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Sample records for scrap uranium recycling

  1. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  2. TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT POTENTIAL RECYCLING OF SCRAP METAL

    E-print Network

    TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT POTENTIAL RECYCLING OF SCRAP METAL FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES PART I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 2 Overview of Scrap Metal Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.3 Principal Scrap Metal Operations Considered

  3. Recycling zinc by dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1995-06-01

    In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the increased cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The designed ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana has designed in a continuous process mode 900 tonnes of loose stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.1% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews pilot plant performance and the economics of recycling galvanized steel and recovering zinc using a caustic process.

  4. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  5. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  6. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.; Nichols, F.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of MSE`s Radioactive Scrap Steel (RSS) Recycle Program is to develop practical methods for recycling RSS into useful product. This paper provides interim information about ongoing feasibility investigations that are scheduled for completion by September 1995. The project approach, major issues, and cost projections are outlined. Current information indicates that a cost effective RSS Recycling Facility can be designed, built, and in operation by 1999. The RSS team believes that high quality steel plate can be made from RSS at a conversion cost of $1500 per ton or less.

  7. Chemical recycling of scrap composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

  8. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, government and commercial nuclear operators treated radioactive scrap steel (RSS) as a liability and disposed of it by burial; this was an accepted and economical solution at that time. Today, environmental concerns about burial are changing the waste disposal picture by (a) causing burial costs to soar rapidly, (b) creating pressure to close existing burial sites, and (c) making it difficult and expensive to open and operate burial facilities. To exacerbate the problem, planned dismantling of nuclear facilities will substantially increase volumes of RSS {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} over the next 30 yr. This report describes a project with the intention of integrating the current commercial mini-mill approach of recycling uncontaminated steel with radiological controls to design a system that can process contaminated metals at prices significantly below the current processors or burial costs.

  9. CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory Scrap Tire Recycling in Canada

    E-print Network

    Habel, Annegret

    CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory Scrap Tire Recycling in Canada A reference for all parties involved in the tire recycling industry on the options available for end-of-life OTR and passenger tires) August 2005 Work on this project was funded by the Enhanced Recycling Program of Action Plan 2000

  10. Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III; Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of scrap metal market structure, processes, and trends; assessment of radiological and nonradiological effects of recycling; and investigation of social and political factors that are likely to either facilitate or constrain recycling opportunities. In addition, the option of scrap metal disposal is being assessed, especially with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing these metals if they are withdrawn from use. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A {open_quotes}tiered{close_quotes} concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conservatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

  11. Recycling and reclamation of scrap steel. (Latest citations from METADEX). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development of technologies to recycle and reclaim scrap steel. Citations discuss scrap supply and demand, scrap sources, scrap quality, and environmental issues. Methods for processing galvanized ferrous materials and stainless steels are examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Recycling of nickel-metal hydride battery scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.W.; Palmer, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery technology is being developed as a NiCd replacement for applications in consumer cells and electric vehicle batteries. The U.S. Bureau of Mines is investigating hydrometallurgical recycling technology that separates and recovers individual components from Ni-MH battery scrap. Acid dissolution and metal recovery techniques such as precipitation and solvent extraction produced purified products of rare-earths, nickel, and other metals associated with AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5} Ni-MH scrap. Tests were conducted on scrap cells of a single chemistry that had been de-canned to reduce iron content. Although recovery techniques have been identified in principal, their applicability to mixed battery waste stream and economic attractiveness remain to be demonstrated. 14 refs.

  13. Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, B.; Cignetti, N.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

  15. UTILIZATION OF SCRAP PREPREG WASTES AS A REINFORCEMENT IN A WHOLLY RECYCLED PLASTIC - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foster-Miller proposes to utilize scrap prepreg waste as a reinforcement in recycled polyethylene. By reinforcing recycled plastics such as polyethylene with scrap prepreg and suitable binders, an economical useful product can be obtained. At the same time, this innovation ...

  16. Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III; Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scarp metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives (with metal replacement). Findings will be presented in a report from the OECD Task Group. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A ``tiered`` concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conversatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

  17. INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.

  18. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees. PMID:25738822

  19. Recycling metal scrap. June 1970-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX database). Report for June 1970-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (This updated bibliography contains 362 citations, 21 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Recycling metal scrap. June 1970-April 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for June 1970-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. Analysis of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (This updated bibliography contains 341 citations, 63 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Minerals yearbook, 1993: Recycling iron and steel scrap. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, G.W.

    1993-12-31

    In 1993, steel mills accounted for 81% of all scrap received from brokers, dealers, and other outside sources; steel foundries received 2%; and iron castings producers and miscellaneous users received 16%. The apparent total domestic consumption of ferrous scrap in 1993 was composed of 46.1 million tons net receipts (total receipts minus shipments) and 21.5 million tons of home scrap.

  2. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  3. Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Adam C. Powell, IV

    2012-07-19

    Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

  4. ISASMELT™ for the Recycling of E-Scrap and Copper in the U.S. Case Study Example of a New Compact Recycling Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvear Flores, Gerardo R. F.; Nikolic, Stanko; Mackey, Phillip J.

    2014-05-01

    As living standards around the world improve and metal consumption increases, extracting raw materials will likely become more challenging in the future. Although already part of the general metal supply stream, metal recycling has to increase if we are to build a more sustainable society. With the recent widespread adoption of a range of consumer and industrial electronics, the recycling of the so-called electronic scrap ("e-scrap") has also increased in importance. One of the leading technologies for the recycling of e-scrap and copper scrap is the ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance technology. This article describes new opportunities for the U.S. recycling industry to yield full value from collected, sorted, and separated waste metals, in particular, e-scrap and lower grade copper scrap by the use of ISASMELT™ technology. The article includes the description of a case study example of a regional, compact ISASMELT™ plant in the United States treating a blend of e-scrap and copper scrap, having a total feed capacity of 75000 t/year of feed. Plants of higher or lower capacity are also discussed.

  5. Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  6. Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III

    1994-03-01

    The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing health, environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of international inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of international scrap metal markets; assessment of radiological and non-radiological human health risks; impacts on environmental quality and resources; and investigation of social and political factors. The RSM disposal option is being assessed with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing the metals if they are withdrawn from use. Impact estimates are developed for steel as an illustrative example because steel comprises a major portion of the scrap metal inventory. Current and potential sources of RSM include nuclear power plants, fuel cycle and weapons production facilities, industrial and medical facilities and equipment, and petroleum and phosphate rock extraction equipment. Millions of metric tons (t) of scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper, as well as lesser quantities of aluminum, nickel, lead, and zirconium, are likely to become available in the future as these facilities are withdrawn from service.

  7. Toxicity tests of soil contaminated by recycling of scrap plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.; Chui, V.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The present investigation studied the toxicity of soil contaminated by untreated discharge from a factory that recycles used plastics. The nearby agricultural areas and freshwater fish ponds were polluted with high concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn. Water extracts from the contaminated soil retarded root growth of Brassica chinensis (Chinese white cabbage) and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) where their seeds were obtained commercially. The contaminated populations of C. dactylon, Panicum repen (panic grass), and Imperata cylindrica (wooly grass) were able to withstand higher concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn, especially C. dactylon, when compared with their uncontaminated counterparts.

  8. Cryogenic grinding: an efficient method for recycling scrap rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Cryogenic grinding represents an opportunity for expanding recycling capabilities to a broad range of compounds. Many materials that can be reduced to a powder by conventional coarse grinding can be reduced more efficiently by using a super-cold agent such as liquid nitrogen at -320/sup 0/F to embrittle plastic or rubber polymers before grinding. In addition, cryogenic grinding makes possible the size reduction of many materials that cannot be ground by conventional ambient grinding methods. Some experiences of cryogenic grinding in practice at United Tire and Rubber company, Limited, headquartered in Rexdale, Ontario, are noted. A schematic of such a system is shown.

  9. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: A worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation

    SciTech Connect

    Reis de Oliveira, Camila; Moura Bernardes, Andrea; Gerbase, Annelise Engel

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of the different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the e-waste collection systems used in Europe and in the US. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present e-waste collection systems used in Asia and Latin America. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E-waste management between developed and developing countries is very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We made a comparison of the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. - Abstract: Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.

  10. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  11. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-22

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  12. Recycling of AZ40 Magnesium Alloy Scraps by Hydriding-Dehydriding and Subsequent Consolidation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiping, Zhou; Lianxi, Hu; Yu, Sun; Heng, Wang

    2015-09-01

    The hydriding-dehydriding process was used to recycle AZ40 magnesium (Mg) alloy scraps, and the microstructure nanocrystallization was realized. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the microstructure. After mechanically milling in hydrogen for 72 h, matrix Mg was completely turned into nanocrystalline MgH2, with an average crystallite size of about 10 nm. And then, the MgH2 phase was completely transformed into Mg again through vacuum dehydriding treatment at 300 °C for 192 min, with an average crystallite size of about 20 nm. In addition, the nanocrystalline alloy powders were hot-pressed and extruded into bars. The average grain size of the bars was about 500 nm, which had reached the size of ultrafine-grain. Meanwhile, the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the as-extruded bars reached about 312 and 497 MPa, respectively. The results indicate that hydriding-dehydriding process is a feasible method for recycling of Mg alloy scraps, and it is expected to have a good application prospect in preparing ultrafine-grain Mg alloys.

  13. Environmental risk related to specific processes during scrap computer recycling and disposal.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Shan, Hongshan; Xie, Yijun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the generation of toxic chemicals related to specific processes in scrap computer recycling and disposal, such as thermal recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and the landfilling or dumping of cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Tube furnace pyrolysis was carried out to simulate different thermal treatment conditions for the identification of the by-products and potential environmental risk from thermal recycling ofPCBs. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a column test were used to study the leaching characteristics of lead from waste CRT glass, which is one of the most important environmental concerns arising from the disposal of e-waste. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to the benzene series when recycling PCBs under thermal conditions, especially for workers without any personal protection equipment. The impact of immersion on the leaching of lead from CRT leaded glass was more effective than the impact of washing only by acid rain. Thus when waste leaded glass has to be stored for some reason, the storage facility should be dry. PMID:23437653

  14. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  15. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  16. Design and development of indoor device for recycling of domestic vegetable scrap.

    PubMed

    Harshitha, Jampala; Krupanidhi, Sreerama; Kumar, Sunil; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Since the municipal waste management and community garbage-treating systems are in vogue, there is a growing need for the waste minimization to keep our vicinity clean and green. Therefore, a feasible indoor device is designed for recycling domestic vegetable scrap by adopting the principle of soil ecosystem. To arrive at the composting process control parameters in the proposed device, the soil from landfill and quarry along with supplements namely sawdust, cow dung/yeast and the resident thermophilic bacteria are analysed. The soil parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity, Organic carbon, P, K, Fe, moisture content and the presence of thermophilic bacteria varied significantly between negative control sample (NCS) and positive control sample (PCS) and post-treatment positive control group with dried cow dung (PPC-C)-derived compost is soft-textured and homogenous. Furthermore, the double-compartment-based device would be more feasible and appealing as a recycling bin rather than as a refuse storage bin primarily due to the inclusion of dish-plantation. The standardization of composting control parameters is discussed in this article. PMID:26227261

  17. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 2. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume II contains: Task 1.4, optimization of the vitreous phase for stabilization of radioactive species; Task 1.5, experimental testing of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes; and Task 1.6, conceptual design of a CEP facility.

  18. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

  19. A low-temperature technique for recycling lead/acid battery scrap without wastes and with improved environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaysgant, Z.; Morachevsky, A.; Demidov, A.; Klebanov, E.

    A low-temperature technology for recycling battery scrap without producing wastes is suggested for battery plants with small production capabilities. The required reagents are available and their consumption is minimum. Simple and compact equipment is used. The generation of dust and the volume of the process gases are both minimal and are effectively removed by a filter-ventilating unit that has been developed by the ELTA company. Finally, the proposed technology does not require large investment for its realization.

  20. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole. PMID:25241019

  1. Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ramsey, Kevin; Silver, Gary L.; Espinoza, Jacob; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel by HNO3/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing 238PuO2 fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified 238PuO2 fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel.

  2. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. 234U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of 238Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the 238PuO2 fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure 238PuO2 was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO3/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved 238Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the 238PuO2 recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in 238Pu values.

  3. Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

  4. UTILIZATION OF SCRAP PREPREG WASTES AS A REINFORCEMENT IN A WHOLLY RECYCLED PLASTIC - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foster-Miller is proposing to combine Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) commingled plastics with a high performance reinforcement (scrap prepreg) to form a durable and cost competitive wood substitute with superior moisture, rodent and insect resistance. This proposed technology ...

  5. Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions. PMID:22876977

  6. A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

    2012-05-15

    Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies. PMID:22436338

  7. Characteristics of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticle ink-coated layers recycled from ITO scraps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Seung-Jae; Hong, Sung-Jei; Lee, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ink layer that includes nanoparticles synthesized from ITO target scraps. The particle size of the ITO nanoparticle was less than 15 nm, and the crystal structure was cubic with a (222) preferred orientation. Also, the composition ratio of In to Sn was 92.7 to 7.3 in weight. The ITO nanoparticles were well dispersed in the ink solvent to formulate a 20-wt% ITO nanoparticle ink. Furthermore, the ITO nanoparticle ink was coated onto a glass substrate, followed by heat-treatment at 600 °C. The layer showed good sheet resistances below 400 ?/? and optical transmittances higher than 88% at 550 nm. Thus, we can conclude that the characteristics of the layer make it highly applicable to a transparent conductive electrode.

  8. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, comprehensive executive summary. Final report, September 30, 1993--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    R&D activities have demonstrated Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to be a robust, one-step process process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. The feed size and composition compatible with CEP have been increased in a short period of time, and additional R&D should lead to the ability to accept a drum (and larger?) size feed of completely uncharacterized waste. Experiments have validated the CPU (Catalytic Processing Unit). Two commercial facilities have been commissioned and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. Expansion of CEP to transuranic and high level wastes should be the next step in the development and deployment of CEP for recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities.

  9. SCRAP TIRE RECYCLING: CONVINCING BUSINESSES TO INTEGRATE INEXPENSIVE, CUTTING-EDGE TECHNOLOGY TO CONVERT TIRES INTO VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scrap tires cause serious environmental pollution and health problems. Although worldwide figures are imprecise, it is known that one-fourth of the 283 million tires scrapped in the United States were landfilled last year. Hundreds of millions more tires ar...

  10. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF DUPOLY TO RECYCLE DEPLETED URANIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,J.W.; LAGERAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.; RUTENKROGER,S.P.

    1998-02-01

    DUPoly, depleted uranium (DU) powder microencapsulated in a low-density polyethylene binder, has been demonstrated as an innovative and efficient recycle product, a very durable high density material with significant commercial appeal. DUPoly was successfully prepared using uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) ''green salt'' obtained from Fluor Daniel-Fernald, a U.S. Department of Energy reprocessing facility near Cincinnati, Ohio. Samples containing up to 90 wt% UF{sub 4} were produced using a single screw plastics extruder, with sample densities of up to 3.97 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3} measured. Compressive strength of as-prepared samples (50-90 wt% UF4 ) ranged from 1682 {+-} 116 psi (11.6 {+-} 0.8 MPa) to 3145 {+-} 57 psi (21.7 {+-} 0.4 MPa). Water immersion testing for a period of 90 days produced no visible degradation of the samples. Leach rates were low, ranging from 0.02 % (2.74 x 10{sup {minus}6} gm/gm/d) for 50 wt% UF{sub 4} samples to 0.72 % (7.98 x 10{sup {minus}5} gm/gm/d) for 90 wt% samples. Sample strength was not compromised by water immersion. DUPoly samples containing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), a DU reprocessing byproduct material stockpiled at the Savannah River Site, were gamma irradiated to 1 x 10{sup 9} rad with no visible deterioration. Compressive strength increased significantly, however: up to 200% for samples with 90 wt% UO{sub 3}. Correspondingly, percent deformation (strain) at failure was decreased for all samples. Gamma attenuation data on UO{sub 3} DUPoly samples yielded mass attenuation coefficients greater than those for lead. Neutron removal coefficients were calculated and shown to correlate well with wt% of DU. Unlike gamma attenuation, both hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous materials interact to attenuate neutrons.

  11. Evolution of isotopic composition of reprocessed uranium during the multiple recycling in light water reactors with natural uranium feed

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, A. Yu. Sulaberidze, G. A.; Alekseev, P. N.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A. Proselkov, V. N.; Chibinyaev, A. V.

    2012-12-15

    A complex approach based on the consistent modeling of neutron-physics processes and processes of cascade separation of isotopes is applied for analyzing physical problems of the multiple usage of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle of light water reactors. A number of scenarios of multiple recycling of reprocessed uranium in light water reactors are considered. In the process, an excess absorption of neutrons by the {sup 236}U isotope is compensated by re-enrichment in the {sup 235}U isotope. Specific consumptions of natural uranium for re-enrichment of the reprocessed uranium depending on the content of the {sup 232}U isotope are obtained.

  12. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Report on the Production and Use of Recycled Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Lewis; D. C. Barg; C. L. Bendixsen; J. P. Henscheid; D. R. Wenzel; B. L. Denning

    2000-09-01

    Recent allegations regarding radiation exposure to radionuclides present in recycled uranium sent to the gaseous diffusion plants prompted the Department of Energy to undertake a system-wide study of recycled uranium. Of particular interest, were the flowpaths from site to site operations and facilities in which exposure to plutonium, neptunium and technetium could occur, and to the workers that could receive a significant radiation dose from handling recycled uranium. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site report is primarily concerned with two locations. Recycled uranium was produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant where highly enriched uranium was recovered from spent fuel. The other facility is the Specific Manufacturing Facility (SMC) where recycled, depleted uranium is manufactured into shapes for use by their customer. The SMC is a manufacturing facility that uses depleted uranium metal as a raw material that is then rolled and cut into shapes. There are no chemical processes that might concentrate any of the radioactive contaminant species. Recyclable depleted uranium from the SMC facility is sent to a private metallurgical facility for recasting. Analyses on the recast billets indicate that there is no change in the concentrations of transuranics as a result of the recasting process. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was built to recover high-enriched uranium from spent nuclear fuel from test reactors. The facility processed diverse types of fuel which required uniquely different fuel dissolution processes. The dissolved fuel was passed through three cycles of solvent extraction which resulted in a concentrated uranyl nitrate product. For the first half of the operating period, the uranium was shipped as the concentrated solution. For the second half of the operating period the uranium solution was thermally converted to granular, uranium trioxide solids. The dose reconstruction project has evaluated work exposure and exposure to the public as the result of normal operations and accidents that occurred at the INEEL. As a result of these studies, the maximum effective dose equivalent from site activities did not exceed seventeen percent of the natural background in Eastern Idaho. There was no year in which the radiation dose to the public exceeded the applicable limits for that year. Worker exposure to recycled uranium was minimized by engineering features that reduced the possibility of direct exposure.

  13. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  14. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  15. Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel based on reprocessed uranium and plutonium mixture in thermal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Y.S.; Bibichev, B.A.; Zilberman, B.Y.; Baryshnikov, M.V.; Kryukov, O.V.; Khaperskaya, A.V.

    2013-07-01

    REMIX fuel consumption in WWER-1000 is considered. REMIX fuel is fabricated from non-separated mixture of uranium and plutonium obtained during NPP spent fuel reprocessing with further makeup by enriched natural uranium. It makes possible to recycle several times the total amount of uranium and plutonium obtained from spent fuel with 100% loading of the WWER-1000 core. The stored SNF could be also involved in REMIX fuel cycle by enrichment of regenerated uranium. The same approach could be applied to closing the fuel cycle of CANDU reactors. (authors)

  16. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

  17. 77 FR 73996 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...Assessment for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating From Radiological Areas AGENCY...Assessment (PEA) for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating from Radiological Areas...radiological clearance and release of scrap metal from radiological areas to each...

  18. Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinker, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

  19. Scrap tire utilization via surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach to reusing scrap tire rubber, which will be described in this presentation. In addition to consuming scrap tires, this technology represents a new approach to material engineering. Furthermore, this method of rubber recycle is most efficient in terms of energy recovery. 4 figs.

  20. [Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A critical requirement in DOE`s efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP`s ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities.

  1. PWR core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for thorium-uranium breeding recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, G.; Liu, C.; Si, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper was focused on core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle in current PWRs, without any major change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. The fuel cycle analysis indicates that Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle is technically feasible in current PWRs. A 4-loop, 193-assembly PWR core utilizing 17 x 17 fuel assemblies (FAs) was taken as the model core. Two mixed cores were investigated respectively loaded with mixed reactor grade Plutonium-Thorium (PuThOX) FAs and mixed reactor grade {sup 233}U-Thorium (U{sub 3}ThOX) FAs on the basis of reference full Uranium oxide (UOX) equilibrium-cycle core. The UOX/PuThOX mixed core consists of 121 UOX FAs and 72 PuThOX FAs. The reactor grade {sup 233}U extracted from burnt PuThOX fuel was used to fabrication of U{sub 3}ThOX for starting Thorium-. Uranium breeding recycle. In UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core, the well designed U{sub 3}ThOX FAs with 1.94 w/o fissile uranium (mainly {sup 233}U) were located on the periphery of core as a blanket region. U{sub 3}ThOX FAs remained in-core for 6 cycles with the discharged burnup achieving 28 GWD/tHM. Compared with initially loading, the fissile material inventory in U{sub 3}ThOX fuel has increased by 7% via 1-year cooling after discharge. 157 UOX fuel assemblies were located in the inner of UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core refueling with 64 FAs at each cycle. The designed UOX/PuThOX and UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core satisfied related nuclear design criteria. The full core performance analyses have shown that mixed core with PuThOX loading has similar impacts as MOX on several neutronic characteristic parameters, such as reduced differential boron worth, higher critical boron concentration, more negative moderator temperature coefficient, reduced control rod worth, reduced shutdown margin, etc.; while mixed core with U{sub 3}ThOX loading on the periphery of core has no visible impacts on neutronic characteristics compared with reference full UOX core. The fuel cycle analysis has shown that {sup 233}U mono-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel could save 13% of natural uranium resource compared with UOX once through fuel cycle, slightly more than that of Plutonium single-recycling with MOX fuel. If {sup 233}U multi-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel is implemented, more natural uranium resource would be saved. (authors)

  2. Homologation and functionalization of carbon monoxide by a recyclable uranium complex

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benedict M.; Stewart, John C.; Davis, Adrienne L.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is in principle an excellent resource from which to produce industrial hydrocarbon feedstocks as alternatives to crude oil; however, CO has proven remarkably resistant to selective homologation, and the few complexes that can effect this transformation cannot be recycled because liberation of the homologated product destroys the complexes or they are substitutionally inert. Here, we show that under mild conditions a simple triamidoamine uranium(III) complex can reductively homologate CO and be recycled for reuse. Following treatment with organosilyl halides, bis(organosiloxy)acetylenes, which readily convert to furanones, are produced, and this was confirmed by the use of isotopically 13C-labeled CO. The precursor to the triamido uranium(III) complex is formed concomitantly. These findings establish that, under appropriate conditions, uranium(III) can mediate a complete synthetic cycle for the homologation of CO to higher derivatives. This work may prove useful in spurring wider efforts in CO homologation, and the simplicity of this system suggests that catalytic CO functionalization may soon be within reach. PMID:22652572

  3. New developments in materials recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.C.; Kenahan, C.B.

    1984-04-01

    This paper presents promising technical solutions to complex recycling problems such as recovery of cobalt, nickel, and chromium from superalloy scrap; the separation, recovery, and reuse of nickel and chromium from stainless and specialty steel wastes; precious metal recovery from electronic scrap; an environmentally acceptable method for recycling lead-acid batteries; recovery of nonferrous metals from scrap automobiles; and rapid scrap identification methods suitable for today's modern alloys.

  4. Uranium Recycle by Ion Exchange and Calcination - Summary of Design Development and Equipment Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, D.J.; A.J. Duncan

    2005-10-31

    Technical information for the process of recovery of uranium from uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solutions that was developed as part of the Onsite Uranium Recycle (OSUR) project conducted at the Savannah River Site in the 1980's is summarized. The process involves an ion-exchange process to load the uranyl species from solution onto a cation resin that is subsequently dried using a microwave oven, and then calcined using a rotary calciner to produce U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. The information in this report was compiled to support critical decisions for new facilities and processes at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The information includes a detailed description of the process and process equipment that were developed for the OSUR project including the technical bases for the materials selection and process conditions. Additional process considerations and recommendations to for a new-design facility are also provided.

  5. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  6. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  7. Comparative analysis of thorium and uranium fuel for transuranic recycle in a sodium cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    C. Fiorina; N. E. Stauff; F. Franceschini; M. T. Wenner; A. Stanculescu; T. K. Kim; A. Cammi; M. E. Ricotti; R. N. Hill; T. A. Taiwo; M. Salvatores

    2013-12-01

    The present paper compares the reactor physics and transmutation performance of sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (FRs) for TRansUranic (TRU) burning with thorium (Th) or uranium (U) as fertile materials. The 1000 MWt Toshiba-Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) conceptual core has been used as benchmark for the comparison. Both burner and breakeven configurations sustained or started with a TRU supply, and assuming full actinide homogeneous recycle strategy, have been developed. State-of-the-art core physics tools have been employed to establish fuel inventory and reactor physics performances for equilibrium and transition cycles. Results show that Th fosters large improvements in the reactivity coefficients associated with coolant expansion and voiding, which enhances safety margins and, for a burner design, can be traded for maximizing the TRU burning rate. A trade-off of Th compared to U is the significantly larger fuel inventory required to achieve a breakeven design, which entails additional blankets at the detriment of core compactness as well as fuel manufacturing and separation requirements. The gamma field generated by the progeny of U-232 in the U bred from Th challenges fuel handling and manufacturing, but in case of full recycle, the high contents of Am and Cm in the transmutation fuel impose remote fuel operations regardless of the presence of U-232.

  8. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  9. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Moore, J.; Olson, D.; Mishra, B.

    1994-12-31

    Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC`s vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC`s rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines.

  10. Recycled Uranium Mass Balance Project Y-12 National Security Complex Site Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This report has been prepared to summarize the findings of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) Mass Balance Project and to support preparation of associated U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) site reports. The project was conducted in support of DOE efforts to assess the potential for health and environmental issues resulting from the presence of transuranic (TRU) elements and fission products in recycled uranium (RU) processed by DOE and its predecessor agencies. The United States government used uranium in fission reactors to produce plutonium and tritium for nuclear weapons production. Because uranium was considered scarce relative to demand when these operations began almost 50 years ago, the spent fuel from U.S. fission reactors was processed to recover uranium for recycling. The estimated mass balance for highly enriched RU, which is of most concern for worker exposure and is the primary focus of this project, is summarized in a table. A discrepancy in the mass balance between receipts and shipments (plus inventory and waste) reflects an inability to precisely distinguish between RU and non-RU shipments and receipts involving the Y-12 Complex and Savannah River. Shipments of fresh fuel (non-RU) and sweetener (also non-RU) were made from the Y-12 Complex to Savannah River along with RU shipments. The only way to distinguish between these RU and non-RU streams using available records is by enrichment level. Shipments of {le}90% enrichment were assumed to be RU. Shipments of >90% enrichment were assumed to be non-RU fresh fuel or sweetener. This methodology using enrichment level to distinguish between RU and non-RU results in good estimates of RU flows that are reasonably consistent with Savannah River estimates. Although this is the best available means of distinguishing RU streams, this method does leave a difference of approximately 17.3 MTU between receipts and shipments. Slightly depleted RU streams received by the Y-12 Complex from ORGDP and PGDP are believed to have been returned to the shipping site or disposed of as waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation. No evidence of Y-12 Complex processing of this material was identified in the historical records reviewed by the Project Team.

  11. Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Junya; Santorelli, Michael

    Recycling systems are classified into those employing typically three methods, and the progress of each method is described. In mechanical recycling, powders of phenolic materials are recovered via a mechanical process and reused as fillers or additives in virgin materials. The effects to flowability, curability, and mechanical properties of the materials are explained. In feedstock recycling, monomers, oligomers, or oils are recovered via chemical processes and reused as feedstock. Pyrolysis, solvolysis or hydrolysis, and supercritical or subcritical fluid technology will also be introduced. When using a subcritical fluid of phenol, the recycled material maintains excellent properties similar to the virgin material, and a demonstration plant has been constructed to carry out mass production development. In energy recovery, wastes of phenolic materials are used as an alternative solid fuel to coal because they are combustible and have good calorific value. Industrial wastes of these have been in practical use in a cement plant. Finally, it is suggested that the best recycling method should be selected according to the purpose or situation, because every recycling method has both strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, quantitative and objective evaluation methods in recycling are desirable and should be established.

  12. Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Michael H.; Crews, Lavonne; Johnston, Ben; Lee, David; Colebaugh, James

    1995-04-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational efficiency. In conducting the study, various elements were implemented. These included sampling and sorting representative samples of the waste stream; visually inspecting each refuse bin, recycle bin, and roll-off; interviewing employees and recycling coordinators of other companies; touring local material recycling facilities; contacting experts in the field; and performing a literature search.

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eley, Michael H.; Crews, Lavonne; Johnston, Ben; Lee, David; Colebaugh, James

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational efficiency. In conducting the study, various elements were implemented. These included sampling and sorting representative samples of the waste stream; visually inspecting each refuse bin, recycle bin, and roll-off; interviewing employees and recycling coordinators of other companies; touring local material recycling facilities; contacting experts in the field; and performing a literature search.

  14. Gold recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, Earle B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, 175 metric tons (t) of refined gold was recovered by U.S. refiners from old and new scrap. The overall recycling rate was 29 percent when scrap consumption was compared with apparent domestic supply. Sources of old scrap includes discarded jewelry, dental materials, plating solutions, and electronic equipment. A very high old scrap recycling efficiency of 96 percent was reached in 1998, the supply of old scrap peaked, gold prices were at an 18-year low, and substantial amounts of old scrap were exported. U.S. net exports of old scrap had a gold content of 28 t.

  15. Iron and steel recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Consumption of iron and steel scrap and the health of the scrap industry depend directly on the health of the steelmaking industry. The United States, as well as most of the world, is expected to consume increasing amounts of scrap as a steadily increasing population demands more steel products. World resources of scrap should be sufficient for the foreseeable future. An estimated 75 million metric tons (Mt) of scrap was generated during 1998 in the United States, and 35 Mt of old scrap and 18 Mt of new scrap was consumed. The recycling efficiency was calculated to be 52%, and the recycling rate was found to be 41%. (See appendix for definitions.)

  16. Design of scrap copper separation control system based eddy current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Ma, Xiushui; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Zhang, Shuming

    2013-10-01

    The detection and automatic separation of block scrap copper using eddy current sensor is beneficial to improve the level of recycling use of scrap copper. This paper introduces the working principle, overall structure, hardware circuit and software structure of scrap copper separation system based eddy current sensor.

  17. Cobalt recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2002-01-01

    This report is one of a series of reports on metals recycling. It defines and quantifies the 1998 flow of cobalt-bearing materials in the United States, from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of cobalt?s many and diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 1998, an estimated 32 percent of U.S. cobalt supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of cobalt consumed from new scrap to that from old scrap was estimated to be 50:50. Of all the cobalt in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 68 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

  18. Tungsten recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2011-01-01

    This report, which is one of a series of reports on metals recycling, defines and quantifies the flow of tungsten-bearing materials in the United States from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition in 2000, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of tungsten's many diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 2000, an estimated 46 percent of U.S. tungsten supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of tungsten consumed from new scrap to that consumed from old scrap was estimated to be 20:80. Of all the tungsten in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 66 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

  19. Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plunkert, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  20. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative.

  1. Germanium recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the recycling flow of germanium in the United States in 2000, as well as other germanium material flow streams. Germanium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of germanium-containing fiber optic cables and from new and old scrap products of germanium-containing infrared imaging devices. In 2000, about 11.5 metric tons of germanium was recycled, about 40 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The germanium recycling rate was estimated to be 50 percent, and germanium scrap recycling efficiency, 76 percent.

  2. Tantalum recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the flow of tantalum in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which tantalum was recycled/reused. Tantalum was mostly recycled from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of tantalum-related electronic components and new and old scrap products of tantalum-containing cemented carbides and superalloys. In 1998, about 210 metric tons of tantalum was recycled/reused, with about 43% derived from old scrap. The tantalum recycling rate was calculated to be 21%, and tantalum scrap recycling efficiency, 35%.

  3. Hanford recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall DOE recycling contract at the Hanford site and a central group to control the contract. 0 Using a BOA or MTS contract as a way to get proceeds from recycling back to site facilities to provide incentives for recycling. . Upgrading tracking mechanisms to track and recycle construction waste which is presently buried in onsite pits. . Establishing contract performance measures which hold each project accountable for specific waste reduction goals. * Recycling and reusing any material or equipment possible as buildings are dismantled.

  4. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g(-1), reacting at 40°C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are 201 mAh g(-)(1) and 155.4 mAh g(-1) (2.8-4.5 V, 0.1C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g(-1) even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%. PMID:24973865

  5. Broadening the markets for scrap tire rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Hilts, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Only a couple years ago was the first time that the U.S. first recycled more scrap tires than it discarded. More experienced processors using improved technology and resourceful manufacturers continue to discover more uses of old tires. Soon, they`ll chip away at the 800 million tires stockpiled around the country, not just work to keep up with the waste tires generated each year. After years ago, asphalt roads and highways looked like the answer. This report profiles the utilization of scrap tires.

  6. An economic analysis of a light and heavy water moderated reactor synergy: burning americium using recycled uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtaszek, D.; Edwards, G.

    2013-07-01

    An economic analysis is presented for a proposed synergistic system between 2 nuclear utilities, one operating light water reactors (LWR) and another running a fleet of heavy water moderated reactors (HWR). Americium is partitioned from LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be transmuted in HWRs, with a consequent averted disposal cost to the LWR operator. In return, reprocessed uranium (RU) is supplied to the HWRs in sufficient quantities to support their operation both as power generators and americium burners. Two simplifying assumptions have been made. First, the economic value of RU is a linear function of the cost of fresh natural uranium (NU), and secondly, plutonium recycling for a third utility running a mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor fleet has been already taking place, so that the extra cost of americium recycling is manageable. We conclude that, in order for this scenario to be economically attractive to the LWR operator, the averted disposal cost due to partitioning americium from LWR spent fuel must exceed 214 dollars per kg, comparable to estimates of the permanent disposal cost of the high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent LWR fuel. (authors)

  7. Dezincing galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Braun, C.

    1998-07-01

    A caustic leach dezincing process is being developed for upgrading galvanized stamping plant scrap into clean scrap with recovery of the zinc. With further development the technology could also process galvanized scrap from obsolete automobiles. This paper will review: (1) the status of recent pilot plant operations in East Chicago, Indiana and plans for a commercial demonstration facility with a dezincing capacity of up to 250,000 tonnes/year, (2) the economics of caustic dezincing, and (3) benefits of decreased cost of environmental compliance, raw material savings, and improved operations with use of dezinced scrap.

  8. A note on scrap in the 1992 U.S. input-output tables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swisko, George M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction A key concern of industrial ecology and life cycle analysis is the disposal and recycling of scrap. One might conclude that the U.S. input-output tables are appropriate tools for analyzing scrap flows. Duchin, for instance, has suggested using input-output analysis for industrial ecology, indicating that input-output economics can trace the stocks and flows of energy and other materials from extraction through production and consumption to recycling or disposal. Lave and others use input-output tables to design life cycle assessment models for studying product design, materials use, and recycling strategies, even with the knowledge that these tables suffer from a lack of comprehensive and detailed data that may never be resolved. Although input-output tables can offer general guidance about the interdependence of economic and environmental processes, data reporting by industry and the economic concepts underlying these tables pose problems for rigorous material flow examinations. This is especially true for analyzing the output of scrap and scrap flows in the United States and estimating the amount of scrap that can be recycled. To show how data reporting has affected the values of scrap in recent input-output tables, this paper focuses on metal scrap generated in manufacturing. The paper also briefly discusses scrap that is not included in the input-output tables and some economic concepts that limit the analysis of scrap flows.

  9. Issues in the melting and reclamation of aluminum scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ray D.

    1995-02-01

    The processing of aluminum scrap has been practiced for as long as aluminum has been produced due to the inherent value of the metal and the amount of energy required to produce primary aluminum from bauxite ore. Scrap can be remelted at a fraction of the expense. With the large-scale introduction of aluminum beverage containers in the 1970s, increases in energy costs, and the need to reduce solid waste, aluminum recycling has grown at an increasing rate. This article provides a overview of the technologies and issues that surround the melting and reclamation of aluminum scrap.

  10. 77 FR 73996 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... of Availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of Scrap Metals... Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating from Radiological Areas. On... clearance and release of scrap metal from radiological areas to each Under Secretary for sites under his...

  11. The concept of the use of recycled uranium for increasing the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel for light-water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Ivanov, E. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Rumyantsev, A. N.; Shmelev, V. M.; Borisevich, V. D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.; Sulaberidze, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    The present paper deals with investigation of the possibilities for reducing the risk of proliferation of fissionable materials by means of increasing the degree of protection of fresh fuel intended for light-water reactors against unsanctioned use in the case of withdrawal of a recipient country of deliveries from IAEA safeguards. It is shown that the use of recycled uranium for manufacturing export nuclear fuel makes transfer of nuclear material removed from the fuel assemblies for weapons purposes difficult because of the presence of isotope 232U, whose content increases when one attempts to enrich uranium extracted from fresh fuel. In combination with restricted access to technologies for isotope separation by means of establishing international centers for uranium enrichment, this technical measure can significantly reduce the risk of proliferation associated with export deliveries of fuel made of low-enriched uranium. The assessment of a maximum level of contamination of nuclear material being transferred by isotope 232U for the given isotope composition of the initial fuel is obtained. The concept of further investigations of the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel assemblies with recycled uranium intended for light-water reactors is suggested.

  12. Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

  13. Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

  14. Method for forming consumable electrodes from metallic chip scraps

    DOEpatents

    Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich (St. Petersburg, RU); Podpalkin, Arcady Munjyvich (St. Petersburg, RU); Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich (St. Petersburg, RU); Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich (St. Petersburg, RU)

    2005-10-11

    The method relates to metallurgical recycling of waste products, preferably titanium alloys chips scrap. Accordingly after crushing and cleaning, the chip scrap is subjected to vacuum-thermal degassing (VTD); the chip scrap is pressed into briquettes; the briquettes are placed into a mould allowing sufficient remaining space for the addition of molten metal alloy; the mould is pre-heated before filling with the molten metal alloy; the mould remaining space is filled with molten metal alloy. After cooling, the electrode is removed from the mould. The method provides a means for 100% use of chip scrap in producing consumable electrodes having increased mechanical strength and reduced interstitial impurities content leading to improved secondary cast alloys.

  15. Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

  16. SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY METAL SOURCES, ARE STORED IN THESE BINS AND LIFTED TO SCALES BY AN ELECTRIC MAGNET. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP INTO QBOP FURNACE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP INTO Q-BOP FURNACE. SCRAP HAULER IS GREGORY JACKS. FURNACEMAN IS VINCENT MOREL. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Scrap treatment method

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.; Palmer, G.

    1990-10-24

    The method of the invention is useful in treating a wide variety of rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap wherein the scrap comprises (a) one or more transition metals such as Fe, Co and Ni, (b) one or more rare earth such as Nd, Dy, Tb, Pr, Sm, Ho, La, Ce, Eu, Gd, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y, and Sc and (c) other optional alloyants such as boron, Zr, Nb, Ga, Al and others. In treating rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap including two or more rare earth metals (e.g., Tb-Dy-Fe), the method of the invention is effective to recover mixed rare earth salts which can be treated further for use in the thermite or other metallothermic reduction processes.

  19. Integration of health physics, safety and operational processes for management and disposition of recycled uranium wastes at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, James; Buckley, James

    2003-02-23

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald), the contractor for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), recently submitted a new baseline plan for achieving site closure by the end of calendar year 2006. This plan was submitted at DOE's request, as the FEMP was selected as one of the sites for their accelerated closure initiative. In accordance with the accelerated baseline, the FEMP Waste Management Project (WMP) is actively evaluating innovative processes for the management and disposition of low-level uranium, fissile material, and thorium, all of which have been classified as waste. These activities are being conducted by the Low Level Waste (LLW) and Uranium Waste Disposition (UWD) projects. Alternatives associated with operational processing of individual waste streams, each of which poses potentially unique health physics, industrial hygiene and industrial hazards, are being evaluated for determination of the most cost effective and safe met hod for handling and disposition. Low-level Mixed Waste (LLMW) projects are not addressed in this paper. This paper summarizes historical uranium recycling programs and resultant trace quantity contamination of uranium waste streams with radionuclides, other than uranium. The presentation then describes how waste characterization data is reviewed for radiological and/or chemical hazards and exposure mitigation techniques, in conjunction with proposed operations for handling and disposition. The final part of the presentation consists of an overview of recent operations within LLW and UWD project dispositions, which have been safely completed, and a description of several current operations.

  20. Chromium Recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate the extent to which chromium was recycled in the United States in 1998 and to identify chromium-recycling trends. The major use of chromium was in the metallurgical industry to make stainless steel; substantially less chromium was used in the refractory and chemical industries. In this study, the only chromium recycling reported was that which was a part of stainless steel scrap reuse. In 1998, 20 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption of chromium was secondary (from recycling); the remaining 80 percent was based on net chromium commodity imports and stock adjustments. Chromite ore was not mined in the United States in 1998. In 1998, 75,300 metric tons (t) of chromium contained in old scrap was consumed in the United States; it was valued at $66.4 million. Old scrap generated contained 132,000 t of chromium. The old scrap recycling efficiency was 87 percent, and the recycling rate was 20 percent. About 18,000 t of chromium in old scrap was unrecovered. New scrap consumed contained 28,600 t of chromium, which yielded a new-to-old-scrap ratio of 28:72. U.S. chromium-bearing stainless steel scrap net exports were valued at $154 million and were estimated to have contained 41,000 t of chromium.

  1. Manganese recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the flow and processing of manganese within the U.S. economy in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which manganese is recycled. Manganese was used mostly as an alloying agent in alloys in which it was a minor component. Manganese was recycled mostly within scrap of iron and steel. A small amount was recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Very little manganese was recycled from materials being recovered specifically for their manganese content. For the United States in 1998, 218,000 metric tons of manganese was estimated to have been recycled from old scrap, of which 96% was from iron and steel scrap. Efficiency of recycling was estimated as 53% and recycling rate as 37%. Metallurgical loss of manganese was estimated to be about 1.7 times that recycled. This loss was mostly into slags from iron and steel production, from which recovery of manganese has yet to be shown economically feasible.

  2. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  3. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  4. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  5. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  6. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  7. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  8. 7 CFR 30.8 - Scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap. 30.8 Section 30.8 Agriculture Regulations of... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.8 Scrap.... Scrap which accumulates from handling unstemmed leaf tobacco is known as leaf-scrap, and scrap...

  9. Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

  10. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture...INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

  12. Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilliard, Henry E.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

  13. Columbium (niobium) recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the flow of columbium in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which columbium (niobium) was recycled/reused. Columbium was mostly recycled from products of columbium-bearing steels and superalloys; little was recovered from products specifically for their columbium content. In 1998, about 1,800 metric tons of columbium was recycled/reused, with about 55% derived from old scrap. The columbium recycling rate was calculated to be 22%, and columbium scrap recycling efficiency, 50%.

  14. Characterization of emissions from scrap metal processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Norco, J.E.; Tyler, T.

    1997-12-31

    To prepare its members for the permitting requirements under Title 5 of the Clean Act, the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) commissioned a project to develop a Title 5 applicability workbook. A critical element in the preparation of the workbook was the characterization of emissions from processes and equipment typically found in the scrap metal processing industry. This paper describes the approach to the preparation of the workbook with emphasis on characterization of specific emission units which are deemed important for Title 5. The paper describes the methodology employed for acquiring existing emissions information from equipment manufacturers, vendors, and scrap recycling facility operators. The data were aggregated and analyzed to develop a variety of emission tabulations for pollutants requiring analysis under Title 5. The project also involved a survey of numerous state and local air pollution agencies to determine regulatory requirements regarding critical issues in the scrap processing industry. The paper describes a methodology for determining Title 5 applicability with emphasis on the use of emission tabulations and example worksheets. Emissions data are presented for metal shredders to demonstrate the methodology and procedures developed during the project. Finally, the paper discusses the structure of the Title 5 applicability workbook and its dissemination to a major industry trade association.

  15. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  16. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN); Creech, Edward T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Northcutt, Walter G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  17. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1982-09-27

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

  18. Copper Recycling in the United States in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of copper from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap1) and used products (old scrap) in the year 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of copper supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of copper recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the U.S. refined copper supply was 2.53 million metric tons (Mt) of refined unalloyed copper. With adjustment for refined copper exports of 127,000 metric tons (t) of copper, the net U.S. refined copper supply was 2.14 Mt of copper. With this net supply and a consumer inventory decrease of 9,000 t of refined copper, 2.42 Mt of refined copper was consumed by U.S. semifabricators (brass mills, wire rod mills, ingot makers, and foundries and others) in 2004. In addition to the 2.42 Mt of refined copper consumed in 2004, U.S. copper semifabricators consumed 853,000 t of copper contained in recycled scrap. Furthermore, 61,000 t of copper contained in scrap was consumed by noncopper alloy makers, for example, steelmakers and aluminum alloy makers. Old scrap recycling efficiency for copper was estimated to be 43 percent of theoretical old scrap supply, the recycling rate for copper was 30 percent of apparent supply, and the new-scrap-to-old-scrap ratio for U.S. copper product production was 3.2 (76:24).

  19. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Materials recycling. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvious to the public: the collection, reprocessing, and remanufacture of materials into new products from post-consumer UBC's, scrap metal, glass containers, paper goods, increasingly plastics, as well as rubber tires and other used goods.

  20. Puncturing the scrap tire problem

    SciTech Connect

    Steuteville, R.

    1995-10-01

    The recovery of scrap tires is making major headway in the 1990s. In 1994, an estimated 55 percent of all scrap tires generated were diverted from landfills, compared to 11 percent five years ago. Within three to five years, the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC), an industry group, predicts that there will be markets for 100 percent of the estimated 250 million plus scrap tires generated in the U.S. annually. At that point, it should be possible to start making a serious dent in the estimated 800 to 850 million scrap tires stockpiled around the country. About 4.5 million scrap tires get transformed into ground rubber products. Despite that relatively small number, this category holds significant promise. It also is the area with perhaps the most entrepreneurial activity. The reason is clear when the value added from increasingly intensive processing of tires is examined. When scrap rubber is ground for use in asphalt, new tires or a host of other products - the value goes up tremendously. A quarter inch minus grind generally sells for 14 to 22 cents/lb., or $280 to $440/ton. With smallerpieces, the value continues to climb. An `80 mesh,` or rubber that passes through a screen with 80 holes/linear inch, sells for30 to 45 cents/ lb. ($600 to $900/ton), which is higher than prices for aluminum cans two years ago.

  1. Mercury-impacted scrap metal: Source and nature of the mercury.

    PubMed

    Finster, Molly E; Raymond, Michelle R; Scofield, Marcienne A; Smith, Karen P

    2015-09-15

    The reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes such as scrap metal is supported and encouraged both internationally and domestically, especially when such wastes can be used as substitutes for raw material. However, scrap metal processing facilities, such as mini-mills, have been identified as a source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. This research aims to better define some of the key issues related to the source and nature of mercury in the scrap metal waste stream. Overall, it is difficult to pinpoint the key mercury sources feeding into scrap metal recycling facilities, quantify their associated mercury concentrations, or determine which chemical forms are most significant. Potential sources of mercury in scrap metal include mercury switches from discarded vehicles, electronic-based scrap from household appliances and related industrial systems, and Hg-impacted scrap metal from the oil and gas industry. The form of mercury associated with scrap metal varies and depends on the source type. The specific amount of mercury that can be adsorbed and retained by steel appears to be a function of both metallurgical and environmental factors. In general, the longer the steel is in contact with a fluid or condensate that contains measurable concentrations of elemental mercury, the greater the potential for mercury accumulation in that steel. Most mercury compounds are thermally unstable at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 350 °C). As such, the mercury associated with impacted scrap is expected to be volatilized out of the metal when it is heated during processing (e.g., shredding or torch cutting) or melted in a furnace. This release of fugitive gas (Hg vapor) and particulates, as well as Hg-impacted bag-house dust and control filters, could potentially pose an occupational exposure risk to workers at a scrap metal processing facility. Thus, identifying and characterizing the key sources of Hg-impacted scrap, and understanding the nature and extent of associated releases, represent a practical research need that is essential for improving the environmental management of Hg-impacted scrap and assessing measures to protect workers from potential health and safety hazards that might be posed by mercury and Hg-impacted scrap. PMID:26197424

  2. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  3. Cadmium Recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plachy, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 t, and an estimated 285 t was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

  4. Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plachy, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

  5. An industry response to recycle 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.; Loiselle, V.

    1996-06-01

    The US DOE is expected to issue a policy early this year articulating DOE`s position on the recycle of DOE radioactive scrap metal. In anticipation of this `Recycle 2000` initiative, the nuclear industry has formed a new trade association called the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR). This article describes the Recycle 2000 initiative, provides some background on the ARMR and its membership, and identifies industry views on the actions to be taken and issues to be resolved in Recycle 2000 is to become a reality.

  6. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

  7. Information scraps : understanding and design

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Michael (Michael Scott)

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate information scraps - personal information whose content has been scribbled on Post-it notes, scrawled on the corners of sheets of paper, stuck in our pockets, sent in e-mail messages to ourselves, ...

  8. Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, L A; Williams, R W; Glover, S E; LaMont, S P; Stalcup, A M; Spitz, H B

    2012-03-16

    A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope {sup 230}Th from the decay of {sup 234}U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 {+-} 1.5 years.

  9. Recycling light metals from end-of-life vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesing, A.; Wolanski, R.

    2001-11-01

    The amount of aluminum used in cars and light trucks is growing steadily. However, without new developments in aluminum recycling technologies, sheet from automotive aluminum could eventually flood all current markets for recycled aluminum. This article summarizes the use of light metals and different alloys in transportation applications, the current auto recycling system, and new developments in the sorting of light metals by the metal recycling industry and by Huron Valley Steel Corporation, the world’s largest non-ferrous scrap sorter.

  10. Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, in the water, and in the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling rate for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent?almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from diecasting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  11. Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  12. 48 CFR 245.607 - Scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scrap. 245.607 Section 245.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Inventory 245.607 Scrap....

  13. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves....

  14. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves....

  17. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco...

  19. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture...36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3034 Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed...

  6. RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR SCRAP METAL

    E-print Network

    RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR SCRAP METAL: PRELIMINARY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS Prepared for to support the Agency's development of preliminary draft regulations on release standards for scrap metal.86) and would likely provide clearance standards for scrap metal exhibiting either surface or volumetric

  7. Effective Technology for Recycling Metal. Proceedings of Two Special Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary Material Industries, Inc., New York, NY.

    The National Association of Secondary Material Industries (NASMI) and the Bureau of Mines have cooperated to sponsor two technically-oriented workshops related to the role of metals recycling and air pollution control technology. The proceedings of these workshops, "Effective Technology and Research for Scrap Metal Recycling" and "Air Pollution…

  8. Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency

    SciTech Connect

    William Van Geertruyden

    2005-09-22

    The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in low melt recovery. Laboratory scale consolidation experiments were performed using loose aluminum powder as a modeling material as well as shredded aluminum wire scrap. The processing parameters necessary to create consolidated aluminum material were determined. Additionally, re-melting experiments using consolidated and unconsolidated aluminum powder confirmed the hypothesis that metal recovery using consolidated material will significantly improve by as much as 20%. Based on this research, it is estimated that approximately 495 billion Btu/year can be saved by implementation of this technology in one domestic aluminum rolling plant alone. The energy savings are realized by substituting aluminum scrap for primary aluminum, which requires large amounts of energy to produce. While there will be an initial capital investment, companies will benefit from the reduction of dependence on primary aluminum thus saving considerable costs. Additionally, the technology will allow companies to maintain in-house alloy scrap, rather than purchasing from other vendors and eliminate the need to discard the light gauge scrap to landfills.

  9. Composting and recycling at the 2015 YES brought to you by: Youth Environmental Summit (YES!)

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Composting and recycling at the 2015 YES brought to you by: Youth Environmental Summit (YES!) Steps as little trash as possible and give all attendees opportunities to recycle and compost. Here are a few food scraps at the end of lunch, recycle any plastic containers (that is not a reusable one from home

  10. CHEMICAL RECLAMATION OF SCRAP RUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolys...

  11. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment. Current approaches to the decontamination of metals most often involve one of four basic process types: (1) chemical, (2) manual and mechanical, (3) electrochemical, and (4) ultrasonic. {open_quotes}Hard{close_quotes} chemical decontamination solutions, capable of achieving decontamination factors (Df`s) of 50 to 100, generally involve reagent concentrations in excess of 5%, tend to physically degrade the surface treated, and generate relatively large volumes of secondary waste. {open_quotes}Soft{close_quotes} chemical decontamination solutions, capable of achieving Df`s of 5 to 10, normally consist of reagents at concentrations of 0.1 to 1%, generally leave treated surfaces in a usable condition, and generate relatively low secondary waste volumes. Under contract to the Department of Energy, the Babcock & Wilcox Company is developing a chemical decontamination process using chelating agents to remove uranium compounds and other actinide species from process equipment.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Recycling-nonferrous metals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, J.F.; Edelstein, D.; Jolly, J.H.; Jolly, J.L.W.; Papp, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the increasing importance of recycling to domestic metal supply and the intense public interest, the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) initiated this separate chapter on nonferrous metal recycling as part of its Annual Report series in 1991. A separate chapter on iron and steel scrap already has been part of this series for many years. The focus of this chapter is on aluminum, copper, lead, tin, and zinc recycling.

  13. What do we know about metal recycling rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graedel, T.E.; Allwood, J.; Birat, J.-P.; Buchert, M.; Hageluken, C.; Reck, B.K.; Sibley, S.F.; Sonnemann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The recycling of metals is widely viewed as a fruitful sustainability strategy, but little information is available on the degree to which recycling is actually taking place. This article provides an overview on the current knowledge of recycling rates for 60 metals. We propose various recycling metrics, discuss relevant aspects of recycling processes, and present current estimates on global end-of-life recycling rates (EOL-RR; i.e., the percentage of a metal in discards that is actually recycled), recycled content (RC), and old scrap ratios (OSRs; i.e., the share of old scrap in the total scrap flow). Because of increases in metal use over time and long metal in-use lifetimes, many RC values are low and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Because of relatively low efficiencies in the collection and processing of most discarded products, inherent limitations in recycling processes, and the fact that primary material is often relatively abundant and low-cost (which thereby keeps down the price of scrap), many EOL-RRs are very low: Only for 18 metals (silver, aluminum, gold, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, niobium, nickel, lead, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, tin, titanium, and zinc) is the EOL-RR above 50% at present. Only for niobium, lead, and ruthenium is the RC above 50%, although 16 metals are in the 25% to 50% range. Thirteen metals have an OSR greater than 50%. These estimates may be used in considerations of whether recycling efficiencies can be improved; which metric could best encourage improved effectiveness in recycling; and an improved understanding of the dependence of recycling on economics, technology, and other factors. ?? 2011 by Yale University.

  14. Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-05-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting demonstration, an investigation of commercial markets for RSM, and refinement of methods to quantify isotopic elements.

  15. 48 CFR 245.7310-7 - Scrap warranty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scrap warranty. 245.7310-7... Scrap warranty. The following condition shall be used whenever property, other than production scrap, is offered for sale as scrap: Scrap Warranty The Purchaser represents and warrants that the property will...

  16. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu Yijian

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  17. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton (12833 S. 82nd Ct., Palos Park, IL 60464); Sinha, Shome N. (5748 Drexel, 2A, Chicago, IL 60637)

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  18. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  19. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  20. INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP (C. 100,000 TONS) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP (C. 100,000 TONS) INTO Q-BOP FURNACE. SCRAP HAULER IS GREGORY JACKS AND FURNACEMAN, VINCENT MOREL. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Uranium and Thorium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Warren I.

    1978-01-01

    The results of President Carter's policy on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are expected to slow the growth rate in energy consumption, put the development of the breeder reactor in question, halt plans to reprocess and recycle uranium and plutonium, and expand facilities to supply enriched uranium. (Author/MA)

  2. Modeling of Alternative Compositions of Recycled Wrought Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkijan, Varužan

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, a significant part of postconsumed wrought aluminum scrap is still used for the production of comparatively cheaper cast alloys, in that way losing an important part of the potential added value. The share of postconsumed scrap in wrought aluminum alloys could be increased either by sorting to fractions with the required chemical composition and/or by broadening the standard compositional tolerance limits of alloying elements. The first solution requires hand or automatic sorting of postconsumed scrap as alloys or groups of alloys to the degree of separation sufficient to enable the blending of standard compositions of wrought alloys; the second solution is much more radical, predicting changes in the existing standards for wrought aluminum alloys toward nonstandard alloys but yet having properties acceptable for customers. In this case, the degree of separation of incoming postconsumed scrap required is much less demanding. The model presented in this work enables the design of optimal (standard and nonstandard recycling-friendly) compositions and properties of wrought aluminum alloys with significantly increased amounts of postconsumed scrap. The following two routes were modeled in detail: (I) the blending of standard and nonstandard compositions of wrought aluminum alloys starting from postconsumed aluminum scrap sorted to various degrees simulated by the model and (II) changing the initial standard composition of wrought aluminum alloys to nonstandard "recycling-friendly" ones, with broader concentration tolerance limits of alloying elements and without influencing the selected alloy properties, specified in advance. The applied algorithms were found to be very useful in the industrial design of both procedures: (I) the computation of the required chemical composition of the scrap streams obtained by sorting (or, in other words, the postconsumed scrap sorting level), necessary for achieving the standard wrought alloy composition and (II) the transformation of standard to nonstandard (recycling-friendly) compositions with the key alloy properties (e.g., tensile strength and elongation) remaining the same.

  3. Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included. (Contains a minimum of 76 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included. (Contains a minimum of 83 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. From Trash to Treasure: Recycling Scrap Metal into Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Trash is having a global impact not only on land, but at sea--making its way into the ocean and creating large islands of floating debris. One such island is The Great Pacific Trash Patch, which is located in the North Pacific and is made up of floating trash and debris that is spread out in an area as much as one and a half times the size of the…

  8. 7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco....

  9. 48 CFR 1845.607 - Scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Scrap. 1845.607 Section 1845.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 1845.607 Scrap....

  10. 7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco....

  11. Progress in caustic dezincing of galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1997-08-01

    In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, processes are being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. In the process discussed here, zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. Pilot testing has been conducted in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana, now in its second generation, has dezinced in a continuous process mode about 1,800 tonnes of loose clips and shredded stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.05% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews caustic dezincing pilot plant performance and economics.

  12. 7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations...Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco....

  13. Recycling asphalt pavements. January 1975-January 1990 (a Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1975-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt-containing pavement materials. Articles include examples of recycling asphalt pavements; performance testing of recycled paving; methods including cold in-place, cold off-site, and hot-mix recycling; additives in recycled pavement for better performance; use of scrap roofing asphalt in conjunction with recycled paving; economics of recycling; process design; and process variables. Recycling of other materials is considered in related bibliographies. (Contains 130 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  14. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  15. Scrap automotive electronics: A mini-review of current management practices.

    PubMed

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life vehicles, together with waste from electric and electronic equipment, are known as an important source of secondary raw materials. For many years, their recovery has allowed the restoring of great amounts of metals for new cars production. This article provides a comprehensive mini-review on the end-of-life vehicles recycling topic between 2000 and 2014, with a particular focus on automotive electronics recycling. In fact, in the last years, experts focused their attention on a better exploitation of automotive shredder residue fraction, but not sufficiently on eventual electronic scraps embedded in it. Hence, studies assessing the value embedded in these scraps are rarely available in literature, causing an important gap in both recycling policies and research. The fact that, at present, the management of electronic control units (the most valuable component among automotive electronic equipment) is, as yet, off the radar in both end-of-life vehicles and waste from electric and electronic equipment Directives demonstrates the theory. Of course, their recycling would not contribute in a relevant way to reach the weighted-based recycling and recovery targets characterising current regulations, but would be very important under a critical raw materials recovery view. Results coming from the literature analysis confirm these assumptions. PMID:26467318

  16. 48 CFR 245.607-70 - Scrap warranty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scrap warranty. 245.607-70... Contractor Inventory 245.607-70 Scrap warranty. (a) If the contractor sells its inventory as scrap to anyone... 1639, Scrap Warranty. (b) The contracting officer may release the contractor from the terms of...

  17. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2666 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2666 Section 29.2666 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2666 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade names and specifications S Scrap. Tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves, or...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3157 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3157 Section 29.3157 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3157 Scrap (S Group). A by-product of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade names and specifications S Scrap. Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3652 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3652 Section 29.3652 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3652 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade name and specifications S Scrap. Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2441 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2441 Section 29.2441 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2441 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. U.S. grade Grade name and specifications S Scrap. Tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves,...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1169 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.1169 Section 29.1169 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.1169 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grade, Grade Name and Specifications S—Scrap. Loose, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves; or...

  3. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  4. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  5. Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

  6. 46 CFR 148.04-9 - Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture). 148.04-9 Section 148.04-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture). (a) The fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized and fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized mixture must contain at least 6 percent moisture by weight but not...

  7. Silver recovery from aircraft scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.H.; Dunning, B.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, through a memorandum of agreement with DOD, conducted research to recover silver from aircraft scrap. Silver was recovered by an electrolytic method from stainless steel honeycomb sections separated from the aircraft. These sections had been constructed by sandwiching a stainless steel honeycomb core between stainless steel sheets and then brazing the assembly with a silver alloy. Over 300 pounds of silver was used in the B-58 bomber, concentrated in certain honeycomb sections of the aircraft. Following shredding of the aircraft parts, an average of 95% (ranging 67 to 100% of the silver was recovered in a single electrorefining step. After the electrorefined product was magnetically cleaned, purity of the recovered silver was greater than 99.3%.

  8. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains a minimum of 160 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. PMID:25712610

  10. Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

  11. Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

    1992-12-01

    Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

  12. 7 CFR 30.8 - Scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...8 Scrap. A byproduct from handling leaf tobacco in both the unstemmed and stemmed...of loose and tangled portions of tobacco leaves, floor sweepings, and all other...

  13. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  14. WHAT HAPPENS TO UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO RECYCLABLES? ALUMINUM CANS

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    Community Training (ACT), Columbia, MO http://www.actrecycling.org/ for reuse or recycling as plastic scrap. The City crushes the glass and stockpiles it for future use. LIGHT BULBS/TUBES Fluorescent tubes, Compact Fluorescent Lights, and Incandescent Bulbs are crushed in a special machine on site and shipped off site

  15. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu, Yijian

    2012-03-01

    Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment. PMID:22100716

  16. Silver Recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilliard, Henry E.

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the global silver supply deficit (the difference between mine and scrap supply and silver demand) was more than 3,000 metric tons. U.S. silver demand for photographic applications alone was nearly equal to annual U.S. silver production. Until 1968, the U.S. silver deficit was filled by withdrawals from the U.S. Treasury reserves. In 2000, the deficit was filled by destocking, imports, and recycling. Photographic wastes, spent catalysts, and electronic scrap are the major sources of materials for silver recycling. Nearly 1,800 tons of silver contained in these materials were available for recycling in 2000. Other recyclable silver-bearing materials include dental alloys, jewelry, and silverware. In 2000, an estimated 1,700 tons of silver were recovered from secondary sources in the United States. The U.S. recycling efficiency for old scrap was calculated to have been 97 percent in 2000; the recycling rate was estimated to be 32 percent.

  17. Silver recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilliard, Henry E.

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the global silver supply deficit (the difference between mine and scrap supply and silver demand) was more than 3,000 metric tons. U.S. silver demand for photographic applications alone was nearly equal to annual U.S. silver production. Until 1968, the U.S. silver deficit was filled by withdrawals from the U.S. Treasury reserves. In 2000, the deficit was filled by destocking, imports, and recycling. Photographic wastes, spent catalysts, and electronic scrap are the major sources of materials for silver recycling. Nearly 1,800 metric tons of silver contained in these materials were available for recycling in 2000. Other recyclable silver-bearing materials include dental alloys, jewelry, and silverware. In 2000, an estimated 1,700 tons of silver were recovered from secondary sources in the United States. The U.S. recycling efficiency for old scrap was calculated to have been 97 percent in 2000; the recycling rate was estimated to be 32 percent.

  18. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries.

  19. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  20. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-01

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  1. LCA approach to the automotive glass recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Badino, V.; Baldo, G.L.; Legarth, J.

    1995-12-31

    The interest of car producers in recycling of materials at the end of the car life is growing: LCA is the environmental impact analysis tool able to give useful information about the life cycle of these materials from an energy and ecological point of view. Car glass production and glass recycling from a car at the end of its life is here analyzed using the LCA methodology: in particular the energy consumption and all kind of emissions evaluation can help to understand the difference between glass from virgin and recycled material. The critical point of the analysis involving recycled materials is the energy content of the secondary materials: this case study, as application of LCA in the automotive industry, could be a good example to evaluate the importance of this critical point and to give rise to the discussion about energy content of scraps.

  2. Waste-tire and shingle scrap/bituminous paving test sections on the Willard Munger recreational trail gateway segment. Interim report, 1990-91

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, C.M.

    1991-02-01

    The need to reduce our states dependence on land fills resulted in a unique cooperative venture by three state agencies. A partnership was forged between the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) to investigate the use of recycled tire rubber and processed asphalt shingle scrap. The result is a two mile section of the Willard Munger Recreational Trail in St. Paul constructed with asphalt paving mixtures which contain varying percentages of recycled tire rubber and shingle scrap. Conventional mixing and paving equipment was utilized for construction. The application appears to be a viable alternative to landfilling these materials. However, costs for the mixtures containing rubber increased from 35% to 50% over the cost of the conventional mixture. Since the use of shingle scrap was negotiated by the private companies involved, no comparable cost data is available.

  3. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a) Metallic scrap management...are drained of free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap...

  4. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a) Metallic scrap management...are drained of free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap...

  5. Recovering cadmium and tellurium from thin-film photovoltaic device scrap. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Tolley, W.K.; Palmer, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) is investigating hydrometallurgical processing techniques to recycle metals from semiconductors and other advanced materials. Cadmium amd tellurium were recovered from mixed CdTe/CdS scrap produced in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic devices. Leaching the scrap for 90 min at 110 deg. C in 2.2Normal H2SO4 under 400 psig O2 yielded 97% Cd extraction; however, cadmium content of the residue ranged between 4% and 7%. Soluble iron was added to the lixiviant to catalyze oxidation of the CdS component. Tellurium and sulfur remained in the leach residue primarily in the elemental form. The iron and tellurium were removed from the cadmium-rich leach liquor by adjusting the pH to 5.3. The cadmium was recovered as cadmium sulfate crystals by evaporating the solution. Alternative leaching and purification schemes are discussed.

  6. Recycling steel automatically - through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.

    1997-12-01

    Last year, more than 55 percent of all steel cans were recycled. But no matter how effective the local recycling programs may be, some steel cans and other steel products are overlooked and appear in MSW. This missed steel fraction is automatically recycled by resource recovery facilities through magnetic separation. More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. Recovering ferrous scrap clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities` environmental performance. Both the resource recovery and steel industries must heighten public awareness of the benefits of automatic steel recycling. Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a simple method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries` overall recycling efforts. This paper will discuss the status of steel can recycling in the United States, describe how recovered ferrous is beneficiated before recycling by the steel industry, and make recommendations for heightening awareness of the steel recycling contribution made by resource recovery facilities.

  7. Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  8. Selenium Recycling in the United States in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Micheal W.; Wagner, Lorie A.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of selenium consumption in the United States is in dissipative uses, such as alloys, animal feeds, fertilizers, glass decolorizer, and pigments. The nondissipative use as a photoreceptor for xerographic copiers is declining. As a result of a lack of a substantial supply of selenium-containing scrap, there are no longer selenium recycling facilities in the United States. Selenium-containing materials collected for recycling, primarily selenium-containing photocopier drums, are exported for processing in other countries. Of the estimated 350 metric tons (t) of selenium products that went to the U.S. market in 2004, an estimated 300 t went to dissipative uses. An estimated 4 t was recovered from old scrap and exported for recycling.

  9. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID...Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID...Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a)...

  11. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID...Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID...Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a)...

  13. Packing in a tradition of recycling: Manufacturer-turned-recycler Free-Flow Packaging Corp. , Redwood City, Calif

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Free-Flow Packaging Corp. recycles polystyrene. Loose-fill -- an industry name for expanded polystyrene (EPS) packaging modules, or what the public more commonly calls peanuts'' -- represents a material that can easily and economically be recycled over and over. The company manufactures a 100% recycled packaging peanut called FLO-PAK, as well as a variety of other EPS packaging products. Indeed, to date, Free-Flow Packaging has set up post-consumer EPS recycling operations at five of its 11 manufacturing facilities, both across the country and overseas. The corporation's original facility in Redwood City began this tradition when it first started processing industrial EPS scrap in 1978 and, later, pioneered the recycling of post-consumer EPS on site for use in its products in 1989. Now, only five years later, the result has produced a recycling operation that is truly successful, profitable, and closed-loop.

  14. Vacuum recycling effect on minor elements in superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadier, J. F.; Morlet, J.

    1984-04-01

    Superalloy recycling is an economical and strategical necessity. Scrap recovery is examined from a thermodynamical and technological point of view with emphasis on air melting with oxygen blowing to remove titanium and aluminum before vacuum treatment; and non reactive melting of conditioned scraps in vacuum induction melting. The vacuum effect on the carbon/oxygen reaction, desulfurization and nitrogen removal, and heavy metal distillation is examined. Further reactions during remelting in VAR or ESR are taking account to assure the quality of the final product.

  15. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S.; Ghosh, C.; Ravindran, T.R.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  16. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements, January 1980-June 1991 (citations from the NTIS database). Rept. for Jan 80-Jun 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (The bibliography contains 75 citations.) (Also includes title list and subject index.)

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. Sec. 12... CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA... cause the Contractor to segregate all equipment, salvageable material and scrap, removed from a...

  18. 48 CFR 1845.607-170 - Contractor's approved scrap procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor's approved scrap... Contractor Inventory 1845.607-170 Contractor's approved scrap procedure. (a) When a contractor has an approved scrap procedure, certain property may be routinely disposed of in accordance with that...

  19. 7 CFR 29.6131 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.6131 Section 29.6131 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6131 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. U.S. grades Grade names and specifications S Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  20. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  1. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  2. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  3. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  4. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  5. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  6. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  7. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  8. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  9. Recovery of copper from printed circuit boards scraps by mechanical processing and electrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Veit, Hugo Marcelo; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Ferreira, Jane Zoppas; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares; de Fraga Malfatti, Célia

    2006-10-11

    The constant growth in generation of solid wastes stimulates studies of recycling processes. The electronic scrap is part of this universe of obsolete and/or defective materials that need to be disposed of more appropriately, or then recycled. In this work, printed circuit boards, that are part of electronic scrap and are found in almost all electro-electronic equipments, were studied. Printed circuit boards were collected in obsolete or defective personal computers that are the largest source of this kind of waste. Printed circuit boards are composed of different materials such as polymers, ceramics and metals, which makes the process more difficult. However, the presence of metals, such as copper and precious metals encourage recycling studies. Also the presence of heavy metals, as Pb and Cd turns this scrap into dangerous residues. This demonstrates the need to search for solutions of this kind of residue, in order to have it disposed in a proper way, without harming the environment. At the first stage of this work, mechanical processing was used, as comminution followed by size, magnetic and electrostatic separation. By this process it was possible to obtain a concentrated fraction in metals (mainly Cu, Pb and Sn) and another fraction containing polymers and ceramics. The copper content reached more than 50% in mass in most of the conductive fractions and significant content of Pb and Sn. At the second stage, the fraction concentrated in metals was dissolved with acids and treated in an electrochemical process in order to recover the metals separately, especially copper. The results demonstrate the technical viability of recovering copper using mechanical processing followed by an electrometallurgical technique. The copper content in solution decayed quickly in all the experiments and the copper obtained by electrowinning is above 98% in most of the tests. PMID:16757116

  10. Using recycled superalloys in precision casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambergts, M.; Drapier, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    The recycling of cast scrap is not uniquely justified by fear of difficulties in supplying primary metals or by care to preserve the relationship limited natural supplies of certain of these materials: it is imperative that the smelter minimize costs. Recyling can, however, lead to a deterioration of the metallurgical properties of precision cast superalloys and to a certain chemical contamination that can affect the service life of cast parts. Recycling can be introduced only after careful control of all the consequences. The influence of recycling on composition (trace elements), solidification behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties was investigated in various nickel alloys such as IN 100, IN 728, and Mar-M-002. Cobalt alloys such as X45 and W152 were also studied. Particular emphasis is given to inclusion content and to the tendency to microporosity. The technical occurrence and economics of an eventual hot isostatic compression cycle is evaluated.

  11. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-21

    Each year, more than 50 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world. More than 95% of these vehicles enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, about 75% of automotive materials are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobiles, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials (about 25% of the weight of the vehicle)--commonly called shredder residue--is disposed of in landfills. Over the past 10 to 15 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has focused on developing technology to recover materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lighter-weight materials--primarily polymers and polymer composites--will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. These materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems at end-of-life. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in cooperation with the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC), is working to develop technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation may face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap and be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This document presents a review of the state of the art in shredder residue recycling. Available technologies and emerging technologies for the recycling of materials from shredder residue are discussed.

  12. 7 CFR 30.8 - Scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.8 Scrap. A byproduct from handling leaf tobacco in both the unstemmed and stemmed forms, consisting of loose and tangled portions of tobacco leaves, floor sweepings, and all other tobacco materials (except...

  13. EMISSIONS FROM BURNING CABINET MAKING SCRAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an initial determination of differences in missions when burning ordinary cordwood compared to kitchen cabinet making scraps. he tests were performed in an instrumented woodstove testing laboratory on a stove that simulated units observed in use at a k...

  14. Overview of flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibley, Scott F.

    2011-01-01

    Metal supply consists of primary material from a mining operation and secondary material, which is composed of new and old scrap. Recycling, which is the use of secondary material, can contribute significantly to metal production, sometimes accounting for more than 50 percent of raw material supply. From 2001 to 2011, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studied 26 metals to ascertain the status and magnitude of their recycling industries. The results were published in chapters A-Z of USGS Circular 1196, entitled, "Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States." These metals were aluminum (chapter W), antimony (Q), beryllium (P), cadmium (O), chromium (C), cobalt (M), columbium (niobium) (I), copper (X), germanium (V), gold (A), iron and steel (G), lead (F), magnesium (E), manganese (H), mercury (U), molybdenum (L), nickel (Z), platinum (B), selenium (T), silver (N), tantalum (J), tin (K), titanium (Y), tungsten (R), vanadium (S), and zinc (D). Each metal commodity was assigned to a single year: chapters A-M have recycling data for 1998; chapters N-R and U-W have data for 2000, and chapters S, T, and X-Z have data for 2004. This 27th chapter of Circular 1196 is called AA; it includes salient data from each study described in chapters A-Z, along with an analysis of overall trends of metals recycling in the United States during 1998 through 2004 and additional up-to-date reviews of selected metal recycling industries from 1991 through 2008. In the United States for these metals in 1998, 2000, and 2004 (each metal commodity assigned to a single year), 84 million metric tons (Mt) of old scrap was generated. Unrecovered old scrap totaled 43 Mt (about 51 percent of old scrap generated, OSG), old scrap consumed was 38 Mt (about 45 percent of OSG), and net old scrap exports were 3.3 Mt (about 4 percent of OSG). Therefore, there was significant potential for increased recovery from scrap. The total old scrap supply was 88 Mt, and the overall new-to-old-scrap ratio was 36:64. On a weighted-average basis, the recycling rate overall for these metals was 40 percent, and the estimated efficiency of recovery was 63 percent. New scrap consumed was 21 Mt. The United States was a net exporter of most scrap metals, and the net exports of 3.3 Mt were valued at $2 billion in constant 1998 dollars. Metals show a wide range of recycling rates, recycling efficiency, and new-to-old-scrap ratios. Recycling rates cluster in the range from 15 to 45 percent, whereas efficiencies are fairly evenly distributed over a range from 7 to 97 percent.

  15. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

  16. Extreme Recycling

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2009-01-14

    Broadcast Transcript: Singing the recycling blues because you have to separate your chipboard from your newspaper, your steel from your aluminum, your #1 from your #2 plastic? Pantywaists! The residents of Kamikatsu, Japan have no fewer than 34...

  17. The role of automobiles for the future of aluminum recycling.

    PubMed

    Modaresi, Roja; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-08-21

    To reach required product qualities with lowest costs, aluminum postconsumer scrap is currently recycled using strategies of downgrading and dilution, due to difficulties in refining. These strategies depend on a continuous and fast growth of the bottom reservoir of the aluminum downgrading cascade, which is formed by secondary castings, mainly used in automotive applications. A dynamic material flow model for the global vehicle system was developed to assess the likelihood, timing, and extent of a potential scrap surplus. The results demonstrate that a continuation of the above-mentioned strategies will lead to a nonrecyclable scrap surplus by around 2018 ± 5 if no additional measures are taken. The surplus could grow to reach a level of 0.4-2 kg/cap/yr in 2050, corresponding to a loss of energy saving potential of 43-240 TWh/yr electricity. Various intervention options for avoiding scrap surplus are discussed. Effective strategies need to include an immediate and rapid penetration of dramatically improved scrap sorting technologies for end-of-life vehicles and other aluminum applications. PMID:22816552

  18. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. October 1973-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for October 1973-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt-pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains 110 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  19. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  20. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-04-11

    A process is described for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal. 2 figures.

  1. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to exposure additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  2. The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Morten B; Elliott, Tim; Freymuth, Heye; Sims, Kenneth W W; Niu, Yaoling; Kelley, Katherine A

    2015-01-15

    Changing conditions on the Earth's surface can have a remarkable influence on the composition of its overwhelmingly more massive interior. The global distribution of uranium is a notable example. In early Earth history, the continental crust was enriched in uranium. Yet after the initial rise in atmospheric oxygen, about 2.4 billion years ago, the aqueous mobility of oxidized uranium resulted in its significant transport to the oceans and, ultimately, by means of subduction, back to the mantle. Here we explore the isotopic characteristics of this global uranium cycle. We show that the subducted flux of uranium is isotopically distinct, with high (238)U/(235)U ratios, as a result of alteration processes at the bottom of an oxic ocean. We also find that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs) have (238)U/(235)U ratios higher than does the bulk Earth, confirming the widespread pollution of the upper mantle with this recycled uranium. Although many ocean island basalts (OIBs) are argued to contain a recycled component, their uranium isotopic compositions do not differ from those of the bulk Earth. Because subducted uranium was probably isotopically unfractionated before full oceanic oxidation, about 600 million years ago, this observation reflects the greater antiquity of OIB sources. Elemental and isotope systematics of uranium in OIBs are strikingly consistent with previous OIB lead model ages, indicating that these mantle reservoirs formed between 2.4 and 1.8 billion years ago. In contrast, the uranium isotopic composition of MORB requires the convective stirring of recycled uranium throughout the upper mantle within the past 600 million years. PMID:25592542

  3. Textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, E. ); Carlton, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

  4. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  5. 48 CFR 45.606-2 - Contractor without an approved scrap procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approved scrap procedure. 45.606-2 Section 45.606-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Contractor without an approved scrap procedure. The contractor shall submit an inventory disposal schedule for all scrap....

  6. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap? 63.10685 Section...the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap? (a) Chlorinated plastics...the Administrator for the control of contaminants from scrap according to the...

  7. U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, V.; Bennett, M.; Bishop, L.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-l2 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer programs, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, provide pollution prevention information and documentation, and produce independent government estimates. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrapyard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums.

  8. INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business.

  9. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M.

    1994-03-01

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  10. Vanadium recycling in the United States in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of vanadium in the U.S. economy in 2004. This report includes a description of vanadium supply and demand in the United States and illustrates the extent of vanadium recycling and recycling trends. In 2004, apparent vanadium consumption, by end use, in the United States was 3,820 metric tons (t) in steelmaking and 232 t in manufacturing, of which 17 t was for the production of superalloys and 215 t was for the production of other alloys, cast iron, catalysts, and chemicals. Vanadium use in steel is almost entirely dissipative because recovery of vanadium from steel scrap is chemically impeded under the oxidizing conditions in steelmaking furnaces. The greatest amount of vanadium recycling is in the superalloy, other-alloy, and catalyst sectors of the vanadium market. Vanadium-bearing catalysts are associated with hydrocarbon recovery and refining in the oil industry. In 2004, 2,850 t of vanadium contained in alloy scrap and spent catalysts was recycled, which amounted to about 44 percent of U.S. domestic production. About 94 percent of vanadium use in the United States was dissipative (3,820 t in steel/4,050 t in steel+fabricated products).

  11. Recycling Philology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Peggy A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that English teachers recycle philology as a field of study. Redefines the shape of philology in view of postmodern theories of signification. Considers concepts of hermeneutics in retheorizing the aims of philology. Shows how such philological investigation might be used in the classroom to study literary texts. (HB)

  12. U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, V.; Bennett, M.; Bishop, L.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. The Center has gotten off to a fast start. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-12 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer software, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, produce pollution prevention information and documentation, manage their materials inventory, produce independent government estimates, and implement sale/service contracts. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrap yard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums. Members of the Center look forward to working with all DOE sites, regulatory authorities, the private sector, and other stakeholders to achieve the metals recycle goals.

  13. Integrated steel producers race the recycling clock

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    When classed as waste, the leftover oxides of blast furnaces and oxygen furnaces must go into landfill. That is an expensive option. Assuming there is space and permission for land disposal, this may be only a temporary solution. Finally, there is an economic incentive to replace some amount of scrap with the iron units in waste. The various factors have brought a concerted recycling push. With increased use of galvanized scrap, a growing portion of the waste is zinc coated. Unlike electric furnace dust, the waste from blast furnaces and oxygen furnaces doesn`t have enough zinc to be classed as hazardous. In theory, repeated cycling will concentrate the zinc but there is uncertainty about what actually happens. There are ways to remove zinc from waste, however, favorable economics have tended to require high concentrations of zinc. New processes and conditions could change the economic equation. The ultimate answer to recycling could be a facility specifically designed for converting waste into usable metal.

  14. 48 CFR 45.606 - Disposal of scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of scrap. 45.606 Section 45.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.606 Disposal of scrap....

  15. 91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  16. A Model for Scrap Melting in Steel Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruskopf, Ari

    2015-03-01

    A process model for basic oxygen furnace is in development. The full model will include a 2-D axisymmetric turbulent flow model for iron melt, a steel scrap melting model, and a chemical reaction model. A theoretical basis for scrap melting model is introduced in this paper and an in-house implementation of the model is tested in this article independently from the other parts of the full process model. The model calculates a melting curve for the scrap piece and the heat and carbon mass exchange between the melt and the scrap. A temperature and carbon concentration-dependent material data are used for heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient. The equations are discretized into a moving grid, which is uncommon in literature in the context of scrap melting. A good agreement is found between the modeling results and experiments from literature. Also a heat transfer correlation for dimensionless Nusselt number is determined using the numerical results.

  17. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G.; Schexanyder, S.M.

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  18. Influence of void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surbakti, R.; Waris, A.; Basar, K.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.

    2012-06-01

    The uncertainty of commercial operation of fast breeder reactors (FBR) claims for another solution to the plutonium produced in light water reactors (LWR). As one option, recently, the plutonium recycling in LWR becomes an important consideration. A study on the impact of changing void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR has been performed. Two types of uranium sources in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, namely the depleted uranium and the natural uranium have been evaluated. The trend is similar for both MOX fuels that BWR can gain its critical condition for the void fraction of less than 42% and it may be operated in critical condition for the void fraction of 42% and 95%.

  19. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  20. Argonne explains nuclear recycling in 4 minutes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Currently, when using nuclear energy only about five percent of the uranium used in a fuel rod gets fissioned for energy; after that, the rods are taken out of the reactor and put into permanent storage. There is a way, however, to use almost all of the uranium in a fuel rod. Recycling used nuclear fuel could produce hundreds of years of energy from just the uranium we've already mined, all of it carbon-free. Problems with older technology put a halt to recycling used nuclear fuel in the United States, but new techniques developed by scientists at Argonne National Laboratory address many of those issues. For more information, visit http://www.anl.gov/energy/nuclear-energy.

  1. Argonne explains nuclear recycling in 4 minutes

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    Currently, when using nuclear energy only about five percent of the uranium used in a fuel rod gets fissioned for energy; after that, the rods are taken out of the reactor and put into permanent storage. There is a way, however, to use almost all of the uranium in a fuel rod. Recycling used nuclear fuel could produce hundreds of years of energy from just the uranium we've already mined, all of it carbon-free. Problems with older technology put a halt to recycling used nuclear fuel in the United States, but new techniques developed by scientists at Argonne National Laboratory address many of those issues. For more information, visit http://www.anl.gov/energy/nuclear-energy.

  2. Recycling of auto shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Nourreddine, Menad

    2007-01-31

    Currently, about 75% of end-of-life vehicle's (ELV) total weight is recycled in EU countries. The remaining 25%, which is called auto shredder residues (ASR) or auto fluff, is disposed of as landfill because of its complexity. It is a major challenge to reduce this percentage of obsolete cars. The European draft directive states that by the year 2006, only 15% of the vehicle's weight can be disposed of at landfill sites and by 2015, this will be reduced to 5%. The draft directive states that a further 10% can be incinerated. The quantities of shredder fluff are likely to increase in the coming years. This is because of the growing number of cars being scrapped, coupled with the increase in the amount of plastics used in cars. In Sweden, some current projects are focusing on recycling of ASR material. In this paper some different alternatives for using this material are reported. The hypothetical injection of ASR into a blast furnace concentrating on ASR's effect to some blast furnace (BF) parameters has been completed using a blast furnace mass balance model. As a result, in principle, ASR can be used as reducing agent in the BF process if certain conditions are met. The particle size of ASR material must be controlled to ensure optimal gasification of the material in the raceway. Regarding the chemical composition of ASR, the non-ferrous content can affect the pig iron quality, which is difficult to rectify at a later point. The most attractive recycling alternative is to use the products obtained from pyrolysis of ASR in appropriate metallurgical processes. PMID:16600493

  3. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  4. Technological and economic study of ship recycling in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Abdel Naby, Maged M.; Tadros, Mina Y.

    2012-12-01

    The ship recycling industry is growing rapidly. It is estimated that the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) decision to phase-out single hull tankers by 2015 will result in hundreds of ships requiring disposal. At present, the ship recycling industry is predominantly based in South Asia. Due to the bad practice of current scrapping procedure, the paper will highlight the harm occurring to health, safety and environment. The efforts of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) which led to the signing of the Hong Kong International Convention are also reviewed. The criteria and standards required to reduce the risk and damage to the environment are discussed and a proposed plan for the safe scrapping of ships is then presented. A technological and economic study for the ship recycling in Egypt is carried out as a case study. This includes the ship recycling facility size and layout. The equipment and staff required to operate the facility are also evaluated. A cost analysis is then carried out. This includes site development, human resources, machineries and equipment. A fuzzy logic approach is used to assess the benefits of the ship breaking yard. The use of the fuzzy logic approach is found suitable to make decisions for the ship breaking industry. Based on given constraints, the proposed model has proved capable of assessing the profit and the internal rate of return.

  5. SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS-200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED SCRAP, CALLED "CABBAGES", ARE MELTED DOWN IN THE CAST SHOP,ALONG WITH RAW METAL AND ALLOYS. BALED SCRAP MELTS MORE RAPIDLY THAN LOOSE SCRAP. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. 48 CFR 45.606-1 - Contractor with an approved scrap procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approved scrap procedure. 45.606-1 Section 45.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Contractor with an approved scrap procedure. (a) The contractor may dispose of scrap resulting from production or testing under this contract without Government approval. However, if the scrap...

  7. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling

  8. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

  9. Value analysis of neodymium content in shredder feed: toward enabling the feasibility of rare earth magnet recycling.

    PubMed

    Bandara, H M Dhammika; Darcy, Julia W; Apelian, Diran; Emmert, Marion H

    2014-06-17

    In order to facilitate the development of recycling technologies for rare earth magnets from postconsumer products, we present herein an analysis of the neodymium (Nd) content in shredder scrap. This waste stream has been chosen on the basis of current business practices for the recycling of steel, aluminum, and copper from cars and household appliances, which contain significant amounts of rare earth magnets. Using approximations based on literature data, we have calculated the average Nd content in the ferrous shredder product stream to be between 0.13 and 0.29 kg per ton of ferrous scrap. A value analysis considering rare earth metal prices between 2002 and 2013 provides values between $1.32 and $145 per ton of ferrous scrap for this material, if recoverable as pure Nd metal. Furthermore, we present an analysis of the content and value of other rare earths (Pr, Dy, Tb). PMID:24934194

  10. Nutritional characterisation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. produced using paper scraps as substrate.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Herbert, Paulo; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-15

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. is the third most produced edible mushroom worldwide, due to its ability to colonise and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus grown on blank and printed paper substrates, in comparison with samples grown on oat straw (control). The nutritional properties of the control sample were similar to values reported in the literature, while the chemical composition of the samples obtained using paper scraps, either blank or printed, was highly satisfactory. The results obtained validated the nutritional characteristics of the samples, highlighting a profitable means to recycle paper. PMID:25236243

  11. Increasing the leaching rate of bulk superalloy scrap by melting with aluminum. Report of investigations/1983

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, G.B.

    1983-12-01

    The Bureau of Mines investigated a method for increasing the leaching rate of bulk superalloy scrap to facilitate recycling and recovery of critical metals such as Ni, Co, and Cr. Three superalloys were investigated, the cast-nickel-base superalloy IN-738, the wrought-nickel-base superalloy Rene-41, and the cast-cobalt-base superalloy Mar-M-509. Superalloys melted with 20, 30, 40, and 50 pct Al metal to form intermetallic compounds were easily crushed to a convenient particle size and reacted rapidly with acid solutions which dissolved the metals. For example, leaching 1/2-in pieces of unalloyed IN-738 with excess 6N HC1 at 95 degree C for 2 h dissolved about 0.5 pct, while leaching 10 g of minus 20-mesh 30 pct Al-70 pct IN-738 with excess 6N HC1 at 95 degrees C for 2 h dissolved 96.2 pct.

  12. Solid electrolyte based sensor for monitoring the magnesium level during reclamation of aluminum scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Fergus, J.W.; Hui, S.

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum alloy scrap often contains excess magnesium which must be removed during recycling by a process referred to as demagging. The efficiency of this process could be improved with an in-situ magnesium sensor, which could be used to optimize the process parameters to the changing magnesium content. The sensor developed in this work consists of a galvanic cell with a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) solid electrolyte and a molten magnesium reference electrode. The voltage output of the sensor changes by about 100 mV for the change in magnesium content which occurs during the demagging process (5 wt% to 0.1 wt%) and is in excellent agreement with thermodynamic measurements using molten chloride electrolytes. This paper focuses on the effect of silicon, which is a common alloying element in aluminum alloys, on the output of an electrochemical magnesium sensor.

  13. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    SciTech Connect

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Greengard, T. |; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization.

  14. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

  15. Plutonium scrap recovery at Savannah River: Past, present, and vision of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Blancett, A.L.; Lower, M.W.; Rudisill, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the changing requirement, plus environmental and regulatory commitments, SRP now has essentially completed its paradigm shift. SRP has been transformed from primarily a reprocessor of irradiated uranium targets to primarily a reprocessor of non-specification plutonium. This is the mission which will carry SRP into the 21st Century. Accomplishment of the defined goals for the three-pronged RandD program will achieve several objectives: exploit new processes for recovering low-grade scraps; enhance SRP's position to incorporate pyrochemical processes where they are attractive or beneficial to plant scrap recovery; provide SRL/SRP with a capability to develop compatible aqueous pyrochemical processes; identify material compatibility requirements for the incorporation of pyrochemical processes at SRP; promote development and demonstration of improved NDA instrumentation to accurately measure plutonium holdups in solid residues; identify and implement the technology required for reagent preparation and atmospheric quality control; provide a means to compare economic options for emerging new processes; and as a result, identify process steps which will also put SRP in a position to readily adapt to changing plutonium missions.

  16. A Recycled Giraffe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diorio, Lucille

    1976-01-01

    Chicken wire, cardboard tubes, newspaper, scrap lumber and discontinued fabric samples were among the discarded materials used in the art classes at the Webster Hill Elementary School, West Hartford, Connecticut, to create an eight-foot giraffe. (Author/RK)

  17. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  18. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  19. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA)

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  20. Scrap? This Program Grows on It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schureman, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A high school industrial arts program in plastics recycling provided students direct contact with production methods of the plastics industry as well as awareness of governmental functions. Experimentation included fuel cells, paving and construction composites, soil composites, and watercraft flotation. (EA)

  1. Recycling universe

    E-print Network

    Jaume Garriga; Alexander Vilenkin

    1997-07-26

    If the effective cosmological constant is non-zero, our observable universe may enter a stage of exponential expansion. In such case, regions of it may tunnel back to the false vacuum of an inflaton scalar field, and inflation with a high expansion rate may resume in those regions. An ``ideal'' eternal observer would then witness an infinite succession of cycles from false vacuum to true, and back. Within each cycle, the entire history of a hot universe would be replayed. If there were several minima of the inflaton potential, our ideal observer would visit each one of these minima with a frequency which depends on the shape of the potential. We generalize the formalism of stochastic inflation to analyze the global structure of the universe when this `recycling' process is taken into account.

  2. Screening of halogenated aromatic compounds in some raw material lots for an aluminium recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Seija; Paasivirta, Jaakko; Lahtiperä, Mirja; Vattulainen, Antero

    2004-05-01

    Four samples of scrap raw materials for an aluminium recycling plant were screened for the occurrence of persistent halogenated aromatic compounds. The samples contained waste from handling of electric and electronic plastics, filter dust from electronic crusher, cyclone dust from electronic crusher and light fluff from car shredder. In our screening analyses, brominated flame retardants were observed in all samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) were identified in all samples in amounts of 245-67450 ng/g. The major PBDE congeners found were decabromo- and pentabromodiphenyl ethers. 1,1-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, hexabromobenzene, ethyl-pentabromobenzene, tetrabromobisphenol-A, pentabromotoluene and dimethyl tetrabromobenzene were observed in all scrap samples. The concentrations of PCBs, PCNs (polychlorinated naphthalenes) and nona- to undecachlorinated terphenyls in some of these scrap samples were remarkably high. PMID:14987867

  3. Experiments in anodic film effects during electrorefining of scrap U-10Mo fuels in support of modeling efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleeck, M.; Willit, J.; Williamson, M.A.; Fentiman, A.W.

    2013-07-01

    A monolithic uranium molybdenum alloy clad in zirconium has been proposed as a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel option for research and test reactors, as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. Scrap from the fuel's manufacture will contain a significant portion of recoverable LEU. Pyroprocessing has been identified as an option to perform this recovery. A model of a pyroprocessing recovery procedure has been developed to assist in refining the LEU recovery process and designing the facility. Corrosion theory and a two mechanism transport model were implemented on a Mat-Lab platform to perform the modeling. In developing this model, improved anodic behavior prediction became necessary since a dense uranium-rich salt film was observed at the anode surface during electrorefining experiments. Experiments were conducted on uranium metal to determine the film's character and the conditions under which it forms. The electro-refiner salt used in all the experiments was eutectic LiCl/KCl containing UCl{sub 3}. The anodic film material was analyzed with ICP-OES to determine its composition. Both cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic scans were conducted at operating temperatures between 475 and 575 C. degrees to interrogate the electrochemical behavior of the uranium. The results show that an anodic film was produced on the uranium electrode. The film initially passivated the surface of the uranium on the working electrode. At high over potentials after a trans-passive region, the current observed was nearly equal to the current observed at the initial active level. Analytical results support the presence of K{sub 2}UCl{sub 6} at the uranium surface, within the error of the analytical method.

  4. Comparison of the U.S. lead recycling industry in 1998 and 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1998, the structure of the lead recycling industry has changed and trade patterns of the domestic lead recycling industry have shifted. Although the domestic demand for lead has remained relatively constant since 1998, production of lead has increasingly shifted to the domestic secondary lead industry. The last primary lead smelter in the United States closed at the end of 2013, at which time the secondary lead industry became the sole source of domestic lead production. The amount of lead recovered annually from scrap batteries generally increased from about 900,000 metric tons in 1995 to more than 1,100,000 metric tons in 2012. The percentage of total U.S. lead production attributed to battery scrap increased from 65 percent in 1995 to 87 percent in 2012. Since the North American Free Trade Agreement took effect in 1994, trade patterns among the United States, Canada, and Mexico have changed for recycled lead products. In the late 1990s, the principal sources of lead waste and scrap not derived from batteries were Canada, Mexico, and South America; by 2011, the principal sources were Central America and Asia, with decreasing amounts from Canada and South America. Since 1998, the amount of lead derived from imported batteries and scrap from Canada has ranged from 50 to 90 percent, and the amount imported from Mexico has ranged from 3 to 20 percent. Canada received about 50 percent of the lead contained in spent lead-acid batteries and scrap exported from the United States in 1998, and Mexico received about 4 percent. By 2012, however, the amount of lead scrap exported to Canada had decreased to about 10 percent, and the amount of lead-based scrap products, primarily batteries, exported to Mexico from the United States had increased to 47 percent. Vertical integration of the domestic secondary lead industry and higher costs required to implement more stringent ambient air standards in the United States have led some companies to shift lead recycling operations to Mexico. U.S. secondary lead producers are increasingly competing with Canadian and Mexican facilities for market share.

  5. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S.

    2011-02-22

    Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. Many of these materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals that are recovered. In addition, the number of hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles on the road is rapidly increasing. This trend will also introduce new materials for disposal at the end of their useful lives, including batteries. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), the Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC. (VRP) of the United States Council for Automotive Research, LLC. (USCAR), and the American Chemistry Council-Plastics Division (ACC-PD) are working to develop technology for recovering materials from end-of-life vehicles, including separating and recovering polymers and residual metals from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation and the world will most likely face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap, and thereby be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This will result in increased energy consumption and increased damage to the environment, including increased greenhouse gas emissions. The recycling of polymers, other organics, and residual metals in shredder residue saves the equivalent of over 23 million barrels of oil annually. This results in a 12-million-ton reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This document presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the recycling of automotive materials.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  7. Component- and Alloy-Specific Modeling for Evaluating Aluminum Recycling Strategies for Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modaresi, Roja; Løvik, Amund N.; Müller, Daniel B.

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that the availability of mixed shredded aluminum scrap from end-of-life vehicles (ELV) is likely to surpass the capacity of secondary castings to absorb this type of scrap, which could lead to a scrap surplus unless suitable interventions can be identified and implemented. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing potential solutions to this problem, among others, because of a lack of component- and alloy-specific information in the models. In this study, we developed a dynamic model of aluminum in the global vehicle stock (distinguishing 5 car segments, 14 components, and 7 alloy groups). The forecasts made up to the year 2050 for the demand for vehicle components and alloy groups, for the scrap supply from discarded vehicles, and for the effects of different ELV management options. Furthermore, we used a source-sink diagram to identify alloys that could potentially serve as alternative sinks for the growing scrap supply. Dismantling the relevant components could remove up to two-thirds of the aluminum from the ELV stream. However, the use of these components for alloy-specific recycling is currently limited because of the complex composition of components (mixed material design and applied joining techniques), as well as provisions that practically prevent the production of safety-relevant cast parts from scrap. In addition, dismantling is more difficult for components that are currently penetrating rapidly. Therefore, advanced alloy sorting seems to be a crucial step that needs to be developed over the coming years to avoid a future scrap surplus and prevent negative energy use and emission consequences.

  8. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  9. An econometric model of the U.S. secondary copper industry: Recycling versus disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model of secondary recovery is developed that integrates microeconomic theories of production and cost with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The model equations are estimated for the U.S. secondary copper industry and used to assess the impacts that various policies and future events have on copper recycling rates. The alternatives considered are: subsidies for secondary production, differing energy costs, and varying ore quality in primary production. ?? 1990.

  10. Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

  11. 29 CFR 570.128 - Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. 570.128 Section 570.128 ...Exemptions § 570.128 Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. (a)...

  12. 29 CFR 570.128 - Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. 570.128 Section 570.128 ...Exemptions § 570.128 Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. (a)...

  13. 29 CFR 570.128 - Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. 570.128 Section 570.128 ...Exemptions § 570.128 Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. (a)...

  14. 29 CFR 570.128 - Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. 570.128 Section 570.128 ...Exemptions § 570.128 Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. (a)...

  15. Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception & Managing

    E-print Network

    Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception of uncontrolled radioactive source incidents. Aside from radiation exposure to workers and the public, this unwanted radioactive scrap material causes environmental and facility contamination with cleanup costs

  16. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Advanced process research and development to enhance metals and materials recycling.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E. J.

    1997-12-05

    Innovative, cost-effective technologies that have a positive life-cycle environmental impact and yield marketable products are needed to meet the challenges of the recycling industry. Four materials-recovery technologies that are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with industrial partners are described in this paper: (1) dezincing of galvanized steel scrap; (2) material recovery from auto-shredder residue; (3) high-value-plastics recovery from obsolete appliances; and (4) aluminum salt cake recycling. These technologies are expected to be applicable to the production of low-cost, high-quality raw materials from a wide range of waste streams.

  4. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  6. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  7. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film...Metals § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap...

  10. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film...Metals § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap...

  11. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film...Metals § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap...

  12. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film...Metals § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap...

  13. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film...Metals § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap...

  14. Role of Air Gap in Scrap Dissolution Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ajay Kumar; Deo, Brahma; Robertson, D. G. C.

    2013-12-01

    The role of the air gap formed between scrap and a solidified metal shell at the beginning of the scrap dissolution process has been investigated. The effect of air gap has been investigated for different Biot numbers (10 to 100) and ratios of air gap to liquid melt heat transfer coefficient (0.1 to 0.9). The predictions of the mathematical model are compared with the experimental results reported elsewhere. The role of air gap is found to be significant only for low Biot numbers (<50) and for low ratios of air gap to liquid melt heat transfer coefficient (<0.25).

  15. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  16. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA); Lincoln, Lanny P. (Woodward, IA)

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

  17. Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper

    E-print Network

    activities: · Protection and management of resources on 191 million acres of National Forest System landsFederal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper The Forest Service, U.S. Department · Cooperation with State and local governments, forest industries, and private landowners to help protect

  18. ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling

    E-print Network

    ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling #12;Recycled ConcreteRecycled Concrete ·· Whatever steel goes into PCC must comeWhatever steel goes into PCC must come out for recycleout for recycle ·· Aggregates have a big impact on the costAggregates have a big impact on the cost of recyclingof recycling

  19. Safeguards and nonproliferation aspects of a dry fuel recycling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory undertook an independent assessment of the proliferation potentials and safeguardability of a dry fuel recycling technology, whereby spent pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuels are used to fuel canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. Objectives of this study included (1) the evaluation of presently available technologies that may be useful to safeguard technology options for dry fuel recycling (2) and identification of near-term and long-term research needs to develop process-specific safeguards requirements. The primary conclusion of this assessment is that like all other fuel cycle alternatives proposed in the past, the dry fuel recycle entails prolfferation risks and that there are no absolute technical fixes to eliminate such risks. This study further concludes that the proliferation risks of dry fuel recycling options are relatively minimal and presently known safeguards systems and technologies can be modified and/or adapted to meet the requirements of safeguarding such fuel recycle facilities.

  20. Recycling overview in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

  1. Recycling Research. Tracking Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLago, Louise Furia

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students research the effectiveness of recycling is presented. Students compare the types and amount of litter both before and after recycling is implemented. Directions for the activity and a sample data sheet are included. (KR)

  2. Authorization Recycling in RBAC Systems

    E-print Network

    Authorization Recycling in RBAC Systems 1Laboratory for Education and Research in Secure Systems ·motivation ·recycling approach recycling algorithms experimental evaluations summary & future work #12 issued before (precise recycling) #12;6 Laboratory for Education and Research in Secure Systems

  3. Challenges of Water Recycling

    E-print Network

    Challenges of Water Recycling State of the Estuary September 18, 2015 Ashwini Kantak Environmental max 54 MGD #12;South Bay Water Recycling Program #12;Strategic Plan Guiding Principles Near Term (2015 Planning Framework #12;Water Supply Focus for Future of Recycled Water Regional Wastewater Facility Near

  4. RESOURCE GUIDE RECYCLING ELECTRONICS

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    RESOURCE GUIDE RECYCLING ELECTRONICS Batteries and Accessories Office Depot Cell Phones Any Verizon and Recycling Sprecher Institute for Comparative Cancer Research USE BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENTS that use PLANT://www.thesoftlanding.com/ AVOIDING BISPHENOL-A Eden Organics Beans http://www.edenfoods.com/ CD and DVD recycling http

  5. PAVEMENT RECYCLING Description

    E-print Network

    PAVEMENT RECYCLING Description Major reconstruction projects can cause a significant amount recycling can significantly reduce construction time and cost by using the existing road structure as part its suitability for recycling. This involves a combination of both nondestructive testing and limited

  6. The Economics of Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogert, Susan; Morris, Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study that documented 1992 costs of residential curbside recycling versus disposal systems in four Washington State cities: Seattle, Spokane, Bellingham, and Vancouver. Results indicated that recycling can be less expensive than disposal when the revenues obtained from selling recycled materials are considered. (MDH)

  7. Recycling and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

  8. The environmental benefits of MOX recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, D.M.; Carter, P.B.; Hesketh, K.; Robson, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares the once-through ``direct disposal`` irradiated nuclear fuel management strategy with the spent fuel reprocessing and MOX fuel recycle option in terms of three key environmental factors; volumes of waste arising, the radioactivity of those wastes and their radiotoxicity. The waste volume issue is viewed in the context of the complete fuel cycle; uranium ore mining and milling, fuel fabrication, reactor operation and irradiated fuel management. The concept of radiological toxic potential is also introduced and explained. Light Water Reactors (LWRs) form the mainstream of current and envisaged commercial nuclear reactors. Such reactors are generally loaded with enriched uranium fuels, but most can also burn MOX fuels consisting of a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides, the plutonium substituting for fissile U235. Irradiated fuel arisings from the reactors themselves are the same irrespective of whether the direct disposal or recycle strategy is adopted. However, the utilization of the plutonium from reprocessing in MOX fuel reduces the requirement to mine and process uranium ore, with a corresponding reduction in waste arisings. This benefit is quantified in the paper and the volumes of the various categories of waste arising from the respective spent fuel management strategies are compared. In the once-through cycle, although plutonium is not separated for recycle, there is an accumulation of plutonium in the irradiated fuel which is ultimately disposed of in an underground repository. The paper investigates how the consumption of plutonium in MOX fuel effects the radioactivity and radiotoxicity of the wastes produced by reprocessing and quantifies their impact over time compared to the wastes arising from the direct disposal alternative.

  9. 21. Scrapping In Dry Dock #4. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Scrapping In Dry Dock #4. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. February 18, 1946. Original Photograph In Collection of National Archives, Mid-Atlantic Regional Records Center, Philadelphia. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Monday, February 23, 2009 Cheap Hydrogen from Scraps

    E-print Network

    without expensive platinum. By Nora Schultz It sounds almost too good to be true: add a few bugs to food scraps and waste water to generate clean hydrogen fuel. But over the past few years, researchers have because burning it creates only water as a waste product. MECs harness the electrons produced by certain

  11. Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, S.

    1995-10-01

    Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

  12. BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ARE LOADED INTO THE BOTTOM DROPPING CHARGE BUCKET IN THE BACKGROUND BEFORE BEING CHARGED INTO ONE OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. Sec. 12 Section 12 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition...

  14. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Anthropogenic nickel cycle: insights into use, trade, and recycling.

    PubMed

    Reck, Barbara K; Müller, Daniel B; Rostkowski, Katherine; Graedel, T E

    2008-05-01

    The anthropogenic nickel cycle for the year 2000 was analyzed using a material flow analysis at multiple levels: 52 countries, territories, or country groups, eight regions, and the planet. Special attention was given to the trade in nickel-containing products at different stages of the cycle. A new circular diagram highlights process connections, the role and potential of recycling, and the relevance of trade at different life stages. The following results were achieved. (1) The nickel cycle is dominated by six countries or territories: USA, China and Hong Kong, Japan, Germany, Taiwan, and South Korea; only China also mines some of its nickel used. (2) Nickel is mostly used in alloyed form in stainless steels (68%). (3) More scrap is used for the production of stainless steels (42%) than for other first uses (11%). (4) Industrial machinery is the largest end use category for nickel (25%), followed by buildings and infrastructure (21%) and transportation (20%). (5) 57% of discarded nickel is recycled within the nickel and stainless steel industries, and 14% is lost to other metal markets where nickel is an unwanted constituent of carbon steel and copper alloy scrap. PMID:18522124

  16. Health assessment for Union Scrap Iron and Metal, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minnesota, Region 5. Cerclis No. MND022949192 (February 12, 1992). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-12

    The Union Scrap Iron and Metal Company (Union Scrap) site was listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the National Priorities List (NPL). The company recycled batteries at the site from approximately 1972 to 1983, which resulted in high concentrations of lead in the soil, surface-water runoff and air. Other metals, as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were also present. In a series of emergency removal actions by EPA, battery parts and contaminated soil have been removed, and a building on the site has been decontaminated, demolished, and removed. The Remedial Investigation (RI) indicated that no significant quantities of metals (particularly lead) or PCBs remain in the top 13 feet of soil on the site, which indicates that potential human exposure to contaminants in soil via ingestion, inhalation or dermal contact is no longer a problem at the Union Scrap site. Concentrations of lead in remaining site soil are below levels of public health concern. Based on the information reviewed, MDH has concluded that the site poses no apparent public health hazard under current conditions because it is unlikely that human exposure to contaminants is occurring. In the past, workers at the site have been exposed to levels of lead which were of health concern, as evidenced by blood lead levels which exceeded health based guidelines.

  17. St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to allow you to recycle the following materials: To find your nearest Recycling Point please visit www.fifedirect.org.uk/wasteaware or call the Recycling Helpline on 08451 55 00 22. R&A GOLF CLUB OLD COURSE HOTEL UNIVERSITY NORTH HAUGH

  18. Guidance document for multi-facility recycle/reuse/free release of metals from radiological control areas

    SciTech Connect

    Gogol, S.; Starke, T.

    1997-08-15

    Approximately 15% of the Low Level Waste (LLW) produced at Los Alamos consists of scrap metal equipment and materials. The majority of this material is produced by decommissioning and modification of existing facilities. To address this waste stream, Los Alamos has developed a scrap metal recycling program that is operated by the Environmental Stewardship Office to minimize the amount of LLW metal sent for LLW landfill disposal. Past practice has supported treating all waste metals generated within RCA`s as contaminated. Through the metal recycling project, ESO is encouraging the use of alternatives to LLW disposal. Diverting RSM from waste landfill, disposal protects the environment, reduces the cost of operation, and reduces the cost of maintenance and operation at landfill sites. Waste minimization efforts also results in a twofold economic reward: The RSM has a market value and decontamination reduces the volume and therefore the amount of the radioactive waste to be buried within landfills.

  19. The lead-acid battery industry in China: outlook for production and recycling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xi; Wu, Yufeng; Gong, Yu; Zuo, Tieyong

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, more than four million (metric) tons (MT) of refined lead went into batteries in China, and 1.5 MT of scrap lead recycled from these batteries was reused in other secondary materials. The use of start-light-ignition (SLI), traction and energy storage batteries has spread in China in recent decades, with their proportions being 25.6%, 47.2% and 27.2%, respectively, in 2012. The total production of these batteries increased from 296,000 kVAh in 2001 to 205.23 MkVAh in 2013, with manufacturing located mainly in the middle and eastern provinces of the country. In this paper, we find that the market share of SLI batteries will decrease slightly, the share of traction batteries will continuously increase with the emergence of clean energy vehicles, and that of energy storage batteries will increase with the development of the wind energy and photovoltaic industries. Accounting for lead consumption in the main application industries, and the total social possession, it is calculated that used lead batteries could generate 2.4 MT of scrap lead in 2014, which is much higher than the 1.5 MT that was recycled in 2013. Thus, the current recycling rate is too low. It is suggested that while building large-scale recycling plants, small-scale plants should be banned or merged. PMID:26341636

  20. A method for leaching or dissolving gold from ores or precious metal scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, Nicolas; Cardarelli, François

    2005-08-01

    The hydrometallurgical leaching of native gold from gold-bearing ores or the dissolution of gold metal during the recycling of electronic and precious metal scrap is performed every day using hazardous chemicals such as sodium cyanide or aqua regia. These chemicals represent health and safety risks for workers and a serious threat for the environment. However, even if several other reagents are known to dissolve gold at the laboratory scale, none of these are used industrially. Hot mixtures of hydrochloric acid with strong oxidizing compounds are known to generate in-situ nascent chlorine which is capable of dissolving gold efficiently. In this study, the authors investigated the capability of a hot mixture of hydrochloric acid and ground manganese (IV) oxide to dissolve gold metal either under atmospheric or pressurized conditions. The best result was obtained under a pressure of 639 kPa at 90°C with a dissolution rate of 0.250 g·cm-2h-1 and it was compared to that reported in the literature for other industrial reagents.

  1. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  2. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  3. Review of PennDOT Publication 408 for the use of recycled co-product materials: Summary recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tassel, E.L.; Tikalsky, P.J.; Christensen, D.W.

    1999-04-30

    The purpose of this project is to decrease the institutional or perceived institutional barriers for the use of recycled and co-product materials including glass, steel slag, foundry sand, fly ash, shingle tabs, reclaimed Portland cement concrete, and scrap tires in the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation`s (PennDOT) Publications 408, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Specifications. This report reviews potential uses of each material, identifies the project that used these materials, and provides direction for future specification development.

  4. Use of scrap rubber in asphalt pavement surfaces. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.A.; Roberts, R.J.; Blackburn, R.R.

    1991-12-01

    Scrap tire rubber was mixed into an asphalt concrete wearing course to study the effect of ice disbonding from the pavement surface under traffic. Rubber contents of 0, 3, 6, and 12% by weight were studied. Initial laboratory ice disbonding test results led to the development of a new paving material, Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC), that uses larger pieces of rubber in a much denser asphalt concrete mix. Strength values doubled and ice disbonding performance was enhanced.

  5. Use of scrap rubber in asphalt pavement surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Robert A.; Roberts, Richard J.; Blackburn, Robert R.

    1991-12-01

    Scrap tire rubber was mixed into an asphalt concrete wearing course to study the effect of ice disbonding from the pavement surface under traffic. Rubber contents of 0, 3, 6, and 12 percent by weight were studied. Initial laboratory ice disbonding test results led to the development of a new paving material, Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC), that uses larger pieces of rubber in a much denser asphalt concrete mix. Strength values doubled and ice disbonding performance was enhanced.

  6. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards: a review of current technologies and treatment status in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-05-30

    From the use of renewable resources and environmental protection viewpoints, recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) receives wide concerns as the amounts of scrap PCBs increases dramatically. However, treatment for waste PCBs is a challenge due to the fact that PCBs are diverse and complex in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Recycle technology for waste PCBs in China is still immature. Previous studies focused on metals recovery, but resource utilization for nonmetals and further separation of the mixed metals are relatively fewer. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a proper recycle technology for waste PCBs. In this paper, current status of waste PCBs treatment in China was introduced, and several recycle technologies were analyzed. Some advices against the existing problems during recycling process were presented. Based on circular economy concept in China and complete recycling and resource utilization for all materials, a new environmental-friendly integrated recycling process with no pollution and high efficiency for waste PCBs was provided and discussed in detail. PMID:18829162

  8. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-04-20

    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  9. AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY WASTEWATER RECYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of recycling certain categories of water used in the manufacture of airplanes was demonstrated. Water in four categories was continuously recycled in 380-liter (100-gallon) treatment plants; chemical process rinse water, dye-penetrant crack-detection rinse water, ...

  10. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  11. Recycling at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, William M.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

  12. Methods for increasing the efficiency of heating scrap metal in electric arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raile, V.

    2013-06-01

    The type of heating, which determines heat transfer from an external energy source to a metallic charge, plays a key role in the process of preliminary heating of scrap metal. The type of charge heating during preliminary heating of scrap metal mainly determines the average scrap metal heating temperature and the formation of harmful substances. This article considers the existing types of charge heating in EAF baths and shaft heaters. The types of scrap metal heating that increase the energy efficiency and weaken the ecological problems related to this process in electric furnace steelmaking units are found.

  13. Sink-float ferrofluid separator applicable to full scale nonferrous scrap separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a ferrofluid levitation separator for recovering nonferrous metals from shredded automobiles are reported. The scrap separator uses an electromagnet to generate a region of constant density within a pool of ferrofluid held between the magnetic poles; a saturated kerosene base ferrofluid as able to float all common industrial metals of interest. Conveyors move the scrap into the ferrofluid for separation according to density. Results of scrap mixture separation studies establish the technical feasibility of relatively pure aluminum alloy and zinc alloy fractions from shredded automobile scrap by this ferrofluid levitation process. Economic projections indicate profitable operation for shredders handling more than 300 cars per day.

  14. Scrap biofuels targets and focus on improved public transport

    E-print Network

    of Europe's biodiesel could come from Malaysian and Indonesian palm oil. Orang-utans Mr Blakey says, "Last of biofuels such as biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil that deliver real greenhouse gas savings without in a sustainable way. There is simply not enough recycled cooking oil to replace 10 per cent of Europe's fuel needs

  15. Energy Return on Investment from Recycling Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    2011-08-17

    This report presents an evaluation of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) from recycling an initial batch of 800 t/y of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through a Recycle Center under a number of different fuel cycle scenarios. The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered. The scenarios represent a good cross section of the options available and the results contained in this paper and associated appendices will allow for other fuel cycle options to be considered.

  16. An economic and technical assessment of black-dross and salt-cake-recycling systems for application in the secondary aluminum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Karvelas, D.; Daniels, E.; Jody, B.; Bonsignore, P.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry annually disposes of large amounts of dross residues and salt cake, which are by-products from the processing of scrap aluminum for reuse. These wastes contain as much as 50% salts and are presently disposed of in conventional landfills. As the costs of landfill space increase and the availability of landfill space decreases, disposal of the residues will increasingly compromise the economics of recycling aluminum. Alternative processes exist by which the major constituents of the various drosses and salt cakes can be recovered for recycling. In this study, we review available recycling technologies and processes relevant to the recycling of black dross and salt cake and discuss new concepts that have the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of recycling technologies.

  17. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  18. Creating Methane from Plastics: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Wheeler, Ray; Strayer, RIchard; Garland, Jay; Parrish, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste, into fuel. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. The goal of this project is to determine the feasibility of recycling waste into methane on the lunar outpost by performing engineering assessments and lab demonstrations of the technology. The first goal of the project was to determine how recycling could influence lunar exploration. Table I shows an estimation of the typical dried waste stream generated each day for a crew of four. Packaging waste accounts for nearly 86% of the dry waste stream and is a significant source of carbon on the lunar surface. This is important because methane (CH4) can be used as fuel and no other source of carbon is available on the lunar surface. With the initial assessment indicating there is sufficient resources in the waste stream to provide refueling capabilities, the project was designed to examine the conversion of plastics into methane.

  19. Active Recycling eyes coast-to-coast operations

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, P.

    1995-03-01

    Active Recycling is a waste processing facility covering more than four acres in a mixed neighborhood in south-central Los Angeles. The recycling center handles more than 16,000 tons per month of household waste, making it more than twice the average size of most existing US materials recovery facilities today. The yard has its own railroad spur, and prepared materials from the recycling center are shipped out daily. Glass, paper, aluminum, and scrap metal are shipped directly to mills for reuse. The materials shipped by rail are dropped off throughout the US, while the rest of the materials go overseas in export containers. The company's sizeable loading dock can load four rail cars and seven 40-foot export containers simultaneously. The center boasts of paying some of the highest prices in the area for glass bottles and jars, polyethylene terephthalate soft drink bottles, and high-density polyethylene containers, cardboard, newspapers, mixed-color and white paper, aluminum, copper, brass, automotive batteries, iron and cast iron, lead, tin, stainless steel, diecast aluminum, aluminum foil and TV dinner trays, radiators, and electric motors.

  20. RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    NATIONAL RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by: Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc. Market Research and Statistics Division Chicago, Illinois July 2003 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER #12;BCI RECYCLING RATE STUDY TABLE ....................................................................................................1 II. METHODOLOGY A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries

  1. The Totem Pole Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Susan Breyer

    1991-01-01

    Presents an activity that integrates science, environmental education, art, and social studies. Students identify and research an endangered species and construct a totem pole depicting the species using a recyclable material. (MDH)

  2. High temperature performance of scrap tire rubber modified asphalt concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Coomarasamy, A.; Manolis, S.; Hesp, S.

    1996-12-31

    Wheel track rutting tests on mixes modified with 30 mesh, 80 mesh, and very fine colloidal crumb rubber particles show that a very significant improvement in performance occurs with a reduction in the rubber particle size. The SHRP binder test for rutting, which was originally developed for homogeneous systems only, does not predict the performance improvement for smaller rubber particles. If these new scrap rubber binder systems are to be used in pavements then rutting tests on the asphalt-aggregate mixture should be conducted in order to accurately predict high temperature performance.

  3. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOEpatents

    LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  4. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cables, and wheel weights) from the scrap, except for scrap used to produce leaded steel. (iii... of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and 268). The plan... facilities with permits as required under the rules implementing subtitle C of RCRA (40 CFR parts 261...

  5. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cables, and wheel weights) from the scrap, except for scrap used to produce leaded steel. (iii... of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and 268). The plan... facilities with permits as required under the rules implementing subtitle C of RCRA (40 CFR parts 261...

  6. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cables, and wheel weights) from the scrap, except for scrap used to produce leaded steel. (iii... of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and 268). The plan... facilities with permits as required under the rules implementing subtitle C of RCRA (40 CFR parts 261...

  7. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cables, and wheel weights) from the scrap, except for scrap used to produce leaded steel. (iii... of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and 268). The plan... facilities with permits as required under the rules implementing subtitle C of RCRA (40 CFR parts 261...

  8. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

  9. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

  10. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

  11. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

  12. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

  13. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste regulated under § 761.61, or metal surfaces in...

  14. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste regulated under § 761.61, or metal surfaces in...

  15. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste regulated under § 761.61, or metal surfaces in...

  16. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste regulated under § 761.61, or metal surfaces in...

  17. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste regulated under § 761.61, or metal surfaces in...

  18. Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-03-01

    A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Recycling of nonmetallics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  20. A process to recycle thin film PV materials

    SciTech Connect

    Goozner, R.E.; Drinkard, W.F.; Long, M.O.; Byrd, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    The wide scale interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules is tempered by the use of toxic metals such as cadmium and selenium in their manufacture. Drinkard Metalox has adapted hydrometallurgical technology to recycle CdTe cells. The process will remove all the Cd and Te while, enabling reuse of substrates. Downstream processing recovers Te as metal from the lixivant, and removal of the lixivant leaves behind a pure Cd product. This process can also be utilized to process CIS cells. The lixivant will remove all the photoactive metals from the substrate of scrap CIS cells. A metallic stream of mixed Cu and Se metal is removed from the leachate by electrochemical methods. Subsequent processing will win purified Se.

  1. Creating Methane from Plastic: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Captain, Janine; Devor, Robert; Gleaton, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste into fuel. This process thermally degrades plastic in the presence of oxygen producing CO2 and CO. The CO2 and CO are then reacted with hydrogen over catalyst (Sabatier reaction) producing methane. An end-to-end laboratory-scale system has been designed and built to produce methane from plastic, in this case polyethylene. This first generation system yields 12-16% CH4 by weight of plastic used.

  2. Glycolysis recycling of rigid waste polyurethane foam from refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Zhu, P; Cao, Z B; Chen, Y; Zhang, X J; Qian, G R; Chu, Y L; Zhou, M

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth of rigid waste polyurethane (WPUR) foam from refrigerators attracts the attention all over the world. In this study, glycolysis was chosen to treat WPUR from scrapped refrigerators collected in Shanghai, China. Glycolysis reagents and catalysts were selected. The results indicated that the glycolysis efficiency of ethylene glycol (EG) was higher than that of diethylene glycol, and the catalytic efficiency of alkali metal salts (NaOH) was more excellent than that of triethanolamine and organic salts of alkali metal (NaAc). When EG was 100%WPUR as a glycolysis reagent and NaOH was 1%WPUR as a catalyst at a constant temperature of 197.85°C for 2 h, the glycolysis product had the highest glycolysis conversion rate. In order to maximize the recycling of WPUR, regenerative Polyurethane was performed by adding 10% distilled mixed polyol, which conformed to the QB/T 26689-2011 requirements. PMID:25176301

  3. Producing ground scrap tire rubber: A comparison between ambient and cryogenic technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    Prior to 1985, few, if any scrap tires were processed. The Minnesota program changed all that. The equipment first introduced to process scrap tires consisted of redesigned wood or metal shredders. The performance of these systems left much to be desired. In the past 10 years, many companies and equipment systems, designed especially for scrap tires, have come into existence. Until recently, scrap tires were typically processed by ambient systems. These systems consist of a mechanical process, which cuts and or grinds whole tire rubber into the desired sized particle at room temperatures. Historically, producing ground rubber, like all other rubber processing, was done by an ambient processes system. Within the last several years, cryogenic processing of scrap tires has been introduced for the preparation of ground rubber. In the cryogenic process, rubber is introduced into a bath of liquid nitrogen, instantly freezing the rubber. Once embrittled, the rubber is struck with an impact devise, effectively shattering the rubber.

  4. CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE--LOW-TECH SOLUTIONS TO THE PADUCAH SCRAP METAL REMOVAL PROJECT ARE PROVIDING SAFE, COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP YARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Dan; Eyman, Jeff

    2003-02-27

    Between 1974 and 1983, contaminated equipment was removed from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) process buildings as part of an enrichment process upgrade program. The upgrades consisted of the dismantlement, removal, and on-site storage of contaminated equipment, cell components, and scrap material (e.g., metal) from the cascade facilities. Scrap metal including other materials (e.g., drums, obsolete equipment) not related to this upgrade program have thus far accumulated in nine contiguous radiologically-contaminated and non-contaminated scrap yards covering 1.05E5 m2 (26 acres) located in the northwestern portion of the PGDP. This paper presents the sequencing of field operations and methods used to achieve the safe removal and disposition of over 47,000 tonnes (53,000 tons) of metal and miscellaneous items contained in these yards. The methods of accomplishment consist of mobilization, performing nuclear criticality safety evaluations, moving scrap metal to ground level, inspection and segregation, sampling and characterization, scrap metal sizing, packaging and disposal, and finally demobilization. Preventing the intermingling of characteristically hazardous and non-hazardous wastes promotes waste minimization, allowing for the metal and materials to be segregated into 13 separate waste streams. Low-tech solutions such as using heavy equipment to retrieve, size, and package scrap materials in conjunction with thorough planning that integrates safe work practices, commitment to teamwork, and incorporating lessons learned ensures that field operations will be conducted efficiently and safely.

  5. Boiling water reactor uranium utilization improvement potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, P.; Crowther, R.L.; Fennern, L.E.; Savoia, P.J.; Specker, S.R.; Tilley, R.M.; Townsend, D.B.; Wolters, R.A.

    1980-06-01

    This report documents the results of design and operational simulation studies to assess the potential for reduction of BWR uranium requirements. The impact of the improvements on separative work requirements and other fuel cycle requirements also were evaluated. The emphasis was on analysis of the improvement potential for once-through cycles, although plutonium recycle also was evaluated. The improvement potential was analyzed for several design alternatives including axial and radial natural uranium blankets, low-leakage refueling patterns, initial core enrichment distribution optimization, reinsert of initial core discharge fuel, preplanned end-of-cycle power coastdown and feedwater temperature reduction, increased discharge burnup, high enrichment discharge fuel rod reassembly and reinsert, lattice and fuel bundle design optimization, coolant density spectral shift with flow control, reduced burnable absorber residual, boric acid for cold shutdown, six-month subcycle refueling, and applications of a once-through thorium cycle design and plutonium recycle.

  6. Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  7. Factors affecting acceptability of radioactive metal recycling to the public and stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Burke, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    The perception of risk takes place within a cultural context that is affected by individual and societal values, risk information, personal experience, and the physical environment. Researchers have found that measures of {open_quotes}voluntariness of risk assumption,{close_quotes} of {open_quotes}disaster potential,{close_quotes} and of {open_quotes}benefit{close_quotes} are important in explaining risk acceptability. A review of cross-cultural studies of risk perception and risk acceptance, as well as an informal stakeholder survey, are used to assess the public acceptability of radioactive scrap metal recycling.

  8. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Carrington, O.F.; Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.

    1981-03-24

    Improvement in the process for recovering uranium from wetprocess phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores by the use of two ion exchange liquidliquid solvent extraction circuits in which in the first circuit (A) the uranium is reduced to the uranous form; (B) the uranous uranium is recovered by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using a mixture of mono- and di-(Alkyl-phenyl) esters of orthophosphoric acid as the ion exchange agent; and (C) the uranium oxidatively stripped from the agent with phosphoric acid containing an oxidizing agent to convert uranous to uranyl ions, and in the second circuit (D) recovering the uranyl uranium from the strip solution by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using di(2ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide as a synergist; (E) scrubbing the uranium loaded agent with water; (F) stripping the loaded agent with ammonium carbonate, and (G) calcining the formed ammonium uranyl carbonate to uranium oxide, the improvement comprising: (1) removing the organics from the raffinate of step (B) before recycling the raffinate to the wet-process plant, and returning the recovered organics to the circuit to substantially maintain the required balance between the mono and disubstituted esters; (2) using hydogren peroxide as the oxidizing agent in step (C); (3) using an alkali metal carbonate as the stripping agent in step (F) following by acidification of the strip solution with sulfuric acid; (4) using some of the acidified strip solution as the scrubbing agent in step (E) to remove phosphorus and other impurities; and (5) regenerating the alkali metal loaded agent from step (F) before recycling it to the second circuit.

  9. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  10. Uranium, natural

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , natural ; CASRN 7440 - 61 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  11. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  12. Recycling in a megacity.

    PubMed

    Themelis, Nickolas J; Todd, Claire E

    2004-04-01

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and glass set aside by thoughtful New Yorkers was transported to materials recovery facilities (MRFs) and from there to landfills. Sending bales of plastics to landfills is not limited to New York City. It is an environmental paradox that the United States is digging up new oil fields in pristine areas and, at the same time, continues to convert greenfields to brownfields by burying nearly 20 million tons of plastic fuel annually. The study also determined that at the present rate of source separation, estimated to be less than 30% of the available recyclables in 1999, building large, modern MRFs may increase substantially the rate of New York City recycling and also allow single-stream collection of commingled recyclables, as is done in Phoenix, AZ. Single-stream collection simplifies separation at the source by citizens and increases the amount of collected recyclables. Also, because collection represents a large fraction of the costs of waste management, it may have a significant economic advantage. PMID:15115367

  13. Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-02-29

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  14. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  15. Who owns the recyclables

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.

    1994-05-01

    On March 31, the California Supreme Court decided the much awaited Rancho Mirage'' case (Waste Management of the Desert, Inc., and the City of Rancho Mirage v. Palm Springs Recycling Center, Inc.), and held that the California Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 does not allow an exclusive franchise for the collection of recyclables not discarded by their owner.'' This ends a three-year slugfest between secondary materials processors in the state and municipalities and their franchised garbage haulers who also collect and process recyclables as part of their exclusive arrangement. Central to this nationally-watched litigation is a most fundamental question in waste management: at what point in time do articles in the solid waste stream become actual or potentially valuable secondary materials

  16. Bioleaching of electronic scrap by mixed culture of moderately thermophilic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iv?nu?, D.; ?nu?, R. C., IV; C?lmuc, F.

    2010-06-01

    A process for the metal recovery from electronic scrap using bacterial leaching was investigated. A mixed culture of moderately thermophilic microorganisms was enriched from acid mine drainages (AMDs) samples collected from several sulphide mines in Romania, and the bioleaching of electronic scrap was conducted both in shake flask and bioreactor. The results show that in the shake flask, the mixture can tolerate 50 g/L scrap after being acclimated to gradually increased concentrations of scrap. The copper extraction increases obviously in bioleaching of scrap with moderately thermophilic microorganisms supplemented with 0.4 g/L yeast extract at 180 r/min, 74% copper can be extracted in the pulp of 50 g/L scrap after 20 d. Compared with copper extractions of mesophilic culture, unacclimated culture and acclimated culture without addition of yeast extract, that of accliniated culture with addition of yeast extract is increased by 53%, 44% and 16%, respectively. In a completely stirred tank reactor, the mass fraction of copper and total iron extraction reach up to 81% and 56%, respectively. The results also indicate that it is necessary to add a large amount of acid to the pulp to extract copper from electronic scrap effectively.

  17. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira )

    1994-01-01

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Recycling of tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, A.; Korinek, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    Although tantalum is not usually regarded as a precious metal, its pricing structure is very similar to that of silver. Different from precious metals, tantalum has only industrial applications and its use is about 1,000 metric tons per year. The intrinsic value of tantalum already was a driving force for its recycling. Based on these facts the tantalum industry world-wide is approaching the closed-loop concept of its recycling. A detailed material flow of tantalum processing as well as recovery of residues and used products will be discussed.

  19. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  20. Recycling Decisions and Green Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the facts and perceptions regarding recycling, what can be done to make products more environmentally compatible, and how to think about recycling decisions in a more helpful way. (Contains 39 references.) (MDH)

  1. Framework for Building Design Recyclability

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Fan

    2008-01-01

    Recycling of building materials is an important aspect of sustainable construction, while sustainable construction is a critical issue to fulfill overall sustainable development. Researchers have proved that building materials recycling...

  2. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martin Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-15

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12 K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503 K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25 atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1 atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723 K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  3. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  4. Ferromagnetic inks facilitate large scale paper recycling and reduce bleach chemical consumption.

    PubMed

    Zeltner, Martin; Toedtli, Laura M; Hild, Nora; Fuhrer, Roland; Rossier, Michaël; Gerber, Lukas C; Raso, Renzo A; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2013-04-23

    Deinking is a fundamental part of paper recycling. As the global paper consumption rises and exceeds even the annual paper production, recycling of this raw material is of high importance. Magnetic ink based on carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles enables an alternative approach to state of the art paper deinking. Magnetic deinking comprises three steps (preselection, washing, and magnetic separation of fibers). Preseparation of printed from nonprinted scraps of paper is feasible and reduces the paper mass which has to be fed into a deinking process. A consecutive washing process removes surficial magnetic ink that can be collected by application of a permanent magnet. Still, printed parts are subjected to a further continuous magnetic deinking step, where magnetic and nonmagnetic paper fibers can be separated. Magnetic deinking of a model print allows recovery of more than 80% of bright fibers without any harsh chemical treatment and the re-collection of more than 82% of magnetic ink. PMID:23495668

  5. Reducing the solid waste stream: reuse and recycling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K. L.

    1997-08-01

    In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) increased its solid waste diversion by 365 percent over FY 1992 in five solid waste categories - paper, cardboard, wood, metals, and miscellaneous. (LLNL`s fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30.) LLNL reused/ recycled 6,387 tons of waste, including 340 tons of paper, 455 tons of scrap wood, 1,509 tons of metals, and 3,830 tons of asphalt and concrete (Table1). An additional 63 tons was diverted from landfills by donating excess food, selling toner cartridges for reconditioning, using rechargeable batteries, redirecting surplus equipment to other government agencies and schools, and comporting plant clippings. LLNL also successfully expanded its demonstration program to recycle and reuse construction and demolition debris as part of its facility-wide, comprehensive solid waste reduction programs.

  6. Recycled Insect Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  7. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  8. RECYCLABILITY INDEX FOR AUTOMOBILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project's purpose is to create a rating system for the ecological impacts of vehicles at the end of their life based on recyclability, toxic material content, and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehi...

  9. Computer Recycling Farm USA

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS conducted a study of plastic pollution at this rural US site in the Midwest.  The recycler was receiving computers from companies at a rate which greatly exceeded the capacity of the operation.  Approximately 50,000 computers remained outdoors on 15 acres for nearly a decade.  The site has sinc...

  10. Fuels from Recycling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, David A.

    1975-01-01

    Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)

  11. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  12. CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING

    E-print Network

    Torrellas, Josep

    1 2 3 CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING Jos´e F. Mart´inez1 , Jose Renau2 Michael C. Huang3 , Milos Prvulovic2 , and Josep Torrellas2 #12;Cherry: Checkpointed Early Resource Recycling efficient use by aggressive recycling Opportunity: Resources reserved until retirement § ¦ ¤ ¥ Solution

  13. Design and calibration of the AWCC for measuring uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, T.R.; Menlove, H.O.; WSalton, G.; Baca, J.

    1995-08-01

    An Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) has been modified to measure variable enrichment uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in storage bottles. An active assay technique was used to measure the {sup 235}U content because of the small quantity (nominal loading of 2 kg UF{sub 6}) and nonuniform distribution of UF{sub 6} in the storage bottles. A new insert was designed for the AWCC composed of graphite containing four americium-lithium sources. Monte Carlo calculations were used to design the insert and to calibrate the detector. Benchmark measurements and calculations were performed using uranium oxide resulted in assay values that agreed within 2 to 3% of destructive assay values. In addition to UF{sub 6}, the detector was also calibrated for HEU ingots, billets, and alloy scrap using the standard Mode 1 end-plug configuration.

  14. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  15. Global recycling services for short and long term risk reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, M.; Grygiel, J.M.; Drevon, C.; Lelievre, F.; Lesage, M.; Vincent, O.

    2013-07-01

    New schemes are being developed by AREVA in order to provide global solutions for safe and non-proliferating management of used fuels, thereby significantly contributing to overall risks reduction and sustainable nuclear development. Utilities are thereby provided with a service through which they will be able to send their used fuels and only get returned vitrified and compacted waste, the only waste remaining after reprocessing. This waste is stable, standard and has demonstrated capability for very long term interim storage. They are provided as well with associated facilities and all necessary services for storage in a demonstrated safely manner. Recycled fuels, in particular MOX, would be used either in existing LWRs or in a very limited number of full MOX reactors (like the EPR reactor), located in selected countries, that will recycle MOX so as to downgrade the isotopic quality of the Pu inventories in a significant manner. Reprocessed uranium also can be recycled. These schemes, on top of offering demonstrated operational advantages and a responsible approach, result into optimized economics for all shareholders of the scheme, as part of reactor financing (under Opex or Capex form) will be secured thanks to the value of the recycled flows. It also increases fuel cost predictability as recycled fuel is not subject to market fluctuations as much and allows, in a limited span of time, for clear risk mitigation. (authors)

  16. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  17. BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    1998-09-17

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  18. Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2005-01-01

    Reclamation and recycling of mercury from used mercury- containing products and treatment of byproduct mercury from gold mining is vital to the continued, though declining, use of this metal. Mercury is reclaimed from mercury-containing waste by treatment in multistep high-temperature retorts-the mercury is volatized and then condensed for purification and sale. Some mercury-containing waste, however, may be landfilled, and landfilled material represents loss of a recyclable resource and a threat to the environment. Related issues include mercury disposal and waste management, toxicity and human health, and regulation of mercury releases in the environment. End-users of mercury-containing products may face fines and prosecution if these products are improperly recycled or not recycled. Local and State environmental regulations require adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to regulate generation, treatment, and disposal of mercury-containing products. In the United States, several large companies and a number of smaller companies collect these products from a variety of sources and then reclaim and recycle the mercury. Because mercury has not been mined as a principal product in the United States since 1992, mercury reclamation from fabricated products has become the main source of mercury. Principal product mercury and byproduct mercury from mining operations are considered to be primary materials. Mercury may also be obtained as a byproduct from domestic or foreign gold-processing operations. In the early 1990s, U.S. manufacturers used an annual average that ranged from 500 to 600 metric tons of recycled and imported mercury for fabrication of automobile convenience switches, dental amalgam, fluorescent lamps, medical uses and thermometers, and thermostats. The amount now used for fabrication is estimated to be 200 metric tons per year or less. Much of the data on mercury is estimated because it is a low-volume commodity and its production, use, and disposal is difficult to track. The prices and volumes of each category of mercury-containing material may change dramatically from year to year. For example, the average price of mercury was approximately $150 per flask from 2000 until 2003 and then rose sharply to $650 per flask in fall 2004 and approximately $850 per flask in spring 2005. Since 1927, the common unit for measuring and pricing mercury has been the flask in order to conform to the system used at Almaden, Spain (Meyers, 1951). One flask weighs 34.5 kilograms, and 29 flasks of mercury are contained in a metric ton. In the United States, the chlorine-caustic soda industry, which is the leading end-user of elemental mercury, recycles most of its mercury in-plant as home scrap. Annual purchases of replacement mercury by the chlorine-caustic soda industry indicate that some mercury may be lost through evaporation to the environment, put into a landfill as industrial waste, or trapped within pipes in the plant. Impending closure of domestic and foreign mercury-cell chlorine-caustic soda plants and the shift to nonmercury technology for chlorine-caustic soda production could ultimately result in a significant volume of elemental mercury for recycling, sale, or storage. Globally, mercury is widely used in artisanal, or small-scale, gold mining. Most of that mercury is lost to the environment and is not recycled. The recycling rate for mercury was not available owing to insufficient data in 2000, and the efficiency of mercury recycling was estimated to be 62 percent.

  19. Separation and recovery of metals from zinc-treated superalloy scrap. Report of Investigations/1989

    SciTech Connect

    Laverty, P.D.; Atkinson, G.B.; Desmond, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines treated mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap by pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods to separate and recover metal values. Best results were obtained by leaching Zn-treated or atomized scrap with HC1-02 at 95 C and 50 psig O{sub 2}. This resulted in dissolving approximately 98% of the Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn while rejecting over 98% of the Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr as an insoluble refractory residue. Chlorine was successfully substituted for HC1 to leach Zn-treated scrap but unsuccessful for leaching atomized scrap. The leaching solution was treated by pH adjustment and hydrothermal precipitation at 200 C for 4 h to remove Al, Cr, Fe, and other contaminants as a filterable precipitate. Recovery of Co and Ni would be accomplished by solvent extraction and electrowinning. Chromium recovery as a ferroally was demonstrated.

  20. Design of a bench-scale apparatus for processing carbon black derived from scrap tires 

    E-print Network

    Woodrow, Philip Travis

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this work is to design a bench-scale apparatus, for laboratory applications, that will perform solid processing operations for carbon black obtained through the thermal catalytic depolymerization of scrap tires. These operations...

  1. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources §...

  2. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources §...

  3. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources §...

  4. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E. S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M.; Greene, W. A.

    2003-04-30

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20-25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  5. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Peterson; Jessica Trudeau; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; William A. Greene

    2003-04-01

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20–25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  6. The Impact of Quality Control Scrap and Rework Reduction on Energy Use 

    E-print Network

    Otis, P. T.; Triantis, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    that waste energy as scrap and rework. • Other areas include production scheduling, maintenance management, and supply chain optimization. • Energy efficiency improvements associated with operations management may be outside the scope of energy audits..., New Orleans, LA June 3, 2015 ESL-IE-15-06-30a Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 Supply Chain for Scrap 8 Raw Material Extraction Input Material Manufacturing...

  7. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  8. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Alan D. (Albany, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR)

    1995-01-01

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  9. Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): A review

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Salem, S.M. Lettieri, P.; Baeyens, J.

    2009-10-15

    Plastic solid waste (PSW) presents challenges and opportunities to societies regardless of their sustainability awareness and technological advances. In this paper, recent progress in the recycling and recovery of PSW is reviewed. A special emphasis is paid on waste generated from polyolefinic sources, which makes up a great percentage of our daily single-life cycle plastic products. The four routes of PSW treatment are detailed and discussed covering primary (re-extrusion), secondary (mechanical), tertiary (chemical) and quaternary (energy recovery) schemes and technologies. Primary recycling, which involves the re-introduction of clean scrap of single polymer to the extrusion cycle in order to produce products of the similar material, is commonly applied in the processing line itself but rarely applied among recyclers, as recycling materials rarely possess the required quality. The various waste products, consisting of either end-of-life or production (scrap) waste, are the feedstock of secondary techniques, thereby generally reduced in size to a more desirable shape and form, such as pellets, flakes or powders, depending on the source, shape and usability. Tertiary treatment schemes have contributed greatly to the recycling status of PSW in recent years. Advanced thermo-chemical treatment methods cover a wide range of technologies and produce either fuels or petrochemical feedstock. Nowadays, non-catalytic thermal cracking (thermolysis) is receiving renewed attention, due to the fact of added value on a crude oil barrel and its very valuable yielded products. But a fact remains that advanced thermo-chemical recycling of PSW (namely polyolefins) still lacks the proper design and kinetic background to target certain desired products and/or chemicals. Energy recovery was found to be an attainable solution to PSW in general and municipal solid waste (MSW) in particular. The amount of energy produced in kilns and reactors applied in this route is sufficiently investigated up to the point of operation, but not in terms of integration with either petrochemical or converting plants. Although primary and secondary recycling schemes are well established and widely applied, it is concluded that many of the PSW tertiary and quaternary treatment schemes appear to be robust and worthy of additional investigation.

  10. Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): a review.

    PubMed

    Al-Salem, S M; Lettieri, P; Baeyens, J

    2009-10-01

    Plastic solid waste (PSW) presents challenges and opportunities to societies regardless of their sustainability awareness and technological advances. In this paper, recent progress in the recycling and recovery of PSW is reviewed. A special emphasis is paid on waste generated from polyolefinic sources, which makes up a great percentage of our daily single-life cycle plastic products. The four routes of PSW treatment are detailed and discussed covering primary (re-extrusion), secondary (mechanical), tertiary (chemical) and quaternary (energy recovery) schemes and technologies. Primary recycling, which involves the re-introduction of clean scrap of single polymer to the extrusion cycle in order to produce products of the similar material, is commonly applied in the processing line itself but rarely applied among recyclers, as recycling materials rarely possess the required quality. The various waste products, consisting of either end-of-life or production (scrap) waste, are the feedstock of secondary techniques, thereby generally reduced in size to a more desirable shape and form, such as pellets, flakes or powders, depending on the source, shape and usability. Tertiary treatment schemes have contributed greatly to the recycling status of PSW in recent years. Advanced thermo-chemical treatment methods cover a wide range of technologies and produce either fuels or petrochemical feedstock. Nowadays, non-catalytic thermal cracking (thermolysis) is receiving renewed attention, due to the fact of added value on a crude oil barrel and its very valuable yielded products. But a fact remains that advanced thermo-chemical recycling of PSW (namely polyolefins) still lacks the proper design and kinetic background to target certain desired products and/or chemicals. Energy recovery was found to be an attainable solution to PSW in general and municipal solid waste (MSW) in particular. The amount of energy produced in kilns and reactors applied in this route is sufficiently investigated up to the point of operation, but not in terms of integration with either petrochemical or converting plants. Although primary and secondary recycling schemes are well established and widely applied, it is concluded that many of the PSW tertiary and quaternary treatment schemes appear to be robust and worthy of additional investigation. PMID:19577459

  11. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  12. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

  13. Method and apparatus for forming billets from metallic chip scraps

    DOEpatents

    Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich (St. Petersburg, RU); Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich (St. Petersburg, RU); Kochkin, Victor Georgievich (St. Petersburg, RU); Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich (St. Petersburg, RU); Sidenko, Natalja Semenovna (St. Petersburg, RU)

    2006-05-02

    After recycled titanium alloy chips are crushed and cleaned, they are pressed into cylindrically briquettes with a relative density of 0.6, and placed into capsules. The capsules are heated and placed into a preheated pressing rig. The pressing rig repetitively applies axial force to the capsule, resulting in a relative density of at least 0.95. The product billets are used for consumable electrodes, secondary casting alloys, forgings, extruded semi-finished products and the like.

  14. Nuclear power fleets and uranium resources recovered from phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2013-07-01

    Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium, whereas some future reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR) will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in light water reactors. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. It is therefore important to have an accurate estimate of the available uranium resources in order to plan for the world's future nuclear reactor fleet. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources (uranium and plutonium) and the nuclear power demand. Sodium fast reactors will be built in line with the availability of plutonium, including fast breeders when necessary. Different assumptions on the global uranium resources are taken into consideration. The largely quoted estimate of 22 Mt of uranium recovered for phosphate rocks can be seriously downscaled. Based on our current knowledge of phosphate resources, 4 Mt of recoverable uranium already seems to be an upper bound value. The impact of the downscaled estimate on the deployment of a nuclear fleet is assessed accordingly. (authors)

  15. Resource recovery of scrap silicon solar battery cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Hung, Chi-En; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Popuri, Srinivasa R; Liao, Ching-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In order to minimize pollution problems and to conserve limited natural resources, a hydrometallurgical procedure was developed in this study to recover the valuable resources of silicon (Si), silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) from scrap silicon solar battery cells. In this study, several methods of leaching, crystallization, precipitation, electrolysis and replacement were employed to investigate the recovery efficiency of Ag and Al from defective monocrystalline silicon solar battery cells. The defective solar battery cells were ground into powder followed by composition analysis with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The target metals Ag and Al weight percentage were found to be 1.67 and 7.68 respectively. A leaching process was adopted with nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide as leaching reagent to recover Ag and Al from a ground solar battery cell. Aluminum was leached 100% with 18N H2SO4 at 70°C and Ag was leached 100% with 6N HNO3. Pure Si of 100% was achieved from the leaching solution after the recovery of Ag and Al, and was analyzed by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Aluminum was recovered by crystallization process and silver was recovered by precipitation, electrolysis and replacement processes. These processes were applied successfully in the recovery of valuable metal Ag of 98-100%. PMID:23460539

  16. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  17. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (? 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (? 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (? 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

  18. Opportunities and Barriers to Resource Recovery and Recycling from Shredder Residue in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Naren; Apelian, Diran

    2014-11-01

    Shredder residue is the by-product remaining after ferrous and nonferrous metals have been recovered from the processing of vehicles, white goods, and peddler scrap. Shredder residue consists of glass, plastics, rubber, dirt, and small amounts of metal. It is estimated that 5-7 million tons of this shredder residue are landfilled each year in the United States. Technical advancements, coupled with European Union directives and the economic climate, have transformed the recycling of shredder residue in Europe. In the United States, however, regulatory controls and the cheap cost of landfill have worked against the advancement of recycling and recovery of this resource. The Argonne National Laboratory, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, has investigated the effectiveness of recycling shredder residue into polymers. Other research has examined the use of shredder residue in waste-to-energy applications. To improve our ability to process and recycle shredder residue, an investigation of the regulatory, economic, and technological challenges was undertaken. The objective was to conduct a comprehensive review of work done to date, to document the composition of typical shredder output and to identify potential recoverable items (residual metals, plastics, rubber, foam, etc.). Along with uncovering potential new markets, the research would identify the technical, regulatory, and economic barriers to developing those markets.

  19. The impact of radioactive steel recycling on the public and professionals.

    PubMed

    Hrncir, Tomas; Panik, Michal; Ondra, Frantisek; Necas, Vladimir

    2013-06-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials, e.g. steel scrap containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Recycling some of these materials is highly desirable due to numerous reasons. Herein presented scenarios of recycling of radioactive steel within the nuclear as well as civil engineering industry are analyzed from the radiation protection point of view. An approach based on the dose constraints principle is chosen. The aim of the study is to derive conditional clearance levels (maximal specific mass activity of material allowing its recycling/clearance) for analyzed radionuclides ensuring that the detrimental impact on human health is kept on a negligible level. Determined conditional clearance levels, as the result of performed software calculations, are valid for the reuse of radioactive steel in four selected scenarios. Calculation results indicate that the increase of the amount of recyclable radioactive steel due to its reuse in specific applications may be feasible considering the radiation impact on the public and professionals. However, issues connected with public acceptance, technical difficulties and financing of potential realization are still open and they have to be examined in more detail. PMID:23608061

  20. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    A recent Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study identified 59 waste sites at 14 DOE facilities across the nation that exhibit radionuclide contamination in excess of established limits. The rapid and efficient characterization of these sites, and the potentially contaminated regions that surround them represents a technological challenge with no existing solution. In particular, the past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of surface and subsurface soils. Such contamination commonly occurs within waste burial sites, cribs, pond bottom sediments and soils surrounding waste tanks or uranium scrap, ore, tailings, and slag heaps. The objective of the Uranium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop optimal remediation methods for soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium (U), at DOE sites. It is examining all phases involved in an actual cleanup, including all regulatory and permitting requirements, to expedite selection and implementation of the best technologies that show immediate and long-term effectiveness specific to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and applicable to other radionuclide contaminated DOE sites. The demonstration provides for technical performance evaluations and comparisons of different developmental technologies at FEMP sites, based on cost-effectiveness, risk-reduction effectiveness, technology effectiveness, and regulatory and public acceptability. Technology groups being evaluated include physical and chemical contaminant separations, in situ remediation, real-time characterization and monitoring, precise excavation, site restoration, secondary waste treatment, and soil waste stabilization.

  1. Environmental Management Waste and Recycling Policy

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    Environmental Management Waste and Recycling Policy October 2006 The University is committed and promoting recycling and the use of recycled materials. We will actively encourage the recycling of office reduction techniques · Provide facilities for recycling on campus · Give guidance and information to staff

  2. Determination of the potential gold electrowinning from an ammoniacal thiosulphate solution applied to recycling of printed circuit board scraps.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Angela C; Carrillo Abad, Jordi; García Gabaldón, Montserrat; Veit, Hugo M; Pérez Herranz, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    The use of electrochemical techniques in the selective recovery of gold from a solution containing thiosulphate, ammonia, and copper, obtained from the leaching of printed circuit boards from mobile phones using ammoniacal thiosulphate, are shown in this work. First, cyclic voltammetry tests were performed to determine the potential of electrodeposition of gold and copper, and then, electrowinning tests at different potentials for checking the rates of recovery of these metals were performed. The results of the cyclic voltammetry show that copper deposition occurs at potentials more negative than -600?mV (Ag/AgCl), whereas the gold deposition can be performed at potentials more positives than -600?mV (Ag/AgCl). The results of electrowinning show that 99% of the gold present in solutions containing thiosulphate and copper can be selectively recovered in a potential range between -400?mV (vs Ag/AgCl) and -500?mV (vs Ag/AgCl). Furthermore, 99% of copper can be recovered in potentials more negative than -700?mV (vs Ag/AgCl). PMID:26437680

  3. Update on Y-12 national security complex activities to recover enriched uranium in 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, Becky; Andes, Trent; Dunavant, Randy

    2008-07-15

    During Calendar Year 2007, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) has completed recovery missions that resulted in the return of highly enriched uranium from Canada and several locations within the United States. These missions were performed in support of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Central Scrap Management Office for Uranium (U-CSMO). Additionally, Y-12 completed safety basis revisions for the ES-3100 shipping package which resulted in the issuance of a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and a Competent Authority Certificate (CAC) from the United States Department of Transportation for air transport of highly enriched uranium in the form of un- irradiated TRIGA pellets. This certification of the ES-3100 will now allow GTRI to perform recoveries of limited quantities of fresh HEU TRIGA that have been identified at several locations. (author)

  4. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  5. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF URANIUM AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2002-09-10

    Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a significant role in the mobilization and immobilization of uranium. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides and toxic metals from the waste, with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated soils and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation/photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal.

  6. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  7. Recycled rubber roads

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

  8. Helium Removal and Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S

    2004-03-15

    Removal of helium, the ash from the D-T-fusion reaction, from a burning plasma flame, is one of the critical issues for future thermonuclear burning plasma. Even in plasmas driven by additional heating to large Q-values this is a severe problem. Recombination of fuel and ash ions at plasma exposed surfaces, re-emission as neutral particles and subsequent pumping (''recycling'') provides, at least in principle, the mechanism to flush the plasma from its ash. However, plasma surface interaction has to be limited in order to protect vessel components from excessive thermal load, often a conflicting requirement.

  9. Using vacuum pyrolysis and mechanical processing for recycling waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Long, Laishou; Sun, Shuiyu; Zhong, Sheng; Dai, Wencan; Liu, Jingyong; Song, Weifeng

    2010-05-15

    The constant growth in generation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) poses a huge disposal problem because they consist of a heterogeneous mixture of organic and metallic chemicals as well as glass fiber. Also the presence of heavy metals, such as Pb and Cd turns this scrap into hazardous waste. Therefore, recycling of WPCB is an important subject not only from the recovery of valuable materials but also from the treatment of waste. The aim of this study was to present a recycling process without negative impact to the environment as an alternative for recycling WPCB. In this work, a process technology containing vacuum pyrolysis and mechanical processing was employed to recycle WPCB. At the first stage of this work, the WPCB was pyrolyzed under vacuum in a self-made batch pilot-scale fixed bed reactor to recycle organic resins contained in the WPCB. By vacuum pyrolysis the organic matter was decomposed to gases and liquids which could be used as fuels or chemical material resources, however, the inorganic WPCB matter was left unaltered as solid residues. At the second stage, the residues obtained at the first stage were investigated to separate and recover the copper through mechanical processing such as crushing, screening, and gravity separation. The copper grade of 99.50% with recovery of 99.86% based on the whole WPCB was obtained. And the glass fiber could be obtained by calcinations in a muffle furnace at 600 degrees C for 10 min. This study had demonstrated the feasibility of vacuum pyrolysis and mechanical processing for recycling WPCB. PMID:20060640

  10. Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood

    E-print Network

    Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated WoodDisposal problem Recycling potentialRecycling potential ValueValue--added productsadded products Closed loop recyclingClosed loop recycling #12;Major Current Disposal OptionsMajor Current Disposal Options Incineration

  11. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  12. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete. PMID:15219914

  14. Determining minimum alarm activities of orphan sources in scrap loads; Monte Carlo simulations, validated with measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takoudis, G.; Xanthos, S.; Clouvas, A.; Potiriadis, C.

    2010-02-01

    Portal monitoring radiation detectors are commonly used by steel industries in the probing and detection of radioactivity contamination in scrap metal. These portal monitors typically consist of polystyrene or polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillating detectors, one or more photomultiplier tubes (PMT), an electronic circuit, a controller that handles data output and manipulation linking the system to a display or a computer with appropriate software and usually, a light guide. Such a portal used by the steel industry was opened and all principal materials were simulated using a Monte Carlo simulation tool (MCNP4C2). Various source-detector configurations were simulated and validated by comparison with corresponding measurements. Subsequently an experiment with a uniform cargo along with two sets of experiments with different scrap loads and radioactive sources ( 137Cs, 152Eu) were performed and simulated. Simulated and measured results suggested that the nature of scrap is crucial when simulating scrap load-detector experiments. Using the same simulating configuration, a series of runs were performed in order to estimate minimum alarm activities for 137Cs, 60Co and 192Ir sources for various simulated scrap densities. The minimum alarm activities as well as the positions in which they were recorded are presented and discussed.

  15. Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling , Matei Ripeanu

    E-print Network

    Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling Qiang Wei , Matei Ripeanu , Konstantin Beznosov of fragility and poor scal- ability. We propose an approach where each application server recycles previously) 7 3 Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling (CSAR) 8 3.1 Design Requirements

  16. Authorization Recycling in Hierarchical RBAC Systems

    E-print Network

    Authorization Recycling in Hierarchical RBAC Systems QIANG WEI University of British Columbia JASON these challenges. This paper introduces and evaluates the mechanisms for authorization "recycling" in RBAC evaluation results demonstrate that authorization recycling can improve the performance of distributed access

  17. RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services.6.1/1 Recycling & General Waste Management Department: Estates & Facilities Management Site: Swansea University recycling and waste management facilities in Swansea university To ensure that Waste Management Objectives

  18. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...advanced the common good of our Nation by recycling regularly and promoting conservation...growth. Since then, we have bolstered recycling programs through individual action...we must update and expand existing recycling programs and dedicate ourselves to...

  19. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  20. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  1. American Art of Conspicuous Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    1999-01-01

    Characterizes the use of recycling "junk" as a means for creating art by exploring various recycling traditions that are present in the United States. Demonstrates to students that "junk" can be fashioned into beautiful works of art. Offers four works of art and provides discussion questions and project ideas for each artwork. (CMK)

  2. Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19 activities…

  3. TOMATO CLEANING AND WATER RECYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full-scale dump tank water recycle system was developed and demonstrated. A false bottom-ejector transport system removed soil from the water. Clarified water was either recycled back to the dump tank or discharged to the sewer. A vacuum belt was developed for dewatering the mu...

  4. Wastewater Recycle- A Sustainable Approach Towards Desalination 

    E-print Network

    Mittal, A.

    2013-01-01

    and optimizes energy usage in case of ZLD. ? Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology in combination with HEROTM can be an economical recycle treatment scheme for refinery and petrochemical wastewater applications. ? Zero Liquid discharge (ZLD) systems, though... ? Background ? Wastewater Recycle Drivers ? Technologies for Recycle ? Examples ? Cooling Tower Blowdown Recycle ? Refinery Treated Effluent Recycle ? Petrochemical Effluent Recycle ESL-IE-13-05-07 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy...

  5. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  6. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

    2014-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973?K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1?:?1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03?kJ?mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1?:?1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81?kJ?mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648?K with a heating rate of 20?K?min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region. PMID:25030024

  7. Uranium from phosphate ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

  8. DEPLETED URANIUM TECHNICAL WORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Depleted Uranium Technical Work is designed to convey available information and knowledge about depleted uranium to EPA Remedial Project Managers, On-Scene Coordinators, contractors, and other Agency managers involved with the remediation of sites contaminated with this mater...

  9. LWR First Recycle of TRU with Thorium Oxide for Transmutation and Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Andrea Alfonsi; Gilles Youinou; Sonat Sen

    2013-02-01

    Thorium has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (thorium is approximately three times more plentiful than uranium) and as a result of concerns about proliferation and waste management (e.g. reduced production of plutonium, etc.). Since the average composition of natural Thorium is dominated (100%) by the fertile isotope Th-232, Thorium is only useful as a resource for breeding new fissile materials, in this case U-233. Consequently a certain amount of fissile material must be present at the start-up of the reactor in order to guarantee its operation. The thorium fuel can be used in both once-through and recycle options, and in both fast and thermal spectrum systems. The present study has been aimed by the necessity of investigating the option of using reprocessed plutonium/TRU, from a once-through reference LEU scenario (50 GWd/ tIHM), mixed with natural thorium and the need of collect data (mass fractions, cross-sections etc.) for this particular fuel cycle scenario. As previously pointed out, the fissile plutonium is needed to guarantee the operation of the reactor. Four different scenarios have been considered: • Thorium – recycled Plutonium; • Thorium – recycled Plutonium/Neptunium; • Thorium – recycled Plutonium/Neptunium/Americium; • Thorium – recycled Transuranic. The calculations have been performed with SCALE6.1-TRITON.

  10. LWR First Recycle of TRU with Thorium Oxide for Transmutation and Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Andrea Alfonsi; Gilles Youinou

    2012-07-01

    Thorium has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (thorium is approximately three times more plentiful than uranium) and as a result of concerns about proliferation and waste management (e.g. reduced production of plutonium, etc.). Since the average composition of natural Thorium is dominated (100%) by the fertile isotope Th-232, Thorium is only useful as a resource for breeding new fissile materials, in this case U-233. Consequently a certain amount of fissile material must be present at the start-up of the reactor in order to guarantee its operation. The thorium fuel can be used in both once-through and recycle options, and in both fast and thermal spectrum systems. The present study has been aimed by the necessity of investigating the option of using reprocessed plutonium/TRU, from a once-through reference LEU scenario (50 GWd/ tIHM), mixed with natural thorium and the need of collect data (mass fractions, cross-sections etc.) for this particular fuel cycle scenario. As previously pointed out, the fissile plutonium is needed to guarantee the operation of the reactor. Four different scenarios have been considered: • Thorium – recycled Plutonium; • Thorium – recycled Plutonium/Neptunium; • Thorium – recycled Plutonium/Neptunium/Americium; • Thorium – recycled Transuranic. The calculations have been performed with SCALE6.1-TRITON.

  11. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  12. Comparison of REMIX vs. MOX fuel characteristics in multiple recycling in VVER reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dekusar, V.M.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Kapranova, E.N.; Korobitsyn, V.E.; Puzakov, A.Y.

    2013-07-01

    Multiple recycling of regenerated uranium-plutonium fuel in thermal reactors of VVER-1000 type with high enriched uranium feeding (REMIX-fuel) gives a possibility to terminate the accumulation of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and Pu and decrease the accumulation of irradiated uranium by an order of magnitude. Results of comparison of VVER-1000 nuclear fuel cycle characteristics vs different fuel types such as UOX, MOX and REMIX-fuel have been presented. REMIX fuel (Regenerated Mixture of U-, Pu oxides) is the mixture of plutonium and uranium extracted from SNF and refined from other actinides and fission products with the addition of enriched uranium to provide the power potential necessary. The savings in terms of uranium quantities and separation works in the nuclear energy system (NES) with reactors using REMIX-fuel compared to the NES with uranium-fuelled reactors are shown to be of about 30% and 8%, respectively. For the NES with thermal reactors partially loaded with MOX-fuel, the uranium and separation works saving of about 14% would be obtained. Production of neptunium and americium in reactors with REMIX-fuel in steady state increases by a factor 3, and production of curium - by 10 compared to the reactors with UOX-fuel. This increase of minor actinide buildup is owed to the multiple recycling of plutonium. It should be noted that in this case all fuel assemblies contain high-background plutonium, and their manufacturing involves an expensive technology. Besides, management of REMIX-fuel will require special protection measures even during the fresh fuel manufacturing phase. The above-said gives ground to state that the use of REMIX fuel would be questionable in economic aspect.

  13. Urban water recycling.

    PubMed

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once. PMID:16007932

  14. Recycling in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, C.L.

    1996-05-01

    The commonwealth of Puerto Rico has never had a traditional, centrally organized solid waste management system. In the past, municipalities provided service for their own residents and the island used 62 unlined landfills. In April 1994, 32 of those landfills closed. A study released in 1995 found that residents of Puerto Rico generate 8,100 tons of waste each day, at a per capita rate of 4.9 pounds per day. A solid waste management strategy unveiled with much fanfare early last year included plans to build an integrated system of collection, transfer stations, and disposal sites. These sites would be market-driven by recycling and hinged on partnerships between the public and private sectors and public education. A key to Puerto Rico`s plan was investment by the private sector.

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  16. Bicarbonate leaching of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.

    1998-12-31

    The alkaline leach process for extracting uranium from uranium ores is reviewed. This process is dependent on the chemistry of uranium and so is independent on the type of mining system (conventional, heap or in-situ) used. Particular reference is made to the geochemical conditions at Crownpoint. Some supporting data from studies using alkaline leach for remediation of uranium-contaminated sites is presented.

  17. Uranium industry annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  18. USF Physical Plant Recycling Program Updated November 2013

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    USF Physical Plant Recycling Program Updated November 2013 #12;Beginnings · Program initiated · Continuously expanding recycling efforts #12;Paper Recycling · Currently recycling mixed paper Office paper, newspaper, magazines, cardboard, paperbacks · PPD has distributed about 2,400 office-size recycling

  19. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it may be possible to divert the majority of plastic waste from landfills to recycling over the next decades. PMID:19528059

  20. Minimization of actinide waste by multi-recycling of thoriated fuels in the EPR reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.; Wilson, J. N.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Guillemin, P.; Ivanov, E.; Méplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Siem, S.

    2012-02-01

    The multi-recycling of innovative uranium/thorium oxide fuels for use in the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) has been investigated. If increasing quantities of 238U, the fertile isotope in standard UO2 fuel, are replaced by 232Th, then a greater yield of new fissile material (233U) is produced during the cycle than would otherwise be the case. This leads to economies of natural uranium of around 45% if the uranium in the spent fuel is multi-recycled. In addition we show that minor actinide and plutonium waste inventories are reduced and hence waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are up to a factor of 20 lower after 103 years. Two innovative fuel types named S90 and S20, ThO2 mixed with 90% and 20% enriched UO2 respectively, are compared as an alternative to standard uranium oxide (UOX) and uranium/plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels at the longest EPR fuel discharge burn-ups of 65 GWd/t. Fissile and waste inventories are examined, waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are extracted and safety feedback coefficients are calculated.

  1. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOEpatents

    Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Goozner; Robert E. (Charlotte, NC)

    1998-07-14

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  2. Recycling and Life Cycle Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

  3. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA); Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  4. Leaching studies for tin recovery from waste e-scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Choubey, Pankaj Kumar; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumari, Archana; Lee, Jae-chun; Kumar, Vinay; Jeong, Jinki

    2012-10-15

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of developing Indo-Korean recycling technique consists of organic swelling pre-treatment technique for the liberation of thin layer of metallic sheet and the treatment of epoxy resin to remove/recover toxic soldering material. To optimize the parameters required for recovery of tin from waste PCBs, initially the bench scale studies were carried out using fresh solder (containing 52.6% Sn and 47.3% Pb) varying the acid concentration, temperature, mixing time and pulp density. The experimental data indicate that 95.79% of tin was leached out from solder material using 5.5 M HCl at fixed pulp density 50 g/L and temperature 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 165 min. Kinetic studies followed the chemical reaction controlled dense constant size cylindrical particles with activation energy of 117.68 kJ/mol. However, 97.79% of tin was found to be leached out from solder materials of liberated swelled epoxy resin using 4.5 M HCl at 90 Degree-Sign C, mixing time 60 min and pulp density 50 g/L. From the leach liquor of solder materials of epoxy resin, the precipitate of sodium stannate as value added product was obtained at pH 1.9. The Pb from the leach residue was removed by using 0.1 M nitric acid at 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 45 min and pulp density 10 g/L. The metal free epoxy resin could be disposed-of safely/used as filling material without affecting the environment.

  5. Leaching studies for tin recovery from waste e-scrap.

    PubMed

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Choubey, Pankaj Kumar; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumari, Archana; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kumar, Vinay; Jeong, Jinki

    2012-10-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of developing Indo-Korean recycling technique consists of organic swelling pre-treatment technique for the liberation of thin layer of metallic sheet and the treatment of epoxy resin to remove/recover toxic soldering material. To optimize the parameters required for recovery of tin from waste PCBs, initially the bench scale studies were carried out using fresh solder (containing 52.6% Sn and 47.3% Pb) varying the acid concentration, temperature, mixing time and pulp density. The experimental data indicate that 95.79% of tin was leached out from solder material using 5.5M HCl at fixed pulp density 50 g/L and temperature 90°C in mixing time 165 min. Kinetic studies followed the chemical reaction controlled dense constant size cylindrical particles with activation energy of 117.68 kJ/mol. However, 97.79% of tin was found to be leached out from solder materials of liberated swelled epoxy resin using 4.5M HCl at 90°C, mixing time 60 min and pulp density 50 g/L. From the leach liquor of solder materials of epoxy resin, the precipitate of sodium stannate as value added product was obtained at pH 1.9. The Pb from the leach residue was removed by using 0.1M nitric acid at 90°C in mixing time 45 min and pulp density 10g/L. The metal free epoxy resin could be disposed-of safely/used as filling material without affecting the environment. PMID:22647503

  6. High loading uranium plate

    SciTech Connect

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-10-16

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  7. Advanced recycling and research complexes: A second strategic use for installations on the base closure list

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, D.W.; Kuusinen, T.L.; Beck, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    Obstacles currently facing the solid waste recycling industry are often related to a lack of public and investor confidence, issues of profitability and liability, and insufficient consumer identification with products made from recycled materials. Resolution of these issues may not be possible without major changes in the way the solid waste recycling business is structured. At the same time, we are faced with opportunities which will not likely recur in our lifetimes: access to educated, well trained work forces; and large tracts of land that are contiguous with metropolitan areas and are developed for heavy industry and transportation. Military installations are being converted to civilian use just in time to serve as important a role in our national resource conservation policy. The future of recycling in North America converges with the future of selected bases on the closure list and takes the form of converting these bases into Advanced Recycling and Research Complexes. The premise is simple: use these strategically-located facilities as industrial parks where a broad range of secondary wastes are separated, refined, or converted and made into new products on site. The wastes would include municipal solid waste (MSW), demolition waste, landscape trimmings, used tires, scrap metal, agricultural waste, food processing waste, and other non-hazardous materials. The park would consist of separation and conversion facilities, research and product standards laboratories, and industries that convert the materials into products and fuels. Energy conversion systems using some waste streams as fuel could be located at the park to supplement energy demands of the industrial operations. The strategic co-location of the resource providers and user industries would minimize transportation costs.

  8. A RECYCLED LAN DSCAPE Richard H. Durrell

    E-print Network

    Maynard, J. Barry

    A RECYCLED LAN DSCAPE by Richard H. Durrell Department of Geology University of Cincinnati Drafting, May 1977 (R.A. Davis, editor) Reprinted 1982 A recycled landscape "Recycling" is the word of the day the same way, Nature recycles even the very hills and valleys beneath our feet. But, as usual, Nature

  9. The Environment Team to Waste & Recycling

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    The Environment Team A-Z Guide to Waste & Recycling www.le.ac.uk/environment #12;Welcome ...to the University of Leicester's `A-Z Guide to Waste and Recycling'. Over the last 3 years, the Environment Team has introduced an award- winning recycling scheme across the campus that allows us to recycle paper, plastics

  10. DESIGN GUIDELINE 3.4 RECYCLING MATERIALS

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    DESIGN GUIDELINE 3.4 RECYCLING MATERIALS Introduction This section addresses recycling and other. This document provides guidance for identifying materials which are recyclable or otherwise able to be diverted for separating and storing materials to be recycled and salvaged. Definitions Construction and Demolition Debris

  11. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  12. The College Student's Guide to Recycling,

    E-print Network

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    The College Student's Guide to Recycling, Reduction, and Reuse UNIVERSITY AT ALBANY Phone Albany, NY 12222 Top 7 Recycling and Reuse TipsTop 7 Recycling and Reuse Tips University at Albany Office of Environmental Sustainability 1. Set up separate bins for recyclable materials such as plastics and papers. 2

  13. RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/msgso/ for map of recycling bin locations. NOTE: This is not an exhaustive list. If unauthorized items are found

  14. 16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing or assembling another item. (b) Marketers... the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling..., means at least 60 percent. (2) When recycling facilities are available to less than a...

  15. 16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing or assembling another item. (b) Marketers... the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling..., means at least 60 percent. (2) When recycling facilities are available to less than a...

  16. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  17. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  18. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  19. MUTAGENICITY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay to perform bioassay-directed chemical analysis of emissions from the open burning of scrap rubber tires in both a small laboratory study using tires cut into two sizes (CHUNK and SHRED) and a field study of the larg...

  20. MUTAGENICITY OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a follow-up to a small-scale combustion study to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. The initial study found that total estimated emissions of semi-volatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg o...