitation District, Whittier, CA (United States); Smisko, J. [County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Commerce, CA (United States); Niessen, W.R. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Blumenthal, M.H. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-11-01

170

Beneficial Reuses of Scrap Tires in Hydraulic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrap tires are a high-profile waste material. There are serious concerns over the ever-mounting scrap tire problem. A need exists for increasing available reuse measures to their full potential and developing new and feasible scrap tire reuse alternatives. The growing interest in utilizing waste materials in engineering applications has opened the possibility of constructing hydraulic structures with scrap tires. Applications

Roy R. Gu

171

Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included. (Contains a minimum of 83 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01

172

Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

173

Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included. (Contains a minimum of 76 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

174

Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-12-01

175

7th Annual waste reduction, prevention, recycling and composting symposium proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Technical papers from the Waste Reduction, Prevention, Recycling and Composting Symposium are presented. 21 of the 22 papers were selected for inclusion in the database. The majority of the papers focus on municipal wastes produced by the business sector; however, wastes generated in the residential and industrial sectors are also included. Topics addressed include workplace recycling, scrap tire and used oil recycling, employee education, construction and demolition waste reuse, composting, waste reduction, and market development for recycled products.

NONE

1996-08-01

176

AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

177

7 CFR 30.8 - Scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...8 Scrap. A byproduct from handling leaf tobacco in both the unstemmed and stemmed...of loose and tangled portions of tobacco leaves, floor sweepings, and all other...

2010-01-01

178

7 CFR 30.8 - Scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...8 Scrap. A byproduct from handling leaf tobacco in both the unstemmed and stemmed...of loose and tangled portions of tobacco leaves, floor sweepings, and all other...

2014-01-01

179

7 CFR 30.8 - Scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...8 Scrap. A byproduct from handling leaf tobacco in both the unstemmed and stemmed...of loose and tangled portions of tobacco leaves, floor sweepings, and all other...

2011-01-01

180

7 CFR 30.8 - Scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...8 Scrap. A byproduct from handling leaf tobacco in both the unstemmed and stemmed...of loose and tangled portions of tobacco leaves, floor sweepings, and all other...

2012-01-01

181

7 CFR 30.8 - Scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...8 Scrap. A byproduct from handling leaf tobacco in both the unstemmed and stemmed...of loose and tangled portions of tobacco leaves, floor sweepings, and all other...

2013-01-01

182

7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct...

2011-01-01

183

Recycling asphalt pavements. January 1975-January 1990 (a Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1975-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt-containing pavement materials. Articles include examples of recycling asphalt pavements; performance testing of recycled paving; methods including cold in-place, cold off-site, and hot-mix recycling; additives in recycled pavement for better performance; use of scrap roofing asphalt in conjunction with recycled paving; economics of recycling; process design; and process variables. Recycling of other materials is considered in related bibliographies. (Contains 130 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

184

Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-07-01

185

Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2010-01-01

186

Uranium and Thorium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of President Carter's policy on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are expected to slow the growth rate in energy consumption, put the development of the breeder reactor in question, halt plans to reprocess and recycle uranium and plutonium, and expand facilities to supply enriched uranium. (Author/MA)

Finch, Warren I.

1978-01-01

187

An Environmentally Benign Process Model Development for Printed Circuit Board Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delaminating and separation of obsolete printed circuit board (PCB) is essential for its recycling. This paper presents an alternative environmentally benign process method for PCB recycling. Applying the solvent system, e.g. carbon dioxide and water under certain pressure and temperature, the PCB scraps could be delaminated easily. The separation of PCB into copper foil, glass fiber and polymer will be

Hong-Chao Zhang; Xi Ouyang; Alex Abadi

2006-01-01

188

Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains a minimum of 160 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01

189

Waste-tire and shingle scrap/bituminous paving test sections on the Willard Munger recreational trail gateway segment. Interim report, 1990-91  

SciTech Connect

The need to reduce our states dependence on land fills resulted in a unique cooperative venture by three state agencies. A partnership was forged between the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) to investigate the use of recycled tire rubber and processed asphalt shingle scrap. The result is a two mile section of the Willard Munger Recreational Trail in St. Paul constructed with asphalt paving mixtures which contain varying percentages of recycled tire rubber and shingle scrap. Conventional mixing and paving equipment was utilized for construction. The application appears to be a viable alternative to landfilling these materials. However, costs for the mixtures containing rubber increased from 35% to 50% over the cost of the conventional mixture. Since the use of shingle scrap was negotiated by the private companies involved, no comparable cost data is available.

Turgeon, C.M.

1991-02-01

190

Recovering cadmium and tellurium from thin-film photovoltaic device scrap. Report of investigations/1995  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) is investigating hydrometallurgical processing techniques to recycle metals from semiconductors and other advanced materials. Cadmium amd tellurium were recovered from mixed CdTe/CdS scrap produced in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic devices. Leaching the scrap for 90 min at 110 deg. C in 2.2Normal H2SO4 under 400 psig O2 yielded 97% Cd extraction; however, cadmium content of the residue ranged between 4% and 7%. Soluble iron was added to the lixiviant to catalyze oxidation of the CdS component. Tellurium and sulfur remained in the leach residue primarily in the elemental form. The iron and tellurium were removed from the cadmium-rich leach liquor by adjusting the pH to 5.3. The cadmium was recovered as cadmium sulfate crystals by evaporating the solution. Alternative leaching and purification schemes are discussed.

Tolley, W.K.; Palmer, G.R.

1995-12-31

191

Automobile shredder residue: Process developments for recovery of recyclable constituents  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to briefly outline the structure of the automobile shredder industry as a supplier of ferrous scrap, (2) to review the previous research that has been conducted for recycling automobile shredder residue (ASR), and (3) to present the results and implications of the research being conducted at ANL on the development of a process for the selective recovery and recycling of the thermoplastics content of ASR. 15 refs., 5 figs.

Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

1990-01-01

192

Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff  

SciTech Connect

Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

1992-01-01

193

Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff  

SciTech Connect

Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

1992-12-01

194

Scrap tire derived fuel: Markets and issues  

SciTech Connect

More than 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the United States and their proper management continues to be a solid waste management concern. Sound markets for scrap tires are growing and are consuming an ever increasing percentage of annual generation, with market capacity reaching more than 75% of annual generation in 1996. Of the three major markets - fuel, civil engineering applications, and ground rubber markets - the use of tires as a fuel is by far the largest market. The major fuel users include cement kilns, pulp and paper mills, electrical generation facilities, and some industrial facilities. Current issues that may impact the tire fuel market include continued public concern over the use of tires as fuels, the new EPA PM 2.5 standard, possible additional Clean Air emissions standards, access to adequate supplies of scrap tires, quality of processed tire derived fuel, and the possibility of creating a commodity market through the development of ASTM TDF standards.

Serumgard, J. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-01

195

Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap  

SciTech Connect

Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap Development of process flow sheet Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Ghosh, C. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2013-10-15

196

1. Elevated view of Scrap Platform, looking southwest. Delaware, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Elevated view of Scrap Platform, looking southwest. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

197

3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

198

2. Elevated perspective of Scrap Platform, looking south. Delaware, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Elevated perspective of Scrap Platform, looking south. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

199

Scrap tire reuse through surface-modification technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach for reusing scrap tire rubber. The process involves the combination of scrap tire rubber particles with other materials to form higher value and higher performance composites. The process begins by grinding scrap tire to a fine particle size, and removing steel and fabric. The key to this approach is a

Bauman

1991-01-01

200

Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

Liang Sai, E-mail: liangsai09@gmail.com [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-01-15

201

Design and performance test of a scaled-up device for flue gas desulfurization by scrap iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

To cope with the deterioration of the atmospheric environment and to examine flue gas desulfurization for recyclable resources, a flue gas desulfurization technology using scrap iron was developed, which achieved better desulfurization performance in a small-scale experimental study. In addition, economically valuable by-products can be produced from the proposed flue gas desulfurization. Based on the small-scale experimental study, a horizontal

Yu Zhang; Jiti Zhou; Guodong Wang; Chengyu Li; Shiyuan Guo

2011-01-01

202

EMISSIONS FROM BURNING CABINET MAKING SCRAPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an initial determination of differences in missions when burning ordinary cordwood compared to kitchen cabinet making scraps. he tests were performed in an instrumented woodstove testing laboratory on a stove that simulated units observed in use at a k...

203

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

204

Aluminum recycling in the automotive industry. (Latest citations from the Aluminum Industry Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design and development of processes to recycle aluminum from automobiles. Scrap separation, shredding, and processing are covered including new equipment. Aluminum market information is included with respect to material selection for automobiles and new products developed from recycled material. References also discuss changes in automobile design to increase recycling oppertunities. (Contains a minimum of 107 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-06-01

205

S. 396: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 7, 1991  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to encourage greater recycling of scrap tires. Americans generate more than 250 million scrap tires annually, of which less than 30% are recycled. Every year, 84.5% of these scrap tires are landfilled, stockpiled, or illegally dumped. This bill was introduced into the Senate of the United States on Feb. 7, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act. One purpose of this legislation is to require producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year. In addition, the administrator of the EPA is required to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out these recycling requirement, and to establish a management and tracking system for such tires.

Not Available

1991-01-01

206

Recycled roads  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the efforts of various states in the USA to recycle waste materials in highway construction as fill and pavements. The topics of the article include recycling used tires whole, ground, and shredded, cost of recycling, wood fiber chips as fill material in embankments, and mining wastes used to construct embankments and as coarse aggregates in asphalt pavement.

Tarricone, P.

1993-04-01

207

Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

1995-06-06

208

Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

209

RECYCLING TODAY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have probably heard of recycling but what is it really and why is it so improtant to do? Please answer the questions below as well as visiting the different websites to explore what recycling really is. Form groups of 4 and explore the following websites as well as answer the questions which follow. The first website is of Recycle City where you will be exploring the City and how they recycle. Recyle City Why Recycling is Important Now please answer the following questions on paper. 1. What are the 3 R's? Explain in further ...

Miss Smith

2010-12-03

210

Selenium Recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vast majority of selenium consumption in the United States is in dissipative uses, such as alloys, animal feeds, fertilizers, glass decolorizer, and pigments. The nondissipative use as a photoreceptor for xerographic copiers is declining. As a result of a lack of a substantial supply of selenium-containing scrap, there are no longer selenium recycling facilities in the United States. Selenium-containing materials collected for recycling, primarily selenium-containing photocopier drums, are exported for processing in other countries. Of the estimated 350 metric tons (t) of selenium products that went to the U.S. market in 2004, an estimated 300 t went to dissipative uses. An estimated 4 t was recovered from old scrap and exported for recycling.

George, Micheal W.; Wagner, Lorie A.

2009-01-01

211

H. R. 3369: This Act shall be cited as the Automobile Recycling Study Act of 1991, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, September 19, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on September 19, 1991 to require a study on the potential for increased recycling of automobile components in the United States and the steps needed to increase the recycling. An average of 10,000,000 automobiles are scrapped each year. Most metal parts are currently recycled, but about 25% of a scrapped vehicle's weight is discarded in landfills. In order to increase the quantity of an automobile's materials that can be recycled, automobiles should be designed with recycling in mind.

Not Available

1991-01-01

212

The Energy Impact of Industrial Recycling and Waste Exchange  

E-print Network

metals like lead and cadmium, a~e not hazardous. Gene~8l1y there are nume~ous acid solutions listed (from elect~oplating and cleaning processes) that contail' small quantities of metal and many sludges are often found. Surplus metals and scrap.../lb, plastics can often be burned economically (note that on combustion, PVC releases HCl gas, which may have to be scrubbed from the stack gas). Thermop13stic scrap of a single material can often be recycled back to the same material if it is clean or can...

Phillips, W. C.

213

Packing in a tradition of recycling: Manufacturer-turned-recycler Free-Flow Packaging Corp. , Redwood City, Calif  

SciTech Connect

Free-Flow Packaging Corp. recycles polystyrene. Loose-fill -- an industry name for expanded polystyrene (EPS) packaging modules, or what the public more commonly calls peanuts'' -- represents a material that can easily and economically be recycled over and over. The company manufactures a 100% recycled packaging peanut called FLO-PAK, as well as a variety of other EPS packaging products. Indeed, to date, Free-Flow Packaging has set up post-consumer EPS recycling operations at five of its 11 manufacturing facilities, both across the country and overseas. The corporation's original facility in Redwood City began this tradition when it first started processing industrial EPS scrap in 1978 and, later, pioneered the recycling of post-consumer EPS on site for use in its products in 1989. Now, only five years later, the result has produced a recycling operation that is truly successful, profitable, and closed-loop.

White, K.M.

1994-01-01

214

Recycled materials in asphalt pavements, January 1980-June 1991 (citations from the NTIS database). Rept. for Jan 80-Jun 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (The bibliography contains 75 citations.) (Also includes title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-06-01

215

Reductive denitrification of nitrate by scrap iron filings.  

PubMed

Reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron is a highly exergonic reaction that has long been known to occur. Use of scrap iron filings (SIF) as the PRB (Permeable Reactive Barrier) material can be used to recycle certain by-products, and identify cheaper replacements for expensive conventional PRB materials, especially pure metallic iron. The feasibility of reductive denitrification of nitrate by SIF was studied by batch experiments. Operational parameters such as pH value, SIF dosage and initial concentration of nitrate were investigated. The removal efficiency of nitrate reached 80% under the conditions of pH of 2.5, nitrate initial concentration of 45 mg/L and SIF dosage of 100 g/L within 4 h. Results indicated that nitrate removal is inversely related to pH. Low pH value condition favors for the nitrate transformation. Different from the results of others who studied nitrate reduction using iron powder, we found that there was a lag time before nitrate reduction occurs, even at low pH. Finally, the possible mechanism of nitrate reduction by Fe0 is discussed. PMID:15682502

Hao, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Xin-Hua; Wang, Da-Hui

2005-03-01

216

Reductive denitrification of nitrate by scrap iron filings*  

PubMed Central

Reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron is a highly exergonic reaction that has long been known to occur. Use of scrap iron filings (SIF) as the PRB (Permeable Reactive Barrier) material can be used to recycle certain by-products, and identify cheaper replacements for expensive conventional PRB materials, especially pure metallic iron. The feasibility of reductive denitrification of nitrate by SIF was studied by batch experiments. Operational parameters such as pH value, SIF dosage and initial concentration of nitrate were investigated. The removal efficiency of nitrate reached 80% under the conditions of pH of 2.5, nitrate initial concentration of 45 mg/L and SIF dosage of 100 g/L within 4 h. Results indicated that nitrate removal is inversely related to pH. Low pH value condition favors for the nitrate transformation. Different from the results of others who studied nitrate reduction using iron powder, we found that there was a lag time before nitrate reduction occurs, even at low pH. Finally, the possible mechanism of nitrate reduction by Fe0 is discussed. PMID:15682502

Hao, Zhi-wei; Xu, Xin-hua; Wang, Da-hui

2005-01-01

217

H. R. 4147: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act of 1990. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, February 28, 1990  

SciTech Connect

H.R. 4147 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste disposal Act to require the producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year, to require the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out such recycling requirement, to establish a management and tracking system for such tires, and for other purposes.

Not Available

1990-01-01

218

S. 2462: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act of 1990. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, April 19, 1990  

SciTech Connect

S. 2462 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to require the producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year, to require the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out such recycling requirement, to establish a management and tracking system for such tires, and for other purposes.

Not Available

1990-01-01

219

Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal  

DOEpatents

A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

220

Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal. 2 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-04-11

221

Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

222

Ferrous scrap preheating system: Phase 3, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Utilizing electric arc smelters for making steel has allowed many smaller manufacturers to compete with large integrated mills. The electric arc furnace melts scrap to produce steel. The subject of this report is a Scrap Preheater that heats and cleans the arc furnace scrap using its own low cost natural gas energy supply. Scrap preheating can increase the capacity of a given arc furnace and reduce the operating costs. In addition it reduces the air emissions and allows utilization of lower cost scrap. The program was divided into three phases and was to culminate with an operating prototype at a demonstration host site steel mill. A host site agreement was executed and critical components were tested. The prototype scrap preheater was completely designed. It was sized to preheat 30 tons of scrap in a scrap bucket in 30 minutes. Energy is supplied by a rich fume reactor that completely oxidizes organics from the scrap and auxiliary natural gas. There were several delays and changes in the project that resulted in the host site requesting to withdraw from the program. Extensive efforts were made to secure a replacement host site. However, when another host could not be found, the project was terminated.

NONE

1996-05-13

223

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-11-29

224

Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant  

SciTech Connect

The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that pays for itself'' through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

1992-02-01

225

Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant  

SciTech Connect

The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that ``pays for itself`` through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

1992-02-01

226

H. R. 3058: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling and Recovery Act of 1991, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 25, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act in order to provide for a scrap tire management and recovery program. The objectives of this legislation are to provide temporary federal incentives to eliminate scrap tire piles through environmentally sound methods, including recycling, recovery and reuse. All future scrap tires are to be managed by the states through programs that will manage and minimize the buildup of scrap tire piles in the future.

Not Available

1991-01-01

227

Purification of nuclear grade Zr scrap as the high purity dense Zr deposits from Zirlo scrap by electrorefining in LiF-KF-ZrF4 molten fluorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium (Zr) has commonly been used as a cladding material of nuclear fuel. Moreover, it is regarded as the only material that can be used for nuclear fuel cladding because it has the lowest neutron capture cross section of any metal element and because it has high corrosion resistance and size stability. In this study, Hf-free Zr tubes (Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe) were used as anode materials and electrorefining was performed in a LiF-KF eutectic 6 wt.% ZrF4 molten fluoride salt system. As a result of electrolysis, Zr scrap metal was recycled into pure Zr with low levels of impurities, and the size and density of the Zr deposit was controlled using applied current density.

Park, Kyoung Tae; Lee, Tae Hyuk; Jo, Nam Chan; Nersisyan, Hayk H.; Chun, Byong Sun; Lee, Hyuk Hee; Lee, Jong Hyeon

2013-05-01

228

A Fundamental Metric for Metal Recycling Applied to Coated Magnesium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental metric for the assessment of the recyclability and, hence, the sustainability of coated magnesium scrap is presented; this metric combines kinetics and thermodynamics. The recycling process, consisting of thermal decoating and remelting, was studied by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) experiments and thermodynamic simulations. Decoating phenomena are interpreted using kinetic analysis, applying existing reaction models. The derived kinetic model parameters ln A and E a /( RT p ) are used to characterize the decoating process. The impact of inorganic coating components on remelting is quantified using exergy. Oxidation and entrapment losses, quality losses, and material resource depletion caused by the inorganic components are expressed in exergy units and combined into the single parameter {mathcal{R}} . Based on the results, the coating characteristics favorable for recycling are derived. The obtained metric is a three-dimensional (3 D) combination of ln A, E a /( RT p ), and {mathcal{R}} , which represent the decoating velocity, the ease of decoating, and the impact of coating materials on the remelting process, respectively. The metric, therefore, directly links coating characteristics, coating design, and product design with process technology and recyclability, enabling the ranking of coating alternatives in terms of their respective recyclability. Therefore, the key idea of this article is to use fundamental metallurgical theory to express the recyclability of postconsumer scrap in a unique combination of parameters. This should pave the way for ranking the sustainability of different materials.

Meskers, C. E. M.; Reuter, M. A.; Boin, U.; Kvithyld, A.

2008-06-01

229

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2013-10-01

230

46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265 Shipping ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not...

2012-10-01

231

46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265 Shipping ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not...

2011-10-01

232

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2014-10-01

233

46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265 Shipping ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not...

2014-10-01

234

46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265 Shipping ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not...

2013-10-01

235

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2011-10-01

236

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2012-10-01

237

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2010-10-01

238

91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

239

A novel powder metallurgy-based method for the recycling of aluminum adapted to a small island developing state in the  

E-print Network

1 A novel powder metallurgy-based method for the recycling of aluminum adapted to a small island volume scrap aluminum, the application of the powder metallurgy process is proposed. Its methodology of the advantages of the powder metallurgy process. The properties of the recycled parts make them competitive

Boyer, Edmond

240

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

241

Ideas: Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

1994-01-01

242

Scrap tire reuse through surface-modification technology  

SciTech Connect

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach for reusing scrap tire rubber. The process involves the combination of scrap tire rubber particles with other materials to form higher value and higher performance composites. The process begins by grinding scrap tire to a fine particle size, and removing steel and fabric. The key to this approach is a proprietary surface-modification step which is critical for enhancing the compatibility with and bonding to other continuous phase matrix materials. Of all approaches for scrap tire rubber reuse, this approach offers the potential to recover (or save) the greatest amount of energy. Furthermore, this is the only approach which is clearly economically viable with current pricing and without a scrap tire tax. The process is environmentally innocuous, and capital requirements for large scale processing plants are projected to be modest. 7 figs.

Bauman, B.D.

1991-01-01

243

Scrap-tire consumption in New England and New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of scrap tires is one facet of the current solid waste dilemma that is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention in the northeast. Above-ground disposal in tire stockpiles has become a common phenomenon. One way to avoid continued stockpiling of scrap tires, and to reduce the number and size of existing piles, is to find ways to consume the tires. The economics of scrap tire consumption in the region has not yet been examined in great detail. The main goal of the paper is to describe the current pattern of scrap tire use and disposal in New England and New Jersey, and the changes expected in the near future. In the course of this description, various economic, regulatory and other factors emerge as significant forces shaping the consumption and disposal pattern. The concluding sections of the paper highlight some of these factors and identify policy options available to increase scrap tire consumption in the region.

Barad, A.

1991-02-01

244

Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. October 1973-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for October 1973-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt-pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains 110 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

245

Release of Radioactive Scrap Metal/Scrap Metal (RSM/SM) at Nevada Test Site (NTS)  

SciTech Connect

Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. (REECo) is the prime contractor to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in providing service and support for NTS operations. Mercury Base Camp is the main control point for the many forward areas at NTS, which covers 1,350 square miles. The forward areas are where above-ground and underground nuclear tests have been performed over the last 41 years. No metal (or other material) is returned to Mercury without first being tested for radioactivity. No radioactive metals are allowed to reenter Mercury from the forward areas, other than testing equipment. RAMATROL is the monitor check point. They check material in various ways, including swipe tests, and have a large assortment of equipment for testing. Scrap metal is also checked to address Resource Conservation and Recovery Act concerns. After addressing these issues, the scrap metals are categorized. Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) are followed by REECo. The nonradioactive scrap material is sold through the GSA on a scheduled basis. Radioactive scrap metal are presently held in forward areas where they were used. REECo has gained approval of their Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325 application, which will allow disposal on site, when RSM is declared a waste. The guideline that REECo uses for release limits is DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Works, Attachment 2, Surface Radioactivity Guides, of this order, give release limits for radioactive materials. However, the removal of radioactive materials from NTS require approval by DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) on a case-by-case basis. Requirements to consider before removal are found in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.

Not Available

1993-07-01

246

Auto industry targets fluff for recycling  

SciTech Connect

Automobiles have been one of the great recycling success stories. With car shredding operations routinely reaching recovery rates of up to 75% for decades--mostly through scrap metal reclamation--automobiles outpace most other commodities in terms of recyclability and stability of end uses. Not content to rest on its laurels, however, the automotive industry is now revving up to deal with the part of a car that is not yet easily recycled. This remaining 25%, known as automotive shredder residue (ASR) or ''fluff,'' presents a wide range of recycling challenges. Automobile fluff is the small and low-density material left over after the more easily recycled parts are taken away. Traditionally, fluff has been disposed of in municipal landfills. Today, as cars lose weight to gain fuel economy, plastic use has increased. There are now about 200 automotive shredders in the US, the largest of which produce more than 50,000 tons of fluff per year. Almost half of this fluff is made up of fabrics, fibers, and resilient foam cushioning. Just about one fourth is plastic and about 17% is fluids.

Lang, N.A.

1995-01-01

247

Energy implications of glass-container recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-03-01

248

Tire Recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

1997-01-01

249

Nutritional characterisation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. produced using paper scraps as substrate.  

PubMed

Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. is the third most produced edible mushroom worldwide, due to its ability to colonise and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus grown on blank and printed paper substrates, in comparison with samples grown on oat straw (control). The nutritional properties of the control sample were similar to values reported in the literature, while the chemical composition of the samples obtained using paper scraps, either blank or printed, was highly satisfactory. The results obtained validated the nutritional characteristics of the samples, highlighting a profitable means to recycle paper. PMID:25236243

Fernandes, ngela; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Herbert, Paulo; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-02-15

250

Increasing the leaching rate of bulk superalloy scrap by melting with aluminum. Report of investigations/1983  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines investigated a method for increasing the leaching rate of bulk superalloy scrap to facilitate recycling and recovery of critical metals such as Ni, Co, and Cr. Three superalloys were investigated, the cast-nickel-base superalloy IN-738, the wrought-nickel-base superalloy Rene-41, and the cast-cobalt-base superalloy Mar-M-509. Superalloys melted with 20, 30, 40, and 50 pct Al metal to form intermetallic compounds were easily crushed to a convenient particle size and reacted rapidly with acid solutions which dissolved the metals. For example, leaching 1/2-in pieces of unalloyed IN-738 with excess 6N HC1 at 95 degree C for 2 h dissolved about 0.5 pct, while leaching 10 g of minus 20-mesh 30 pct Al-70 pct IN-738 with excess 6N HC1 at 95 degrees C for 2 h dissolved 96.2 pct.

Atkinson, G.B.

1983-12-01

251

Solid electrolyte based sensor for monitoring the magnesium level during reclamation of aluminum scrap  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum alloy scrap often contains excess magnesium which must be removed during recycling by a process referred to as demagging. The efficiency of this process could be improved with an in-situ magnesium sensor, which could be used to optimize the process parameters to the changing magnesium content. The sensor developed in this work consists of a galvanic cell with a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) solid electrolyte and a molten magnesium reference electrode. The voltage output of the sensor changes by about 100 mV for the change in magnesium content which occurs during the demagging process (5 wt% to 0.1 wt%) and is in excellent agreement with thermodynamic measurements using molten chloride electrolytes. This paper focuses on the effect of silicon, which is a common alloying element in aluminum alloys, on the output of an electrochemical magnesium sensor.

Fergus, J.W.; Hui, S. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Materials Research and Education Center

1996-10-01

252

19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON THE CHARGING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

253

32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements 644.522...Military scrap can contain or be contaminated with explosives, chemicals, and other hazardous materials. The primary...

2013-07-01

254

32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements 644.522...Military scrap can contain or be contaminated with explosives, chemicals, and other hazardous materials. The primary...

2012-07-01

255

32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements 644.522...Military scrap can contain or be contaminated with explosives, chemicals, and other hazardous materials. The primary...

2014-07-01

256

32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements 644.522...Military scrap can contain or be contaminated with explosives, chemicals, and other hazardous materials. The primary...

2011-07-01

257

Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap  

DOEpatents

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA)

1992-12-29

258

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2014-10-01

259

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2011-10-01

260

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2010-10-01

261

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2013-10-01

262

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2012-10-01

263

Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap  

DOEpatents

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

1992-12-29

264

Scrap? This Program Grows on It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high school industrial arts program in plastics recycling provided students direct contact with production methods of the plastics industry as well as awareness of governmental functions. Experimentation included fuel cells, paving and construction composites, soil composites, and watercraft flotation. (EA)

Schureman, Robert

1975-01-01

265

The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing conditions on the Earth's surface can have a remarkable influence on the composition of its overwhelmingly more massive interior. The global distribution of uranium is a notable example. In early Earth history, the continental crust was enriched in uranium. Yet after the initial rise in atmospheric oxygen, about 2.4 billion years ago, the aqueous mobility of oxidized uranium resulted in its significant transport to the oceans and, ultimately, by means of subduction, back to the mantle. Here we explore the isotopic characteristics of this global uranium cycle. We show that the subducted flux of uranium is isotopically distinct, with high 238U/235U ratios, as a result of alteration processes at the bottom of an oxic ocean. We also find that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs) have 238U/235U ratios higher than does the bulk Earth, confirming the widespread pollution of the upper mantle with this recycled uranium. Although many ocean island basalts (OIBs) are argued to contain a recycled component, their uranium isotopic compositions do not differ from those of the bulk Earth. Because subducted uranium was probably isotopically unfractionated before full oceanic oxidation, about 600 million years ago, this observation reflects the greater antiquity of OIB sources. Elemental and isotope systematics of uranium in OIBs are strikingly consistent with previous OIB lead model ages, indicating that these mantle reservoirs formed between 2.4 and 1.8 billion years ago. In contrast, the uranium isotopic composition of MORB requires the convective stirring of recycled uranium throughout the upper mantle within the past 600 million years.

Andersen, Morten B.; Elliott, Tim; Freymuth, Heye; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Niu, Yaoling; Kelley, Katherine A.

2015-01-01

266

The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle.  

PubMed

Changing conditions on the Earth's surface can have a remarkable influence on the composition of its overwhelmingly more massive interior. The global distribution of uranium is a notable example. In early Earth history, the continental crust was enriched in uranium. Yet after the initial rise in atmospheric oxygen, about 2.4billion years ago, the aqueous mobility of oxidized uranium resulted in its significant transport to the oceans and, ultimately, by means of subduction, back to the mantle. Here we explore the isotopic characteristics of this global uranium cycle. We show that the subducted flux of uranium is isotopically distinct, with high (238)U/(235)U ratios, as a result of alteration processes at the bottom of an oxic ocean. We also find that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs) have (238)U/(235)U ratios higher than does the bulk Earth, confirming the widespread pollution of the upper mantle with this recycled uranium. Although many ocean island basalts (OIBs) are argued to contain a recycled component, their uranium isotopic compositions do not differ from those of the bulk Earth. Because subducted uranium was probably isotopically unfractionated before full oceanic oxidation, about 600 million years ago, this observation reflects the greater antiquity of OIB sources. Elemental and isotope systematics of uranium in OIBs are strikingly consistent with previous OIB lead model ages, indicating that these mantle reservoirs formed between 2.4 and 1.8 billion years ago. In contrast, the uranium isotopic composition of MORB requires the convective stirring of recycled uranium throughout the upper mantle within the past 600 million years. PMID:25592542

Andersen, Morten B; Elliott, Tim; Freymuth, Heye; Sims, Kenneth W W; Niu, Yaoling; Kelley, Katherine A

2015-01-15

267

Plutonium scrap recovery at Savannah River: Past, present, and vision of the future  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the changing requirement, plus environmental and regulatory commitments, SRP now has essentially completed its paradigm shift. SRP has been transformed from primarily a reprocessor of irradiated uranium targets to primarily a reprocessor of non-specification plutonium. This is the mission which will carry SRP into the 21st Century. Accomplishment of the defined goals for the three-pronged RandD program will achieve several objectives: exploit new processes for recovering low-grade scraps; enhance SRP's position to incorporate pyrochemical processes where they are attractive or beneficial to plant scrap recovery; provide SRL/SRP with a capability to develop compatible aqueous pyrochemical processes; identify material compatibility requirements for the incorporation of pyrochemical processes at SRP; promote development and demonstration of improved NDA instrumentation to accurately measure plutonium holdups in solid residues; identify and implement the technology required for reagent preparation and atmospheric quality control; provide a means to compare economic options for emerging new processes; and as a result, identify process steps which will also put SRP in a position to readily adapt to changing plutonium missions.

Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Blancett, A.L.; Lower, M.W.; Rudisill, T.S.

1988-01-01

268

Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried

Rafat Siddique; Tarun R. Naik

2004-01-01

269

Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

1994-03-01

270

Ferrous scrap preheating system. Phase 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Utilization of electric arc steel making has allowed many smaller producers to compete with the large mills. An electric arc furnace (EAF) melts scrap metal to produce a variety of steel products. Using scrap as the metal source is less costly than refining from ores, but the metal is of a lower quality due to impurities in the scrap. Over the years, methods have been developed to improve EAF metal quality and reduce the cost of production. As a result, an increasing share of total steel production is shifting to EAFs. By recent estimates, EAF production is growing at a rate of about 10% per year, and currently accounts for nearly one half of all US steel production (US Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute Project 2787-2, 1987). The subject of this report is Scrap Preheating, a new method of preheating scrap metal before it is charged into an EAF. In scrap preheating, a portion of the energy is supplied in a separate vessel, causing the EAF to use less energy, which shortens the heating time. The general effect is that the arc furnace can produce more steel in a given time at a reduced cost per ton of molten metal.

Not Available

1993-11-23

271

Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the

L A Meyers; R W Williams; S E Glover; S P LaMont; A M Stalcup; H B Spitz

2012-01-01

272

Recycling BIOPOLComposting and Material Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of biodegradable thermoplastics such as ZENECA's BIOPOL range of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers needs to be considered in terms of both material recycling and organic recycling by composting. BIOPOL can be recycled as regrind. The addition of BIOPOL to a model waste stream demonstrates that at the anticipated addition levels, BIOPOL should not have a deleterious effect on

M. K. Cox

1995-01-01

273

Precipitation Recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

1996-01-01

274

Computer Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given current rates of computer consumerism and technological advances, one might expect to find a lot of computers out there in the world. What happens to these old computers? This Topic in Depth explores this issue, reviews some options for recycling computers, and provides tips for anyone considering purchasing a refurbished computer. The first article from BBC News (1) reports on research which suggests that "the number of personal computers worldwide is expected to double by 2010 to 1.3 billion machines." The second article from Oasis, a project of the Irish eGovernment initiative, (2) reviews some of the issues surrounding waste from electrical and electronic equipment. This next article from PC World (3) gives some ideas for how to dispose of an old notebook computer. One option, of course, is to donate your notebook, which is discussed in this article from Tech Soup (4). Another resource for information on computer recycling and reuse is this website from CompuMentor (5). Given the current market for computers, many are considering refurbished computers. This article from Vnunet (6 ) explains what a refurbished computer is while the next website provides some tips for buying a refurbished computer (7 ). Finally, this article from About.com reports on the recently introduced National Computer Recycling Act (8).

275

REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-01-29

276

Influence of void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainty of commercial operation of fast breeder reactors (FBR) claims for another solution to the plutonium produced in light water reactors (LWR). As one option, recently, the plutonium recycling in LWR becomes an important consideration. A study on the impact of changing void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR has been performed. Two types of uranium sources in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, namely the depleted uranium and the natural uranium have been evaluated. The trend is similar for both MOX fuels that BWR can gain its critical condition for the void fraction of less than 42% and it may be operated in critical condition for the void fraction of 42% and 95%.

Surbakti, R.; Waris, A.; Basar, K.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.

2012-06-01

277

Argonne explains nuclear recycling in 4 minutes  

ScienceCinema

Currently, when using nuclear energy only about five percent of the uranium used in a fuel rod gets fissioned for energy; after that, the rods are taken out of the reactor and put into permanent storage. There is a way, however, to use almost all of the uranium in a fuel rod. Recycling used nuclear fuel could produce hundreds of years of energy from just the uranium we've already mined, all of it carbon-free. Problems with older technology put a halt to recycling used nuclear fuel in the United States, but new techniques developed by scientists at Argonne National Laboratory address many of those issues. For more information, visit http://www.anl.gov/energy/nuclear-energy.

None

2013-04-19

278

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

279

Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

1996-07-01

280

Ferrous scrap preheating system emission characterization test report  

SciTech Connect

One way to improve economics steel-making is to preheat the scrap metal before placing into an electric arc furnace. This reduces the electric arc furnace energy requirement, thus lowering the power cost and decreasing the melting time. This study uses a free standing preheater that recirculates hot gases to can be safely removed from the scrap during preheating. The test program was conducted to evaluate potential emissions from this scrap preheater and to determine emission control equipment requirements. Two areas of concern were organics and acid gas emissions created by the oils present on the scrap and heavy metal emissions created by the heating the metal. Heavy metal emissions were evaluated for Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd. Metals were heated to between 800 and 1125 F which is the temperature expected in the preheater. Heavy metal emissions were very low in all cases except Cd. If substantial amounts of Cd. are present in the scrap, it may be necessary to limit the present temperature. It is concluded that it would not be necessary to include auxiliary emission control equipment for the preheater that is to be supplied to preheat stainless steel at the demonstration site.

Not Available

1992-10-15

281

The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.  

PubMed

The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires. PMID:24238304

Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

2014-02-01

282

Experiments in anodic film effects during electrorefining of scrap U-10Mo fuels in support of modeling efforts  

SciTech Connect

A monolithic uranium molybdenum alloy clad in zirconium has been proposed as a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel option for research and test reactors, as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. Scrap from the fuel's manufacture will contain a significant portion of recoverable LEU. Pyroprocessing has been identified as an option to perform this recovery. A model of a pyroprocessing recovery procedure has been developed to assist in refining the LEU recovery process and designing the facility. Corrosion theory and a two mechanism transport model were implemented on a Mat-Lab platform to perform the modeling. In developing this model, improved anodic behavior prediction became necessary since a dense uranium-rich salt film was observed at the anode surface during electrorefining experiments. Experiments were conducted on uranium metal to determine the film's character and the conditions under which it forms. The electro-refiner salt used in all the experiments was eutectic LiCl/KCl containing UCl{sub 3}. The anodic film material was analyzed with ICP-OES to determine its composition. Both cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic scans were conducted at operating temperatures between 475 and 575 C. degrees to interrogate the electrochemical behavior of the uranium. The results show that an anodic film was produced on the uranium electrode. The film initially passivated the surface of the uranium on the working electrode. At high over potentials after a trans-passive region, the current observed was nearly equal to the current observed at the initial active level. Analytical results support the presence of K{sub 2}UCl{sub 6} at the uranium surface, within the error of the analytical method.

Van Kleeck, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Willit, J.; Williamson, M.A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fentiman, A.W. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2013-07-01

283

PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FROM URANIUM/MOLYBDENUM ALLOY  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site will recycle a nuclear fuel comprised of 90% uranium-10% molybdenum by weight. The process flowsheet calls for dissolution of the material in nitric acid to a uranium concentration of 15-20 g/L without the formation of precipitates. The dissolution will be followed by separation of uranium from molybdenum using solvent extraction with 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin. Testing with the fuel validated dissolution and solubility data reported in the literature. Batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed for the extraction, strip and wash stages with particular focus on the distribution of molybdenum.

Pierce, R; Ann Visser, A; James Laurinat, J

2007-10-15

284

Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

Clark, E.A.

1995-04-03

285

Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception & Managing  

E-print Network

Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception of uncontrolled radioactive source incidents. Aside from radiation exposure to workers and the public, this unwanted radioactive scrap material causes environmental and facility contamination with cleanup costs

286

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements . For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches . You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2010-07-01

287

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements . For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches . You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2012-07-01

288

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches. You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2014-07-01

289

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements . For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches . You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2011-07-01

290

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements . For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches . You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2013-07-01

291

Long-term strategies for increased recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements.  

PubMed

Aluminum recycling currently occurs in a cascading fashion, where some alloys, used in a limited number of applications, absorb most of the end-of-life scrap. An expected increase in scrap supply in coming decades necessitates restructuring of the aluminum cycle to open up new recycling paths for alloys and avoid a potential scrap surplus. This paper explores various interventions in end-of-life management and recycling of automotive aluminum, using a dynamic substance flow analysis model of aluminum and its alloying elements with resolution on component and alloy level (vehicle-component-alloy-element model). It was found that increased component dismantling before vehicle shredding can be an effective, so far underestimated, intervention in the medium term, especially if combined with development of safety-relevant components such as wheels from secondary material. In the long term, automatic alloy sorting technologies are most likely required, but could at the same time reduce the need for magnesium removal in refining. Cooperation between the primary and secondary aluminum industries, the automotive industry, and end-of-life vehicle dismantlers is therefore essential to ensure continued recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements. PMID:24655476

Lvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Mller, Daniel B

2014-04-15

292

Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method  

DOEpatents

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA); Lincoln, Lanny P. (Woodward, IA)

1992-02-11

293

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film...Metals 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap...

2014-01-01

294

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film...Metals 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap...

2012-01-01

295

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film...Metals 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap...

2013-07-01

296

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film...Metals 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap...

2011-01-01

297

Recovery of critical metals from superalloy scrap by matte smelting and hydrometallurgical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that as part of the U.S. Bureau of Mines program to reduce the Nation's reliance on foreign supplies for critical metals, a procedure was devised to separate and recover critical metals from mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap. The process uses both pyrometallurigical and hydrometallurgical, methods to treat the scrap. The mixed scrap is converted to a matte

W. J. Wuest; R. M. Stateham

1991-01-01

298

Component- and Alloy-Specific Modeling for Evaluating Aluminum Recycling Strategies for Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies indicated that the availability of mixed shredded aluminum scrap from end-of-life vehicles (ELV) is likely to surpass the capacity of secondary castings to absorb this type of scrap, which could lead to a scrap surplus unless suitable interventions can be identified and implemented. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing potential solutions to this problem, among others, because of a lack of component- and alloy-specific information in the models. In this study, we developed a dynamic model of aluminum in the global vehicle stock (distinguishing 5 car segments, 14 components, and 7 alloy groups). The forecasts made up to the year 2050 for the demand for vehicle components and alloy groups, for the scrap supply from discarded vehicles, and for the effects of different ELV management options. Furthermore, we used a source-sink diagram to identify alloys that could potentially serve as alternative sinks for the growing scrap supply. Dismantling the relevant components could remove up to two-thirds of the aluminum from the ELV stream. However, the use of these components for alloy-specific recycling is currently limited because of the complex composition of components (mixed material design and applied joining techniques), as well as provisions that practically prevent the production of safety-relevant cast parts from scrap. In addition, dismantling is more difficult for components that are currently penetrating rapidly. Therefore, advanced alloy sorting seems to be a crucial step that needs to be developed over the coming years to avoid a future scrap surplus and prevent negative energy use and emission consequences.

Modaresi, Roja; Lvik, Amund N.; Mller, Daniel B.

2014-11-01

299

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies  

SciTech Connect

The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

none,

1992-10-01

300

Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted  

E-print Network

Milling of Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted from ore with strong acids or bases. The uranium is concentrated in a solid substance called"yellowcake." Chemical Conversion Plants convert the uranium in yellowcake to uranium hexafluoride (UF6 ), a compound that can be made into nuclear fuel. Enrichment

301

Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?  

SciTech Connect

Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

Glaz, S.

1995-10-01

302

BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ARE LOADED INTO THE BOTTOM DROPPING CHARGE BUCKET IN THE BACKGROUND BEFORE BEING CHARGED INTO ONE OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

303

Waste management news: Newspaper recycling success depends on growth of capacity to Deink newsprint  

SciTech Connect

Items of interest in the news include: establishment of a council to develop a program for acceptable solutions to scrap tire disposal; a new tires-to-energy plant in Alberta, Canada that will process 1.2 million tires per year as fuel; start-up of a methane recovery facility at three New Jersey landfills; and a pilot program in Illinois developed by Amoco for recycling of motor oil.

Not Available

1990-06-01

304

An econometric model of the U.S. secondary copper industry: Recycling versus disposal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper, a theoretical model of secondary recovery is developed that integrates microeconomic theories of production and cost with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The model equations are estimated for the U.S. secondary copper industry and used to assess the impacts that various policies and future events have on copper recycling rates. The alternatives considered are: subsidies for secondary production, differing energy costs, and varying ore quality in primary production. ?? 1990.

Slade, M.E.

1980-01-01

305

Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

Dr. Benoit Forget; Michael Pope; Piet, Steven J.; Michael Driscoll

2012-07-30

306

Advanced process research and development to enhance metals and materials recycling.  

SciTech Connect

Innovative, cost-effective technologies that have a positive life-cycle environmental impact and yield marketable products are needed to meet the challenges of the recycling industry. Four materials-recovery technologies that are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with industrial partners are described in this paper: (1) dezincing of galvanized steel scrap; (2) material recovery from auto-shredder residue; (3) high-value-plastics recovery from obsolete appliances; and (4) aluminum salt cake recycling. These technologies are expected to be applicable to the production of low-cost, high-quality raw materials from a wide range of waste streams.

Daniels, E. J.

1997-12-05

307

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

308

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

309

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01

310

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

White, Boyd W.

2000-01-01

311

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

312

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

313

Surface-modification technology for scrap tire reuse  

SciTech Connect

This technical briefing report describes the DOE-Air Products project to develop the surface-modification technology for scrap tire rubber. It introduces the technology; discusses the project history, status, and feasibility studies; and reviews the potential benefits of the technology with respect to energy use and economics. Prelimary analyses indicate energy savings of approximately 60,000 Btu/lb by substituting surface-modified rubber in polyurethane systems.

Not Available

1992-09-01

314

Recycling Rules: Understanding Recycling and a MRF  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners simulate the separation techniques that materials recovery facilities (MRFs) use and then design their own series of recycling techniques. Learners identify four ways recyclable materials can be separated and sorted at a MRF: conveyor belts, blowers, flotation, and magnetism.

2013-01-17

315

Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper  

E-print Network

in human resource and community assistance programs to improve living conditions in rural areas · ResearchFederal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper The Forest Service, U.S. Department for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center

Standiford, Richard B.

316

Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper  

E-print Network

and community assistance programs to imporve living conditions in rural areas; and Research on all aspectsFederal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper The Forest Service, U.S. Department.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint

Standiford, Richard B.

317

Recycling overview in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

Not Available

1989-07-01

318

Reading, 'Riting, 'Rithmetic & Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the growing environmental education movement and what constitutes good education about recycling and the environment. Lists characteristics of environmental education resources and examines criticism of environmental education and recycling education. Cites 19 references. (LZ)

Hill, Jim, Ed.

1995-01-01

319

The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns  

SciTech Connect

The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

Blumenthal, M. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

320

Plutonium scrap processing at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory currently has the newest plutonium handling facility in the nation. Los Alamos has been active in the processing of plutonium almost since the discovery of this man-made element in 1941. One of the functions of the new facility is the processing of plutonium scrap generated at LASL and other sites. The feed for the scrap processing program is extremely varied, and a wide variety of contaminants are often encountered. Depending upon the scrap matrix and contaminants present, the majority of material receives a nitric acid/hydrofluoric acid or nitric acid/calcium fluoride leach. The plutonium nitrate solutions are then loaded onto an anion exchange column charged with DOWEX 1 x 4, 50 to 100 mesh, nitrate form resin. The column is eluted with 0.48 M hydroxyl amine nitrate. The Pu(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ is then precipitated as plutonium III oxalate which is calcined at 450 to 500/sup 0/C to yield a purified PuO/sub 2/ product.

Nixon, A.E.; McKerley, B.J.; Christensen, E.L.

1980-01-01

321

Rethink, Rework, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

1991-01-01

322

Recycling and the automobile  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

Holt, D.J.

1993-10-01

323

Much Ado about Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a solid waste recycling workshop for students and teachers sponsored by the Southwest Connecticut Regional Operating Committee (SWEROC), a consortium of 19 towns and cities organized to help implement a regional recycling program. The SWEROC workshop utilized games and team activities to teach students about recycling and the

Elliot, Ian

1993-01-01

324

Metal vapor treatment for enhancing the dissolution of platinum group metals from automotive catalyst scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for dissolving platinum group metals (PGMs) from automotive catalyst scrap using metal vapor was proposed. To\\u000a improve the PGMs dissolution ratio from scraps, vapor of reactive metals (R), such as magnesium (Mg) or calcium (Ca), was\\u000a reacted with the automotive catalyst scrap in a closed stainless steel vessel at 1173 K for 3 hours. Under these experimental

Yoshihiro Kayanuma; Toru H. Okabe; Masafumi Maeda

2004-01-01

325

Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements.

Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Jones, V.D.

1998-07-01

326

Scrap tire management in the New York/Mid Atlantic region  

SciTech Connect

The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufactures sponsored, advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. The primary goal of the Council is to assist in the creation of demand for 100 percent of the annually generated scrap tires in the United States. Based on current market demand and projected market growth, we envision the primary goal to be met by the turn of the century. A national overview of the scrap tire situation is presented, and then the situations in New York/Mid Atlantic region are discussed.

Blumenthal, M. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-05-01

327

Sink-float ferrofluid separator applicable to full scale nonferrous scrap separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design and performance of a ferrofluid levitation separator for recovering nonferrous metals from shredded automobiles are reported. The scrap separator uses an electromagnet to generate a region of constant density within a pool of ferrofluid held between the magnetic poles; a saturated kerosene base ferrofluid as able to float all common industrial metals of interest. Conveyors move the scrap into the ferrofluid for separation according to density. Results of scrap mixture separation studies establish the technical feasibility of relatively pure aluminum alloy and zinc alloy fractions from shredded automobile scrap by this ferrofluid levitation process. Economic projections indicate profitable operation for shredders handling more than 300 cars per day.

1973-01-01

328

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.  

PubMed

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low-grade precious metals and copper. It is expected that a mechanical recycling process will be developed for the upgrading of low metal content scraps. PMID:12758010

Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

2003-05-30

329

Enriched Uranium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Wikipedia website provides information about the various concentrations of uranium used for different applications. Topics include a brief description of the grades of uranium and methods of isotope separation. There are also links to other aspects of uranium enrichment and related information. This information lays the foundation for informed discussion about the potential of nuclear energy and the risks of nuclear proliferation.

Wikipedia

330

Material control and accountability aspects of safeguards for the USA ²³³U\\/TH fuel recycle plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fuel cycles are considered. The highly enriched uranium (HEU) cycle uses uranium enriched 93% in ²³⁵U as the initial fuel. The medium enriched uranium (MEU) cycle uses uranium with a ²³⁵U enrichment less than 20% as its initial fuel. In both, ²³³U is bred from thorium. The HEU ²³⁵U and the ²³³U of both cycles are recycled. The MEU

J. A. Jr. Carpenter; S. R. McNeany; P. Angelini; N. D. Holder; L. Abraham

1979-01-01

331

High temperature performance of scrap tire rubber modified asphalt concrete  

SciTech Connect

Wheel track rutting tests on mixes modified with 30 mesh, 80 mesh, and very fine colloidal crumb rubber particles show that a very significant improvement in performance occurs with a reduction in the rubber particle size. The SHRP binder test for rutting, which was originally developed for homogeneous systems only, does not predict the performance improvement for smaller rubber particles. If these new scrap rubber binder systems are to be used in pavements then rutting tests on the asphalt-aggregate mixture should be conducted in order to accurately predict high temperature performance.

Coomarasamy, A. [Ministry of Transportation, Downsview, Ontario (Canada); Manolis, S.; Hesp, S. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31

332

Recycling Service Learning Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recycling project begins with students learning about waste and resources. They complete background assignments about the energy and materials required to manufacture paper, aluminum, etc. They study landfills and the issues related to space, pollution, etc. They look at what is different if these things are recycled. The students work in groups of two or three and adopt and academic building on campus. They educate the staff and faculty about recycling - what can be recycled and where. They arrange to pick-up paper from each office. My hope is that the college faculty, staff and students will eventually recycle paper at common bins and that our project will progress to adding other recyclables to our project.

Renee Faatz

333

Manufacturing of aluminum flake powder from foil scrap by dry ball milling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study for producing aluminum flake powder from aluminum foil scrap by dry ball milling under an inert argon with a few % of oxygen was carried out. It was found that the pieces of aluminum foil scrap were laminated to each other, elongated by micro-forging of the falling balls, fragmented into small pieces of foil and finally formed

Seong-Hyeon Hong; Dong-Won Lee; Byoung-Kee Kim

2000-01-01

334

Computer-munching microbes: metal leaching from electronic scrap by bacteria and fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological processes were applied to mobilize metals from electronic waste materials. Bacteria (Thiobacillus thiooxidans, T. ferrooxidans) and fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum) were grown in the presence of electronic scrap. The formation of inorganic and organic acids caused the mobilization of metals. Initial experiments showed that microbial growth was inhibited when the concentration of scrap in the medium exceeded 10

H Brandl; R Bosshard; M Wegmann

2001-01-01

335

Food Scrap Vermicomposting and Composting Update John Biernbaum and Brooke Comer, Department of Horticulture  

E-print Network

Food Scrap Vermicomposting and Composting Update John Biernbaum and Brooke Comer, Department survival. A concrete pad with a high tunnel cover was constructed and allowed food scrap hot composting recipes were hot composted during the summer and final products are being evaluated for effectiveness

336

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution...purchase and use of only metal ingots, pig iron, slitter, or other materials that do not...scrap exposure to rain. (2) General iron and steel scrap. You must prepare...

2011-07-01

337

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution...purchase and use of only metal ingots, pig iron, slitter, or other materials that do not...scrap exposure to rain. (2) General iron and steel scrap. You must prepare...

2012-07-01

338

Optimal batch quantity models for a lean production system with in-cycle rework and scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a manufacturing system, reworking of the defectives and management of waste or scrap are important issues that call for immediate attention to meet the basic objectives and requirements for lean production system. This paper deals with a manufacturing process where finished goods are occasionally produced along with undesirable defective items and scrap. As the system is not always perfect,

Pablo Biswas; Bhaba R. Sarker

2008-01-01

339

40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

2010-07-01

340

Benchmarking survey for recycling.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

2005-06-01

341

Producing ground scrap tire rubber: A comparison between ambient and cryogenic technologies  

SciTech Connect

Prior to 1985, few, if any scrap tires were processed. The Minnesota program changed all that. The equipment first introduced to process scrap tires consisted of redesigned wood or metal shredders. The performance of these systems left much to be desired. In the past 10 years, many companies and equipment systems, designed especially for scrap tires, have come into existence. Until recently, scrap tires were typically processed by ambient systems. These systems consist of a mechanical process, which cuts and or grinds whole tire rubber into the desired sized particle at room temperatures. Historically, producing ground rubber, like all other rubber processing, was done by an ambient processes system. Within the last several years, cryogenic processing of scrap tires has been introduced for the preparation of ground rubber. In the cryogenic process, rubber is introduced into a bath of liquid nitrogen, instantly freezing the rubber. Once embrittled, the rubber is struck with an impact devise, effectively shattering the rubber.

Blumenthal, M.H. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-09-01

342

Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

2013-09-01

343

Recovery of critical metals from superalloy scrap by matte smelting and hydrometallurgical processing. Rept. of Investigations\\/1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the U.S. Bureau of Mines program to reduce the Nation's reliance on foreign supplies for critical metals, a procedure was devised to separate and recover critical metals from mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap. The process uses both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods to treat the scrap. The mixed scrap is converted to a matte containing 4 to 7

G. L. Hundley; D. L. Davis

1991-01-01

344

Purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} scrap for heat source fuel  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel by HNO{sub 3}/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel.

Schulte, L.D.; Purdy, G.M.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ramsey, K.; Silver, G.L.; Espinoza, J.; Rinehart, G.H.

1997-10-01

345

Recycling into Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit weaves art and science together to help students appreciate the importance of recycling. In this engaging activity, students collected items worthy of recycling from home, and with the help of the art teacher, used a loom to cr

Debra Fioranelli

2000-10-01

346

Visiting a Recycling Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this ZOOM video segment, cast member Francesco follows the paper trail to find out what happens to his recyclables. He visits a material recovery center and learns how paper is recycled and the number of trees that are saved as a result.

2005-10-21

347

Making Recycled Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and accompanying text describe the three-pronged resource conservation strategy known as "reduce, reuse, and recycle". The video segment, adapted from the television program 'ZOOM', features cast members demonstrating how something that might otherwise be discarded, such as newspaper, can be recycled to create a functional or even beneficial new product. Questions for discussion are also provided.

2005-01-01

348

Recycling and Composting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the value of renewable resources. Using multimedia intractives, video, and classroom activities, they learn to identify examples of renewable resources and how humans use them, understand what recycling and conservation are, learn about composting, and identify food waste and household items that can be recycled or composted.

2005-01-01

349

Recycling at Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

Cummins, William M.

1988-01-01

350

Asphalt recycle plant and method  

SciTech Connect

An asphalt recycling system and process are incorporated into an existing batch type asphalt plant. The existing asphalt plant has an aggregate dryer and air discharge ducts connected to a filtering system. A recycling dryer has input ducts connected to the existing aggregate dryer discharge ducts and output ducts connected from the recycling dryer back to the existing ducts to the filtering system. A recycle feeder bin for feeding reclaimed asphalt pavement to the recycle dryer is connected to the recycle dryer. A recycle booster burner is operatively connected to the recycle dryer through the input duct to the dryer for providing additional heat to the recycle dryer so that the waste heat from the existing aggregate dryer and the booster burner provide a predetermined heat to the recycle dryer for heating the asphalt material. A recycling storage bin or silo is connected to receive the heated recycled asphalt from the recycle dryer. A hammermill or other means may be provided for breaking up the old asphaltic materials, such as old paving materials prior to entry of the material into the recycle dryer. Dampers are provided for directing heated gases from the existing batch type asphalt plant to the recycling system, as needed, and temperature controls are utilized to control the recycled booster burner to provide the right combination of existing waste and added heat for the recycled dryer. The stored recycled asphalt materials may be fed to an existing plant batching tower for batching and loading into vehicles.

Brashears, D. F.; Butler, T. G.; Elliott, E. J.

1984-10-16

351

An economic and technical assessment of black-dross and salt-cake-recycling systems for application in the secondary aluminum industry  

SciTech Connect

The secondary aluminum industry annually disposes of large amounts of dross residues and salt cake, which are by-products from the processing of scrap aluminum for reuse. These wastes contain as much as 50% salts and are presently disposed of in conventional landfills. As the costs of landfill space increase and the availability of landfill space decreases, disposal of the residues will increasingly compromise the economics of recycling aluminum. Alternative processes exist by which the major constituents of the various drosses and salt cakes can be recovered for recycling. In this study, we review available recycling technologies and processes relevant to the recycling of black dross and salt cake and discuss new concepts that have the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of recycling technologies.

Karvelas, D.; Daniels, E.; Jody, B.; Bonsignore, P.

1991-12-01

352

Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction  

SciTech Connect

We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

DUNCAN, D.R.

2000-04-20

353

Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

2012-12-15

354

Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions  

SciTech Connect

Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12 K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503 K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25 atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1 atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723 K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Olazar, Martin [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: martin.olazar@ehu.es; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

2009-10-15

355

Advance disposal fees and recycling: Partners or foes?  

SciTech Connect

A political trend of shifting government responsibilities from the federal to the state and local level is beginning to take hold in many municipalities this year. Evidence of this shift recently was codified by the passage of Congress`s unfunded mandates bills, which require a panel review of any federal government mandates that create a cost burden of at least $50 million on state and local government. Expecting to be freed from the yoke of the most costly unfunded federal laws, many states are taking a second look at their expensive recycling laws and considering reassessment of how funding mechanisms are structured. This search for ways to raise revenue has renewed the continuing debate over advance disposal fees (ADFs), which are included in the cost of a product to pay for its ultimate disposal or reuse. These ADFs have been used for several years in a majority of US states to help handle scrap tire disposal. Due to concern over fire hazards posed by the nation`s growing scrap tire piles, several states have implemented a $1--$2 fee on each tire to help pay for disposal, most of which have been reasonably successful.

Woods, R.

1995-05-01

356

Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Eighteen million metric tons of industrial wastes are produced every year in Taiwan. In order to properly handle the industrial wastes, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) has set up strategic programs that include establishment of storage, treatment, and final disposal systems, establishment of a management center for industrial wastes, and promotion of recycling and reuse of industrial wastes. The Taiwan EPA has been actively promoting the recycling and reuse of industrial wastes over the years. In July 1995 the Taiwan EPA amended and promulgated the Criteria for the Industrial Waste Storage, Collection and Processing Facility, July, 1995 that added articles related to general industrial waste recycling and reuse. In June 1996 the Taiwan EPA promulgated the Non-listed General Industrial Waste Reuse Application Procedures, June, 1996, followed by the Regulations Governing the Permitting of Hazardous Industrial Waste Reuse, June 1996, setting up a full regulatory framework for governing industrial waste reuse. To broaden the recycling and reuse of general industrial wastes, the Taiwan EPA has listed 14 industrial waste items for recycling and reuse, including waste paper, waste iron, coal ash, tempered high furnace bricks (cinder), high furnace bricks (cinder), furnace transfer bricks (cinder), sweetening dregs, wood (whole/part), glass (whole/part), bleaching earth, ceramics (pottery, brick, tile and cast sand), individual metal scraps (copper, zinc, aluminum and tin), distillery grain (dregs) and plastics. As of June 1999, 99 applications for reuse of industrial wastes had been approved with 1.97 million metric tons of industrial wastes being reused. PMID:11150138

Wei, M S; Huang, K H

2001-01-01

357

Industrial waste recycling at an automotive component manufacturing facility  

SciTech Connect

The AC Rochester Division of General Motors Corporation (GM) develops and manufacturers automotive components for engine management systems at nine facilities in the US. Its largest facility is located in flint, Michigan, and is known as the Flint East site. The Flint East site covers nearly two square miles and consists of several plants housing manufacturing operations for spark plugs, glow plugs, oil filters, air filters, air cleaner assemblies, fuel pumps, fuel level sensors, cruise control systems, and other components. The volume and diversity of the scrap and wastes generated from these operations require skillful waste management to provide environmentally safe and cost-effective disposal options. Over time, a full-scale recycling and waste disposal operation evolved at Flint East. The operation has grown over the past thirty years to handle over 68,000 tons of material annually. Flint East`s program is regarded as a model industrial waste reduction and recycling operation. Elements of the program are presented here as a guide to establishing a successful industrial recycling program.

Jaffurs, J.A.; Hubler, R.L.; Behaylo, D.P. [General Motors Corp., Flint, MI (United States). AC Rochester Div.

1995-09-01

358

Creating Methane from Plastics: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste, into fuel. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. The goal of this project is to determine the feasibility of recycling waste into methane on the lunar outpost by performing engineering assessments and lab demonstrations of the technology. The first goal of the project was to determine how recycling could influence lunar exploration. Table I shows an estimation of the typical dried waste stream generated each day for a crew of four. Packaging waste accounts for nearly 86% of the dry waste stream and is a significant source of carbon on the lunar surface. This is important because methane (CH4) can be used as fuel and no other source of carbon is available on the lunar surface. With the initial assessment indicating there is sufficient resources in the waste stream to provide refueling capabilities, the project was designed to examine the conversion of plastics into methane.

Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Wheeler, Ray; Strayer, RIchard; Garland, Jay; Parrish, Clyde

2010-01-01

359

Active Recycling eyes coast-to-coast operations  

SciTech Connect

Active Recycling is a waste processing facility covering more than four acres in a mixed neighborhood in south-central Los Angeles. The recycling center handles more than 16,000 tons per month of household waste, making it more than twice the average size of most existing US materials recovery facilities today. The yard has its own railroad spur, and prepared materials from the recycling center are shipped out daily. Glass, paper, aluminum, and scrap metal are shipped directly to mills for reuse. The materials shipped by rail are dropped off throughout the US, while the rest of the materials go overseas in export containers. The company's sizeable loading dock can load four rail cars and seven 40-foot export containers simultaneously. The center boasts of paying some of the highest prices in the area for glass bottles and jars, polyethylene terephthalate soft drink bottles, and high-density polyethylene containers, cardboard, newspapers, mixed-color and white paper, aluminum, copper, brass, automotive batteries, iron and cast iron, lead, tin, stainless steel, diecast aluminum, aluminum foil and TV dinner trays, radiators, and electric motors.

Paquette, P.

1995-03-01

360

Energy Return on Investment from Recycling Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) from recycling an initial batch of 800 t/y of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through a Recycle Center under a number of different fuel cycle scenarios. The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered. The scenarios represent a good cross section of the options available and the results contained in this paper and associated appendices will allow for other fuel cycle options to be considered.

None

2011-08-17

361

Creating Methane from Plastic: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste into fuel. This process thermally degrades plastic in the presence of oxygen producing CO2 and CO. The CO2 and CO are then reacted with hydrogen over catalyst (Sabatier reaction) producing methane. An end-to-end laboratory-scale system has been designed and built to produce methane from plastic, in this case polyethylene. This first generation system yields 12-16% CH4 by weight of plastic used.

Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Captain, Janine; Devor, Robert; Gleaton, Jeremy

2010-01-01

362

CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING  

E-print Network

1 2 3 CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING Jos´e F. Mart´inez1 , Jose Renau2 Michael C. Huang3 , Milos Prvulovic2 , and Josep Torrellas2 #12;Cherry: Checkpointed Early Resource Recycling: Decouple recycling from retirement #12;Cherry: Checkpointed Early Resource Recycling in Out

Torrellas, Josep

363

The Totem Pole Recycled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that integrates science, environmental education, art, and social studies. Students identify and research an endangered species and construct a totem pole depicting the species using a recyclable material. (MDH)

Sewall, Susan Breyer

1991-01-01

364

Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

365

Recyclability Index for Automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rating system was developed to quantify the environmental impacts of light-duty motor vehicles at the end of their life-cycle based on recyclability, toxic material content and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehicle material not recycled is called automotive shredder residue (ASR). About 4.5 to 5 million tons of

Alexander Tsuji; Yarrow Nelson; Andrew Kean; Samuel A. Vigil

2006-01-01

366

Design of a bench-scale apparatus for processing carbon black derived from scrap tires  

E-print Network

The focus of this work is to design a bench-scale apparatus, for laboratory applications, that will perform solid processing operations for carbon black obtained through the thermal catalytic depolymerization of scrap tires. These operations...

Woodrow, Philip Travis

1996-01-01

367

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources ...

2013-07-01

368

Continuous fermentation of food scraps with constant pH control to produce carboxylic acids  

E-print Network

Global energy demands combined with environmental restrictions are fueling a move to alternative energy sources. Biofuels are formed from biomass; the MixAlco process is one such method. In this work, food scraps are explored as a potential...

Coleman Jr., Stanley Albert

2009-05-15

369

Continuous fermentation of food scraps with constant pH control to produce carboxylic acids  

E-print Network

Global energy demands combined with environmental restrictions are fueling a move to alternative energy sources. Biofuels are formed from biomass; the MixAlco process is one such method. In this work, food scraps are explored as a potential...

Coleman Jr., Stanley Albert

2008-10-10

370

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prepare and operate at all times according to written material specifications for the purchase and use of only metal ingots, pig iron, slitter, or other materials that do not include post-consumer automotive body scrap, post-consumer engine...

2010-07-01

371

Recycling of Magnesium Alloy Employing Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure magnesium was recycled from partially oxidized 50.5 wt pct Mg-Al scrap alloy and AZ91 Mg alloy (9 wt pct Al, 1 wt pct Zn). Refining experiments were performed using a eutectic mixture of MgF2-CaF2 molten salt (flux). During the experiments, potentiodynamic scans were performed to determine the electrorefining potentials for magnesium dissolution and magnesium bubble nucleation in the flux. The measured electrorefining potential for magnesium bubble nucleation increased over time as the magnesium content inside the magnesium alloy decreased. Potentiostatic holds and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to measure the electronic and ionic resistances of the flux. The electronic resistivity of the flux varied inversely with the magnesium solubility. Up to 100 pct of the magnesium was refined from the Mg-Al scrap alloy by dissolving magnesium and its oxide into the flux followed by argon-assisted evaporation of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. Solid oxide membrane electrolysis was also employed in the system to enable additional magnesium recovery from magnesium oxide in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. In an experiment employing AZ91 Mg alloy, only the refining step was carried out. The calculated refining yield of magnesium from the AZ91 alloy was near 100 pct.

Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter A.; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

2013-04-01

372

A new paradigm: near-complete recycling of spent fuel - A path to sustainable nuclear energy  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies indicate that maximized recycling, where more than 95% of the components of spent nuclear fuel are reused, can be economically justified and can reduce the mass of waste products by a substantial amount. The potentially removable and reusable components include the uranium, zirconium from the cladding, structural hardware, certain noble metal fission products, and the transuranic radionuclides. The approach to maximizing recycle and minimizing emissions and wastes should improve public acceptance of nuclear energy. (authors)

Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Spencer, Barry B.; Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Rd., P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6223 (United States)

2007-07-01

373

Resource recovery of scrap silicon solar battery cell.  

PubMed

In order to minimize pollution problems and to conserve limited natural resources, a hydrometallurgical procedure was developed in this study to recover the valuable resources of silicon (Si), silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) from scrap silicon solar battery cells. In this study, several methods of leaching, crystallization, precipitation, electrolysis and replacement were employed to investigate the recovery efficiency of Ag and Al from defective monocrystalline silicon solar battery cells. The defective solar battery cells were ground into powder followed by composition analysis with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The target metals Ag and Al weight percentage were found to be 1.67 and 7.68 respectively. A leaching process was adopted with nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide as leaching reagent to recover Ag and Al from a ground solar battery cell. Aluminum was leached 100% with 18N H2SO4 at 70C and Ag was leached 100% with 6N HNO3. Pure Si of 100% was achieved from the leaching solution after the recovery of Ag and Al, and was analyzed by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Aluminum was recovered by crystallization process and silver was recovered by precipitation, electrolysis and replacement processes. These processes were applied successfully in the recovery of valuable metal Ag of 98-100%. PMID:23460539

Lee, Ching-Hwa; Hung, Chi-En; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Popuri, Srinivasa R; Liao, Ching-Hua

2013-05-01

374

On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data. PMID:11376883

Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

2001-06-01

375

Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

2012-06-01

376

Who owns the recyclables  

SciTech Connect

On March 31, the California Supreme Court decided the much awaited Rancho Mirage'' case (Waste Management of the Desert, Inc., and the City of Rancho Mirage v. Palm Springs Recycling Center, Inc.), and held that the California Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 does not allow an exclusive franchise for the collection of recyclables not discarded by their owner.'' This ends a three-year slugfest between secondary materials processors in the state and municipalities and their franchised garbage haulers who also collect and process recyclables as part of their exclusive arrangement. Central to this nationally-watched litigation is a most fundamental question in waste management: at what point in time do articles in the solid waste stream become actual or potentially valuable secondary materials

Parker, B.

1994-05-01

377

Recycled Aluminum Ornaments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from ATEEC will explain the principles of recycling. The activity would be most appropriate for technology studies or high school science classes. In all, it would require 2-5 hours of class time to complete. The purpose of the lesson is to demonstrate how aluminum is recycled. This laboratory activity does require some special equipment including a heat source capable of melting aluminum and an outdoor work area. Extension activities are also provided. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

Wishart, Ray

2013-06-14

378

Coprocessing of hydrocarbonaceous wastes and residual oil - a novel approach to recycling  

SciTech Connect

The Plastic and Rubber Recycling (PARR) Process being developed by Kilborn Inc., and Canadian Energy Developments Inc., offers a unique approach to the recovery and recycle of waste hydrocarbonaceous materials as they are simultaneously hydrogenated with low quality residual oil to yield basic petrochemicals and virgin plastic and synthetic rubber compounds. Laboratory scale experiments with used tire rubber crumb, scrap polystyrene and heavy oil residuum as the coprocessing medium gave encouraging results. In excess of 90 percent of the carbonaceous matter was converted to distillate oil product that, upon secondary hydrotreating, could be considered high quality ethylene cracking furnace feedstock or aromatics extraction plant feedstock. This presentation will discuss the technical and economic potential of the PARR Process, the planned technology development program and initial commercialization plans.

Anderson, N.E. [Kilborn Inc., Toronto (Canada); Berger, D.J. [Canadian Energy Developments Inc., Edmonton (Canada)

1993-12-31

379

Ferromagnetic inks facilitate large scale paper recycling and reduce bleach chemical consumption.  

PubMed

Deinking is a fundamental part of paper recycling. As the global paper consumption rises and exceeds even the annual paper production, recycling of this raw material is of high importance. Magnetic ink based on carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles enables an alternative approach to state of the art paper deinking. Magnetic deinking comprises three steps (preselection, washing, and magnetic separation of fibers). Preseparation of printed from nonprinted scraps of paper is feasible and reduces the paper mass which has to be fed into a deinking process. A consecutive washing process removes surficial magnetic ink that can be collected by application of a permanent magnet. Still, printed parts are subjected to a further continuous magnetic deinking step, where magnetic and nonmagnetic paper fibers can be separated. Magnetic deinking of a model print allows recovery of more than 80% of bright fibers without any harsh chemical treatment and the re-collection of more than 82% of magnetic ink. PMID:23495668

Zeltner, Martin; Toedtli, Laura M; Hild, Nora; Fuhrer, Roland; Rossier, Michal; Gerber, Lukas C; Raso, Renzo A; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

2013-04-23

380

Reducing the solid waste stream: reuse and recycling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) increased its solid waste diversion by 365 percent over FY 1992 in five solid waste categories - paper, cardboard, wood, metals, and miscellaneous. (LLNL`s fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30.) LLNL reused/ recycled 6,387 tons of waste, including 340 tons of paper, 455 tons of scrap wood, 1,509 tons of metals, and 3,830 tons of asphalt and concrete (Table1). An additional 63 tons was diverted from landfills by donating excess food, selling toner cartridges for reconditioning, using rechargeable batteries, redirecting surplus equipment to other government agencies and schools, and comporting plant clippings. LLNL also successfully expanded its demonstration program to recycle and reuse construction and demolition debris as part of its facility-wide, comprehensive solid waste reduction programs.

Wilson, K. L.

1997-08-01

381

Direct measurement of recycle ratios in internal recycle laboratory reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method involving the internal positioning of probe capillaries to measure the recycle ratio in an internal recycle reactor equipped with a basket containing a powdered catalyst is reported. The variation of recycle ratio with carrier gas composition, pressure, temperature and catalyst mass is presented. Based on the calculated pressure drop and the principles governing flow resistance across the catalyst

Roald Brosius; Jack C. Q. Fletcher

2010-01-01

382

Recycling Decisions and Green Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the facts and perceptions regarding recycling, what can be done to make products more environmentally compatible, and how to think about recycling decisions in a more helpful way. (Contains 39 references.) (MDH)

Lave, Lester B.; And Others

1994-01-01

383

Uranium Phosphates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of preparation, stability in solution and in the solid state, and composition of the crystalline hydrates of uranyl and uranium(IV) orthophosphates and condensed phosphates have been reviewed. The structures of these compounds have been discussed; they are three-dimensional polymers with a uranyl-phosphate framework. The polymerisation of the phosphate anion on thermal decomposition has been discussed. Condensed uranyl polyphosphates are unstable when kept, and are capable of undergoing dehydration, the extent of which increases with increase in the length of the phosphate chain and increase in the uranium concentration. The bibliography contains 199 references.

Kobets, L. V.; Umreiko, D. S.

1983-06-01

384

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-11-01

385

Recycled Insect Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an

Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

2007-01-01

386

Recycling for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melvin Hoare, Steve Rawlings and the CUGA consortium look forward to the potential offered by recycling the 30 m class antennas at Goonhilly Earth Station in Cornwall, including a new deep-space tracking facility, research and training, and the possibility of enhancing the e-MERLIN array.

Hoare, Melvin

2012-02-01

387

RECYCLABILITY INDEX FOR AUTOMOBILES  

EPA Science Inventory

The project's purpose is to create a rating system for the ecological impacts of vehicles at the end of their life based on recyclability, toxic material content, and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehi...

388

Designing for recycling  

SciTech Connect

The instrument panel (IP) with its variety of materials is one of the most difficult parts of the automobile to recycle. Selection of materials to minimize material count and maximize separability is critical to cost-effective IP recycling. Choices of assembly and disassembly techniques also should consider recycling. Current practices for recycling automobiles focus on the recovery of usable parts and metals with other materials becoming landfill. New design practices or significant developments in recovery technology must occur to reduce the volume of landfill materials. Design practices will be most effective if they allow cost-effective recovery of desired materials from the plastic components before shredding. Recovery technology continues to improve, but most parts are shredded with the car and land-filled as automotive shredder residue (ASR). Shredding followed by mechanical separation conceptually is the most cost-effective option, but the typical instrument panel contains six or more plastic materials. This makes separation difficult and expensive to get acceptable material yields and purity.

NONE

1997-08-01

389

MITI projects on recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

MITI has actively done R&D on industrial technology for waste and reclamation and so there are many research items from small scale to large scale. However, Ecofactory and researches on recycling of metallic materials are introduced here. Ecofactory was proposed by the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory and is now at the stage of the Leading Research, a new research scheme in

Yoshinori Nakazawa

1995-01-01

390

Recycling Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use

Hallowell, Anne; And Others

391

Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boys and girls, grab your nose-plugs because today we are going to be digging through some garbage! We use a lot of garbage; the average American throws away nearly four pounds everyday. That\\'s a whopping 1,600 pounds a year! That means that every year, EACH one of you toss enough trash to equal the weight of all the students in our class...COMBINED! That\\'s a lot of garbage. Our world is big, but you might not have realized just how small it really is when it comes to holding all this trash. Would you want garbage in your backyard? Your playground? The park? There\\'s only so many places to store our waste. So, what do we do? We RECYCLE! What Does It Mean To Recycle? Recycling is taking things we use and would normally through into the trash can and putting them in a separate container. Instead of going to the dump, it goes to a recycling plant. Things like paper, newspaper, cardboard, plastic, glass, and aluminum are all products ...

Nicole

2008-11-19

392

Recycling and Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky used recycled cypress from pickle vats to build its visitor center and then “paid back” nature by creating a cypress-tupelo swamp at one end of a lake on the park grounds.

Ket

2011-01-11

393

Recycling refuse into energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 50 percent of large cities and 10 percent of small ones reportedly are talking about recycling their municipal refuse. Several are building facilities or have recently begun operations. Short case histories are given of a few of the more notable ones, including Ames, Iowa (the organic fraction of whose refuse helps fuel the furnace at the municipal electric generating

Godfey; K. A. Jr

1976-01-01

394

Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking

Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

2005-01-01

395

Recycling of the #5 polymer.  

PubMed

Polypropylene (PP) is a widely used plastic with consumer applications ranging from food packaging to automotive parts, including car battery casings. To differentiate it from other recyclable plastics, it is designated as #5. Here, the factors contributing to PP recycling rates are briefly reviewed. Considerations include collection and separation efficiency, processing chemistry, and market dynamics for the products derived from recyclates. PMID:22879510

Xanthos, Marino

2012-08-10

396

Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.  

PubMed

Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete. PMID:15219914

Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

2004-01-01

397

Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

2000-02-29

398

Machining of uranium and uranium alloys  

SciTech Connect

Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

Morris, T.O.

1981-12-14

399

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31

400

Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.  

PubMed

The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973?K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1?:?1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03?kJ?mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1?:?1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81?kJ?mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648?K with a heating rate of 20?K?min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region. PMID:25030024

Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

2014-10-01

401

Degradation products of the process of thermal recovery of copper from lamina scraps in lab-scale fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results dealing with a process for recovering copper in the scrap composite materials issued from electronic laminas industry. This environment-friendly process consists in the thermal treatment of scrap in a fluidized bed whose particles fix the harmful gases emitted by the organic glue gasification. A series of experiments was carried out in a thermobalance coupled to

P Antonetti; Y Flitris; G Flamant; H Hellio; D Gauthier; B Granier

2004-01-01

402

Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

McKay, J.

1992-05-01

403

COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Chelsea Hubbard

2001-05-01

404

Composting to Recycle Biowaste  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a If agriculture is to be made sustainable, few activities like composting are very important. Composting not only allows organic\\u000a waste of agricultural origin to be recycled and returned to the soil, but also provides a solution for managing much of the\\u000a waste, which is currently a major problem. If urban organic waste is selectively collected and composted, it no longer

Gyrgy Fleky; Szilveszter Benedek

405

Machine coolant recycling system  

SciTech Connect

Machining processes at the 272W Site Fabrication Services (SFS) produce a waste stream consisting of dirty machine coolant. During use the coolant becomes contaminated with metal chips from milling, and oil, dirt and solvents from the machining process. The mixture is designated as a Washington State dangerous waste with WP02 (persistence), D007 (chromium) and D008 (lead) waste codes. This process results in the generation of 13.5 m{sup 3} of hazardous waste per year with an annual cost for coolant replacement, waste management and waste disposal of approximately $137,000. To identify alternatives to this situation, ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH) North Environmental Services conducted a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P20A) on the machining processes. A coolant recycler and sump sucker unit were selected as the most cost-effective waste reduction options. In December 1994, ICF KH received return on investment (ROI) funding from the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to implement this option. The coolant recycling and the sump sucker units were purchased and installed in July 1995 at a total cost of $61,000. The sump sucker removes the dirty coolant from the fabrication machinery and filters it to remove shavings and sludge. The filtered coolant then is transferred to the coolant recycling system for further processing. The coolant recycling system reconditions the filtered coolant for use in the machining equipment, and mixes the concentrated coolant to the correct concentration. As a result of implementing this option, the annual generation of waste coolant was reduced by 12 m{sup 3}. The annual cost savings exceed $119,000 with an ROI of 186%. Additional benefits include reduced coolant usage; improved tool life, wheel life, finish, size control, corrosion protection, and operator working conditions; increase machine {open_quotes}up-time{close_quotes}; and reduced machine tool maintenance.

Grabner, T.A. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

406

Leaching studies for tin recovery from waste e-scrap  

SciTech Connect

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of developing Indo-Korean recycling technique consists of organic swelling pre-treatment technique for the liberation of thin layer of metallic sheet and the treatment of epoxy resin to remove/recover toxic soldering material. To optimize the parameters required for recovery of tin from waste PCBs, initially the bench scale studies were carried out using fresh solder (containing 52.6% Sn and 47.3% Pb) varying the acid concentration, temperature, mixing time and pulp density. The experimental data indicate that 95.79% of tin was leached out from solder material using 5.5 M HCl at fixed pulp density 50 g/L and temperature 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 165 min. Kinetic studies followed the chemical reaction controlled dense constant size cylindrical particles with activation energy of 117.68 kJ/mol. However, 97.79% of tin was found to be leached out from solder materials of liberated swelled epoxy resin using 4.5 M HCl at 90 Degree-Sign C, mixing time 60 min and pulp density 50 g/L. From the leach liquor of solder materials of epoxy resin, the precipitate of sodium stannate as value added product was obtained at pH 1.9. The Pb from the leach residue was removed by using 0.1 M nitric acid at 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 45 min and pulp density 10 g/L. The metal free epoxy resin could be disposed-of safely/used as filling material without affecting the environment.

Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: maniskrjha@gmail.com [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Choubey, Pankaj Kumar; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumari, Archana [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Lee, Jae-chun, E-mail: jclee@kigam.re.kr [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Vinay [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Jeong, Jinki [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

407

Opportunities and Barriers to Resource Recovery and Recycling from Shredder Residue in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shredder residue is the by-product remaining after ferrous and nonferrous metals have been recovered from the processing of vehicles, white goods, and peddler scrap. Shredder residue consists of glass, plastics, rubber, dirt, and small amounts of metal. It is estimated that 5-7 million tons of this shredder residue are landfilled each year in the United States. Technical advancements, coupled with European Union directives and the economic climate, have transformed the recycling of shredder residue in Europe. In the United States, however, regulatory controls and the cheap cost of landfill have worked against the advancement of recycling and recovery of this resource. The Argonne National Laboratory, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, has investigated the effectiveness of recycling shredder residue into polymers. Other research has examined the use of shredder residue in waste-to-energy applications. To improve our ability to process and recycle shredder residue, an investigation of the regulatory, economic, and technological challenges was undertaken. The objective was to conduct a comprehensive review of work done to date, to document the composition of typical shredder output and to identify potential recoverable items (residual metals, plastics, rubber, foam, etc.). Along with uncovering potential new markets, the research would identify the technical, regulatory, and economic barriers to developing those markets.

Nayak, Naren; Apelian, Diran

2014-11-01

408

A dynamic fuel cycle analysis for a heterogeneous thorium-DUPIC recycle in CANDU reactors  

SciTech Connect

A heterogeneous thorium fuel recycle scenario in a Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor has been analyzed by the dynamic analysis method. The thorium recycling is performed through a dry process which has a strong proliferation resistance. In the fuel cycle model, the existing nuclear power plant construction plan was considered up to 2016, while the nuclear demand growth rate from the year 2016 was assumed to be 0%. In this analysis, the spent fuel inventory as well as the amount of plutonium, minor actinides, and fission products of a multiple thorium recycling fuel cycle were estimated and compared to those of the once-through fuel cycle. The analysis results have shown that the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle can be constructed through the dry process technology. It is also shown that the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle can reduce the spent fuel inventory and save on the natural uranium resources when compared with the once-through cycle. (authors)

Jeong, C. J.; Park, C. J.; Choi, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., P.O. Box 150, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

409

Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

NONE

1995-10-01

410

Novel process for recycling magnesium alloy employing refining and solid oxide membrane electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium is the least dense engineering metal, with an excellent stiffness-to-weight ratio. Magnesium recycling is important for both economic and environmental reasons. This project demonstrates feasibility of a new environmentally friendly process for recycling partially oxidized magnesium scrap to produce very pure magnesium at low cost. It combines refining and solid oxide membrane (SOM) based oxide electrolysis in the same reactor. Magnesium and its oxide are dissolved in a molten flux. This is followed by argon-assisted evaporation of dissolved magnesium, which is subsequently condensed in a separate condenser. The molten flux acts as a selective medium for magnesium dissolution, but not aluminum or iron, and therefore the magnesium collected has high purity. Potentiodynamic scans are performed to monitor the magnesium content change in the scrap as well as in solution in the flux. The SOM electrolysis is employed in the refining system to enable electrolysis of the magnesium oxide dissolved in the flux from the partially oxidized scrap. During the SOM electrolysis, oxygen anions are transported out of the flux through a yttria stabilized zirconia membrane to a liquid silver anode where they are oxidized. Simultaneously, magnesium cations are transported through the flux to a steel cathode where they are reduced. The combination of refining and SOM electrolysis yields close to 100% removal of magnesium metal from partially oxidized magnesium scrap. The magnesium recovered has a purity of 99.6w%. To produce pure oxygen it is critical to develop an inert anode current collector for use with the non-consumable liquid silver anode. In this work, an innovative inert anode current collector is successfully developed and used in SOM electrolysis experiments. The current collector employs a sintered strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (La0.8Sr0.2MnO 3-delta or LSM) bar, an Inconel alloy 601 rod, and a liquid silver contact in between. SOM electrolysis experiments with the new LSM-Inconel current collector are carried out and performance comparable to the state-of-the-art SOM electrolysis for Mg production employing the non-inert anode has been demonstrated. In both refining and SOM electrolysis, magnesium solubility in the flux plays an important role. High magnesium solubility in the flux facilitates refining. On the other hand, lower magnesium solubility benefits the SOM electrolysis. The dissolution of magnesium imparts electronic conductivity to the flux. The effects of the electronic conductivity of the flux on the SOM electrolysis performance are examined in detail through experiments and modeling. Methods for mitigating the negative attributes of the electronic conductivity during SOM electrolysis are presented.

Guan, Xiaofei

411

Fabrication of aluminum flake powder from foil scrap by a wet ball milling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fabrication of aluminum flake powder by the wet ball milling of aluminum foil scraps and the effect of related factors were studied. As foil thickness decreases from 60 to 6.5 ?m, mean size of powder milled for 30 h decreases from 107 to 17 ?m. It is impossible to mill the foil without oleic acid to fabricate the flake powder.

S. H Hong; B. K Kim

2001-01-01

412

MUTAGENICITY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the use of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay to perform bioassay-directed chemical analysis of emissions from the open burning of scrap rubber tires in both a small laboratory study using tires cut into two sizes (CHUNK and SHRED) and a field study of the larg...

413

US Department of Energy`s weapons complex scrap metal inventory. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Two tasks comprise the thrust of this contracted effort. Task 1 is the development of a Source List and is based on determining a list of public documents pertaining to contaminated/uncontaminated scrap metals, equipment, and other materials of value, were they not contaminated or could they be decontaminated. Task 2 is to develop an inventory of such materials from the Task 1 list of public documentation. In more detail, the Task 2 Inventory Report is based upon fulfillment of the following requirement to prepare and submit an Inventory Report based on the information obtained in the Source List. The Inventory Report shall define the type, quantity, and location of used equipment, scrap metal, and other materials existing within DOE`s system. The Inventory Report shall list: the site where the equipment, scrap metal, or other material resides; the type and size of equipment; the type and volume and/or weight of scrap metal or other material; its source; the type and level of contamination; its accessibility; the current annual rate of generation; and the projected annual rate of generation of the material.

Duda, J.R.

1993-07-01

414

Pyrolysis and debromination of flame retarded polymers of electronic scrap studied by analytical pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two typical components of electronic scrap have been investigated by analytical pyrolysis: an electronic junction (phthalic polyester filled with ceramic fibres, flame retarded with brominated polystyrene) and a printed circuit board (epoxy resin on woven glass fibre support, flame retarded with brominated epoxy resin). Copyrolysis of these plastic materials has been carried out with inorganic solids of basic character. The

M Blazs; Zs Czgny; Cs Csoma

2002-01-01

415

OFFGAS GENERATION FROM THE DISPOSITION OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM BY VITRIFICATION SIMULANT TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is supporting R&D for the conceptual design of the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC to reduce the attractiveness of plutonium scrap by fabricating a durable plutonium oxide glass form and immobilizing this form within the high-level waste glass prepared in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. A

J Zamecnik; P Patricia Toole; D David Best; T Timothy Jones; W Whitney Thomas; V Vickie Williams

2008-01-01

416

CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS EMITTED FROM A SIMULATED SCRAP TIRE FIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a small-scale combustion study, designed to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. he study found that total estimated emissions of semi-volatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg of tire material...

417

MUTAGENICITY OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a follow-up to a small-scale combustion study to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. The initial study found that total estimated emissions of semi-volatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg o...

418

Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits  

E-print Network

Rutgers Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits Through WM's Recycling Program, our company saved energy and reduced Greenhouse Gases through recycling. Recycling uses less energy, preserves from recycled material than from virgin, raw material. RESOURCE SAVINGS 4203 Metric Tons (MTCO2E

Delgado, Mauricio

419

Using vacuum pyrolysis and mechanical processing for recycling waste printed circuit boards.  

PubMed

The constant growth in generation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) poses a huge disposal problem because they consist of a heterogeneous mixture of organic and metallic chemicals as well as glass fiber. Also the presence of heavy metals, such as Pb and Cd turns this scrap into hazardous waste. Therefore, recycling of WPCB is an important subject not only from the recovery of valuable materials but also from the treatment of waste. The aim of this study was to present a recycling process without negative impact to the environment as an alternative for recycling WPCB. In this work, a process technology containing vacuum pyrolysis and mechanical processing was employed to recycle WPCB. At the first stage of this work, the WPCB was pyrolyzed under vacuum in a self-made batch pilot-scale fixed bed reactor to recycle organic resins contained in the WPCB. By vacuum pyrolysis the organic matter was decomposed to gases and liquids which could be used as fuels or chemical material resources, however, the inorganic WPCB matter was left unaltered as solid residues. At the second stage, the residues obtained at the first stage were investigated to separate and recover the copper through mechanical processing such as crushing, screening, and gravity separation. The copper grade of 99.50% with recovery of 99.86% based on the whole WPCB was obtained. And the glass fiber could be obtained by calcinations in a muffle furnace at 600 degrees C for 10 min. This study had demonstrated the feasibility of vacuum pyrolysis and mechanical processing for recycling WPCB. PMID:20060640

Long, Laishou; Sun, Shuiyu; Zhong, Sheng; Dai, Wencan; Liu, Jingyong; Song, Weifeng

2010-05-15

420

RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by  

E-print Network

storage batteries for automotive, marine, industrial, stationary, specialty, commercial and consumer uses A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries (continued) All starting, lighting and ignition (SLI

Laughlin, Robert B.

421

Waste recycling for energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

This book explains the philosophy and practice of resource and energy recovery; it provides pratical guidance for everyone involved in recycling and recovery procedures. Particular attention is directed towards mechanical sorting and to the classification of urban and industrial refuse; to refuse-derived fuels and their storage, handling, and incineration; and to the operational procedures which apply to recycling plants of all kinds. Carefully selected case histories describe important industrial recycling applications which function in Europe and in the USA; these highlight the benefits and the financial returns which can be achieved by thoughtful recycling.

Kut, D.; Hare, G.

1981-01-01

422

Emulsified industrial oils recycling  

SciTech Connect

The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

Gabris, T.

1982-04-01

423

Occurrence of Metastudtite (Uranium Peroxide Dihydrate) at a FUSRAP Site  

SciTech Connect

Uranium concentrations in groundwater in a localized area of a site exceed the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) by a factor of one thousand. Although the groundwater seepage velocity ranges up to 0.7 meters per day (m/day), data indicate that the uranium is not migrating in groundwater. We believe that the uranium is not mobile because of local geochemical conditions and the unstable nature of the uranium compound present at the site; uranium peroxide dihydrate (metastudtite). Metastudtite [UO{sub 4}.2(H{sub 2}O) or (U(O{sub 2})|O|(OH){sub 2}).3H{sub 2}O] has been identified at other sites as an alteration product in casks of spent nuclear fuel, but neither enriched nor depleted uranium were present at this site. Metastudtite was first identified as a natural mineral in 1983, although documented occurrences in the environment are uncommon. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a remedial investigation at the DuPont Chambers Works in Deep water New Jersey under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) to evaluate radioactive contamination resulting from historical activities conducted in support of Manhattan Engineering District operations. From 1942 to 1947, Chambers Works converted uranium oxides to uranium tetrafluoride and uranium metal. More than half of the production at this facility resulted from the recovery process, where uranium-bearing dross and scrap were reacted with hydrogen peroxide to produce uranium peroxide dihydrate. The 280-hectare Chambers Works has produced some 600 products, including petrochemicals, aromatics, fluoro-chemicals, polymers, and elastomers. Contaminants resulting from these processes, including separate-phase petrochemicals, have also been detected within the boundaries of the FUSRAP investigation. USACE initiated remedial investigation field activities in 2002. The radionuclides of concern are natural uranium (U{sub nat}) and its short-lived progeny. Areas of impacted soil generally correspond to the footprints of the former production buildings. U{sub nat} concentrations in soil exceed the investigative screening value, 518 Becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) [14 pico-curies per gram (pCi/g)], to an approximate depth of 2.5 m. This depth corresponds to the depth of buried demolition debris from the uranium processing site. Aqueous-phase uranium has also been confirmed at the site and appears to coincide with uranium-impacted soils. Soil textures in the impacted area consist mainly of fine-grained silty sand and rubble. The hydraulic conductivities range from 5 E-6 to 1 E-5 m/s. Groundwater seepage velocity ranges from 0.003 m/day to 0.7 m/day in the impacted area. Groundwater investigations conducted throughout the FUSRAP site indicate that redox conditions in the shallow groundwater are reducing, with low dissolved oxygen concentrations, as would be expected underlying a petrochemical facility. In contrast, groundwater in the uranium source area is an oxidizing microenvironment, with elevated pH conditions, despite the presence of free-phase liquid hydrocarbons in close proximity. Dissolved oxygen is elevated in the uranium source area, which may be due to the presence of metastudtite. Metastudtite has been shown to produce hydrogen peroxide through the process of alpha irradiation of water molecules. Uranium peroxide dihydrate is more soluble in water than other hexavalent mineral forms. The literature suggests that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, metastudtite is unstable in groundwater. Although the presence of metastudtite in the source area may have caused locally high levels of aqueous-phase uranium to form, the uranium ions may not be mobile outside of this small area because of significant abrupt changes in geochemical conditions. The ongoing groundwater investigation includes tasks to confirm the presence of metastudtite and hydrogen peroxide, and monitor for seasonal geochemical or hydrogeologic changes. (authors)

Young, C.M.; Nelson, K.A. [Cabrera Services, Inc., 103 East Mount Royal Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21202 (United States); Stevens, G.T.; Grassi, V.J. [US Army Corps of Engineers, Philadelphia District, 100 Penn Square East, Philadelphia, PA 19107-3390 (United States)

2006-07-01

424

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

425

Recycler barrier RF buckets  

SciTech Connect

The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

426

The use of carbonate lixiviants to remove uranium from uranium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to design an extraction media and procedure that would selectively remove uranium without adversely affecting the soils` physicochemical characteristics or generating secondary waste forms difficult to manage or dispose of. Investigations centered around determining the best lixivant and how the various factors such as pH, time, and temperature influenced extraction efficiency. Other factors investigated included the influence of attrition scrubbing, the effect of oxidants and reductants and the recycling of lixiviants. Experimental data obtained at the bench- and pilot-scale levels indicated 80 to 95% of the uranium could be removed from the uranium-contaminated soils by using a carbonate lixiviant. The best treatment was three successive extractions with 0.25 M carbonate-bicarbonate (in presence of KMnO{sub 4} as an oxidant) at 40 C followed with two water rinses.

Francis, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Wilson, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

1997-08-01

427

CFC recycling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for recycling freon. It comprises attaching a freon removal valve to a freon supply located in an appliance such as an air conditioner, refrigerator, freezer or the like, positioning a substantially empty freon collecting vessel in gas flow relationship to the valve by providing the freon removal valve with a puncture needle extending upwardly and adapted to puncture a freon supply tubing in the appliance, below the puncture needle is positioned a spring means, and below the spring means is positioned a piercing means adapted to pierce a closure in the collecting vessel to thereby establish a gas passage means extending from the supply tube, through the needle, through the piercing means to the collecting vessel, collecting the freon thereby in the collecting vessel, providing a substantially gas-free sealing means on the collecting vessel to insure substantial total containment of the freon within the collecting vessel, and delivering the collecting vessel to a collection center for reuse and recycling of the freon.

Furmanek, D.J.

1991-06-25

428

RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY Panel Discussion Roundtable Moderator: S, although higher market values for recyclable will certainly stimulate increased interest in collection in recycling and deinking technologies and process design among North American, European, and Pacific Rim

Abubakr, Said

429

Uranium: a basic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

All energy sources and technologies, including uranium and the nuclear industry, are needed to provide power. Public misunderstanding of the nature of uranium and how it works as a fuel may jeopardize nuclear energy as a major option. Basic chemical facts about uranium ore and uranium fuel technology are presented. Some of the major policy decisions that must be made

Crull

2009-01-01

430

Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary, March 1994  

SciTech Connect

A recent Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study identified 59 waste sites at 14 DOE facilities across the nation that exhibit radionuclide contamination in excess of established limits. The rapid and efficient characterization of these sites, and the potentially contaminated regions that surround them represents a technological challenge with no existing solution. In particular, the past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of surface and subsurface soils. Such contamination commonly occurs within waste burial sites, cribs, pond bottom sediments and soils surrounding waste tanks or uranium scrap, ore, tailings, and slag heaps. The objective of the Uranium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop optimal remediation methods for soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium (U), at DOE sites. It is examining all phases involved in an actual cleanup, including all regulatory and permitting requirements, to expedite selection and implementation of the best technologies that show immediate and long-term effectiveness specific to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and applicable to other radionuclide contaminated DOE sites. The demonstration provides for technical performance evaluations and comparisons of different developmental technologies at FEMP sites, based on cost-effectiveness, risk-reduction effectiveness, technology effectiveness, and regulatory and public acceptability. Technology groups being evaluated include physical and chemical contaminant separations, in situ remediation, real-time characterization and monitoring, precise excavation, site restoration, secondary waste treatment, and soil waste stabilization.

Not Available

1994-03-01

431

Review Article: Recycling of Polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of polystyrene can be done by mechanical, chemical, and thermal methods. High impact polystyrene is a promising material for mechanical recycling since its properties are not extremely affected even after multiple processing of upto nine cycles. Production of liquid products and gaseous products are highly dependent on the reaction condition. The catalysts used are highly selective for the production

T. Maharana; Y. S. Negi; B. Mohanty

2007-01-01

432

Framework for Building Design Recyclability  

E-print Network

.2 Sustainable Construction .................................................................................... 4 1.2.1 Interpreting Sustainable Construction.......................................................... 5 1.2.2 Reduce, Reuse, and Recycling... for sustainable construction. They were: 1. Reduce resource consumption 2. Reuse resources 3. Use recyclable resources 4. Protect nature 5. Eliminate toxics 6. Apply lifecycle costing 7. Focus on quality Construction industry has tremendous impact...

Zhang, Fan

2008-01-01

433

Bacterial cell-wall recycling  

PubMed Central

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In manyand quite possibly allbacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-walltargeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

2012-01-01

434

Information Sources on Rural Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49

Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

1992-01-01

435

Training Governments to Buy Recycled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program developed by the Northeast Maryland Waste Disposal Authority to teach government buyers how to buy recycled materials. The program consists of a hands-on training seminar and a manual that offers step-by-step instructions for setting up a buy-recycled purchasing program. (LZ)

Keller, Richard

1995-01-01

436

The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following

Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

2013-01-01

437

Bacterial cell-wall recycling.  

PubMed

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many--and quite possibly all--bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. Although cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall-targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall-recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

Johnson, Jarrod W; Fisher, Jed F; Mobashery, Shahriar

2013-01-01

438

Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

1973-01-01

439

Climate Kids: Recycling Program Educator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using her countywide program as an example, a recycling educator offers incentives for recycling by providing data on energy savings and explaining how her county in Michigan supports the program. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

440

Nuclear power fleets and uranium resources recovered from phosphates  

SciTech Connect

Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium, whereas some future reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR) will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in light water reactors. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. It is therefore important to have an accurate estimate of the available uranium resources in order to plan for the world's future nuclear reactor fleet. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources (uranium and plutonium) and the nuclear power demand. Sodium fast reactors will be built in line with the availability of plutonium, including fast breeders when necessary. Different assumptions on the global uranium resources are taken into consideration. The largely quoted estimate of 22 Mt of uranium recovered for phosphate rocks can be seriously downscaled. Based on our current knowledge of phosphate resources, 4 Mt of recoverable uranium already seems to be an upper bound value. The impact of the downscaled estimate on the deployment of a nuclear fleet is assessed accordingly. (authors)

Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G. [CEA, DEN/DANS/I-tese, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2013-07-01

441

Thermoset recycling via high-pressure high-temperature sintering: Revisiting the effect of interchange chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1844 Charles Goodyear obtained U.S. Patent #3,633 for his "Gum Elastic Composition". In a published circular, which describes his patent for the sulfur vulcanization of gum elastic composition, he stated: "No degree of heat, without blaze, can melt it (rubber)... It resists the most powerful chemical reagents. Aquafortis (nitric acid), sulphuric acid, essential and common oils, turpentine and other solvents... ..." Goodyear's sulfur vulcanization of rubber fueled much of the industrial revolution and made transportation possible, as it exists today. In doing so, Goodyear created one of the most difficult materials to recycle. Rubber will not melt, dissolve, or lend itself to the usual methods of chemical decomposition. Ironically, Goodyear recognized this problem and in 1853 he patented the process of adding ground rubber to virgin material, now currently known as regrind blending. Today, scrap tires represent one of the most serious sources of pollution in the world. Studies estimate that there are roughly 2 billion scrap tires in U.S. landfills and more are being added at a rate of over 273 million tires per year. Current methods of recycling waste tires are crude, ineffective, and use rubber powder as a low cost filler instead of a new rubber. The groundwork for a very simple and effective method of producing high-quality rubber goods using 100% scrap rubber was discovered in 1944 by A. V. Tobolsky et al. This application, however, was not recognized until recently in our laboratory. The process as studied to date represents a method of creating quality, high-value added rubber goods with nothing other than heat and pressure. High pressure is required to obtain a void-free compaction of the rubber particles by forcing all of the free surfaces into intimate contact. High temperature then activates the chemical rearrangement, scission, and reformation of the chemical bonds thus providing new bridges between the once fractured interfaces. This occurs both within and between particles. The technique of high-pressure high-temperature sintering has worked on all types of thermoset materials. Typical mechanical properties for sintered SBR powder rubber are as follows: 1.3 MPa 100% Modulus, 12.0 MPa Tensile Strength and 300% Elongation at Break. The goal of this research is two-fold. First, to gain an understanding of the variables that control the process of high-pressure high-temperature sintering. Second, to study the factors governing the mechanism of fusion with the hope of controlling and exploiting this process so that tires can be recycled to produce high quality and high-value added products.

Morin, Jeremy Edward

442

Endosomal recycling regulation during cytokinesis  

PubMed Central

Successful cytokinesis is critical for cell proliferation and development. In animal cells, cytokinesis relies on temporally and spatially regulated membrane addition to the cleavage site. An important source for the new membrane is recycling endosomes. Yet how these endocytic vesicles are transported and regulated remains unclear. Several potential factors have been recently identified that regulate the trafficking of recycling endosomes during cytokinesis. Dynein and dynactin are required for the retrograde transport of recycling endosomes, while Kinesin-1 is responsible for endosome delivery to the furrow and midbody. Other regulators of recycling endosome trafficking have been identified, including RACK1, JIP3/4 and ECT2, which target recycling endosomes during the cell cycle. Here, we provide insights into the mechanisms controlling endosomal trafficking during cytokinesis. PMID:19907714

Ai, Erkang

2009-01-01

443

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF URANIUM AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a significant role in the mobilization and immobilization of uranium. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides and toxic metals from the waste, with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated soils and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation/photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal.

FRANCIS,A.J.

2002-09-10

444

Recycle of waste paper  

SciTech Connect

One of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's long range goals is to reduce the amount of waste from the plant. The large amount of waste paper generated by the plant is currently buried in the state permitted landfill. Methods of recycling cardboard and paper which comply with all security requirements, health, safety, and environmental regulations of the Y-12 Plant are sought to conserve the landfill. A process to compact paper into a form which may be used as fuel and fed into the existing steam plant has been developed. A water-resistant briquette has been made from waste paper, a binder, and coal. Laboratory and pilot scale briquetting and pulverizing tests have been completed. These briquettes have physical properties similar to those of coal. 12 tabs.

Hackett, G.D.; Harris, G.E.

1988-01-01

445

29 CFR 570.63 - Occupations involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order 12). 570.63 Section 570.63 Labor Regulations Relating...

2010-07-01

446

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31

447

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, clean coal combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered allowable under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

2008-08-31

448

Incorporation of neural network analysis into a technique for automatically sorting lightweight metal scrap generated by ELV shredder facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to improve the technique of automatic sorting of lightweight metal scrap by sensing apparent density and three-dimensional shape, realized by the combination of a three-dimensional (3D) imaging camera and a meter to weigh a moving object on a conveyor belt, neural network analysis was integrated into the scrap identification algorithm, and its effect on the sorting accuracy

Shigeki Koyanaka; Kenichiro Kobayashi

2011-01-01

449

Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste  

DOEpatents

A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Goozner; Robert E. (Charlotte, NC)

1998-07-14

450

LWR First Recycle of TRU with Thorium Oxide for Transmutation and Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

Thorium has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (thorium is approximately three times more plentiful than uranium) and as a result of concerns about proliferation and waste management (e.g. reduced production of plutonium, etc.). Since the average composition of natural Thorium is dominated (100%) by the fertile isotope Th-232, Thorium is only useful as a resource for breeding new fissile materials, in this case U-233. Consequently a certain amount of fissile material must be present at the start-up of the reactor in order to guarantee its operation. The thorium fuel can be used in both once-through and recycle options, and in both fast and thermal spectrum systems. The present study has been aimed by the necessity of investigating the option of using reprocessed plutonium/TRU, from a once-through reference LEU scenario (50 GWd/ tIHM), mixed with natural thorium and the need of collect data (mass fractions, cross-sections etc.) for this particular fuel cycle scenario. As previously pointed out, the fissile plutonium is needed to guarantee the operation of the reactor. Four different scenarios have been considered: Thorium recycled Plutonium; Thorium recycled Plutonium/Neptunium; Thorium recycled Plutonium/Neptunium/Americium; Thorium recycled Transuranic. The calculations have been performed with SCALE6.1-TRITON.

Andrea Alfonsi; Gilles Youinou

2012-07-01

451

LWR First Recycle of TRU with Thorium Oxide for Transmutation and Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

Thorium has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (thorium is approximately three times more plentiful than uranium) and as a result of concerns about proliferation and waste management (e.g. reduced production of plutonium, etc.). Since the average composition of natural Thorium is dominated (100%) by the fertile isotope Th-232, Thorium is only useful as a resource for breeding new fissile materials, in this case U-233. Consequently a certain amount of fissile material must be present at the start-up of the reactor in order to guarantee its operation. The thorium fuel can be used in both once-through and recycle options, and in both fast and thermal spectrum systems. The present study has been aimed by the necessity of investigating the option of using reprocessed plutonium/TRU, from a once-through reference LEU scenario (50 GWd/ tIHM), mixed with natural thorium and the need of collect data (mass fractions, cross-sections etc.) for this particular fuel cycle scenario. As previously pointed out, the fissile plutonium is needed to guarantee the operation of the reactor. Four different scenarios have been considered: Thorium recycled Plutonium; Thorium recycled Plutonium/Neptunium; Thorium recycled Plutonium/Neptunium/Americium; Thorium recycled Transuranic. The calculations have been performed with SCALE6.1-TRITON.

Andrea Alfonsi; Gilles Youinou; Sonat Sen

2013-02-01

452

Uranium industry annual 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

NONE

1999-04-22

453

Uranium industry annual 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

NONE

1995-07-05

454

Experimental nickel-cobalt recovery from melt-refined superalloy scrap anodes. Report of investigations/1986  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to recover strategic and critical metals such as Ni, Co, and Cr from mixed contaminated superalloy scrap. One approach being studied involves melt refining of superalloy scrap to produce anodes for electrolytic deposition of Ni-Co alloy. This melt refining of superalloy turnings is described, based on melt-oxidation and oxidation-carburization experiments that use roasted superalloy grinding sludge to supply the O needed to oxidize Cr and other readily oxidized elements to the slag. Controlled melt-carburization subsequent to oxidation improved the metal-phase recovery of Ni and Co to sell over 90% and decreased electrolytic solubility of Cr, Mo, and W by carbide formation. Research is continuing to improve deposit quality in sustained deposition and to recover Cr and other metals from refining slags and anode sludges.

Holman, J.L.; Neumeier, L.A.

1986-01-01

455

Advanced recycling and research complexes: A second strategic use for installations on the base closure list  

SciTech Connect

Obstacles currently facing the solid waste recycling industry are often related to a lack of public and investor confidence, issues of profitability and liability, and insufficient consumer identification with products made from recycled materials. Resolution of these issues may not be possible without major changes in the way the solid waste recycling business is structured. At the same time, we are faced with opportunities which will not likely recur in our lifetimes: access to educated, well trained work forces; and large tracts of land that are contiguous with metropolitan areas and are developed for heavy industry and transportation. Military installations are being converted to civilian use just in time to serve as important a role in our national resource conservation policy. The future of recycling in North America converges with the future of selected bases on the closure list and takes the form of converting these bases into Advanced Recycling and Research Complexes. The premise is simple: use these strategically-located facilities as industrial parks where a broad range of secondary wastes are separated, refined, or converted and made into new products on site. The wastes would include municipal solid waste (MSW), demolition waste, landscape trimmings, used tires, scrap metal, agricultural waste, food processing waste, and other non-hazardous materials. The park would consist of separation and conversion facilities, research and product standards laboratories, and industries that convert the materials into products and fuels. Energy conversion systems using some waste streams as fuel could be located at the park to supplement energy demands of the industrial operations. The strategic co-location of the resource providers and user industries would minimize transportation costs.

Walter, D.W.; Kuusinen, T.L.; Beck, J.E.

1993-05-01

456

Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 34% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it may be possible to divert the majority of plastic waste from landfills to recycling over the next decades. PMID:19528059

Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

2009-01-01

457

Simulation of cutting process in the cable recycling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment is a hot spot in environmental protection field presently and the resource utilization of cable wastes is an important subject. An enormous amount of electrical cable is disposed of as scrap each year. In order to recycle the valuable copper wires, cable granulator technique is used widely. However, one of the shortcomings of this technique is it has serious tool wear. In order to better understand the reason for tool wear, this paper simulates the stress and strain distribution in the cutting tool and copper during the cutting process in cable granulator by finite element method. The result shows that a tensile stress region, which is the main reason for blade tipping, appeared in the upper blade. Besides, the tensile stress in the right side of upper blade is higher than that in the left side. Therefore, in order to extend the life of cutter, we suggest using different materials in different stress zone to manufacture cutting tool. After the cutter was worn out, the right side of the blade can be renovated using material with well tensile performance through overlaying welding, as well as the left side of the blade can be renovated by material with high red hardness, high wear resistance, and high compression strength through overlaying welding. This method can reduce the consumption of precious metals and raise the utilization rate of materials.

Li, Yang; Luo, Zhen; Song, Kailei; Ao, Sansan; Wang, Rui

2010-12-01

458

Simulation of cutting process in the cable recycling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment is a hot spot in environmental protection field presently and the resource utilization of cable wastes is an important subject. An enormous amount of electrical cable is disposed of as scrap each year. In order to recycle the valuable copper wires, cable granulator technique is used widely. However, one of the shortcomings of this technique is it has serious tool wear. In order to better understand the reason for tool wear, this paper simulates the stress and strain distribution in the cutting tool and copper during the cutting process in cable granulator by finite element method. The result shows that a tensile stress region, which is the main reason for blade tipping, appeared in the upper blade. Besides, the tensile stress in the right side of upper blade is higher than that in the left side. Therefore, in order to extend the life of cutter, we suggest using different materials in different stress zone to manufacture cutting tool. After the cutter was worn out, the right side of the blade can be renovated using material with well tensile performance through overlaying welding, as well as the left side of the blade can be renovated by material with high red hardness, high wear resistance, and high compression strength through overlaying welding. This method can reduce the consumption of precious metals and raise the utilization rate of materials.

Li, Yang; Luo, Zhen; Song, Kailei; Ao, Sansan; Wang, Rui

2011-05-01

459

Incubating small recycling technology developers  

SciTech Connect

Most new Recycling Technologies are being commercialized by small, and sometimes very small companies. These organizations lack the facilities to undertake the work necessary to prove the effectiveness of their technology at the pilot to semi-commercial scale. ORTECH has used their extensive bench and pilot plant facilities, plus technical expertise to partner with a number of new recycling technology developers to help them successfully commercialize these technologies. The paper will describe technological developments undertaken by three such partnerships involving recycling of: CFCs, fiberglass and high value metals from waste streams.

Lakshmanan, V.I.; Laughlin, R.G.W. [ORTECH Corp., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-12-31

460

Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle  

DOEpatents

A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA); Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01

461

Surface-modification technology for scrap tire reuse. A technical brief  

SciTech Connect

This technical briefing report describes the DOE-Air Products project to develop the surface-modification technology for scrap tire rubber. It introduces the technology; discusses the project history, status, and feasibility studies; and reviews the potential benefits of the technology with respect to energy use and economics. Prelimary analyses indicate energy savings of approximately 60,000 Btu/lb by substituting surface-modified rubber in polyurethane systems.

Not Available

1992-09-01

462

Fabrication of MMCs from metal and alloy powders produced from scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) present a lot of advantages over conventional engineering materials due to their improved properties. In the present work, Ni3FeAl2O3 and (3Ni+Fe)Al2O3 composites with a 10065wt% metals or alloy content were prepared. For that purpose, lower cost Ni, Fe and Ni3Fe powders, recovered from ferrous scrap by a hydrometallurgical process recently developed, with properties similar to typical

V. G. Karayannis; A. K. Moutsatsou

2006-01-01

463

Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was

Shui-Jen Chen; Hung-Bin Su; Juu-En Chang; Wen-Jhy Lee; Kuo-Lin Huang; Lien-Te Hsieh; Yi-Chu Huang; Wen-Yinn Lin; Chih-Chung Lin

2007-01-01

464

Pyrolysis and Gasification of Cotton Scrap Materials as a Municipal Solid Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on waste cotton scrap materials for converting into fuel form. The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis experiments has been investigated at the temperatures of 250C, 350C, 500C, 600C, 700C, 800C, and 900C. The maximum liquid amount (30%)was obtained at 500C with 700 cm\\/min N2 sweep gas flow rate of 5C\\/min heating rate.

J. Glen; H. Arslan

2009-01-01

465

Foamed lightweight materials made from mixed scrap metal waste powder and sewage sludge ash.  

PubMed

The porous properties and pozzolanic effects of sewage sludge ash (SSA) make it possible to produce lightweight materials. This study explored the effects of different metallic foaming agents, made from waste aluminium products, on the foaming behaviours and engineering characteristics, as well as the microstructure of sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight materials. The results indicated that aluminium powder and mixed scrap metal waste powder possessed similar chemical compositions. After proper pre-treatment, waste aluminium products proved to be ideal substitutes for metallic foaming agents. Increasing the amount of mixed scrap metal waste by 10-15% compared with aluminium powder would produce a similar foaming ratio and compressive strength. The reaction of the metallic foaming agents mainly produced pores larger than 10 microm, different from the hydration reaction of cement that produced pores smaller than 1 microm mostly. To meet the requirements of the lightweight materials characteristics and the compressive strength, the amount of SSA could be up to 60-80% of the total solids. An adequate amount of aluminium powder is 0.5-0.9% of the total solids. Increasing the fineness of the mixed scrap metal waste powder could effectively reduce the amount required and improve the foaming ratio. PMID:15560443

Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chiou, Ing-Jia

2004-10-01

466

Recovery of critical metals from superalloy scrap by matte smelting and hydrometallurgical processing  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that as part of the U.S. Bureau of Mines program to reduce the Nation's reliance on foreign supplies for critical metals, a procedure was devised to separate and recover critical metals from mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap. The process uses both pyrometallurigical and hydrometallurgical, methods to treat the scrap. The mixed scrap is converted to a matte containing 4 to 7 pct S by adding S directly to the molten metal. This matte is then granulated and ground to a minus 35-mesh particle size and leached with an HCl-Cl{sub 2} solution. This process takes essentially all the Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Al, and Mo into solution in a 3-h leach, leaving W, Ta, Ti, and Nb (Cb) in the residue. The Mo is recovered from the chloride leach solution by solvent extraction and the Cr and Fe are recovered together by precipitation. The Ni and Co can be recovered individually by an existing solvent extraction-electrowinning process. The W is recovered by a caustic leach of oxidized Cl{sub 2} leach residue.

Wuest, W.J.; Stateham, R.M.

1991-01-01

467

Practical Engineering Education and Local Contribution Through the Rental Project Using the Recycled Bicycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we proposed the renovation project of a shopping street by the association with a local government, shop and college. The purposes of this project are as follows : (1) soft skills improvement of the college students (2) improvement of the motivation for learning of the college students (3) practical engineering education by the local contribution (4) reduction of carbon-dioxide emissions in the local area (5) effective use of facilities and equipment in the college. Providing some recycled bicycles, which made by the college students from the scrapped bicycle in the college, for the rental bicycle project, it makes a practical engineering education and local contribution opportunity for the college student.

Taniai, Tetsuyuki; Morita, Shou; Yokoyama, Tatsuki; Nishizaki, Yasushi

468

Fernald`s dilemma: Do we recycle the radioactively contaminated metals, or do we bury them?  

SciTech Connect

During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of large accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder supported manner. The potential health and safety risks to both workers and the public have been addressed. The question remains; can products be fabricated from RSM in a cost efficient and market competitive manner? This paper presents a methodology for use within DOE to evaluate the costs and benefits of recycling and reusing some RSM, rather than disposing of this RSM in an approved burial site. This life cycle decision methodology, developed by both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE Fernald is the focus of the following analysis.

Yuracko, K.L.; Hadley, S.W.; Perlack, R.D. [and others

1996-06-01

469

The College Student's Guide to Recycling,  

E-print Network

The College Student's Guide to Recycling, Reduction, and Reuse UNIVERSITY AT ALBANY Phone Albany, NY 12222 Top 7 Recycling and Reuse TipsTop 7 Recycling and Reuse Tips University at Albany Office of Environmental Sustainability 1. Set up separate bins for recyclable materials such as plastics and papers. 2

Kidd, William S. F.

470

WasteTraining Booklet Waste & Recycling Impacts  

E-print Network

WasteTraining Booklet #12;Waste & Recycling Impacts Environment: The majority of our municipal jobs while recycling 10,000 tons of waste creates 36 jobs. Environment: Recycling conserves resources. It takes 95% less energy to make aluminum from recycled aluminum than from virgin materials, 60% less

Saldin, Dilano

471

You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,

Torpey, Elka Maria

2011-01-01

472

Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts  

DOEpatents

In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

Hurst, Jr., Fred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

473

Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts  

DOEpatents

In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

Hurst, F.J. Jr.

1983-06-16

474

Rab15 Effector Protein: A Novel Protein for Receptor Recycling from the Endocytic Recycling Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorting endosomes and the endocytic recycling compartment are critical intracellular stores for the rapid recycling of internalized membrane receptors to the cell surface in multiple cell types. However, the molecular mechanisms distin- guishing fast receptor recycling from sorting endosomes and slow receptor recycling from the endocytic recycling compartment remain poorly understood. We previously reported that Rab15 differentially regulates transferrin receptor

David J. Strick; Lisa A. Elferink

2005-01-01

475

TTUAB PLASTIC RECYCLING PROTOCOL Fall 2011 What Plastic Do We Recycle?  

E-print Network

TTUAB PLASTIC RECYCLING PROTOCOL ­ Fall 2011 What Plastic Do We Recycle? TTUAB has taken on the responsibility of recycling #1 PET and #2 HDPE plastics by placing a yellow TTUAB Plastic Recycling bin on each recyclables encountered in our bins are ALSO our responsibility (e.g. tin cans, aluminum cans, glass). So

Rock, Chris

476

Welcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin  

E-print Network

Recycling will take only a few minutes but will have a profound impact on the environment. MIXED PAPER WhiteWelcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin Every room is provided with a recycling bin to make it easy for you to recycle while living

Almor, Amit

477

Minimization of actinide waste by multi-recycling of thoriated fuels in the EPR reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-recycling of innovative uranium/thorium oxide fuels for use in the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) has been investigated. If increasing quantities of 238U, the fertile isotope in standard UO2 fuel, are replaced by 232Th, then a greater yield of new fissile material (233U) is produced during the cycle than would otherwise be the case. This leads to economies of natural uranium of around 45% if the uranium in the spent fuel is multi-recycled. In addition we show that minor actinide and plutonium waste inventories are reduced and hence waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are up to a factor of 20 lower after 103 years. Two innovative fuel types named S90 and S20, ThO2 mixed with 90% and 20% enriched UO2 respectively, are compared as an alternative to standard uranium oxide (UOX) and uranium/plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels at the longest EPR fuel discharge burn-ups of 65 GWd/t. Fissile and waste inventories are examined, waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are extracted and safety feedback coefficients are calculated.

Rose, S. J.; Wilson, J. N.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Guillemin, P.; Ivanov, E.; Mplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Siem, S.

2012-02-01

478

New approaches to recycling tires  

SciTech Connect

Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

Spencer, R.

1991-03-01

479

Make Your Own Recycled Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how paper is made. Working together, student teams make their own paper. This activity introduces students to recycling; what it is, its value and benefits, and how it affects their lives.

Center for Engineering Educational Outreach,

480

The College that Recycled Itself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Davidson College in North Carolina, a recycling program has turned attics into lecture halls, laboratories, and a museum; a banquet hall is now an art gallery; and the main classroom building was remodeled. (Author/MLF)

Lawrimore, Earl

1978-01-01

481

Corporate America urges consumers to buy recycled  

SciTech Connect

The National Recycling Coalition`s (NRC, Washington, DC) buy Recycled Business Alliance (BRBA), the US EPA`s WasteWi$e program, and the US Conference of Mayors` (Washington, DC) buy-recycled program are just a few of the national groups that have formed since 1990 to encourage the purchase of products made from recyclables. Indeed, corporate America and governments are buying recycled. More than $1 billion worth of recycled-content products have been bought by McDonald`s Corp. since 1990. The nearly 950 members of the BRBA reported spending $9.1 billion on recycled-content products in 1993. State governments reported in 1993 that they had spent more than $600 million on recycled products. Several states, cities, and counties have adopted buy-recycled executive orders. Now, many of these companies and government officials are urging consumers to use their own purchasing power to spur markets for recyclables.

Rabasca, L.

1995-04-01

482

Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic

Bruno Pellaud

2002-01-01

483

DEPLETED URANIUM TECHNICAL WORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Depleted Uranium Technical Work is designed to convey available information and knowledge about depleted uranium to EPA Remedial Project Managers, On-Scene Coordinators, contractors, and other Agency managers involved with the remediation of sites contaminated with this mater...

484

Development and pilot test of an intensive municipal solid waste recycling system for the Town of East Hampton  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a project to design and test a new type of trash disposal system for the Town of East Hampton, Long Island: the Intensive Recycling System. The system is intended to serve as the Town's primary means of regular trash disposal. The Intensive Recycling System is based on separation of regular trash, by household and commercial establishments, into four fractions: (1) food garbage and soiled paper; (2) paper/cardboard; (3) metal cans/glass bottles; (4) non-recyclables. Fraction 1, together with yard waste, is processed at a compost facility, yielding marketable compost. Fractions 2 and 3 are processed by a materials recovery facility (MRF) into marketable products: several grades of paper and cardboard; aluminum cans; tin cans; scrap metal; and color-sorted crushed glass (cullet). The non-recyclable components (fraction 4) and misclassified components rejected during processing are consigned to a landfill. This document is Volume 2 of two volumes and contains the appendix for Volume 1.

Commoner, B.; Frisch, M.; Pitot, H.A.; Quigley, J.; Stege, A.; Wallace, D.; Webster, T.

1990-02-01

485

Development and pilot test of an intensive municipal solid waste recycling system for the Town of East Hampton  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a project to design and test a new type of trash disposal system for the Town of East Hampton, Long Island: the Intensive Recycling System. The system is intended to serve as the Town's primary means of regular trash disposal. The Intensive Recycling System is based on separation of regular trash, by households and commercial establishments, into four fractions: (1) food garbage and soiled paper; (2) paper/cardboard; (3) metal cans/glass bottles; (4) non-recyclables. Fraction 1, together with yard waste, is processed at a compost facility, yielding marketable compost. Fractions 2 and 3 are processed by a materials recovery facility (MRF) into marketable products: several grades of paper and cardboard; aluminum cans; tin cans; scrap metal; and color-sorted crushed glass (cullet). The non-recyclable components (fraction 4) and misclassified components rejected during processing are consigned to a landfill. This document is Volume 1 of two volumes. 75 refs., 24 figs., 81 tabs.

Commoner, B.; Frisch, M.; Pitot, H.A.; Quigley, J.; Stege, A.; Wallace, D.; Webster, T.

1990-02-01

486

Depleted Uranium Technical Brief  

E-print Network

Depleted Uranium Technical Brief United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation Washington, DC 20460 EPA-402-R-06-011 December 2006 #12;#12;Depleted Uranium Technical Brief EPA of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division ii #12;iii #12;FOREWARD The Depleted Uranium

487

1. Recycle all bottles and cans 2. Recycle all personal electronics  

E-print Network

RECYCLING 1. Recycle all bottles and cans 2. Recycle all personal electronics 3. Bring your own PREVENTION 32. Dispose of all cigarette butts properly 33. Use cloth napkins as much as possible 34. Reuse

Howitt, Ivan

488

50 Simple Things Kids Can Do To Recycle. California Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides 50 recycling ideas for children and features Recycle Rex, the state of California's "spokesdinosaur" for recycling. An introduction contains recycling background information on waste disposal options and reducing, reusing, and recycling. Recycling suggestions are divided into nine sections: (1) "Learn What You Can Recycle"

Javna, John