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1

Scrap tire recycling  

SciTech Connect

As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

1997-03-01

2

Issues in recycling galvanized scrap  

SciTech Connect

The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-02-10

3

Scrap tire recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product

J. W. Lula; G. W. Bohnert

1997-01-01

4

Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

Not Available

1989-10-01

5

TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT MG-SCRAP RECYCLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, only high grade clean Mg-scrap without impurities can be recycled easily into high purity alloys. More complex handling is required for old magnesium-base or post consumer scrap e.g. automotive parts and electronic devices. The additional process steps determine the economical attractiveness of Mg-recycling. This article will provide a detailed overview of the current research activities of ecka granules -

Gerhard Hanko; Gernot Macher

2003-01-01

6

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

1992-01-01

7

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

1992-08-01

8

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

9

High Value Scrap Tire Recycle  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

Bauman, B. D.

2003-02-01

10

High Value Scrap Tire Recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

Bauman

2003-01-01

11

RECOVERING URANIUM FROM UNIRRADIATED FUEL ELEMENT SCRAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following infomation is presented on tbe recovery of unirradiated ; fuel element scrap: solution techniques for U-Zr, U-staialess steel, and U-Al ; alloy scrap and the recovery of enriched unranium by dibutyl carbitol extraction, ; with 99.9% over-all efficiency. A summary flowsheet of the over-all enriched ; uranium scrap dissolving and purification process is shown. Schematics are ; included

G. R. Jasny; J. R. Barkman; T. P. Sprague; R. P. Smith

1958-01-01

12

Economic feasibility of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive scrap metal has traditionally been disposed of by burial in low-level waste repositories, an option that will become increasingly unattractive if burial costs rise as projected. This paper will examine recycling opportunities that may arise from two divergent economic trends: (1) escalating burial costs, and (2) historically flat product costs from state-of-the-art metal recycle operations. Emphasis will be placed on recycling the radioactive scrap steel (RSS) that will arise from D&D of Government and commercial nuclear facilities in the western United States. An effort is underway to compare processes for recycling RSS at least cost to the generator, least impact to the environment, and minimum worker exposure to radionuclide hazards. An experienced industry team with expertise in radioactive metals recycling, commercial steel recycling, and state-of-the-art metal recycle facilities design has been assembled under subcontract for this purpose. Methods for evaluating process options to arrive at an optimized solution will be discussed in the paper. An analysis of burial versus recycle costs for RSS will also be presented.

Balhiser, B.C.; Rosholt, D.L. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Nichols, F.A. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

13

Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling  

SciTech Connect

The goal of MSE`s Radioactive Scrap Steel (RSS) Recycle Program is to develop practical methods for recycling RSS into useful product. This paper provides interim information about ongoing feasibility investigations that are scheduled for completion by September 1995. The project approach, major issues, and cost projections are outlined. Current information indicates that a cost effective RSS Recycling Facility can be designed, built, and in operation by 1999. The RSS team believes that high quality steel plate can be made from RSS at a conversion cost of $1500 per ton or less.

Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corporation, Woodland, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

14

Chemical recycling of scrap composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

1994-01-01

15

Scrap tires: A pricing strategy for a recycling industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of scrap tires from garbage, to environmental problem, to valuable resource has come about in little more than a decade. Although the technologies for tire recycling are starting to mature, ther has been little agreement concerning the best uses for the 2.5 million tons of scrap tires generated annually in the United States alone. This calls for recycling

KENNETH C. OWEN

1998-01-01

16

Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI COMPENDEX*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and equipment for recycling metal and steel scrap. Citations discuss automatic scrap recycling, scrap metal reprocessing, contaminated metal scrap, and mass-produced building materials from scrap. The design and evaluation of recycling processes in automotive, aircraft, beverage, electronics, and milling industries are examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-03-01

17

Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling  

SciTech Connect

In the past, government and commercial nuclear operators treated radioactive scrap steel (RSS) as a liability and disposed of it by burial; this was an accepted and economical solution at that time. Today, environmental concerns about burial are changing the waste disposal picture by (a) causing burial costs to soar rapidly, (b) creating pressure to close existing burial sites, and (c) making it difficult and expensive to open and operate burial facilities. To exacerbate the problem, planned dismantling of nuclear facilities will substantially increase volumes of RSS {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} over the next 30 yr. This report describes a project with the intention of integrating the current commercial mini-mill approach of recycling uncontaminated steel with radiological controls to design a system that can process contaminated metals at prices significantly below the current processors or burial costs.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States)

1995-12-31

18

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon

F. J. Dudek; E. J. Daniels; W. A. Morgan; A. W. Kellner; J. Harrison

1992-01-01

19

Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

Suzuki, Masao [AI Tech Associates, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Car Steel Co., Ltd., Gunnma (Japan); Taya, Sadao [Shinsei Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

1995-12-31

20

Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and equipment for recycling metal and steel scrap. Citations discuss automatic scrap recycling, scrap metal reprocessing, contaminated metal scrap, and mass-produced building materials from scrap. The design and evaluation of recycling processes in automotive, aircraft, beverage, electronics, and milling industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

21

Upgrading nonferrous metal scrap for recycling purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reusing materials in the post-consumer phase of a product is very important; however, it is often difficult to separate the metals, resulting in a scrap that is high in impurities and limited in application. To prevent the mixing of scrap, separation at the source is required. Recently, several techniques for separating nonferrous metals have become available, including eddy-current separation to separate nonferrous metals from a mixture of waste, fluid-bed separation to separate light and heavy metals, and image analysis to separate cast and wrought alloys.

Nijhof, Gerrit H.; Rem, Peter C.

1999-08-01

22

Recycling and reclamation of scrap steel. (Latest citations from METADEX). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development of technologies to recycle and reclaim scrap steel. Citations discuss scrap supply and demand, scrap sources, scrap quality, and environmental issues. Methods for processing galvanized ferrous materials and stainless steels are examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

23

Recycling and reclamation of scrap steel. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development of technologies to recycle and reclaim scrap steel. Citations discuss scrap supply and demand, scrap sources, scrap quality, and environmental issues. Methods for processing galvanized ferrous materials and stainless steels are examined.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

24

The current status of scrap metal recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although millions of tonnes of metals are recycled around the world every year, even more can be done if the proper economic incentives are present. Increasing the rate of recycle will slow the growth of primary production and reduce the potential for environmental overload. But to progress beyond the present state of affairs, public opinion, regulations and economics must combine to encourage the responsible reprocessing of metal wastes.

Spoel, Han

1990-04-01

25

Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

26

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

27

UTILIZATION OF SCRAP PREPREG WASTES AS A REINFORCEMENT IN A WHOLLY RECYCLED PLASTIC - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Foster-Miller proposes to utilize scrap prepreg waste as a reinforcement in recycled polyethylene. By reinforcing recycled plastics such as polyethylene with scrap prepreg and suitable binders, an economical useful product can be obtained. At the same time, this innovation ...

28

Recycling of metal bearing electronic scrap in a plasma furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recycling of electronic waste and the recovery of valuable components are large problems in the modern world economy. This paper presents the effects of melting sorted electronic scrap in a plasma furnace. Printed circuit boards, cables, and windings were processed separately. The characteristics of the obtained products (i.e., alloy metal, slag, dust, and gases) are presented. A method of their further processing in order to obtain commercial products is proposed. Because of the chemical composition and physical properties, the waste slag is environmentally inert and can be used for the production of abrasives. Process dusts containing large amounts of carbon and its compounds have a high calorific value. That makes it possible to use them for energy generation. The gas has a high calorific value, and its afterburning combined with energy recovery is necessary.

Jarosz, Piotr; Ma?ecki, Stanis?aw; Gargul, Krzysztof

2011-12-01

29

Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-02-01

30

Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

31

Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains a minimum of 80 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01

32

Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

33

Using information of the separation process of recycling scrap tires for process modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling recycling processes is a challenge because there is few specific data available. Various materials are firmly connected to each other that makes an ideal separation success nearly impossible. Scrap tire recycling is discussed as the case study with respect to some of the main key processes such as crushing, grinding and sieving. Useful information can be accumulated with data

A. Pehlken; D. H. Müller

2009-01-01

34

Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market\\/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics

B. D. Bauman; P. J. Leskovyansky; H. Drela

1993-01-01

35

The recycling of standard quality wrought aluminum alloys from low-grade contaminated scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades an increasingly large fraction of the world’s wrought aluminum alloys supply has come from the aluminum scrap recovered from industrial waste and discarded post-consumer items. However, replacing even a minor part of primary aluminum in wrought alloys with recycled counterpart originated from lower grades of scrap (typically scrap contaminated with various non-metallic impurities) without influencing the quality of the allay is very demanding from a metallurgical point of view. This article discusses the two approaches for achieving the requested chemical composition of wrought alloys made from recycled aluminum: (i) before melting, by combining the appropriate qualities and quantities of scrap, primary aluminum, and the alloying elements and (ii) during melting, by diluting impurity content with primary aluminum to the needed level and adding, at the same time, the necessary amount of alloying elements for achieving their standard concentration in diluted melts.

Kevorkjjan, Varužan

2010-08-01

36

Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the

Ni-Bin Chang

2008-01-01

37

Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to reduce the required levels of product tax and subsidy. With such initial breakthroughs at hand to handle the complexity of scrap tire recycling technologies, there remains unique management and policy avenues left to explore if a multi-dimensional solution is to be successful in the long run. PMID:17276578

Chang, Ni-Bin

2008-02-01

38

Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

1993-11-01

39

Decision Support System for Electronic Scrap Recycling Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the latest developments in European environmental legislation, producers will be responsible for collecting, sorting and recycling of discarded products at the end of their service life. They will be charged by the total recycling costs which leads to higher lifecycle costs of their products. Therefore, a close cooperation with recycling companies and their integration in producers supply chains,

Thomas Spengler

40

The Study for Recycling NORM - Contaminated Steel Scraps from Steel Industry  

SciTech Connect

Since 1994, most of the major steel industries in Taiwan have installed portal monitor to detect the abnormal radiation in metal scrap feed. As a result, the discovery of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has increased in recent years. In order to save the natural resources and promote radiation protection, an experimental melting process for the NORM contaminated steel scraps was carried out by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Taiwan, ROC. The experimental melting process has a pretreatment step that includes a series of cutting and removal of scales, sludge, as well as combustible and volatile materials on/in the steel scraps. After pretreatment the surface of the steel scraps are relatively clean. Then the scraps are melted by a pilot-type induction furnace. This experiment finally produced seven ingots with a total weight of 2,849 kg and 96.8% recovery. All of the surface dose rates are of the background values. The activity concentrations of these ingots are also below the regulatory criteria. Thus, these NORM-bearing steel scraps are ready for recycling. This study has been granted by the regulatory authority.

Tsai, K. F.; Lee, Y. S.; Chao, H. E.

2003-02-24

41

Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap  

SciTech Connect

Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

Adam C. Powell, IV

2012-07-19

42

Direct recycling of 1050 aluminum alloy scrap material mixed with 6060 aluminum alloy chips by hot extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method for the direct recycling of aluminum scrap by hot extrusion is investigated. 1050 aluminum alloy material\\u000a in the form of pins remained as scrap after a lateral extrusion process and was mixed with 6060 aluminum alloy chips resulting\\u000a from a turning operation. Contrary to the conventional method of re-melting aluminum scrap to produce secondary aluminum,

V. Güley; N. Ben Khalifa; A. E. Tekkaya

2010-01-01

43

ISASMELT™ for the Recycling of E-Scrap and Copper in the U.S. Case Study Example of a New Compact Recycling Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As living standards around the world improve and metal consumption increases, extracting raw materials will likely become more challenging in the future. Although already part of the general metal supply stream, metal recycling has to increase if we are to build a more sustainable society. With the recent widespread adoption of a range of consumer and industrial electronics, the recycling of the so-called electronic scrap ("e-scrap") has also increased in importance. One of the leading technologies for the recycling of e-scrap and copper scrap is the ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance technology. This article describes new opportunities for the U.S. recycling industry to yield full value from collected, sorted, and separated waste metals, in particular, e-scrap and lower grade copper scrap by the use of ISASMELT™ technology. The article includes the description of a case study example of a regional, compact ISASMELT™ plant in the United States treating a blend of e-scrap and copper scrap, having a total feed capacity of 75000 t/year of feed. Plants of higher or lower capacity are also discussed.

Alvear Flores, Gerardo R. F.; Nikolic, Stanko; Mackey, Phillip J.

2014-05-01

44

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

45

Polyethelene terephthalate (PET) scrap recycling. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of polyethelene terephthalate (PET) products. Discarded bottles and household PET scrap are primary sources of this material. Recycling machinery, processes, and programs are discussed. Cable insulation, sheet films, foam products, and other products made from recycled PET are described. The impact of recycling on resource conservation and waste disposal problems is evaluated. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-07-01

46

Toxicity tests of soil contaminated by recycling of scrap plastics  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation studied the toxicity of soil contaminated by untreated discharge from a factory that recycles used plastics. The nearby agricultural areas and freshwater fish ponds were polluted with high concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn. Water extracts from the contaminated soil retarded root growth of Brassica chinensis (Chinese white cabbage) and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) where their seeds were obtained commercially. The contaminated populations of C. dactylon, Panicum repen (panic grass), and Imperata cylindrica (wooly grass) were able to withstand higher concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn, especially C. dactylon, when compared with their uncontaminated counterparts.

Wong, M.H.; Chui, V.W. (Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1990-03-01

47

Cryogenic grinding: an efficient method for recycling scrap rubber  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic grinding represents an opportunity for expanding recycling capabilities to a broad range of compounds. Many materials that can be reduced to a powder by conventional coarse grinding can be reduced more efficiently by using a super-cold agent such as liquid nitrogen at -320/sup 0/F to embrittle plastic or rubber polymers before grinding. In addition, cryogenic grinding makes possible the size reduction of many materials that cannot be ground by conventional ambient grinding methods. Some experiences of cryogenic grinding in practice at United Tire and Rubber company, Limited, headquartered in Rexdale, Ontario, are noted. A schematic of such a system is shown.

Not Available

1980-06-01

48

Recycling plastic scrap: injection molding. January 1973-August 1988 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-August 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection-molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap that are used in the injection-molding process are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. Ways to utilize plastic scrap from used cars, packaging materials, and waste from polyurethane production are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 102 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-08-01

49

Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.  

PubMed

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data. PMID:15551790

Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

2004-11-01

50

Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: A worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of the different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the e-waste collection systems used in Europe and in the US. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present e-waste collection systems used in Asia and Latin America. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E-waste management between developed and developing countries is very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We made a comparison of the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. - Abstract: Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.

Reis de Oliveira, Camila, E-mail: Camilareis.oliveira@hotmail.com [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Moura Bernardes, Andrea, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais (PPGE3M) and Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gerbase, Annelise Engel, E-mail: agerbase@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2012-08-15

51

An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius.  

PubMed

This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined. PMID:24433820

Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

2014-10-01

52

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-04

53

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Vanini, S.; Benettoni, M.; Bonomi, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Squarcia, S.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

2010-08-01

54

A model for recovery of scrap monolithic uranium molybdenum fuel by electrorefining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program (RERTR) is toreduce enrichment at research and test reactors, thereby decreasing proliferation risk at these facilities. A new fuel to accomplish this goal is being manufactured experimentally at the Y12 National Security Complex. This new fuel will require its own waste management procedure,namely for the recovery of scrap from its manufacture. The new fuel is a monolithic uraniummolybdenum alloy clad in zirconium. Feasibility tests were conducted in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner using scrap U-8Mo fuel alloy. These tests proved that a uranium product could be recovered free of molybdenum from this scrap fuel by electrorefining. Tests were also conducted using U-10Mo Zr clad fuel, which confirmed that product could be recovered from a clad version of this scrap fuel at an engineering scale, though analytical results are pending for the behavior of Zr in the electrorefiner. A model was constructed for the simulation of electrorefining the scrap material produced in the manufacture of this fuel. The model was implemented on two platforms, Microsoft Excel and MatLab. Correlations, used in the model, were developed experimentally, describing area specific resistance behavior at each electrode. Experiments validating the model were conducted using scrap of U-10Mo Zr clad fuel in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner. The results of model simulations on both platforms were compared to experimental results for the same fuel, salt and electrorefiner compositions and dimensions for two trials. In general, the model demonstrated behavior similar to experimental data but additional refinements are needed to improve its accuracy. These refinements consist of a function for surface area at anode and cathode based on charge passed. Several approximations were made in the model concerning areas of electrodes which should be replaced by a more accurate function describing these areas.

Van Kleeck, Melissa A.

55

[Health risk assessment in the metal scrap recycle: the case of Brescia].  

PubMed

The recycle of metal scraps is one of the most important industrial activity of Brescia: almost 40% of the metal scraps produced in Italy are reprocessed in this Province. The melting process currently used produces air emissions containing dioxins, PCB and other pollutants which are dispersed in the atmosphere giving a contribution to the general environment pollution. This contribution has been and is being extensively studied in terms of air concentration and soil deposition but, because of its complexity and the difficulty to gather the necessary data, very little investigation has been made up to now on its impact on the health of workers and population. The difficulties are overcome by RAMET, a research Consortium established and financed by the main 24 metallurgical and siderurgical companies of Brescia, which can take advantage of the availability of the production facilities of its shareholders as pilot plants and has access to their database and experience. Starting from this unique favourable condition and in collaboration with the University of Brescia, RAMET is working on a research project having as main objective the assessment of the POPs dose adsorbed and the relevant consequences on workers and public health. The general scheme and organization of this project are given in this paper together with the outlines and the results of the main activities already completed or in progress. PMID:23213800

Corsaro, G B; Gabusi, V; Pilisi, A

2012-01-01

56

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

NONE

1996-07-01

57

Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. The initial effort has focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The notable non-actinide impurities were silicon and phosphorus, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. Among actinide impurities, uranium is of paramount concern because {sup 234}U is the daughter of {sup 2238}Pu by alpha decay, and is the largest actinide impurity. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} was first dissolved in refluxing HNO{sub 3}/HF and then the solution was filtered. The dissolved {sup 238}Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel in a glovebox environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in {sup 238}Pu values.

Schulte, L.D.; Silver, G.L.; Avens, L.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Espinoza, J.; Foltyn, E.M.; Rinehart, G.H.

1996-12-31

58

An economic evaluation of technical systems for scrap tire recycling. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technological and economic assessment is made of alternative technologies to recover the waste rubber in scrap vehicle tires. The principal technical alternatives evaluated are ground scrap rubber as an asphalt additive, retreading, energy recovery, and carbon black recovery. The greatest potential benefits are seen to occur with retreading and asphalt additives, followed by carbon black and energy recovery. (GRA)

1975-01-01

59

Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel by HNO{sub 3}/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Schulte, L.D.; Purdy, G.M.; Jarvinen, G.D. [Advanced Technology Group NMT-6, Nuclear Materials Technology Division, Mail Stop E510, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ramsey, K.; Silver, G.L.; Espinoza, J.; Rinehart, G.H. [Actinide Ceramics and Fabrication Group NMT-9, Nuclear Materials Technology Division, Mail Stop E502, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1998-01-01

60

Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel by HNO{sub 3}/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. A sufficient quantity of purified {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments allowing more time for neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 to precipitate resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel.

Schulte, L.D.; Espinoza, J.M.; Ramsey, K.B.; Rinehart, G.H.; Silver, G.L.; Purdy, G.M.; Jarvinen, G.D.

1997-11-01

61

Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report  

SciTech Connect

The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Metal Recycle; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1994-08-01

62

UTILIZATION OF SCRAP PREPREG WASTES AS A REINFORCEMENT IN A WHOLLY RECYCLED PLASTIC - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Foster-Miller is proposing to combine Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) commingled plastics with a high performance reinforcement (scrap prepreg) to form a durable and cost competitive wood substitute with superior moisture, rodent and insect resistance. This proposed technology ...

63

Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality.  

PubMed

Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions. PMID:22876977

Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

2012-09-01

64

Uranium complex recycling method of purifying uranium liquors. [ceramic grade U by recycling (NHâ)âUOâ(COâ)â from wet-process phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium is separated from contaminating cations in an aqueous liquor containing uranyl ions. The liquor is mixed with sufficient recycled uranium complex to raise the weight ratio of uranium to said cations preferably to at least about three. The liquor is then extracted with at least enough non-interfering, water-immiscible, organic solvent to theoretically extract about all of the uranium in

L. Elikan; W. L. Lyon; P. S. Sundar

1976-01-01

65

Benefits of recycling galvanized steel scrap for recovery of high-quality steel and zinc metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Metal Recovery Industries, Inc. (MRII), in cost-sharing collaboration, have developed an electrolytic process to separate and recover steel and zinc from galvanized steel scrap. This work has been supported by the US DOE. An assessment of available dezinc technology was begun in 1987 which (1) screened process concepts for separating and recovering zinc and steel

F. J. Dudek; E. J. Daniels; W. A. Morgan

1991-01-01

66

Fernald's dilemma: Recycle the radioactively contaminated scrap metal, or bury it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 5 years, a number of US Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder

Katherine L. Yuracko; Stanton W. Hadley; Robert D. Perlack; Rafael G. Rivera; T. Randall Curlee

1997-01-01

67

A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.  

PubMed

Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies. PMID:22436338

Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

2012-05-15

68

Determining advanced recycling fees and subsidies in "E-scrap" reverse supply chains.  

PubMed

Primarily due to environmental concerns and legislative mandates, the disposition of end-of-life (EOL) electronics products has attracted much attention. Advanced recycling fees (ARFs) and government subsidies may play important roles in encouraging or curtailing the flows of recycled items. We present a Stackelberg-type model to determine ARFs and socially optimal subsidy fees in decentralized reverse supply chains where each entity independently acts according to its own interests. The model consists of one leader (the government) and two followers (a group of manufacturers, importers, and sellers (MISs) and a group of recyclers). To maximize social welfare, the government determines the ARFs paid by MIS and the subsidy fees for recyclers when MIS sells new products and recyclers process EOL products. We find that MIS and recyclers behave at the equilibrium status by choosing optimal selling quantity in the market and optimal reward money for customers bringing EOL products to recyclers. Under this approach the two fees achieve the maximum of social welfare at the equilibrium status, while both MIS and recyclers gain the maximum of profits. For comparative purposes, we also develop a conceptual model describing the current practice by which ARFs and the subsidy fees are determined on the basis of fund balance between revenues and costs along with recycling operations. We conclude that our results outperform current practice. PMID:21255904

Hong, I-Hsuan; Ke, Jhih-Sian

2011-06-01

69

Scrap Tires: Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... 19.4%) are recycled or used in civil engineering projects 18 million (7.8%) are converted into ... scrap tire markets are: Tire-derived fuel Civil engineering applications Ground rubber applications/rubberized asphalt Many uses ...

70

Integrated planning of acquisition, disassembly and bulk recycling: a case study on electronic scrap recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a \\u000a Abstract. Due to national and supranational legislation activities, the recovery of discarded products will attain an increasing momentum.\\u000a Electronic equipment consists of many different parts and materials. Therefore, the related recovery process is often divided\\u000a into disassembly to remove harmful substances or reusable parts and into bulk recycling to recover ferrous and non-ferrous\\u000a metals. In order to consider the

Thomas Spengler; Martin Ploog; Marcus Schröter

2003-01-01

71

Scrap tires  

SciTech Connect

Scrap tires, one small part of the country's massive solid waste problem, are causing a disproportional headache. A city the size of Newark, N.J., for example, can pay up to $700,000 a year just to bury its waste tires, assuming it can find landfills to accept them. Many landfills no longer do, and in some areas, it is actually illegal. So stockpiles of scrap tires mount up and illegal dumping runs rampant. Scrap tires represent less than 1 percent of the nation's total solid waste. While we generate approximately a ton of solid waste per year per person, or 250,000,000 tons, we generate only one 20-pound tire per person, or 2,500,000 tons. Despite this small percentage, these tires present a special disposal/reuse challenge because of their size, shape, and physicochemical nature. Classified as a special waste, they are not generally collected with household waste by municipal authorities. Notwithstanding the unique disposal/reuse challenges of scrap tires, it must be stressed that a tire is essentially a petrochemical product than can be reused, can be a source of recoverable petrochemicals, or can be used as a fuel with a higher Btu value than coal. Thus what appears as a waste disposal challenge is also a resource recovery opportunity. Unfortunately, at present, only 30 percent of the country's scrap tires are being reclaimed or recycled. In terms of options, there are three viable areas in which to approach the waste tire problem: whole tire applications; physically processed tire applications; and physicochemical processes.

Not Available

1988-12-01

72

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, comprehensive executive summary. Final report, September 30, 1993--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

R&D activities have demonstrated Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to be a robust, one-step process process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. The feed size and composition compatible with CEP have been increased in a short period of time, and additional R&D should lead to the ability to accept a drum (and larger?) size feed of completely uncharacterized waste. Experiments have validated the CPU (Catalytic Processing Unit). Two commercial facilities have been commissioned and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. Expansion of CEP to transuranic and high level wastes should be the next step in the development and deployment of CEP for recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities.

NONE

1997-06-01

73

SCRAP TIRE RECYCLING: CONVINCING BUSINESSES TO INTEGRATE INEXPENSIVE, CUTTING-EDGE TECHNOLOGY TO CONVERT TIRES INTO VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Scrap tires cause serious environmental pollution and health problems. Although worldwide figures are imprecise, it is known that one-fourth of the 283 million tires scrapped in the United States were landfilled last year. Hundreds of millions more tires ar...

74

The Scrap Map: An Environmental Publication for Grades K-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials for a 10-day teaching unit on solid waste recycling for grades K-6. Included are: (1) "The Scrap Map," which shows recycling cycles for metals and paper, and a cryptic word puzzle; (2) three pamphlets on recycling paper, nonferrous scrap metals, and scrap iron and steel; (3) a list of the chapters of the Institute…

Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc., Washington, DC.

75

Evolution of isotopic composition of reprocessed uranium during the multiple recycling in light water reactors with natural uranium feed  

SciTech Connect

A complex approach based on the consistent modeling of neutron-physics processes and processes of cascade separation of isotopes is applied for analyzing physical problems of the multiple usage of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle of light water reactors. A number of scenarios of multiple recycling of reprocessed uranium in light water reactors are considered. In the process, an excess absorption of neutrons by the {sup 236}U isotope is compensated by re-enrichment in the {sup 235}U isotope. Specific consumptions of natural uranium for re-enrichment of the reprocessed uranium depending on the content of the {sup 232}U isotope are obtained.

Smirnov, A. Yu., E-mail: a.y.smirnoff@rambler.ru; Sulaberidze, G. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P. N.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A., E-mail: neva@dhtp.kiae.ru; Proselkov, V. N.; Chibinyaev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15

76

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

DOEpatents

A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

1995-08-01

77

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

DOEpatents

Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

1995-08-01

78

Scrap tires: Management and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a description of tire recycling conditions in the state of Wisconsin, a summary of the status of legislation affecting tire disposal in the US, and a list of the major scrap-tire applications. The paper also provides an evaluation of the economics of the scrap-tire processing industry. The economics of the entire disposal cycle is examined in five

N. N. Eldin; J. A. Piekarski

2009-01-01

79

Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Report on the Production and Use of Recycled Uranium  

SciTech Connect

Recent allegations regarding radiation exposure to radionuclides present in recycled uranium sent to the gaseous diffusion plants prompted the Department of Energy to undertake a system-wide study of recycled uranium. Of particular interest, were the flowpaths from site to site operations and facilities in which exposure to plutonium, neptunium and technetium could occur, and to the workers that could receive a significant radiation dose from handling recycled uranium. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site report is primarily concerned with two locations. Recycled uranium was produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant where highly enriched uranium was recovered from spent fuel. The other facility is the Specific Manufacturing Facility (SMC) where recycled, depleted uranium is manufactured into shapes for use by their customer. The SMC is a manufacturing facility that uses depleted uranium metal as a raw material that is then rolled and cut into shapes. There are no chemical processes that might concentrate any of the radioactive contaminant species. Recyclable depleted uranium from the SMC facility is sent to a private metallurgical facility for recasting. Analyses on the recast billets indicate that there is no change in the concentrations of transuranics as a result of the recasting process. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was built to recover high-enriched uranium from spent nuclear fuel from test reactors. The facility processed diverse types of fuel which required uniquely different fuel dissolution processes. The dissolved fuel was passed through three cycles of solvent extraction which resulted in a concentrated uranyl nitrate product. For the first half of the operating period, the uranium was shipped as the concentrated solution. For the second half of the operating period the uranium solution was thermally converted to granular, uranium trioxide solids. The dose reconstruction project has evaluated work exposure and exposure to the public as the result of normal operations and accidents that occurred at the INEEL. As a result of these studies, the maximum effective dose equivalent from site activities did not exceed seventeen percent of the natural background in Eastern Idaho. There was no year in which the radiation dose to the public exceeded the applicable limits for that year. Worker exposure to recycled uranium was minimized by engineering features that reduced the possibility of direct exposure.

L. C. Lewis; D. C. Barg; C. L. Bendixsen; J. P. Henscheid; D. R. Wenzel; B. L. Denning

2000-09-01

80

SCRAP TIRE: A CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial societies produce scrap tires at increasing rates every year, generating a large amount of a non-degradable urban solid waste. Stockpiles of scrap tires are exposed to constant danger of fire, besides they may induce propagation of insects and diseases. Environmentally acceptable management options to deal with scrap tires include: Reduction, Recycle, Recover and Re-use. This paper describes a comprehensive

D. M. S. Gerscovich; A. C. C. F. Sieira; L. V. Medeiros; A. S. F. J. Sayão

81

Management of material flows in closed-loop supply chains. Decision support system for electronic scrap recycling companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the latest developments in European environmental legislation, producers will be responsible for collecting, sorting and recycling of discarded products at the end of their service life. They will be charged by the total recycling costs which leads to higher lifecycle costs of their products. Therefore, a close cooperation with recycling companies and their integration in producers supply chains,

Thomas Spengler

2003-01-01

82

Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel based on reprocessed uranium and plutonium mixture in thermal reactors  

SciTech Connect

REMIX fuel consumption in WWER-1000 is considered. REMIX fuel is fabricated from non-separated mixture of uranium and plutonium obtained during NPP spent fuel reprocessing with further makeup by enriched natural uranium. It makes possible to recycle several times the total amount of uranium and plutonium obtained from spent fuel with 100% loading of the WWER-1000 core. The stored SNF could be also involved in REMIX fuel cycle by enrichment of regenerated uranium. The same approach could be applied to closing the fuel cycle of CANDU reactors. (authors)

Fedorov, Y.S.; Bibichev, B.A.; Zilberman, B.Y. [RPA - V.G.Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Baryshnikov, M.V.; Kryukov, O.V.; Khaperskaya, A.V. [State Corporation ROSATOM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

83

Recycling intergalactic and interstellar matter IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004  

E-print Network

Controling externalities with asymmetric information: Ferrous Scrap Recycling and the Gold Rush #12;Controling externalities with asymmetric information: Ferrous Scrap Recycling and the Gold Rush develop a model of the monopsonistic organization of a ferrous scrap recycling branch. Negative

Bureau, Martin

84

Recycling of uranium from spent RBMK fuel in the nuclear fuel cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that there is promise in using the uranium product obtained by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from RBMK reactors\\u000a as a non-initial fuel source for thermal reactors. A technical path for spent nuclear fuel from RBMK reactors is proposed:\\u000a radiochemical reprocessing and obtaining oxides of recycled uranium. Oxides of the category RBMK-poor are packed and then\\u000a stored in

V. I. Volk; A. V. Khaperskaya

2010-01-01

85

The role of aluminum scrap as a primary producer sees it  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of aluminum scrap to Alcoa is discussed. The recycling of aluminum saves operating costs and materials as the need for extraction and use of virgin materials is decreased. Automobile scrap, beverage cans, and other forms of aluminum scrap are utilized. Such recycling also conserves energy. The remelting and recovery of aluminum from segregated scrap uses only 5% of

Doerschuk

1980-01-01

86

Throughput limitations and pressure relief of the OSUR (Onsite Uranium Recycle) semiworks off-gas system  

SciTech Connect

The Robotics and Fabrication Technology Division operates the Onsite Uranium Recycle (OSUR) semiworks to develop equipment for a uranium conversion process. The process converts uranyl nitrate solution to uranium oxide powder by loading the uranium on ion exchange resin and then burning the resin. With proper loading and burning conditions, the uranium oxide ash is suitable for blending with aluminum powder for use in the powder metallurgy fuel tube fabrication process. A production scale OSUR process is currently being designed as a part of the new SRP Fuel Production Facility. The OSUR process will allow SRP to recycle uranium solution directly from the separations area to fuel tube fabrication. The solution is currently trucked to Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the oxide conversion. The resin burning operation consists of feeding uranium-loaded resin into one end of a rotary calciner, and discharging uranium oxide ash at the opposite end. Preheating the resin and then burning it in a near-stoichiometric amount of combustion air gives uranium oxide particles that are (after sintering) dense enough to use in fuel tube fabrication. Off-gases from the combustion process vent through a water scrubber, cyclone separator, and HEPA filter before discharging through a blower to the atmosphere. The calciner typically operates under a slight vacuum (about-4 inches of water). A process hazards analysis of the semiworks generated some concerns regarding the throughput capacity of the ventilation system and the pressure relief capability of the calciner during a process excursion. This document summarizes abnormal conditions that could lead to a process excursion and analyzes their effects on the process ventilation and pressure relief systems.

Jones, M.K.

1986-06-05

87

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be learning all about recycling and asking questions as you learn more about recycling. Afterward, you will be making recycling bins that we will use in our classroom. Click on each of the different links and research about recycling. Find out what recycling is, what can be recycled, and why we should recycle. As you find information, add it to the "describing wheel" that is given to you by Ms. Pollak. Answer the main question: What is recycling? Come ...

sgp0002

2010-03-27

88

WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

1993-12-01

89

The credit analysis of recycling beryllium and uranium in BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantifies the credits of beryllium and uranium which are used as the raw materials for BeO-UO2 nuclear fuel by analyzing the influence of their credits on the nuclear fuel cycle cost was analyzed, where the credit was defined as the value of raw materials recovered from spent fuel and the raw materials that were re-cycled. The credits of

Sungki Kim; Wonil Ko; W. Zhou; Shripad T. Revankar; Yanghon Chung; Sungsig Bang

2012-01-01

90

Scrap tire utilization via surface modification  

SciTech Connect

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach to reusing scrap tire rubber, which will be described in this presentation. In addition to consuming scrap tires, this technology represents a new approach to material engineering. Furthermore, this method of rubber recycle is most efficient in terms of energy recovery. 4 figs.

Bauman, B.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (USA))

1990-01-01

91

Utilization of Scrap Thermosets Using Pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastics are widely used materials, and their application increases considerably every year. Therefore, appropriate waste management policy should be used in relation to utilization\\/recycling of scrap plastic components. Currently, there are no clear utilization options for such scrap thermosetting materials, and landfill is the most commonly used method of their removal. However, it should be underlined that, in various products,

R. Sekula; S. Leszczynski

2008-01-01

92

Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

Sinker, Barbara

1986-01-01

93

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can be recycled? 1. Click on link. Watch video. Recycle Guy Video 2. Click on link. Watch video. Talking Trash Video 3. Click on link. Watch video. Recycling At School Video 4. Click on link. Play game. Star Fall Recycling Game 5. Click on link. Play game. National Geographic Recycling Game 6. Click on link. Ask Ms. Owens how to do it. Things We Recycle Chart 7. Please see Miss Owens for instructions on the following ...

2011-04-07

94

Ecological vulnerability: seasonal and spatial assessment of trace metals in soils and plants in the vicinity of a scrap metal recycling factory in Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The concentrations of selected heavy metals in the soil and vegetation in the immediate vicinity of a metal scrap recycling factory were determined in the dry and wet seasons using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that the soil pH in all the sites indicated slight acidity (from 5.07 to 6.13), high soil organic matter content (from 2.08 to 5.60 %), and a well-drained soil of sandy loam textural composition. Soil heavy metal content in the dry season were 0.84-3.12 mg/kg for Pb, 0.26-0.46 mg/kg for Cd, 9.19-24.70 mg/kg for Zn, and 1.46-1.97 mg/kg for Cu. These values were higher than those in the wet season which ranged from 0.62-0.69 mg/kg for Pb, 0.67-0.78 mg/kg for Cd, 0.84-1.00 mg/kg for Zn, and 1.26-1.45 mg/kg for Cu. Except for cadmium in the dry season, the highest concentrations occurred in the northern side of the factory for all the elements in both seasons. An increase in the concentrations of the elements up to 350 m in most directions was also observed. There was no specific pattern in the level of the metals in the leaves of the plant used for the study. However, slightly elevated values were observed in the wet season (Pb 0.53 mg/kg, Cd 0.59 mg/kg, Cu 0.88 mg/kg) compared with the dry season values (Pb 0.50 mg/kg, Cd 0.57 mg/kg, Cu 0.83 mg/kg). This study showed that the elevated concentrations of these metals might be associated with the activities from the recycling plant, providing the basis for heavy metal pollution monitoring and control of this locality that is primarily used for agricultural purposes. PMID:25034233

Owoade, O K; Awotoye, O O; Salami, O O

2014-10-01

95

Scrap tire management in the mid south region  

SciTech Connect

The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

Blumenthal, M. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-08-01

96

PWR core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for thorium-uranium breeding recycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper was focused on core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle in current PWRs, without any major change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. The fuel cycle analysis indicates that Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle is technically feasible in current PWRs. A 4-loop, 193-assembly PWR core utilizing 17 x 17 fuel assemblies (FAs) was taken as the model core. Two mixed cores were investigated respectively loaded with mixed reactor grade Plutonium-Thorium (PuThOX) FAs and mixed reactor grade {sup 233}U-Thorium (U{sub 3}ThOX) FAs on the basis of reference full Uranium oxide (UOX) equilibrium-cycle core. The UOX/PuThOX mixed core consists of 121 UOX FAs and 72 PuThOX FAs. The reactor grade {sup 233}U extracted from burnt PuThOX fuel was used to fabrication of U{sub 3}ThOX for starting Thorium-. Uranium breeding recycle. In UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core, the well designed U{sub 3}ThOX FAs with 1.94 w/o fissile uranium (mainly {sup 233}U) were located on the periphery of core as a blanket region. U{sub 3}ThOX FAs remained in-core for 6 cycles with the discharged burnup achieving 28 GWD/tHM. Compared with initially loading, the fissile material inventory in U{sub 3}ThOX fuel has increased by 7% via 1-year cooling after discharge. 157 UOX fuel assemblies were located in the inner of UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core refueling with 64 FAs at each cycle. The designed UOX/PuThOX and UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core satisfied related nuclear design criteria. The full core performance analyses have shown that mixed core with PuThOX loading has similar impacts as MOX on several neutronic characteristic parameters, such as reduced differential boron worth, higher critical boron concentration, more negative moderator temperature coefficient, reduced control rod worth, reduced shutdown margin, etc.; while mixed core with U{sub 3}ThOX loading on the periphery of core has no visible impacts on neutronic characteristics compared with reference full UOX core. The fuel cycle analysis has shown that {sup 233}U mono-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel could save 13% of natural uranium resource compared with UOX once through fuel cycle, slightly more than that of Plutonium single-recycling with MOX fuel. If {sup 233}U multi-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel is implemented, more natural uranium resource would be saved. (authors)

Bi, G.; Liu, C.; Si, S. [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Inst., No. 29, Hongcao Road, Shanghai, 200233 (China)

2012-07-01

97

Recycling in the metals industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, scrap was a major feedstock component of U.S. metals production. Steel scrap represented 56% of raw steel production, old lead scrap was 66% of total lead production, and purchased aluminum scrap represented 37% of total production. Copper scrap makes up 44% of total U.S. copper consumption annually. Although some recycling operations, such as past (but now obsolete) lead-acid

Harry V. Makar

1996-01-01

98

Homologation and functionalization of carbon monoxide by a recyclable uranium complex  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) is in principle an excellent resource from which to produce industrial hydrocarbon feedstocks as alternatives to crude oil; however, CO has proven remarkably resistant to selective homologation, and the few complexes that can effect this transformation cannot be recycled because liberation of the homologated product destroys the complexes or they are substitutionally inert. Here, we show that under mild conditions a simple triamidoamine uranium(III) complex can reductively homologate CO and be recycled for reuse. Following treatment with organosilyl halides, bis(organosiloxy)acetylenes, which readily convert to furanones, are produced, and this was confirmed by the use of isotopically 13C-labeled CO. The precursor to the triamido uranium(III) complex is formed concomitantly. These findings establish that, under appropriate conditions, uranium(III) can mediate a complete synthetic cycle for the homologation of CO to higher derivatives. This work may prove useful in spurring wider efforts in CO homologation, and the simplicity of this system suggests that catalytic CO functionalization may soon be within reach. PMID:22652572

Gardner, Benedict M.; Stewart, John C.; Davis, Adrienne L.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

99

Characterization of Microwave-Devulcanized Composites of Ground SBR Scraps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of waste rubber has considerable significance in terms of environmental protection and energy conservation. Considering that most of the relevant literature is concerned with tire recycling, the objective of this study is to develop and characterize styrene-butadiene rubber composites containing only industrial rubber scraps devulcanized by microwave. The styrene-butadiene rubber extruded profile scraps were collected and ground under

Aline Zanchet; Larissa N. Carli; Marcelo Giovanela; Janaina S. Crespo; Carlos H. Scuracchio; Regina C. R. Nunes

2009-01-01

100

Recycling the junk car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems approach to recycling junk cars as a major renewable resource is proposed, although this will require some legislative, technological, and economic changes. The volume of materials contained in automobiles makes them the major source of scrap steel, but recycling can also yield secondary supplies of zinc, copper, aluminum, rubber, and plastics. Economic considerations have historically singled out scrap

Harwood

1977-01-01

101

Uranium Recycle by Ion Exchange and Calcination - Summary of Design Development and Equipment Design  

SciTech Connect

Technical information for the process of recovery of uranium from uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solutions that was developed as part of the Onsite Uranium Recycle (OSUR) project conducted at the Savannah River Site in the 1980's is summarized. The process involves an ion-exchange process to load the uranyl species from solution onto a cation resin that is subsequently dried using a microwave oven, and then calcined using a rotary calciner to produce U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. The information in this report was compiled to support critical decisions for new facilities and processes at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The information includes a detailed description of the process and process equipment that were developed for the OSUR project including the technical bases for the materials selection and process conditions. Additional process considerations and recommendations to for a new-design facility are also provided.

Hathcock, D.J.; A.J. Duncan

2005-10-31

102

Railroading Scrap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the environmental benefits of recycling mainly iron and steel, as well as the current status of such recycling processes. It also examines some of the economic constraints working against recycling, and offers suggestions for correcting the problem. (Author/MA)

Kakela, Peter

1975-01-01

103

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

104

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

105

Contaminated nickel scrap processing  

SciTech Connect

The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

1994-12-01

106

Comparative analysis of thorium and uranium fuel for transuranic recycle in a sodium cooled Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The present paper compares the reactor physics and transmutation performance of sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (FRs) for TRansUranic (TRU) burning with thorium (Th) or uranium (U) as fertile materials. The 1000 MWt Toshiba-Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) conceptual core has been used as benchmark for the comparison. Both burner and breakeven configurations sustained or started with a TRU supply, and assuming full actinide homogeneous recycle strategy, have been developed. State-of-the-art core physics tools have been employed to establish fuel inventory and reactor physics performances for equilibrium and transition cycles. Results show that Th fosters large improvements in the reactivity coefficients associated with coolant expansion and voiding, which enhances safety margins and, for a burner design, can be traded for maximizing the TRU burning rate. A trade-off of Th compared to U is the significantly larger fuel inventory required to achieve a breakeven design, which entails additional blankets at the detriment of core compactness as well as fuel manufacturing and separation requirements. The gamma field generated by the progeny of U-232 in the U bred from Th challenges fuel handling and manufacturing, but in case of full recycle, the high contents of Am and Cm in the transmutation fuel impose remote fuel operations regardless of the presence of U-232.

C. Fiorina; N. E. Stauff; F. Franceschini; M. T. Wenner; A. Stanculescu; T. K. Kim; A. Cammi; M. E. Ricotti; R. N. Hill; T. A. Taiwo; M. Salvatores

2013-12-01

107

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent.

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-01-01

108

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s learn how to reduce, reuse and recycle waste! BUILDING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RECYCLING 1. Learn the abc\\'s of recycling found here A is for Air. Be sure to click on each letter of the alphabet and read what it stands for. 2. Read the Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin in this Comic Book. 3. Steel is used to build cars, household appliances and cans. Read ...

Miss Sykes

2005-10-20

109

Aqueous processing of U-10Mo scrap for high performance research reactor fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion program, which is part of the US government's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), supports the conversion of civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel and targets. The reason for conversion is to eliminate the use of any material that may pose a threat to the United States or other foreign countries. High performance research reactors (HPRRs) cannot make the conversion to a standard LEU fuel because they require a more dense fuel to meet their performance requirements. As a result, a more dense fuel consisting of a monolithic uranium-molybdenum alloy containing 10% (w/w) Mo with Al cladding and a Zr bonding-layer is being considered. Significant losses are expected in the fabrication of this fuel, so a means to recycle the scrap pieces is needed. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an aqueous-processing flowsheet for scrap recovery in the fuel fabrication process for high-density LEU-monolithic fuel based on data found in the literature. Experiments have been performed to investigate dissolution conditions for solutions containing approximately 20 g-U/L and 50 g-U/L with and without Fe(NO3)3. HNO3 and HF concentrations have been optimized for timely dissolution of the fuel scrap and prevention of the formation of the U-Zr2 intermetallic, explosive complex, while meeting the requirements needed for further processing.

Youker, Amanda J.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Maggos, Laura E.; Bakel, Allen J.; Vandegrift, George F.

2012-08-01

110

Recycling Report FY2012 FY2012  

E-print Network

FY 2013 Recycling Report FY2012 FY2012 Month Tons Revenue Tons Revenue Lbs Revenue Tons Revenue, Scrap) RESOURCES SAVED BY RECYCLING Total Tons Recycled 175.77 Cubic Feet of Landfill Space Conserved 15

Mohanty, Saraju P.

111

Recycled Uranium Mass Balance Project Y-12 National Security Complex Site Report  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to summarize the findings of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) Mass Balance Project and to support preparation of associated U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) site reports. The project was conducted in support of DOE efforts to assess the potential for health and environmental issues resulting from the presence of transuranic (TRU) elements and fission products in recycled uranium (RU) processed by DOE and its predecessor agencies. The United States government used uranium in fission reactors to produce plutonium and tritium for nuclear weapons production. Because uranium was considered scarce relative to demand when these operations began almost 50 years ago, the spent fuel from U.S. fission reactors was processed to recover uranium for recycling. The estimated mass balance for highly enriched RU, which is of most concern for worker exposure and is the primary focus of this project, is summarized in a table. A discrepancy in the mass balance between receipts and shipments (plus inventory and waste) reflects an inability to precisely distinguish between RU and non-RU shipments and receipts involving the Y-12 Complex and Savannah River. Shipments of fresh fuel (non-RU) and sweetener (also non-RU) were made from the Y-12 Complex to Savannah River along with RU shipments. The only way to distinguish between these RU and non-RU streams using available records is by enrichment level. Shipments of {le}90% enrichment were assumed to be RU. Shipments of >90% enrichment were assumed to be non-RU fresh fuel or sweetener. This methodology using enrichment level to distinguish between RU and non-RU results in good estimates of RU flows that are reasonably consistent with Savannah River estimates. Although this is the best available means of distinguishing RU streams, this method does leave a difference of approximately 17.3 MTU between receipts and shipments. Slightly depleted RU streams received by the Y-12 Complex from ORGDP and PGDP are believed to have been returned to the shipping site or disposed of as waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation. No evidence of Y-12 Complex processing of this material was identified in the historical records reviewed by the Project Team.

NONE

2000-12-01

112

Separating aluminum from shredded automotive scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metals recovered from automotive scrap can provide important resources for industrial development. Thus, the construction of a new plant was undertaken to help recycle valuable metals from nonferrous auto scrap in Taiwan. The main purpose of this project was to establish an automated heavy medium separation technique to cull aluminum from automotive scrap, and thus to replace the labor-intensive hand-picking process. The design capacity of the resulting heavy medium separation plant is two tonnes per hour and the completion of this plant will reduce hand-picking labor by 80%.

Lee, Ching-Hwa; Cheau, Tei-Chih; Chen, Sang-Teh

1994-05-01

113

Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational efficiency. In conducting the study, various elements were implemented. These included sampling and sorting representative samples of the waste stream; visually inspecting each refuse bin, recycle bin, and roll-off; interviewing employees and recycling coordinators of other companies; touring local material recycling facilities; contacting experts in the field; and performing a literature search.

Eley, Michael H.; Crews, Lavonne; Johnston, Ben; Lee, David; Colebaugh, James

1995-01-01

114

Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational efficiency. In conducting the study, various elements were implemented. These included sampling and sorting representative samples of the waste stream; visually inspecting each refuse bin, recycle bin, and roll-off; interviewing employees and recycling coordinators of other companies; touring local material recycling facilities; contacting experts in the field; and performing a literature search.

Eley, Michael H.; Crews, Lavonne; Johnston, Ben; Lee, David; Colebaugh, James

1995-04-01

115

Apparatus and process for recovering nuclear fuel from scrap material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for recovering compounds of enriched nuclear fuel from scrap materials is disclosed. The process yields an acid solution with the nuclear fuel dissolved therein. Except for spent filter media, the scrap materials are calcined to produce an oxidized material, which is reduced to a particulate material and leached in an acid bath that contains some recycled acid to

L. A. Divins; L. E. Short

1979-01-01

116

Apparatus for recovering nuclear fuel from scrap material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process for recovering compounds of enriched nuclear fuel from scrap materials is disclosed. The process yields an acid solution with the nuclear fuel dissolved therein. Except for spent filter media, the scrap materials are calcined to produce an oxidized material, which is reduced to a particulate material and leached in an acid bath that contains some recycled acid to yield

L. A. Divins; L. E. Short

1980-01-01

117

A Practical Recycling Project . . .  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

1973-01-01

118

Iron and steel recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Consumption of iron and steel scrap and the health of the scrap industry depend directly on the health of the steelmaking industry. The United States, as well as most of the world, is expected to consume increasing amounts of scrap as a steadily increasing population demands more steel products. World resources of scrap should be sufficient for the foreseeable future. An estimated 75 million metric tons (Mt) of scrap was generated during 1998 in the United States, and 35 Mt of old scrap and 18 Mt of new scrap was consumed. The recycling efficiency was calculated to be 52%, and the recycling rate was found to be 41%. (See appendix for definitions.)

Fenton, Michael D.

2001-01-01

119

Gold recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, 175 metric tons (t) of refined gold was recovered by U.S. refiners from old and new scrap. The overall recycling rate was 29 percent when scrap consumption was compared with apparent domestic supply. Sources of old scrap includes discarded jewelry, dental materials, plating solutions, and electronic equipment. A very high old scrap recycling efficiency of 96 percent was reached in 1998, the supply of old scrap peaked, gold prices were at an 18-year low, and substantial amounts of old scrap were exported. U.S. net exports of old scrap had a gold content of 28 t.

Amey, Earle B.

2001-01-01

120

Information technology product recycling. An OEM\\/recycler collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hewlett-Packard's hardware recycling operation has gone through significant changes in the past several years in response to changes in recycling markets and recycling technology, As recently as three years ago, most electronic scrap could be recycled or be sold into secondary markets and generate positive returns for OEMs and equipment brokers. Even two gears ago, integrated circuit values from old

R. S. Denis; S. Skurnac

1998-01-01

121

Cobalt recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is one of a series of reports on metals recycling. It defines and quantifies the 1998 flow of cobalt-bearing materials in the United States, from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of cobalt?s many and diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 1998, an estimated 32 percent of U.S. cobalt supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of cobalt consumed from new scrap to that from old scrap was estimated to be 50:50. Of all the cobalt in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 68 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

Shedd, Kim B.

2002-01-01

122

Tungsten recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, which is one of a series of reports on metals recycling, defines and quantifies the flow of tungsten-bearing materials in the United States from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition in 2000, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of tungsten's many diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 2000, an estimated 46 percent of U.S. tungsten supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of tungsten consumed from new scrap to that consumed from old scrap was estimated to be 20:80. Of all the tungsten in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 66 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

Shedd, Kim B.

2011-01-01

123

75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to construct and operate a scrap metal shredding and recycling facility. The project...include scrap metal sorting and scrap metal shredding, material separation and processing...portion of the metal material delivered for shredding at the facility would include...

2010-11-02

124

Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Plunkert, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

125

Development and implementation of producer responsibility recycling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to efficiently utilize the human and financial resources of the government used in municipal waste recycling, EPA of Taiwan has mandated the producer responsibility recycling system for several designated post-consumer products. As of the end of 1997, these designated items includes general waste containers, scrap tires, scrap agriculture chemical containers, spent lead-acid batteries, waste lubricant oils, scrap motor

C.-H Lee; C.-T Chang; S.-L Tsai

1998-01-01

126

The recovery of metals from electronic scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the published literature on the recycling of scrapped electronic devices is listed in chronological order in Table I. In the 1970s and early to mid-1980s, the predominant method of recycling was blast furnace smelting in conjunction with secondary copper or lead smelters. Since the mid-1980s, the trend has shifted toward the hydrometallurgical processing of scrap. The emphasis has always been on the recovery of precious metals, namely gold, silver, platinum and palladium, from electronic scrap for their obvious economic values. In recent years, greater importance has been placed on the recovery of all metals, including low-concentration metals such as cadmium, because of increasingly strict environmental controls. The electronic scrap recycling program of the 1990s will ha ve to meet many objectives—efficient recovery of all metals, strict effluent and emission controls, the use of nontoxic reagents, maximum recycling of chemical reagents, and minimum energy requirements—in an economical and environmentally safe manner.

Sum, Elaine Y. L.

1991-04-01

127

Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

1999-10-26

128

Evaluation for mulching use of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wooden timber from scrapped housing is not sufficiently recycled. Since timber made from Japanese cedar has been used in Towada, Aomori Prefecture for housing construction, we investigated the mulching method of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber. The main recycled chip diameter was comprised of two classes: 4.76 to 10 mm and 10 to 19 mm. They

Hiroki Okada; Mitsuhisa Baba; Yoshiko Suzuki; Toshihiro Sugiura; Hiroshi Kobayashi

2008-01-01

129

Recovery of scrap iron metal value using biogenerated ferric iron.  

PubMed

The utility of employing biogenerated ferric iron as an oxidant for the recycling of scrap metal has been demonstrated using continuously growing cells of the extremophilic organism Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. A ferric iron rich (70 mol%) lixiviant resulting from bioreactor based growth of A. ferrooxidans readily solubilized target scrap metal with the resultant generation of a leachate containing elevated ferrous iron levels and solubilized copper previously resident in the scrap metal. Recovery of the copper value was easily accomplished via a cementation reaction and the clarified leachate containing a replenished level of ferrous iron as growth substrate was shown to support the growth of A. ferrooxidans and be fully recyclable. The described process for scrap metal recycling and copper recovery was shown to be efficient and economically attractive. Additionally, the utility of employing the E(h) of the growth medium as a means for monitoring fluctuations in cell density in cultures of A. ferrooxidans is demonstrated. PMID:16440341

Ballor, Nicholas R; Nesbitt, Carl C; Lueking, Donald R

2006-04-20

130

Converting Garbage to Gold: Recycling Our Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling conserves energy, fights pollution and inflation, creates jobs, and improves the outlook for the future of materials. But converting a throwaway society to recycling will depend on finding good markets for waste paper and scrap metals. (RM)

Chandler, William U.

1984-01-01

131

A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g(-1), reacting at 40°C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are 201 mAh g(-)(1) and 155.4 mAh g(-1) (2.8-4.5 V, 0.1C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g(-1) even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%. PMID:24973865

Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

2014-09-01

132

Aluminum: Recycling Comes of Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycled aluminum is used by integrated producers who are capable of extracting aluminum from the ore, by non-integrated fabricators who rely on scrap for part of their production, and secondary smelters who depend entirely on scrap. Approximately 20% of the 14 billion pounds of aluminum shipped in the U.S. in 1978 came from recycled sources. Recycling aluminum requires only 5% of the energy needed to produce aluminum from the ore, and there are substantial savings in capital investment requirements. Since fabricators of aluminum products return nearly 100% of their scrap, future growth in recycled aluminum is possible largely through reclamation of post-consumer scrap. The basics of aluminum recycling are discussed, the technical and commercial problems outlined, and illustrations given of current industry activities.

Ballance, John B.

1980-02-01

133

Germanium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the recycling flow of germanium in the United States in 2000, as well as other germanium material flow streams. Germanium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of germanium-containing fiber optic cables and from new and old scrap products of germanium-containing infrared imaging devices. In 2000, about 11.5 metric tons of germanium was recycled, about 40 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The germanium recycling rate was estimated to be 50 percent, and germanium scrap recycling efficiency, 76 percent.

Jorgenson, John D.

2006-01-01

134

Tantalum recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of tantalum in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which tantalum was recycled/reused. Tantalum was mostly recycled from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of tantalum-related electronic components and new and old scrap products of tantalum-containing cemented carbides and superalloys. In 1998, about 210 metric tons of tantalum was recycled/reused, with about 43% derived from old scrap. The tantalum recycling rate was calculated to be 21%, and tantalum scrap recycling efficiency, 35%.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2001-01-01

135

Hanford recycling  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall DOE recycling contract at the Hanford site and a central group to control the contract. 0 Using a BOA or MTS contract as a way to get proceeds from recycling back to site facilities to provide incentives for recycling. . Upgrading tracking mechanisms to track and recycle construction waste which is presently buried in onsite pits. . Establishing contract performance measures which hold each project accountable for specific waste reduction goals. * Recycling and reusing any material or equipment possible as buildings are dismantled.

Leonard, I.M.

1996-09-01

136

Melting standardized aluminum scrap: A mass balance model for europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although individual aluminum recycling companies have good knowledge of scrap in terms of its characteristic metal yield during melting, an overall view of this industry is still missing. An aluminum mass balance for the aluminum recycling industry in the European Union member states from 1995 to 2004 (EU-15) has been carried out. The objective was to increase the transparency of the complex recycling system and to determine how resource-conservative the industry is when melting aluminum scrap. Results show that in 2002, about 7 million tonnes of purchased, tolled, and internal scrap—with a metal content of 94%—were recycled in the EU-15. By comparing the net metal input to the final product, the study finds a very respectable metal recovery rate of 98%.

Boin, U. M. J.; Bertram, M.

2005-08-01

137

Release of Residues from Melting NORM-Contaminated Steel Scrap - A German Approach  

SciTech Connect

As many raw materials like crude oil, natural gas, mineral sands, phosphor ores and others are contaminated by radionuclides from the Uranium and/or Thorium decay chain (NORM), also plants for processing these materials became contaminated during operation. When plants are shut down, large quantities of pipes, valves, pumps and other components have to be scrapped. As scrap yards and steel mills are equipped by large detector systems to avoid an input of radioactivity into the steel cycle, decontamination is required before recycling. Siempelkamp is operating a melting plant for processing NORM and/or chemically/ toxically contaminated steel scrap. Beside the decontaminated steel as output, residues like slag and filter dust have to be managed within the range of licensed values. Based on the European Safety Standard the European member states have to implement radiation exposure from work activities with NORM in their Radiation Protection Ordinances (RPO). The German government revised the RPO in July 2001. Part 3 describes exposure limits for workers and for the public. Exposures from residues management have to meet 1 mSv/year. Brenk Systemplanung has performed calculations for assessing the radiation exposure from residues of the Siempelkamp melting plant. These calculations have been based on the input of metal from different origins and include all relevant exposure pathways in a number of scenarios. The calculations have been based on the dose criterion of 1 mSv/y as required by the German RPO. The methods and results will be presented.

Quade, U.; Thierfeldt, S.; Wvrlen, S.

2003-02-24

138

Illinois scrap-tire management study  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the mandate under Public Act 85-1196 (HB 3389), the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources initiated a study that reports on feasible methods for recycling of scrap motor vehicle tires which may be available to municipalities and counties. The study answers that mandate. It examines various methods for the recovery or reuse of motor vehicle tires. In addition, the study provides a detailed economic analysis of two alternative systems judged to be effective uses of scrap tires that can be implemented at this time. Finally, a discussion of policy issues is provided to assist the State of Illinois in determining which combination of uses and legislation would be an effective means of controlling the growing problem of scrap tires.

Wietting, N.E.

1989-10-01

139

An economic analysis of a light and heavy water moderated reactor synergy: burning americium using recycled uranium  

SciTech Connect

An economic analysis is presented for a proposed synergistic system between 2 nuclear utilities, one operating light water reactors (LWR) and another running a fleet of heavy water moderated reactors (HWR). Americium is partitioned from LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be transmuted in HWRs, with a consequent averted disposal cost to the LWR operator. In return, reprocessed uranium (RU) is supplied to the HWRs in sufficient quantities to support their operation both as power generators and americium burners. Two simplifying assumptions have been made. First, the economic value of RU is a linear function of the cost of fresh natural uranium (NU), and secondly, plutonium recycling for a third utility running a mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor fleet has been already taking place, so that the extra cost of americium recycling is manageable. We conclude that, in order for this scenario to be economically attractive to the LWR operator, the averted disposal cost due to partitioning americium from LWR spent fuel must exceed 214 dollars per kg, comparable to estimates of the permanent disposal cost of the high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent LWR fuel. (authors)

Wojtaszek, D.; Edwards, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

2013-07-01

140

Dezincing of steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

Scrap is an important raw material in the steel industry. Depending on the type of steelmaking process, the composition of the scrap may vary. Market research in Europe shows that there will be a shortage of zinc-free scrap in the future. An alkaline dezincing process for galvanized steel has been developed. A description of a pilot plant based on alkaline dezincing technology is presented.

Rij, P.W. van [Hoogovens Scrap Processing, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Campenon, B. [Compagnie des Ferrailles, Saint-Saulve (France); Mooij, J.N. [Hoogovens Groep BV, IJmuiden (Netherlands). Corporate Research Lab.

1997-04-01

141

Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits  

SciTech Connect

In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1993-08-01

142

Dezincing galvanized scrap  

SciTech Connect

A caustic leach dezincing process is being developed for upgrading galvanized stamping plant scrap into clean scrap with recovery of the zinc. With further development the technology could also process galvanized scrap from obsolete automobiles. This paper will review: (1) the status of recent pilot plant operations in East Chicago, Indiana and plans for a commercial demonstration facility with a dezincing capacity of up to 250,000 tonnes/year, (2) the economics of caustic dezincing, and (3) benefits of decreased cost of environmental compliance, raw material savings, and improved operations with use of dezinced scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Braun, C. [Metal Recovery Technologies, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1998-07-01

143

H. R. 3059: A bill to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to States to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 25, 1991 to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to states to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires. Amounts from the fund will be available for making expenditures for purposes of conducting surveys of current scrap tire piles, developing tire management plans, and carrying out plans relating to the reduction and elimination of existing scrap tire piles, including recycling, recovering, and reusing scrap tires. Not in excess to 5% of the account may be used for payment of expenses for administration of the fund.

Not Available

1991-01-01

144

Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described.

Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

1994-12-31

145

A note on scrap in the 1992 U.S. input-output tables  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction A key concern of industrial ecology and life cycle analysis is the disposal and recycling of scrap. One might conclude that the U.S. input-output tables are appropriate tools for analyzing scrap flows. Duchin, for instance, has suggested using input-output analysis for industrial ecology, indicating that input-output economics can trace the stocks and flows of energy and other materials from extraction through production and consumption to recycling or disposal. Lave and others use input-output tables to design life cycle assessment models for studying product design, materials use, and recycling strategies, even with the knowledge that these tables suffer from a lack of comprehensive and detailed data that may never be resolved. Although input-output tables can offer general guidance about the interdependence of economic and environmental processes, data reporting by industry and the economic concepts underlying these tables pose problems for rigorous material flow examinations. This is especially true for analyzing the output of scrap and scrap flows in the United States and estimating the amount of scrap that can be recycled. To show how data reporting has affected the values of scrap in recent input-output tables, this paper focuses on metal scrap generated in manufacturing. The paper also briefly discusses scrap that is not included in the input-output tables and some economic concepts that limit the analysis of scrap flows.

Swisko, George M.

2000-01-01

146

78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...by participating in scrap drives and salvage collections...peanuts, and donated old tires in a nationwide push...recycled properly. Recycling not only reduces pollution...let us strive to make recycling a part of our daily...waste-free lunches, recycling programs, and...

2013-11-19

147

Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in

William Van Geertruyden

2005-01-01

148

Statewide plan for utilization of scrap tires in Kansas. Final report, September 1993May 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the current and future supply of scrap tire rubber and the feasibility of using scrap tires in Kansas for various purposes. The goal was to determine if a sufficient quantity of recycled rubber existed and what the cost would be to meet the ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) requirements for 1995 and thereafter.

R. G. Nelson; M. Hossain

1995-01-01

149

Radioactive materials in recycled metals.  

PubMed

In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations. PMID:7883556

Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

1995-04-01

150

78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...environmental consulting firms, industry representatives, environmental...approached by the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc. (ISRI), regarding...residue recovered from metals recycling facilities...residue generated by metal recycling...

2013-04-05

151

Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2003-01-01

152

Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2004-01-01

153

Method for forming consumable electrodes from metallic chip scraps  

DOEpatents

The method relates to metallurgical recycling of waste products, preferably titanium alloys chips scrap. Accordingly after crushing and cleaning, the chip scrap is subjected to vacuum-thermal degassing (VTD); the chip scrap is pressed into briquettes; the briquettes are placed into a mould allowing sufficient remaining space for the addition of molten metal alloy; the mould is pre-heated before filling with the molten metal alloy; the mould remaining space is filled with molten metal alloy. After cooling, the electrode is removed from the mould. The method provides a means for 100% use of chip scrap in producing consumable electrodes having increased mechanical strength and reduced interstitial impurities content leading to improved secondary cast alloys.

Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich (St. Petersburg, RU); Podpalkin, Arcady Munjyvich (St. Petersburg, RU); Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich (St. Petersburg, RU); Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich (St. Petersburg, RU)

2005-10-11

154

The concept of the use of recycled uranium for increasing the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel for light-water reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper deals with investigation of the possibilities for reducing the risk of proliferation of fissionable materials by means of increasing the degree of protection of fresh fuel intended for light-water reactors against unsanctioned use in the case of withdrawal of a recipient country of deliveries from IAEA safeguards. It is shown that the use of recycled uranium for manufacturing export nuclear fuel makes transfer of nuclear material removed from the fuel assemblies for weapons purposes difficult because of the presence of isotope 232U, whose content increases when one attempts to enrich uranium extracted from fresh fuel. In combination with restricted access to technologies for isotope separation by means of establishing international centers for uranium enrichment, this technical measure can significantly reduce the risk of proliferation associated with export deliveries of fuel made of low-enriched uranium. The assessment of a maximum level of contamination of nuclear material being transferred by isotope 232U for the given isotope composition of the initial fuel is obtained. The concept of further investigations of the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel assemblies with recycled uranium intended for light-water reactors is suggested.

Alekseev, P. N.; Ivanov, E. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Rumyantsev, A. N.; Shmelev, V. M.; Borisevich, V. D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.; Sulaberidze, G. A.

2010-12-01

155

Recycling technology of tire rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material recycling technology for automotive tire rubber waste was developed by the continuous devulcanization method. The deodorization during the recycling process has become possible by the newly developed method. The devulcanized rubber obtained by these methods from tire rubber waste, generated from both the manufacturing products and scrap tires, shows excellent mechanical properties applicable to the new tire rubber compounds

Kenzo Fukumori; Mitsumasa Matsushita; Hirotaka Okamoto; Norio Sato; Yasuyuki Suzuki; Katsumasa Takeuchi

2002-01-01

156

Recycled Coarse Aggregate Produced by Pulsed Discharge in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, the recycling ratio of concrete scraps has been kept over 98 % after the Law for the Recycling of Construction Materials was enforced in 2000. In the present, most of concrete scraps were recycled as the Lower Subbase Course Material. On the other hand, it is predicted to be difficult to keep this higher recycling ratio in the near future because concrete scraps increase rapidly and would reach to over 3 times of present situation in 2010. In addition, the demand of concrete scraps as the Lower Subbase Course Material has been decreased. Therefore, new way to reuse concrete scraps must be developed. Concrete scraps normally consist of 70 % of coarse aggregate, 19 % of water and 11 % of cement. To obtain the higher recycling ratio, the higher recycling ratio of coarse aggregate is desired. In this paper, a new method for recycling coarse aggregate from concrete scraps has been developed and demonstrated. The system includes a Marx generator and a point to hemisphere mesh electrode immersed in water. In the demonstration, the test piece of concrete scrap was located between the electrodes and was treated by the pulsed discharge. After discharge treatment of test piece, the recycling coarse aggregates were evaluated under JIS and TS and had enough quality for utilization as the coarse aggregate.

Namihira, Takao; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Kuroki, Kaori; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Yuichi; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Ohtsu, Masayasu

157

SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY METAL SOURCES, ARE STORED IN THESE BINS AND LIFTED TO SCALES BY AN ELECTRIC MAGNET. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

158

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION AND CONVERSION OF SCRAP METAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) confronts the major responsibility of decommissioni ng most of the U.S. Nuclear Complex, which also includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of

Jagdish Malhotra

2000-01-01

159

Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for

Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

1999-01-01

160

Statewide plan for utilization of scrap tires in Kansas. Final report, September 1993-May 1995  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the current and future supply of scrap tire rubber and the feasibility of using scrap tires in Kansas for various purposes. The goal was to determine if a sufficient quantity of recycled rubber existed and what the cost would be to meet the ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) requirements for 1995 and thereafter. The four tasks included in the study were: surveying scrap tire utilization plans in other states; inventory scrap tires in Kansas; estimating scrap tire generation in the future; and determiming cost effectiveness of various uses of scrap tires. Currently there are 4.5 to 5.5 million scrap tires in Kansas and the annual generation of scrap tires is estimated to be 2 to 3 million. The ISTEA mandate would require an estimated 367,000 scrap tires be recycled annually. KDOT has used more rubber in 1993 and 1994 than will be required by 1997 when the 20% required by ISTEA is in effect.

Nelson, R.G.; Hossain, M.

1995-05-01

161

INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP INTO QBOP FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP INTO Q-BOP FURNACE. SCRAP HAULER IS GREGORY JACKS. FURNACEMAN IS VINCENT MOREL. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

162

Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2009-01-01

163

Scrap treatment method  

SciTech Connect

The method of the invention is useful in treating a wide variety of rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap wherein the scrap comprises (a) one or more transition metals such as Fe, Co and Ni, (b) one or more rare earth such as Nd, Dy, Tb, Pr, Sm, Ho, La, Ce, Eu, Gd, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y, and Sc and (c) other optional alloyants such as boron, Zr, Nb, Ga, Al and others. In treating rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap including two or more rare earth metals (e.g., Tb-Dy-Fe), the method of the invention is effective to recover mixed rare earth salts which can be treated further for use in the thermite or other metallothermic reduction processes.

Lyman, J.; Palmer, G.

1990-10-24

164

Improving scrap tire processing  

SciTech Connect

The market for tire-derived materials is growing rapidly, with the largest market being tire-derived fuels. There is therefore a growing demand for higher quality products. This paper describes the processing and removal of steel from scrap tires.

Astafan, C.G. [Columbus McKinnon Corp., Sarasota, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

165

Integration of health physics, safety and operational processes for management and disposition of recycled uranium wastes at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)  

SciTech Connect

Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald), the contractor for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), recently submitted a new baseline plan for achieving site closure by the end of calendar year 2006. This plan was submitted at DOE's request, as the FEMP was selected as one of the sites for their accelerated closure initiative. In accordance with the accelerated baseline, the FEMP Waste Management Project (WMP) is actively evaluating innovative processes for the management and disposition of low-level uranium, fissile material, and thorium, all of which have been classified as waste. These activities are being conducted by the Low Level Waste (LLW) and Uranium Waste Disposition (UWD) projects. Alternatives associated with operational processing of individual waste streams, each of which poses potentially unique health physics, industrial hygiene and industrial hazards, are being evaluated for determination of the most cost effective and safe met hod for handling and disposition. Low-level Mixed Waste (LLMW) projects are not addressed in this paper. This paper summarizes historical uranium recycling programs and resultant trace quantity contamination of uranium waste streams with radionuclides, other than uranium. The presentation then describes how waste characterization data is reviewed for radiological and/or chemical hazards and exposure mitigation techniques, in conjunction with proposed operations for handling and disposition. The final part of the presentation consists of an overview of recent operations within LLW and UWD project dispositions, which have been safely completed, and a description of several current operations.

Barber, James; Buckley, James

2003-02-23

166

Chromium Recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to illustrate the extent to which chromium was recycled in the United States in 1998 and to identify chromium-recycling trends. The major use of chromium was in the metallurgical industry to make stainless steel; substantially less chromium was used in the refractory and chemical industries. In this study, the only chromium recycling reported was that which was a part of stainless steel scrap reuse. In 1998, 20 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption of chromium was secondary (from recycling); the remaining 80 percent was based on net chromium commodity imports and stock adjustments. Chromite ore was not mined in the United States in 1998. In 1998, 75,300 metric tons (t) of chromium contained in old scrap was consumed in the United States; it was valued at $66.4 million. Old scrap generated contained 132,000 t of chromium. The old scrap recycling efficiency was 87 percent, and the recycling rate was 20 percent. About 18,000 t of chromium in old scrap was unrecovered. New scrap consumed contained 28,600 t of chromium, which yielded a new-to-old-scrap ratio of 28:72. U.S. chromium-bearing stainless steel scrap net exports were valued at $154 million and were estimated to have contained 41,000 t of chromium.

Papp, John F.

2001-01-01

167

Manganese recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow and processing of manganese within the U.S. economy in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which manganese is recycled. Manganese was used mostly as an alloying agent in alloys in which it was a minor component. Manganese was recycled mostly within scrap of iron and steel. A small amount was recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Very little manganese was recycled from materials being recovered specifically for their manganese content. For the United States in 1998, 218,000 metric tons of manganese was estimated to have been recycled from old scrap, of which 96% was from iron and steel scrap. Efficiency of recycling was estimated as 53% and recycling rate as 37%. Metallurgical loss of manganese was estimated to be about 1.7 times that recycled. This loss was mostly into slags from iron and steel production, from which recovery of manganese has yet to be shown economically feasible.

Jones, Thomas S.

2001-01-01

168

Management of MSW in Spain and recovery of packaging steel scrap.  

PubMed

Packaging steel is more advantageously recovered and recycled than other packaging material due to its magnetic properties. The steel used for packaging is of high quality, and post-consumer waste therefore produces high-grade ferrous scrap. Recycling is thus an important issue for reducing raw material consumption, including iron ore, coal and energy. Household refuse management consists of collection/disposal, transport, and processing and treatment - incineration and composting being the most widely used methods in Spain. Total Spanish MSW production exceeds 21 million tons per year, of which 28.1% and 6.2% are treated in compost and incineration plants, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive study of incineration and compost plants in Spain, including a review of the different processes and technologies employed and the characteristics and quality of the recovered ferrous scrap. Of the total amount of packaging steel scrap recovered from MSW, 38% comes from compost plants and 14% from incineration plants. Ferrous scrap from incineration plants presents a high degree of chemical alteration as a consequence of the thermal process to which the MSW is subjected, particularly the conditions in which the slag is cooled, and accordingly its quality diminishes. Fragmentation and magnetic separation processes produce an enhancement of the scrap quality. Ferrous scrap from compost plants has a high tin content, which negatively affects its recycling. Cleaning and detinning processes are required prior to recycling. PMID:17161595

Tayibi, Hanan; Peña, Carmen; López, Félix A; López-Delgado, Aurora

2007-01-01

169

Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop  

SciTech Connect

Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [eds.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

170

Aluminium recycling and environmental issues of salt slag treatment.  

PubMed

Environmental friendly recycling is the trend toward total recycling of aluminium metal. In the secondary aluminium industry, due to the complexity of compositions and contaminants in the various types of aluminium scraps, an understanding of the behavior of different scraps during melting is crucial in the recycling process. Salt slags are the byproducts of the secondary aluminium industry, which should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This article provides qualitative assessment on 10 different commercial aluminium scraps for their relative recyclability via well-designed and controlled laboratory experiments. It confirms that more nonmetallic contaminants, smaller size, and higher ratio of surface area to body volume generally lead to a lower metal recovery. Recycling the scraps with lower recyclability normally generates more salt slags. High slag viscosity leads to more fine aluminum metal entrapped in the salt slag and thus increases the load of salt slag recycling. It was found that viscosity of the salt flux is increased with the amount of entrapped nonmetallic components, which affect the settling of heavier materials. In addition, the slag samples from the melting tests were leached and analyzed to evaluate the behavior of carbon containing scrap. The elevated carbon content in the scrap resulted in more carbide formation in salt slags and thus more methane generation in salt slag recycling with a higher environmental impact. PMID:16194908

Xiao, Yanping; Reuter, Markus A; Boin, Udo

2005-01-01

171

Generation of hydrogen from magnesium alloy scraps catalyzed by platinum-coated titanium net in NaCl aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of end-of-life magnesium products is important because Mg alloy has an increasing number of uses in automotive and electronic consumer applications. Currently, however, only high-grade Mg scraps are recyclable and over half of all Mg scraps cannot be processed economically. This work proposes a new method for generating H2 gas in NaCl aqueous solution by the hydrolysis of

Jun-Yen Uan; Chi-Yuan Cho; Kun-Ta Liu

2007-01-01

172

Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing  

SciTech Connect

Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01

173

The steel scrap age.  

PubMed

Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age. PMID:23442209

Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

2013-04-01

174

Characterization of emissions from scrap metal processing facilities  

SciTech Connect

To prepare its members for the permitting requirements under Title 5 of the Clean Act, the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) commissioned a project to develop a Title 5 applicability workbook. A critical element in the preparation of the workbook was the characterization of emissions from processes and equipment typically found in the scrap metal processing industry. This paper describes the approach to the preparation of the workbook with emphasis on characterization of specific emission units which are deemed important for Title 5. The paper describes the methodology employed for acquiring existing emissions information from equipment manufacturers, vendors, and scrap recycling facility operators. The data were aggregated and analyzed to develop a variety of emission tabulations for pollutants requiring analysis under Title 5. The project also involved a survey of numerous state and local air pollution agencies to determine regulatory requirements regarding critical issues in the scrap processing industry. The paper describes a methodology for determining Title 5 applicability with emphasis on the use of emission tabulations and example worksheets. Emissions data are presented for metal shredders to demonstrate the methodology and procedures developed during the project. Finally, the paper discusses the structure of the Title 5 applicability workbook and its dissemination to a major industry trade association.

Norco, J.E. [Versar, Inc., Lombard, IL (United States); Tyler, T. [Inst. of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

175

Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling\\u000a contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat\\u000a mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed\\u000a step, which retained

Byung-Taek Oh; Jai-Young Lee; Jeyong Yoon

2007-01-01

176

Columbium (niobium) recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of columbium in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which columbium (niobium) was recycled/reused. Columbium was mostly recycled from products of columbium-bearing steels and superalloys; little was recovered from products specifically for their columbium content. In 1998, about 1,800 metric tons of columbium was recycled/reused, with about 55% derived from old scrap. The columbium recycling rate was calculated to be 22%, and columbium scrap recycling efficiency, 50%.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2001-01-01

177

Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

Hilliard, Henry E.

2001-01-01

178

An Industrial Method for Determining the Amount of Organics in Representative Samples of Aluminum Scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recycling plants, especially those specializing in the recycling of low-grade aluminum scrap for wrought aluminum alloys, timely and accurate information about the amount of organics and other impurities in the incoming scrap is an important parameter in achieving both economic benefits and standard metallurgical quality of the recycled metal. To use aluminum scrap combined with organics as a source of aluminum for producing wrought aluminum alloys of standard quality, its metallurgical composition and the content of organic and other impurities should be quickly and cost-effectively analyzed on representative samples. In this work, an industrial thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis of representative scrap samples was developed as an efficient analytical methodology for analyzing the humidity and organic impurities in incoming scrap. When performed in continuous mode, under a flowing atmosphere of argon with 1 wt.% of oxygen, this methodology enables a routine measurement of the humidity, the quantity of organics, and the carbon content in representative samples of incoming scrap in less than 15 min within an accuracy of ±0.5%.

Kevorkijan, Varuzan; Skapin, Sreco Davor; Dosler, Urban

2012-08-01

179

Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag.  

PubMed

This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed step, which retained both zero-valent iron site and iron oxide site. Extensive trichloroethene (TCE) removal (95%) occurred by acid-washed steel scrap within 48 h. In addition, dehalogenation (Cl(-) production) was observed to be above 7.5% of the added TCE on a molar basis for 48 h. The waste steel scrap also removed tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through the dehalogenation process although to a lesser extent than TCE. Heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were extensively removed by both acid-washed steel scrap and converter slag through the adsorption process. Among salt ions (NH (4)(+) , NO (3)(-) , and PO (4)(3-) ), PO (4)(3-) was removed by both waste steel scrap (100% within 8 h) and converter slag (100% within 20 min), whereas NO (3)(-) and NH (4)(+ ) were removed by waste steel scrap (100% within 7 days) and converter slag (up to 50% within 4 days) respectively. This work suggests that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with waste steel scrap and converter slag might be an effective approach to intercepting mixed contaminants in leachate from landfill. PMID:17492478

Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Jai-Young; Yoon, Jeyong

2007-08-01

180

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

1988-01-01

181

Copper Recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of copper from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap1) and used products (old scrap) in the year 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of copper supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of copper recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the U.S. refined copper supply was 2.53 million metric tons (Mt) of refined unalloyed copper. With adjustment for refined copper exports of 127,000 metric tons (t) of copper, the net U.S. refined copper supply was 2.14 Mt of copper. With this net supply and a consumer inventory decrease of 9,000 t of refined copper, 2.42 Mt of refined copper was consumed by U.S. semifabricators (brass mills, wire rod mills, ingot makers, and foundries and others) in 2004. In addition to the 2.42 Mt of refined copper consumed in 2004, U.S. copper semifabricators consumed 853,000 t of copper contained in recycled scrap. Furthermore, 61,000 t of copper contained in scrap was consumed by noncopper alloy makers, for example, steelmakers and aluminum alloy makers. Old scrap recycling efficiency for copper was estimated to be 43 percent of theoretical old scrap supply, the recycling rate for copper was 30 percent of apparent supply, and the new-scrap-to-old-scrap ratio for U.S. copper product production was 3.2 (76:24).

Goonan, Thomas G.

2009-01-01

182

Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys  

DOEpatents

Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

1982-09-27

183

Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys  

DOEpatents

Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN); Creech, Edward T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Northcutt, Walter G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01

184

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

2003-02-26

185

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

2003-02-01

186

Puncturing the scrap tire problem  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of scrap tires is making major headway in the 1990s. In 1994, an estimated 55 percent of all scrap tires generated were diverted from landfills, compared to 11 percent five years ago. Within three to five years, the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC), an industry group, predicts that there will be markets for 100 percent of the estimated 250 million plus scrap tires generated in the U.S. annually. At that point, it should be possible to start making a serious dent in the estimated 800 to 850 million scrap tires stockpiled around the country. About 4.5 million scrap tires get transformed into ground rubber products. Despite that relatively small number, this category holds significant promise. It also is the area with perhaps the most entrepreneurial activity. The reason is clear when the value added from increasingly intensive processing of tires is examined. When scrap rubber is ground for use in asphalt, new tires or a host of other products - the value goes up tremendously. A quarter inch minus grind generally sells for 14 to 22 cents/lb., or $280 to $440/ton. With smallerpieces, the value continues to climb. An `80 mesh,` or rubber that passes through a screen with 80 holes/linear inch, sells for30 to 45 cents/ lb. ($600 to $900/ton), which is higher than prices for aluminum cans two years ago.

Steuteville, R.

1995-10-01

187

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

188

Cadmium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 t, and an estimated 285 t was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

Plachy, Jozef

2003-01-01

189

Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

Plachy, Jozef

2003-01-01

190

Information scraps : understanding and design  

E-print Network

In this thesis I investigate information scraps - personal information whose content has been scribbled on Post-it notes, scrawled on the corners of sheets of paper, stuck in our pockets, sent in e-mail messages to ourselves, ...

Bernstein, Michael (Michael Scott)

2008-01-01

191

Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap  

SciTech Connect

The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01

192

An industry response to recycle 2000  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE is expected to issue a policy early this year articulating DOE`s position on the recycle of DOE radioactive scrap metal. In anticipation of this `Recycle 2000` initiative, the nuclear industry has formed a new trade association called the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR). This article describes the Recycle 2000 initiative, provides some background on the ARMR and its membership, and identifies industry views on the actions to be taken and issues to be resolved in Recycle 2000 is to become a reality.

Motl, G.P.; Loiselle, V.

1996-06-01

193

Neptunium - Uranium - Plutonium CoExtraction in TBP-based Solvent Extraction Processes for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US, through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, is currently engaged in efforts aimed at closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neptunium behavior is important to understand for transuranic recycling because of its complex oxidation chemistry. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is investigating neptunium oxidation chemistry in the context of the PUREX process. Neptunium extraction in the PUREX process relies on

S. T. Arm; J. Abrefah; G. J. Lumetta; S. I. Sinkov

2007-01-01

194

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

1996-12-31

195

New developments in materials recycling by the US Bureau of Mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral based waste products generated by industry and the consuming public as potential secondary mineral resources to be used for recycling materials are considered. Technical solutions are presented to complex recycling problems, such as: recovery of cobalt, nickel, and chromium from superalloy scrap; the separation, recovery, and reuse of nickel and chromium from stainless and specialty steel wastes; precious metal recovery from electronic scrap; an environmentally acceptable method for recyclng lead acid batteries; recovery of nonferrous metals from scrap automobiles; and rapid scrap identification methods suitable for today's modern alloys.

Horton, R. C.; Kenahan, C. B.

1984-04-01

196

Optimization of scrap tire pyrolysis using a continuous-feed steam environment  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of the generation of scrap tires produced in the United States are on the order of 2 million tons per year. Although these tires contain a high percentage of useful hydrocarbons, steel and carbon black, approximately 70% are not effectively recycled. Recently, pyrolytic recycling of scrap tire (thermal decomposition in the absence of O{sub 2}) is receiving renewed interest because of its ability to produce valuable hydrocarbon products. We have developed a process which permits a continuous feed processing of scrap tires in a non-combustible stream environment. This system utilizes a soft seal system that operates at atmospheric pressures while minimizing any fugitive emissions. This process increases the efficiency and control of present approaches by lowering the energy requirements while maximizing the collection of valuable products. Initial bench-scale results will be presented.

Burrell, T.W.; Frank, S.R.; Rich, M.L. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

197

Recycling light metals from end-of-life vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of aluminum used in cars and light trucks is growing steadily. However, without new developments in aluminum recycling technologies, sheet from automotive aluminum could eventually flood all current markets for recycled aluminum. This article summarizes the use of light metals and different alloys in transportation applications, the current auto recycling system, and new developments in the sorting of light metals by the metal recycling industry and by Huron Valley Steel Corporation, the world’s largest non-ferrous scrap sorter.

Gesing, A.; Wolanski, R.

2001-11-01

198

Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility  

SciTech Connect

A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope {sup 230}Th from the decay of {sup 234}U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 {+-} 1.5 years.

Meyers, L A; Williams, R W; Glover, S E; LaMont, S P; Stalcup, A M; Spitz, H B

2012-03-16

199

16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum...Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool...composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as woolen fibers in the...

2010-01-01

200

16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum...Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool...composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as woolen fibers in the...

2014-01-01

201

16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum...Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool...composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as woolen fibers in the...

2013-01-01

202

16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum...Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool...composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as woolen fibers in the...

2011-01-01

203

16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum...Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool...composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as woolen fibers in the...

2012-01-01

204

Government and Market Mechanisms to Provide Alternatives to Scrap Tire Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines disposal and recycling of scrap tires with a discussion of the role of government policies and an empirical study of tire dealers' preferences for market and government solutions to disposal problems. Preference for government intervention was related positively to dealer perceptions of environmental concerns, consumer concerns and the severity of the problem, but related negatively to

Nancy J. Merritt; William H. Redmond; Michael M. Pearson

2005-01-01

205

Managing the disposition of potentially radioactive scrap metal.  

PubMed

In 2002, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) issued Report No. 141, Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal. The report evaluates management policy and related issues regarding scrap metal generated in regulated facilities that have been under radiological control or have radiological concerns. It has been estimated that more than 9 million metric tons of scrap metal of all types that have been associated with the production or use of radioactive materials will be generated during the coming decades at various facilities across the United States. Currently, disposition of such metal has encountered particular obstacles, primarily because of the lack of a consistent disposition policy, systematic regulatory provisions, and, above all, public understanding. Without clarity in the regulatory passage, much of the scrap metal, including metal that has not been contaminated, could be mischaracterized as low-level radioactive waste, resulting in a costly disposition operation. NCRP Report No. 141 identifies this general category of metal as "potentially radioactive scrap metal" (PRSM) and discusses the viable disposition options for facilitating its management. Because much of the PRSM has been found to contain very low residual radioactivity or even none at all, one consideration is to release such metal outside of the radiological control framework. This would require the development and implementation of a set of strict release standards in the United States that would necessarily be risk-based and supported by a comprehensive management scheme. Developing a policy of this kind, however, would entail the resolution of many issues, not the least of which would be public acceptance, including that of the metal industry, of the possible recycling of PRSM in the general commerce. PMID:17033456

Chen, S Y

2006-11-01

206

H. R. 871: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 6, 1991  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to encourage greater recycling of scrap tires. Americans generate more than 250 million scrap tires annually. Currently, 2 1/2 to 3 billion scrap tires are stockpiled across America. H.R.871 was introduced into the US House of Representatives on February 6, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to require producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year. This legislation calls for the administrator of the EPA to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out these recycling requirements, and to establish a management and tracking system for such tires.

Not Available

1991-01-01

207

Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Kramer, Deborah A.

2002-01-01

208

Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, in the water, and in the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling rate for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent?almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from diecasting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Kramer, Deborah A.

2001-01-01

209

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

210

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

211

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

212

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed. (Contains a minimum of 220 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

213

Recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of plastics from municipal waste streams, landfills, and scrap from industrial processes. Topics include major advances in industry-led plastics recycling, equipment needed for reprocessing scrap plastic into useful materials, and markets for recycled products. The citations also discuss the types of plastics most economical to recycle and those least likely to be contaminated with toxic or carcinogenic materials which would make reprocessing hazardous. Successful recycling programs developed in Japan and western European countries are detailed. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

214

Effective Technology for Recycling Metal. Proceedings of Two Special Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Association of Secondary Material Industries (NASMI) and the Bureau of Mines have cooperated to sponsor two technically-oriented workshops related to the role of metals recycling and air pollution control technology. The proceedings of these workshops, "Effective Technology and Research for Scrap Metal Recycling" and "Air Pollution…

National Association of Secondary Material Industries, Inc., New York, NY.

215

International Recycling of LLW Metals  

SciTech Connect

Melting of radioactive scrap metal has been successfully practiced for more than 15 years, with approximately 60,000 tons of steel being processed into beneficial reuse applications. This process has converted radioactive scrap metal at a licensed facility into useful products such as shield blocks, security barriers and shield containers. These products are used within the nuclear industry, such as nuclear power plants, waste disposal facilities and high-energy physics research facilities. Recycling provides the following benefits by comparison with direct disposal: - Preserving metal resources. - Conserving valuable Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site resources, thereby extending disposal site life. - Reducing the cost of metal products to end users by using materials less expensive than virgin metals. This paper outlines international metal recycling practices implemented at EnergySolutions' Bear Creek Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (authors)

Eshleman, T.; Jansen, J. [EnergySolutions (United States); Shinya, Sawada [KEK - High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan)

2008-07-01

216

Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in low melt recovery. Laboratory scale consolidation experiments were performed using loose aluminum powder as a modeling material as well as shredded aluminum wire scrap. The processing parameters necessary to create consolidated aluminum material were determined. Additionally, re-melting experiments using consolidated and unconsolidated aluminum powder confirmed the hypothesis that metal recovery using consolidated material will significantly improve by as much as 20%. Based on this research, it is estimated that approximately 495 billion Btu/year can be saved by implementation of this technology in one domestic aluminum rolling plant alone. The energy savings are realized by substituting aluminum scrap for primary aluminum, which requires large amounts of energy to produce. While there will be an initial capital investment, companies will benefit from the reduction of dependence on primary aluminum thus saving considerable costs. Additionally, the technology will allow companies to maintain in-house alloy scrap, rather than purchasing from other vendors and eliminate the need to discard the light gauge scrap to landfills.

William Van Geertruyden

2005-09-22

217

CHEMICAL RECLAMATION OF SCRAP RUBBER  

EPA Science Inventory

A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolys...

218

Scrap tires: STATEing the facts  

SciTech Connect

Starting with a piece of Minnesota legislation passed in 1984, state governments have spent the last 10 years attempting to clean up and find markets for decades worth of stockpiled tires, as well as the millions more generated each year. The US EPA estimates that 242 million scrap tires were generated in the US in 1990 alone. Of these, an alarming 188 million were disposed of illegally. At least 34 states have bans on the landfilling of whole, and in some cases even shredded, tires. Last year, 37 states considered scrap-tire-related bills, most of which were amendments to earlier legislation. Among the scrap tire legislation passed in the past year are comprehensive laws in Ohio and Colorado, including fees for the disposal of tires, most of which are paid by the consumer. Fees were increased in North Carolina and Texas, and a $2-per-tire fee was begun in Connecticut, while hauler registration requirements were enacted in California. This article discusses what five states are doing with the management of scrap tires. They are: Minnesota; Wisconsin; Texas; Oklahoma; and Illinois.

Dabaie, M.

1994-10-01

219

Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Tires. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development, management, economic analysis, and environmental impacts of reclamation and recycling of scrap tires. The design and evaluation of recycling processes are examined. Recycled products for use in construction materials, embankment fills, fuel supplements, and material substitutions are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-08-01

220

Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Tires. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development, management, economic analysis, and environmental impacts of reclamation and recycling of scrap tires. The design and evaluation of recycling processes are examined. Recycled products for use in construction materials, embankment fills, fuel supplements, and material substitutions are covered. (Contains a minimum of 68 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-08-01

221

Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Tires. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development, management, economic analysis, and environmental impacts of reclamation and recycling of scrap tires. The design and evaluation of recycling processes are examined. Recycled products for use in construction materials, embankment fills, fuel supplements, and material substitutions are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

222

Month HT OCC O. Paper OPF SS CG&MP SW/MP Reused Organics Hazardous E-waste Scrap Skids Misc Recovered Landfilled Total Diversion Jan-09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0%  

E-print Network

Recovered and Recyclable Materials OCC Old Corrugated Containers Organics Food Wastes, Cafeteria Waste Materials OPF Office Paper Fibre E-Waste Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (Incl. Toner Cartridges) Diversion Diversion Rate (Recycled / Total) SS Secure Shredding Scrap Scrap Metals (All) CG&MP Cans, Glass

Waterloo, University of

223

Month HT OCC O. Paper OPF SS CG&MP SW/MP Reused Organics Hazardous E-waste Scrap Skids Misc Recovered Landfilled Total Diversion Jan-10 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.50 0.00 15.50 100.0%  

E-print Network

Recovered and Recyclable Materials OCC Old Corrugated Containers Organics Food Wastes, Cafeteria Waste Materials OPF Office Paper Fibre E-Waste Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (Incl. Toner Cartridges) Diversion Diversion Rate (Recycled / Total) SS Secure Shredding Scrap Scrap Metals (All) CG&MP Cans, Glass

Waterloo, University of

224

Neptunium - Uranium - Plutonium Co-Extraction in TBP-based Solvent Extraction Processes for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling  

SciTech Connect

The US, through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, is currently engaged in efforts aimed at closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neptunium behavior is important to understand for transuranic recycling because of its complex oxidation chemistry. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is investigating neptunium oxidation chemistry in the context of the PUREX process. Neptunium extraction in the PUREX process relies on maintaining either IV or V oxidation states. Qualitative conversion of neptunium(V) to neptunium(VI) was achieved within 5 hours in 6 M nitric acid at 95 deg. C. However, the VI state was not maintained during a batch contact test simulating the PUREX process and neptunium reduced to the V state, rendering it inextractable. Vanadium(V) was found to be effective in maintaining neptunium(VI) by adding it to a simulated irradiated nuclear fuel feed in 6 M nitric acid and to the scrub acid in the batch contact simulation of the PUREX process. Computer simulations of the PUREX process with a typical irradiated nuclear fuel in 6 M nitric acid as feed indicated little impact of the higher acid concentration on the behavior of fission products of moderate extractability. We plan to perform countercurrent tests of this modified PUREX process in the near future. (authors)

Arm, S.T.; Abrefah, J.; Lumetta, G.J.; Sinkov, S.I. [Battelle PNWD, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, PO Box 999, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

2007-07-01

225

Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China.  

PubMed

Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned. PMID:21959140

Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

2012-01-01

226

A review of the UK metals recycling industry.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the volatile nature of the price of recycled metals over the past decade and examines legislative and fiscal drivers that have affected the industry. Results from this study have shown that the UK scrap metals markets are presently seeing some of the lowest scrap prices for nearly a decade for both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, in many cases halving in value in less than a year. Scrap metals and other recycled materials prices were high in 1994-96, which have since fallen back to more traditional low levels. World recessions and the steady decline of the UK manufacturing and engineering sectors have effected prices. With tougher new Government legislation, such as the Climate Change Levy and the proposed End of Life Vehicles Directive, small and medium sized scrap merchants are finding it increasingly difficult to compete. PMID:12498482

Emery, Andrew; Williams, Keith P; Griffiths, Anthony J

2002-10-01

227

Scrap metals industry perspective on radioactive materials.  

PubMed

With more than 80 reported/confirmed accidental melts worldwide since 1983 and still counting, potential contamination by radioactive materials remains as a major concern among recycled scrap and steel companies. Some of these events were catastrophic and have cost the industry millions of dollars in business and, at the same time, resulted in declining consumer confidence. It is also known that more events with confirmed radioactive contamination have occurred that involve mining of old steel slag and skull dumps. Consequently, the steel industry has since undergone massive changes that incurred unprecedented expenses through the installation of radiation monitoring systems in hopes of preventing another accidental melt. Despite such extraordinary efforts, accidental melts continue to occur and plague the industry. One recent reported/confirmed event occurred in the Republic of China in 2004, causing the usual lengthy shutdown for expensive decontamination efforts before the steel mill could resume operations. With this perspective in mind, the metal industry has a long-standing opposition to the release of radioactive materials of any kind to commerce for fear of contamination and the potential consequences. PMID:17033460

Turner, Ray

2006-11-01

228

Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting demonstration, an investigation of commercial markets for RSM, and refinement of methods to quantify isotopic elements.

Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

1999-05-27

229

Recycling Trends in the Plastics Manufacturing and Recycling Companies in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the findings from a study on the consumption of recycled materials and recycling practices in the plastics manufacturing industry and recycling companies in Malaysia. The findings were obtained from a survey conducted in twenty plastic manufacturing companies and detailed case studies in three recycling companies. The survey conducted in the plastic manufacturing companies` shows that the consumption rate for poly-olefins (PP and PE) is the highest among the resin types and the industrial sector that consumes the most plastic materials is the electrical and electronics sector. The consumption of recycled materials is high among the local manufacturing companies (80%) which are largely due to cost savings; about 20% of these companies conducted in-house recycling. The study has also shown that the medium scale industry consumes the most recycled materials as compared to the large and small scale industry. The rate of disposal for plastic materials in the local industry is approximately 5%. The detailed case studies conducted in the recycling companies have successfully identified the main processes involved in plastic recycling namely manual sorting, cleaning, drying, meshing/pelletising and packaging. These recycling companies obtained recycled materials from various sources including industrial scrap, dumping sites, local producers as well as imported sources. Pricing of recycled materials were based on classification according to grade and quality of the recycled materials. The study has reflected the extent of in-house recycling trends in the local plastic manufacturing companies and their dependency on the supply from the local recycling companies.

Wahab, D. A.; Abidin, A.; Azhari, C. H.

230

What do we know about metal recycling rates?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recycling of metals is widely viewed as a fruitful sustainability strategy, but little information is available on the degree to which recycling is actually taking place. This article provides an overview on the current knowledge of recycling rates for 60 metals. We propose various recycling metrics, discuss relevant aspects of recycling processes, and present current estimates on global end-of-life recycling rates (EOL-RR; i.e., the percentage of a metal in discards that is actually recycled), recycled content (RC), and old scrap ratios (OSRs; i.e., the share of old scrap in the total scrap flow). Because of increases in metal use over time and long metal in-use lifetimes, many RC values are low and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Because of relatively low efficiencies in the collection and processing of most discarded products, inherent limitations in recycling processes, and the fact that primary material is often relatively abundant and low-cost (which thereby keeps down the price of scrap), many EOL-RRs are very low: Only for 18 metals (silver, aluminum, gold, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, niobium, nickel, lead, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, tin, titanium, and zinc) is the EOL-RR above 50% at present. Only for niobium, lead, and ruthenium is the RC above 50%, although 16 metals are in the 25% to 50% range. Thirteen metals have an OSR greater than 50%. These estimates may be used in considerations of whether recycling efficiencies can be improved; which metric could best encourage improved effectiveness in recycling; and an improved understanding of the dependence of recycling on economics, technology, and other factors. ?? 2011 by Yale University.

Graedel, T.E.; Allwood, J.; Birat, J.-P.; Buchert, M.; Hageluken, C.; Reck, B.K.; Sibley, S.F.; Sonnemann, G.

2011-01-01

231

Recycling of ceramic particulate reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

The aluminum matrix composites with ceramic dispersoids can be separated by the density difference concept. In the proposed work, composite scrap is recycled using an oil fired furnace. The scrap is melted in the furnace and temperature is maintained below 740 degree centigrade. Because of the density difference the lighter dispersoids will float and heavier dispersoids will settle down. The clean melt is separated be removing the floating and settled dispersoids, and then filtering using ceramic filters.

Sharma, S.C.; Murthy, C.S.C.; Kamath, R.; Vinai Babu, B.R.; Satish, B.M.; Girish, B.M. [R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

232

Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

2012-03-15

233

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOEpatents

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

1987-07-30

234

Removal of copper from ferrous scrap  

DOEpatents

A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

1990-05-15

235

Recovering precious metals from electronic scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article characterizes electronic scrap in terms of origin and composition and describes the steps in preliminary processing: sorting, calcination, combustion, shredding, and sampling. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical process technologies for the concentration and recovery of precious-metals values in scrap are reviewed, and some downstream processing options are outlined. The article concludes with some caveats concerning the risky but potentially profitable business of recovery of precious metals from electronic scrap.

Hoffmann, James E.

1992-07-01

236

INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP (C. 100,000 TONS) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP (C. 100,000 TONS) INTO Q-BOP FURNACE. SCRAP HAULER IS GREGORY JACKS AND FURNACEMAN, VINCENT MOREL. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

237

Recycling plastics and polymeric wastes. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling and uses of plastic and polymeric scraps and wastes. Topics include communition or grinding of scrap, degradation by heat or chemical reaction, compatibility of various plastics with one another, sorting problems, physical properties of reprocessed materials, economics, public awareness, waste minimization, waste re-use, and foreign experience in plastics recycling. New products made from recycled materials, and products expressly made to be recyclable are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

238

Recycling plastics and polymeric wastes. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling and uses of plastic and polymeric scraps and wastes. Topics include communition or grinding of scrap, degradation by heat or chemical reaction, compatibility of various plastics with one another, sorting problems, physical properties of reprocessed materials, economics, public awareness, waste minimization, waste re-use, and foreign experience in plastics recycling. New products made from recycled materials, and products expressly made to be recyclable are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-11-01

239

Recycling plastics and polymeric wastes. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling and uses of plastic and polymeric scraps and wastes. Topics include communition or grinding of scrap, degradation by heat or chemical reaction, compatibility of various plastics with one another, sorting problems, physical properties of reprocessed materials, economics, public awareness, waste minimization, waste re-use, and foreign experience in plastics recycling. New products made from recycled materials, and products expressly made to be recyclable are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

240

Recycling plastics and polymeric wastes. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling and uses of plastic and polymeric scraps and wastes. Topics include communition or grinding of scrap, degradation by heat or chemical reaction, compatibility of various plastics with one another, sorting problems, physical properties of reprocessed materials, economics, public awareness, waste minimization, waste re-use, and foreign experience in plastics recycling. New products made from recycled materials, and products expressly made to be recyclable are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

241

Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

Bied-Charreton, B.

242

Evaluation for mulching use of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wooden timber from scrapped housing is not sufficiently recycled. Since timber made from Japanese cedar has been used in Towada, Aomori Prefecture for housing construction, we investigated the mulching method of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber. The main recycled chip diameter was comprised of two classes: 4.76 to 10 mm and 10 to 19 mm. They contained negligible amounts of heavy metals. By using 10 cm thick mulching chips, the growth of weeds was controlled due to a shading effect. It also contributed to making soil temperature and moisture stable, which are preferable for tree plantations at parks, orchards, and roadsides. Therefore, we concluded that Japanese cedar wooden chips are available for mulching when they were applied with a 10 cm mulching chips.

Okada, Hiroki; Baba, Mitsuhisa; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Sugiura, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

243

Solid waste reclamation and recycling. Part 6. Tires (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964July 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of processing scrap tires; such as shredding, shearing, radiation treatment, retreading, hydrogenation, extraction, and emulisfying are cited. Incentives for recycling are examined and markets for recycled products are discussed. The use of recycled tires in highways, embankments, construction materials, and other products is covered. (Contains 34 abstracts)

1978-01-01

244

Solid waste reclamation and recycling. Part 6. Tires (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964July 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of processing scrap tires, such as shredding, shearing, radiation treatment, retreading, hydrogenation, extraction, and emulsifying are cited. Incentives for recycling are examined and markets for recycled products are discussed. The use of recycled tires in highways, embankments, construction materials, and other products is covered. (This updated bibliography contains 35 abstracts, 1 of which is a new entry to the

Hundemann

1979-01-01

245

From Trash to Treasure: Recycling Scrap Metal into Steel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trash is having a global impact not only on land, but at sea--making its way into the ocean and creating large islands of floating debris. One such island is The Great Pacific Trash Patch, which is located in the North Pacific and is made up of floating trash and debris that is spread out in an area as much as one and a half times the size of the…

Cantu, Diana

2011-01-01

246

Progress in caustic dezincing of galvanized scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, processes are being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. In the process discussed here, zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. Pilot testing has been conducted in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana, now in its second generation, has dezinced in a continuous process mode about 1,800 tonnes of loose clips and shredded stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.05% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews caustic dezincing pilot plant performance and economics.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Technologies, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1997-08-01

247

Discussion of and reply to ``Processing of scrap tires: Technology and market applications``  

SciTech Connect

Publication of this paper by Michael H. Blumenthal provides an excellent overview of scrap tire market opportunities, processing options, and some legislative background. The authors present some comments and areas that need addition coverage or clarification. These include the following: durability of new tires made from recycled rubber; cost data; tire derived fuel; landfilling of tires; composition of tires; processing equipment; and processing problems. This article also contains Mr. Blumenthal`s reply to the comments and questions.

Cosulich, J. [Los Angeles County Sanitation District, Whittier, CA (United States); Smisko, J. [County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Commerce, CA (United States); Niessen, W.R. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Blumenthal, M.H. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-11-01

248

Modeling of Alternative Compositions of Recycled Wrought Aluminum Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, a significant part of postconsumed wrought aluminum scrap is still used for the production of comparatively cheaper cast alloys, in that way losing an important part of the potential added value. The share of postconsumed scrap in wrought aluminum alloys could be increased either by sorting to fractions with the required chemical composition and/or by broadening the standard compositional tolerance limits of alloying elements. The first solution requires hand or automatic sorting of postconsumed scrap as alloys or groups of alloys to the degree of separation sufficient to enable the blending of standard compositions of wrought alloys; the second solution is much more radical, predicting changes in the existing standards for wrought aluminum alloys toward nonstandard alloys but yet having properties acceptable for customers. In this case, the degree of separation of incoming postconsumed scrap required is much less demanding. The model presented in this work enables the design of optimal (standard and nonstandard recycling-friendly) compositions and properties of wrought aluminum alloys with significantly increased amounts of postconsumed scrap. The following two routes were modeled in detail: (I) the blending of standard and nonstandard compositions of wrought aluminum alloys starting from postconsumed aluminum scrap sorted to various degrees simulated by the model and (II) changing the initial standard composition of wrought aluminum alloys to nonstandard "recycling-friendly" ones, with broader concentration tolerance limits of alloying elements and without influencing the selected alloy properties, specified in advance. The applied algorithms were found to be very useful in the industrial design of both procedures: (I) the computation of the required chemical composition of the scrap streams obtained by sorting (or, in other words, the postconsumed scrap sorting level), necessary for achieving the standard wrought alloy composition and (II) the transformation of standard to nonstandard (recycling-friendly) compositions with the key alloy properties (e.g., tensile strength and elongation) remaining the same.

Kevorkijan, Varužan

2013-08-01

249

7th Annual waste reduction, prevention, recycling and composting symposium proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Technical papers from the Waste Reduction, Prevention, Recycling and Composting Symposium are presented. 21 of the 22 papers were selected for inclusion in the database. The majority of the papers focus on municipal wastes produced by the business sector; however, wastes generated in the residential and industrial sectors are also included. Topics addressed include workplace recycling, scrap tire and used oil recycling, employee education, construction and demolition waste reuse, composting, waste reduction, and market development for recycled products.

NONE

1996-08-01

250

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

251

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

252

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01

253

Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included. (Contains a minimum of 76 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

254

Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included. (Contains a minimum of 83 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01

255

Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-12-01

256

Recycling tires. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and economic advantages of scrap tire recycling. The application of crumb rubber in the production of asphalt paving, floor-coverings, high performance composites, and other products is described. The production of fuels from scrap tires is also discussed. Legislation which promotes recycling, and the roles of government and the private sector in developing new markets and expanding existing markets are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

257

Recycling asphalt pavements. January 1975-January 1990 (a Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1975-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt-containing pavement materials. Articles include examples of recycling asphalt pavements; performance testing of recycled paving; methods including cold in-place, cold off-site, and hot-mix recycling; additives in recycled pavement for better performance; use of scrap roofing asphalt in conjunction with recycled paving; economics of recycling; process design; and process variables. Recycling of other materials is considered in related bibliographies. (Contains 130 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

258

Uranium and Thorium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of President Carter's policy on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are expected to slow the growth rate in energy consumption, put the development of the breeder reactor in question, halt plans to reprocess and recycle uranium and plutonium, and expand facilities to supply enriched uranium. (Author/MA)

Finch, Warren I.

1978-01-01

259

In situ gamma spectrometry measurements and Monte Carlo computations for the detection of radioactive sources in scrap metal.  

PubMed

A very limited number of field experiments have been performed to assess the relative radiation detection sensitivities of commercially available equipment used to detect radioactive sources in recycled metal scrap. Such experiments require the cooperation and commitment of considerable resources on the part of vendors of the radiation detection systems and the cooperation of a steel mill or scrap processing facility. The results will unavoidably be specific to the equipment tested at the time, the characteristics of the scrap metal involved in the tests, and to the specific configurations of the scrap containers. Given these limitations, the use of computer simulation for this purpose would be a desirable alternative. With this in mind, this study sought to determine whether Monte Carlo simulation of photon flux energy distributions resulting from a radiation source in metal scrap would be realistic. In the present work, experimental and simulated photon flux energy distributions in the outer part of a truck due to the presence of embedded radioactive sources in the scrap metal load are compared. The experimental photon fluxes are deduced by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with portable Ge detector and the calculated ones by Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. The good agreement between simulated and measured photon flux energy distributions indicate that the results obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations are realistic. PMID:15650590

Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Potiriadis, C; Silva, J

2005-02-01

260

Beneficial Reuses of Scrap Tires in Hydraulic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrap tires are a high-profile waste material. There are serious concerns over the ever-mounting scrap tire problem. A need exists for increasing available reuse measures to their full potential and developing new and feasible scrap tire reuse alternatives. The growing interest in utilizing waste materials in engineering applications has opened the possibility of constructing hydraulic structures with scrap tires. Applications

Roy R. Gu

261

Reactive coprocessing of scrap tires and heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactive coprocessing of scrap tires and heavy oil was carried out at temperatures of 375, 400, 425, and 450°C. The ultimate yields from the following process cases were determined: scrap tires without oil, SAE 50 weight oil without scrap tire, and scrap tires in the presence of SAE 50 weight oil. Kinetic constants were obtained for all three cases.

Sanjay Saraf; John A. Marsh; C. Y. Cha; F. D. Guffey

1995-01-01

262

Depleted uranium management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

1994-08-01

263

By James F. Carlin, Jr. There was no domestic mine production of day-to-day operations guided by the Defense the collection of all steel scrap (ranging from  

E-print Network

by the Defense the collection of all steel scrap (ranging from tin in 1994. Twenty-five firms consumed about Logistics Agency (DLA). appliances to cars), not just steel cans. The SRI 86% of the primary tin used, was tons or more being accepted daily between 1:30 recycling rate for steel cans has more recycled in 1994

264

End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers\\/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and

B. J. Jody; E. J. Daniels; C. M. Duranceau; J. A. Pomykala; J. S. Spangenberger

2011-01-01

265

Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2010-01-01

266

7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of...

2010-01-01

267

7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of...

2011-01-01

268

AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

269

Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-07-01

270

Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff  

SciTech Connect

Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

1992-12-01

271

Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff  

SciTech Connect

Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

1992-01-01

272

Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

1995-06-06

273

Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

274

Silver recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2000, the global silver supply deficit (the difference between mine and scrap supply and silver demand) was more than 3,000 metric tons. U.S. silver demand for photographic applications alone was nearly equal to annual U.S. silver production. Until 1968, the U.S. silver deficit was filled by withdrawals from the U.S. Treasury reserves. In 2000, the deficit was filled by destocking, imports, and recycling. Photographic wastes, spent catalysts, and electronic scrap are the major sources of materials for silver recycling. Nearly 1,800 metric tons of silver contained in these materials were available for recycling in 2000. Other recyclable silver-bearing materials include dental alloys, jewelry, and silverware. In 2000, an estimated 1,700 tons of silver were recovered from secondary sources in the United States. The U.S. recycling efficiency for old scrap was calculated to have been 97 percent in 2000; the recycling rate was estimated to be 32 percent.

Hilliard, Henry E.

2003-01-01

275

Silver Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2000, the global silver supply deficit (the difference between mine and scrap supply and silver demand) was more than 3,000 metric tons. U.S. silver demand for photographic applications alone was nearly equal to annual U.S. silver production. Until 1968, the U.S. silver deficit was filled by withdrawals from the U.S. Treasury reserves. In 2000, the deficit was filled by destocking, imports, and recycling. Photographic wastes, spent catalysts, and electronic scrap are the major sources of materials for silver recycling. Nearly 1,800 tons of silver contained in these materials were available for recycling in 2000. Other recyclable silver-bearing materials include dental alloys, jewelry, and silverware. In 2000, an estimated 1,700 tons of silver were recovered from secondary sources in the United States. The U.S. recycling efficiency for old scrap was calculated to have been 97 percent in 2000; the recycling rate was estimated to be 32 percent.

Hilliard, Henry E.

2003-01-01

276

Improving metal returns and eco-efficiency in electronics recycling - a holistic approach for interface optimisation between pre-processing and integrated metals smelting and refining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient recovery of precious and special metals from electronic scrap has significant benefits - economically, environmentally, but also under a resource conservation aspect. The yields of these metals could be substantially improved by higher collection rates, less scrap exports to regions with insufficient recycling structures, and by interface optimisation, as pointed out in this document

Christian Hagelüken

2006-01-01

277

Recycling: General studies. January 1987-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 87-Nov 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 177 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-10-01

278

Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

Liang Sai, E-mail: liangsai09@gmail.com [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-01-15

279

Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure.  

PubMed

With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States. PMID:20886824

Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis

2010-11-15

280

Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

2010-10-01

281

Waste-tire and shingle scrap/bituminous paving test sections on the Willard Munger recreational trail gateway segment. Interim report, 1990-91  

SciTech Connect

The need to reduce our states dependence on land fills resulted in a unique cooperative venture by three state agencies. A partnership was forged between the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) to investigate the use of recycled tire rubber and processed asphalt shingle scrap. The result is a two mile section of the Willard Munger Recreational Trail in St. Paul constructed with asphalt paving mixtures which contain varying percentages of recycled tire rubber and shingle scrap. Conventional mixing and paving equipment was utilized for construction. The application appears to be a viable alternative to landfilling these materials. However, costs for the mixtures containing rubber increased from 35% to 50% over the cost of the conventional mixture. Since the use of shingle scrap was negotiated by the private companies involved, no comparable cost data is available.

Turgeon, C.M.

1991-02-01

282

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a) Metallic scrap management...are drained of free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap...

2014-07-01

283

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a) Metallic scrap management...are drained of free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap...

2011-07-01

284

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a) Metallic scrap management...are drained of free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap...

2013-07-01

285

40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63...management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a) Metallic scrap management...are drained of free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap...

2012-07-01

286

Hanford recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may

1996-01-01

287

Aluminum recycling in the automotive industry. (Latest citations from the Aluminum Industry Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design and development of processes to recycle aluminum from automobiles. Scrap separation, shredding, and processing are covered including new equipment. Aluminum market information is included with respect to material selection for automobiles and new products developed from recycled material. References also discuss changes in automobile design to increase recycling oppertunities. (Contains a minimum of 107 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-06-01

288

S. 396: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 7, 1991  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to encourage greater recycling of scrap tires. Americans generate more than 250 million scrap tires annually, of which less than 30% are recycled. Every year, 84.5% of these scrap tires are landfilled, stockpiled, or illegally dumped. This bill was introduced into the Senate of the United States on Feb. 7, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act. One purpose of this legislation is to require producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year. In addition, the administrator of the EPA is required to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out these recycling requirement, and to establish a management and tracking system for such tires.

Not Available

1991-01-01

289

RECYCLING TODAY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have probably heard of recycling but what is it really and why is it so improtant to do? Please answer the questions below as well as visiting the different websites to explore what recycling really is. Form groups of 4 and explore the following websites as well as answer the questions which follow. The first website is of Recycle City where you will be exploring the City and how they recycle. Recyle City Why Recycling is Important Now please answer the following questions on paper. 1. What are the 3 R's? Explain in further ...

Miss Smith

2010-12-03

290

Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap  

SciTech Connect

Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ghosh, C. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India)

2013-10-15

291

Scrap tire derived fuel: Markets and issues  

SciTech Connect

More than 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the United States and their proper management continues to be a solid waste management concern. Sound markets for scrap tires are growing and are consuming an ever increasing percentage of annual generation, with market capacity reaching more than 75% of annual generation in 1996. Of the three major markets - fuel, civil engineering applications, and ground rubber markets - the use of tires as a fuel is by far the largest market. The major fuel users include cement kilns, pulp and paper mills, electrical generation facilities, and some industrial facilities. Current issues that may impact the tire fuel market include continued public concern over the use of tires as fuels, the new EPA PM 2.5 standard, possible additional Clean Air emissions standards, access to adequate supplies of scrap tires, quality of processed tire derived fuel, and the possibility of creating a commodity market through the development of ASTM TDF standards.

Serumgard, J. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-01

292

Selenium Recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vast majority of selenium consumption in the United States is in dissipative uses, such as alloys, animal feeds, fertilizers, glass decolorizer, and pigments. The nondissipative use as a photoreceptor for xerographic copiers is declining. As a result of a lack of a substantial supply of selenium-containing scrap, there are no longer selenium recycling facilities in the United States. Selenium-containing materials collected for recycling, primarily selenium-containing photocopier drums, are exported for processing in other countries. Of the estimated 350 metric tons (t) of selenium products that went to the U.S. market in 2004, an estimated 300 t went to dissipative uses. An estimated 4 t was recovered from old scrap and exported for recycling.

George, Micheal W.; Wagner, Lorie A.

2009-01-01

293

Recycling plastics and polymeric wastes. October 1976-November 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for October 1976-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling and uses of plastic and polymeric scraps and wastes. Topics include communition or grinding of scrap, degradation by heat or chemical reaction, compatibility of various plastics with one another, sorting problems, physical properties of reprocessed materials, economics, public awareness, waste minimization, waste re-use, and foreign experience in plastics recycling. New products made from recycled materials, and products expressly made to be recyclable are also discussed. (Contains 347 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

294

Heat recovery and melting system for scrap metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic scrap contaminated with combustibles is melted in a reverberatory melting furnace having two communicating wells; one being an enclosed sidewell, which is the receiving well for scrap material during melting, and the other being an enclosed main holding well for molten metal. The main well has burner means to provide heat for melting the metal and treating the scrap

R. E. Jenson; J. C. Pryor

1982-01-01

295

Packing in a tradition of recycling: Manufacturer-turned-recycler Free-Flow Packaging Corp. , Redwood City, Calif  

SciTech Connect

Free-Flow Packaging Corp. recycles polystyrene. Loose-fill -- an industry name for expanded polystyrene (EPS) packaging modules, or what the public more commonly calls peanuts'' -- represents a material that can easily and economically be recycled over and over. The company manufactures a 100% recycled packaging peanut called FLO-PAK, as well as a variety of other EPS packaging products. Indeed, to date, Free-Flow Packaging has set up post-consumer EPS recycling operations at five of its 11 manufacturing facilities, both across the country and overseas. The corporation's original facility in Redwood City began this tradition when it first started processing industrial EPS scrap in 1978 and, later, pioneered the recycling of post-consumer EPS on site for use in its products in 1989. Now, only five years later, the result has produced a recycling operation that is truly successful, profitable, and closed-loop.

White, K.M.

1994-01-01

296

Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

297

Recovery of copper from printed circuit boards scraps by mechanical processing and electrometallurgy.  

PubMed

The constant growth in generation of solid wastes stimulates studies of recycling processes. The electronic scrap is part of this universe of obsolete and/or defective materials that need to be disposed of more appropriately, or then recycled. In this work, printed circuit boards, that are part of electronic scrap and are found in almost all electro-electronic equipments, were studied. Printed circuit boards were collected in obsolete or defective personal computers that are the largest source of this kind of waste. Printed circuit boards are composed of different materials such as polymers, ceramics and metals, which makes the process more difficult. However, the presence of metals, such as copper and precious metals encourage recycling studies. Also the presence of heavy metals, as Pb and Cd turns this scrap into dangerous residues. This demonstrates the need to search for solutions of this kind of residue, in order to have it disposed in a proper way, without harming the environment. At the first stage of this work, mechanical processing was used, as comminution followed by size, magnetic and electrostatic separation. By this process it was possible to obtain a concentrated fraction in metals (mainly Cu, Pb and Sn) and another fraction containing polymers and ceramics. The copper content reached more than 50% in mass in most of the conductive fractions and significant content of Pb and Sn. At the second stage, the fraction concentrated in metals was dissolved with acids and treated in an electrochemical process in order to recover the metals separately, especially copper. The results demonstrate the technical viability of recovering copper using mechanical processing followed by an electrometallurgical technique. The copper content in solution decayed quickly in all the experiments and the copper obtained by electrowinning is above 98% in most of the tests. PMID:16757116

Veit, Hugo Marcelo; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Ferreira, Jane Zoppas; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares; de Fraga Malfatti, Célia

2006-10-11

298

Chemical state of complex uranium oxides.  

PubMed

We report here the first direct observation of U(V) in uranium binary oxides and analyze the gradual conversion of the U oxidation state in the mixed uranium systems. Our finding clarifies previous contradicting results and provides important input for the geological disposal of spent fuel, recycling applications, and chemistry of uranium species. PMID:24483742

Kvashnina, K O; Butorin, S M; Martin, P; Glatzel, P

2013-12-20

299

Chemical State of Complex Uranium Oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the first direct observation of U(V) in uranium binary oxides and analyze the gradual conversion of the U oxidation state in the mixed uranium systems. Our finding clarifies previous contradicting results and provides important input for the geological disposal of spent fuel, recycling applications, and chemistry of uranium species.

Kvashnina, K. O.; Butorin, S. M.; Martin, P.; Glatzel, P.

2013-12-01

300

S. 2462: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act of 1990. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, April 19, 1990  

SciTech Connect

S. 2462 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to require the producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year, to require the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out such recycling requirement, to establish a management and tracking system for such tires, and for other purposes.

Not Available

1990-01-01

301

H. R. 4147: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling Incentives Act of 1990. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, February 28, 1990  

SciTech Connect

H.R. 4147 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste disposal Act to require the producers and importers of tires to recycle a certain percentage of scrap tires each year, to require the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a recycling credit system for carrying out such recycling requirement, to establish a management and tracking system for such tires, and for other purposes.

Not Available

1990-01-01

302

EMISSIONS FROM BURNING CABINET MAKING SCRAPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an initial determination of differences in missions when burning ordinary cordwood compared to kitchen cabinet making scraps. he tests were performed in an instrumented woodstove testing laboratory on a stove that simulated units observed in use at a k...

303

End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.  

SciTech Connect

Each year, more than 50 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world. More than 95% of these vehicles enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, about 75% of automotive materials are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobiles, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials (about 25% of the weight of the vehicle)--commonly called shredder residue--is disposed of in landfills. Over the past 10 to 15 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has focused on developing technology to recover materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lighter-weight materials--primarily polymers and polymer composites--will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. These materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems at end-of-life. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in cooperation with the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC), is working to develop technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation may face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap and be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This document presents a review of the state of the art in shredder residue recycling. Available technologies and emerging technologies for the recycling of materials from shredder residue are discussed.

Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

2007-03-21

304

Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling center production design based on maximizing liquid recycled product incorporation and minimizing cast sows. The long term production optimization model was used to evaluate the theoretical viability of the proposed two stage scrap and aluminum dross reprocessing operation including the impact of reducing coordination on model performance. Reducing the coordination between the recycling center and downstream remelters by reducing the number of recycled products from ten to five resulted in only 1.3% less secondary materials incorporated into downstream production. The dynamic simulation tool was used to evaluate the performance of the calculated recycling center production plan when resolved on a daily timeframe for varying levels of operational flexibility. The dynamic simulation revealed the optimal performance corresponded to the fixed recipe with flexible production daily optimization model formulation. Calculating recycled product characteristics using the proposed simulation optimization method increased profitability in cases of uncertain downstream remelter production and expensive aluminum dross and post-consumed secondary materials. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)

Brommer, Tracey H.

305

New developments in the processing of the non ferrous metal fraction of car scrap  

SciTech Connect

The processing of scrap and scrap cars starts with size reduction by a hammermill, or shredder. After the liberation the magnetic fraction is removed. The remaining nonmagnetic fraction mixed with other materials is screened and each fraction is processed separately. The increased use of plastic has a negative effect on the recovery of metals and waste production. At Huron Valley, Belleville Michigan, USA, the non-ferrous fraction from 5 million obsolete cars per year, containing 200,000 tons of non-ferrous metal, is processed. Aluminium is recovered with a heavy medium separation process and concentrated with eddy current separators. The remaining heavy non-ferrous fraction is concentrated by a new combination of eddy current separation and image processing. After this separation process the zinc fraction is melted and refined and the copper, brass, stainless steel and other high-quality concentrates are sold to the secondary industries. The recycling of car scrap has become an important source of metals and materials for the secondary materials processing industry.

Dalmijn, W.L.; Houwelingen, J.A. van [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

1995-12-31

306

Overview of flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metal supply consists of primary material from a mining operation and secondary material, which is composed of new and old scrap. Recycling, which is the use of secondary material, can contribute significantly to metal production, sometimes accounting for more than 50 percent of raw material supply. From 2001 to 2011, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studied 26 metals to ascertain the status and magnitude of their recycling industries. The results were published in chapters A-Z of USGS Circular 1196, entitled, "Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States." These metals were aluminum (chapter W), antimony (Q), beryllium (P), cadmium (O), chromium (C), cobalt (M), columbium (niobium) (I), copper (X), germanium (V), gold (A), iron and steel (G), lead (F), magnesium (E), manganese (H), mercury (U), molybdenum (L), nickel (Z), platinum (B), selenium (T), silver (N), tantalum (J), tin (K), titanium (Y), tungsten (R), vanadium (S), and zinc (D). Each metal commodity was assigned to a single year: chapters A-M have recycling data for 1998; chapters N-R and U-W have data for 2000, and chapters S, T, and X-Z have data for 2004. This 27th chapter of Circular 1196 is called AA; it includes salient data from each study described in chapters A-Z, along with an analysis of overall trends of metals recycling in the United States during 1998 through 2004 and additional up-to-date reviews of selected metal recycling industries from 1991 through 2008. In the United States for these metals in 1998, 2000, and 2004 (each metal commodity assigned to a single year), 84 million metric tons (Mt) of old scrap was generated. Unrecovered old scrap totaled 43 Mt (about 51 percent of old scrap generated, OSG), old scrap consumed was 38 Mt (about 45 percent of OSG), and net old scrap exports were 3.3 Mt (about 4 percent of OSG). Therefore, there was significant potential for increased recovery from scrap. The total old scrap supply was 88 Mt, and the overall new-to-old-scrap ratio was 36:64. On a weighted-average basis, the recycling rate overall for these metals was 40 percent, and the estimated efficiency of recovery was 63 percent. New scrap consumed was 21 Mt. The United States was a net exporter of most scrap metals, and the net exports of 3.3 Mt were valued at $2 billion in constant 1998 dollars. Metals show a wide range of recycling rates, recycling efficiency, and new-to-old-scrap ratios. Recycling rates cluster in the range from 15 to 45 percent, whereas efficiencies are fairly evenly distributed over a range from 7 to 97 percent.

Sibley, Scott F.

2011-01-01

307

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-11-29

308

Major issues associated with DOE commercial recycling initiatives  

SciTech Connect

Major initiatives are underway within DOE to recycle large volumes of scrap material generated during cleanup of the DOE Weapons Complex. These recycling initiatives are driven not only by the desire to conserve natural resources, but also by the recognition that shallow level burial is not a politically acceptable option. The Fernald facility is in the vanguard of a number of major DOE recycling efforts. These early efforts have brought issues to light that can have a major impact on the ability of Fernald and other major DOE sites to expand recycling efforts in the future. Some of these issues are; secondary waste deposition, title to material and radioactive contaminants, mixed waste generated during recycling, special nuclear material possession limits, cost benefit, transportation of waste to processing facilities, release criteria, and uses for beneficially reused products.

Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Rast, D.M. [USDOE Fernald Field Office, OH (United States)

1994-07-27

309

Reductive denitrification of nitrate by scrap iron filings*  

PubMed Central

Reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron is a highly exergonic reaction that has long been known to occur. Use of scrap iron filings (SIF) as the PRB (Permeable Reactive Barrier) material can be used to recycle certain by-products, and identify cheaper replacements for expensive conventional PRB materials, especially pure metallic iron. The feasibility of reductive denitrification of nitrate by SIF was studied by batch experiments. Operational parameters such as pH value, SIF dosage and initial concentration of nitrate were investigated. The removal efficiency of nitrate reached 80% under the conditions of pH of 2.5, nitrate initial concentration of 45 mg/L and SIF dosage of 100 g/L within 4 h. Results indicated that nitrate removal is inversely related to pH. Low pH value condition favors for the nitrate transformation. Different from the results of others who studied nitrate reduction using iron powder, we found that there was a lag time before nitrate reduction occurs, even at low pH. Finally, the possible mechanism of nitrate reduction by Fe0 is discussed. PMID:15682502

Hao, Zhi-wei; Xu, Xin-hua; Wang, Da-hui

2005-01-01

310

H. R. 3058: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling and Recovery Act of 1991, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 25, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act in order to provide for a scrap tire management and recovery program. The objectives of this legislation are to provide temporary federal incentives to eliminate scrap tire piles through environmentally sound methods, including recycling, recovery and reuse. All future scrap tires are to be managed by the states through programs that will manage and minimize the buildup of scrap tire piles in the future.

Not Available

1991-01-01

311

Ideas: Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

1994-01-01

312

Extreme Recycling  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Singing the recycling blues because you have to separate your chipboard from your newspaper, your steel from your aluminum, your #1 from your #2 plastic? Pantywaists! The residents of Kamikatsu, Japan ...

Hacker, Randi

2009-01-14

313

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

314

The role of automobiles for the future of aluminum recycling.  

PubMed

To reach required product qualities with lowest costs, aluminum postconsumer scrap is currently recycled using strategies of downgrading and dilution, due to difficulties in refining. These strategies depend on a continuous and fast growth of the bottom reservoir of the aluminum downgrading cascade, which is formed by secondary castings, mainly used in automotive applications. A dynamic material flow model for the global vehicle system was developed to assess the likelihood, timing, and extent of a potential scrap surplus. The results demonstrate that a continuation of the above-mentioned strategies will lead to a nonrecyclable scrap surplus by around 2018 ± 5 if no additional measures are taken. The surplus could grow to reach a level of 0.4-2 kg/cap/yr in 2050, corresponding to a loss of energy saving potential of 43-240 TWh/yr electricity. Various intervention options for avoiding scrap surplus are discussed. Effective strategies need to include an immediate and rapid penetration of dramatically improved scrap sorting technologies for end-of-life vehicles and other aluminum applications. PMID:22816552

Modaresi, Roja; Müller, Daniel B

2012-08-21

315

Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal  

DOEpatents

A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to exposure additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-01-01

316

Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal  

DOEpatents

A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

317

Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal. 2 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-04-11

318

Ferrous scrap preheating system: Phase 3, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Utilizing electric arc smelters for making steel has allowed many smaller manufacturers to compete with large integrated mills. The electric arc furnace melts scrap to produce steel. The subject of this report is a Scrap Preheater that heats and cleans the arc furnace scrap using its own low cost natural gas energy supply. Scrap preheating can increase the capacity of a given arc furnace and reduce the operating costs. In addition it reduces the air emissions and allows utilization of lower cost scrap. The program was divided into three phases and was to culminate with an operating prototype at a demonstration host site steel mill. A host site agreement was executed and critical components were tested. The prototype scrap preheater was completely designed. It was sized to preheat 30 tons of scrap in a scrap bucket in 30 minutes. Energy is supplied by a rich fume reactor that completely oxidizes organics from the scrap and auxiliary natural gas. There were several delays and changes in the project that resulted in the host site requesting to withdraw from the program. Extensive efforts were made to secure a replacement host site. However, when another host could not be found, the project was terminated.

NONE

1996-05-13

319

Batteries: Disposal, recycling and recovery. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental problems caused by discarded batteries. Citations examine improved collection methods which could enable more batteries to be recycled; recovery of toxic substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury from scrap batteries; and design of batteries which contain little or no heavy metals. The remediation of contaminated soils, and legislation requiring safe battery disposal or recycling are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 57 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

320

Batteries: Disposal, recycling and recovery. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental problems caused by discarded batteries. Citations examine improved collection methods which could enable more batteries to be recycled; recovery of toxic substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury from scrap batteries; and design of batteries which contain little or no heavy metals. The remediation of contaminated soils, and legislation requiring safe battery disposal or recycling are discussed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

321

Batteries: Disposal, recycling and recovery. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental problems caused by discarded batteries. Citations examine improved collection methods which could enable more batteries to be recycled; recovery of toxic substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury from scrap batteries; and design of batteries which contain little or no heavy metals. The remediation of contaminated soils, and legislation requiring safe battery disposal or recycling are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

322

Batteries: Disposal, recycling and recovery. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental problems caused by discarded batteries. Citations examine improved collection methods which could enable more batteries to be recycled; recovery of toxic substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury from scrap batteries; and design of batteries which contain little or no heavy metals. The remediation of contaminated soils, and legislation requiring safe battery disposal or recycling are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 58 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

323

Textile recycling  

SciTech Connect

The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

Jablonowski, E. (Killam Associates, Millburn, NJ (United States)); Carlton, J.

1995-01-01

324

Composting with Worms Worm composting (or vermicomposting) is a natural and efficient way to recycle your  

E-print Network

Composting with Worms Worm composting (or vermicomposting) is a natural and efficient way to recycle your organic kitchen scraps. And it sure beats plowing through knee-high snowdrifts to the compost project to do with kids; it's easy to make compost using worms as long as you have the right container

New Hampshire, University of

325

U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-l2 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer programs, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, provide pollution prevention information and documentation, and produce independent government estimates. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrapyard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums.

Adams, V.; Bennett, M.; Bishop, L. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

1998-05-01

326

Purification of nuclear grade Zr scrap as the high purity dense Zr deposits from Zirlo scrap by electrorefining in LiF-KF-ZrF4 molten fluorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium (Zr) has commonly been used as a cladding material of nuclear fuel. Moreover, it is regarded as the only material that can be used for nuclear fuel cladding because it has the lowest neutron capture cross section of any metal element and because it has high corrosion resistance and size stability. In this study, Hf-free Zr tubes (Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe) were used as anode materials and electrorefining was performed in a LiF-KF eutectic 6 wt.% ZrF4 molten fluoride salt system. As a result of electrolysis, Zr scrap metal was recycled into pure Zr with low levels of impurities, and the size and density of the Zr deposit was controlled using applied current density.

Park, Kyoung Tae; Lee, Tae Hyuk; Jo, Nam Chan; Nersisyan, Hayk H.; Chun, Byong Sun; Lee, Hyuk Hee; Lee, Jong Hyeon

2013-05-01

327

The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle.  

PubMed

Changing conditions on the Earth's surface can have a remarkable influence on the composition of its overwhelmingly more massive interior. The global distribution of uranium is a notable example. In early Earth history, the continental crust was enriched in uranium. Yet after the initial rise in atmospheric oxygen, about 2.4 billion years ago, the aqueous mobility of oxidized uranium resulted in its significant transport to the oceans and, ultimately, by means of subduction, back to the mantle. Here we explore the isotopic characteristics of this global uranium cycle. We show that the subducted flux of uranium is isotopically distinct, with high (238)U/(235)U ratios, as a result of alteration processes at the bottom of an oxic ocean. We also find that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs) have (238)U/(235)U ratios higher than does the bulk Earth, confirming the widespread pollution of the upper mantle with this recycled uranium. Although many ocean island basalts (OIBs) are argued to contain a recycled component, their uranium isotopic compositions do not differ from those of the bulk Earth. Because subducted uranium was probably isotopically unfractionated before full oceanic oxidation, about 600 million years ago, this observation reflects the greater antiquity of OIB sources. Elemental and isotope systematics of uranium in OIBs are strikingly consistent with previous OIB lead model ages, indicating that these mantle reservoirs formed between 2.4 and 1.8 billion years ago. In contrast, the uranium isotopic composition of MORB requires the convective stirring of recycled uranium throughout the upper mantle within the past 600 million years. PMID:25592542

Andersen, Morten B; Elliott, Tim; Freymuth, Heye; Sims, Kenneth W W; Niu, Yaoling; Kelley, Katherine A

2015-01-15

328

The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing conditions on the Earth's surface can have a remarkable influence on the composition of its overwhelmingly more massive interior. The global distribution of uranium is a notable example. In early Earth history, the continental crust was enriched in uranium. Yet after the initial rise in atmospheric oxygen, about 2.4 billion years ago, the aqueous mobility of oxidized uranium resulted in its significant transport to the oceans and, ultimately, by means of subduction, back to the mantle. Here we explore the isotopic characteristics of this global uranium cycle. We show that the subducted flux of uranium is isotopically distinct, with high 238U/235U ratios, as a result of alteration processes at the bottom of an oxic ocean. We also find that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs) have 238U/235U ratios higher than does the bulk Earth, confirming the widespread pollution of the upper mantle with this recycled uranium. Although many ocean island basalts (OIBs) are argued to contain a recycled component, their uranium isotopic compositions do not differ from those of the bulk Earth. Because subducted uranium was probably isotopically unfractionated before full oceanic oxidation, about 600 million years ago, this observation reflects the greater antiquity of OIB sources. Elemental and isotope systematics of uranium in OIBs are strikingly consistent with previous OIB lead model ages, indicating that these mantle reservoirs formed between 2.4 and 1.8 billion years ago. In contrast, the uranium isotopic composition of MORB requires the convective stirring of recycled uranium throughout the upper mantle within the past 600 million years.

Andersen, Morten B.; Elliott, Tim; Freymuth, Heye; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Niu, Yaoling; Kelley, Katherine A.

2015-01-01

329

Tire Recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

1997-01-01

330

Energy implications of glass-container recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-03-01

331

Vanadium recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of vanadium in the U.S. economy in 2004. This report includes a description of vanadium supply and demand in the United States and illustrates the extent of vanadium recycling and recycling trends. In 2004, apparent vanadium consumption, by end use, in the United States was 3,820 metric tons (t) in steelmaking and 232 t in manufacturing, of which 17 t was for the production of superalloys and 215 t was for the production of other alloys, cast iron, catalysts, and chemicals. Vanadium use in steel is almost entirely dissipative because recovery of vanadium from steel scrap is chemically impeded under the oxidizing conditions in steelmaking furnaces. The greatest amount of vanadium recycling is in the superalloy, other-alloy, and catalyst sectors of the vanadium market. Vanadium-bearing catalysts are associated with hydrocarbon recovery and refining in the oil industry. In 2004, 2,850 t of vanadium contained in alloy scrap and spent catalysts was recycled, which amounted to about 44 percent of U.S. domestic production. About 94 percent of vanadium use in the United States was dissipative (3,820 t in steel/4,050 t in steel+fabricated products).

Goonan, Thomas G.

2011-01-01

332

Pyrolysis of scrap tyres with zeolite USY.  

PubMed

A zeolite catalyst of ultrastable Y-type (USY) was investigated in the research of two staged pyrolysis-catalysis of scrap tyres. Scrap tyres were pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor and the evolved pyrolysis gases were passed through a secondary catalytic reactor. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of zeolite USY on the yield of products and the composition of derived oil. The influences of several parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature, catalyst/tyre ratio, heating rate, etc. on the yield of the derived oil, char and gas were investigated. It showed that the increase of catalytic temperature and catalyst/tyre ratio resulted in high yield of gas at the expense of the oil yield. For example, when the catalyst/tyre ratio increased from 0.25 to 1.0, the yield of gas increased from 30.5 to 49.9 wt.%, and the oil yield decreased nearly two-fold from 31.6 to 12.7 wt.%. The concentration of light naphtha (boiling point < 160 degrees C) was also investigated in this study. And the high catalyst/tyre ratio favored to increase the concentration of light naphtha (< 160 degrees C) in oil. In order to study the composition of derived oil, a distilled fraction (< 280 degrees C), which was 92.5 wt.% of the oil obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of scrap tyre at a pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature and catalyst/tyre ratio of 500, 400 degrees C and 0.5, respectively, was analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The distillate was found to contain 1.23 wt.% benzene, 9.35 wt.% toluene, 3.68 wt.% ethylbenzene, 12.64 wt.% xylenes, 1.81 wt.% limonene and 13.89 wt.% PAHs, etc., where the single ring aromatics represented a significant potential use as chemicals. PMID:16704900

Shen, Boxiong; Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Rui; Guo, Binbin; Liang, Cai

2006-09-21

333

Final report on solid ferrous scrap copper removal  

SciTech Connect

Research has shown that physically distinct impurities in shredded ferrous scrap can be removed, and that metallic values can be recovered from the removed impurities. Although the closing of the U.S. Bureau of Mines terminated this research, it should be continued by others. Areas for continued research consideration could include further scrap testing to optimize process parameters, among others.

Hartman, A.D.; Williamson, C.A.; Davis. D.L.

1996-08-01

334

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2010-10-01

335

46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265 Shipping ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not...

2011-10-01

336

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2013-10-01

337

46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265 Shipping ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not...

2014-10-01

338

46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265 Shipping ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not...

2013-10-01

339

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2011-10-01

340

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2014-10-01

341

46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265 Shipping ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not...

2012-10-01

342

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...

2012-10-01

343

Endocytic recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

After endocytosis, most membrane proteins and lipids return to the cell surface, but some membrane components are delivered to late endosomes or the Golgi. We now understand that the pathways taken by internalized molecules that eventually recycle to the cell surface can be surprisingly complex and can involve a series of sorting events that occur in several organelles. The molecular

Frederick R. Maxfield; Timothy E. McGraw

2004-01-01

344

A Model for Scrap Melting in Steel Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process model for basic oxygen furnace is in development. The full model will include a 2-D axisymmetric turbulent flow model for iron melt, a steel scrap melting model, and a chemical reaction model. A theoretical basis for scrap melting model is introduced in this paper and an in-house implementation of the model is tested in this article independently from the other parts of the full process model. The model calculates a melting curve for the scrap piece and the heat and carbon mass exchange between the melt and the scrap. A temperature and carbon concentration-dependent material data are used for heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient. The equations are discretized into a moving grid, which is uncommon in literature in the context of scrap melting. A good agreement is found between the modeling results and experiments from literature. Also a heat transfer correlation for dimensionless Nusselt number is determined using the numerical results.

Kruskopf, Ari

2015-03-01

345

A Study of Scrap Heating By Burners. Part I: Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A furnace, approximately 1 m3 in capacity, was built to measure the efficiency of heat transfer from a propane-oxygen burner to different types of industrial steel scrap. Supplementary measurements were undertaken to measure the scrap density, size, and void fraction to insure complete combustion of the propane and to measure the extent of scrap oxidation. Local values of temperature in the scrap bed were measured along with the exit temperature of the off gas. The off gas temperature was a direct measurement of the overall efficiency of heating. It was found that smaller and denser scrap was heated more effectively. Configurations that increased the path length of the gas also increased the efficiency of heating. In Part II, a mathematical model is developed to compare with the measured temperatures.

Mandal, Kamalesh; Irons, Gordon A.

2013-02-01

346

Scrap-tire consumption in New England and New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of scrap tires is one facet of the current solid waste dilemma that is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention in the northeast. Above-ground disposal in tire stockpiles has become a common phenomenon. One way to avoid continued stockpiling of scrap tires, and to reduce the number and size of existing piles, is to find ways to consume the tires. The economics of scrap tire consumption in the region has not yet been examined in great detail. The main goal of the paper is to describe the current pattern of scrap tire use and disposal in New England and New Jersey, and the changes expected in the near future. In the course of this description, various economic, regulatory and other factors emerge as significant forces shaping the consumption and disposal pattern. The concluding sections of the paper highlight some of these factors and identify policy options available to increase scrap tire consumption in the region.

Barad, A.

1991-02-01

347

Scrap tire reuse through surface-modification technology  

SciTech Connect

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach for reusing scrap tire rubber. The process involves the combination of scrap tire rubber particles with other materials to form higher value and higher performance composites. The process begins by grinding scrap tire to a fine particle size, and removing steel and fabric. The key to this approach is a proprietary surface-modification step which is critical for enhancing the compatibility with and bonding to other continuous phase matrix materials. Of all approaches for scrap tire rubber reuse, this approach offers the potential to recover (or save) the greatest amount of energy. Furthermore, this is the only approach which is clearly economically viable with current pricing and without a scrap tire tax. The process is environmentally innocuous, and capital requirements for large scale processing plants are projected to be modest. 7 figs.

Bauman, B.D.

1991-01-01

348

U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. The Center has gotten off to a fast start. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-12 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer software, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, produce pollution prevention information and documentation, manage their materials inventory, produce independent government estimates, and implement sale/service contracts. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrap yard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums. Members of the Center look forward to working with all DOE sites, regulatory authorities, the private sector, and other stakeholders to achieve the metals recycle goals.

Adams, V.; Bennett, M.; Bishop, L. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

1998-06-01

349

Recycling of gold from electronics: Cost-effective use through ‘Design for Recycling’  

Microsoft Academic Search

With over 300 tonnes of gold used in electronics each year, end-of-life electronic equipment offers an important recycling\\u000a potential for the secondary supply of gold. With gold concentrations reaching 300-350 g\\/t for mobile phone handsets and 200-250\\u000a g\\/t for computer circuit boards, this “urban mine” is significantly richer than what is available in primary ores.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a However, the “mineralogy” in scrap

Christian Hagelüken; Christopher W Corti

2010-01-01

350

Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

1994-03-01

351

Environmental effects of the uranium fuel cycle: a review of data for technetium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of potential releases of ⁹⁹Tc to the environment are reviewed for the uranium fuel cycle considering two options: the recycle of spent uranium fuel and no fuel recycling. In the no recycle option, the only source of ⁹⁹Tc release is an extremely small amount associated with airborne emissions from the processing of high-level wastes. With recycling, ⁹⁹Tc releases are

J. E. Till; R. W. Shor; F. O. Hoffman

1984-01-01

352

Precipitation Recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

1996-01-01

353

Influence of void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainty of commercial operation of fast breeder reactors (FBR) claims for another solution to the plutonium produced in light water reactors (LWR). As one option, recently, the plutonium recycling in LWR becomes an important consideration. A study on the impact of changing void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR has been performed. Two types of uranium sources in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, namely the depleted uranium and the natural uranium have been evaluated. The trend is similar for both MOX fuels that BWR can gain its critical condition for the void fraction of less than 42% and it may be operated in critical condition for the void fraction of 42% and 95%.

Surbakti, R.; Waris, A.; Basar, K.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.

2012-06-01

354

SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS-200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED SCRAP, CALLED "CABBAGES", ARE MELTED DOWN IN THE CAST SHOP,ALONG WITH RAW METAL AND ALLOYS. BALED SCRAP MELTS MORE RAPIDLY THAN LOOSE SCRAP. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

355

Computer Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given current rates of computer consumerism and technological advances, one might expect to find a lot of computers out there in the world. What happens to these old computers? This Topic in Depth explores this issue, reviews some options for recycling computers, and provides tips for anyone considering purchasing a refurbished computer. The first article from BBC News (1) reports on research which suggests that "the number of personal computers worldwide is expected to double by 2010 to 1.3 billion machines." The second article from Oasis, a project of the Irish eGovernment initiative, (2) reviews some of the issues surrounding waste from electrical and electronic equipment. This next article from PC World (3) gives some ideas for how to dispose of an old notebook computer. One option, of course, is to donate your notebook, which is discussed in this article from Tech Soup (4). Another resource for information on computer recycling and reuse is this website from CompuMentor (5). Given the current market for computers, many are considering refurbished computers. This article from Vnunet (6 ) explains what a refurbished computer is while the next website provides some tips for buying a refurbished computer (7 ). Finally, this article from About.com reports on the recently introduced National Computer Recycling Act (8).

356

Argonne explains nuclear recycling in 4 minutes  

ScienceCinema

Currently, when using nuclear energy only about five percent of the uranium used in a fuel rod gets fissioned for energy; after that, the rods are taken out of the reactor and put into permanent storage. There is a way, however, to use almost all of the uranium in a fuel rod. Recycling used nuclear fuel could produce hundreds of years of energy from just the uranium we've already mined, all of it carbon-free. Problems with older technology put a halt to recycling used nuclear fuel in the United States, but new techniques developed by scientists at Argonne National Laboratory address many of those issues. For more information, visit http://www.anl.gov/energy/nuclear-energy.

None

2013-04-19

357

Argonne explains nuclear recycling in 4 minutes  

SciTech Connect

Currently, when using nuclear energy only about five percent of the uranium used in a fuel rod gets fissioned for energy; after that, the rods are taken out of the reactor and put into permanent storage. There is a way, however, to use almost all of the uranium in a fuel rod. Recycling used nuclear fuel could produce hundreds of years of energy from just the uranium we've already mined, all of it carbon-free. Problems with older technology put a halt to recycling used nuclear fuel in the United States, but new techniques developed by scientists at Argonne National Laboratory address many of those issues. For more information, visit http://www.anl.gov/energy/nuclear-energy.

None

2012-01-01

358

REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-01-29

359

Nutritional characterisation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. produced using paper scraps as substrate.  

PubMed

Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. is the third most produced edible mushroom worldwide, due to its ability to colonise and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus grown on blank and printed paper substrates, in comparison with samples grown on oat straw (control). The nutritional properties of the control sample were similar to values reported in the literature, while the chemical composition of the samples obtained using paper scraps, either blank or printed, was highly satisfactory. The results obtained validated the nutritional characteristics of the samples, highlighting a profitable means to recycle paper. PMID:25236243

Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Herbert, Paulo; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-02-15

360

Value analysis of neodymium content in shredder feed: toward enabling the feasibility of rare earth magnet recycling.  

PubMed

In order to facilitate the development of recycling technologies for rare earth magnets from postconsumer products, we present herein an analysis of the neodymium (Nd) content in shredder scrap. This waste stream has been chosen on the basis of current business practices for the recycling of steel, aluminum, and copper from cars and household appliances, which contain significant amounts of rare earth magnets. Using approximations based on literature data, we have calculated the average Nd content in the ferrous shredder product stream to be between 0.13 and 0.29 kg per ton of ferrous scrap. A value analysis considering rare earth metal prices between 2002 and 2013 provides values between $1.32 and $145 per ton of ferrous scrap for this material, if recoverable as pure Nd metal. Furthermore, we present an analysis of the content and value of other rare earths (Pr, Dy, Tb). PMID:24934194

Bandara, H M Dhammika; Darcy, Julia W; Apelian, Diran; Emmert, Marion H

2014-06-17

361

Recycling Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

362

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

363

Plutonium scrap recovery at Savannah River: Past, present, and vision of the future  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the changing requirement, plus environmental and regulatory commitments, SRP now has essentially completed its paradigm shift. SRP has been transformed from primarily a reprocessor of irradiated uranium targets to primarily a reprocessor of non-specification plutonium. This is the mission which will carry SRP into the 21st Century. Accomplishment of the defined goals for the three-pronged RandD program will achieve several objectives: exploit new processes for recovering low-grade scraps; enhance SRP's position to incorporate pyrochemical processes where they are attractive or beneficial to plant scrap recovery; provide SRL/SRP with a capability to develop compatible aqueous pyrochemical processes; identify material compatibility requirements for the incorporation of pyrochemical processes at SRP; promote development and demonstration of improved NDA instrumentation to accurately measure plutonium holdups in solid residues; identify and implement the technology required for reagent preparation and atmospheric quality control; provide a means to compare economic options for emerging new processes; and as a result, identify process steps which will also put SRP in a position to readily adapt to changing plutonium missions.

Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Blancett, A.L.; Lower, M.W.; Rudisill, T.S.

1988-01-01

364

Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

1996-07-01

365

Contaminated scrap metal management on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of scrap metal are accumulating at the various Department of Energy (DOE) installations across the country as a result of ongoing DOE programs and missions in concert with present day waste management practices. DOE Oak Ridge alone is presently storing around 500,000 tons of scrap metal. The local generation rate, currently estimated at 1,400 tons/yr, is expected to increase sharply over the next couple of years as numerous environmental restoration and decommissioning programs gain momentum. Projections show that 775,000 tons of scrap metal could be generated at the K-25 Site over the next ten years. The Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have similar potentials. The history of scrap metal management at Oak Ridge and future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

Hayden, H.W.; Stephenson, M.J.; Bailey, J.K.; Weir, J.R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gilbert, W.C. [USDOE Oak Ridge Operations Office, TN (United States)

1993-09-01

366

Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap  

DOEpatents

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

1992-12-29

367

Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap  

DOEpatents

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA)

1992-12-29

368

Halfthrough girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Half-through girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

369

Heat recovery and melting system for scrap metals  

SciTech Connect

Metallic scrap contaminated with combustibles is melted in a reverberatory melting furnace having two communicating wells; one being an enclosed sidewell, which is the receiving well for scrap material during melting, and the other being an enclosed main holding well for molten metal. The main well has burner means to provide heat for melting the metal and treating the scrap material. Heat from molten metal flowing between the main well and the sidewell produces exhaust gases by vaporizing the combustibles of the scrap material. An external passage circulates the exhaust gases from the sidewell to the main well for incineration by the main well's burner means. The external passage has an eductor means which draws the exhaust gases from the sidewell and propels them towards the main well.

Jenson, R.E.; Pryor, J.C.

1982-03-16

370

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2012-10-01

371

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2010-10-01

372

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2014-10-01

373

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2013-10-01

374

46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment,...

2011-10-01

375

Scrap? This Program Grows on It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high school industrial arts program in plastics recycling provided students direct contact with production methods of the plastics industry as well as awareness of governmental functions. Experimentation included fuel cells, paving and construction composites, soil composites, and watercraft flotation. (EA)

Schureman, Robert

1975-01-01

376

A Recycled Giraffe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chicken wire, cardboard tubes, newspaper, scrap lumber and discontinued fabric samples were among the discarded materials used in the art classes at the Webster Hill Elementary School, West Hartford, Connecticut, to create an eight-foot giraffe. (Author/RK)

Diorio, Lucille

1976-01-01

377

Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber – an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried

Rafat Siddique; Tarun R. Naik

2004-01-01

378

Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling  

E-print Network

Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling Qiang Wei, Matei Ripeanu, Konstantin Beznosov responses 2. infer approximate responses Secondary Decision Point (SDP) Secondary Authorization Recycling Cooperative Secondary Authorization Recycling SDP SDP SDP Discovery Service each SDP serves only its own PEP

379

Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

Clark, E.A.

1995-04-03

380

Ferrous scrap preheating system. Phase 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Utilization of electric arc steel making has allowed many smaller producers to compete with the large mills. An electric arc furnace (EAF) melts scrap metal to produce a variety of steel products. Using scrap as the metal source is less costly than refining from ores, but the metal is of a lower quality due to impurities in the scrap. Over the years, methods have been developed to improve EAF metal quality and reduce the cost of production. As a result, an increasing share of total steel production is shifting to EAFs. By recent estimates, EAF production is growing at a rate of about 10% per year, and currently accounts for nearly one half of all US steel production (US Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute Project 2787-2, 1987). The subject of this report is Scrap Preheating, a new method of preheating scrap metal before it is charged into an EAF. In scrap preheating, a portion of the energy is supplied in a separate vessel, causing the EAF to use less energy, which shortens the heating time. The general effect is that the arc furnace can produce more steel in a given time at a reduced cost per ton of molten metal.

Not Available

1993-11-23

381

Long-term strategies for increased recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements.  

PubMed

Aluminum recycling currently occurs in a cascading fashion, where some alloys, used in a limited number of applications, absorb most of the end-of-life scrap. An expected increase in scrap supply in coming decades necessitates restructuring of the aluminum cycle to open up new recycling paths for alloys and avoid a potential scrap surplus. This paper explores various interventions in end-of-life management and recycling of automotive aluminum, using a dynamic substance flow analysis model of aluminum and its alloying elements with resolution on component and alloy level (vehicle-component-alloy-element model). It was found that increased component dismantling before vehicle shredding can be an effective, so far underestimated, intervention in the medium term, especially if combined with development of safety-relevant components such as wheels from secondary material. In the long term, automatic alloy sorting technologies are most likely required, but could at the same time reduce the need for magnesium removal in refining. Cooperation between the primary and secondary aluminum industries, the automotive industry, and end-of-life vehicle dismantlers is therefore essential to ensure continued recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements. PMID:24655476

Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Müller, Daniel B

2014-04-15

382

Recycling universe  

E-print Network

If the effective cosmological constant is non-zero, our observable universe may enter a stage of exponential expansion. In such case, regions of it may tunnel back to the false vacuum of an inflaton scalar field, and inflation with a high expansion rate may resume in those regions. An ``ideal'' eternal observer would then witness an infinite succession of cycles from false vacuum to true, and back. Within each cycle, the entire history of a hot universe would be replayed. If there were several minima of the inflaton potential, our ideal observer would visit each one of these minima with a frequency which depends on the shape of the potential. We generalize the formalism of stochastic inflation to analyze the global structure of the universe when this `recycling' process is taken into account.

Jaume Garriga; Alexander Vilenkin

1997-07-26

383

Experiments in anodic film effects during electrorefining of scrap U-10Mo fuels in support of modeling efforts  

SciTech Connect

A monolithic uranium molybdenum alloy clad in zirconium has been proposed as a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel option for research and test reactors, as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. Scrap from the fuel's manufacture will contain a significant portion of recoverable LEU. Pyroprocessing has been identified as an option to perform this recovery. A model of a pyroprocessing recovery procedure has been developed to assist in refining the LEU recovery process and designing the facility. Corrosion theory and a two mechanism transport model were implemented on a Mat-Lab platform to perform the modeling. In developing this model, improved anodic behavior prediction became necessary since a dense uranium-rich salt film was observed at the anode surface during electrorefining experiments. Experiments were conducted on uranium metal to determine the film's character and the conditions under which it forms. The electro-refiner salt used in all the experiments was eutectic LiCl/KCl containing UCl{sub 3}. The anodic film material was analyzed with ICP-OES to determine its composition. Both cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic scans were conducted at operating temperatures between 475 and 575 C. degrees to interrogate the electrochemical behavior of the uranium. The results show that an anodic film was produced on the uranium electrode. The film initially passivated the surface of the uranium on the working electrode. At high over potentials after a trans-passive region, the current observed was nearly equal to the current observed at the initial active level. Analytical results support the presence of K{sub 2}UCl{sub 6} at the uranium surface, within the error of the analytical method.

Van Kleeck, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Willit, J.; Williamson, M.A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fentiman, A.W. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2013-07-01

384

Comparison of the U.S. lead recycling industry in 1998 and 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1998, the structure of the lead recycling industry has changed and trade patterns of the domestic lead recycling industry have shifted. Although the domestic demand for lead has remained relatively constant since 1998, production of lead has increasingly shifted to the domestic secondary lead industry. The last primary lead smelter in the United States closed at the end of 2013, at which time the secondary lead industry became the sole source of domestic lead production. The amount of lead recovered annually from scrap batteries generally increased from about 900,000 metric tons in 1995 to more than 1,100,000 metric tons in 2012. The percentage of total U.S. lead production attributed to battery scrap increased from 65 percent in 1995 to 87 percent in 2012. Since the North American Free Trade Agreement took effect in 1994, trade patterns among the United States, Canada, and Mexico have changed for recycled lead products. In the late 1990s, the principal sources of lead waste and scrap not derived from batteries were Canada, Mexico, and South America; by 2011, the principal sources were Central America and Asia, with decreasing amounts from Canada and South America. Since 1998, the amount of lead derived from imported batteries and scrap from Canada has ranged from 50 to 90 percent, and the amount imported from Mexico has ranged from 3 to 20 percent. Canada received about 50 percent of the lead contained in spent lead-acid batteries and scrap exported from the United States in 1998, and Mexico received about 4 percent. By 2012, however, the amount of lead scrap exported to Canada had decreased to about 10 percent, and the amount of lead-based scrap products, primarily batteries, exported to Mexico from the United States had increased to 47 percent. Vertical integration of the domestic secondary lead industry and higher costs required to implement more stringent ambient air standards in the United States have led some companies to shift lead recycling operations to Mexico. U.S. secondary lead producers are increasingly competing with Canadian and Mexican facilities for market share.

Wilburn, David R.

2014-01-01

385

End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.  

SciTech Connect

Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. Many of these materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals that are recovered. In addition, the number of hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles on the road is rapidly increasing. This trend will also introduce new materials for disposal at the end of their useful lives, including batteries. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), the Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC. (VRP) of the United States Council for Automotive Research, LLC. (USCAR), and the American Chemistry Council-Plastics Division (ACC-PD) are working to develop technology for recovering materials from end-of-life vehicles, including separating and recovering polymers and residual metals from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation and the world will most likely face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap, and thereby be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This will result in increased energy consumption and increased damage to the environment, including increased greenhouse gas emissions. The recycling of polymers, other organics, and residual metals in shredder residue saves the equivalent of over 23 million barrels of oil annually. This results in a 12-million-ton reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This document presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the recycling of automotive materials.

Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

2011-02-22

386

Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft{sup 3}) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program.

Imrich, K.J.

1994-10-28

387

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies  

SciTech Connect

The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

none,

1992-10-01

388

Recycling Improves USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes are occurring in recycling that will improve the United States. There are significant improvements in the economy, environment and the health of Americans due to recycling efforts. Recycling will be shown as a superior option compared to landfill, incineration and virgin material processing. Many Case studies will be discussed that show how communities are making long-term decisions for recycling.

Luke Monroe

389

Dynamic analysis of global copper flows. Global stocks, postconsumer material flows, recycling indicators, and uncertainty evaluation.  

PubMed

We present a dynamic model of global copper stocks and flows which allows a detailed analysis of recycling efficiencies, copper stocks in use, and dissipated and landfilled copper. The model is based on historical mining and refined copper production data (1910-2010) enhanced by a unique data set of recent global semifinished goods production and copper end-use sectors provided by the copper industry. To enable the consistency of the simulated copper life cycle in terms of a closed mass balance, particularly the matching of recycled metal flows to reported historical annual production data, a method was developed to estimate the yearly global collection rates of end-of-life (postconsumer) scrap. Based on this method, we provide estimates of 8 different recycling indicators over time. The main indicator for the efficiency of global copper recycling from end-of-life (EoL) scrap--the EoL recycling rate--was estimated to be 45% on average, ± 5% (one standard deviation) due to uncertainty and variability over time in the period 2000-2010. As uncertainties of specific input data--mainly concerning assumptions on end-use lifetimes and their distribution--are high, a sensitivity analysis with regard to the effect of uncertainties in the input data on the calculated recycling indicators was performed. The sensitivity analysis included a stochastic (Monte Carlo) uncertainty evaluation with 10(5) simulation runs. PMID:23725041

Glöser, Simon; Soulier, Marcel; Tercero Espinoza, Luis A

2013-06-18

390

Component- and Alloy-Specific Modeling for Evaluating Aluminum Recycling Strategies for Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies indicated that the availability of mixed shredded aluminum scrap from end-of-life vehicles (ELV) is likely to surpass the capacity of secondary castings to absorb this type of scrap, which could lead to a scrap surplus unless suitable interventions can be identified and implemented. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing potential solutions to this problem, among others, because of a lack of component- and alloy-specific information in the models. In this study, we developed a dynamic model of aluminum in the global vehicle stock (distinguishing 5 car segments, 14 components, and 7 alloy groups). The forecasts made up to the year 2050 for the demand for vehicle components and alloy groups, for the scrap supply from discarded vehicles, and for the effects of different ELV management options. Furthermore, we used a source-sink diagram to identify alloys that could potentially serve as alternative sinks for the growing scrap supply. Dismantling the relevant components could remove up to two-thirds of the aluminum from the ELV stream. However, the use of these components for alloy-specific recycling is currently limited because of the complex composition of components (mixed material design and applied joining techniques), as well as provisions that practically prevent the production of safety-relevant cast parts from scrap. In addition, dismantling is more difficult for components that are currently penetrating rapidly. Therefore, advanced alloy sorting seems to be a crucial step that needs to be developed over the coming years to avoid a future scrap surplus and prevent negative energy use and emission consequences.

Modaresi, Roja; Løvik, Amund N.; Müller, Daniel B.

2014-11-01

391

Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap.  

PubMed

This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of (90)Sr and one of (226)Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, (90)Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while (226)Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1m from the source fall within the range of 25.1-40.2 ?Sv/h with an average value of 33.52 ± 4.06 ?Sv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing. PMID:23041388

Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E H; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M; Sam, A K

2012-12-01

392

Recycling entire DOE facilities: The national conversion pilot project  

SciTech Connect

The National Conversion Pilot Project is being conducted at the U.S. DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) under a cooperative agreement between the DOE and Manufacturing Sciences Corporation (MSC) of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. MSC approached DOE to see if four buildings, metalworking facilities, could be used for recycling radioactively contaminate scrap metal. The resulting issues were then addressed for all DOE sites in three stages: planning and characterization, cleanup and refurbishment, commercial reuse. This article discusses the organization, management, progress, and future of the project.

Floyd, D.R.; Nix, D.E.

1997-01-01

393

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements . For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches . You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2013-07-01

394

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements . For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches . You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2011-07-01

395

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements . For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches . You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2012-07-01

396

40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap containing...provision. (1) Site-specific plan for mercury switches. You must comply with the...your scrap specifications for removal of mercury switches from vehicle bodies used to...

2014-07-01

397

Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception & Managing  

E-print Network

Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception of uncontrolled radioactive source incidents. Aside from radiation exposure to workers and the public, this unwanted radioactive scrap material causes environmental and facility contamination with cleanup costs

398

Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

2012-07-30

399

[Scrap metal and ionizing radiation hazard: prevention and protection].  

PubMed

The numerous accidents occurred in companies that melt scrap metals have shown that the hazard caused by the presence of radioactive materials--or 'orphan sources'--may have serious consequences on standard production, with great economic and social damage. Italian Legislative Decree No. 100/11 establishes the skills required for the safe management of scrap metals in the whole production cycle, thus requiring the involvement of experts in radiation protection. The paper details the procedures that shall be implemented in the companies that melt scrap metals. Said procedures involve several professional roles: managers, department heads and occupational physicians. The paper describes the general characteristics of the instruments used, staff training programs and the experience gained in 15 years of activity. PMID:23405723

Giugni, U

2012-01-01

400

An econometric model of the U.S. secondary copper industry: Recycling versus disposal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper, a theoretical model of secondary recovery is developed that integrates microeconomic theories of production and cost with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The model equations are estimated for the U.S. secondary copper industry and used to assess the impacts that various policies and future events have on copper recycling rates. The alternatives considered are: subsidies for secondary production, differing energy costs, and varying ore quality in primary production. ?? 1990.

Slade, M.E.

1980-01-01

401

Waste management news: Newspaper recycling success depends on growth of capacity to Deink newsprint  

SciTech Connect

Items of interest in the news include: establishment of a council to develop a program for acceptable solutions to scrap tire disposal; a new tires-to-energy plant in Alberta, Canada that will process 1.2 million tires per year as fuel; start-up of a methane recovery facility at three New Jersey landfills; and a pilot program in Illinois developed by Amoco for recycling of motor oil.

Not Available

1990-06-01

402

Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method  

DOEpatents

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

1992-02-11

403

Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method  

DOEpatents

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA); Lincoln, Lanny P. (Woodward, IA)

1992-02-11

404

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of...

2014-01-01

405

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of...

2010-07-01

406

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of...

2012-01-01

407

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of...

2011-01-01

408

41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27...silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of...

2013-07-01

409

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

White, Boyd W.

2000-01-01

410

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

411

Study of Recycled and Virgin Compounded Metal Injection Moulded Feedstock for Stainless Steel 630  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine rounded powders preferable for metal injection moulding (MIM) are expensive. This forces MIM makers to recycle green scraps, for example, the runner system and defected green parts. This is particularly necessary for injection moulded small parts where parts are only a small portion of the injection short size. There is very little published data, although recycling feedstock has been practise throughout the industry. This work aims at investigating the effects of recycled stainless steel 630 feedstock content on the density, mechanical properties, dimensional changes and microstructure. Five batches of compounded virgin and recycled feedstock were studies from 0% to 100% recycled feedstock with the increment of 25%. Homogenously compounded feedstock was injected using the same injection condition. Subsequently, green parts were debinded and sintered at 1325°C for 2 hours in argon atmosphere. The results suggest that the green density increases linearly with increasing percentage of recycled feedstock because the polymeric binder was broken down during previous process. However, the sintered density remains nominally constant. As a result, the mechanical properties and microstructure of sintered parts are independent of recycled feedstock content. However, the volumetric and linear shrinkage decreases linearly with the increase in percentage of recycled feedstock. The difference in shrinkage is vital to dimensional control during commercial production. For example, only 4.5% of recycled feedstock can be added to virgin feedstock if a tolerance of ±0.3 mm is required for a 25 mm MIM part.

Manonukul, Anchalee; Likityingwara, Warakij; Rungkiatnawin, Phataraporn; Muenya, Nattapol; Amoranan, Suttha; Kittinantapol, Witoo; Surapunt, Suphachai

412

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-07-01

413

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

414

Advanced process research and development to enhance metals and materials recycling.  

SciTech Connect

Innovative, cost-effective technologies that have a positive life-cycle environmental impact and yield marketable products are needed to meet the challenges of the recycling industry. Four materials-recovery technologies that are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with industrial partners are described in this paper: (1) dezincing of galvanized steel scrap; (2) material recovery from auto-shredder residue; (3) high-value-plastics recovery from obsolete appliances; and (4) aluminum salt cake recycling. These technologies are expected to be applicable to the production of low-cost, high-quality raw materials from a wide range of waste streams.

Daniels, E. J.

1997-12-05

415

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

416

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

417

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

418

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

419

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

420

ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling  

E-print Network

ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling #12;Recycled ConcreteRecycled Concrete ·· Whatever steel goes into PCC must comeWhatever steel goes into PCC must come out for recycleout for recycle ·· Aggregates have a big impact on the costAggregates have a big impact on the cost of recyclingof recycling

421

Recycling Research. Tracking Trash.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An activity in which students research the effectiveness of recycling is presented. Students compare the types and amount of litter both before and after recycling is implemented. Directions for the activity and a sample data sheet are included. (KR)

DeLago, Louise Furia

1991-01-01

422

Recycling overview in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

Not Available

1989-07-01

423

On-Line Physical Property Process Measurements for Nuclear Fuel Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is looking to close the nuclear fuel cycle and demonstrate key fuel recycling technologies, while at the same time reducing proliferation risks. A key element of GNEP is the demonstration of the uranium extraction (UREX) +1a process, and potentially other fuel reprocessing schemes. Advanced recycling of nuclear fuel will require improved on-line monitoring and

Richard A. Pappas; Leonard J. Bond; Margaret S. Greenwood; Cody J. Hostick

2007-01-01

424

U.S. Department of Energy`s environmental restoration recycling program  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is contemplating establishing a recycling policy for environmental restoration efforts across the complex. The proposed Recycle 2000 policy now under consideration calls for recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metal generated by environmental restoration activities into containers for disposing of wastes within the DOE complex. Policy development within DOE typically has involved the Department`s stakeholders only at the implementation phase. In this case, DOE decided to involve stakeholders at the outset of policy development. By considering stakeholders` perspectives in the framing of the policy, DOE anticipates that implementation of the resulting policy is likely to meet with greater success. This paper describes the Recycle 2000 policy, DOE`s approach to developing it, and the status of development.

Warren, S.; Buller, J.

1995-12-31

425

Scrap biofuels targets and focus on improved public transport  

E-print Network

Scrap biofuels targets and focus on improved public transport Friends of the Earth's biofuels campaigner Kenneth Richter argues that biofuel targets are a distraction from tried-and-tested ways to biofuel crops such as rapeseed have changed as more research has been done into their impact

426

21. Scrapping In Dry Dock #4. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. February ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Scrapping In Dry Dock #4. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. February 18, 1946. Original Photograph In Collection of National Archives, Mid-Atlantic Regional Records Center, Philadelphia. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

427

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

428

Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?  

SciTech Connect

Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

Glaz, S.

1995-10-01

429

Enriched Uranium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Wikipedia website provides information about the various concentrations of uranium used for different applications. Topics include a brief description of the grades of uranium and methods of isotope separation. There are also links to other aspects of uranium enrichment and related information. This information lays the foundation for informed discussion about the potential of nuclear energy and the risks of nuclear proliferation.

Wikipedia

430

Recycling and the automobile  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

Holt, D.J.

1993-10-01

431

Buying recycled helps market  

SciTech Connect

The waste reduction and recycling program of Thousand Oaks, California is summarized. Descriptions of the program, market development for recycled products, business development, and economic development are provided. The emphasis of the program is on market development for recycled products. Procurement guidelines used by the city are reprinted in the paper.

Watts, G. [City of Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

1996-08-01

432

Recycling of automotive aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in

Jirang CUI; Hans J. ROVEN

2010-01-01

433

Rethink, Rework, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

1991-01-01

434

The Sustainability of Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the need for closing the business cycle in the recycling process. Discusses whether the government should mandate or the free market create uses for recycled products. Presents challenges associated with marketing recycled materials including what has been and what needs to be done to stimulate markets, encourage business, and balance…

Juniper, Christopher

1993-01-01

435

RESOURCE GUIDE RECYCLING ELECTRONICS  

E-print Network

RESOURCE GUIDE RECYCLING ELECTRONICS Batteries and Accessories Office Depot Cell Phones Any Verizon and Recycling Sprecher Institute for Comparative Cancer Research USE BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENTS that use PLANT://www.thesoftlanding.com/ AVOIDING BISPHENOL-A Eden Organics Beans http://www.edenfoods.com/ CD and DVD recycling http

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

436

Anthropogenic nickel cycle: insights into use, trade, and recycling.  

PubMed

The anthropogenic nickel cycle for the year 2000 was analyzed using a material flow analysis at multiple levels: 52 countries, territories, or country groups, eight regions, and the planet. Special attention was given to the trade in nickel-containing products at different stages of the cycle. A new circular diagram highlights process connections, the role and potential of recycling, and the relevance of trade at different life stages. The following results were achieved. (1) The nickel cycle is dominated by six countries or territories: USA, China and Hong Kong, Japan, Germany, Taiwan, and South Korea; only China also mines some of its nickel used. (2) Nickel is mostly used in alloyed form in stainless steels (68%). (3) More scrap is used for the production of stainless steels (42%) than for other first uses (11%). (4) Industrial machinery is the largest end use category for nickel (25%), followed by buildings and infrastructure (21%) and transportation (20%). (5) 57% of discarded nickel is recycled within the nickel and stainless steel industries, and 14% is lost to other metal markets where nickel is an unwanted constituent of carbon steel and copper alloy scrap. PMID:18522124

Reck, Barbara K; Müller, Daniel B; Rostkowski, Katherine; Graedel, T E

2008-05-01

437

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.  

PubMed

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low-grade precious metals and copper. It is expected that a mechanical recycling process will be developed for the upgrading of low metal content scraps. PMID:12758010

Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

2003-05-30

438

Elemental analysis of steel scrap metals and minerals by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic emission of laser-induced plasma on steel samples has been studied for quantitative elemental analysis. The plasma has been created with 8 ns wide pulses using the second-harmonic from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, in air at atmospheric pressure. The plasma emission is detected with temporal resolution, using an Echelle spectrometer of wide spectral range (300-900 nm) combined with an intensified charge coupled device camera. A plasma temperature of 7800 ± 400 K is determined using the Boltzmann plot method, from spectra obtained under optimized experimental conditions. As an example of an industrial application the concentration of copper in scrap metals is studied, which is an important factor to determine the quality of the samples to recycle. Cu concentrations down to 200 ppm can be detected. Another application of the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy method is the measurement of the nickel and copper concentrations in an iron-containing sample of reduced magma from the 1870s expedition to western Greenland by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld. Different spectral lines of nickel are used for calibration, and their results are compared.

Vieitez, Maria Ofelia; Hedberg, Jonas; Launila, Olli; Berg, Lars-Erik

2005-08-01

439

A method for leaching or dissolving gold from ores or precious metal scrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrometallurgical leaching of native gold from gold-bearing ores or the dissolution of gold metal during the recycling of electronic and precious metal scrap is performed every day using hazardous chemicals such as sodium cyanide or aqua regia. These chemicals represent health and safety risks for workers and a serious threat for the environment. However, even if several other reagents are known to dissolve gold at the laboratory scale, none of these are used industrially. Hot mixtures of hydrochloric acid with strong oxidizing compounds are known to generate in-situ nascent chlorine which is capable of dissolving gold efficiently. In this study, the authors investigated the capability of a hot mixture of hydrochloric acid and ground manganese (IV) oxide to dissolve gold metal either under atmospheric or pressurized conditions. The best result was obtained under a pressure of 639 kPa at 90°C with a dissolution rate of 0.250 g·cm-2h-1 and it was compared to that reported in the literature for other industrial reagents.

Geoffroy, Nicolas; Cardarelli, François

2005-08-01

440

St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to  

E-print Network

St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to allow you to recycle the following materials: To find your nearest Recycling Point please visit www.fifedirect.org.uk/wasteaware or call the Recycling Helpline on 08451 55 00 22. R&A GOLF CLUB OLD COURSE HOTEL UNIVERSITY NORTH HAUGH

St Andrews, University of

441

Radioactive materials in recycled metals--an update.  

PubMed

In April 1995, Health Physics published a review paper titled "Radioactive Materials in Recycled Metals." At that time, 35 accidental meltings of radioactive sources in metal mills were reported, including 22 in the U.S., along with 293 other events in the U.S. where radioactive material was found in metals for recycling. Since that date, there have been additional accidental meltings of radioactive sources in metal mills both in the U.S. and elsewhere. There also was an incident in Texas that involved stolen radioactive devices, which resulted in exposures of members of the general public. Also, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission took steps to address the underlying problem of inadequate control and accountability of radioactive materials licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Steel Manufacturers Association made available data collected by its members beginning in 1994 that expanded the database for radioactive materials found by the metal recycling industry in recycled metal scrap to over 2,300 reports as of 30 June 1997. PMID:9482594

Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

1998-03-01

442

Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is

F. J. Dudek; E. J. Daniels; W. A. Morgan

1993-01-01

443

Surface-modification technology for scrap tire reuse  

SciTech Connect

This technical briefing report describes the DOE-Air Products project to develop the surface-modification technology for scrap tire rubber. It introduces the technology; discusses the project history, status, and feasibility studies; and reviews the potential benefits of the technology with respect to energy use and economics. Prelimary analyses indicate energy savings of approximately 60,000 Btu/lb by substituting surface-modified rubber in polyurethane systems.

Not Available

1992-09-01

444

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

445

Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

1988-03-01

446

Recycling Service Learning Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recycling project begins with students learning about waste and resources. They complete background assignments about the energy and materials required to manufacture paper, aluminum, etc. They study landfills and the issues related to space, pollution, etc. They look at what is different if these things are recycled. The students work in groups of two or three and adopt and academic building on campus. They educate the staff and faculty about recycling - what can be recycled and where. They arrange to pick-up paper from each office. My hope is that the college faculty, staff and students will eventually recycle paper at common bins and that our project will progress to adding other recyclables to our project.

Renee Faatz

447

EFFECTOF ISOLATION WALL USING SCRAP TIRE ON GROUND VIBRATION REDUCTION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some countermeasure methods against the environmental ground vibration caused by some traffic vibrations have been proposed so far. The authors have developed a new type ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire, and evaluated its effectiveness on the ground vibration reduction by full scale field tests. In this paper, the authors discussed and examined the effectiveness of the developed countermeasure method by two field tests. The one concerns on the effect of scrap tire as soft material of vibration isolation wall, and the other on the effect of the developed countermeasure method practically applied in a residential area close to monorail traffic. As the results, it was elucidated that the ground vibration of 2-3 dB was reduced in case of two times volume of the soft material, the conversion ratio of the vibration energy of the soft material to the kinetic energy was higher than that of the core material of PHC pile, the vibration acceleration of 0.19 - 1.26 gal was reduced by the developed countermeasure method in case of the monorail traffic, and the vibration reduction measured behind the isolation wall agreed well with the proposed theoretical value, together with confirming the effectiveness of the ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire as the countermeasure method against the environmental ground vibration.

Kashimoto, Takahiko; Kashimoto, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Tamotsu; Fujimoto, Hiroaki

448

The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns  

SciTech Connect

The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

Blumenthal, M. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

449

Study on the health hazards of scrap metal cutters.  

PubMed

Scrap metal cutters seemed to be left out in most preventive programmes as the workers were mainly contract workers. The health hazards of scrap metal cutting in 54 workers from a foundry and a ship breaking plant were evaluated. Environmental sampling showed lead levels ranging from 0.02 to 0.57 mg/m3 (threshold limit values is 0.15 mg/m3). Exposure to lead came mainly from the paint coat of the metals cut. Metal fume fever was not reported although their main complaints were cough and rhinitis. Skin burns at all stages of healing and residual scars were seen over hands, forearms and thighs. 96% of the cutters had blood lead levels exceeding 40 micrograms/100 ml with 10 workers exceeding 70 micrograms/100 ml. None had clinical evidence of lead poisoning. The study showed that scrap metal cutting is a hazardous industry associated with significant lead exposure. With proper medical supervision, the blood lead levels of this group of workers decreased illustrating the importance of identifying the hazard and implementing appropriate medical surveillance programmes. PMID:2635395

Ho, S F; Wong, P H; Kwok, S F

1989-12-01

450

Benchmarking survey for recycling.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

2005-06-01

451

Municipal solid waste recycling issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling targets have been set nationally and in many states. Unfortunately, the definitions of recycling, rates of recycling, and the appropriate components of MSW vary. MSW recycling has been found to be costly for most municipalities compared to landfill disposal. MSW recycling policy should be determined by the cost to the community and to society more

Lester B. Lave; Chris T. Hendrickson; Noellette M. Conway-Schempf; Francis C. McMichael

1999-01-01

452

Factors Influencing Household Recycling Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate factors encouraging or deterring recycling, telephone interviews were used to study recycling behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of 221 randomly selected adults in a suburban city that had begun a citywide curbside recycling program within the past year. Approximately 40% reported participation in the curbside recycling program, and nearly 20% more claimed that their household had been recycling in

Stuart Oskamp; Maura J. Harrington; Todd C. Edwards; Deborah L. Sherwood; Shawn M. Okuda; Deborah C. Swanson

1991-01-01

453

Announcing: All Recycling Reduce your  

E-print Network

Announcing: All Recycling Go Green! Reduce your contribution to the landfill, by choosing to voluntarily recycle acceptable items in the green All Recycling toters and containers around campus. ONLY THE ITEMS BELOW ARE ACCEPTED FOR ALL RECYCLING Please do not contaminate the recycling containers with trash

Papautsky, Ian

454

Sink-float ferrofluid separator applicable to full scale nonferrous scrap separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design and performance of a ferrofluid levitation separator for recovering nonferrous metals from shredded automobiles are reported. The scrap separator uses an electromagnet to generate a region of constant density within a pool of ferrofluid held between the magnetic poles; a saturated kerosene base ferrofluid as able to float all common industrial metals of interest. Conveyors move the scrap into the ferrofluid for separation according to density. Results of scrap mixture separation studies establish the technical feasibility of relatively pure aluminum alloy and zinc alloy fractions from shredded automobile scrap by this ferrofluid levitation process. Economic projections indicate profitable operation for shredders handling more than 300 cars per day.

1973-01-01

455

Scrap tire management in the New York/Mid Atlantic region  

SciTech Connect

The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufactures sponsored, advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. The primary goal of the Council is to assist in the creation of demand for 100 percent of the annually generated scrap tires in the United States. Based on current market demand and projected market growth, we envision the primary goal to be met by the turn of the century. A national overview of the scrap tire situation is presented, and then the situations in New York/Mid Atlantic region are discussed.

Blumenthal, M. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-05-01

456

Methods for increasing the efficiency of heating scrap metal in electric arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The type of heating, which determines heat transfer from an external energy source to a metallic charge, plays a key role in the process of preliminary heating of scrap metal. The type of charge heating during preliminary heating of scrap metal mainly determines the average scrap metal heating temperature and the formation of harmful substances. This article considers the existing types of charge heating in EAF baths and shaft heaters. The types of scrap metal heating that increase the energy efficiency and weaken the ecological problems related to this process in electric furnace steelmaking units are found.

Raile, V.

2013-06-01

457

Scrap tire fuel for cement kilns. Exchange meeting summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this meeting was to discuss how to implement the use of waste tires as a partial substitute fuel in the US manufacture of cement. The meeting stimulated interest between cement kiln operators and tire recyclers to use waste tires as a partial fuel substitute and established communication between tire recyclers and cement manufacturers. Waste tires are being

Dodds

1984-01-01

458

Recycling at Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

Cummins, William M.

1988-01-01

459

AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY WASTEWATER RECYCLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of recycling certain categories of water used in the manufacture of airplanes was demonstrated. Water in four categories was continuously recycled in 380-liter (100-gallon) treatment plants; chemical process rinse water, dye-penetrant crack-detection rinse water, ...

460

Making Recycled Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and accompanying text describe the three-pronged resource conservation strategy known as "reduce, reuse, and recycle". The video segment, adapted from the television program 'ZOOM', features cast members demonstrating how something that might otherwise be discarded, such as newspaper, can be recycled to create a functional or even beneficial new product. Questions for discussion are also provided.

2005-01-01

461

Carbon dioxide recycling  

EPA Science Inventory

The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the ?Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

462

Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

Weir, Phil

1996-01-01

463

Is mandated recycling possible  

Microsoft Academic Search

If piles of potentially recyclable materials are accumulated as a result of a mandatory source separation program, what options exist for the community First, it could attempt to market the recyclables through normal commercial channels. Second, the community could attempt to market the materials at lower prices to the consumers, since any contribution above available disposal cost is a profit

Cutler

1988-01-01

464

Recycling into Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit weaves art and science together to help students appreciate the importance of recycling. In this engaging activity, students collected items worthy of recycling from home, and with the help of the art teacher, used a loom to cr

Debra Fioranelli

2000-10-01

465

Visiting a Recycling Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this ZOOM video segment, cast member Francesco follows the paper trail to find out what happens to his recyclables. He visits a material recovery center and learns how paper is recycled and the number of trees that are saved as a result.

2005-10-21

466

The Fermilab recycler ring  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

Martin Hu

2001-07-24

467

Remote fabrication and irradiation test of recycled nuclear fuel prepared by the oxidation and reduction of spent oxide fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct dry recycling process was developed in order to reuse spent pressurized light water reactor (LWR) nuclear fuel in CANDU reactors without the separation of sensitive nuclear materials such as plutonium. The benefits of the dry recycling process are the saving of uranium resources and the reduction of spent fuel accumulation as well as a higher proliferation resistance. In

Ho Jin Ryu; Kee Chan Song; Geun Il Park; Jung Won Lee; Myung Seung Yang

2005-01-01

468

Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction  

SciTech Connect

We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

DUNCAN, D.R.

2000-04-20

469

Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

Francis, A.J.

1998-12-31

470

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil doesn't wear out--it just gets dirty. Students and the general public may not know that used oil can be reused or recycled. The fact is, used oil can be re-fined, blended with additives, and used again. When you consider that 1.4 billion gallons

Boyd W. White

2000-11-01

471

An economic and technical assessment of black-dross and salt-cake-recycling systems for application in the secondary aluminum industry  

SciTech Connect

The secondary aluminum industry annually disposes of large amounts of dross residues and salt cake, which are by-products from the processing of scrap aluminum for reuse. These wastes contain as much as 50% salts and are presently disposed of in conventional landfills. As the costs of landfill space increase and the availability of landfill space decreases, disposal of the residues will increasingly compromise the economics of recycling aluminum. Alternative processes exist by which the major constituents of the various drosses and salt cakes can be recovered for recycling. In this study, we review available recycling technologies and processes relevant to the recycling of black dross and salt cake and discuss new concepts that have the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of recycling technologies.

Karvelas, D.; Daniels, E.; Jody, B.; Bonsignore, P.

1991-12-01

472

RecycleMania! Improving Waste Reduction and Recycling on  

E-print Network

RecycleMania! Improving Waste Reduction and Recycling on Campus from Universities to Big Business #12;Contact Information Tracy Artley Recycling Coordinator University of Michigan Tel: 734-763-5539 Email: recycle@umich.edu #12;Agenda Waste Impacts of Large Institutions Unique Challenges Overcoming

Awtar, Shorya

473

Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant  

DOEpatents

A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

2002-11-05

474

Energy Return on Investment from Recycling Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) from recycling an initial batch of 800 t/y of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through a Recycle Center under a number of different fuel cycle scenarios. The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered. The scenarios represent a good cross section of the options available and the results contained in this paper and associated appendices will allow for other fuel cycle options to be considered.

None

2011-08-17

475

Computer-munching microbes: metal leaching from electronic scrap by bacteria and fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological processes were applied to mobilize metals from electronic waste materials. Bacteria (Thiobacillus thiooxidans, T. ferrooxidans) and fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum) were grown in the presence of electronic scrap. The formation of inorganic and organic acids caused the mobilization of metals. Initial experiments showed that microbial growth was inhibited when the concentration of scrap in the medium exceeded 10

H Brandl; R Bosshard; M Wegmann

2001-01-01

476

40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

2013-07-01

477

40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

2011-07-01

478

40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

2014-07-01

479

40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. 761.72...Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person...regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste...

2012-07-01