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1

Influence of the implant-abutment connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the implant-abutment connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS Regular and wide-diameter implant systems with three different joint connection designs: an external butt joint, a one-stage internal cone, and a two-stage internal cone were divided into seven groups (n=5, in each group). The initial removal torque values of the abutment screw were measured with a digital torque gauge. The postload removal torque values were measured after 100,000 cycles of a 150 N and a 10 Hz cyclic load had been applied. Subsequently, the rates of the initial and postload removal torque losses were calculated to evaluate the effect of the joint connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability. Each group was compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test as post-hoc test (?=0.05). RESULTS The postload removal torque value was high in the following order with regard to magnitude: two-stage internal cone, one-stage internal cone, and external butt joint systems. In the regular-diameter group, the external butt joint and one-stage internal cone systems showed lower postload removal torque loss rates than the two-stage internal cone system. In the wide-diameter group, the external butt joint system showed a lower loss rate than the one-stage internal cone and two-stage internal cone systems. In the two-stage internal cone system, the wide-diameter group showed a significantly lower loss rate than the regular-diameter group (P<.05). CONCLUSION The results of this study showed that the external butt joint was more advantageous than the internal cone in terms of the postload removal torque loss. For the difference in the implant diameter, a wide diameter was more advantageous in terms of the torque loss rate. PMID:24843398

Shin, Hyon-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jeong; Jeon, Young-Chan; Chang, Brian Myung

2014-01-01

2

46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. 154...Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. Pipe...the following: (a) A butt welded joint with complete penetration at...

2010-10-01

3

46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. 154...Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. Pipe...the following: (a) A butt welded joint with complete penetration at...

2011-10-01

4

46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings....

2012-10-01

5

46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings....

2013-10-01

6

46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings....

2014-10-01

7

Anterior transarticular screw fixation as a conventional operation for rigid stabilization  

PubMed Central

Background: Anterior transarticular screw (ATS) fixation is a useful surgical option for atlantoaxial (AA) stabilization. This report presents a revised ATS method for AA fusion. Methods: A 79-year-old male presented with AA instability attributed both to an old odontoid fracture and severe degeneration of the lateral atlantoaxial joints (LAAJs). ATS fixation was performed through the conventional anterior cervical approach. The longest screw trajectories were planned preoperatively using multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography (CT) scans, with entry points of the screws situated at the midpoint on the inferior border of the axial body. The surgical exposure was limited to opening at the entry points alone. Our retractor of choice was the Cusco speculum; it sufficiently secured space for utilizing the required instruments for screw placement while offering sufficient protection of soft tissues. Cannulated full-threaded bicortical screws stabilized the LAAJs. Screw insertion required a significant amount of coronal angulation up to the superior articular process of the atlas under open-mouth and lateral fluoroscopy image guidance. After ATS fixation, bone grafting was performed between the posterior laminae of the axis and the atlas through a conventional posterior approach. Results: Bony fusion between the atlas and the axis was confirmed radiographically. Arthrodesis of the LAAJs occurred despite no bone grafting. Conclusions: Rigid fixation of the LAAJs was obtained by our ATS technique, indicating that it is an alternative method for AA fixation when posterior rigid internal fixation is not applicable. PMID:25593774

Sasaki, Manabu; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tsuruzono, Koichiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Shibano, Katsuhiko; Yonenobu, Kazuo

2014-01-01

8

The strength of press-glued and screw-glued wood-plywood joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of screw-gluing and gap-filling phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (GPRF) adhesive using different glue line thicknesses on the shear strength of wood-plywood joints were studied to determine the use of screw-gluing fastening (SG) method and GPRF adhesive. The specimens were manufactured using either SG method with GPRF adhesive and fine threaded drywall screws or press-gluing (PG) method with GPRF adhesive.

Ramazan Kurt

2003-01-01

9

Selected Methods for Locking Screw Joints, Including the Use of Adhesives, Used in the Helicopter Construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the problems of preventing screw joints from self-loosening on one of helicopter. The research examines selected locking methods used in aircraft produced by different manufacturers. Experimental tests were performed to investigate the loosening torque of screw joints locked by various devices: cotter pin, locknut, centre punching, self-locking nut and adhesive. A comparative analysis of the investigated locking methods is made with respect to their locking strength and efficiency.

Rudawska, Anna; Cisz, S?awomir; Warda, Tomasz

2014-12-01

10

Pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization: literature review.  

PubMed

Posterior dynamic stabilization (PDS) indicates motion preservation devices that are aimed for surgical treatment of activity related mechanical low back pain. A large number of such devices have been introduced during the last 2 decades, without biomechanical design rationale, or clinical evidence of efficacy to address back pain. Implant failure is the commonest complication, which has resulted in withdrawal of some of the PDS devices from the market. In this paper the authors presented the current understanding of clinical instability of lumbar motions segment, proposed a classification, and described the clinical experience of the pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization devices. PMID:23227349

Sengupta, Dilip K; Herkowitz, Harry N

2012-01-01

11

Screw placement and osteoplasty under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance in a case of advanced metastatic destruction of the iliosacral joint.  

PubMed

We present a case of combined surgical screw placement and osteoplasty guided by computed tomography-fluoroscopy (CTF) in a 68-year-old man with unilateral osteolytic destruction and a pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint due to a metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. The patient experienced intractable lower back pain that was refractory to analgesia. After transarterial particle and coil embolization of the tumor-feeding vessels in the angiography unit, the procedure was performed under general anesthesia by an interdisciplinary team of interventional radiologists and trauma surgeons. Under intermittent single-shot CTF, two K wires were inserted into the left iliosacral joint from a lateral transiliac approach at the S1 level followed by two self-tapping surgical screws. Continuous CTF was used for monitoring of the subsequent polymethylmethacrylate injection through two vertebroplasty cannulas for further stabilization of the screw threads within the osteolytic sacral ala. Both the screw placement and cement injection were successful, with no complications occurring during or after the procedure. With additional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and opioid medication, the patient reported a marked decrease in his lower back pain and was able to move independently again at the 3-month follow-up assessment. In our patient with intolerable back pain due to tumor destruction and consequent pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint, CTF-guided iliosacral screw placement combined with osteoplasty was successful with respect to joint stabilization and a reduction in the need for analgesic therapy. PMID:19795167

Trumm, Christoph Gregor; Rubenbauer, Bianca; Piltz, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian F; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

2011-02-01

12

Screw Placement and Osteoplasty Under Computed Tomographic-Fluoroscopic Guidance in a Case of Advanced Metastatic Destruction of the Iliosacral Joint  

SciTech Connect

We present a case of combined surgical screw placement and osteoplasty guided by computed tomography-fluoroscopy (CTF) in a 68-year-old man with unilateral osteolytic destruction and a pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint due to a metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. The patient experienced intractable lower back pain that was refractory to analgesia. After transarterial particle and coil embolization of the tumor-feeding vessels in the angiography unit, the procedure was performed under general anesthesia by an interdisciplinary team of interventional radiologists and trauma surgeons. Under intermittent single-shot CTF, two K wires were inserted into the left iliosacral joint from a lateral transiliac approach at the S1 level followed by two self-tapping surgical screws. Continuous CTF was used for monitoring of the subsequent polymethylmethacrylate injection through two vertebroplasty cannulas for further stabilization of the screw threads within the osteolytic sacral ala. Both the screw placement and cement injection were successful, with no complications occurring during or after the procedure. With additional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and opioid medication, the patient reported a marked decrease in his lower back pain and was able to move independently again at the 3-month follow-up assessment. In our patient with intolerable back pain due to tumor destruction and consequent pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint, CTF-guided iliosacral screw placement combined with osteoplasty was successful with respect to joint stabilization and a reduction in the need for analgesic therapy.

Trumm, Christoph Gregor, E-mail: christoph.trumm@med.lmu.de [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology (Germany); Rubenbauer, Bianca; Piltz, Stefan [University of Munich, Department of Surgery (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology (Germany)

2011-02-15

13

Proprioception and joint stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper the current clinical knowledge about proprioception is given for the shoulder, knee, ankle, elbow and the radiocarpal joint. Proprioceptive capabilities are decreased after joint injuries such as ACL or meniscus tears, shoulder dislocation, ankle sprain and in joints with degenerative joint disease. Some surgical procedures seem to restore the proprioceptive abilities; others do not. Elastic knee

J. Jerosch; M. Prymka

1996-01-01

14

Metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joint arthrodesis: a comparative study between tension band and compression screw fixation.  

PubMed

A retrospective, comparative cohort study was performed of metacarpophalangeal or proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis with either tension band (n = 28) or compression (Acutrak Mini) screw (n = 29) methods. We compared rate of union, healing time, complications, and re-operation rate. Union was achieved in 26/28 (92.8%) of the tension band group (9.4 weeks) and 24/28 (85.7%) of the compression screw group (9.8 weeks). Only 28 patients in the screw group were assessed for union as one patient in the screw group sustained a fracture at the time of insertion and was converted to tension band fixation. The complication rate was 8/28 (28.6%) in the tension band group and 8/29 (27.6%) in the compression screw group. Re-operation rate was 9/28 (32.1%) in the tension band group and 1/29 (3.6%) in the compression screw group. Our findings indicate that bone healing, healing time, and complications are similar in both groups. The tension band technique had a significantly higher re-operation rate (hardware removal), but was the technique for salvage following failure of the screw technique. PMID:24436361

Breyer, J M; Vergara, P; Parra, L; Sotelo, P; Bifani, A; Andrade, F

2014-01-15

15

Factors associated with the stability of titanium screws placed in the posterior region for orthodontic anchorage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, implant anchors such as titanium screws have been used for absolute anchorage during edgewise treatment. However, there have been few human studies reporting on the stability of implant anchors placed in the posterior region. The purpose of this study was to examine the success rates and to find the factors associated with the stability of titanium screws placed into

Shouichi Miyawaki; Isao Koyama; Masahide Inoue; Katsuaki Mishima; Toshio Sugahara; Teruko Takano-Yamamoto

2003-01-01

16

Optimization and Innovation of Screw Joints of Micron-Wood-Fiber Molded Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micron-wood-fiber molded products are new kinds of high strength man-made wooden products. They are innovative products among molded fiber products nowadays. This paper studied a new method to design their screw joints using optimal design. It has combined the optimal design with reliability design ingeniously. The CAD programming method was put forward, which can optimize the structural parameters of micron-wood-fiber molded products, and may be used on the strength design and the check of innovation for new products. The new calculating method and software had provided effective design method for screw joints of micron-wood-fiber molded products. It would increase the calculating efficiency and precision greatly.

Pan, Chengyi; Zhang, Jianyi

17

Joint stabilizing projects in defense  

SciTech Connect

Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

1992-06-01

18

Biomechanical evaluation of Caspar cervical screws: comparative stability under cyclical loading.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical instrumentation is used as an adjunct to bone fusion; however, definitive biomechanical data to support some applications and techniques are lacking. In the absence of supportive experimental data, posterior cortical penetration has been recommended with the Caspar system. Previously, we compared the axial pull-out strength of Caspar screws with and without posterior cortical penetration. This study compares the stability of unicortical versus bicortical screw penetration groups under cyclical loading simulating physiological flexion-extension. Caspar screws were placed in human cadaveric vertebrae with or without posterior cortical purchase. Each screw was separately tested, simulating flexion-extension to 200 cycles. Deformation time data allowed a direct comparison of screw "wobble" with and without posterior cortical purchase. The mean deformation differences between subcortical and bicortical groups were statistically significant and increased over time within both groups. Enhanced stability was noted with bicortical purchase throughout most of the examined range, becoming more pronounced over longer periods of cyclical loading. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in deformation over time were noted for both groups, suggesting potentially significant deterioration at the screw-bone interface, despite bicortical purchase. Such deterioration with repeated flexion-extension loading may be of concern in the use of Caspar plates in the presence of multicolumn instability. PMID:8133990

Gallagher, M R; Maiman, D J; Reinartz, J; Pintar, F; Yoganandan, N

1993-12-01

19

Comparison of in-vitro motion and stability between techniques for index metacarpophalangeal joint radial collateral ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate a technique using interference screws to reconstruct the radial collateral ligament (RCL) of the index finger metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint. We hypothesized that this technique would provide equivalent stability and flexion as a 4-tunnel reconstruction. Methods The RCL was isolated in 17 cadaveric index fingers. A cyclic load was applied to the intact RCL across the MP joint to assess flexion, ulnar deviation at neutral (UD@0), and ulnar deviation at 90° of MP joint flexion (UD@90). The RCL was excised from its bony origin and insertion. Each reconstruction (4-tunnel and interference screw) was performed sequentially on each specimen in randomized order. Testing was repeated after each reconstruction. Differences from the intact state were compared between the techniques using paired t-tests for all joint positions (flexion/UD@0/UD@90). Results There was no statistically significant difference in UD@0 or UD@90 between the intact state and after interference screw reconstruction. Compared to the intact state, there was significantly less UD@0 and significantly more UD@90 after 4-tunnel reconstruction. There was no statistically significant difference between techniques when comparing change in -UD@0 or change in UD@90. Change in flexion was statistically significantly different, indicating that the interference screw technique better replicated intact MP joint flexion compared to the 4-tunnel technique. Discussion Interference screw reconstruction of the index RCL provided stability comparable to 4-tunnel reconstruction but is less technically challenging. These results substantiate our clinical experience that interference screw technique provides an optimal combination of stability and flexion at the index MP joint. Clinical Relevance Using an interference screw to reconstruct the index RCL is less challenging and provides stability and range of motion that closely resembles the native MP joint. PMID:23747165

Dy, Christopher J.; Tucker, Scott M.; Carlson, Michelle Gerwin

2013-01-01

20

CT-Guided Transfacet Pedicle Screw Fixation in Facet Joint Syndrome: A Novel Approach.  

PubMed

Axial microinstability secondary to disc degeneration and consequent chronic facet joint syndrome (CFJS) is a well-known pathological entity, usually responsible for low back pain (LBP). Although posterior lumbar fixation (PIF) has been widely used for lumbar spine instability and LBP, complications related to wrong screw introduction, perineural scars and extensive muscle dissection leading to muscle dysfunction have been described. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of facet joints zygapophyseal nerves conventionally used for pain treatment fails in approximately 21% of patients. We investigated a "covert-surgery" minimal invasive technique to treat local spinal instability and LBP, using a novel fully CT-guided approach in patients with axial instability complicated by CFJS resistant to radioablation, by introducing direct fully or partially threaded transfacet screws (transfacet fixation - TFF), to acquire solid arthrodesis, reducing instability and LBP. The CT-guided procedure was well tolerated by all patients in simple analogue sedation, and mean operative time was approximately 45 minutes. All eight patients treated underwent clinical and CT study follow-up at two months, revealing LBP disappearance in six patients, and a significant reduction of lumbar pain in two. In conclusion, CT-guided TFF is a fast and safe technique when facet posterior fixation is needed. PMID:25363265

Manfré, Luigi

2014-10-31

21

The importance of lag screw position for the stabilization of trochanteric fractures with a sliding hip screw: a subject-specific finite element study.  

PubMed

Using finite element analysis, we compared the biomechanical performance of a CT scan-based three-part trochanteric fracture model (31-A2 in the AO classification) stabilized with a sliding hip screw for nine different positions of the lag screw (3 × 3 arrangement, from anterior to posterior and from inferior to superior). Our results showed that the volume of bone susceptible to yielding in the head and neck region is the lowest for inferior positions and increases as the lag screw is moved superiorly. Overall, for this specific subject, the models less likely to lead to cut-out are the ones corresponding to inferior middle and inferior posterior positions of the lag screw. In our study, the tip-apex distance (TAD) was anti-correlated with the risk of cut-out, as quantified by the volume of bone susceptible to yielding, which suggests that a TAD >25 mm cannot be considered to be an accurate predictor of lag screw cut-out. Further clinical studies investigating lag screw cut-out should attempt to find more reliable predictors of cut-out that should better reflect the biomechanics and subject-specificity of the femoral head. PMID:23138576

Goffin, Jérôme M; Pankaj, Pankaj; Simpson, A Hamish

2013-04-01

22

Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

23

Pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilizers for degenerative spine: in vitro biomechanical testing and clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

Dynamic stabilization in a degenerate symptomatic spine may be advantageous compared with conventional fusion procedures, as it helps preserve motion and minimizes redistribution of loads at instrumented and adjacent segments. This article presents a systematic review of biomechanical and clinical evidence available on some of the pedicle screw based posterior dynamic stabilization (PDS) devices. Using Medline, Embase, and Scopus online databases, we identified four pedicle-screw-PDS devices for which both, biomechanical testing and clinical follow-up data are available: Graf artificial ligaments, Isobar TTL, Polyetheretherketone rods, and Dynesys. The current state-of-the-art of pedicle-screw-PDS devices is far from achieving its desired biomechanical efficacy, which has resulted in a weak support for the posited clinical benefits. Although pedicle-screw-PDS devices are useful in salvaging a moderately degenerate functionally suboptimal disc, for severe disc degeneration cases fusion is still the preferred choice. We conclude that a pedicle-screw-PDS device should aim at restoring load sharing amongst spinal elements while preserving the qualitative and quantitative nature of spinal motion, especially minimize posterior shift of the helical axis of motion. More precise and objective assessment techniques need to be standardized for in vivo evaluation of intervertebral motion and load sharing amongst spinal elements across different pedicle-screw-PDS devices. PMID:24382799

Chamoli, Uphar; Diwan, Ashish D; Tsafnat, Naomi

2014-09-01

24

Biomechanical Evaluation of Pedicle Screw-Based Dynamic Stabilization Devices for the Lumbar Spine: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Study Design This study is a systematic review of published biomechanical studies involving pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization devices (PDS) with a special focus on kinematics and load transmission through the functional spine unit (FSU). Methods A literature search was performed via the PubMed online database from 1990 to 2008 using the following key words: “biomechanics,” “lumbar dynamic stabilization,” “Graf system,” “Dynesys,” and “posterior dynamic implant.” Citations were limited to papers describing biomechanics of pedicle screw-based PDS devices currently available for clinical use. Studies describing clinical experience, radiology, and in vivo testing were excluded from the review. Parameters measured included kinematics of the FSU (range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), and location of the center of rotation) and load transmission through the disk, facets, and instrumentation. Results A total of 27 publications were found that concerned the biomechanical evaluation of lumbar pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilization instrumentation. Nine in vitro experimental studies and 4 finite element analyses satisfied the inclusion criteria. The Dynesys implant was the most investigated pedicle screw-based PDS system. In vitro cadaveric studies mainly focused on kinematics comparing ROM of intact versus instrumented spines whereas finite element analyses allowed analysis of load transmission at the instrumented and adjacent levels. Conclusion Biomechanical studies demonstrate that pedicle screw-based PDS devices limit intervertebral motion while unloading the intervertebral disk. The implant design and the surgical technique have a significant impact on the biomechanical behavior of the instrumented spinal segment. The posterior placement of such devices results in non-physiologic intervertebral kinematics with a posterior shift of the axis of rotation. Biomechanical studies suggest that the difference at the adjacent level between investigated dynamic devices and rigid stabilization systems may not be as high as reported. Finally, additional investigations of semirigid devices are needed to further evaluate their biomechanical properties compared to soft stabilization PDS systems.

Ponnappan, Ravi K.; Song, Jason; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

2008-01-01

25

Research on the stabilization of friction torque of precision ball screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account the influence of the error in the contact points of balls and the groove on the contact force, the influence of manufacturing errors of grooves on friction torque was analyzed. The view that the manufacturing errors of groove in ball screw mechanism affect the value of the friction torque averagely was brought forward. The characteristic of fiction

Zhang Zuoying; Zhang Wanli; Song Xianchun

2009-01-01

26

Existence and Stability of a Screw Dislocation under Anti-Plane Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a variational model for a geometrically necessary screw dislocation in an anti-plane lattice model at zero temperature. Invariance of the energy functional under lattice symmetries renders the problem non-coercive. Nevertheless, by establishing coercivity with respect to the elastic strain and a concentration compactness principle, we prove the existence of a global energy minimizer and thus demonstrate that dislocations are globally stable equilibria within our model.

Hudson, Thomas; Ortner, Christoph

2014-09-01

27

Using elastic joint to reduce the impact between ball and re-circulating mechanism in ball screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ball screw driven mechanism is a major component in high-speed\\/high-precision transmitting systems. In such a mechanism, the re-circulating mechanism has been designed to provide the path for steel balls rolling in screw grooves. As the driven shaft in the mechanism operates at high rotating speed, forces caused by the impact activity between the steel ball and re-circulating mechanism may

Zuoying Zhang

2008-01-01

28

Lumbosacral fixation using sacroiliac buttress screws: a modification to the Jackson technique with intrasacral rods  

PubMed Central

Background The use of intrasacral rods has been previously reported for posterior lumbosacral fixation. However, problems associated with this technique include poor stability of the rod in the sacrum, difficulty in contouring the rod to fit the lateral sacral mass, and the complicated assembly procedure for the rod and pedicle screws in the thoracolumbar segments after insertion of the rod into the sacrum. Methods We used a screw with a polyaxial head instead of an intrasacral rod, which was inserted into the lateral sacral mass and assembled to the rod connected cephalad to pedicle screws. The dorsal side of the screw was stabilized by the sacral subchondral bone at the sacroiliac joint with iliac buttress coverage, and the tip of the screw was anchored by the sacral cortex. Results Three different cases were used to illustrate lumbosacral fixation using intrasacral screws as an anchor for the spinal instrumentation. Effective resistance of flexural bending moment and fusion were achieved in these patients at the lumbosacral level. Conclusions An intrasacral screw can be stabilized by subchondral bone with iliac buttress coverage at the dorsal and ventral sacral cortex. Posterior spinal fusion with this screw technique enables easier assembly of the instrumentation and presents better stabilization than that provided by the previously reported intrasacral rod technique for correction and fusion of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis. PMID:25050132

2014-01-01

29

Effects of different mandibular fracture patterns on the stability of miniplate screw fixation in angle mandibular fractures.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of horizontally favourable and unfavourable mandibular fracture patterns on the fixation stability of titanium plates and screws by simulating chewing forces. Favourable and unfavourable mandibular fractures on 22 sheep hemimandibles were fixed with 4-hole straight titanium plates and 2.0mm×7mm titanium screws according to the Champy technique. Hemimandibles were mounted with a fixation device in a servohydraulic testing unit for compressive testing. Displacement values under 20, 60, 100, 120, 150, 200N, maximum displacements, and maximum forces the model could resist before breakage were recorded and compared. The authors found no statistically significant differences between the groups for the displacement values in the force range 60-200N (60, 100, 120, 150 and 200N). Statistically significant differences for maximum displacement values (displacement values at the breaking forces) between the groups were found (P<0.05). There was no evidence for the need to apply different treatment modalities to mandibular fractures regardless of whether the factures are favourable or not. PMID:22178275

Pektas, Z O; Bayram, B; Balcik, C; Develi, T; Uckan, S

2012-03-01

30

Modified Muscle-Sparing Paraspinal Approach for Stabilization and Interlaminar Decompression: A Minimally Invasive Technique for Pedicle Screw-Based Posterior Nonfusion Stabilization  

PubMed Central

Introduction Though Wiltse developed the paraspinal muscle-splitting approach to the spine, the exact location of where and how to split the paraspinal musculature when performing this approach remains unclear. This type of approach may be particularly useful for posterior nonfusion stabilization as significantly less damage occurs with this approach than with a muscle-stripping approach. Methods We use the term “modified muscle-sparing approach” to describe our technique for following the natural cleavage plane between the multifidus and longissimus muscles to access the spine. We review the rationale behind this methodology and describe technical aspects of this approach and also demonstrate the technique on video. Results We use this technique routinely for our posterior nonfusion pedicle screw stabilization approach. Conclusions The modified muscle-sparing approach is a useful approach for insertion of pedicle screw-based posterior nonfusion stabilization. The approach can be readily performed with little blood loss and with little muscle damage. Decompression can also be performed through the same incision if needed.

Baron, Eli M.; Bray, Robert S.

2008-01-01

31

Lateral stability of the proximal interphalangeal joint.  

PubMed

Current diagnostic criteria and therapeutic guidelines for injuries to the collateral ligaments of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint are imprecise and vague. Laxity determinations, failure analysis, radiographic stress testing, and microscopic dissections were performed on 112 PIP joints. The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) is the primary restraint to varus and valgus angulation of the PIP joint. Its palmar fibers are tight in joint extension and provide the first line of resistance to lateral angulation. Failure of the LCL almost always occurs proximally in a sequential fashion that begins with the palmar fibers and progresses to the more dorsal bundles. Proximal LCL disruption is followed by separation of the accessory collateral-LCL junction and finally by failure of the distal palmar plate. Midsubstance tears of the LCL are rare. If the lateral stress test shows more than 20 degrees of varus or valgus angulation, the LCL can be presumed to be completely disrupted. Angulation of less than 20 degrees is associated with a 53% chance of partial LCL failure and a 47% chance of complete disruption, but the proper position of the LCL will be maintained by the overlying connective tissues. A clinical investigation will be necessary to define the criteria for surgical intervention. PMID:3760491

Kiefhaber, T R; Stern, P J; Grood, E S

1986-09-01

32

Effect of ultrasound therapy on bone healing of lateral malleolar fractures of the ankle joint fixed with bioabsorbable screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We investigated the effect of low-intensity ultrasound on bone healing in bioabsorbable self-reinforced poly-l-lactic acid (SR-PLLA) screw-fixed lateral malleolar fractures. The study design was prospective, randomized, double-blind,\\u000a and placebo-controlled.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 22 fractures were fixed with one SR-PLLA screw. All the patients were instructed to use an ultrasound device 20?min\\u000a daily for 42 days without knowing whether it was

Lauri Handolin; Veikko Kiljunen; Ilkka Arnala; Martti J. Kiuru; Jarkko Pajarinen; Esa K. Partio; Pentti Rokkanen

2005-01-01

33

Thermal stability of glued wood joints measured by shear tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal stability of glued wood joints is an important criterion to determine the suitability of adhesives in the field\\u000a of engineered wood. During their product life, glued wood joints can be exposed to high temperatures in various ways (direct\\u000a exposure to the sun, fire, etc.). Thereby the cohesiveness of the adhesive must not degrade. This raises the question of

Sebastian Clauß; Matus Joscak; Peter Niemz

2011-01-01

34

Novel Pedicle Screw and Plate System Provides Superior Stability in Unilateral Fixation for Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: An In Vitro Biomechanical Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aims to compare the biomechanical properties of the novel pedicle screw and plate system with the traditional rod system in asymmetrical posterior stabilization for minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF). We compared the immediate stabilizing effects of fusion segment and the strain distribution on the vertebral body. Methods Seven fresh calf lumbar spines (L3-L6) were tested. Flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were induced by pure moments of ± 5.0 Nm and the range of motion (ROM) was recorded. Strain gauges were instrumented at L4 and L5 vertebral body to record the strain distribution under flexion and lateral bending (LB). After intact kinematic analysis, a right sided TLIF was performed at L4-L5. Then each specimen was tested for the following constructs: unilateral pedicle screw and rod (UR); unilateral pedicle screw and plate (UP); UR and transfacet pedicle screw (TFS); UP and TFS; UP and UR. Results All instrumented constructs significantly reduced ROM in all motion compared with the intact specimen, except the UR construct in axial rotation. Unilateral fixation (UR or UP) reduced ROM less compared with the bilateral fixation (UP/UR+TFS, UP+UR). The plate system resulted in more reduction in ROM compared with the rod system, especially in axial rotation. UP construct provided more stability in axial rotation compared with UR construct. The strain distribution on the left and right side of L4 vertebral body was significantly different from UR and UR+TFS construct under flexion motion. The strain distribution on L4 vertebral body was significantly influenced by different fixation constructs. Conclusions The novel plate could provide sufficient segmental stability in axial rotation. The UR construct exhibits weak stability and asymmetrical strain distribution in fusion segment, while the UP construct is a good alternative choice for unilateral posterior fixation of MI-TLIF. PMID:25807513

Zhu, Qingan; Zhou, Yue; Li, Changqing; Liu, Huan; Huang, Zhiping; Shang, Jin

2015-01-01

35

Benefit and accuracy of intraoperative 3D-imaging after pedicle screw placement: a prospective study in stabilizing thoracolumbar fractures  

PubMed Central

Internal fixation is the established dorsal standard procedure for the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures. The main problem of the procedure is the false positioning of the pedicle screws. The exact determination of pedicle screws has up to now only been possible through postoperative computed tomography. This study was intended to clarify the diagnostic value of intraoperative 3D scans after pedicle screw implantation in thoracolumbar spine surgery. The direct intraoperative consequences of the 3D scans are reported and the results of the 3D scans are compared with the postoperative computed tomography images. Intraoperative 3D scans were prospectively carried out from June 2006 to October 2008 on 95 patients with fractures of the thoracolumbar spine that have been treated with internal fixation. Screws positions were categorised intraoperatively, screws in relevant malposition were repositioned immediately. A computed tomography of the involved spinal section was carried out postoperatively for all patients. The positions of the pedicle screws were determined and compared in the axial reconstructions of both procedures. Four hundred and fourteen pedicles with enclosed screws were evaluated by the 3D scans. The time needed for carrying out the 3D scan amounts to an average of 8.2 min. Eleven screws (2.7%) in ten patients were primarily intraoperatively repositioned on the basis of the 3D scan evaluation. Two of 95 patients had to have false positions of the screws revised secondarily following evaluation of the computed tomographies. The secondary postoperative revision rate of the patients amounts to 2.1%. In relation to the number of screws, this is a revision rate of 0.5%. The postoperative computed tomographies showed 323 pedicles without cortical penetration by the screws (78.0%). Ninety-one screws penetrated the pedicle wall (22%). It was possible to postoperatively compare the position classifications of 406 pedicle screws. The CT showed 378 correct screw positions, while 28 screws were positioned falsely. On the basis of the 3D scans, 376 of 378 correct positions were correctly assessed. Twenty-one of 28 false positions could be correctly classified. The sensitivity of all 3D scans reached 91.3% and the specificity 98.2%. The position of 97.8% of the pedicle screws was correctly recognised by the intraoperative 3D scan. Nine screws were classified falsely (2.2%). The comparison of the classification results showed significantly higher error findings by the 3D scan in the spinal section T1–10 (P = 0.014). The image quality of the 3D scan correlates significantly with the width of the scanned pedicle, with the body mass index, the scanned spinal section and the extent of the fixation assembly. 3D scans showed a high accuracy in predicting pedicle screw position. Primary false placement of screws and primary neurovascular damage cannot be avoided. But intraoperative evaluation of the 3D scans resulted in a primary revision rate of 2.7% of the pedicle screws and we could lower the secondary revision rate to 0.5%. PMID:19513764

Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gierer, Philip; Harms, Christoph; Gradl, Georg

2009-01-01

36

Atlantoaxial fixation using the polyaxial screw–rod system  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to evaluate the first results of the atlantoaxial fixation using polyaxial screw–rod system. Twenty-eight patients followed-up 12–29 months (average 17.1 months) were included in this study. The average age was 59.5 years (range 23–89 years). The atlantoaxial fusion was employed in 20 patients for an acute injury to the upper cervical spine, in 1 patient with rheumatoid arthritis for atlantoaxial vertical instability, in 1 patient for C1–C2 osteoarthritis, in 2 patients for malunion of the fractured dens. Temporary fixation was applied in two patients for type III displaced fractures of the dens and in two patients for the atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation. Retrospectively, we evaluated operative time, intraoperative bleeding and the interval of X-ray exposure. The resulting condition was subjectively evaluated by patients. We evaluated also the placement, direction and length of the screws. Fusion or stability in the temporary fixation was evaluated on radiographs taken at 3, 6, 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months after the surgery. As concerns complications, intraoperatively we monitored injury of the nerve structures and the vertebral artery. Monitoring of postoperative complications was focused on delayed healing of the wound, breaking or loosening of screws and development of malunion. Operative time ranged from 35 to 155 min, (average 83 min). Intraoperative blood loss ranged from 50 to 1,500 ml (average 540 ml). The image intensifier was used for a period of 24 s to 2 min 36 s (average 1 min 6 s). Within the postoperative evaluation, four patients complained of paresthesia in the region innervated by the greater occipital nerve. A total of 56 screws were inserted into C1, their length ranged from 26 to 34 mm (average, 30.8 mm). All screws were positioned correctly in the C1 lateral mass. Another 56 screws were inserted into C2. Their length ranged from 28 to 36 mm (average 31.4 mm). Three screws were malpositioned: one screw perforated the spinal canal and two screws protruded into the vertebral artery canal. C1–C2 stability was achieved in all patients 12 weeks after the surgery. No clinically manifested injury of the vertebral artery or nerve structures was observed in any of these cases. As for postoperative complications, we recorded wound dehiscence in one patient. The Harms C1–C2 fixation is a very effective method of stabilizing the atlantoaxial complex. The possibility of a temporary fixation without damage to the atlantoaxial joints and of reduction after the screws and rods had been inserted is quite unique. PMID:17051397

Vyskocil, Tomas; Sebesta, Petr; Kryl, Jan

2006-01-01

37

Inferolateral Entry Point for C2 Pedicle Screw Fixation in High Cervical Lesions  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of atlantoaxial stabilization using a new entry point for C2 pedicle screw fixation. Methods Data were collected from 44 patients undergoing posterior C1 lateral mass screw and C2 screw fixation. The 20 cases were approached by the Harms entry point, 21 by the inferolateral point, and three by pars screw. The new inferolateral entry point of the C2 pedicle was located about 3-5 mm medial to the lateral border of the C2 lateral mass and 5-7 mm superior to the inferior border of the C2-3 facet joint. The screw was inserted at an angle 30° to 45° toward the midline in the transverse plane and 40° to 50° cephalad in the sagittal plane. Patients received followed-up with clinical examinations, radiographs and/or CT scans. Results There were 28 males and 16 females. No neurological deterioration or vertebral artery injuries were observed. Five cases showed malpositioned screws (2.84%), with four of the screws showing cortical breaches of the transverse foramen. There were no clinical consequences for these five patients. One screw in the C1 lateral mass had a medial cortical breach. None of the screws were malpositioned in patients treated using the new entry point. There was a significant relationship between two group (p=0.036). Conclusion Posterior C1-2 screw fixation can be performed safely using the new inferolateral entry point for C2 pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of high cervical lesions. PMID:22200017

Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Chul Hee; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Park, In Sung; Jung, Jin Myung

2011-01-01

38

Human-Humanoid Joint Haptic Table Carrying Task with Height Stabilization using Vision  

E-print Network

Human-Humanoid Joint Haptic Table Carrying Task with Height Stabilization using Vision Don Joven, a first step is taken towards using vision in human-humanoid haptic joint actions. Haptic joint actions robot. We then demonstrate all this by an experiment where a human and the HRP-2 humanoid jointly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Four quadrant parallel peripheral screw fixation for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The treatment options for displaced femoral neck fracture in elderly are screw fixation, hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty based primarily on age of the patient. The issues in screw fixation are ideal patient selection, optimal number of screws, optimal screw configuration and positioning inside the head and neck of femur. The problems of screw fixation may be loss of fixation, joint penetration, avascular necrosis of femoral head, nonunion, prolonged rehabilitation period and the need for second surgery in failed cases. We hereby present results of a modified screw fixation technique in femoral neck fractures in patients ?50 years of age. Materials and Methods: Patients ?50 years of age (range 50-73 years) who sustained displaced femoral neck fracture and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this prospective study. They were treated with closed reduction under image intensifier control and cannulated cancellous screw fixation. Accurate anatomical reduction was not aimed and a cross sectional contact area of >75% without varus was accepted as good reduction. Four screws were positioned in four quadrants of femoral head and neck, as parallel and as peripheral as possible. Radiological and functional results were evaluated periodically. Sixty four patients who could complete a minimum followup of two years were analyzed. Results: Radiologically, all fractures healed after mean duration of 10 weeks (range 8-12 weeks). There was no avascular necrosis. Nonanatomical healing was observed in 45 cases (70%). All patients except one had excellent functional outcome and could do cross-legged sitting and squatting. Chondrolysis with progressive head resorption was seen in one case, which was converted to total hip arthroplasty. Conclusion: Closed reduction and cannulated cancellous screw fixation gives satisfactory functional results in large group of elderly patients. The four quadrant parallel peripheral (FQPP) screw fixation technique gives good stability, allows controlled collapse, avoids fixation failure and achieves predictable bone healing in displaced femoral neck fracture in patients ?50 years of age. PMID:23682180

Satish, Bhava RJ; Ranganadham, Atmakuri V; Ramalingam, Karruppasamy; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

2013-01-01

40

Influence of abutment materials on the implant-abutment joint stability in internal conical connection type implant systems  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study evaluated the influence of abutment materials on the stability of the implant-abutment joint in internal conical connection type implant systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS Internal conical connection type implants, cement-retained abutments, and tungsten carbide-coated abutment screws were used. The abutments were fabricated with commercially pure grade 3 titanium (group T3), commercially pure grade 4 titanium (group T4), or Ti-6Al-4V (group TA) (n=5, each). In order to assess the amount of settlement after abutment fixation, a 30-Ncm tightening torque was applied, then the change in length before and after tightening the abutment screw was measured, and the preload exerted was recorded. The compressive bending strength was measured under the ISO14801 conditions. In order to determine whether there were significant changes in settlement, preload, and compressive bending strength before and after abutment fixation depending on abutment materials, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post-hoc test was performed. RESULTS Group TA exhibited the smallest mean change in the combined length of the implant and abutment before and after fixation, and no difference was observed between groups T3 and T4 (P>.05). Group TA exhibited the highest preload and compressive bending strength values, followed by T4, then T3 (P<.001). CONCLUSION The abutment material can influence the stability of the interface in internal conical connection type implant systems. The strength of the abutment material was inversely correlated with settlement, and positively correlated with compressive bending strength. Preload was inversely proportional to the frictional coefficient of the abutment material. PMID:25551010

Jo, Jae-Young; Yang, Dong-Seok; Huh, Jung-Bo; Heo, Jae-Chan; Yun, Mi-Jung

2014-01-01

41

Influence of screw length and diameter on tibial strain energy density distribution after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postoperative tunnel enlargement has been frequently reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Interference screw, as a surgical implant in ACL reconstruction, may influence natural loading transmission and contribute to tunnel enlargement. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify the alteration of strain energy den sity (SED) distribution after the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction; and (2) to characterize the influence of screw length and diameter on the degree of the SED alteration. A validated finite element model of human knee joint was used. The screw length ranging from 20 to 30mm with screw diameter ranging from 7 to 9 mm were investigated. In the post-operative knee, the SED increased steeply at the extra-articular tunnel aperture under compressive and complex loadings, whereas the SED decreased beneath the screw shaft and nearby the intra-articular tunnel aperture. Increasing the screw length could lower the SED deprivation in the proximal part of the bone tunnel; whereas increasing either screw length or diameter could aggravate the SED deprivation in the distal part of the bone tunnel. Decreasing the elastic modulus of the screw could lower the bone SED deprivation around the screw. In consideration of both graft stability and SED alteration, a biodegradable interference screw with a long length is recommended, which could provide a beneficial mechanical environment at the distal part of the tunnel, and meanwhile decrease the bone-graft motion and synovial fluid propagation at the proximal part of the tunnel. These findings together with the clinical and histological factors could help to improve surgical outcome, and serve as a preliminary knowledge for the following study of biodegradable interference screw. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Yao, Jie; Kuang, Guan-Ming; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo

2014-04-01

42

A Novel Pedicle Screw with Mobile Connection: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

To prevent adjacent disc problems after spinal fusion, a pedicle screw with a mobile junction between the head and threaded shaft was newly developed. The threaded shaft of the screw has 10 degrees mobility in all directions, but its structure is to prevent abnormal translation and tilting. This screw was evaluated as follows: (1) endurance test: 106 times rotational stress was applied; (2) biological reactions: novel screws with a mobile head and conventional screws with a fixed head were inserted into the bilateral pedicles of the L3, L4, and L5 in two mini pigs with combination. Eight months after surgery, vertebral units with the screw rod constructs were collected. After CT scan, the soft and bony tissues around the screws were examined grossly and histologically. As a result, none of the screws broke during the endurance test stressing. The mean amount of abrasion wear was 0.0338?g. In the resected mini pig section, though zygapophyseal joints between fixed-head screws showed bony union, the amount of callus in the zygapophyseal joints connected with mobile-head screws was small, and joint space was confirmed by CT. No metalloses were noted around any of the screws. Novel screws were suggested to be highly durable and histologically safe. PMID:24724103

Oshima, Masashi; Ajiro, Yasumitsu; Uei, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

43

Characterization of the torque limits and clamping force relationships for small stainless steel screws in tensile loaded joints of various metals  

SciTech Connect

This study originated during the design of ChemCam, a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and imaging instrument being developed for NASA's Mars Science Lab Rover. The mission needs for miniaturization, reduced weight, high reliability, minimal use of thread locking compounds, and the ability to handle harsh environmental conditions dictated the use of small, high strength screws to be threaded into a variety of metal alloys including Be-S200f, Al-6061-T6, Mg-ZK60A-T5, and Ti-6Al-4V The lack of a credible fastener torque database for small (No.0 through No.8) high strength stainless steel screws in various parent materials, led to the development of an experimental program to characterize the following: (A) The screw torque value versus angular rotation (which indicates yielding in the screw or parent material) as a function of screw diameter, screw head configuration, depth of thread engagement, type of parent material, type of surface treatment on parent material, presence of thread locking compound, repeatable threaded hole use, and degree of screw pedigree. (B) The relationship between fastener torque and clamping force for a subset of the above mentioned variables. The database generated from this study will serve as a design reference for utilizing small stainless steel fasteners and provide trending information for other researchers who may be interested in broadening its range of parameters. This paper reviews the related fastener torque and clamping force information from the literature, describes the experimental screw torque and clamping force monitoring equipment, presents the test matrix and experimental procedures, and discusses the empirical results.

Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flores, Eugene M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

44

Modified Trajectory of C2 Laminar Screw - Double Bicortical Purchase of the Inferiorly Crossing Screw  

PubMed Central

The crossing laminar screw fixation might be the most recently developed approach among various fixation techniques for C2. The new construct has stability comparable to transarticular or transpedicular screw fixation without risk of vertebral artery injury. Quantitative anatomical studies about C2 vertebra suggest significant variation in the thickness of C2 lamina as well as cross sectional area of junction of lamina and spinous process. We present an elderly patient who underwent an occipito-cervical stabilization incorporating crossed C2 laminar screw fixation. We preoperatively recognized that she had low profiles of C2 lamina, and thus made a modification of trajectory for the inferiorly crossing screw. We introduce a simple modification of crossing C2 laminar screw technique to improve stability in patients with low laminar profiles. PMID:19096618

You, Seung-Hoon; Jang, Yeon-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Youl

2008-01-01

45

Effect of the application of local vibration in scaption on joint stability  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the initial effect of local vibration on the stability of the shoulder joints by applying local vibration to the shoulder joints. [Subjects and Methods] For the test, the subjects held a FlexBar with one hand, at about 10?cm from one end, and performed the oscillation movement with the shoulder at 90° flexion and the elbow in the full-extension position in scaption; the vibration stimulus was set to 5?Hz. Then, the subjects underwent the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test to evaluate the stability of the shoulder joints. [Results] The moving distances in the left, right, and upper directions after the oscillation movement were increased significantly compared with the results before the oscillation movement. [Conclusion] A vibration stimulus is effective as an exercise method to increase the stability of the shoulder joints. PMID:25642051

Jung, Da-eun; Moon, Dong-chul

2015-01-01

46

Ball screw inspection setup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the following paper we describe arrangements of laser interferometer for investigation of screws and for inspection of ball screws. We have constructed two of them, namely: the technological setup for investigations of screw in process of production and the ball screw inspection setup. The former one is used to measure the pitch of screws. The data gathered during measurement is used to calculate the parameters for grinding machine. The later setup is used for testing parameters of complete ball screws. The software supporting this setup makes calculation of parameters of tested ball screw and creation of reports possible. Additionally, the inspection setup is the one that the torque measuring arrangements have been integrated on. Both the arrangements and the software allow for measurements of all parameters during movement of nut in full travel length of the ball screw and make charts and reports.

Janusz, Rzepka; Sambor, Slawomir; Pienkowski, Janusz; Bielenin, Marcin

2003-05-01

47

Internal Reduction Established by Occiput-C2 Pedicle Polyaxial Screw Stabilization in Pediatric Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation is an uncommon disorder of childhood, which can be treated conservatively whendiagnosed early. Although spontaneous correction occasionally occurs, most of the patients usually benefit from collar or traction therapies. If there is no intervention or if all external therapeutic modalities fail, the deformity may become chronic and irreducible. In such rare cases, surgical correction and stabilization are

Deniz Belen; Serkan Simsek; Kazim Yigitkanli; Murad Bavbek

2006-01-01

48

Surgical screw segmentation for mobile C-arm CT devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcaneal fractures are commonly treated by open reduction and internal fixation. An anatomical reconstruction of involved joints is mandatory to prevent cartilage damage and premature arthritis. In order to avoid intraarticular screw placements, the use of mobile C-arm CT devices is required. However, for analyzing the screw placement in detail, a time-consuming human-computer interaction is necessary to navigate through 3D images and therefore to view a single screw in detail. Established interaction procedures of repeatedly positioning and rotating sectional planes are inconvenient and impede the intraoperative assessment of the screw positioning. To simplify the interaction with 3D images, we propose an automatic screw segmentation that allows for an immediate selection of relevant sectional planes. Our algorithm consists of three major steps. At first, cylindrical characteristics are determined from local gradient structures with the help of RANSAC. In a second step, a DBScan clustering algorithm is applied to group similar cylinder characteristics. Each detected cluster represents a screw, whose determined location is then refined by a cylinder-to-image registration in a third step. Our evaluation with 309 screws in 50 images shows robust and precise results. The algorithm detected 98% (303) of the screws correctly. Thirteen clusters led to falsely identified screws. The mean distance error for the screw tip was 0.8 +/- 0.8 mm and for the screw head 1.2 +/- 1 mm. The mean orientation error was 1.4 +/- 1.2 degrees.

Görres, Joseph; Brehler, Michael; Franke, Jochen; Wolf, Ivo; Vetter, Sven Y.; Grützner, Paul A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nabers, Diana

2014-03-01

49

Stability enhancement by joint phase measurements in a single cold atomic fountain  

E-print Network

We propose a method of joint interrogation in a single atom interferometer which overcomes the dead time between consecutive measurements in standard cold atomic fountains. The joint operation enables for a faster averaging of the Dick effect associated with the local oscillator noise in clocks and with vibration noise in cold atom inertial sensors. Such an operation allows achieving the lowest stability limit due to atom shot noise. We demonstrate a multiple joint operation in which up to five clouds of atoms are interrogated simultaneously in a single setup. The essential feature of multiple joint operation, demonstrated here for a micro-wave Ramsey interrogation, can be generalized to go beyond the current stability limit associated with dead times in present-day cold atom interferometer inertial sensors.

Meunier, M; Geiger, R; Guerlin, C; Alzar, C L Garrido; Landragin, A

2015-01-01

50

Stability enhancement by joint phase measurements in a single cold atomic fountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method of joint interrogation in a single atom interferometer which overcomes the dead time between consecutive measurements in standard cold atomic fountains. The joint operation enables for a faster averaging of the Dick effect associated with the local oscillator noise in clocks and with vibration noise in cold atom inertial sensors. Such an operation allows one to achieve the lowest stability limit due to atom shot noise. We demonstrate a multiple joint operation in which up to five clouds of atoms are interrogated simultaneously in a single setup. The essential feature of multiple joint operation, demonstrated here for a microwave Ramsey interrogation, can be generalized to go beyond the current stability limit associated with dead times in present-day cold atom interferometer inertial sensors.

Meunier, M.; Dutta, I.; Geiger, R.; Guerlin, C.; Garrido Alzar, C. L.; Landragin, A.

2014-12-01

51

Stability enhancement by joint phase measurements in a single cold atomic fountain  

E-print Network

We propose a method of joint interrogation in a single atom interferometer which overcomes the dead time between consecutive measurements in standard cold atomic fountains. The joint operation enables for a faster averaging of the Dick effect associated with the local oscillator noise in clocks and with vibration noise in cold atom inertial sensors. Such an operation allows achieving the lowest stability limit due to atom shot noise. We demonstrate a multiple joint operation in which up to five clouds of atoms are interrogated simultaneously in a single setup. The essential feature of multiple joint operation, demonstrated here for a micro-wave Ramsey interrogation, can be generalized to go beyond the current stability limit associated with dead times in present-day cold atom interferometer inertial sensors.

M. Meunier; I. Dutta; R. Geiger; C. Guerlin; C. L. Garrido Alzar; A. Landragin

2015-01-08

52

Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain. PMID:25642098

Yoo, Won-gyu

2015-01-01

53

Translaminar screw fixation in the subaxial pediatric cervical spine.  

PubMed

The use of spinal instrumentation to stabilize the occipitocervical junction in pediatric patients has increased and evolved in recent years. Wiring techniques have now given way to screw-rod or screw-plate techniques with or without postoperative external immobilization. Although C-2 translaminar screws have been used in these constructs, subaxial translaminar screws have not, to date, been described in either the pediatric or adult patient populations. The authors describe the feasibility of translaminar screw placement in the C-3 lamina. Rigid fixation with translaminar screws offers an alternative to subaxial fixation with lateral mass screws, allowing for formation of biomechanically sound spinal constructs and minimizing potential neurovascular morbidity. Their use requires careful analysis of preoperative imaging studies, intact posterior elements, and avoidance of violation of the inner laminar wall. PMID:19035682

Jea, Andrew; Johnson, Keyne K; Whitehead, William E; Luerssen, Thomas G

2008-12-01

54

Joints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hinge joints move only in one direction, ball-and-socket joints are free to rotate in all directions, and gliding joints are able to move forward, backward, and side to side, but do not rotate freely.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

55

Reduced knee joint moment in ACL deficient patients at a cost of dynamic stability during landing.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to examine the effect of anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLd) on joint kinetics and dynamic stability control after a single leg hop test (SLHT). Twelve unilateral ACLd patients and a control subject group (n=13) performed a SLHT over a given distance with both legs. The calculation of joint kinetics was done by means of a soft-tissue artifact optimized rigid full-body model. Margin of stability (MoS) was quantified by the difference between the base of support and the extrapolated center of mass. During landing, the ACLd leg showed lower external knee flexion moments but demonstrated higher moments at the ankle and hip compared to controls (p<0.05). The main reason for the joint moment redistribution in the ACLd leg was a more anterior position of the ground reaction force (GRF) vector, which affected the moment arms of the GRF acting about the joints (p<0.05). For the ACLd leg, trunk angle was more flexed over the entire landing phase compared to controls (p<0.05) and we found a significant correlation between moment arms at the knee joint and trunk angle (r² = 0.48;p<0.01). The consequence of this altered landing strategy in ACLd legs was a more anterior position of the center of mass reducing the MoS (p<0.05). The results illustrate the interaction between trunk angle, joint kinetics and dynamic stability during landing maneuvers and provide evidence of a feedforward adaptive adjustment in ACLd patients (i.e. more flexed trunk angle) aimed at reducing knee joint moments at the cost of dynamic stability control. PMID:22440611

Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Höher, Jürgen; Karamanidis, Kiros

2012-05-11

56

Biomechanical and histological evaluation of an expandable pedicle screw in osteoporotic spine in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transpedicular fixation can be challenging in the osteoporotic spine as reduced bone mineral density compromises the mechanical\\u000a stability of the pedicle screw. Here, we sought to investigate the biomechanical and histological properties of stabilization\\u000a of expandable pedicle screw (EPS) in the osteoporotic spine in sheep. EPSs and standard pedicle screws, SINO screws, were\\u000a inserted on the vertebral bodies in four

Shiyong Wan; Wei Lei; Zixiang Wu; Da Liu; Mingxuan Gao; Suochao Fu

2010-01-01

57

The synergistic action of the anterior cruciate ligament and thigh muscles in maintaining joint stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synergistic action of the ACL and the thigh muscles in maintaining joint stability was studied experimentally. The EMG from the quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups was recorded and analyzed in three separate experimental procedures in which the knee was stressed. The test revealed that direct stress of the ACL has a moderate inhibitory effect on the quadriceps, but simultaneously

M. Solomonow; R. Baratta; B. H. Zhou; H. Shoji; W. Bose; C. Beck; R. DAmbrosia

1987-01-01

58

Screw Dislocations in Graphite.  

PubMed

Graphite contains varying concentrations of screw dislocations whose Burgers vector parallels the c axis. Single crystals of natural graphite contain very few such dislocations; furthermore, their Burgers vector always exceeds 450 angstroms. Pyrolytic graphites annealed above 3000 degrees C contain abundant screw dislocations, ranging from 10(6) to 5 x 10(8) per square centimeter in two different samples prepared by somewhat different methods. The Burgers vectors of these screws are predominantly 3.35 angstroms. PMID:17758193

Hennig, G R

1965-02-12

59

Current trends in pedicle screw stimulation techniques: lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical levels.  

PubMed

Unequivocally, pedicle screw instrumentation has evolved as a primary construct for the treatment of both common and complex spinal disorders. However an inevitable and potentially major complication associated with this type of surgery is misplacement of a pedicle screw(s) which may result in neural and vascular complications, as well as impair the biomechanical stability of the spinal instrumentation resulting in loss of fixation. In light of these potential surgical complications, critical reviews of outcome data for treatment of chronic, low-back pain using pedicle screw instrumentation concluded that "pedicle screw fixation improves radiographically demonstrated fusion rates;" however the expense and complication rates for such constructs are considerable in light of the clinical benefit (Resnick et al. 2005a). Currently, neuromonitoring using free-run and evoked (triggered) electromyography (EMG) is widely used and advocated for safer and more accurate placement of pedicle screws during open instrumentation procedures, and more recently, guiding percutaneous placement (minimally invasive) where the pedicle cannot be easily inspected visually. The latter technique, evoked or triggered EMG when applied to pedicle screw instrumentation surgeries, has been referred to as the pedicle screw stimulation technique. As concluded in the Position Statement by the American Society of Neurophysiological Monitoring (ASNM), multimodality neuromonitoring using free-run EMG and the pedicle screw stimulation technique was considered a practice option and not yet a standard of care (Leppanen 2005). Subsequently, the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (AANS/CNS) Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves published their "Guidelines for the Performance of Fusion Procedures for Degenerative Disease of the Lumbar Spine" (Heary 2005, Resnick et al. 2005a, Resnick et al. 2005b). It was concluded that the "primary justification" of intraoperative neuromonitoring"... is the perception that the safety and efficacy of pedicle screw fixation are enhanced..." (Resnick et al. 2005b). However in summarizing a massive (over 1000 papers taken from the National Library of Medicine), contemporary, literature review spanning nearly a decade (1996 to 2003), this invited panel (Resnick et al. 2005b) recognized that the evidence-based documents contributing to the parts related to pedicle screw fixation and neuromonitoring were "... full of potential sources of error ..." and lacked appropriate, randomized, prospective studies for formulating rigid standards and guidelines. Nevertheless, current trends support the routine use and clinical utility of these neuromonitoring techniques. In particular free-run and triggered EMG have been well recognized in numerous publications for improving both the accuracy and safety of pedicle screw implantation. Currently, treatment with pedicle screw instrumentation routinely involves all levels of the spine - lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical. Significant historical events, various neuromonitoring modalities, intraoperative alarm criteria, clinical efficacy, current trends, and caveats related to pedicle screw stimulation along the entire vertebral column will be reviewed. PMID:22808751

Isley, Michael R; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Balzer, Jeffrey R; Leppanen, Ronald E

2012-06-01

60

Clinical application of C2 laminar screw technique  

PubMed Central

C2 laminar screws have become an increasingly used alternative method to C2 pedicle screw fixation. However, the outcome of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. A total of 35 cases with upper cervical spinal instability undergoing C2 laminar screw fixation were reviewed. All cases had symptoms of atlantoaxial instability, such as craniocervical junction pain, and were fixed with the Vertex cervical internal fixation system. A total of 68 screws were placed and hybrid constructs (a C2 translaminar screw combined with a C2 pars screw) were incorporated in two patients. In this series, there were no intraoperative complications and no cases of neurological worsening or vascular injury from hardware placement. Computed tomographic scans demonstrated a partial dorsal laminar breach in ten patients. None of these resulted in neurological symptoms. None of the patients was found to have a breach of the ventral laminar cortex. All the C2 laminar screws fixations were performed successfully. There was no instability seen on the films with no evidence of hardware failure or screw loosening during the follow-up period in all patients. In conclusion, C2 laminar screw technique is straightforward and easily adopted; it can efficiently and reliably restore upper cervical stability. It is an alternative method to C2 pedicle screw fixation, especially in patients with unilateral occlusion of vertebral artery and pedicle deformity of C2. PMID:20524135

Feng, Leling; Xu, Rongming; Liu, Xiaochen; Lee, Alan H.; Sun, Shaohua; Zhao, Liujun; Hu, Yong; Liu, Guanyi

2010-01-01

61

All arthroscopic stabilization of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation with fiberwire and endobutton system  

PubMed Central

Summary Introduction: acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation is common in athletes and in contact sports and about 9% of shoulder injuries involves this joint. The majority of these AC lesions can be successfully treated conservatively but high grade dislocation and some cases of type III dislocation need a surgical treatment. Many different operative techniques have been described over the years. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of arthroscopic stabilization of AC joint dislocation with TightRope® system. Materials and methods: nineteen patients with acute AC dislocation were treated by arthroscopic fixation with TightRope® system. Any associated lesions were repaired. All patients were assessed before surgery (T0), at 3 months (T1), at 6 months (T2) and at 1 year after the surgery (T3) using a visual analogic scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley Score (CMS). All patients were evaluated with X-ray. Results: six AC-joint dislocations involved the right shoulder and thirteen the left shoulder. Ten were type III dislocation, three were type IV and six were type V dislocation. We found a statistically significant reduction of pain (p< 0.01) at T1 compared to the pretreatment scores. The CMS measures showed an improvement between T1, T2 and T3, but the difference was statistically significant only between T1 and T3 (p= 0.017). The postoperative X-Ray of the shoulder showed a good reduction of the AC joint dislocation. We had 1 case of recurrence and 2 cases of loss of intraoperative reduction. Conclusion: arthroscopic technique for acute AC joint dislocations with the use of the TightRope® device is minimally invasive and it allows an anatomic restoration of the joint. It is a safe and effective procedure ensuring stable AC joint reconstruction and good cosmetic results.

Spoliti, Marco; De Cupis, Mauro; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco

2014-01-01

62

Use of fluoroscopy to evaluate iliac screw position.  

PubMed

Iliac screw fixation is often used for long fusions to the sacropelvis. Maximum iliac screw purchase is obtained both by placing the screws within 1.5 cm of the greater sciatic notch and by extending them anterior to the axis of rotation in flexion-extension. Screw insertion is "blinded" or dependent on tactile feedback, and hence extreme care is necessary to avoid incorrect placement and damage to vital neurovascular structures in the pelvis and sciatic notch. Long screws may violate the hip joint while medial placement may injure the lumbosacral plexus and the nearby vessels. To explore the best intraoperative fluoroscopic method of determining optimal iliac screw placement, we used a synthetic pelvis model to investigate screw placement conditions: (1) optimal anatomic placement, (2) violation of the sciatic notch, (3) hip joint violation, (4) medial wall violation, and (5) lateral wall violation. Each condition was examined utilizing fluoroscopy with posteroanterior, inlet, outlet, lateral, iliac oblique, and obturator oblique Judet views to simulate operative conditions. These views were obtained to evaluate critical malposition of iliac screws. We found that, for a sciatic notch violation, the obturator oblique view best demonstrated the cortical breech, while for a hip joint violation, the inlet and outlet views were best. For a medial wall violation, the iliac oblique view best showed the violation. For a lateral wall violation, we were unable to demonstrate the cortical breech using these fluoroscopic views. Fluoroscopy is an effective method to determine sciatic notch, hip joint, and medial wall violations after iliac screw placement; however, it is not effective in identifying a lateral wall violation. PMID:16610381

Orchowski, Joseph R; Polly, David W; Kuklo, Timothy R; Klemme, William R; Schroeder, Teresa M

2006-03-01

63

Muscle Co-Contraction Modulates Damping and Joint Stability in a Three-Link Biomechanical Limb  

PubMed Central

Computational models of neuromotor control require forward models of limb movement that can replicate the natural relationships between muscle activation and joint dynamics without the burdens of excessive anatomical detail. We present a model of a three-link biomechanical limb that emphasizes the dynamics of limb movement within a simplified two-dimensional framework. Muscle co-contraction effects were incorporated into the model by flanking each joint with a pair of antagonist muscles that may be activated independently. Muscle co-contraction is known to alter the damping and stiffness of limb joints without altering net joint torque. Idealized muscle actuators were implemented using the Voigt muscle model which incorporates the parallel elasticity of muscle and tendon but omits series elasticity. The natural force-length-velocity relationships of contractile muscle tissue were incorporated into the actuators using ideal mathematical forms. Numerical stability analysis confirmed that co-contraction of these simplified actuators increased damping in the biomechanical limb consistent with observations of human motor control. Dynamic changes in joint stiffness were excluded by the omission of series elasticity. The analysis also revealed the unexpected finding that distinct stable (bistable) equilibrium positions can co-exist under identical levels of muscle co-contraction. We map the conditions under which bistability arises and prove analytically that monostability (equifinality) is guaranteed when the antagonist muscles are identical. Lastly we verify these analytic findings in the full biomechanical limb model. PMID:22275897

Heitmann, Stewart; Ferns, Norm; Breakspear, Michael

2012-01-01

64

CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation of a "carrot-stick" spinal fracture in an elderly man with ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

We present a case of percutaneous fixation of a "carrot-stick" spinal fracture in an elderly patient with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A surgical stabilization was not possible in this 83-year-old man with comorbidities. Under local anesthesia, percutaneous screw fixation of a transdiscal shear fracture at the level T10-T11 was performed using computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance. Two 4.0-mm Asnis III cannulated screws were placed to fix facet joints using transfacet pedicle pathway. The procedure time was 30 min. Using the visual analog scale (VAS), pain decreased from 10, preoperatively, to 1 after the procedure. Radiographic fusion was observed at a 3-month post-procedural CT scan. CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation of spinal fractures could potentially be an alternative to surgery in elderly AS patients with poor performance status. PMID:23842576

Huwart, Laurent; Amoretti, Nicolas

2013-12-01

65

High Bandwidth Control of Ball Screw Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tracking control strategy for high speed ball screw drives. Rigid body motion is controlled using adaptive sliding mode control. Torsional vibrations are modeled, experimentally identified, and compensated in the control law using notch filtering and active cancellation techniques. Attenuation of torsional resonances improves the stability margins and enables high positioning bandwidth to be achieved. The axis

K. Erkorkmaz; A. Kamalzadeh

2006-01-01

66

The Joint Effect of Network Topology and Update Functions on the Stability of Boolean Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boolean networks are dynamical systems commonly used to model biological systems such as gene regulatory networks and neural networks. In a Boolean network, the state of each node can take one of two values, which is updated at discrete time steps using an update function that depends only on the states of its inputs on the previous time step. We study the stability of attractors in a Boolean network with respect to small perturbations. While recent past work has addressed the separate effects on stability of nontrivial network topology and update functions, only very crude information exists on how these effects interact. We present a general solution for finding the stability of Boolean networks, considering the joint effects of network topology and update functions. In particular, we show that the predictions of our approach agree with simulations of Boolean networks with threshold update functions.

Squires, Shane; Pomerance, Andrew; Ott, Edward; Girvan, Michelle

2013-03-01

67

JOINT UNITED STATES/IAEA PROPOSED APPROACH FOR SAFEGUARDS DURING PLUTONIUM STABILIZATION, PACKAGING, AND SHIPMENT  

SciTech Connect

For safety reasons, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing to stabilize and package plutonium oxide currently subject to International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) beginning in the year 2001. The Hanford Site will also stabilize and package plutonium materials under IAEA safeguards. The U.S. and the IAEA began consultations in late 1996 to develop an approach to the application of safeguards during stabilization and packaging. With the plans to ship RFETS plutonium to Savannah River for interim storage prior to final disposition, this work has been extended to include safeguards during shipment. This paper will discuss the elements of a joint U.S./IAEA proposal for this task.

L. KWEI; B. SMITH; ET AL

2001-02-01

68

Biomechanical and Histological Evaluation of Roughened Surface Titanium Screws Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting  

PubMed Central

Background Various fabrication methods are used to improve the stability and osseointegration of screws within the host bone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether roughened surface titanium screws fabricated by electron beam melting can provide better stability and osseointegration as compared with smooth titanium screws in sheep cervical vertebrae. Methods Roughened surface titanium screws, fabricated by electron beam melting, and conventional smooth surface titanium screws were implanted into sheep for 6 or 12 weeks (groups A and B, respectively). Bone ingrowth and implant stability were assessed with three-dimensional imaging and reconstruction, as well as histological and biomechanical tests. Results No screws in either group showed signs of loosening. Fibrous tissue formation could be seen around the screws at 6 weeks, which was replaced with bone at 12 weeks. Bone volume/total volume, bone surface area/bone volume, and the trabecular number were significantly higher for a define region of interest surrounding the roughened screws than that surrounding the smooth screws at 12 weeks. Indeed, for roughened screws, trabecular number was significantly higher at 12 weeks than at 6 weeks. On mechanical testing, the maximum pullout strength was significantly higher at 12 weeks than at 6 weeks, as expected; however, no significant differences were found between smooth and roughened screws at either time point. The maximum torque to extract the roughened screws was higher than that required for the smooth screws. Conclusions Electron beam melting is a simple and effective method for producing a roughened surface on titanium screws. After 12 weeks, roughened titanium screws demonstrated a high degree of osseointegration and increased torsional resistance to extraction over smooth titanium screws. PMID:24788866

Yang, Jun; Cai, Hong; Lv, Jia; Zhang, Ke; Leng, Huijie; Wang, Zhiguo; Liu, Zhongjun

2014-01-01

69

Analysis of the Stress and Displacement Distribution of Inferior Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Injuries Repaired with Screw Fixation: A Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of syndesmosis injuries have concentrated on cadaver models. However, they are unable to obtain exact data regarding the stress and displacement distribution of various tissues, and it is difficult to compare models. We investigated the biomechanical effects of inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries (ITSIs) and screw fixation on the ankle using the finite element (FE) method. Methodology/Principal Findings A three-dimensional model of a healthy ankle complex was developed using computed tomography (CT) images. We established models of an ITSI and of screw fixation at the plane 2.5 cm above and parallel to the tibiotalar joint surface of the injured syndesmosis. Simulated loads were applied under three conditions: neutral position with single-foot standing and internal and external rotation of the ankle. ITSI reduced contact forces between the talus and fibula, helped periarticular ankle ligaments withstand more load-resisting movement, and increased the magnitude of displacement at the lower extreme of the tibia and fibula. ITSI fixation with a syndesmotic screw reduced contact forces in all joints, decreased the magnitude of displacement at the lower extreme of the tibia and fibula, and increased crural interosseous membrane stress. Conclusions/significance Severe syndesmosis injuries cause stress and displacement distribution of the ankle to change multidirectional ankle instability and should be treated by internal fixation. Though the transverse syndesmotic screw effectively stabilizes syndesmotic diastasis, it also changes stress distribution around the ankle and decreases the joint's range of motion (ROM). Therefore, fixation should not be performed for a long period of time because it is not physiologically suitable for the ankle joint. PMID:24312464

Liu, Qinghua; Zhang, Kun; Zhuang, Yan; Li, Zhong; Yu, Bin; Pei, Guoxian

2013-01-01

70

Finite element analysis of osteosynthesis screw fixation in the bone stock: an appropriate method for automatic screw modelling.  

PubMed

The use of finite element analysis (FEA) has grown to a more and more important method in the field of biomedical engineering and biomechanics. Although increased computational performance allows new ways to generate more complex biomechanical models, in the area of orthopaedic surgery, solid modelling of screws and drill holes represent a limitation of their use for individual cases and an increase of computational costs. To cope with these requirements, different methods for numerical screw modelling have therefore been investigated to improve its application diversity. Exemplarily, fixation was performed for stabilization of a large segmental femoral bone defect by an osteosynthesis plate. Three different numerical modelling techniques for implant fixation were used in this study, i.e. without screw modelling, screws as solid elements as well as screws as structural elements. The latter one offers the possibility to implement automatically generated screws with variable geometry on arbitrary FE models. Structural screws were parametrically generated by a Python script for the automatic generation in the FE-software Abaqus/CAE on both a tetrahedral and a hexahedral meshed femur. Accuracy of the FE models was confirmed by experimental testing using a composite femur with a segmental defect and an identical osteosynthesis plate for primary stabilisation with titanium screws. Both deflection of the femoral head and the gap alteration were measured with an optical measuring system with an accuracy of approximately 3 µm. For both screw modelling techniques a sufficient correlation of approximately 95% between numerical and experimental analysis was found. Furthermore, using structural elements for screw modelling the computational time could be reduced by 85% using hexahedral elements instead of tetrahedral elements for femur meshing. The automatically generated screw modelling offers a realistic simulation of the osteosynthesis fixation with screws in the adjacent bone stock and can be used for further investigations. PMID:22470474

Wieding, Jan; Souffrant, Robert; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

2012-01-01

71

Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screw and Polymethylmethacrylate-Augmented Pedicle Screw in Osteoporotic Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae: Biomechanical and Interfacial Evaluations  

PubMed Central

Background It was reported that expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw (PMMA-PS) could be used to increase screw stability in osteoporosis. However, there are no studies comparing the two kinds of screws in vivo. Thus, we aimed to compare biomechanical and interfacial performances of EPS and PMMA-PS in osteoporotic sheep spine. Methodology/Principal Findings After successful induction of osteoporotic sheep, lumbar vertebrae in each sheep were randomly divided into three groups. The conventional pedicle screw (CPS) was inserted directly into vertebrae in CPS group; PMMA was injected prior to insertion of CPS in PMMA-PS group; and the EPS was inserted in EPS group. Sheep were killed and biomechanical tests, micro-CT analysis and histological observation were performed at both 6 and 12 weeks post-operation. At 6-week and 12-week, screw stabilities in EPS and PMMA-PS groups were significantly higher than that in CPS group, but there were no significant differences between EPS and PMMA-PS groups at two study periods. The screw stability in EPS group at 12-week was significantly higher than that at 6-week. The bone trabeculae around the expanding anterior part of EPS were more and denser than that in CPS group at 6-week and 12-week. PMMA was found without any degradation and absorption forming non-biological “screw-PMMA-bone” interface in PMMA-PS group, however, more and more bone trabeculae surrounded anterior part of EPS improving local bone quality and formed biological “screw-bone” interface. Conclusions/Significance EPS can markedly enhance screw stability with a similar effect to the traditional method of screw augmentation with PMMA in initial surgery in osteoporosis. EPS can form better biological interface between screw and bone than PMMA-PS. In addition, EPS have no risk of thermal injury, leakage and compression caused by PMMA. We propose EPS has a great application potential in augmentation of screw stability in osteoporosis in clinic. PMID:24086381

Zhang, Bo; Xie, Qing-yun; Wang, Cai-ru; Liu, Jin-biao; Liao, Dong-fa; Jiang, Kai; Lei, Wei; Pan, Xian-ming

2013-01-01

72

Rotordynamics of Twin-Screw Pumps  

E-print Network

Twin-screw pumps are positive displacement machines. Two meshing screws connected by timing gears convey the fluid trapped in the screw chambers axially from suction to discharge and force it out against the back pressure. Because of the screw...

Aboel Hassan Muhammed, Ameen

2013-02-26

73

Helical screw viscometer  

DOEpatents

A helical screw viscometer for the measurement of the viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids comprising an elongated cylindrical container closed by end caps defining a circular cylindrical cavity within the container, a cylindrical rotor member having a helical screw or ribbon flight carried by the outer periphery thereof rotatably carried within the cavity whereby the fluid to be measured is confined in the cavity filling the space between the rotor and the container wall. The rotor member is supported by axle members journaled in the end caps, one axle extending through one end cap and connectable to a drive source. A pair of longitudinally spaced ports are provided through the wall of the container in communication with the cavity and a differential pressure meter is connected between the ports for measuring the pressure drop caused by the rotation of the helical screw rotor acting on the confined fluid for computing viscosity.

Aubert, J.H.; Chapman, R.N.; Kraynik, A.M.

1983-06-30

74

The Screw-worm.  

E-print Network

, it is thought advisable to give a more exhaustive report of the life history of the insect, together with illustrations (see note 1) and description (see note 2) for identification. The screw-worm is the larva or maggot of a dipterous insect (Lacilia macel...

Francis, M. (Mark)

1890-01-01

75

NUT SCREW MECHANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reactor control mechanism is described wherein the control is achieved ; by the partial or total withdrawal of the fissile material which is in the form ; of a fuel rod. The fuel rod is designed to be raised and lowered from the ; reactor core area by means of two concentric ball nut and screw assemblies that ;

1958-01-01

76

Metatarsal Osteotomy Using Double-Threaded Screws - Biomechanical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundamental purpose of this research was to determine the biomechanical characteristics of the first metatarsal bone -\\u000a double-threaded screws system made of stainless steel (Cr-Ni-Mo) and an assessment of its stability. To define the biomechanical\\u000a characteristics of the system, the finite element method and experimental method were applied. Geometric models of metatarsal\\u000a bone and double-threaded screws, were discretized by

Anna Ziebowicz; Anita Kajzer; Wojciech Kajzer; Jan Marciniak

77

Comparison of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by bone-patellar tendon-bone graft with or without using interferential screw in general population.  

PubMed

Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is common, resulting reduced quality of life, increasing the meniscal injury risk, knee instability and early degenerative joint disease. Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone (BPTB) became the gold standard surgery where conservative management failed. Adding interferential screw provides rigid fixation which is important for early accelerated rehabilitation program in athletes but we have carried out this prospective interventional study in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and our private settings from January 2007 to December 2011 to assess whether interferential screws provide any clinical and functional advantage in general population. Sixty six male patients of 21-40 years age, with ACL deficient knees were reconstructed with BPTB graft where 40 cases were augmented by interferential screws and 26 cases without and followed up for minimum 2 years. The clinical and functional outcome (by Lysholm Knee Scoring), post-operative knee stability (by clinical tests) and complications were assessed and recorded. There was significant (p<0.05, paired 't' test) improvement of knee function (limp, walking, stair climbing, squatting, thigh atrophy) in both groups but no significant difference between them (p>0.05, chi squared test) regarding clinical, functional outcome and knee stability. The complications were insignificant (p>0.05, chi squared test) in both groups but there were few cases of screw related complications with augmentation and pronounced anterior knee laxity without it. So, ACL reconstruction by BPTB grafts with or without augmentation results consistent and comparable outcome in general population. PMID:25725669

Arifeen, K N; Chowdhury, A Z; Sakeb, N; Joarder, A I; Salek, A K; Selimullah, A M

2015-01-01

78

High Temperature Stability of Dissimilar Metal Joints in Fission Surface Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future generations of power systems for spacecraft and lunar surface systems will likely require a strong dependence on nuclear power. The design of a space nuclear power plant involves integrating together major subsystems with varying materia1 requirements. Refractory alloys are repeatedly considered for major structural components in space power reactor designs because refractory alloys retain their strength at higher temperatures than other classes of metals. The relatively higher mass and lower ductility of the refractory alloys make them less attractive for lower temperature subsystems in the power plant such as the power conversion system. The power conversion system would consist more likely of intermediate temperature Ni-based superalloys. One of many unanswered questions about the use of refractory alloys in a space power plant is how to transition from the use of the structural refractory alloy to more traditional structural alloys. Because deleterious phases can form when complex alloys are joined and operated at elevated temperatures, dissimilar material diffusion analyses of refractory alloys and superalloys are needed to inform designers about options of joint temperature and operational lifetime. Combinations of four superalloys and six refractory alloys were bonded and annealed at 1150 K and 1300 K to examine diffusional interactions in this study. Joints formed through hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing were compared. Results on newer alloys compared favorably to historical data. Diffusional stability is promising for some combinations of Mo-Re alloys and superalloys at 1150 K, but it appears that lower joint temperatures would be required for other refractory alloy couples.

Locci, Ivan E.; Nesbitt, James A.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Bowman, Cheryl L.

2007-01-01

79

Volar Stabilization of the Distal Radioulnar Joint for Chronic Instability Using the Pronator Quadratus.  

PubMed

In cases of chronic distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability without DRUJ arthritis, reconstruction of the mechanical integrity of the radioulnar ligaments of the triangular fibrocartilage complex has been considered an ideal surgical treatment. However, reconstructive methods have several disadvantages.We evaluated volar stabilization of the DRUJ for chronic instability using the pronator quadratus (PQ) to determine whether it provided (1) proper stability, (2) restored wrist function, (3) was relatively convenient, and (4) was associated with a low complication rate.?Altogether, 21 patients with chronic DRUJ instability (12 men, 9 women) with a mean age of 34 years (range, 17-65 years) were enrolled in the study. The diagnostic criteria were as follows: 3 months after the injury, greater than 8 mm of palmar-dorsal translation of the ulna relative to the radius, there was a lack of clear end point resistance compared with the contralateral side, and nonstressed computed tomographic scans provided supporting evidence. Follow-up was at least 12 months (range, 12-38 months).?Palmar-dorsal translation of the ulna relative to the radius was decreased significantly from 10 to 4 mm (P = 0.028) and epicenter was increased significantly at the last follow-up [P = 0.015/0.026 (70 degrees of supination/neutral, respectively)]. Wrist range of motion was not significantly different, but grip strength had increased from 72% to 91%. Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand and patient-rated wrist evaluation were also decreased compared with preoperative measurements [34.4 to 12.5/42.7 to 14.7 (disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand/patient-rated wrist evaluation, respectively)]. Pronator quadratus advancement volar stabilization provided proper stability, restored wrist function, was relatively convenient, and was associated with few complications. Our experience indicates that it is an acceptable, effective treatment option to reverse DRUJ instability in patients who did not have advanced DRUJ arthritis. PMID:25275473

Lee, Sang Ki; Lee, Jae Won; Choy, Won Sik

2014-09-30

80

Use of an aiming device in posterior atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation. Technical note.  

PubMed

Posterior atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation is an excellent procedure associated with high fusion rates. There is, however, the potential risk of vertebral artery (VA) injury. The authors designed a special aiming device that allows a cannulated screw to be inserted accurately in the most posterior part of the C1-2 joint via the most posterior and medial part of the isthmus of C-2; this screw pathway most safely avoids VA injury. The instruments include an aiming device and a flexible screw-inserting system. The tip of the aiming device is placed on the ridge of the C-2 isthmus just posterior to the atlantoaxial joint. The guide wire should then pass 1 mm below the device tip. The system consists of flexible guide wires, a drill, a tap, and a screwdriver, and the screw is inserted easily via a posterior approach in which the patient's back is not obstructive. Ten patients with atlantoaxial subluxation or osteoarthritis underwent surgery in which the device was used. In all cases, the screws were inserted safely without causing VA injury, although preoperative computerized tomography (CT) reconstructions revealed a high-risk high-riding unilateral VA in three patients. Postoperative CT reconstructions demonstrated that all screws but one were inserted as planned, and successfully cleared the vertebral groove. In conclusion, this newly designed device is practical and useful for the accurate insertion of screws, thus avoiding VA injury during atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation. PMID:12120635

Neo, Masasi; Matsushita, Mutsumi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takashi

2002-07-01

81

COMPOSITES AND MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS SCREW-HOLDING CAPACITY OF  

E-print Network

construction of ]plywood joints in were evaluated at five moisture contents (MCs). Both face and edge USWL than face ture, fastening direction, and wood spe-cies on USWL of interior-type plywood screw, and ness, bending stiffness and strength), wood species (pine vs. sweetgum) had an millworkmarkets

82

Benchtop comparison of a novel dynamic compression screw to a standard cortical screw: compression integrity and gap size over time during simulated resorption.  

PubMed

Literature reports the incidence of failed isolated foot and ankle fusions as up to 23%. A contributing factor is the natural bone resorption, which occurs resulting in loss of compression and gapping at the fusion site when standard static compression plates and screws are used. However, an innovative dynamic compression screw may provide lasting compression despite resorption. This benchtop study shows that the FxDEVICES spring-loaded dynamic POGO screw maintains more compression and more consistent compression rate during simulated resorption, as compared with a standard compression screw. The novel screw maintained much greater compression strength within the first millimeter of simulated resorption (13.57 vs 4.38 lb) and maintained greater compression strength at the test completion (1.14 vs 0 lb). The novel screw revealed a more consistent resorption rate over the duration of the simulation. Clinically, this may result in more stability and improved fusion rates. PMID:23548586

Kinmon, Kyle; Garzon, Desiree; Tacktill, Jordan; Vassello, Wayne

2013-06-01

83

Stabilization of the sacroiliac joint in vivo: verification of muscular contribution to force closure of the pelvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) function postulates that SIJ shear is prevented by friction, dynamically influenced by muscle force and ligament tension. Thus, SIJ stability can be accommodated to specific loading situations. The purpose of this study was to examine, in vivo, whether muscles contribute to force closure of the SIJ. SIJ stiffness was measured using a verified method

J. P. van Wingerden; A. Vleeming; H. M. Buyruk; K. Raissadat

2004-01-01

84

Effect of filler metal composition on the strength of yttria stabilized zirconia joints brazed with Pd-Ag-CuOx  

SciTech Connect

The Ag-CuOx system is of interest to be used to be used as an air braze filler metal for joining high temperature electrochemical devices. Previous work has shown that the melting temperatures can be increased by adding palladium to Ag-CuOx and it is expected that this may aid high temperature stability. This work compares the room temperature bend strength of joints made between yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) air brazed using Ag-CuOx without palladium and with 5 and 15mol% palladium additions. It has been found that in general palladium decreases joint strength, especially in low copper oxide compositions filler metals. At high copper oxide contents, brittle fracture through both copper oxide rich phases and the YSZ limits joint strength.

Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

2008-09-08

85

Isthmus-guided cortical bone trajectory for pedicle screw insertion.  

PubMed

Herein is described cortical bone trajectory (CBT), a new path for pedicle screw insertion for lumbar vertebral fusion. Because the points of insertion are under the end of the inferior articular process, and because the screws are inserted toward the lateral side, there is less soft tissue development than with the conventional technique; the CBT technique therefore enables less invasive surgery than the conventional technique. However, it has some drawbacks. For example, in the original CBT approach, the points of insertion are in the vicinity of the end of the inferior articular process. Because this joint has been destroyed in many patients who have indications for intervertebral fusion surgery, it is sometimes difficult to use it as a reference point for screw insertion location. With severe lateral slippage, the screw insertion site can become significantly dislocated sideways, with possible resultant damaging to the spinal canal and/or nerve root. The CBT technique here involved inserting the screws while keeping clear of the intervertebral foramen with the assistance of side view X-ray fluoroscopy and using the end of the inferior articular process and the isthmus as points of reference for screw location. PMID:25179360

Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Ninomiya, Kosi; Ohkawa, Toshika

2014-08-01

86

[Unilateral triangular lumbopelvic stabilization: indications and techniques].  

PubMed

Operative fixation has become treatment of choice for unstable sacral fractures. Osteosynthesis for these fractures results in loss of reduction in up to 15%. Vertical sacral fractures involving the S1 facet joint (Isler 2 and 3) may lead to multidirectional instability. Multidirectional instability of the posterior pelvic ring and lumbopelvic junction may be stabilized and forces balanced by a so-called lumbopelvic triangular fixation. Lumbopelvic triangular fixation combines vertical fixation between the lumbar vertebral pedicle and the ilium, with horizontal fixation, as an iliosacral screw or a transiliacal plate osteosynthesis. The iliac screw is directed from the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) to the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS). Thereby, lumbopelvic fixation decreases the load to the sacrum and SI joint and transfers axial loads from the lumbar spine directly onto the ilium. Triangular lumbopelvic fixation allows early full weight bearing and therefore reduces prolonged immobilization. The placement of iliac screws may be a complex surgical procedure. Thus, the technique requires thorough surgical preparation and operative logistics. Wound-related complications may occur. Preexisting Morell-Lavalée lesions increase the risk for infection. Prominent implants cause local irritation and pain. Hardware prominence and pain are markedly reduced with screw head recession into the PSIS. PMID:24233083

Hoffmann, M F; Dudda, M; Schildhauer, T A

2013-11-01

87

Installation for precision dynamic testing of ball-and-screw mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

By studying ball-and-screw as well as ball-bearing mechanisms on the specially desinged and manufactured installation we were able to ascertain its adequately high stability in operation and its reliability and efficiency in testing coaxial screw mechanisms under dynamic conditions in various loading ranges.

B. I. Pavlov; A. S. Daneliya

1971-01-01

88

Calcaneocuboid joint and stability of the longitudinal arch of the foot at high and low gear push off.  

PubMed Central

The calcaneocuboid joint was studied in ligamentous specimens of ten human feet, and in skeletons of two gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei), six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), three orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and 25 human feet. The movement of the transverse tarsal joint was further studied in a living foot on a walk-way with a glass plate inserted, and with an underlying mirror. In man the joint is shaped as an asymmetrical sector of one end of an hour-glass shaped surface of revolution with its main axis oriented longitudinally in the foot. The calcaneocuboid joint becomes close packed by a pronation of the forefoot in relation to the hind foot because of a congruency between the joint surfaces obtained in this position and because the calcaneus overhangs the cuboid dorsally and stops the movement. At low gear push off the foot is inverted and the calcaneocuboid joint loose packed. The stresses are absorbed across the fibular, postaxial border of the foot. At high high gear push off there is a functional pronation of the forefoot with a stabilization of the transverse tarsal joint and a more effective tightening of the plantar aponeurosis. The foot becomes a rigid lever for propulsion. In contrast to the human condition, the anthropoid calcaneus has an anteromedial extension associated with symmetry of the calcaneocuboid joint. The calcaneus does not overhang the cuboid and there appears to be no close packed position. Correspondingly, the anthropoid foot has a mid-tarsal break at each push off in addition to the metatarsophalangeal break. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:511760

Bojsen-Møller, F

1979-01-01

89

An Innovative Universal Screw Removal Instrument  

PubMed Central

Objective To present the clinical benefits of an instrument designed to facilitate removal of polyaxial screws during revision surgery. Methods All polyaxial screws can be removed without additional materials or a large amount of debridement using our newly designed instrument. Forty-two screws were removed from five patients without any complications using this instrument. Results We removed the cap screws and rods from the 42 polyaxial screws in five patients and made them monoaxial using the new screw removal apparatus. The screws and rods were removed quickly in a minimally invasive way with no complications. No damage to the pedicle or surrounding soft tissue occurred during screw removal. No neurogenic changes developed during revision surgery after changing the screws. Conclusion This newly designed screw removal instrument was used safely and effectively to remove all polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws.

Elmada?, Mehmet; Uzer, Gökçer; Acar, Mehmet Ali

2015-01-01

90

Influence of Thickness and Contact Surface Geometry of Condylar Stem of TMJ Implant on Its Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to examine the effect thickness and contact surface geometry of condylar stem of TMJ implant on its stability in total reconstruction system and evaluate the micro strain resulted in bone at fixation screw holes in jaw bone embedded with eight different designs of temporomandibular joint implants. A three dimensional model of a lower mandible of an adult were developed from a Computed Tomography scan images. Eight different TMJ implant designs and fixation screws were modeled. Three dimensional finite element models of eight implanted mandibles were analyzed. The forces assigned to the masticatory muscles for incisal clenching were applied consisting of nine important muscular loads. In chosen loading condition, The results indicated that the anatomical curvature contact surface design of TMJ implant can moderately improve the stability and the strain resulted in fixation screw holes in thinner TMJ implant was diminished in comparison with other thicknesses.

Arabshahi, Zohreh; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Azari, Abbas

91

Carbon nanotube Archimedes screws.  

PubMed

Recently, nanomechanical devices composed of a long stationary inner carbon nanotube and a shorter, slowly rotating outer tube have been fabricated. In this paper, we study the possibility of using such devices as nanoscale transducers of motion into electricity. When the outer tube is chiral, we show that such devices act like quantum Archimedes screws, which utilize mechanical energy to pump electrons between reservoirs. We calculate the pumped charge from one end of the inner tube to the other, driven by the rotation of a chiral outer nanotube. We show that the pumped charge can be greater than one electron per 360° rotation, and consequently, such a device operating with a rotational frequency of 10 MHz, for example, would deliver a current of ?1 pAmp. PMID:21126086

Oroszlány, László; Zólyomi, Viktor; Lambert, Colin J

2010-12-28

92

The screw propeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine and air screw propellers are considered in terms of theoretical hydrodynamics as developed by Joukowsky, Prandtl, and Betz. Attention is given to the flow around wings of finite span where spanwise flow exists and where lift and the bound vorticity must all go smoothly to zero at the wing tips. The concept of a trailing vortex sheet made up of infinitesimal line vortexes roughly aligned with the direction of flight is discussed in this regard. Also considered is induced velocity, which tends to convect the sheet downward at every stage in the roll-up process, the vortex theory of propellers and the Betz-Prandtl circulation distribution. The performance of the Gossamer Albatross and of a pedal-driven biplane called the Chrysalis are also discussed.

Larrabee, E. E.

1980-07-01

93

Split spline screw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A split spline screw type payload fastener assembly, including three identical male and female type split spline sections, is discussed. The male spline sections are formed on the head of a male type spline driver. Each of the split male type spline sections has an outwardly projecting load baring segment including a convex upper surface which is adapted to engage a complementary concave surface of a female spline receptor in the form of a hollow bolt head. Additionally, the male spline section also includes a horizontal spline releasing segment and a spline tightening segment below each load bearing segment. The spline tightening segment consists of a vertical web of constant thickness. The web has at least one flat vertical wall surface which is designed to contact a generally flat vertically extending wall surface tab of the bolt head. Mutual interlocking and unlocking of the male and female splines results upon clockwise and counter clockwise turning of the driver element.

Vranish, John M. (inventor)

1993-01-01

94

Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique.  

PubMed

The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique. PMID:25336831

Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Farid-Escorcia, Hector; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

2014-07-01

95

Generating and stabilizing the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state in circuit QED: Joint measurement, Zeno effect, and feedback  

SciTech Connect

In a solid-state circuit QED system, we extend the previous study of generating and stabilizing a two-qubit Bell state [Phys. Rev. A 82, 032335 (2010)] to a three-qubit GHZ state. In a dispersive regime, we employ the homodyne joint readout for multiple qubits to infer the state for further processing, and in particular we use it to stabilize the state directly by means of an alternate-flip-interrupted Zeno (AFIZ) scheme. Moreover, the state-of-the-art feedback action based on the filtered current enables not only a deterministic generation of the pre-GHZ state in the initial stage, but also a fast recovery from occasional error in the later stabilization process. We show that the proposed scheme can maintain the state with high fidelity if the efficient quantum measurement and rapid single-qubit rotations are available.

Feng Wei; Wang Peiyue; Ding Xinmei; Xu Luting; Li Xinqi [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

2011-04-15

96

Polyaxial locking and compression screws improve construct stiffness of acetabular cup fixation: a biomechanical study.  

PubMed

Bone ingrowth into uncemented acetabular components requires intimate cup-bone contact and rigid fixation, which can be difficult to achieve in revision hip arthroplasty. This study compares polyaxial compression locking screws with non-locked and cancellous screw constructs for acetabular cup fixation. An acetabular cup modified with screw holes to provide both compression and angular stability was implanted into a bone substitute. Coronal lever out, axial torsion and push-out tests were performed with an Instron testing machine, measuring load versus displacement. Polyaxial locking compression screws significantly improved construct stiffness compared with non-locked or cancellous screws. This increased construct stiffness will likely reduce interfacial micromotion. Further research is required to determine whether this will improve bone ingrowth in vivo and reduce cup failure. PMID:24360790

Milne, Lachlan P; Kop, Alan M; Kuster, Markus S

2014-05-01

97

Free-hand placement of iliac screws for spinopelvic fixation based on anatomical landmarks: technical note  

PubMed Central

Background The placement of iliac screws is a biomechanically sound method for the stabilization of long multi-segment lumbar constructs. Traditional techniques for the placement of iliac screws often involve either substantial iliac muscle dissection for visualization of screw trajectory based on bony landmarks, or alternatively the use of intra-operative imaging to visualize these landmarks and guide screw placement. We describe an alternative free-hand method of iliac screw placement, one that needs neither significant muscle dissection nor intra-operative imaging. Methods We performed this technique in 10 consecutive patients. Patient demographics, spinal pathology, post-operative complications, and screw hardware characteristics are described. Results We have successfully used this technique for the placement 20 iliac screws based on anatomic landmarks in 10 consecutive patients. There were no cortical breeches of the ileum and no penetrations into the acetabulum on post-operative imaging. There were no instances of hardware failure. Two patients developed deep vein thromboses after surgery, 1 had a pulmonary embolism. Conclusions Based on our limited experience to date, free-hand placement of iliac screws is both easy to perform and safe for the patient. Further study and validation using this technique is warranted. PMID:25694933

Fridley, Jared; Fahim, Daniel; Navarro, Jovany; Wolinsky, JP

2014-01-01

98

An Articulating Tool for Endoscopic Screw Delivery  

E-print Network

This paper describes the development of an articulating endoscopic screw driver that can be used to place screws in osteosynthetic plates during thoracoscopic surgery. The device is small enough to be used with a 12 mm ...

Petrzelka, Joseph Edward

99

Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on

Shih-Hao Chen; Ruey Mo Lin; Hsiang-Ho Chen; Kai-Jow Tsai

2007-01-01

100

Precision Stabilization Simulation of a Ball Joint Gimbaled Mirror Using Advanced MATLAB  

E-print Network

to provide precise line of sight stabilization for the seeker (mirror). The mirror is attached to four Kevlar or unwind to change the length of each Kevlar line to position the mirror appropriately. The ball is mounted to a support structure, made up of a fixed body. To maintain stability and position of the seeker, the Kevlar

Hernandez, Orlando

101

Atlantoaxial arthrodesis using C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation in a case of Morquio syndrome.  

PubMed

Prophylactic or therapeutic arthrodesis is recommended for atlantoaxial instability in Morquio syndrome. Occipitocervical fusion, the common approach for upper cervical fusion in Morquio syndrome sacrifices the movements at the occipitoatlantal joints. The use of C1-C2 transarticular screws for achieving C1-C2 arthrodesis, without compromising mobility at the occipitoatlantal joint in Morquio syndrome has not been reported. We report a case of Morquio syndrome with atlantoaxial instability and odontoid hypoplasia, where we successfully achieved C1-C2 arthrodesis using transarticular screws and bone graft. The advantages of this method over other methods of atlantoaxial arthrodesis in Morquio syndrome have also been discussed. PMID:21886932

Kulkarni, Arvind G; Shah, Siddharth M

2011-09-01

102

Lumbosacral Fixation Using the Diagonal S2 Screw for Long Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Deformity: Technical Note Involving 13 Cases  

PubMed Central

Placing instrumentation into the ilium has been shown to increase the biomechanical stability and the fusion rates, but it has some disadvantages. The diagonal S2 screw technique is an attractive surgical procedure for degenerative lumbar deformity. Between 2008 and 2010, we carried out long fusion across the lumbosacral junction in 13 patients with a degenerative lumbar deformity using the diagonal S2 screws. In 12 of these 13 patients, the lumbosacral fusion was graded as solid fusion with obvious bridging bone (92%). One patient had a rod dislodge at one S2 screw and breakage of one S1 screw and underwent revision nine months postoperatively. So, we present alternative method of lumbopelvic fixation for long fusion in degenerative lumbar deformity using diagonal S2 screw instead of iliac screw. PMID:24009909

Kim, Hong-Sik; Baek, Seung-Wook; Lee, Sang-Hyun

2013-01-01

103

The single screw extrusion of pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screw extrusion is widely used but little is known about the design and operation of this type of equipment save in the polymer industry. Particularly with the advent of high-performance, high-value ceramic materials, it has become important to extend knowledge. Here a mathematical model for a flooded screw brings together recent paste rheology and a model of screw extrusion developed

A. S. Burbidge; J. Bridgwater

1995-01-01

104

Rotary screw compressors in the gas patch  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1959, Howden introduced the oil-injected rotary screw (OIS) compressor, which has, since then, methodically replaced the reciprocating (piston) compressor in applications such as air, refrigeration and fuel gas. Rotary screw compressors have been making inroads in gas recovery, a field once dominated by reciprocating compressors. Rotary screws do not require extensive maintenance, thus downtime is minimized throughout an operating

Jandjel

1996-01-01

105

Outcomes of osteoporotic trochanteric fractures treated with cement-augmented dynamic hip screw  

PubMed Central

Background: Dynamic hip screw (DHS) has been the standard treatment for stable trochanteric fracture patterns, but complications of lag screw cut out from a superior aspect, due to inadequate bone anchorage, occur frequently in elderly osteoporotic patients. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been used as an augmentation tool to facilitate fixation stability in cadaveric femora for biomechanical studies and in pathological fractures. However, there are very few reports on the utilization of PMMA cement to prevent these complications in fresh intertrochanteric fractures. A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the outcome and efficacy of PMMA augmented DHS in elderly osteoporotic patients with intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: The study included 64 patients (AO type31-A2.1 in eight, A2.2 in 29, A2.3 in 17 patients, and 31-A3.1 in five, A3.2 in three, and A3.3 in two patients) with an average age of 72 years (60 – 94 years) of which 60 were available for final followup. PMMA augmentation of DHS was performed in all cases by injecting PMMA cement into the femoral head with a custommade gun designed by the authors. The clinical outcome was rated as per the Salvati and Wilson scoring system at the time of final followup of one year. Results were graded as excellent (score > 31), good (score 24 – 31), fair (score 16 – 23), and poor (score < 16). Results: Fracture united in all patients and the average time to union was 13.8 weeks (range 12 – 16 weeks). At an average followup of 18 months (range 12 – 24 months), no incidence of varus collapse or superior screw cut out was observed in any of the patients in spite of weightbearing ambulation from the early postoperative period. There was no incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) or cement penetration into the joint in our series. Most of the patients were able to regain their prefracture mobility status with a mean hip pain score of 8.6. Conclusion: Cement augmentation of DHS appears to be an effective method of preventing osteoporosis related complications of fracture fixation in the trochanteric fractures. The technique used for cement augmentation in the present study is less likely to cause possible complications of cement augmentation like thermal necrosis, cement penetration into the joint, and AVN hip. PMID:23325965

Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Gupta, Navdeep

2012-01-01

106

Difference in Effect of Muscle Weakness versus Obesity on Stability of Knee Joint  

PubMed Central

This research examines a question about which is worse to the knee joint: increasing body weight or decreasing muscle force. We simulated unilateral weight bearing and analyzed the extent to which each had a deleterious effect on the knee joint. We used a rigid body model in which body weight was increased and quadriceps muscle force decreased. Also, to account for differences between men and women, the model reflected difference in pelvic width. In this simulation, decreasing muscle strength by 30% of its initial normal value had a stronger unfavorable effect than that of increasing body weight to the same relative degree. The effect of differences in body proportion between men and women did not appreciably influence the results, as long as masses and linear dimensions were average values of the respective sexes. Our results suggest that a patient with osteoarthritis in the knee should pay particular attention to problems of muscle weakness.

Andrew, Paul D.

2000-01-01

107

Influence of abutment screw design and surface coating on the bending flexural strength of the implant set.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the setting and the presence of solid lubricant on the abutment screw surface on the flexural strength of the joint implant/abutment/screw. Forty abutments were connected to external hex implants, divided into 4 groups (n = 10): FE (titanium alloy screw threaded in the extremity), LE (titanium alloy screw with solid lubricant and thread in the extremity), FT (titanium alloy screw with threaded in all its length), and LT (titanium alloy screw with solid lubricant and thread in all its length). Through the mechanical flexural test, the implant/abutment resistance was evaluated with load applied perpendicular to the long axis in a mechanical testing machine (EMIC) under a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were submitted to a statistics test, and results showed statistically significant differences between the FE group and the other groups, and the FE group showed the lowest values. The LE group showed greater values than the LT group, and the values were statistically significant. According to the methodology used, it can be concluded that within noncoated titanium screws, a screw threaded along its entire length provided greater rigidity to the implant set, while with the screw containing solid lubricant, the screw threaded in all its length provided less rigidity of the implant set than screws with the thread only on the end. Among screws with the same geometry, those with the solid lubricant are statistically higher than those which do not have threads just at the end, but those with threads along their entire length do not show statistically significant differences. PMID:22251283

Prado, Célio Jesus do; Neves, Flávio Domingues das; Soares, Carlos José; Dantas, Kelly Abadia; Dantas, Talita Souza; Naves, Lucas Zago

2014-04-01

108

All Screwed Up : A Memoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murder attempts... missing umbilical cords... haunted quarries... fat camps... These darkly comic stories fill the pages of All Screwed Up. Young, gay, and poor, Steve Fellner attempts to shed his trailer park past and seize a better life for himself. But coming from the sticks offers a certain kind of freedom: no one expects anything from you, so you can

Steven Fellner

2009-01-01

109

Restoration of horizontal stability in complete acromioclavicular joint separations: surgical technique and preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Background Our purpose was to investigate the clinical efficacy of arthroscope-assisted acromioclavicular ligament reconstruction in combination with double endobutton coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction for the treatment of complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Methods During the period from February 2010 to October 2012, ten patients with Rockwood types IV and V acromioclavicular joint dislocation were hospitalized and nine were treated with acromioclavicular ligament reconstruction combined with double endobutton of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. The improvement in shoulder functions was assessed using a Constant score and visual analog scale (VAS) system. Results The mean follow-up period was 33.6?±?5.4 months. The mean Constant scores improved from 25.2?±?6.6 preoperatively to 92.4?±?6.5 postoperatively, while the mean VAS score decreased from 5.9?±?1.4 to 1.2?±?0.9; significant differences were observed. The final follow-up revealed that excellent outcomes were achieved in eight patients and good outcome in two patients. Conclusion Arthroscope-assisted acromioclavicular ligament reconstruction in combination with double endobutton of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction is an effective approach for treatment of acute complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation. PMID:24225119

2013-01-01

110

Slope Stability Problems and Back Analysis in Heavily Jointed Rock Mass: A Case Study from Manisa, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a case study regarding slope stability problems and the remedial slope stabilization work executed during the construction of two reinforced concrete water storage tanks on a steep hill in Manisa, Turkey. Water storage tanks of different capacities were planned to be constructed, one under the other, on closely jointed and deformed shale and sandstone units. The tank on the upper elevation was constructed first and an approximately 20-m cut slope with two benches was excavated in front of this upper tank before the construction of the lower tank. The cut slope failed after a week and the failure threatened the stability of the upper water tank. In addition to re-sloping, a 15.6-m deep contiguous retaining pile wall without anchoring was built to support both the cut slope and the upper tank. Despite the construction of a retaining pile wall, a maximum of 10 mm of displacement was observed by inclinometer measurements due to the re-failure of the slope on the existing slip surface. Permanent stability was achieved after the placement of a granular fill buttress on the slope. Back analysis based on the non-linear (Hoek-Brown) failure criterion indicated that the geological strength index (GSI) value of the slope-forming material is around 21 and is compatible with the in situ-determined GSI value (24). The calculated normal-shear stress plots are also consistent with the Hoek-Brown failure envelope of the rock mass, indicating that the location of the sliding surface, GSI value estimated by back analysis, and the rock mass parameters are well defined. The long-term stability analysis illustrates a safe slope design after the placement of a permanent toe buttress.

Akin, Mutluhan

2013-03-01

111

Arthroscopic Treatment of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Screw Impingement and Concomitant Hip Pathology  

PubMed Central

Impingement caused by screws used for stabilization of slipped capital femoral epiphysis can be treated arthroscopically. Although troublesome screws have traditionally been removed by open techniques, arthroscopic removal can successfully be achieved. In addition to affording the patient the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, surgeons also have the ability to arthroscopically address any concomitant hip pathology responsible for pain, including femoroacetabular impingement and labral tears. PMID:25264513

Howse, Elizabeth A.; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Mannava, Sandeep; Perry, Brad; Stubbs, Allston J.

2014-01-01

112

Cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation. Part I: Study on morphological feasibility, indications, and technical prerequisites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilevel cervical spine procedures can challenge the stability of current anterior cervical screw-and-plate systems, particularly\\u000a in cases of severe three-column subaxial cervical spine injuries and multilevel plated reconstructions in osteoporotic bone.\\u000a Supplemental posterior instrumentation is therefore recommended to increase primary construct rigidity and diminish early\\u000a failure rates. The increasing number of successfully performed posterior cervical pedicle screw fixations have enabled

Heiko Koller; Axel Hempfing; Frank Acosta; Michael Fox; Armin Scheiter; Mark Tauber; Ulrich Holz; Herbert Resch; Wolfgang Hitzl

2008-01-01

113

Metallurgical examination of gun barrel screws  

SciTech Connect

The examination was conducted to determine the extent of degradation that had occurred after a series of firings; these screws prevent live rounds of ammunition from being loaded into the firing chamber. One concern is that if the screw tip fails and a live round is accidentally loaded into the chamber, a live round could be fired. Another concern is that if the blunt end of the screw begins to degrade by cracking, pieces could become small projectiles during firing. All screws used in firing 100 rounds or more exhibited some degree degradation, which progressively worsened as the number of rounds fired increased. (SEM, metallography, x-ray analysis, and microhardness were used.) Presence of cracks in these screws after 100 fired rounds is a serious concern that warrants the discontinued use of these screws. The screw could be improved by selecting an alloy more resistant to thermal and chemical degradation.

Bird, E.L.; Clift, T.L.

1996-06-01

114

Surgical treatment of Rockwood grade-V acromioclavicular joint dislocations  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Long-term outcome after surgery for grade-V acromioclavicular joint dislocation has not been reported. We performed a retrospective analysis of functional and radiographic outcome 15–22 years after surgery. Patients and methods We examined 50 patients who were treated at our hospital between April 1985 and December 1993. Various methods of stabilization were used: K-wires (n = 36), 4.5-mm screw (n = 12), or biodegradable screw (n = 2). Osteosynthesis material was removed after 6–8 weeks. Mean follow-up time was 18 (15–22) years. Outcomes were assessed with the Constant shoulder (CS) score, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score, the simple shoulder test (SST), the Copeland shoulder impingement test, the cross-arm test, pain, stability of the AC joint, and complications. From radiographs, we evaluated AC and glenohumeral (GH) arthrosis, osteolysis of the lateral clavicle, and alignment of the clavicle with the acromion. Results Mean values were 90 (75–100) in CS score, 5.1 (0–41) in DASH score, and 11 (2–12) in SST. There was no statistically significant difference in CS score between the injured shoulder and the uninjured shoulder. The AC joint was clinically stable in 42 patients. In 38 patients, the clavicle alignment with the acromion was normal in radiographs. Lateral clavicle osteolysis (10 patients) appeared to be associated with permanent AC joint dislocation. Interpretation Surgery with a temporary fixation for acute grade-V AC joint dislocation leads to successful long-term functional results. Only minor disability occurred in some patients. PMID:23409813

2013-01-01

115

Anterior glenohumeral joint stabilization in tetraplegic patients by medializing the anterior head of deltoid muscle.  

PubMed

To improve control of the upper limb in high-level tetraplegic patients, the proximal shoulder must be the first consideration. Medialization of the anterior part of the deltoid muscle provides stabilization and is then an antagonist to the posterior deltoid when a pectoralis major palsy exists. It can also be performed in isolation in high-level tetraplegia even when there is little hope of distal extremity reconstruction to stabilize the shoulder. It also precedes the ability to restore elbow extension and perform further reconstructive hand surgery. We describe the surgical technique and report a clinical case. PMID:25455098

Ballas, Richard; Fattal, Charles; Teissier, Jacques

2015-01-01

116

Deuterium beam acceleration with 3rd harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating in Joint European Torus: Sawtooth stabilization and Alfvén eigenmodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on accelerating NBI-produced deuterium (D) beam ions from their injection energy of ˜110 keV up to the MeV energy range with 3rd harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating were performed on the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. A renewed set of nuclear diagnostics was used for analysing fast D ions during sawtooth stabilization, monster sawtooth crashes, and during excitation of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) residing inside the q = 1 radius. The measurements and modeling of the fast ions with the nonlinear HAGIS code [S. D. Pinches et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 111, 133 (1998)] show that monster sawtooth crashes are strongly facilitated by the AE-induced re-distribution of the fast D ions from inside the q = 1 radius to the plasma edge.

Gassner, T.; Schoepf, K.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V. G.; Pinches, S. D.; Hellesen, C.; Eriksson, J.; JET-EFDA contributors

2012-03-01

117

Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

2015-01-01

118

Helical screw expander evaluation project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one MW helical rotary screw expander power system for electric power generation from geothermal brine was evaluated. The technology explored in the testing is simple, potentially very efficient, and ideally suited to wellhead installations in moderate to high enthalpy, liquid dominated field. A functional one MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing, operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000 kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

Mckay, R.

1982-01-01

119

Lateral mass screw fixation in children  

PubMed Central

Purpose The safety and feasibility of posterior screw fixation of the cervical spine in children has not been well documented in the orthopedic literature. We performed a retrospective review of our experience using posterior cervical screw fixation in children. Methods The medical records and radiologic records of 36 children at a mean age of 10 years (range 3–16 years) were reviewed. Diagnoses included: ten instability, 11 deformity, seven trauma, five tumor, and three congenital abnormalities. Operative reports and postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed to determine the technical feasibility of screw placement, any screw-related complications, and to assess for correct screw position. In this series, there were no neurologic complications, no vertebral artery injuries, and no screw-related complications. Results Thirty patients (141 screws) had screws evaluated postoperatively and were shown to be completely contained on postoperative CT scans. There were no revisions due to screw failure or dislodgement. There were no vascular or neurologic complications. Conclusions Posterior screw fixation in the pediatric population may be done safely and greatly enhances fixation strength for a variety of disorders requiring instrumentation and fusion. PMID:21629379

Proctor, Mark; Hresko, Timothy

2010-01-01

120

Ideal screw entry point and projection angles for posterior lateral mass fixation of the atlas: an anatomical study.  

PubMed

Although various posterior insertion angles for screw insertion have been proposed for C1 lateral mass, substantial conclusions have not been reached regarding ideal angles and average length of the screw yet. We aimed to re-consider the morphometry and the ideal trajections of the C1 screw. Morphometric analysis was performed on 40 Turkish dried atlas vertebrae obtained from the Department of Anatomy at the Medical School of Ankara University. The quantitative anatomy of the screw entry zone, trajectories, and the ideal lengths of the screws were calculated to evaluate the feasibility of posterior screw fixation of the lateral mass of the atlas. The entry point into the lateral mass of the atlas is the intersection of the posterior arch and the C1 lateral mass. The optimum medial angle is 13.5 +/- 1.9 degrees and maximal angle of medialization is 29.4 +/- 3.0 degrees . The ideal cephalic angle is 15.2 +/- 2.6 degrees , and the maximum cephalic angle is 29.6 +/- 2.6 degrees . The optimum screw length was found to be 19.59 +/- 2.20 mm. With more than 30 degrees of medial trajections and cephalic trajections the screw penetrates into the spinal canal and atlantooccipital joint, respectively. Strikingly, in 52% of our specimens, the height of the inferior articular process was under 3.5 mm, and in 70% was under 4 mm, which increases the importance of the preparation of the screw entry site. For accommodation of screws of 3.5-mm in diameter, the starting point should be taken as the insertion of the posterior arch at the superior end of the inferior articular process with a cephalic trajection. This study may aid many surgeons in their attempts to place C1 lateral mass screws. PMID:19644713

Simsek, Serkan; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Seçkin, Hakan; Comert, Ayhan; Acar, Halil I; Belen, Deniz; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Elhan, Alaittin

2009-09-01

121

Distal tibial physeal bridge: a complication from a tension band plate and screw construct. Report of a case.  

PubMed

We report on a case of a tension band plate and screw construct (Eight Plate) used over the anterior distal tibia in an 9-year-old girl in an attempt to induce recurvatum of the ankle joint to correct a recalcitrant equinus deformity. With growth of the distal tibial physis, the epiphyseal screw was drawn through the physis into the distal tibial metaphysis, resulting in the creation of a transphyseal bony bar. Caution should be exercised when attempting temporary hemiepiphyseodesis using a plate and screw construct in small epiphyses or in an osteopenic bone. PMID:22158054

Oda, Jon E; Thacker, Mihir M

2013-05-01

122

Modeling and synchronous control of a single-axis stage driven by dual mechanically-coupled parallel ball screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a synchronous control scheme and system modeling technique for a single-axis stage driven by dual parallel\\u000a ball screws\\/servo motors. The slide tables of the two ball screws are bridged with an aluminum bar, and each end of the bar\\u000a is firmly fixed to one slide table. The thrust can, thus, be jointly output via this coupling. Such

Min-Fu Hsieh; Wu-Sung Yao; Chia-Rong Chiang

2007-01-01

123

Variations of anatomical elements contributing to subtalar joint stability: intrinsic risk factors for post-traumatic lateral instability of the ankle?  

PubMed

Ankle sprains are frequently followed by chronic lateral instability, often with talar hypermobility. This might be due to subtalar instability. Among intrinsic risk factors, anatomical variants are generally overlooked. In the subtalar region, anatomical variation is particularly frequent. On the talus as well as on the calcaneus, the anterior articular facets may be missing or fused with the medial facets, giving rise to three subtalar joint configurations: a three-joint configuration, a fused configuration with a relatively large anteromedial joint, and a two-joint configuration without anterior joint. Osteometry was performed on these joint facets (134 calcanei, 122 tali), demonstrating significant differences in the surface of these configurations and the existence of a supplementary supporting surface with grossly transverse orientation in the three-joint configuration. There are also several variants of stabilizing ligaments within the sinus tarsi. Some of these configurations might expose to increased risk of associated subtalar lesions, resulting in subtalar instability. A systematic look for these variants is recommended in order to evaluate the associated risk factors, eventually resulting in a better understanding, prevention and cure of sequellae. PMID:11083150

Barbaix, E; Van Roy, P; Clarys, J P

2000-10-01

124

Periodic variation of preloading in ball screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preloading is a main characteristic for the functionality of a ball screw. The path of preloading during operation with\\u000a no thrust load is an indicator for the actual inner forces, the friction produced by the ball screw and finally for the quality\\u000a of the unit. Due to manufacturing tolerances the preloading over the useful travel of the ball screw

S. Frey; M. Walther; A. Verl

2010-01-01

125

Shock-Absorbent Ball-Screw Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Actuator containing two ball screws in series employs Belleville springs to reduce impact loads, thereby increasing life expectancy. New application of springs increases reliability of equipment in which ball screws commonly used. Set of three springs within lower screw of ball-screw mechanism absorbs impacts that result when parts reach their upper and lower limits of movement. Mechanism designed with Belleville springs as shock-absorbing elements because springs have good energy-to-volume ratio and easily stacked to attain any stiffness and travel.

Hirr, Otto A., Jr.; Meneely, R. W.

1986-01-01

126

Multipoint joint time and frequency dissemination in delay-stabilized fiber optic links.  

PubMed

This paper presents the system for dissemination of both the RF frequency (e.g., 5, 10, or 100 MHz) and time (pulse per second) signals using an actively tapped fiber-optic link with electronic stabilization of the propagation delay. In principle several nodes for accessing the time/frequency signals may be added without the degradation of the dissemination in the main link. We are discussing the algorithm of determining the propagation delay from the local end of the link to the access node that is required for calibration of the time dissemination. Performed analysis shows that the uncertainty of the time calibration at the access node may in practice be dominated by the dependence of the propagation delay of the receivers on impinging optical powers and is only weakly affected by the distance between the local and access modules. The uncertainty is, however, still low, being only about two times higher compared with the calibration uncertainty of the main link. Experimental results performed on several spooled fibers show that the accuracy of described calibration procedures, expressed as a difference from the results of direct measurement, is not worse than 35 ps. PMID:25768810

Sliwczynski, L; Krehlik, P

2015-03-01

127

The sustentaculum tali screw fixation for the treatment of Sanders type II calcaneal fracture: A finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: In the surgery of calcaneal fracture, whether the sustentaculum tali screw should always be placed is widely controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the necessity and function of the sustentaculum tali screw placement for the treatment of Sanders type II calcaneal fracture. Methods: The finite element analysis was used in this study. After the establishment of the finite element model of Sanders type II calcaneal fracture, the two internal fixation simulations were designed. In one model, the AO calcaneal plate was simulated on the lateral side of the calcanues with 7 screws being fixated at different position of the plate. In the other model, the calcaneus was fixated with the same AO calcaneal plate together with an additional screw being infiltrated into the sustentaculum tali. The two models were simulated under the same loading and the displacement of the fracture line and the stress distribution in the two models were calculated respectively. Results: The maximum principal stress focused on the cortical bone of sustentaculum tali in both the models under the same loading. The displacement of the fracture line, the maximum principal stress of calcaneus and internal fixation system in the model with sustentaculum screw fixation were smaller than that in the model without sustentaculum screw fixation. The stress in the model with sustentaculum screw fixation was more dispersed. Conclusions: The placement of sustentaculum tali screw is essential for fixation of type II calcaneal fracture to achieve the biomechanical stability. PMID:25225534

Pang, Qing-Jiang; Yu, Xiao; Guo, Zong-Hui

2014-01-01

128

Balancing Rigidity and Safety of Pedicle Screw Fixation via a Novel Expansion Mechanism in a Severely Osteoporotic Model.  

PubMed

Many successful attempts to increase pullout strength of pedicle screws in osteoporotic bone have been accompanied with an increased risk of catastrophic damage to the patient. To avoid this, a single-armed expansive pedicle screw was designed to increase fixation strength while controlling postfailure damage away from the nerves surrounding the pedicle. The screw was then subsequently tested in two severely osteoporotic models: one representing trabecular bone (with and without the presence of polymethylmethacrylate) and the other representing a combination of trabecular and cortical bone. Maximum pullout strength, stiffness, energy to failure, energy to removal, and size of the resulting block damage were statistically compared among conditions. While expandable pedicle screws produced maximum pullout forces less than or comparable to standard screws, they required a higher amount of energy to be fully removed from both models. Furthermore, damage to the cortical layer in the composite test blocks was smaller in all measured directions for tests involving expandable pedicle screws than those involving standard pedicle screws. This indicates that while initial fixation may not differ in the presence of cortical bone, the expandable pedicle screw offers an increased level of postfailure stability and safety to patients awaiting revision surgery. PMID:25705655

Shea, Thomas M; Doulgeris, James J; Gonzalez-Blohm, Sabrina A; Lee, William E; Aghayev, Kamran; Vrionis, Frank D

2015-01-01

129

Balancing Rigidity and Safety of Pedicle Screw Fixation via a Novel Expansion Mechanism in a Severely Osteoporotic Model  

PubMed Central

Many successful attempts to increase pullout strength of pedicle screws in osteoporotic bone have been accompanied with an increased risk of catastrophic damage to the patient. To avoid this, a single-armed expansive pedicle screw was designed to increase fixation strength while controlling postfailure damage away from the nerves surrounding the pedicle. The screw was then subsequently tested in two severely osteoporotic models: one representing trabecular bone (with and without the presence of polymethylmethacrylate) and the other representing a combination of trabecular and cortical bone. Maximum pullout strength, stiffness, energy to failure, energy to removal, and size of the resulting block damage were statistically compared among conditions. While expandable pedicle screws produced maximum pullout forces less than or comparable to standard screws, they required a higher amount of energy to be fully removed from both models. Furthermore, damage to the cortical layer in the composite test blocks was smaller in all measured directions for tests involving expandable pedicle screws than those involving standard pedicle screws. This indicates that while initial fixation may not differ in the presence of cortical bone, the expandable pedicle screw offers an increased level of postfailure stability and safety to patients awaiting revision surgery. PMID:25705655

Shea, Thomas M.; Doulgeris, James J.; Gonzalez-Blohm, Sabrina A.; Lee, William E.; Vrionis, Frank D.

2015-01-01

130

The Mast Cell Stabilizer Ketotifen Fumarate Lessens Contracture Severity and Myofibroblast Hyperplasia: A Study of a Rabbit Model of Posttraumatic Joint Contractures  

PubMed Central

Background The propensity of the elbow to become stiff after trauma is widely appreciated and in this setting, the joint capsule is commonly recognized as the major motion-limiting anatomical structure. Affected joint capsules become fibrotic, characterized by myofibroblast hyperplasia and excessive collagen deposition. Mast cell hyperplasia is common within fibrotic tissue and mast cells are known to synthesize many profibrotic mediators. We have hypothesized that mast cell inhibition after skeletal injury will lessen the degree of contracture severity and will reduce myofibroblast hyperplasia within the joint capsule. Methods Posttraumatic contractures of the knee were created using a combination of intra-articular injury coupled to internal immobilization in skeletally mature, New Zealand white rabbits. Four groups of animals were studied: a non-operative control group (CON), an operative contracture group (ORC) and two-operative groups treated with a mast cell stabilizer, Ketotifen fumarate at doses of 0.5mg/kg (KF0.5) and 1.0mg/kg (KF1.0) twice daily, respectively. After 8 weeks of immobilization, flexion contractures were measured biomechanically and the posterior joint capsule was harvested for quantification of myofibroblast and mast cell numbers. Results Flexion contractures developed in the ORC group (58 ± 14°) and the severity of contracture was significantly reduced in both groups treated with Ketotifen (KF0.5: 42 ± 17° and KF1.0: 45 ± 10°, p<0.02). Joint capsule myofibroblast and mast cell numbers were significantly increased within the operative contracture group (p<0.001). In both surgical groups treated with Ketotifen, myofibroblast and mast cell numbers were significantly reduced (p<0.001). Conclusions The use of a mast cell stabilizer, Ketotifen was effective in reducing the biomechanical and cellular manifestations of joint capsule fibrosis in a rabbit model of posttraumatic joint contracture. This is suggestive that an inflammatory pathway, mediated by mast cell activation is involved in the induction of joint capsule fibrosis after traumatic injury. Clinical Relevance These results suggest mast cell activation is an important event in the genesis of posttraumatic joint contractures. Further work is needed to determine if mast cell inhibition has a role in the prevention of posttraumatic joint contractures in humans. PMID:20516323

Monument, Michael J.; Hart, David A.; Befus, A. Dean; Salo, Paul T.; Zhang, Mei; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

2010-01-01

131

Noise Level of Precision Ball Screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have derived a formula to evaluate the noise level of NSK precision ball screws based on data accumulated for over 10 years. Our database indicates that the factor which plays an important role in ball screw noise is the product of three parameters: ball diameter, ball pitch circle diameter, and rotational speed. The derived formula enables us to estimate

Toshiharu Kajita; Akihiko Ishikawa

1996-01-01

132

Ball screw type wave power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain an even flow of electric power form fluctuating wave energy, the authors devised a ball screw type wave power generator (BSTWPG) which consists of a pressure plate, ball screws and nuts, one-way clutches, flywheels and generators. The equations of motion of the BSTWPG system are shown and the digital simulation using Continuous System Simulation Language is developed on

K.-I. Ohmata; H. Shimoda

1979-01-01

133

Antegrade-retrograde opposing lag screws for internal fixation of simple displaced talar neck fractures.  

PubMed

The talar neck is deviated medially with reference to the long axis of the body of the talus. In addition, it deviates plantarward. The talar neck fracture line is sometimes observed to be oriented obliquely (not perpendicular to the long axis of the talar neck). This occurs when the medially deviated talar neck strikes the horizontally oriented anterior lower tibial edge. Internal fixation of a simple displaced talar neck fracture usually requires 2 lag screws. Because the fracture line is obliquely oriented, a better method for positioning the screws perpendicular to the fracture line is to place them in a reversed direction to provide maximum interfragmentary compression at the fracture site, which could increase the likelihood of absolute stability with subsequent improvement in the incidence of fracture union and a reduction of complications, such as avascular necrosis of the body of the talus. Two lag screws are used, with the first inserted from posteriorly to anteriorly (perpendicular to the fracture line) using a medial approach after medial malleolar chevron osteotomy. The second screw is inserted from anteriorly to posteriorly (perpendicular to the fracture line) using an anterolateral approach. Both screw heads should be countersunk. A series of 8 patients underwent this form of internal fixation for talar neck fracture repair, with satisfactory functional outcomes. In conclusion, the use of antegrade-retrograde opposing lag screws is a reasonable method of internal fixation for simple displaced talar neck fractures. PMID:25459087

Abdelkafy, Ashraf; Imam, Mohamed Abdelnabi; Sokkar, Sherif; Hirschmann, Michael

2015-01-01

134

Cervical pedicle screw placement: feasibility and accuracy of two new insertion techniques based on morphometric data.  

PubMed

This morphometric and experimental study was designed to assess the dimensions and axes of the subaxial cervical pedicles and to compare the accuracy of two different techniques for subaxial cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement using newly designed aiming devices. Transpedicular fixation is increasingly used for stabilizing the subaxial cervical spine. Development of the demanding technique is based on morphometric studies of the pedicle anatomy. Several surgical techniques have been developed and evaluated with respect to their feasibility and accuracy. The study was carried out on six conserved human cadavers (average age 85 years). Axes and dimensions of the pedicles C3-C7 (60 pedicles) were measured using multislice computed tomography (CT) images prior to surgery. Two groups consisting of 3 specimens and 30 pedicles each were established according to the screw placement technique. For surgical technique 1 (ST1) a para-articular mini-laminotomy was performed. Guidance of the drill through the pedicle with a handheld aiming device attached onto the medial aspect of the pedicle inside the spinal canal. Screw hole preparation monitored by lateral fluoroscopy. In surgical technique 2 (ST2) a more complex aiming device was used for screw holes drilling. It consists of a frame with a fully adjustable radiolucent arm for carrying the instruments necessary for placing the screws. The arm was angled according to the cervical pedicle axis as determined by the preoperative CT scans. Drilling was monitored by lateral fluoroscopy. In either technique 3.5 mm screws made of carbon fiber polyetheretherketone (CF-PEEK) were inserted. The use of the CF-PEEK screws allowed for precise postoperative CT-assessment since this material does not cause artifacts. Screw placement was qualified from ideal to unacceptable into four grades: I = screw centered in pedicle; IIa = perforation of pedicle wall less than one-fourth of the screw diameter; IIb = perforation more than one-fourth of the screw diameter without contact to neurovascular structures; III = screw more than one-fourth outside the pedicle with contact to neurovascular structures. Fifty-six pedicle screws could be evaluated according to the same CT protocol that was used preoperatively. Accuracy of pedicle screw placement did not reveal significant differences between techniques 1 and 2. A tendency towards less severe misplacements (grade III) was seen in ST2 (15% in ST2 vs. 23% in ST1) as well as a higher rate of screw positions graded IIa (62% in ST2 vs. 43% in ST1). C4 and C5 were identified to be the most critical vertebral levels with three malpositioned screws each. Because of the variability of cervical pedicles preoperative CT evaluation with multiplanar reconstructions of the pedicle anatomy is essential for transpedicular screw placement in the cervical spine. Cadaver studies remain mandatory to develop safer and technically less demanding procedures. A similar study is projected to further develop the technique of CPS fixation with regard to safety and clinical practicability. PMID:16628443

Reinhold, M; Magerl, F; Rieger, M; Blauth, M

2007-01-01

135

Cervical pedicle screw placement: feasibility and accuracy of two new insertion techniques based on morphometric data  

PubMed Central

This morphometric and experimental study was designed to assess the dimensions and axes of the subaxial cervical pedicles and to compare the accuracy of two different techniques for subaxial cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement using newly designed aiming devices. Transpedicular fixation is increasingly used for stabilizing the subaxial cervical spine. Development of the demanding technique is based on morphometric studies of the pedicle anatomy. Several surgical techniques have been developed and evaluated with respect to their feasibility and accuracy. The study was carried out on six conserved human cadavers (average age 85 years). Axes and dimensions of the pedicles C3–C7 (60 pedicles) were measured using multislice computed tomography (CT) images prior to surgery. Two groups consisting of 3 specimens and 30 pedicles each were established according to the screw placement technique. For surgical technique 1 (ST1) a para-articular mini-laminotomy was performed. Guidance of the drill through the pedicle with a handheld aiming device attached onto the medial aspect of the pedicle inside the spinal canal. Screw hole preparation monitored by lateral fluoroscopy. In surgical technique 2 (ST2) a more complex aiming device was used for screw holes drilling. It consists of a frame with a fully adjustable radiolucent arm for carrying the instruments necessary for placing the screws. The arm was angled according to the cervical pedicle axis as determined by the preoperative CT scans. Drilling was monitored by lateral fluoroscopy. In either technique 3.5 mm screws made of carbon fiber polyetheretherketone (CF-PEEK) were inserted. The use of the CF-PEEK screws allowed for precise postoperative CT-assessment since this material does not cause artifacts. Screw placement was qualified from ideal to unacceptable into four grades: I = screw centered in pedicle; IIa = perforation of pedicle wall less than one-fourth of the screw diameter; IIb = perforation more than one-fourth of the screw diameter without contact to neurovascular structures; III = screw more than one-fourth outside the pedicle with contact to neurovascular structures. Fifty-six pedicle screws could be evaluated according to the same CT protocol that was used preoperatively. Accuracy of pedicle screw placement did not reveal significant differences between techniques 1 and 2. A tendency towards less severe misplacements (grade III) was seen in ST2 (15% in ST2 vs. 23% in ST1) as well as a higher rate of screw positions graded IIa (62% in ST2 vs. 43% in ST1). C4 and C5 were identified to be the most critical vertebral levels with three malpositioned screws each. Because of the variability of cervical pedicles preoperative CT evaluation with multiplanar reconstructions of the pedicle anatomy is essential for transpedicular screw placement in the cervical spine. Cadaver studies remain mandatory to develop safer and technically less demanding procedures. A similar study is projected to further develop the technique of CPS fixation with regard to safety and clinical practicability. PMID:16628443

Magerl, F.; Rieger, M.; Blauth, M.

2006-01-01

136

The stabilizing effect of orthotic devices on plantar flexion/dorsal extension and horizontal rotation of the ankle joint. An experimental cadaveric investigation.  

PubMed

The mechanical stabilizing effect of nine different orthotic devices on physiological and pathological plantar flexion/dorsal extension and horizontal rotation of the ankle joint subjected to artificial lateral ligament lesions was investigated in 20 cadaveric ankle joints under standardized conditions using an experimental apparatus. All of the braces tested significantly reduced plantar flexion/dorsal extension, as well as internal/external/external horizontal rotation, under the experimental conditions. In so far as these results can be transposed into a clinical setting, our data favour that bracing significantly reduces the instability. But, other criteria, such as the stabilizing effect on talar tilt and anterior drawer sign, the price and the convenience of wearing such devices have to be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal brace. PMID:8973984

Bruns, J; Scherlitz, J; Luessenhop, S

1996-11-01

137

Bioresorbable composite screws manufactured via forging process: pull-out, shear, flexural and degradation characteristics.  

PubMed

Bioresorbable screws have the potential to overcome some of the complications associated with metallic screws currently in use. Removal of metallic screws after bone has healed is a serious issue which can lead to refracture due to the presence of screw holes. Poly lactic acid (PLA), fully 40 mol% P(2)O(5) containing phosphate unidirectional (P40UD) and a mixture of UD and short chopped strand random fibre mats (P40 70%UD/30%RM) composite screws were prepared via forging composite bars. Water uptake and mass loss for the composite screws manufactured increased significantly to ?1.25% (P=0.0002) and ?1.1% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 42 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. The initial maximum flexural load for P40 UD/RM and P40 UD composite screws was ?60% (P=0.0047) and ?100% (P=0.0037) higher than for the PLA screws (?190 N), whilst the shear load was slightly higher in comparison to PLA (?2.2 kN). The initial pull-out strengths for the P40 UD/RM and PLA screws were similar whereas that for P40 UD screws was ?75% higher (P=0.022). Mechanical properties for the composite screws decreased initially after 3 days of immersion and this reduction was ascribed to the degradation of the fibre/matrix interface. After 3 days interval the mechanical properties (flexural, shear and pull-out) maintained their integrity for the duration of the study (at 42 days). This property retention was attributed to the chemical durability of the fibres used and stability of the matrix properties during the degradation process. It was also deemed necessary to enhance the fibre/matrix interface via use of a coupling agent in order to maintain the initial mechanical properties acquired for the required period of time. Lastly, it is also suggested that the degrading reinforcement fibres may have the potential to buffer any acidic products released from the PLA matrix. PMID:23262309

Felfel, R M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Rudd, C D

2013-02-01

138

Biomechanical Comparison of Osteoporotic Distal Radius Fractures Fixed by Distal Locking Screws with Different Length  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the postoperative stability of osteoporotic distal radius fractures fixed with distal locking screws with different length. Methods A comminuted extra-articular dorsally unstable distal radius fracture, treated with volar locking plate system, was created. The 18 specimens were randomized into 3 groups based on distal locked screws with different length: Group A had unicortical screws with 50% length to the dorsal cortex. Group B had unicortical screws with 75% length to the dorsal cortex. Group C had bicortical screws. Axial compression and bending loads were imposed on the models before and after cycling testing as well as load to clinical and catastrophic failure. Results Minimum change in stiffness was observed before and after fatigue for all groups. The final stiffness to bending forces was statistically similar in all groups, but stiffness to axial compression was statistically significant different: Group A approached significance with respect to groups B and C (P?=?0.017, 0.009), whereas stiffness in group B and C was statistically similar (P?=?0.93). Load to clinical failure was significantly less for group A (456.54±78.59 N) compared with groups B (580.24±73.85 N) and C (591.07±38.40 N). Load to catastrophic failure was statistically similar between groups, but mean values for Group A were 18% less than means for Group C. Conclusions The volar locking plate system fixed with unicortical locking screws with at least 75% length not only produced early stability for osteoporotic distal radius fractures, but also avoided extensor tendon complications due to dorsal screw protrusion. PMID:25080094

Liu, Xiong; Wu, Wei-dong; Fang, Ya-feng; Zhang, Mei-chao; Huang, Wen-hua

2014-01-01

139

Alignment of pedicle screws with pilot holes: can tapping improve screw trajectory in thoracic spines?  

PubMed Central

Pedicle screws are placed using pilot holes. The trajectory of pilot holes can be verified by pedicle sounding or radiographs. However, a pilot hole alone does not insure that the screw will follow the pilot hole. No studies have characterized the risk of misalignment of a pedicle screw with respect to its pilot hole trajectory. The objective of this study was to measure the misalignment angles between pedicle screws and pilot holes with or without tapping. Six human cadaveric thoracic spines were used. One hundred and forty pilot holes were created with a straight probe. Steel wires were temporarily inserted and their positions were recorded with CT scans. The left pedicles were tapped with 4.5 mm fluted tap and the right pedicles remained untapped. Pedicle screws (5.5 mm) were inserted into the tapped and untapped pedicles followed by CT scans. The trajectories of pilot holes and screws were calculated using three-dimensional vector analysis. A total of 133 pilot holes (95%) were inside pedicles. For the untapped side, 14 out of 68 (20%) screws did not follow the pilot holes and were outside the pedicles. For the tapped side, 2 out of 65 (3%) did not follow and breached the pedicles. The average misalignment angles between the screw and pilot hole trajectory were 7.7° ± 6.5° and 5.6° ± 3.2° for the untapped side and tapped side, respectively (P < 0.05). Most pedicle screws had lateral screw breach (13 out of 16) whereas most pilot holes had medial pedicle breach (6 out of 7). Tapping of pilot holes (1 mm undertap) helps align pedicle screws and reduces the risk of screw malposition. Although most pedicle screws had lateral breach, the risk of medial pedicle breach of the pilot holes must be recognized. PMID:19526377

Erkan, Serkan; Hsu, Brian; Mehbod, Amir A.; Perl, John; Transfeldt, Ensor E.

2009-01-01

140

The lateral sacral triangle--a decision support for secure transverse sacroiliac screw insertion.  

PubMed

Sacroiliac (SI) screw fixation represents an effective method to stabilise pelvic injuries. However, to date neither reliable radiological landmarks nor effective anatomical classifications of the sacrum exist. This study investigates the influence of variability in sacral shape on secure transverse SI-screw positioning. Furthermore, consistent correlations of these anatomical conditions are analysed with respect to standard planar pelvic views. For shape analysis, 80 human computed tomography data sets were segmented with the software Amira 4.2 to obtain 3D reconstructions. We identified anatomical conditions (ACs) according to the extent of the effect on the bony screw pathway. Subsequently, the pelvis was spatially aligned using representative bone protuberances in order to create standard Matta projections. In each view, the ACs were described in terms of distance from bone landmarks. Three-dimensional shape analysis revealed the height of the pedicular isthmus (PH) as the limiting variable for secure screw insertion. The lateral and outlet views allowed an orthogonal projection of PH. In the lateral view, the ratio of the lateral sacral triangle framed by the S1 body height and width showed a high correlation to PH (p = 0.0001). A boundary ratio of 1.5 represented a reliable variable to determine whether or not a screw can be inserted (positive predictive value: 97%). In the outlet view, the distance between the S1 endplate and the SI joint top level (EJ) strongly correlated with PH (p = 0.0001). With EJ 0 mm, screw insertion was possible in all cases (100%). SI-screw insertion requires a well-planned procedure. Orientation of the sacral pedicle is of extreme relevance. A narrow sacroiliac channel and high sacral shape variability limit secure screw placement. However, no determining parameters exist, allowing accurate prediction of secure screw insertion based on X-rays or fluoroscopy. The lateral sacral triangle in the lateral view represents a simple and accurate preoperative method of support for the surgeon's decision to undertake this procedure. No additional technical effort is necessary. A boundary ratio of 1.5 predicts a sufficient bone stock for at least one 7.3 mm screw. Furthermore, the evaluation of the outlet projection can be used to assess the safety of the operation. Basically, a preoperative lateral pelvic image should be mandatory. PMID:22081808

Mendel, T; Noser, H; Wohlrab, D; Stock, K; Radetzki, F

2011-10-01

141

Cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation (ATPS)—Part II. Accuracy of manual insertion and pull-out strength of ATPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction after multilevel decompression of the cervical spine, especially in the weakened osteoporotic, neoplastic or\\u000a infectious spine often requires circumferential stabilization and fusion. To avoid the additional posterior surgery in these\\u000a cases while increasing rigidity of anterior-only screw-plate constructs, the authors introduce the concept of anterior transpedicular\\u000a screw (ATPS) fixation. We demonstrated its morphological feasibility as well as its indications

Heiko Koller; Frank Acosta; Mark Tauber; Michael Fox; Hudelmaier Martin; Rosmarie Forstner; Peter Augat; Rainer Penzkofer; Christian Pirich; H. Kässmann; Herbert Resch; Wolfgang Hitzl

2008-01-01

142

Image-Based Planning and Validation of C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation Using Personalized Drill Guides  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Posterior transarticular spine fusion is a surgical procedure used to stabilize the cervical bodies C1 and C2. Currently,\\u000a spine screws are used most frequently, according to the procedure of Magerl. As the anatomy is rather complex and the view\\u000a is limited, this procedure has a high risk factor. Thus we present and validate a planning system for cervical screw insertion

Kirsten Martens; Kris Verstreken; Johan Van Cleynenbreugel; Karel Van Brussel; Jan Goffin; Guy Marchal; Paul Suetens

1999-01-01

143

Screw-released roller brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

144

Recurrent Laryngeal Edema Imitating Angioedema Caused by Dislocated Screw after Anterior Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

The anterior cervical spine surgery is a common procedure to stabilize vertebrae damaged by various diseases. The plates and screws are usually used in the spine fixation. This kind of instrumentation may detach from the bones which is a rare but well-known complication. A 77-year-old male presented to the otorhinolaryngology department with throat pain, choking, and dysphagia. At first the angioedema was diagnosed and he was treated conservatively. The endoscopy revealed laryngeal edema, being more defined on the right side with right vocal fold paresis. CT scans showed the stabilizing plate with two screws attached tightly and the back-out of the third screw toward soft tissue of the neck. In the meantime, his condition deteriorated and he needed tracheotomy. In few days the surgical removal of the dislocated screw was performed successfully. Although two-month follow-up reported no obstruction of the larynx, the vocal folds paresis with gradual functional improvement was observed. Long-term complication of anterior spine surgery sometimes may suggest laryngeal angioedema at first. If the conservative treatment is ineffective and there is a history of anterior spine surgery, the clinicians should consider the displacement of the plate or screws in differential diagnosis. PMID:25755901

Wójtowicz, Piotr; Szafarowski, Tomasz; Migacz, Ewa; Krzeski, Antoni

2015-01-01

145

Fuzzy sliding mode position control of a ball screw driven by pneumatic servomotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuzzy sliding mode control method was applied to the control of the position of a ball screw driven by a pneumatic servomotor. The triangular membership function was used to fuzzify the input signal and the Mamdani rules were used for fuzzy reasoning. A sliding hyperplane was defined to satisfy the system requirement and the Lyapunov stability theorem, so that

Ming-Chang Shin; Ching-Sham Lu

1995-01-01

146

Transpedicular screw fixation in the thoracic and lumbar spine with a novel cannulated polyaxial screw system  

PubMed Central

Objective: Transpedicular screws are commonly and successfully used for posterior fixation in spinal instability, but their insertion remains challenging. Even using navigation techniques, there is a misplacement rate of up to 11%. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a novel pedicle screw system. Methods: Thoracic and lumbar fusions were performed on 67 consecutive patients for tumor, trauma, degenerative disease or infection. A total of 326 pedicular screws were placed using a novel wire-guided, cannulated, polyaxial screw system (XIA Precision®, Stryker). The accuracy of placement was assessed postoperatively by CT scan, and the patients were followed-up clinically for a mean of 16 months. Results: The total medio-caudal pedicle wall perforation rate was 9.2% (30/326). In 19 of these 30 cases a cortical breakthrough of less than 2 mm occurred. The misplacement rate (defined as a perforation of 2 mm or more) was 3.37% (11/326). Three of these 11 screws needed surgical revision due to neurological symptoms or CSF leakage. There have been no screw breakages or dislocations over the follow up-period. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of this cannulated screw system for the placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar spine is accurate and safe. The advantages of this technique include easy handling without a time-consuming set up. Considering the incidence of long-term screw breakage, further investigation with a longer follow-up period is necessary. PMID:22915906

Weise, Lutz; Suess, Olaf; Picht, Thomas; Kombos, Theodoros

2008-01-01

147

Comparison between Bilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing and Unilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing, Combined with Contralateral C2 Laminar Screwing, for Atlantoaxial Posterior Fixation  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare clinical and radiological outcomes between bilateral C2 pedicle screwing (C2PS) and unilateral C2PS, combined with contralateral C2 laminar screwing (LS), for posterior atlantoaxial fixation. Overview of Literature Posterior fixation with C1 lateral mass screwing (C1LMS) and C2PS (C1LMS-C2PS method) is an accepted procedure for rigid atlantoaxial stabilization. However, conventional bilateral C2PS is not always allowed in this method due to anatomical variations of C2 pedicles and/or asymmetry of the vertebral artery. Although unilateral C2PS plus contralateral LS (C2PS+LS) is an alternative in such cases, the efficacy of this procedure has not been evaluated in controlled studies (i.e., with bilateral C2PS as a control). Methods Clinical and radiological records of patients who underwent the C1LMS-C2PS method, using unilateral C2PS+LS (n=9), and those treated using conventional bilateral C2PS (n=10) were compared, with a minimum two years follow-up. Results Postoperative complications related to the unilateral C2PS+LS technique included one case of spontaneous spinous process fracture of C2. A C1 anterior arch fracture occurred after a fall in one patient, who underwent bilateral C2PS and C1 laminectomy. No significant differences were seen between the groups in reduction of neck pain after surgery or improvement of neurological status, as evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. A delayed union occurred in one patient each of the groups, with the final fusion rate being 100% in both groups. Conclusions Clinical and radiological outcomes of unilateral C2PS+LS were comparable with those of the bilateral C2PS fixation technique for the C1LMS-C2PS method. PMID:25558320

Hongo, Michio; Kobayashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Abe, Eiji; Shimada, Yoichi

2014-01-01

148

The Use of MMF Screws: Surgical Technique, Indications, Contraindications, and Common Problems in Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Mandibulo-maxillary fixation (MMF) screws are inserted into the bony base of both jaws in the process of fracture realignment and immobilisation. The screw heads act as anchor points to fasten wire loops or rubber bands connecting the mandible to the maxilla. Traditional interdental chain-linked wiring or arch bar techniques provide the anchorage by attached cleats, hooks, or eyelets. In comparison to these tooth-borne appliances MMF screws facilitate and shorten the way to achieve intermaxillary fixation considerably. In addition, MMF screws help to reduce the hazards of glove perforation and wire stick injuries. On the downside, MMF screws are attributed with the risk of tooth root damage and a lack of versatility beyond the pure maintenance of occlusion such as stabilizing loose teeth or splinting fragments of the alveolar process. The surgical technique of MMF screws as well as the pros and cons of the clinical application are reviewed. The adequate screw placement to prevent serious tooth root injuries is still an issue to rethink and modify conceptual guidelines. PMID:22110819

Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Ehrenfeld, Michael

2010-01-01

149

Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2?mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ?2?mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%]) were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator's mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system.

Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Liermann, Dieter; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

2015-01-01

150

Flow patterns in twin-screw extruders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow visualisation studies in an intermeshing co-rotating twin-screw extruder operated under starve-fed conditions are presented. Different numbers of kneading discs and relative staggering angles were used in the definition of the mixing blocks. Conveying and left-handed elements were also utilised. The images recorded provided information on flow patterns, on the degree of filling of the screw channels and on the

O. S. Carneiro; G. Caldeira; J. A. Covas

1999-01-01

151

The lateral fixation screw in implant dentistry.  

PubMed

This clinical report presents a means of retaining implant supported superstructures using lateral fixation screws (Novadent). 244 lateral fixation screws have been used for the retention of a variety of restorations including single teeth, short span and full arch bridgework as well as overdenture bars. Over a period of observation of 4 years, the authors have found the restorations to have effective retention, ease of retrievability, good aesthetics and occlusal contours. PMID:11307389

Sethi, A; Sochor, P

2000-03-01

152

Parametric modeling of ball screw spindles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the product development process numerical optimization can successfully be applied in the early product design stages.\\u000a In the very common case of ball screw drives, the dynamical behavior is most depending on the geometrical shape of the ball\\u000a screw itself. Properties like axial and torsional stiffness, moment of inertia, maximum velocity and acceleration are determined\\u000a not only by the

A. Dadalau; M. Mottahedi; K. Groh; A. Verl

2010-01-01

153

Screw fixation diameter for fifth metatarsal jones fracture: a cadaveric study.  

PubMed

The fifth metatarsal Jones fracture is a well-documented injury occurring at the proximal diaphyseal-metaphyseal junction. Conservative versus surgical intervention has been discussed in published studies for the management of Jones fractures. Solid intramedullary fixation relies on accurate matching of the screw diameter to the intraosseous diameter. The purpose of the present cadaveric study was to determine the average intraosseous diameter of the proximal fifth metatarsal as it relates to screw size selection for Jones fracture stabilization. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaver legs were used for examination. The fifth metatarsal was completely dissected. A transverse osteotomy was performed from laterally to medially along the midline of the metatarsal. A digital caliper was used to measure the diameter of the medullary canal of the fifth metatarsal. The measurement was taken at the narrowest portion of the medullary canal just distal to the proximal metaphysis. The mean dorsal to plantar diameter of the fifth metatarsal was 6.475 ± 1.54 (range 4 to 12) mm and the mean medial to lateral diameter was 4.6 ± 0.85 (range 3 to 6) mm. Intramedullary screw fixation has shown beneficial results in the treatment protocol of fifth metatarsal Jones fractures. Our study has demonstrated that a 4.5-mm cannulated screw is the narrowest diameter screw that can be used in the average fifth metatarsal and still obtain adequate intraosseous purchase. When selecting the appropriate screw, the surgeon must be comfortable selecting the largest screw that will achieve the maximal interface with the dense cortical bone in both the medial to lateral and dorsal to plantar plane. PMID:25624041

Scott, Ryan T; Hyer, Christopher F; DeMill, Shyler L

2015-01-01

154

Interfragmentary screw fixation of the zygomatic arch in complex midface and zygomaticomaxillary fractures.  

PubMed

Zygomatic arch reduction and fixation is a key point in the treatment of complex midface and zygomaticomaxillary fractures. High-impact frontal trauma can cause posterior displacement of zygomatic bone, with a sagittal fracture of the root of the zygomatic arch extending posteriorly to the glenoid fossa. Miniplate and screw fixation of this fracture requires a large detachment of soft tissue, thus being technically more difficult for proper fixation and increasing the risk of soft tissue damage. This report describes an operative approach for fixation of this type of fracture using an adaptation of the lag screw technique. After the initial reduction of zygomatic bone, the proximal segment of the zygomatic arch containing the sagittal fracture is anatomically reduced and a 2.0-mm titanium screw is placed with an inferior inclination of 10° to 15° into the mastoid cells of the temporal bone, thus avoiding intracranial screw placement. This technique showed excellent results in reduction and long-term stability. It facilitates the surgical procedure, decreases the risk of soft tissue damage, and can lower costs compared with conventional miniplate and screw fixation. PMID:25544298

Ribeiro Ribeiro, André Luis; de Souza Rodrigues, Tânia Maria; de Melo Alves-Junior, Sérgio; de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, João

2015-03-01

155

Effect of bone material properties on effective region in screw-bone model: an experimental and finite element study  

PubMed Central

Background There have been numerous studies conducted to investigate the pullout force of pedicle screws in bone with different material properties. However, fewer studies have investigated the region of effect (RoE), stress distribution and contour pattern of the cancellous bone surrounding the pedicle screw. Methods Screw pullout experiments were performed from two different foams and the corresponding reaction force was documented for the validation of a computational pedicle screw-foam model based on finite element (FE) methods. After validation, pullout simulations were performed on screw-bone models, with different bone material properties to model three different age groups (<50, 50–75 and >75 years old). At maximum pullout force, the stress distribution and average magnitude of Von Mises stress were documented in the cancellous bone along the distance beyond the outer perimeter pedicle screw. The radius and volume of the RoE were predicted based on the stress distribution. Results The screw pullout strengths and the load–displacement curves were comparable between the numerical simulation and experimental tests. The stress distribution of the simulated screw-bone vertebral unit showed that the radius and volume of the RoE varied with the bone material properties. The radii were 4.73 mm, 5.06 mm and 5.4 mm for bone properties of ages >75, 75?>?ages >50 and ages <50 years old, respectively, and the corresponding volumes of the RoE were 6.67 mm3, 7.35 mm3 and 8.07 mm3, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated that there existed a circular effective region surrounding the pedicle screw for stabilization and that this region was sensitive to the bone material characteristics of cancellous bone. The proper amount of injection cement for augmentation could be estimated based on the RoE in the treatment of osteoporosis patients to avoid leakage in spine surgery. PMID:24952724

2014-01-01

156

Complications at screw removal in slipped capital femoral epiphysis treated by cannulated titanium screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Various modes of fixation are proposed for the treatment of slips of the capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). We describe our experience with the use and removal of a new, cannulated titanium screw (Asnis III, Stryker®, Howmedica). Patients and methods: Single cannulated titanium screws had been inserted in 101 hips of 65 patients in the 3-year period from 2001 to

T. Ilchmann; K. Parsch

2006-01-01

157

The Turn of the Screw: Optimal Design of an Archimedes Screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometry of an Archimedes screw is governed by certain external parameters (its outer radius, length, and slope) and certain internal parameters (its inner radius, number of blades, and the pitch of the blades). The external parameters are usually determined by the location of the screw and how much water is to be lifted. The internal parameters, however, are free

Chris Rorres

2000-01-01

158

Posterior approach for medial column beam screw in midfoot charcot reconstruction: technique and structures at risk.  

PubMed

Charcot neuroarthropathy is frequently recognized as a major cause of morbidity in patients with neuropathic diabetes mellitus. Recently, intramedullary beam screw fixation has been used for midfoot Charcot reconstructions. Ten below-the-knee cadaveric specimens were used to demonstrate an antegrade, posterior approach for placement of a medial column beam screw, with specific attention to the proximity of the anatomic structures at risk. Six structures at risk were identified, including the sural nerve, ankle joint, flexor hallucis longus tendon, Achilles tendon, neurovascular bundle, and peroneal tendon sheath. The sural nerve was the most commonly injured structure, injured in 50% of the limbs. The Achilles and flexor hallucis longus tendons were injured in 20% and the ankle joint in 10% of the limbs. The neurovascular bundle and peroneal tendon sheath were located over 1 cm from the reference guidewire and were considered safe structures in this approach. Our results have demonstrated an alternative posterior approach to the delivery of an intramedullary medial column beam screw, instead of a retrograde technique beginning in the metatarsal heads. Our results have also made clear the need to be aware of the potential for damage to the sural nerve, Achilles tendon, flexor hallucis longus tendon, and ankle joint. PMID:25456342

Peterson, Kyle S; Hyer, Christopher F

2015-01-01

159

Temperature calculation for extruder screws with internal heat pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One possibility of directly influencing the temperature profile in an extruder is by tempering the screw. This method is currently used in double-screw extrusion and in certain specialized applications in the field of single-screw extrusion. Significant possibilities of influencing the temperature have been shown, for example, while processing PVC on counterrotating double-screw extruders [1]. However, until now, it has not been possible to theoretically model this effect. This paper will thus introduce a mathematical model which describes the effect of internal screw tempering on the temperature gradient of the material in the extruder, allowing processes using tempered screws to be better designed and dimensioned.

Lakemeyer, C.; Schöppner, V.

2014-05-01

160

The radiological feature of anterior occiput-to-axis screw fixation as it guides the screw trajectory on 3D printed models: a feasibility study on 3D images and 3D printed models.  

PubMed

Anterior occiput-to-axis screw fixation is more suitable than a posterior approach for some patients with a history of posterior surgery. The complex osseous anatomy between the occiput and the axis causes a high risk of injury to neurological and vascular structures, and it is important to have an accurate screw trajectory to guide anterior occiput-to-axis screw fixation. Thirty computed tomography (CT) scans of upper cervical spines were obtained for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Cylinders (1.75?mm radius) were drawn to simulate the trajectory of an anterior occiput-to-axis screw. The imitation screw was adjusted to 4 different angles and measured, as were the values of the maximized anteroposterior width and the left-right width of the occiput (C0) to the C1 and C1 to C2 joints. Then, the 3D models were printed, and an angle guide device was used to introduce the screws into the 3D models referring to the angles calculated from the 3D images. We found the screw angle ranged from ?1 (left: 4.99±4.59°; right: 4.28±5.45°) to ?2 (left: 20.22±3.61°; right: 19.63±4.94°); on the lateral view, the screw angle ranged from ?1 (left: 13.13±4.93°; right: 11.82±5.64°) to ?2 (left: 34.86±6.00°; right: 35.01±5.77°). No statistically significant difference was found between the data of the left and right sides. On the 3D printed models, all of the anterior occiput-to-axis screws were successfully introduced, and none of them penetrated outside of the cortex; the mean ?4 was 12.00±4.11 (left) and 12.25±4.05 (right), and the mean ?4 was 23.44±4.21 (left) and 22.75±4.41 (right). No significant difference was found between ?4 and ?4 on the 3D printed models and ?3 and ?3 calculated from the 3D digital images of the left and right sides. Aided with the angle guide device, we could achieve an optimal screw trajectory for anterior occiput-to-axis screw fixation on 3D printed C0 to C2 models. PMID:25526447

Wu, Ai-Min; Wang, Sheng; Weng, Wan-Qing; Shao, Zhen-Xuan; Yang, Xin-Dong; Wang, Jian-Shun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Chi, Yong-Long

2014-12-01

161

Evaluation of thoracic pedicle screw placement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Pedicle screw fixation is a challenging procedure in thoracic spine, as inadvertently misplaced screws have high risk of complications. The accuracy of pedicle screws is typically defined as the screws axis being fully contained within the cortices of the pedicle. One hundred and eighty-five thoracic pedicle screws in 19 patients that were drawn from a total of 1.797 screws in 148 scoliosis patients being suspicious of medial and lateral malpositioning were investigated, retrospectively. Screw containment and the rate of misplacement were determined by postoperative axial CT sections. Medial screw malposition was measured between medial pedicle wall and medial margin of the pedicle screw. The distance between lateral margin of the pedicle screw and lateral vertebral corpus was measured in lateral malpositions. A screw that violated medially greater than 2 mm, while lateral violation greater than 6 mm was rated as an “unacceptable screw”. The malpositions were medial in 20 (10.8%) and lateral in 34 (18.3%) screws. Medially, nine screws were rated as acceptable. Of the 29 acceptable lateral misplacement, 13 showed significant risk; five to aorta, six to pleura, one to azygos vein and one to trachea. The acceptability of medial pedicle breach may change in each level with different canal width and a different amount of cord shift. In lateral acceptable malpositions, the aorta is always at a risk by concave-sided screws. This CT-based study demonstrated that T4–T9 concave segments have a smaller safe zone with respect to both cord-aorta injury in medial and lateral malpositions. In these segments, screws should be accurate and screw malposition is to be unacceptable. PMID:19526376

Tosun, Bilgehan; Atmaca, Halil; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin; Buluç, Levent

2009-01-01

162

Should we use cortical bone screws for cortical bone trajectory?  

PubMed

OBJECT In 2009, Santoni et al. reported cortical bone trajectory (CBT) as a method of inserting pedicle screws to obtain more solid fixation, and proposed the use of cortical trajectory screws with a more closely placed thread (cortical screws) for CBT. Since the entry trajectory in CBT differs from that in the traditional trajectory, it is unclear whether the increased strength derives from the specific trajectory or the shape of the screw thread in contact with the cortical bone. Whether the use of cortical screws is always required with CBT thus remains unclear. The authors therefore investigated the relationship between screw entry trajectory and screw thread characteristics and pullout strength in animal experiments. METHODS Lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4) from 4-month-old female pigs were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups, with cancellous screws or cortical screws inserted via the traditional trajectory or CBT. For pullout strength testing, the screw was pulled out vertically against the direction of insertion. Rod pullout testing (toggle testing) was also performed, and the peak breaking strength was measured. RESULTS The maximum pullout strength was significantly greater for CBT using cortical screws than for the traditional trajectory using cancellous screws. Pullout strength tended to be higher when cortical screws were used in both CBT and the traditional trajectory, although the difference was not significant. Toggle testing showed no significant differences among the 4 groups. CONCLUSIONS The specific unconventional trajectory seemed to have a major impact on the increased strength obtained with CBT. PMID:25594731

Ueno, Masaki; Sakai, Rina; Tanaka, Kensei; Inoue, Gen; Uchida, Kentaro; Imura, Takayuki; Saito, Wataru; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Takahira, Naonobu; Mabuchi, Kiyoshi; Takaso, Masashi

2015-04-01

163

A push-pull distraction method for arthroscopic subtalar joint arthrodesis.  

PubMed

Unlike ankle joint arthroscopy, distraction of the subtalar joint can be challenging. We introduce a powerful distraction method that can be used during an arthroscopic subtalar joint arthrodesis procedure using a "push-pull" technique. A fully threaded screw is used to push the talus while the calcaneus is pulled to distract the joint. The technique allows the surgeon to access the rather tight joint without disrupting a significant amount of the ligamentous and capsular structures. It also allows preservation of the vascular structures that supply the talus. The "push-pull" screw can also be converted to a second point of fixation at the end of the procedure. PMID:24785201

Shibuya, Naohiro; Smith, Rebecca S; Escobedo, Laura A; Agarwal, Monica R

2014-01-01

164

Use of resorbable screws for autogenous onlay block graft fixation: a histological analysis in rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of the present in vivo study is to histologically evaluate and compare the use of resorbable screws based on poly(L-co-D,L lactide) 70:30 for fixation of autogenous bone grafts in rabbit tibiae. As control group, titanium (Ti-6Al-4V Grade V) screws were used. For this purpose, 15 white New Zealand male rabbits, aged 6 months and weighing between 3.8 and 4.5 kg, were used. From each animal, 2 total-thickness bone grafts were removed from the cranial vault: one was stabilized with a resorbable screw while the other was stabilized with a metallic one. Animals were divided into 3 groups, according to the sacrifice period: 3, 8, and 16 weeks postoperatively. After histological processing, cuts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and submitted for descriptive histological analysis under light microscopy. It was found that the fixation system based on the polymer showed a histological behavior similar to metallic screws. For both groups, the bone graft was incorporated, with the presence of bone formation between the graft and receptor site. In none of the groups were undesirable inflammatory responses or foreign body reactions observed. Based on histological findings and on this experimental model, it is possible to conclude that the internal fixation system based on the poly(L-co-D,L lactide) 70:30 polymer is effective for fixation of autogenous bone grafts, with results that are comparable to the titanium fixation system. PMID:23414521

Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Stabile, Glaykon Alex Vitti; Antonini, Fernando; Nascimento, Frederico Felipe; de Moraes, Marcio; Mazzonetto, Renato

2015-02-01

165

Critical-heat-flux experiment on the screw tube under one-sided-heating conditions  

SciTech Connect

Development of high-heat-flux components such as the divertor plate of fusion experimental machines is essential for removal of high heat loads with heating on one side. For this purpose, the authors machined a tube with an inside wall like a nut, namely, a screw tube, to enhance heat transfer efficiency and simplify the machining process. The screw tube is compared with a swirl tube, originally developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Hypervapotron, developed by Joint European Torus (JET). The spirally machined inside wall can enlarge the heat transfer area and make a little vortex flow only close to the wall. The performance of the screw tube is characterized by a critical-heat-flux experiment that uses water flow velocities ranging from 4 to 20 m/s with a water inlet pressure of 1.0 MPa. As a result, the screw tube has a higher incidence of CHFs compared with the smooth tube and the Hypervapotron and performs similarly to the swirl tube at identical flow velocities. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Araki, Masanori; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

1996-07-01

166

Screw expander for light duty diesel engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

1983-01-01

167

Rotary screw compressors in the gas patch  

SciTech Connect

In 1959, Howden introduced the oil-injected rotary screw (OIS) compressor, which has, since then, methodically replaced the reciprocating (piston) compressor in applications such as air, refrigeration and fuel gas. Rotary screw compressors have been making inroads in gas recovery, a field once dominated by reciprocating compressors. Rotary screws do not require extensive maintenance, thus downtime is minimized throughout an operating year. Preventive maintenance is simple, since it consists of regular oil sample analysis which does not require system shut-down. As a result of the slide valve, OIS compressors can tune to field conditions with the greatest of ease, and without complicated process control. In addition, this method of capacity control is more efficient than unloading or use of a bypass-recirculation line. Both engineers and operators alike have found this flexibility to be a most redeeming feature. Finally, OIS compressors are capable of much larger flows then recips. 2 figs.

Jandjel, D.G.

1996-01-01

168

Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve  

DOEpatents

A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

Fischer, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-12-12

169

Impact of screw configuration on the particle size distribution of granules produced by twin screw granulation.  

PubMed

Twin screw granulation (TSG) has been reported by different research groups as an attractive technology for continuous wet granulation. However, in contrast to fluidized bed granulation, granules produced via this technique typically have a wide and multimodal particle size distribution (PSD), resulting in suboptimal flow properties. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of granulator screw configuration on the PSD of granules produced by TSG. Experiments were performed using a 25 mm co-rotating twin screw granulator, being part of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line from GEA Pharma Systems). Besides the screw elements conventionally used for TSG (conveying and kneading elements), alternative designs of screw elements (tooth-mixing-elements (TME), screw mixing elements (SME) and cutters) were investigated using an ?-lactose monohydrate formulation granulated with distilled water. Granulation with only conveying elements resulted in wide and multimodal PSD. Using kneading elements, the width of the PSD could be partially narrowed and the liquid distribution was more homogeneous. However, still a significant fraction of oversized agglomerates was obtained. Implementing additional kneading elements or cutters in the final section of the screw configuration was not beneficial. Furthermore, granulation with only TME or SME had limited impact on the width of the PSD. Promising results were obtained by combining kneading elements with SME, as for these configurations the PSD was narrower and shifted to the size fractions suitable for tableting. PMID:25562758

Vercruysse, J; Burggraeve, A; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

2015-02-01

170

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3070 Pedicle screw spinal system. (a) Identification. Pedicle screw spinal systems...

2013-04-01

171

Spline-Screw Multiple-Rotation Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanism functions like combined robotic gripper and nut runner. Spline-screw multiple-rotation mechanism related to spline-screw payload-fastening system described in (GSC-13454). Incorporated as subsystem in alternative version of system. Mechanism functions like combination of robotic gripper and nut runner; provides both secure grip and rotary actuation of other parts of system. Used in system in which no need to make or break electrical connections to payload during robotic installation or removal of payload. More complicated version needed to make and break electrical connections. Mechanism mounted in payload.

Vranish, John M.

1994-01-01

172

Screw placement in slipped upper femoral epiphysis: is good the enemy of better?  

PubMed Central

Introduction and aims A single hip screw is the recommended method of fixation for slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE). Current practice favours the placement of the screw in the centre of the femoral head on both anteroposterior and lateral planes to avoid the risks of chondrolysis and avascular necrosis (AVN). We investigated the correlation between different positions of the screw in the femoral head and the prevalence of AVN, chondrolysis, late slippage and the time to epiphyseal closure. Methods The clinical notes and radiographs of 38 consecutive patients (61 hips) who underwent single screw fixation for SUFE were evaluated retrospectively with a mean follow-up of 36 months. Two-way ANOVA and the post hoc test was performed to analyse the correlation between the different variables and the outcome at the 5% level of significance. Results There were 16 acute slips, 18 chronic slips and ten acute-on-chronic slips. Seventeen slips were treated prophylactically. Mild slip was encountered in 39 hips, moderate slip in four and severe slip in one. The central–central position was only achieved in 51% of cases. The most significant results of the study were as follows: (1) no significant difference between the time to epiphyseal closure and the position of the screw, and (2) no late slippage or chondrolysis was observed in our series. Conclusion Our results showed that the positioning of the screw other than in the centre of the femoral head has the ability to provide physeal stability and has no correlation with the timing to closure of the epiphysis and the risk of avascular necrosis or chondrolysis. We therefore recommend that other positions be considered if the “optimal central–central position” is not initially achieved – specifically for the treatment of mild slip – as the potential hazards from several attempts to achieve the optimum position outweigh the benefits. PMID:19308493

Allami, Mohamad K.; Varghese, Bobin; Almaiyah, Mohammed; Giannoudis, Peter

2007-01-01

173

Pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilisation of the lumbar spine: in vitro cadaver investigation and a finite element study.  

PubMed

Pedicle screw-based dynamic constructs either benefit from a dynamic (flexible) interconnecting rod or a dynamic (hinged) screw. Both types of systems have been reported in the literature. However, reports where the dynamic system is composed of two dynamic components, i.e. a dynamic (hinged) screw and a dynamic rod, are sparse. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of a novel pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilisation system were investigated and compared with equivalent rigid and semi-rigid systems using in vitro testing and finite element modelling analysis. All stabilisation systems restored stability after decompression. A significant decrease in the range of motion was observed for the rigid system in all loadings. In the semi-rigid construct the range of motion was significantly less than the intact in extension, lateral bending and axial rotation loadings. There were no significant differences in motion between the intact spine and the spine treated with the dynamic system (P>0.05). The peak stress in screws was decreased when the stabilisation construct was equipped with dynamic rod and/or dynamic screws. PMID:24708377

Oktenoglu, T; Erbulut, D U; Kiapour, A; Ozer, A F; Lazoglu, I; Kaner, T; Sasani, M; Goel, V K

2015-08-01

174

Prosthesis loading after temporomandibular joint replacement surgery: a musculoskeletal modeling study.  

PubMed

One of the most widely reported complications associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prosthetic total joint replacement (TJR) surgery is condylar component screw loosening and instability. The objective of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal model of the human jaw to assess the influence of prosthetic condylar component orientation and screw placement on condylar component loading during mastication. A three-dimensional model of the jaw comprising the maxilla, mandible, masticatory muscles, articular cartilage, and articular disks was developed. Simulations of mastication and a maximum force bite were performed for the natural TMJ and the TMJ after prosthetic TJR surgery, including cases for mastication where the condylar component was rotated anteriorly by 0 deg, 5 deg, 10 deg, and 15 deg. Three clinically significant screw configurations were investigated: a complete, posterior, and minimal-posterior screw (MPS) configuration. Increases in condylar anterior rotation led to an increase in prosthetic condylar component contact stresses and substantial increases in condylar component screw stresses. The use of more screws in condylar fixation reduced screw stress magnitudes and maximum condylar component stresses. Screws placed superiorly experienced higher stresses than those of all other condylar fixation screws. The results of the present study have important implication for the way in which prosthetic components are placed during TMJ prosthetic TJR surgery. PMID:25565306

Ackland, David C; Moskaljuk, Adrian; Hart, Chris; Vee Sin Lee, Peter; Dimitroulis, George

2015-04-01

175

Multifragmentary Tibial Pilon Fractures: Midterm Results After Osteosynthesis with External Fixation and Multiple Lag Screws  

PubMed Central

Osteosynthesis of intraarticular tibial pilon fractures is preferably achieved using locking plates via a minimally invasive technique. If combined with severe soft tissue damage there is a high risk of wound-healing deficits after plate osteosynthesis. Thus our aim was to find an alternative method of treatment for those cases with combined soft tissue injuries. We report on five cases with comminuted fractures of the joint surface combined with critical soft tissue condition that were treated with lag screws and external fixation (AO) applied across the ankle joint. All five patients were followed up, undergoing clinical and radiological examination. Using this approach we achieved fracture healing of comminuted fractures without further complications. Clinical follow-up after an average of 55.6 (36–75) months revealed a mean AOFAS score of 81 (62–100). We therefore propose combined treatment using lag screws with external fixation as a practical treatment option for those fractures for which lag screws combined with a locking plate are not feasible or when there is a high risk of wound-healing deficits due to severe soft tissue damage. PMID:23002413

Kiene, Johannes; Herzog, Jan; Jürgens, Christian; Paech, Andreas

2012-01-01

176

Joint Stability Characteristics of the Ankle Complex After Lateral Ligamentous Injury, Part I: A Laboratory Comparison Using Arthrometric Measurement  

PubMed Central

Context: The mechanical property of stiffness may be important to investigating how lateral ankle ligament injury affects the behavior of the viscoelastic properties of the ankle complex. A better understanding of injury effects on tissue elastic characteristics in relation to joint laxity could be obtained from cadaveric study. Objective: To biomechanically determine the laxity and stiffness characteristics of the cadaver ankle complex before and after simulated injury to the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) during anterior drawer and inversion loading. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Seven fresh-frozen cadaver ankle specimens. Intervention(s): All ankles underwent loading before and after simulated lateral ankle injury using an ankle arthrometer. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were anterior displacement, anterior end-range stiffness, inversion rotation, and inversion end-range stiffness. Results: Isolated ATFL and combined ATFL and CFL sectioning resulted in increased anterior displacement but not end-range stiffness when compared with the intact ankle. With inversion loading, combined ATFL and CFL sectioning resulted in increased range of motion and decreased end-range stiffness when compared with the intact and ATFL-sectioned ankles. Conclusions: The absence of change in anterior end-range stiffness between the intact and ligament-deficient ankles indicated bony and other soft tissues functioned to maintain stiffness after pathologic joint displacement, whereas inversion loading of the CFL-deficient ankle after pathologic joint displacement indicated the ankle complex was less stiff when supported only by the secondary joint structures. PMID:24568232

Kovaleski, John E.; Heitman, Robert J.; Gurchiek, Larry R.; Hollis, J. M.; Liu, Wei; IV, Albert W. Pearsall

2014-01-01

177

Nylon screws make inexpensive coil forms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard nylon screws act as coil form copper wire laid down in spiral thread. Completed coil may be bonded to printed-circuit board. However, it is impossible to tune coil by adjusting spacing between windings, technique sometimes used with air-core coils.

Aucoin, G.; Rosenthal, C.

1978-01-01

178

Semi-Empirical Screw Compressor Chiller Model  

E-print Network

and kW/ton with an accuracy of 4-7% when compared to the 4,104 data points acquired from a screw chiller system. The semi-empirical chiller model results were also compared to the Gordon-Ng model predictions as a function of the percentage chiller...

Nelson, I. C.; Culp, C.; Graves, R. D.

179

Improvements In Ball-Screw Linear Actuators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes modifications of design of type of ball-screw linear actuator driven by dc motor, with linear-displacement feedback via linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT). Actuators used to position spacecraft engines to direct thrust. Modifications directed toward ensuring reliable and predictable operation during planned 12-year cruise and interval of hard use at end of cruise.

Iskenderian, Theodore; Joffe, Benjamin; Summers, Robert

1996-01-01

180

Radiographic study of iliac screw passages  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal iliac screw path was determined to provide references for lumbosacral-pelvic reconstruction. Methods Radiographic data of 100 patients with normal pelvis were selected for this study. Four paths were designed. Paths A, B, and C were from the starting point of the crossing point of the chiotic line and posterior iliac crest (CLIC, located at 24.0 mm above the posterior superior iliac spine) to the upper edge of the acetabulum, anterior inferior iliac spine, and acetabulum center, respectively. Path D was from the starting point of the posterior superior iliac spine to the anterior inferior iliac spine. The lengths of the different paths of screw passage and bone plate thicknesses of two narrow places were measured and analyzed. Results Paths A, B, and D were approximately equal in length, but the thickness of the iliac plate in path A was significantly thicker than those in paths B and D. No significant difference was found between the iliac thickness of paths A and C, but the passage length of path A was significantly longer than that of path C. Conclusion Path A had the longest passage length and thickest iliac plate and could accommodate the relatively longest and thickest iliac screw. Thus, path A was the optimal iliac screw passage. PMID:24885171

2014-01-01

181

COMPRESSION LOAD TRANSMISSION IN SCREW COMPRESSORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current investigations of the bearing forces in screw compressors, the supports at the bearings are basically treated as ideal, simply supported boundary conditions. By using statics theory, the loads on the rotors are converted to the bearings at the suction and discharge ends. Some studies on rotor dynamics have shown that the behaviors of a rotor bearing system

G. P. Adams; Z. H. Qin

1997-01-01

182

Calculation of Rotor Interference in Screw Compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small rotor clearances are today a vital prerequisite for an efficient screw compressor. The clearances are responsible for compressor leakages, small clearance will minimise them and thereby increase both, the volumetric and adiabatic efficiency. A continuous improvement in the rotor manufacturing equipment has been achieved during the recent years and tight production tolerances may now be applied to compressor rotors.

N. Stosic; Ian K. Smith; A. Kovacevic

183

Improvements to the single screw extruder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extrusion on a single screw extruder is examined. The process is divided into several steps: the dosage of the materials to be conveyed; the modification of the shape of the feeding opening which influences the feeding process and consequently the throughput of the extruder; optimizing the shape of the feeding zone to meet the specific material requirements; and plasticizing and homogenizing.

Hiemenz, C.; Ziegmann, G.; Franzkoch, B.; Hoffmanns, W.; Michaeli, W.

1977-01-01

184

[Accuracy of fluoroscopic navigation of pedicle screws. CT-based evaluation of bone screw placement].  

PubMed

While the advantages of C-arm navigation in computer-assisted spine surgery are obvious, the accuracy of pedicle screw placement with virtual fluoroscopy still needs to be verified. The C-arm-based ION system (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) was used to navigate pedicle screw insertion in patients undergoing spinal surgery for various conditions. In a prospective study, a total of 160 screws were inserted in the first 30 consecutive patients since introduction of the system at our institution: 54 at the thoracic spine (highest level: TH4) and 106 at the lumbar spine. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed postoperatively by two independent radiologists to control the accuracy of screw placement at the level of the pedicles after reconstruction of axial images according to Laine et al. The comparison of the calculated accuracy rate of pedicle screw placement using virtual fluoroscopy with reported results achieved with CT-based navigation shows similar results for virtual fluoroscopy and a remarkable increase of accuracy in comparison to reports on conventional pedicle screw placement. PMID:12056280

Fritsch, E; Duchow, J; Seil, R; Grunwald, I; Reith, W

2002-04-01

185

The self adapting washer for lag screw fixation of mandibular fractures: finite element analysis and preclinical evaluation.  

PubMed

Besides rigid fixation, lag screws have distinct advantages compared with plates in appropriate indications in mandibular fractures. However, in current lag screw systems, the relatively small area of the screw head has to transfer the tensile force which can exceed 1000 N in the symphysis, to the thin cortical bone plate. Countersinking, which is obligatory in most systems, will weaken the cortical plate. Finite element analysis (FEA) revealed that load in this situation can exceed the normal tensile strength of metal and bone. Consequently, a new washer was constructed which both increased the supporting surface and did not require countersinking. The washer is self adapting (SAW) to the cortical plate in a defined position, forming a ball and socket joint with the screw head. Using the FEA model, a ten-fold reduction in load on bone and metal was observed with the new washer. In a miniature pig mandibular symphysis fracture model, the clinical applicability and a favourable histological reaction were demonstrated, compared with conventional lag screw designs. PMID:10188129

Terheyden, H; Mühlendyck, C; Feldmann, H; Ludwig, K; Härle, F

1999-02-01

186

Chitosan-coated Stainless Steel Screws for Fixation in Contaminated Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel screws and other internal fixation devices are used routinely to stabilize bacteria-contaminated bone fractures\\u000a from multiple injury mechanisms. In this preliminary study, we hypothesize that a chitosan coating either unloaded or loaded\\u000a with an antibiotic, gentamicin, could lessen or prevent these devices from becoming an initial nidus for infection. The questions\\u000a investigated for this hypothesis were: (1) how

Alex H. Greene; Joel D. Bumgardner; Yunzhi Yang; Jon Moseley; Warren O. Haggard

2008-01-01

187

[The MACS-HMA hollow screw. An alternative possibility for stable implant anchoring in the vertebral body also for long fusions].  

PubMed

Our biomechanical in vitro tests compared the stability of the MACS HMA (Aesculap, Tuttlingen) implants to three established systems. The MACS HMA is a modular system consisting of porous hollow titanium screws with an outer diameter of 12 mm for monocortical use. We report the preliminary results of MACS HMA used for correction of scoliosis. All other implant systems used are designed with bicortical screws; one is for application with two screws/two rods and one uses a pullout-resistant nut behind the opposite cortex to increase stability. Significantly increased motion in the craniocaudal direction was recognized for bicortical standard screws (20 +/- 17 microns) compared to MACS HMA (10 +/- 11 microns) or the dual screw system (12 +/- 6 microns). Two-tailed t-test showed significantly higher stability for the dual screw system (4.2 kN) and the system with pullout-resistant nut (4.0 kN) compared to all other systems (p < 0.025 or higher). Bicortical implants (2.1-3.2 kN) and MACS HMA (2.6 kN) did not reveal significant differences in pullout strength. All biomechanical tests and in vivo use demonstrated favorable performance of MACS HMA implants. PMID:12089800

Schramm, M; Krummbein, S; Kraus, H; Hirschfelder, H; Pitto, R P

2002-05-01

188

In vivo surface analysis of titanium and stainless steel miniplates and screws.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to characterize the surfaces of Champy titanium and stainless steel miniplates and screws that had been used to stabilize fractures of the mandible in an animal model. Miniplates and screws were retrieved at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery. Low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of autoclaved unused (control) and test miniplates from the same production batches was undertaken. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis was used to identify compositional variations of the miniplate surface, and Vickers hardness testing was performed. At autopsy, clinical healing of all fractures was noted. SEM analysis indicated no perceptible difference in the surface characteristics of the miniplates at all time intervals. Aluminium and silicon deposits were identified by EDX analysis over the flat surfaces. There was extensive damage to some screw heads. It is concluded that there were no significant changes in the surface characteristics of miniplates retrieved up to 24 weeks after implantation in comparison with controls. Damage to the screws during insertion due to softness of the materials may render their removal difficult. There was no evidence to support the routine removal of titanium or stainless steel miniplates because of surface corrosion up to 6 months after implantation. PMID:8986551

Matthew, I R; Frame, J W; Browne, R M; Millar, B G

1996-12-01

189

Influence of the implant abutment types and the dynamic loading on initial screw loosening  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study examined the effects of the abutment types and dynamic loading on the stability of implant prostheses with three types of implant abutments prepared using different fabrication methods by measuring removal torque both before and after dynamic loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three groups of abutments were produced using different types of fabrication methods; stock abutment, gold cast abutment, and CAD/CAM custom abutment. A customized jig was fabricated to apply the load at 30° to the long axis. The implant fixtures were fixed to the jig, and connected to the abutments with a 30 Ncm tightening torque. A sine curved dynamic load was applied for 105 cycles between 25 and 250 N at 14 Hz. Removal torque before loading and after loading were evaluated. The SPSS was used for statistical analysis of the results. A Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to compare screw loosening between the abutment systems. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to compare screw loosening between before and after loading in each group (?=0.05). RESULTS Removal torque value before loading and after loading was the highest in stock abutment, which was then followed by gold cast abutment and CAD/CAM custom abutment, but there were no significant differences. CONCLUSION The abutment types did not have a significant influence on short term screw loosening. On the other hand, after 105 cycles dynamic loading, CAD/CAM custom abutment affected the initial screw loosening, but stock abutment and gold cast abutment did not. PMID:23509006

Kim, Eun-Sook

2013-01-01

190

Foam granulation: new developments in pharmaceutical solid oral dosage forms using twin screw extrusion machinery.  

PubMed

This paper investigates foam granulation in a twin screw extruder as a new continuous wet granulation technique for pharmaceutical powder drug formulations. Foamed aqueous binder has a reportedly lower soak-to-spread ratio than drop or spray liquid addition in batch granulation. This work demonstrates a twin screw extruder configuration for foam granulation and subsequently compares the new approach against liquid injection in the granulation of ?-lactose monohydrate with a methylcellulose binder. Trials were conducted at high powder output rates (20-40 kg/h) and high screw speeds (220-320 RPM) with two screw configurations. Process stability improved with the new technique allowing granulation with less binder. The extruded mass maintained a low exit temperature, being insensitive to operating conditions unlike the liquid injection approach, where temperatures rose significantly as flow rate increased. The particle size distribution by foam granulation reflected a more uniformly wetted mass with larger granule growth noted even for conditions where dry powder exited by liquid injection. Other factors were found similar between the two binder delivery methods such as consumed mechanical energy, as well as fracture strength and compressibility of produced granules. PMID:22085462

Thompson, M R; Weatherley, S; Pukadyil, R N; Sheskey, P J

2012-07-01

191

Porous hydroxyapatite ceramics and their ability to be fixed by commercially available screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed porous hydroxyapatite ceramics (HAP) which are screw fixable and evaluated the fixing abilities of commercially available screws using pull-out tests with the HAP implants. The fixing abilities were higher in the following order: Leibinger micro PLUS titanium screw>Osteomed M3 titanium screw>Leibinger standard mini screw>Martin-drill free screw. In preliminary examinations, the fixing ability of each of the screws differed

M. D. Ichiro Ono; M. D. Tohru Tateshita; Takehiko Nakajima

1999-01-01

192

Effect of a defect structure on the static and long-term strength of submicrocrystalline VT1-0 titanium fabricated by plastic deformation during screw and lengthwise rolling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of nanoporosity and the highly dispersed carbide particles that form during screw and lengthwise rolling of VT1-0 titanium on its mechanical and, partly, thermal stability characteristics is revealed and analyzed.

Betekhtin, V. I.; Kolobov, Yu. R.; Sklenicka, V.; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Narykova, M. V.; Dvorak, J.; Golosov, E. V.; Kardashev, B. K.; Kuz'menko, I. N.

2015-01-01

193

Two-year follow-up on joint stability and muscular function comparing rotating versus fixed bearing TKR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile and fixed bearing in total knee replacement are still discussed controversially. In a retrospective, matched-pair study, we investigated 40 patients with computer-assisted (BrainLAB®) primary total knee replacement (PFC Sigma®, DePuy®) performed two years before. Twenty patients each received a mobile bearing and a fixed bearing. We compared Womac Score, Knee Society Score, postoperative ROM, fluoroscopic measurement of knee stability

C. Luring; H. Bathis; F. Oczipka; C. Trepte; H. Lufen; L. Perlick; J. Grifka

2006-01-01

194

Compression Load Transmission in Screw Compressors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current investigations of the bearing forces in screw compressors, the supports at the bearings are basically treated as ideal, simply supported boundary conditions. By using statics theory, the loads on the rotors are converted to the bearings at the suction and discharge ends. Some studies on rotor dynamics have shown that the behaviors of a rotor bearing system are, to some extent, controlled by the bearings that support the rotor. Therefore, it is important to study the dynamic performance of the rotor bearing system in screw compressors so that the bearing forces can be more accurately described. In this paper, a numerical method is presented for computing the compression loads by integrating the pressure over the rotor surface. Vector calculus and numerical integration methods are implemented to calculate the compression loads in order to obtain a robust procedure that can be applied to arbitrary rotor profiles. In addition, a dynamic model of a rigid compressor rotor supported by two cylindrical roller bearings and a four point contact ball bearing is developed from basic principles. This model simulates the dynamic responses of a typical screw compressor configuration. It includes five degrees of freedom of rotor motion interacting with the bearings of non-linear characteristics. Under the compression loads, the resulting bearing forces in the screw compressor are compared with those obtained by assuming ideal, simply supported boundary conditions at the bearings. It is shown that the interactions between the rotor and bearings are quite different by coupling the global rotor motion with the local dynamics of the bearings.

Adams, G. P.; Qin, Z. H.

1997-11-01

195

Intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging (O-arm) for assessment of pedicle screw position: Does it prevent unacceptable screw placement?  

PubMed Central

Background Pedicle screws are biomechanically superior over other spinal fixation devices. When improperly positioned, they lose this advantage and put adjacent structures at risk. Accurate placement is therefore critical. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans are the imaging gold standard and have shown malposition rates ranging from 2% to 41%. The O-arm (Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, Colorado) is an intraoperative CT scanner that may allow intervention for malpositioned screws while patients are still in the operating room. However, this has not yet been shown in clinical studies. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the O-arm for evaluating pedicle screw position by answering the following question: What is the rate of intraoperative pedicle screw revision brought about by O-arm imaging information? A secondary question was also addressed: What is the rate of unacceptable thoracic and lumbar pedicle screw placement as assessed by intraoperative O-arm imaging? Methods This is a case series of consecutive patients who have undergone spine surgery for which an intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) CT scan was used to assess pedicle screw position. The study comprised 602 pedicle screws (235 thoracic and 367 lumbar/sacral) placed in 76 patients, and intraoperative 3D (O-arm) imaging was obtained to assess screw position. Action taken at the time of surgery based on imaging information was noted. An independent review of all scans was also conducted, and all screws were graded as either optimal (no breach), acceptable (breach ?2 mm), or unacceptable (breach >2 mm). The rate of pedicle screw revision, as detected by intraoperative 3D CT scan, was determined. Results On the basis of 3D imaging information, 17 of 602 screws (2.8%) in 14 of 76 cases (18.4%) were revised at the time of surgery. On independent review of multiplanar images, 11 screws (1.8%) were found to be unacceptable, 32 (5.3%) were acceptable, and 559 (92.9%) were optimal. All unacceptable screws were revised to an optimal or acceptable position, and an additional 6 acceptable screws were revised to an optimal position. Thus, by the end of the cases, none of the 602 pedicle screws in the 76 surgical procedures was in an unacceptable position. Conclusion The new-generation intraoperative 3D imaging system (O-arm) is a useful tool that allows more accurate assessment of pedicle screw position than plain radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. It prompted intraoperative repositioning of 2.8% of pedicle screws in our series. Most importantly, it allowed identification and revision of all unacceptably placed pedicle screws without the need for reoperation. PMID:25694871

Sembrano, Jonathan N.; Polly, David W.; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T.; Santos, Edward Rainier G.

2012-01-01

196

Examination of the suitability of alpha-tocopherol as a stabilizer for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene used for articulating surfaces in joint endoprostheses.  

PubMed

The lifetime of articulating surfaces in joint endoprostheses made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), especially of UHMW-PE-cups of hip-endoprostheses, is usually limited to 10-15 years due to material failure as a result of oxidation of the UHMW-PE in vivo. In this study the suitability of the natural antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) as a stabilizer for UHMW-PE in these applications was investigated. Specimens with 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% w/w alpha-tocopherol as well as unstabilized samples were sintered and sterilized with gamma-rays at 25 kGy in accordance with standard processing methods of cups for total hip-endoprostheses. These specimens were aged in pure oxygen at 70 degrees C and 5 bar as well as in aqueous H2O2 at 50 degrees C. The degree of oxidation was observed by means of FTIR-spectroscopy, DSC analysis and mechanical testing. The FTIR-measurements showed that alpha-tocopherol can prolong the lifetime of UHMW-PE in an oxidative environment by a factor of more than 2.5. In the mechanical tests no embrittlement could be observed with the stabilized samples. A comparison with the standard antioxidant system Irganox 1010/Irgafos 168 (Ciba-Geigy, Switzerland) was carried out and revealed that alpha-tocopherol can even exceed the stabilization effect of this widely-used antioxidant system. PMID:15348641

Wolf, C; Krivec, T; Blassnig, J; Lederer, K; Schneider, W

2002-02-01

197

Modeling the Parker instability in a rotating plasma screw pinch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analytically and numerically study the analogue of the Parker (magnetic buoyancy) instability in a uniformly rotating plasma screw pinch confined in a cylinder. Uniform plasma rotation is imposed to create a centrifugal acceleration, which mimics the gravity required for the classical Parker instability. The goal of this study is to determine how the Parker instability could be unambiguously identified in a weakly magnetized, rapidly rotating screw pinch, in which the rotation provides an effective gravity and a radially varying azimuthal field is controlled to give conditions for which the plasma is magnetically buoyant to inward motion. We show that an axial magnetic field is also required to circumvent conventional current driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities such as the sausage and kink modes that would obscure the Parker instability. These conditions can be realized in the Madison plasma Couette experiment (MPCX). Simulations are performed using the extended MHD code NIMROD for an isothermal compressible plasma model. Both linear and nonlinear regimes of the instability are studied, and the results obtained for the linear regime are compared with analytical results from a slab geometry. Based on this comparison, it is found that in a cylindrical pinch, the magnetic buoyancy mechanism dominates at relatively large Mach numbers (M > 5), while at low Mach numbers (M < 1), the instability is due to the curvature of magnetic field lines. At intermediate values of Mach number (1 < M < 5), the Coriolis force has a strong stabilizing effect on the plasma. A possible scenario for experimental demonstration of the Parker instability in MPCX is discussed.

Khalzov, I. V.; Brown, B. P.; Katz, N.; Forest, C. B.

2012-02-01

198

Percutaneous fixation with Schanz screws for displaced two- and three- part fractures of the proximal humerus in patients above fifty years of age  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether two 3.0 mm Schanz screws in two-part proximal humeral fractures (plus one additional Schanz screw or K wire in three-part fractures) can provide enough stability to allow early mobilization until healing occurs in elderly patients. Settings and Design: This prospective study was performed in the Orthopaedic Department of our University Hospital. Patients and Methods: We performed closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for thirty-three patients with proximal humerus fractures. Twenty-seven patients were available for the final follow-up. Of those 27 patients, 17 had two-part surgical neck fractures; while 10 had three-part fractures. For fixation, we used two 3.0 mm Schanz screws in patients with two-part fractures plus one additional Schanz screw or K wire in the 10 patients with three-part fractures. Results: The mean Constant score modified according to the age and sex was 89.8% (range: 77.3-97.2%). Fifteen patients had excellent results, 11 patients had good results, and one patient had a fair result. Conclusion: Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning with two Schanz screws for two-part surgical neck humeral fractures, plus an additional Schanz screw or K wire for three-part proximal humeral fractures is a useful and effective technique that provides enough stability to allow an early rehabilitation program till union occurs in elderly patients. Level of Evidence: IV; therapeutic study, case series. PMID:21897582

Eid, Abdelsalam; Osman, Mohamed; Fekry, Hosam-Eldeen

2011-01-01

199

Intrapelvic Migration of the Lag Screw in Intramedullary Nailing  

PubMed Central

Internal fixation with intramedullary devices has gained popularity for the treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures, which are common injuries in the elderly. The most common complications are lag screw cut out from the femoral head and femoral fracture at the distal tip of the nail. We report here a rare complication of postoperative lag screw migration into the pelvis with no trauma. The patient was subsequently treated with lag screw removal and revision surgery with total hip arthroplasty. This case demonstrated that optimal fracture reduction and positioning of the lag screw are the most important surgical steps for decreasing the risk of medial migration of the lag screw. Furthermore, to prevent complications, careful attention should be paid to subsequent steps such as precise insertion of the set screw. PMID:25610680

Toki, Shunichi; Hamada, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Shinji; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Tamaki, Yasuaki; Sairyo, Koichi

2014-01-01

200

Dual load path ball screw with rod end swivel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual drive ball has a ball screw shaft coupled at one end to a gear train and coupled at the other end to a ball screw nut. The ball screw shaft and ball screw nut are connected through complementary helical grooves filled with ball bearing balls. The outer surface of the ball screw nut is plined and can be driven by a second gear train. An output tube is coupled at one end to the ball screw nut and at its opposite end has a connector portion with a groove on its inner surface. A rod end has a coupling member for coupling to a surface to be actuated and a shaft portion with a groobe on its outer surface. This shaft portion is received with in the outputtube portion and the corresponding grooves are coupled through the use of a plurality of ball bearing balls.

Wngett, Paul (Inventor)

2002-01-01

201

Open reduction and internal fixation of patellar fractures with tension band wiring through cannulated screws.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a relatively new technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures with tension band wiring (TBW) through parallel cannulated compression screws. A total of 30 patients with displaced transverse patellar fracture were enrolled in this prospective study. Of the 30 patients, 20 patients had trauma due to fall, 5 due to road traffic accident, 2 due to fall of heavy object on the knee, 2 due to forced flexion of knee, and 1 had fracture due to being beaten. All 30 patients were treated with vertical skin exposure, fracture open reduction, and internal fixation by anterior TBW through 4.0?mm cannulated screws. The postoperative rehabilitation protocol was standardized. The patients were followed postsurgery to evaluate time required for radiographic bone union, knee joint range of motion (ROM), loss of fracture reduction, material failure, and the overall functional result of knee using Bostman scoring. All the fractures healed radiologically, at an average time of 10.7 weeks (range, 8-12 weeks). The average ROM arc was 129.7 degrees (range, 115-140 degrees). No patient had loss of fracture reduction, implant migration, or material failure. The average Bostman score was 28.6 out of 30. Anterior TBW through cannulated screws for displaced transverse fractures is safe and effective alternative treatment. Good functional results and recovery can be expected. PMID:24414389

Malik, Mudasir; Halwai, Manzoor Ahmad

2014-10-01

202

Scaphoid excision and 4-corner fusion using retrograde headless compression screws.  

PubMed

Scapholunate advanced collapse is a predictable form of wrist arthritis resulting from longstanding scapholunate instability. Four-corner fusion and scaphoid excision is a reliable procedure used to treat scapholunate advanced collapse wrist that improves pain and preserves range of motion. Multiple methods of achieving fixation have been described for the procedure including K-wires, staples, and headless compression screws. In previously described techniques, the compression screws are inserted in an antegrade manner, breaching the articular surface of the lunate. Even small areas of chondral damage may undermine the long-term durability of the radiocarpal joint. Given the 4-corner fusion relies on the integrity of the radiolunate articulation for success, it would seem advantageous to preserve the articular cartilage of the lunate. The technique described here involves retrograde insertion of headless compression screws to achieve a 4-corner fusion. Although it is still early, we anticipate that this procedure will result in similar fusion rates to other forms of fixation. PMID:23160552

Ball, Brandon; Bergman, Joseph W

2012-12-01

203

On Interlayer Stability and High-Cycle Simulator Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Layers for Articulating Joint Replacements  

PubMed Central

Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and ?3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen), limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the ?-? tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs. ceramic. PMID:24921709

Thorwarth, Kerstin; Thorwarth, Götz; Figi, Renato; Weisse, Bernhard; Stiefel, Michael; Hauert, Roland

2014-01-01

204

On interlayer stability and high-cycle simulator performance of diamond-like carbon layers for articulating joint replacements.  

PubMed

Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and -3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen), limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the ?-? tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs. ceramic. PMID:24921709

Thorwarth, Kerstin; Thorwarth, Götz; Figi, Renato; Weisse, Bernhard; Stiefel, Michael; Hauert, Roland

2014-01-01

205

Revision cruciate ligament surgery with retention of femoral interference screws.  

PubMed

As the popularity of cruciate ligament reconstruction continues to escalate, the need for revision surgery has also increased. Revision cruciate ligament surgery is often associated with difficult technical challenges including removing previously placed femoral interference screws. Not only can this hardware be difficult to remove, interference screw extraction often creates a large bony defect immediately adjacent to the revised femoral tunnel that can jeopardize the fixation of the new cruciate ligament graft. It is often possible to perform revision cruciate ligament reconstruction without removing femoral interference screws. This technical note provides several examples of this technique. Routine removal of femoral interference screws during revision cruciate ligament surgery is often not necessary. PMID:9486347

Miller, M D

1998-01-01

206

Screws, Propellers and Fans Based on a Mobius Strip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mobius strip concept is intended for improving the working efficiency of propellers and screws. Applications involve cooling, boat propellers, mixing in appliance, blenders, and helicopters. Several Mobius shaped screws for the average size kitchen mixers have been made and tested. The tests have shown that the mixer with the Mobius shaped screw pair is most efficient, and saves more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard. The created video film about these tests illustrates efficiency of Mobius shaped screws.

Seiner, John M.; Backley, Floyd D.; Gilinsky, Mikhail

1998-01-01

207

Posterolateral corner reconstruction using a hamstring allograft and a bioabsorbable tenodesis screw: description of a new surgical technique.  

PubMed

Capsuloligamentous posterolateral corner knee joint deficiencies cause increased anterior cruciate ligament forces during internal knee rotation and increased posterior cruciate ligament forces during external knee rotation. Undiagnosed posterolateral corner knee joint injury in combination with anterior cruciate ligament or posterior cruciate ligament injury can lead to failure of anterior cruciate ligament or posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The purpose of this technical note is to present a new posterolateral corner reconstruction technique for treating patients with chronic capsuloligamentous posterolateral corner deficiency. The technique uses a bioabsorbable tenodesis screw and a hamstring allograft to reconstruct the popliteofibular and lateral collateral ligaments. PMID:15243452

Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar; Caborn, David N M; Nyland, John

2004-07-01

208

Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infection following repair of an ulnar fracture and humeroradial joint luxation in a horse.  

PubMed

A 27-month-old Rocky Mountain Horse was examined because of a fracture of the proximal portion of the ulna and luxation of the humeroradial joint (Monteggia fracture). Open reduction was performed, using a mechanical distractor, and the ulnar fracture was stabilized by application of a bone plate and screws. After surgery, the horse developed an infection of the surgical site, and bacterial culture of fluid from the surgical site yielded a pure growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis susceptible to oxytetracycline, erythromycin, rifampin, and vancomycin. Treatment with oxytetracycline did not result in a favorable clinical response. Therefore, the horse was treated systemically with vancomycin and rifampin, and vancomycin-impregnated polymethyl methacrylate beads were implanted at the surgical site. Six months after surgery, the horse was sound at a walk or trot, and bony union was evident on radiographs of the elbow joint. PMID:11229509

Trostle, S S; Peavey, C L; King, D S; Hartmann, F A

2001-02-15

209

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal fusion is advancing with minimally invasive techniques, bone graft alternatives, and new implants. This has resulted in significant reductions of operative time, duration of hospitalization, and higher success in fusion rates. However, costs have increased as many new technologies are expensive. This study was carried out to investigate the clinical outcomes and fusion rates of a low implant load construct of unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) which reduced the cost of the posterior implants by almost 50%. Nineteen consecutive patients who underwent single level TLIF with this construct were included in the study. Sixteen patients had a TLIF allograft interbody spacer placed, while in three a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage was used. Follow-up ranged from 15 to 54 months with a mean of 32 months. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out preoperatively and at multiple time points following surgery. An overall improvement in Oswestry scores and visual analogue scales for leg and back pain (VAS) was observed. Three patients underwent revision surgery due to recurrence of back pain. All patients showed radiographic evidence of fusion from 9 to 26 months (mean 19) following surgery. This study suggests that unilateral pedicle screws and a contralateral translaminar screw are a cheaper and viable option for single level lumbar fusion. PMID:19015896

Sethi, Anil; Lee, Sandra; Vaidya, Rahul

2009-03-01

210

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal fusion is advancing with minimally invasive techniques, bone graft alternatives, and new implants. This has resulted in significant reductions of operative time, duration of hospitalization, and higher success in fusion rates. However, costs have increased as many new technologies are expensive. This study was carried out to investigate the clinical outcomes and fusion rates of a low implant load construct of unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) which reduced the cost of the posterior implants by almost 50%. Nineteen consecutive patients who underwent single level TLIF with this construct were included in the study. Sixteen patients had a TLIF allograft interbody spacer placed, while in three a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage was used. Follow-up ranged from 15 to 54 months with a mean of 32 months. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out preoperatively and at multiple time points following surgery. An overall improvement in Oswestry scores and visual analogue scales for leg and back pain (VAS) was observed. Three patients underwent revision surgery due to recurrence of back pain. All patients showed radiographic evidence of fusion from 9 to 26 months (mean 19) following surgery. This study suggests that unilateral pedicle screws and a contralateral translaminar screw are a cheaper and viable option for single level lumbar fusion. PMID:19015896

Lee, Sandra; Vaidya, Rahul

2008-01-01

211

Wet Granulation in a Twin-Screw Extruder: Implications of Screw Design  

E-print Network

granulation in twin-screw extrusion machinery is an attractive tech- nology for the continuous processing negative) reasons for adopting continuous processes in pharmaceutical produc- tion and pointed to extrusion known continuous tech- niques for granulation, a learning curve should be expected as more extrusion

Thompson, Michael

212

Tibial Fixation of Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Grafts in Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionA Cadaveric Study of Bovine Bone Screw and Biodegradable Interference Screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of interference screw fixation for bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts in anterior cruciate ligament fixation is well established. No previous study has compared bovine bone screws and biodegradable interference screws or demonstrated their efficacy for requirements associated with early rehabilitation.Hypothesis: There is no difference in tension loss and pull-out strength between bovine bone screws and biodegradable interference screws.Study Design:

Naiquan Zheng; Chad T. Price; Peter A. Indelicato; Bo Gao

2008-01-01

213

Accuracy analysis of SCARA industrial robot based on screw theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an analysis of error sources of industrial robots, we build a pose error model of industrial robots with screw theory, which overcomes the defect that the error on the y-axis could not be reflected by the classical D-H parameter method. Given the error sources which influence the end- executor's accuracy, we established a screw representation of the static

Zhao Liang; Su Meng; Diao Changkun

2011-01-01

214

Study on the load distribution of ball screws with errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is developed to analyze the load distribution of ball screws with geometry errors. The load distribution of the contact of the balls and grooves is theoretically investigated under various load conditions. The results demonstrate that the negative geometry errors of the ball screw result in the decrease of the load on balls or guiding grooves, and when the

Xuesong Mei; Masaomi Tsutsumi; Tao Tao; Nuogang Sun

2003-01-01

215

Robust compensation of elastic deformations in ball screw drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastic deformations occur in ball screw drives typically due to inertial forces, guideway friction, and cutting forces. This results in elongation and compression of the ball screw, which deteriorates the dynamic linear positioning accuracy. Closing the control loop with a linear encoder helps to alleviate this problem to a certain extent. However, linear scales cost significantly more than rotary encoders

Amin Kamalzadeh; Daniel J. Gordon; Kaan Erkorkmaz

2010-01-01

216

FRICTION TORQUE AND EFFICIENCY IN BALL - SCREW SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex relations for the friction torque and efficiency in a ball-screw system has been developed. The relations was adapted for a ball-screw system and influence of the speed and load on total friction torque were investigated. The efficiency of the system was computed and good agreement with the literature results was obtained. Also, a relation for the global friction coefficient

George V. Puiu; Dumitru N. Olaru; Vasile Puiu

217

Kinematic optimization of ball-screw transmission mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a method for the kinematic optimization of transmission mechanisms, where non-circular (NC) gears are used to perform a mechanical control on the output motion. The investigation presented here deals with the motion control of a ball-screw transmission mechanism. The objective is lowering the peak acceleration value of the screw, by designing a pair of variable radius gears

D. Mundo; H. S. Yan

2007-01-01

218

Correlation between feed velocity and preloading in ball screw drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency and reliability of ball screw feed drives is a mayor issue concerning the productivity of modern machine tools. The preloading of a ball screw thereby determines the dynamical operational behavior as well as the attainable life span. The research results presented in this paper now clearly show that the value of pretension changes depending on the velocity of

A. Verl; S. Frey

2010-01-01

219

Compensation of Axial Vibrations in Ball Screw Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a precision control strategy for ball screw drives. Axial vibrations are modeled and actively compensated in the control law, which enables the realization of high positioning bandwidth. Lead errors, arising from imperfections of the screw, are modeled and removed from the loop by offsetting their effect from the command trajectory and position feedback signals. Effectiveness of the

A. Kamalzadeh; K. Erkorkmaz

2007-01-01

220

Twin screw granulation - review of current progress.  

PubMed

Abstract Twin screw granulation (TSG) is a new process of interest to the pharmaceutical community that can continuously wet granulate powders, doing so at lower liquid concentrations and with better product consistency than found by a high shear batch mixer. A considerable body of research has evolved over the short time since this process was introduced but generally with little comparison of results. A certain degree of confidence has been developed through these studies related to how process variables and many attributes of machinery configuration will affect granulation but some major challenges still lay ahead related to scalability, variations in the processing regimes related to degree of channel fill and the impact of wetting and granulation of complex powder formulations. This review examines the current literature for wet granulation processes studied in twin screw extrusion machinery, summarizing the influences of operational and system parameters affecting granule properties as well as strives to provide some practical observations to newly interested users of the technique. PMID:25402966

Thompson, M R

2014-11-17

221

Effect of screw placement on fixation in the humeral head.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the most advantageous screw locations within the humeral head when plate and screw fixation is to be used and (2) to determine the effect of positioning the screw tip abutting the subchondral bone. Ten paired humeral heads were harvested with a monoplanar cut through the anatomic neck. Through use of a standardized template, 7 holes were drilled and tapped in each specimen for insertion of 6.5-mm fully threaded cancellous screws perpendicular to the plane of the cut. Paired specimens were randomized into 2 groups, one with the screw purchase in central cancellous bone and the other with the screw purchase up to the subchondral bone. Each screw was pulled out axially at a displacement rate of 10 mm/min through use of a servohydraulic testing machine. The length of thread purchase, position within the head, and screw pullout load to failure were recorded. The normalized pullout force to failure was calculated by dividing absolute pullout force to failure by length of screw purchase. Data were analyzed by means of a 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The central position had a significantly higher absolute pullout force to failure than all other sites (P < .05). By virtue of the humeral head shape, the central position also had a significantly greater length of screw purchase than all other positions (P < .05). The central position had a significantly higher relative pullout force to failure than all other positions (P < .05). Subchondral bone abutment positioning improved both the absolute and the relative pullout forces to failure (P < .05). When screws and plates are used in open reduction and internal fixation of a proximal humerus fracture, a major mode of failure is loss of fixation within the humeral head. On the basis of this study, optimal screw purchase with respect to bone fixation can be achieved by including screws located in the center of the humeral head in the subchondral abutment position. To minimize screw fixation failure, the anterosuperior position should be avoided. The pattern of distribution of the relative pullout force as measured in this study is consistent with previous observational studies of patterns of trabecular density within the humeral head. PMID:11075327

Liew, A S; Johnson, J A; Patterson, S D; King, G J; Chess, D G

2000-01-01

222

The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

Krasinski, Adam

2015-02-01

223

Disorders of the sacroiliac joint.  

PubMed

Controversies have surrounded the sacroiliac joint. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a considerably complex and strong joint with limited mobility, mechanically serving as a force transducer and a shock absorber. Anatomical changes are seen in the SIJ throughout an individual's lifetime. The ligamentous system associated with the SIJ serves to enhance stability and offer proprioceptive feedback in context with the rich plexus of articular receptors. Stability in the SIJ is related to form and force closure. Movement in the SIJ is 3-D about an axis outside of the joint. The functional examination of the SIJ is related to a clinical triad. PMID:17134467

Sizer, Phillip S; Phelps, Valerie; Thompsen, Kirk

2002-03-01

224

Biomechanical analysis of pedicle screw placement: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

In spinal instrumentation surgery, the optimal placement of pedicle screws that takes into account the cortical/cancellous bone quality, geometry and property distribution, and screw design is still undetermined despite several in vitro experiments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a detailed finite element model (FEM) of an instrumented vertebra to simulate screw axial pull-out and to analyze the bone-screw mechanical interaction. The FEM was built using CT-scan images of the L3 vertebra (0.6mm thick contiguous slices) of a 50th percentile human male volunteer, in order to virtually implant a fully customizable pedicle screw in a straight-forward position. The 753,000 elements model takes into account local cortical bone thickness and integrates advanced material behavior (elasto-plastic) laws that simulate bone failure. Screw axial pull-out was simulated and compared to in vitro experimental data, and the stress distribution at the screw thread-bone interface was analyzed. The simulated screw pull-out force (non-linear response with a failure at 640N) was within the range of experimental data (500-660N). Von Mises stresses in the bony structures were concentrated around the root of each internal thread, with the maximum stress located near the first proximal thread, in the cortical bone of the posterior wall of the pars. This study shows the feasibility and relevance of using a detailed FEM to simulate screw pull-out and to analyze the bone-screw mechanical interaction. PMID:20543418

Wagnac, Eric; Michardière, Denis; Garo, Anaïs; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Aubin, Carl-Eric

2010-01-01

225

A Surgical Method for Determining Proper Screw Length in ACDF  

PubMed Central

Objective We describe a surgical tool that uses the distractor pin as a reference for determining proper screw length in ACDF. It is critical that screw purchase depth be as deep as possible without violating or penetrating the posterior cortical wall, which ensures strong pull out strength. Methods We enrolled 81 adult patients who underwent ACDF using an anterior cervical plate from 2010 to 2012. Patients were categorized into Groups A (42 patients: retractor pin used as a reference for screw length) and B (39 patients: control group). Intraoperative lateral x-rays were taken after screwing the retractor pin to confirm the approaching vertebral level. The ratio of retractor pin length to body anteroposterior (A-P) diameter was measured as a reference. Proper screw length was determined by comparison to the reference. Results The average distance from screw tip to posterior wall was 3.0±1.4mm in Group A and 4.1±2.3mm in Group B. The ratio of screw length to body sagittal diameter was 86.2±5.7% in Group A and 80.8±9.0% in Group B. Screw length to body sagittal diameter ratios higher than 4/5 occurred in 33 patients (90%) in Group A and 23 patients (59%) in Group B. No cases violated the posterior cortical wall. Conclusion We introduce a useful surgical method for determining proper screw length in ACDF using the ratio of retractor pin length to body A-P diameter as a reference. This method allows for deeper screw purchase depth without violation of the posterior cortical wall. PMID:25346756

Park, Hae-Gi; Kang, Moo-Sung; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Keun-Su

2014-01-01

226

Complications associated with thoracic pedicle screws in spinal deformity  

PubMed Central

Thoracic pedicle screws have superior anchoring strength compared with other available fixation techniques. However, these are not universally accepted in many developing countries because of the concerns regarding safety and complications. In addition, there is evidence that pedicle morphology is unique in Chinese patients. The goal of this study was to analyze the complications seen at our institution, while using thoracic pedicle screws for the treatment of thoracic deformity, and to determine the safety of our techniques for the treatment of thoracic deformity in a Chinese population. From 1998 to 2005, there were 208 thoracic deformity patients treated at our institution, 70 of whom were male and 138 were female. Their age ranged from 11 to 55 years (mean of 14.9 years). All of them underwent corrective deformity surgery using posterior pedicle screw systems and follow-up was available for at least 3 years. Etiologic diagnoses included adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in 119 patients, congenital kyphoscoliosis in 38, adult scoliosis in 37 and undetermined in 14. Screw positions were evaluated using intraoperative and postoperative radiographs and a CT scan was performed when a concern for screw malposition was present. All radiographic evaluations were carried out in a double-blinded fashion. A total of 1,123 thoracic pedicle screws were inserted (5.4 thoracic screws/patient). The deformity correction rate was 81, 65 and 62% for idiopathic, congenital and adult scoliosis patients, respectively. The overall complication rate was 16.5% at the final follow-up. Complication rates directly and indirectly related to pedicle screws were 7.2 and 9.3%, respectively. There were no significant screw-related neurologic or visceral complications that adversely affected long-term results. The complications seen with thoracic pedicle screws in a Chinese population were similar to other populations and could be utilized safely for the treatment of thoracic deformity in this population. PMID:20237943

Li, Gang; Lv, Guohua; Passias, Peter; Kozanek, Michal; Metkar, Umesh S.; Liu, Zhongjun; Wood, Kirkham B.; Rehak, Lubos

2010-01-01

227

Real-Time Estimation of Ball-Screw Thermal Elongation Based upon Temperature Distribution of Ball-Screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical telemeter system has been developed, which converts the temperature of rotating spindle to the digital data and carries the digital data from LED on the rotating side toward PD on the stationary side by the optical data transmission. Based upon the temperature distribution of hollow ball-screw obtained by the telemeter system, the thermal elongation of the ball-screw is

Takehiko Kodera; Kazuhiro Yokoyama; Kazuo Miyaguchi; Yutaka Nagai; Takamasa Suzuki; Masami Masuda; Takanori Yazawa

2004-01-01

228

A mechanism for the origin of screw dislocation sequences, giant screw dislocations, and polytypism in platelet crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several workers have observed growth spirals of very large step heights on platelet crystals, sometimes associated with polytypism. These are attributed to spiral growth round a sequence of similar screw dislocations in a close planar array or a single giant screw dislocation. Polytypism can be (but is not necessarily) caused by such giant growth steps. The origin of the dislocations

D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf; Dhananjai Pandey; P. Krishna

1980-01-01

229

Lateral Movement of Screw Dislocations During Homoepitaxial Growth and Devices Yielded Therefrom Free of the Detrimental Effects of Screw Dislocations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is related to a method that enables and improves wide bandgap homoepitaxial layers to be grown on axis single crystal substrates, particularly SiC. The lateral positions of the screw dislocations in epitaxial layers are predetermined instead of random, which allows devices to be reproducibly patterned to avoid performance degrading crystal defects normally created by screw dislocations.

Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

2004-01-01

230

Basic Study for Ultrasound-Based Navigation for Pedicle Screw Insertion Using Transmission and Backscattered Methods  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to understand the acoustic properties of human vertebral cancellous bone and to study the feasibility of ultrasound-based navigation for posterior pedicle screw fixation in spinal fusion surgery. Fourteen human vertebral specimens were disarticulated from seven un-embalmed cadavers (four males, three females, 73.14 ± 9.87 years, two specimens from each cadaver). Seven specimens were used to measure the transmission, including tests of attenuation and phase velocity, while the other seven specimens were used for backscattered measurements to inspect the depth of penetration and A-Mode signals. Five pairs of unfocused broadband ultrasonic transducers were used for the detection, with center frequencies of 0.5 MHz, 1 MHz, 1.5 MHz, 2.25 MHz, and 3.5 MHz. As a result, good and stable results were documented. With increased frequency, the attenuation increased (P<0.05), stability of the speed of sound improved (P<0.05), and penetration distance decreased (P>0.05). At about 0.6 cm away from the cortical bone, warning signals were easily observed from the backscattered measurements. In conclusion, the ultrasonic system proved to be an effective, moveable, and real-time imaging navigation system. However, how ultrasonic navigation will benefit pedicle screw insertion in spinal surgery needs to be determined. Therefore, ultrasound-guided pedicle screw implantation is theoretically effective and promising. PMID:25861053

Chen, Ziqiang; Wu, Bing; Zhai, Xiao; Bai, Yushu; Zhu, Xiaodong; Luo, Beier; Chen, Xiao; Li, Chao; Yang, Mingyuan; Xu, Kailiang; Liu, Chengcheng; Wang, Chuanfeng; Zhao, Yingchuan; Wei, Xianzhao; Chen, Kai; Yang, Wu; Ta, Dean; Li, Ming

2015-01-01

231

Distal Tibial Metaphyseal Fractures: Does Blocking Screw Extend the Indication of Intramedullary Nailing?  

PubMed Central

Aim. To evaluate the clinical use of blocking screws as a supplement to stability in distal tibial metaphyseal fractures treated with statically locked intramedullary nail. Main Outcome Measurement. Alignment and reduction preoperatively, postoperatively, and at healing were the main outcome measured with an emphasis on maintenance of initial reduction on followup. Patients and Methods. This was a prospective study of 20 consecutive cases of distal tibial metaphyseal fractures treated with statically locked intramedullary nailing with supplementary blocking screw between August 2006 and September 2007 with a maximum followup of 3 years. Medullary canal diameter was measured at the levels of fracture and isthmus. Results. The mean diameter of tibia at the level of isthmus was 11.9?mm and at the fracture site was 22.9?mm. Mean length of distal fracture segment was 4.6?cm. Mean varus/valgus alignment was 10.3?degrees preoperatively and 1.7?degrees immediatly postoperatively and was maintained till union. Using Karlstrom-Olerud score the outcome was excellent to good in 90%. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of blocking screw as a supplement will aid in achieving and maintaining the reduction of distal tibial metaphyseal fractures when treated with intramedullary nailing thereby extending the indication of intramedullary nailing. PMID:24967128

Moongilpatti Sengodan, Mugundhan; Vaidyanathan, Singaravadivelu; Karunanandaganapathy, Sankaralingam; Subbiah Subramanian, Sukumaran; Rajamani, Samuel Gnanam

2014-01-01

232

Metal artifacts from titanium and steel screws in CT, 1.5T and 3T MR images of the tibial Pilon: a quantitative assessment in 3D  

PubMed Central

Radiographs are commonly used to assess articular reduction of the distal tibia (pilon) fractures postoperatively, but may reveal malreductions inaccurately. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are potential three-dimensional (3D) alternatives they generate metal-related artifacts. This study aims to quantify the artifact size from orthopaedic screws using CT, 1.5T and 3T MRI data. Three screws were inserted into one intact human cadaver ankle specimen proximal to and along the distal articular surface, then CT, 1.5T and 3T MRI scanned. Four types of screws were investigated: titanium alloy (TA), stainless steel (SS) (Ø =3.5 mm), cannulated TA (CTA) and cannulated SS (CSS) (Ø =4.0 mm, Ø empty core =2.6 mm). 3D artifact models were reconstructed using adaptive thresholding. The artifact size was measured by calculating the perpendicular distance from the central screw axis to the boundary of the artifact in four anatomical directions with respect to the distal tibia. The artifact sizes (in the order of TA, SS, CTA and CSS) from CT were 2.0, 2.6, 1.6 and 2.0 mm; from 1.5T MRI they were 3.7, 10.9, 2.9, and 9 mm; and 3T MRI they were 4.4, 15.3, 3.8, and 11.6 mm respectively. Therefore, CT can be used as long as the screws are at a safe distance of about 2 mm from the articular surface. MRI can be used if the screws are at least 3 mm away from the articular surface except for SS and CSS. Artifacts from steel screws were too large thus obstructed the pilon from being visualised in MRI. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found in the size of artifacts between all imaging modalities, screw types and material types, except 1.5T versus 3T MRI for the SS screws (P=0.063). CTA screws near the joint surface can improve postoperative assessment in CT and MRI. MRI presents a favourable non-ionising alternative when using titanium hardware. Since these factors may influence the quality of postoperative assessment, potential improvements in operative techniques should be considered. PMID:24914417

Radzi, Shairah; Cowin, Gary; Robinson, Mark; Pratap, Jit; Volp, Andrew; Schuetz, Michael A.

2014-01-01

233

Hip joints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The human hips are an example of a ball-and-socket joint. Ball-and-socket joints have the ability to rotate in a circular motion. The joint where the arm connects to the shoulder is also a type of ball-and-socket joint.

Connie Raab (National Institutes of Health; )

2006-05-17

234

SCREW COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS FOR HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression.At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss

Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Creel, Jonathan; Arenius, Dana; Casagrande, Fabio; Howell, Matt

2008-03-01

235

Spline-Screw Payload-Fastening System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Payload handed off securely between robot and vehicle or structure. Spline-screw payload-fastening system includes mating female and male connector mechanisms. Clockwise (or counter-clockwise) rotation of splined male driver on robotic end effector causes connection between robot and payload to tighten (or loosen) and simultaneously causes connection between payload and structure to loosen (or tighten). Includes mechanisms like those described in "Tool-Changing Mechanism for Robot" (GSC-13435) and "Self-Aligning Mechanical and Electrical Coupling" (GSC-13430). Designed for use in outer space, also useful on Earth in applications needed for secure handling and secure mounting of equipment modules during storage, transport, and/or operation. Particularly useful in machine or robotic applications.

Vranish, John M.

1994-01-01

236

Spline-Locking Screw Fastening Strategy (SLSFS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fastener was developed by NASA Goddard for efficiently performing assembly, maintenance, and equipment replacement functions in space using either robotic or astronaut means. This fastener, the 'Spline Locking Screw' (SLS) would also have significant commercial value in advanced manufacturing. Commercial (or DoD) products could be manufactured in such a way that their prime subassemblies would be assembled using SLS fasteners. This would permit machines and robots to disconnect and replace these modules/parts with ease, greatly reducing life cycle costs of the products and greatly enhancing the quality, timeliness, and consistency of repairs, upgrades, and remanufacturing. The operation of the basic SLS fastener is detailed, including hardware and test results. Its extension into a comprehensive fastening strategy for NASA use in space is also outlined. Following this, the discussion turns toward potential commercial and government applications and the potential market significance of same.

Vranish, John M.

1991-01-01

237

Spline-locking screw fastening strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fastener was developed by NASA Goddard for efficiently performing assembly, maintenance, and equipment replacement functions in space using either robotics or astronaut means. This fastener, the 'Spline Locking Screw' (SLS) would also have significant commercial value in advanced space manufacturing. Commercial (or DoD) products could be manufactured in such a way that their prime subassemblies would be assembled using SLS fasteners. This would permit machines and robots to disconnect and replace these modules/parts with ease, greatly reducing life cycle costs of the products and greatly enhancing the quality, timeliness, and consistency of repairs, upgrades, and remanufacturing. The operation of the basic SLS fastener is detailed, including hardware and test results. Its extension into a comprehensive fastening strategy for NASA use in space is also outlined. Following this, the discussion turns toward potential commercial and government applications and the potential market significance of same.

Vranish, John M.

1992-01-01

238

Cortical screw trajectory for instrumentation and fusion in the setting of osteopathic compression fracture allows for percutaneous kyphoplasty for adjacent level compression fractures.  

PubMed

Spinal fixation in the osteoporotic patient can be challenging due to the poor trabecular bone quality of the vertebral body. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures are at risk for future compression fractures at adjacent levels, especially after cement augmentation. The purpose of this technical report is to describe the utilization of a cortical screw trajectory along with kyphoplasty for a patient with an osteoporotic compression fracture as well as degenerative spinal disease. This trajectory allows for the possibility of percutaneous pedicle access in the event of future compression fractures. Our patient underwent a decompressive laminectomy and kyphoplasty at the level of an osteoporotic compression fracture. The fracture was stabilized with cortical screw instrumentation and fusion at a level above and a level below the fracture. Subsequently the patient developed an adjacent level fracture within the fusion construct. Due to the utilization of a cortical screw trajectory for the initial fusion, the traditional pedicle trajectory was still accessible. As a result, the new fracture was treated with a percutaneous kyphoplasty through a standard pedicle trajectory. In conclusion, the use of a cortical screw trajectory for stabilization of osteoporotic compression fractures provides for a stronger bone screw interface and avoids osteoporotic trabecular vertebral body bone. At the same time this trajectory allows for future percutaneous pedicular access in the event that the patient suffers future compression fractures. PMID:25724313

Pacione, Donato; Kim, Irene; Wilson, Taylor A; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony

2015-05-01

239

Salvaging the Pullout Strength of Stripped Screws in Osteoporotic Bone  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to determine whether the pullout strength of stripped screw holes in osteoporotic bone could be increased with readily available materials from the operating room. We inserted 3.5-mm stainless steel nonlocking self-tapping cortical screws bicortically into 5 osteoporotic humeri. Each screw was first stripped by rotating it 1 full turn past maximum torque. In the control group, the screw was pulled out using an MTS machine (858; MTS Inc, Eden Prairie, Minnesota). In the treatment groups, the screw was removed, the hole was augmented with 1 of the 3 materials (stainless steel wire, polysorb suture, or polyethylene terephthalate glycol plastic sheet), and the screws were replaced and then pulled out. The effect of material on pullout strength was checked for significance (P < .05) using a general linearized latent and mixed model (Stata10; StataCorp, College Station, Texas). The mean (95% confidence interval) pullout strength for the unaugmented hole was 138 N (range 88-189), whereas the holes augmented with plastic, suture, or wire had mean pullout strengths of 255 N (range 177-333), 228 N (range 149-308), and 396 N (range 244-548), respectively. Although wire augmentation resulted in pullout strength that was significantly greater than that of the unaugmented screw, it was still below that of the intact construct. PMID:24093076

Pechon, Pierre H. M.; Mears, Simon C.; Langdale, Evan R.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

240

Management of a fractured implant abutment screw: a clinical report.  

PubMed

In an abutment screw fracture, it is generally a challenge for the clinician to remove fractured fragments. In some cases, the screw cannot be removed, and alternative solutions should be considered. This clinical report describes the replacement of a ball attachment with a fractured screw, which was impossible to retrieve, with a cast dowel with ball attachment. The patient who presented to the Department of Prosthodontics, Yeditepe University, Faculty of Dentistry was a 65-year-old woman, wearing a mandibular complete denture supported by two implants for 4 years. She complained about the loss of retention of the denture because of the fractured abutment screw, and it was found that another dentist had previously tried to retrieve the fractured screw with no success. It was decided to construct a cast dowel with ball attachment to improve retention without sacrificing the implant. The interior of the implant and the fractured screw were machined with a rotating instrument. An impression was taken with a metal strip and silicone-based materials. In the laboratory, a stone die was generated from the impression, and a custom-made cast dowel with ball attachment was constructed. It was then cemented with glass ionomer cement and connected to the denture with the direct method. The alternative procedure described in this clinical report was successful for the removal of the fractured abutment screw and use of the existing denture. PMID:24393481

Canpolat, Ceyhun; Ozkurt-Kayahan, Zeynep; Kazazo?lu, Ender

2014-07-01

241

Midline lumbar fusion with cortical bone trajectory screw.  

PubMed

A novel cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique provides an alternative fixation technique for lumbar spine. Trajectory of CBT screw creates a caudo-cephalad path in sagittal plane and a medio-lateral path in axial plane, and engages cortical bone in the pedicle. The theoretical advantage is that it provides enhanced screw grip and interface strength. Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) is composed of posterior midline approach, microsurgical laminectomy, and CBT screw fixation. We adopted the MIDLF technique for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Advantages of this technique include that decompression and fusion are available in the same field, and it minimizes approach-related damages. To determine whether MIDLF with CBT screw is as effective as traditional approach and it is minimum invasive technique, we studied the clinical and radiological outcomes of MIDLF. Our results indicate that MIDLF is effective and minimum invasive technique. Evidence of effectiveness of MIDLF is that patients had good recovery score, and that CBT screw technique was safety in clinical and stable in radiological. MIDLF with CBT screw provides the surgeon with additional options for fixation. This technique is most likely to be useful for treating lumbar spondylolisthesis in combination with midline decompression and insertion of an interbody graft, such as the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion or posterior lumbar interbody fusion techniques. PMID:25169139

Mizuno, Masaki; Kuraishi, Keita; Umeda, Yasuyuki; Sano, Takanori; Tsuji, Masanori; Suzuki, Hidenori

2014-01-01

242

Fixation of the Lapidus arthrodesis with a plantar interfragmentary screw and medial low profile locking plate.  

PubMed

The Lapidus arthrodesis can be used to correct pathology within the forefoot or midfoot, and severe hallux valgus deformities as well as hypermobility of the medial column may be amenable to correction with this procedure. Many different skeletal fixation methods have been described for this procedure, and one form that appears to provide enough construct stability to allow patients to bear weight early in the postoperative period is described herein. This construct consists of an interfragmental compression screw oriented from the plantar aspect of the first metatarsal to the superior aspect of the medial cuneiform, with medial locking plate augmentation. PMID:22632842

Cottom, James M

2012-01-01

243

In vitro study of accuracy of cervical pedicle screw insertion using an electronic conductivity device (ATPS part III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of the highly unstable, anteriorly decompressed cervical spine poses biomechanical challenges to current stabilization\\u000a strategies, including circumferential instrumented fusion, to prevent failure. To avoid secondary posterior surgery, particularly\\u000a in the elderly population, while increasing primary construct rigidity of anterior-only reconstructions, the authors introduced\\u000a the concept of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation and plating. We demonstrated its morphological feasibility, its

Heiko Koller; Wolfgang Hitzl; Frank Acosta; Mark Tauber; Juliane Zenner; Herbert Resch; Yasutsugu Yukawa; Oliver Meier; Rene Schmidt; Michael Mayer

2009-01-01

244

Tightening force and torque of nonlocking screws in a reverse shoulder prosthesis A. Terrier a,  

E-print Network

Tightening force and torque of nonlocking screws in a reverse shoulder prosthesis A. Terrier a, , S Arthroplasty Reversed prosthesis Screw Cadaveric study Background: Reversed shoulder arthroplasty and screwing angle, of the nonlocking screws of the Aquealis reversed prosthesis. In addition, the amount

Guerraoui, Rachid

245

The Development of using the digital projection method to measure the contact angle of ball screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ball screw frequently used to drive or translate the parts on the precision machine, such as machine tool and motorized stage. Therefore they were most frequently used on the precision machine, semiconductor equipment, medical instrument and aero industry. The main parts of ball screw are screw, ball and nut. The contact angle between the screw, ball and nut will

Chun-Jen Chen; Wenyuh Jywe; Yu-Chun Liu; Hsin-Hong Jwo

2011-01-01

246

Moving follower rest design using vibration absorbers for ball screw grinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel design of follower rest used in ball screw grinding machine is proposed. Installed on the grinding wheel holder and moving along the ball screw, the follower rest is designed to be a vibration absorber with its driving point attached on the ball screw close to the grinding zone. It is used not only to suppress the ball screw

C. C. Cheng; C. P. Kuo; F. C. Wang; W. N. Cheng

2009-01-01

247

2D-fluoroscopic navigated percutaneous screw fixation of pelvic ring injuries - a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Screw fixation of pelvic ring fractures is a common, but demanding procedure and navigation techniques were introduced to increase the precision of screw placement. The purpose of this case series was the evaluation of screw misplacement rate and functional outcome of percutaneous screw fixation of pelvic ring disruptions using a 2D navigation system. METHODS: Between August 2004 and December

Florian Gras; Ivan Marintschev; Arne Wilharm; Kajetan Klos; Thomas Mückley; Gunther O Hofmann

2010-01-01

248

Analysis of Material Flow in Screw Extrusion of Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Screw extrusion of aluminum is a new process for production of aluminum profiles. The commercial potential could be large. Little experimental and numerical work has been done with respect to this process.The material flow of hot aluminum in a screw extruder has been analyzed using finite element formulations for the non-Newtonian Navier-Stokes equations. Aluminum material properties are modeled using the Zener-Holloman material model. Effects of stick-slip conditions are investigated with respect to pressure build up and mixing quality of the extrusion process.The numerical results are compared with physical experiments using an experimental screw extruder.

Haugen, Bjoern; Oernskar, Magnus; Welo, Torgeir; Wideroee, Fredrik [Department of Engineering Design and Materials, NTNU (Norway)

2010-06-15

249

Intersection of screw dislocations in fcc crystals during torsional deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dislocation reactions, including dislocation intersections during various processes in crystals, play an important and often crucial role. This is most pronounced during plastic deformation of crystalline solids, which attracts particular interest from researchers. Intersection of screw dislocations in fcc crystals during their deformation by uniaxial tension and compression was studied by A. Cottrell [1]. It was shown that the intersection of similar screw dislocations moving toward each other results in the formation of interstitial thresholds on them; in the case of intersection of opposite screw dislocations, vacancy thresholds are formed on them.

Myshlyaev, M. M.

2012-03-01

250

Joints in a Cornstarch Analog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Joints are very important to problems in applied geology (fluid flow, slope stability), but three-dimensional exposures of simple joint sets are not readily accessible from my campus. I developed this exercise based on the experiments of Miller (2001) to give students hands-on practice describing and interpreting joints. For the exercise, I prepare a cornstarch-water mixture a few days in advance and pour it into plastic petri dishes. I add a "flaw" to each dish (typically a small pebble). As the cornstarch dries, vertical joints develop. In class, each group of 3-4 students is provided a petri dish of desiccated cornstarch. Students are asked to draw a map of the joints, paying particular attention to intersection angles. (The joints curve to intersect at 90 degrees.) They determine relative ages of the joints using abutting relationships. (Typically 3-6 generations of joints.) Students next dissect the sample and describe the surface textures of the larger joints and the location of the flaw. The cornstarch produces beautiful plumose structure (hackles). Students then interpret the joint propagation direction from the surface textures, and note the origin of the joint. (Typically, a first- or second-generation joint initiates at the flaw.) Students discuss the role of flaws in the initiation of joints in their groups.

Juliet Crider

251

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3070 Pedicle screw spinal system. ...22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and unalloyed titanium, that allow the surgeon to build an implant...

2010-04-01

252

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3070 Pedicle screw spinal system. ...22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and unalloyed titanium, that allow the surgeon to build an implant...

2014-04-01

253

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3070 Pedicle screw spinal system. ...22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and unalloyed titanium, that allow the surgeon to build an implant...

2012-04-01

254

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3070 Pedicle screw spinal system. ...22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and unalloyed titanium, that allow the surgeon to build an implant...

2011-04-01

255

Wet-gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pumps  

E-print Network

Multiphase pumping with twin-screw pumps is a relatively new technology that has been proven successful in a variety of field applications. By using these pumps to add energy to the combined gas and liquid wellstream with minimal separation...

Chan, Evan

2009-05-15

256

21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

257

Factors influencing accuracy of screw displacement axis detection with a D.C.-based electromagnetic tracking system.  

PubMed

Recent technical improvements and cost reductions in electromagnetic motion tracking systems invite their application to motion axis determination in the surgical setting. After evaluation of the accuracy of a state-of-the-art D.C. electromagnetic tracking system, which generates complete three-dimensional kinematic outputs from just a single receiver, we calculated screw displacement axes (SDA's) from its source data. The accuracy of SDA determination from such source data was evaluated for various rotational increment sizes around a revolute joint. A novel smoothing procedure, customized for this type of source data, was developed, enabling SDA detection from incremental rotations of less than 1 deg, at an accuracy appropriate for intra-operative measurement of human joint motion. Examples of SDA determination are given for motion tracking of a ball joint and of the elbow articulation. PMID:10412412

Bottlang, M; Marsh, J L; Brown, T D

1998-06-01

258

Outcome of Pedicle Screw Fixation and Monosegmental Fusion in Patients with Fresh Thoracolumbar Fractures  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective clinical study. Purpose The present prospective study aims to evaluate the clinical, radiological, and functional and quality of life outcomes in patients with fresh thoracolumbar fractures managed by posterior instrumentation of the spine, using pedicle screw fixation and monosegmental fusion. Overview of Literature The goals of treatment in thoracolumbar fractures are restoring vertebral column stability and obtaining spinal canal decompression, leading to early mobilization of the patient. Methods Sixty-six patients (46 males and 20 females) of thoracolumbar fractures with neurological deficit were stabilized with pedicle screw fixation and monosegmental fusion. Clinical, radiological and functional outcomes were evaluated. Results The mean preoperative values of Sagittal index, and compression percentage of the height of the fractured vertebra were 22.75° and 46.73, respectively, improved (statistically significant) to 12.39°, and 24.91, postoperatively. The loss of correction of these values at one year follow-up was not statistically significant. The mean preoperative canal compromise (%) improved from 65.22±17.61 to 10.06±5.31 at one year follow-up. There was a mean improvement in the grade of 1.03 in neurological status from the preoperative to final follow-up at one year. Average Denis work scale index was 4.1. Average Denis pain scale index was 2.5. Average WHOQOL-BREF showed reduced quality of life in these patients. Patients of early surgery group (operated within 7 days of injury) had a greater mean improvement of neurological grade, radiological and functional outcomes than those in the late surgery group, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusions Posterior surgical instrumentation using pedicle screws with posterolateral fusion is safe, reliable and effective method in the management of fresh thoracolumbar fractures. Fusion helps to decrease the postoperative correction loss of radiological parameters. There is no correlation between radiographic corrections achieved for deformities and functional outcome and quality of life post spinal cord injury. PMID:24967043

Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Kamboj, Kulbhushan; Magu, Narender Kumar; Kaur, Kiranpreet

2014-01-01

259

Cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation (ATPS)—Part II. Accuracy of manual insertion and pull-out strength of ATPS  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction after multilevel decompression of the cervical spine, especially in the weakened osteoporotic, neoplastic or infectious spine often requires circumferential stabilization and fusion. To avoid the additional posterior surgery in these cases while increasing rigidity of anterior-only screw-plate constructs, the authors introduce the concept of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation. We demonstrated its morphological feasibility as well as its indications in a previous study in Part I of our project. Consequently, the objectives of the current study were to assess the ex vivo accuracy of placing ATPS into the cervical vertebra as well as the biomechanical performance of ATPS in comparison to traditional vertebral body screws (VBS) in terms of pull-out strength (POS). Twenty-three ATPS were inserted alternately to two screws into the pedicles and vertebral bodies, respectively, of six cadaveric specimens from C3–T1. For insertion of ATPS, a manual fluoroscopically assisted technique was used. Pre- and post insertional CT-scans were used to assess accuracy of ATPS insertion in the axial and sagittal planes. A newly designed grading system and accuracy score were used to delineate accuracy of ATPS insertion. Following insertion of screws, 23 ATPS and 22 VBS were subjected to pull-out testing (POT). The bone mineral density (BMD) of each specimen was assessed prior to POT. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of correctly placed screws and non-critical pedicles breaches in axial plane was 78.3%, and 95.7% in sagittal plane. Hence, according to our definition of “critical” pedicle breach that exposes neurovascular structures at risk, 21.7% (n = 5) of all ATPS inserted showed a critical pedicle breach in axial plane. Notably, no critical pedicle perforation occurred at the C6 to T1 levels. Pull-out testing of ATPS and VBS revealed that pull-out resistance of ATPS was 2.5-fold that of VBS. Mean POS of 23 ATPS with a mean BMD of 0.566 g/cm2 and a mean osseus screw purchase of 27.2 mm was 467.8 N. In comparison, POS of 22 VBS screws with a mean BMD of 0.533 g/cm2 and a mean osseus screw purchase of 16.0 mm was 181.6 N. The difference in ultimate pull-out strength between the ATPS and VBS group was significant (p < 0.000001). Also, accuracy of ATPS placement in axial plane was shown to be significantly correlated with POS. In contrast, there was no correlation between screw-length, BMD, or level of insertion and the POS of ATPS or VBS. The study demonstrated that the use of ATPS might be a new technique worthy of further investigation. The use of ATPS shows the potential to increase construct rigidity in terms of screw-plate pull-out resistance. It might diminish construct failures during anterior-only reconstructions of the highly unstable decompressed cervical spine. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00586-007-0573-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18224357

Acosta, Frank; Tauber, Mark; Fox, Michael; Martin, Hudelmaier; Forstner, Rosmarie; Augat, Peter; Penzkofer, Rainer; Pirich, Christian; Kässmann, H.; Resch, Herbert; Hitzl, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

260

Crystal geometry of screw dislocation glide in tungsten nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A zigzag pattern of low-temperature dislocation glide occurring in tungsten nanocrystals in the intersecting planes {110} and {211}, which belong to the <111> crystallographic zone, has been revealed using field ion microscopy. It has been shown that cores of 1/2[111] screw dislocations are undissociated within the limits of the resolution of the field ion microscope. It has been found experimentally that surface atoms are displaced into metastable positions in the region of the trace of screw dislocation motion.

Sadanov, E. V.

2015-02-01

261

Modeling and positioning control of a ball screw driven stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for high precision stages has received great attention due to the progress of nanotechnology. In the ball-screw-driven systems, the friction behavior dominates the resulting performance and is usually known as the stick-slip phenomenon. In this paper, friction models are introduced to describe the dynamic behavior of a conventional ball-screw-driven x-y stage. Two sets of controllers corresponding to the

M. J. Jang; K. C. Lin; C. L. Chen

2004-01-01

262

On giant screw dislocations in ZnS polytype crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapour-grown platelet crystals of ZnS containing long-period polytypes have been found by x-ray topography to contain a single screw dislocation with a very large Burgers vector parallel to the c axis. Individual polytype regions can have highly perfect lattices; the few dislocations observed in them in addition to the giant screw have Burgers vectors in the basal plane. A divergent-beam

S. Mardix; A. R. Lang; I. Blech

1971-01-01

263

Modeling and control of a twin-screw extruder  

E-print Network

MODELING AND CONTROL OF A TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER A Thesis LESLIE LEITZY RICHBHRG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM TJniversitl in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIE'FACE December 1989... Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering MODELING AND CONTROL OF A TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER A Thesis by LESLIE LEITZY RICHBURG A. Dale Whittaker (Chair of Committee) Donald A. Bender (Member) Don R. Bittner (Member) . R. Hocking Larry . Wisdom...

Richburg, Leslie Leitzy

1989-01-01

264

Residence time distribution in a corotating twin-screw extruder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modeling study for the polymer flow and mixing in a corotating twin-screw extruder is presented. The residence time distribution (RTD) in a fully intermeshing corotating twin-screw extruder was measured, using iron powder as tracer, and an LDPE as flow material. Pulse-type input signal experiments were performed in different working conditions. To fit the experimental data obtained on two different

J. P Puaux; G Bozga; A Ainser

2000-01-01

265

Minimally Invasive Posterior Trans-muscular C1-C2 Screw Fixation Through an Anatomical Corridor to Preserve Occipitocervical Tension Band: Surgical Anatomy and Clinical Experience.  

PubMed

The C1-C2 joint is affected by multiple entities that may produce biomechanical instability. Optimal management for atlantoaxial instability has been searched by ways of different surgical techniques with different results, generating discussion between second effects of a particular treatment. Lateral dissections can place the axial neck musculature and ligaments at risk of neural denervations or vascular compromise. Either of these entities may result in significant postoperative atrophy, pain, and instability. Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of spinal disorders allow to our patients less morbid procedures with equal or better results compared to conventional surgery. In the following paper, we review the anatomy of the atlantoaxial joint and propose a minimally invasive trans-muscular C1-C2 fusion technique using C1 lateral-mass screws and C2 pedicular screws. We describe cases with surgical, clinical, and radiographic follow-up. PMID:24265049

Díaz, Roberto; Berbeo, Miguel E; Villalobos, Luis M; Vergara, Manuel F; Osorio, Enrique

2014-01-01

266

Biomechanical Analysis of Fusion Segment Rigidity Upon Stress at Both the Fusion and Adjacent Segments: A Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of unilateral pedicle screw fixation on the fusion segment and the superior adjacent segment after one segment lumbar fusion using validated finite element models. Materials and Methods Four L3-4 fusion models were simulated according to the extent of decompression and the method of pedicle screws fixation in L3-4 lumbar fusion. These models included hemi-laminectomy with bilateral pedicle screw fixation in the L3-4 segment (BF-HL model), total laminectomy with bilateral pedicle screw fixation (BF-TL model), hemi-laminectomy with unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UF-HL model), and total laminectomy with unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UF-TL model). In each scenario, intradiscal pressures, annulus stress, and range of motion at the L2-3 and L3-4 segments were analyzed under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments. Results Under four pure moments, the unilateral fixation leads to a reduction in increment of range of motion at the adjacent segment, but larger motions were noted at the fusion segment (L3-4) in the unilateral fixation (UF-HL and UF-TL) models when compared to bilateral fixation. The maximal von Mises stress showed similar patterns to range of motion at both superior adjacent L2-3 segments and fusion segment. Conclusion The current study suggests that unilateral pedicle screw fixation seems to be unable to afford sufficient biomechanical stability in case of bilateral total laminectomy. Conversely, in the case of hemi-laminectomy, unilateral fixation could be an alternative option, which also has potential benefit to reduce the stress of the adjacent segment. PMID:25048501

Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kim, Jang-Woo

2014-01-01

267

Pullout strength of misplaced pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - A cadaveric study  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD), diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Materials and Methods: Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10–L2) were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm) were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a) standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation); b) screw with medial cortical perforation; and c) screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine. Results: Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra (P = 0.105), but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD (P = 0.901). Conclusion: The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different. PMID:23798753

Saraf, Shyam K; Singh, Ravindra P; Singh, Vakil; Varma, Ashish

2013-01-01

268

An analytical investigation of high-temperature heat pump system with screw compressor and screw expander for power recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical investigation of a high-temperature heat pump system was developed to estimate the thermal cycle and to assess the thermal fluids for their high-temperature delivery (up to 180°C) capacities without decomposition or the use of lubricant mechanisms. Then, a screw-type compressor was applied in the above conditions. Furthermore, a screw expander was also used as a replacement for the

I. Tamura; H. Taniguchi; H. Sasaki; R. Yoshida; I. Sekiguchi; M. Yokogawa

1997-01-01

269

Screw Instability and Blandford-Znajek Mechanism  

E-print Network

When magnetic field lines thread a rotating black hole's horizon and connect with remote astrophysical loads, the rotational energy of the black hole can be extracted through the Blandford-Znajek mechanism. Due to the rotation of the black hole, the magnetic field lines are twisted and toroidal components are generated. So poloidal electric currents are induced and the black hole's rotational energy is transported to the astrophysical loads through Poynting flux. The Blandford-Znajek mechanism has been considered to be a possible process for powering extragalactic jets. In this paper we show that due to the screw instability of magnetic field, the toroidal components of the magnetic field, and thus the poloidal currents, cannot exceed the limits given by the Kruskal-Shafranov criterion. This significantly lowers the power of the Blandford-Znajek mechanism when the loads are far from the black hole. So the Blandford-Znajek mechanism can only work efficiently within the neighborhood of the black hole. The implications of the results for the scenario of extragalactic jets powered by the Blandford-Znajek mechanism are discussed.

Li-Xin Li

2000-01-25

270

MagScrew TAH: an update.  

PubMed

The MagScrew Total Artificial Heart (TAH) system is the result of a close collaboration among the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Foster Miller Technologies, Wilson Greatbatch Ltd, and Whalen Biomedical Inc. The system components are the thoracic blood pumping unit with attached compliance chamber and refill port, implantable electronic control unit, implantable battery pack, transcutaneous energy transmission system, external battery pack, and a telemetry system for communication with the electronic control unit. System in vitro tests are underway for system characterization and durability demonstration, whereas in vivo tests were conducted to evaluate system performance and biocompatibility under physiologic conditions. The passively filling pump uses a left master alternate left and right ejection control mode and has a Starling law-like response to venous pressure. The in vitro tests documented excellent hydraulic pump performance with high device output of over 9 l/min at left atrial pressures below 12 mm Hg. Atrial balance was well maintained under all test conditions. The in vivo tests demonstrated good biocompatibility without use of anticoagulant therapy. Experimental durations have ranged between 0 and 92 days. Postexplant evaluation of tissue samples did not reveal any sign of thromboembolic events or tissue damage due to device operation. PMID:16340348

Weber, Stephan; Kamohara, Keiji; Klatte, Ryan S; Luangphakdy, Viviane; Flick, Christine; Chen, Ji-Feng; Casas, Fernando; Ootaki, Yoshio; Kopcak, Michael; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Hirschman, Gordon B; Chapman, Peter A; Donahue, Arthur; Wetterau, William; Prisco, Charles; Mast, Roy; Sherman, Craig; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Smith, William A

2005-01-01

271

Helical Screw Expander Evaluation Project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A functional 1-MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested in Utah in 1978 to 1979 with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer-equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Additional testing was performed in Mexico in 1980 under a cooperative test program using the same test array, and machine efficiency was measured at 62% maximum with the rotors partially coated with scale, compared with approximately 54% maximum in Utah with uncoated rotors, confirming the importance of scale deposits within the machine on performance. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

McKay, R.

1982-03-01

272

Solid and hollow pedicle screws affect the electrical resistance: A potential source of error with stimulus-evoked electromyography  

PubMed Central

Background: Although stimulus evoked electromyography (EMG) is commonly used to confirm the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. There are no studies to differentiate between solid screws and hollow screws to the electrical resistance of pedicle screws. We speculate that the electrical resistance of the solid and hollow pedicle screws may be different and then a potential source of error with stimulus-evoked EMG may happen. Materials and Methods: Resistance measurements were obtained from 12 pedicle screw varieties (6 screws of each manufacturer) across the screw shank based on known constant current and measured voltage. The voltage was measured 5 times at each site. Results: Resistance of all solid screws ranged from 0.084 ? to 0.151 ? (mean =0.118 ± 0.024 ?) and hollow screws ranged from 0.148 ? to 0.402 ? (mean = 0.285 ± 0.081 ?). There was a significant difference of resistance between the solid screws and hollow screws (P < 0.05). The screw with the largest diameter no matter solid screws or hollow screws had lower resistance than screws with other diameters. No matter in solid screws group or hollow screws group, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the 5.0 mm screws and 6.0 mm screws, 6.0 mm screws and 7.0 mm screws, 5.0 mm screws and 7.0 mm screws, 4.5 mm screws and 5.5 mm screws, 5.5 mm screws and 6.5 mm screws, 4.5 mm screws and 6.5 mm screws. The resistance of hollow screws was much larger than the solid screws in the same diameter group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Hollow pedicle screws have the potential for high electrical resistance compared to the solid pedicle screws and therefore may affect the EMG response during stimulus-evoked EMG testing in pedicle screw fixation especially in minimally invasive percutaneous pedical screw fixation surgery. PMID:23960278

Wang, Hongwei; Liao, Xinhua; Ma, Xianguang; Li, Changqing; Han, Jianda; Zhou, Yue

2013-01-01

273

The influence of screw configuration on the pretreatment performance of a continuous twin screw-driven reactor (CTSR).  

PubMed

A combination of a continuous twin screw-driven reactor (CTSR) and a dilute acid pretreatment was used for the pretreatment of biomass with a high cellulose content and high monomeric xylose hydrolyzate. With the newly modified CTSR screw configuration (Config. 3), the influences of the screw rotational speed (30-60 rpm), of the pretreatment conditions such as acid concentration (1-5%) and reaction temperature (160-175 °C) at the operating condition of biomass feeding rate (1.0 g/min) and acid feeding rate (13.4 mL/min) on the pretreatment performance were investigated. The cellulose content in the pretreated rape straw was 67.1% at the following optimal conditions: barrel temperature of 165 °C, acid concentration of 3.0% (w/v), and screw rotational speed of 30 rpm. According to the three screw configurations, the glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70.1%, 72.9%, and 78.7% for screw Configs. 1, 2, and 3, respectively. PMID:23395738

Choi, Chang Ho; Um, Byung-Hwan; Oh, Kyeong Keun

2013-03-01

274

A prospective trial of poly-L-lactic/polyglycolic acid co-polymer plates and screws for internal fixation of mandibular fractures.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the performance of poly-L-lactic/polyglycolic acid (PLLA/PGA) co-polymer plates and screws in the fixation of mandibular fractures. Following clinical and radiographic examination, internal fixation was achieved with PLLA/PGA co-polymer plates and screws in 31 patients. Elastic maxillomandibular fixation was maintained for 4 weeks and a blenderized diet for 6 weeks. Patients were followed up at 1 week, 6 weeks, and 3, 6 and 12 months post surgery, and evaluated clinically for swelling, pain, mucosal discoloration and occlusal relation. Segment stability, fracture healing and screw-hole ossification were assessed radiographically. Of the 29 patients who completed the trial, 20 had an uncomplicated postoperative period, resulting in complete bone union. Radiographic evidence of screw-hole ossification was noted in several patients, with considerable site-dependent rate variation. Nine patients developed complications ranging from minor dehiscence (4 patients) to frank sepsis requiring plate removal (5 patients), resulting in a 22.5% complication rate. There were no cases of non-union at the end of the fixation period. The reported complication rate following titanium internal fixation of mandibular fractures is 13.7%-43%. PLLA/PGA co-polymer plate and screw fixation of mandibular fractures, although technically more challenging and costly, is a viable alternative to traditional metal devices in selected patients. PMID:18295449

Ferretti, C

2008-03-01

275

Simultaneous middle third clavicle fracture and type 3 acromioclavicular joint dislocation; a case report.  

PubMed

Simultaneous middle third clavicle fracture and acromioclavicular joint dislocation is a rare combination injury, as a result of high-energy trauma. We report a patient with a middle third clavicle fracture and ipsilateral grade three-acromioclavicular joint dislocation, which is a rare combination. The patient wanted to get back to work as soon as possible, so the fracture was fixed with reconstruction plate after open reduction and plate contouring; and acromioclavicular joint dislocation was reduced and fixed with two full threaded cancellous screws. One screw was inserted through the plate to the coracoid process. Clinical and radiographic finding revealed complete union of clavicle fracture and anatomical reduction of acromioclavicular joint with pain free full joint range of motion one year after operation. PMID:25207318

Solooki, Saeed; Azad, Ali

2014-03-01

276

Adaptive backstepping sliding mode control of flexible ball screw drives with time-varying parametric uncertainties and disturbances.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method to model and design servo controllers for flexible ball screw drives with dynamic variations. A mathematical model describing the structural flexibility of the ball screw drive containing time-varying uncertainties and disturbances with unknown bounds is proposed. A mode-compensating adaptive backstepping sliding mode controller is designed to suppress the vibration. The time-varying uncertainties and disturbances represented in finite-term Fourier series can be estimated by updating the Fourier coefficients through function approximation technique. Adaptive laws are obtained from Lyapunov approach to guarantee the convergence and stability of the closed loop system. The simulation results indicate that the tracking accuracy is improved considerably with the proposed scheme when the time-varying parametric uncertainties and disturbances exist. PMID:24053935

Dong, Liang; Tang, Wen Cheng

2014-01-01

277

C1-C3 Lateral Mass Screw-Rod Fixation and Fusion for C2 Pathologies and Hangman's Fractures  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective clinical study. Purpose We report our experience of eight patients treated with C1-C3 lateral mass rod-screw stabilization and fusion in the treatment of Hangman's fracture and other axis pathologies. Overview of Literature Different surgical approaches, both anterior and posterior, have been described for treating Hangman's fracture and other pathologies where surgery is indicated. Methods All patients who underwent surgical treatment for Hangman's fracture and axial pathology where C1-C3 lateral mass screw-rod stabilization and fusion done, following reduction of the fracture or removal of the pathology were included in this series. The recorded patient management data was retrospectively studied. Results There were 8 cases in total. All were male, with an average age of 40.75 years. Hangman's fracture occurred in 6 cases (75%), one with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma and the remaining with plasmocytoma. Among the Hangman's fractures 4 (66.66%) had no neuro-deficit. Reduction and bilateral C1-C3 lateral mass screw and rod fixation with posterior fusion by bone graft was performed in all cases. In 2 cases, a C2 body tumor was removed transorally. All patients with neuro-deficit fully recovered, except one who expired in the early post-operative period. Rest of all patients were leading a normal life till last follow up. Conclusions Although the number of cases was very small with a relatively short follow up period, C1 and C3 lateral mass screw-rod fixation followed by fusion showed promise as an effective and biomechanically sound way for the treatment of properly selected Hangman's fracture cases, and may also be suitable in other axial pathologies. PMID:25558315

Haque, Mohammod Raziul

2014-01-01

278

Anatomical measurement and finite element study on screw channel parameter in percutaneous fixation of canulated screw for symphyseolysis.  

PubMed

To provide anatomical basement for symphyseolysis treatment with percutaneous fixation of canulated screw, through anatomical measurement on pubic symphysis and the surrounding tissues, and conduct the finite element studies on screw channel parameters. 20 cases of normal pelvic specimens from embalmed adult cadavers were taken to measure the anatomical parameter of bony remark of pubic symphysis and the space between spermatic cord (round ligament of the uterus) and pubic tubercle. Anatomical measurement results showed that the narrowest diameter of the superior ramus of pubis was 9.127 ± 1.189 mm, distance between two pubic tubercles was 55.656 ± 3.780 mm, thickness of the upper pubic symphysis was 10.510 ± 0.814 mm, and distance between upper and lower pubic symphysis was 40.872 ± 1.211 mm; the distance between round ligament of the uterus and pubic tubercle was 4.408 ± 0.304 mm, and the distance between spermatic cord and pubic tubercle was 5.196 ± 0.251 mm. The angle between canulated screw guide pin and horizontal plane was 8.342 ± 2.152°, the one between guide pin and coronal plane was 5.236 ± 1.612°, and the distance from entry point to the outer edge of pubic tubercle was 10.023 ± 1.245 mm, which was measured by Mimics software. Percutaneous surgery at horizontal position was simulated on cadaver. And the screw was correctly placed in postoperative imaging examination. According to the anatomical data and finite element studies of screw channel parameter in percutaneous fixation of canulated screw for symphyseolysis, the method can improve the accuracy of screw placement and reduce complications. PMID:25388836

Yu, Kehe; Hong, Jianjun; Sun, Yuefei; Shi, Chengdi; Guo, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Dongsheng

2015-03-01

279

Prophylactic bioactive screw fixation as an alternative augmentation for femoroplasty.  

PubMed

Femoroplasty is theoretically a prophylactic surgical procedure for femoral neck fracture. Although bone cement is generally used for augmentation, its distribution cannot be easily controlled. This study investigated whether a bioactive screw is feasible for femoroplasty as an alternative augmentation material. A mechanical test was done to compare the strength of four types of augmentation bioactive screw (Superfixsorb), two bioinert cements, or no intervention in a composite femoral bone. The peak load to fracture under simulated falling was compared among the four groups. The mean peak load to failure in the bioactive screw group (2667 N) was significantly higher than that in the intact group (2391 N) (p=0.028), comparable to that in the Simplex P cement group (2864 N) (p=0.11), and significantly lower than that of the cranioplastic cement group (3022 N) (p=0.006). The strength of a composite femur with the bioactive screw was higher than that of an intact bone and comparable to one cement augmentation. Thus, this bioactive screw can be potentially used as augmentation material for femoroplasty. PMID:25581740

Hananouchi, Takehito

2015-04-01

280

Transsacral screw safe zone size by sacral segmentation variations.  

PubMed

Variations in sacral segmentation may preclude safe placement of transsacral screws for posterior pelvis fixation. We developed a novel automated 3D technique to determine the safe zone size for transsacral screws in the upper two sacral segments in 526 adult pelvis computed tomography scans. Safe zone sizes were then compared by gender and sacral segmentation variations (number of neuroforamen and the presence/absence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae, ± LSTV). Ten millimeters was used as the safety threshold for a large screw. 3 (0.6%), 366 (70%), and 157 (30%) sacra had 3, 4, or 5 neuroforamen, respectively. Eighty-eight (17%) were +LSTV. Safe zone size depended on gender, number of neuroforamen in -LSTV sacra and presence of LSTV (p < 0.001) but not on the uni- or bilateral nature of the LSTV. 17% of -LSTV sacra were below the safety threshold in S1, 27% in S2, whereas 3% of +LSTV sacra were below in S1, 74% in S2. Of -LSTV sacra that cannot take an S1 screw safely, 77% can do so in S2, leaving only 4% of sacra that cannot accommodate a screw safely in either upper segment. The results demonstrate a predictable pattern of safe zone size based on gender and sacral segmentation variations. PMID:25231682

Lee, John J; Rosenbaum, Samuel L; Martusiewicz, Alex; Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Goulet, James A

2015-02-01

281

Ball screw preload loss detection using ball pass frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique of determining the onset of preload loss in a ball screw feed drive system via monitoring the change of ball pass frequency is proposed. The ball pass frequency of a ball screw with preload is smaller than that of ball screw without preload due to friction caused by the preload. Results from both simulations and experiments show that the ball pass frequency can be detected using the method of Angular Velocity Vold-Kalman Filtering Order Tracking (AV VKF-OT). And AV VKF-OT provides a much better performance as compared to the traditional order tracking in terms of resolution and accuracy. Tests were conducted on ball screw feed drive systems with different preloads for the performance assessment of the ball pass frequency detection. Results show that the preload loss increases the ball pass frequency and also induces the side band around the ball pass frequency, which provides promising criteria in detecting the onset of preload loss of ball screws.

Tsai, P. C.; Cheng, C. C.; Hwang, Y. C.

2014-10-01

282

A method for the fatigue testing of pedicle screw fixation devices.  

PubMed

Spinal devices/instrumentation are used to augment the stability of a decompressed spinal segment during surgery. Like any other mechanical component, the device can fail. A standard in vitro test protocol, was developed to determine load vs number of cycles to failure curve for a pedicle screw-plate/rod type spinal device. The protocol based on the use of an 'artificial spine' model, is clinically relevant. The protocol was used to characterize the load-carrying capacities and failure modes of a specific pedicle screw-rod type fixation device to demonstrate its appropriateness. The devices (Kaneda) were tested in the quasi-static as well as fatigue bending modes. In the bending fatigue mode, the devices failed at loads significantly smaller than the corresponding quasi-static failure load magnitude (806 N). The device exhibited an endurance limit in the fatigue bending mode. The device is not likely to exhibit failure if subjected to cyclic loads which cause less than 380 N axial compression (and an accompanying bending moment relative to the device of less than 13.57 Nm). The failures observed in specimens subjected to the fatigue tests ranged from complete to partial breakage of the paraspinal rods as opposed to failure due to permanent deformation (yielding) of the rods in the quasi-static bending test specimens. The protocol developed can be used for any other screw-plate/rod type spinal instrumentation. The use of a standard protocol by researchers would enable a comparison of various devices currently available in the market. Such comparative data would be useful for the scientific community, and agencies such as the FDA and ASTM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7798289

Goel, V K; Winterbottom, J M; Weinstein, J N

1994-11-01

283

The Mechanical Benefit of Medial Support Screws in Locking Plating of Proximal Humerus Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs) in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. Methods Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. Results Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001). When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P?0.0207). Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. Conclusions Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure. PMID:25084520

Liu, Yanjie; Pan, Yao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changqing; Zeng, Bingfang; Chen, Yunfeng

2014-01-01

284

Virtual Passive Controller for Robot Systems Using Joint Torque Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a control method based on virtual passive dynamic control that will stabilize a robot manipulator using joint torque sensors and a simple joint model. The method does not require joint position or velocity feedback for stabilization. The proposed control method is stable in the sense of Lyaponov. The control method was implemented on several joints of a laboratory robot. The controller showed good stability robustness to system parameter error and to the exclusion of nonlinear dynamic effects on the joints. The controller enhanced position tracking performance and, in the absence of position control, dissipated joint energy.

Aldridge, Hal A.; Juang, Jer-Nan

1997-01-01

285

Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ) Implant Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background: Conventional treatments after complicated injuries of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) such as Darrach and Kapandji-Sauvé procedures have many drawbacks, which may eventually lead to a painful unstable distal ulna. The development of DRUJ prosthesis has significantly evolved over the past years. In this study, we assessed the outcome results of patients after DRUJ implant arthroplasty using the Aptis (Scheker) prosthesis. Methods: We identified 13 patients with 14 prosthesis during the past 10 years. Patients underwent DRUJ arthroplasty due to persistent symptoms of instability, chronic pain, and stiffness. Records and follow-up visits were reviewed to find the final post-operative symptoms, pain, range of motion, and grip strength with a mean follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-25 months). Also, patients were contacted prospectively by phone in order to administer the disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH), patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), and visual analogue scale (VAS), and to interview regarding satisfaction and progress in daily activities. Eleven patients out of 13 could be reached with a median follow-up time of 60 months (range: 2 to 102 months). Results: No patient required removal of the prosthesis. Only two patients underwent secondary surgeries in which both required debridement of the screw tip over the radius. The median DASH score, PRWE score, VAS, and satisfaction were 1.3, 2.5, 0, and 10, respectively. The mean range of flexion, extension, supination, and pronation was 62, 54, 51, and 64, respectively. Conclusions: Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation. PMID:25386579

Kachooei, Amir Reza; Chase, Samantha M; Jupiter, Jesse B

2014-01-01

286

Mild coal gasification screw pyrolyzer development and design  

SciTech Connect

Our objective is to produce information and design recommendations needed for the development of an efficient continuous process for the mild gasification of caking bituminous coals. We have focused on the development of an externally heated pyrolyzer in which the sticky, reacting coal is conveyed by one or more screws. We have taken a multifaceted approach to forwarding the development of the externally-heated screw pyrolyzer. Small scale process experiments on a 38-mm single screw pyrolyzer have been a major part of our effort. Engineering analyses aimed at producing design and scaleup equations have also been important. Process design recommendations follow from these. We critically review our experimental data and experience, and information from the literature and equipment manufactures for the purpose of making qualitative recommendations for improving practical pyrolyzer design and operation. Benchscale experiments are used to supply needed data and test some preliminary concepts. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Camp, D.W.

1990-08-01

287

Bending strength and holding power of tibial locking screws.  

PubMed

The bending strength and holding power of two types of specially designed tibial locking devices, a both-ends-threaded screw and an unthreaded bolt, were studied and compared with four types of commercially available tibial interlocking screws: Synthes, Howmedica, Richards, and Osteo AG. To test bending strength, the devices were inserted into a high molecular weight polyethylene tube and loaded at their midpoint by a materials testing machine to simulate a three point bending test. Single loading yielding strength and cyclic loading fatigue life were measured. To test holding power, the devices were inserted into tubes made of polyurethane foam, and their tips were loaded axially to measure pushout strength. The devices were tested with two different densities of foam materials and two different sizes of pilot holes. Insertion torque and stripping torque of the screws were measured first. Pushout tests were performed with each screw inserted with a tightness equal to 60% of its stripping torque. Test results showed that the yielding strength and the fatigue life were related closely to the inner diameter of the screws. The stripping torque predicted the pushout strength more reliably than did the insertion torque. All tested devices showed greater holding power in the foam with the higher density and with the smaller pilot holes. The both-ends-threaded screw had the highest pushout strength and a satisfactory fatigue strength. The unthreaded bolt had the highest fatigue strength but only fair holding power. Clinical studies of the use of these two types of locking devices are worthwhile. PMID:11302315

Lin, J; Lin, S J; Chiang, H; Hou, S M

2001-04-01

288

Blocking screws for the treatment of distal femur fractures.  

PubMed

Intramedullary nailing is one of the most convenient biological options for treating distal femoral fractures. Because the distal medulla of the femur is wider than the middle diaphysis and intramedullary nails cannot completely fill the intramedullary canal, intramedullary nailing of distal femoral fractures can be difficult when trying to obtain adequate reduction. Some different methods exist for achieving reduction. The purpose of this study was determine whether the use of blocking screws resolves varus or valgus and translation and recurvatum deformities, which can be encountered in antegrade and retrograde intramedullary nailing. Thirty-four patients with distal femoral fractures underwent intramedullary nailing between January 2005 and June 2011. Fifteen patients treated by intramedullary nailing and blocking screws were included in the study. Six patients had distal diaphyseal fractures and 9 had distal diaphyseo-metaphyseal fractures. Antegrade nailing was performed in 7 patients and retrograde nailing was performed in 8. Reduction during surgery and union during follow-up were achieved in all patients with no significant complications. Mean follow-up was 26.6 months. Mean time to union was 12.6 weeks. The main purpose of using blocking screws is to achieve reduction, but they are also useful for maintaining permanent reduction. When inserting blocking screws, the screws must be placed 1 to 3 cm away from the fracture line to avoid from propagation of the fracture. When applied properly and in an adequate way, blocking screws provide an efficient solution for deformities encountered during intramedullary nailing of distal femur fractures. PMID:23823053

Seyhan, Mustafa; Cakmak, Selami; Donmez, Ferdi; Gereli, Arel

2013-07-01

289

Far cortical locking screws in distal femur fractures.  

PubMed

Distal femur fractures routinely heal by secondary bone healing, which relies on interfragmentary motion. Periarticular locking plates are commonly used for fixation in distal femur fractures but are associated with a high nonunion rate, likely due to the stiffness of the constructs. Far cortical locking (FCL) screws are designed to allow micromotion at the near cortex while maintaining purchase in only the far cortex. Although clinical data are limited, these screws have been shown in biomechanical studies to provide excellent interfragmentary motion, and animal models have shown increased callus formation compared with traditional locking screws. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical effects that FCL screws have on healing in distal femur fractures treated with locked constructs. In this retrospective case series, 15 patients with a distal femur fracture treated with MotionLoc screws (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) were analyzed. Serial radiographs were evaluated for callus presence and time to union. All fractures were either 33-A3 or 33-C2 according to the AO classification system, and 5 (33%) were open. Bone loss was recorded in 2 patients. There were no nonunions, and average time to union was 24 weeks. There were no implant failures, and all 5 open fractures, including the 2 with bone loss, healed without intervention. There was 1 reoperation due to painful hardware. Although this is a small case series, these results are promising. Far cortical locking screws may provide the answer to the high nonunion rate associated with distal femur fractures treated with traditional locked constructs. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(3):e153-e156.]. PMID:25760500

Adams, John D; Tanner, Stephanie L; Jeray, Kyle J

2015-03-01

290

29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section 1926.305...Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. ...otherwise secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing...

2010-07-01

291

STATISTICS OF MIXING DISTRIBUTIONS IN FILLED ELASTOMERS PROCESSED BY TWIN SCREW EXTRUSION  

E-print Network

STATISTICS OF MIXING DISTRIBUTIONS IN FILLED ELASTOMERS PROCESSED BY TWIN SCREW EXTRUSION Elvan, Constance Murphy and Richard Muscato, NSWC, Indian Head, MD Abstract Continuous processing of filled elastomers by twin screw extrusion and achievement of viable mixing distribution characteristics present

292

Soft-tissue response to clinically retrieved titanium cover screws reimplanted in the rat abdominal wall.  

PubMed

Clinically retrieved titanium implant cover screws (Brånemark implant system), rinsed in saline or subjected to ultrasonic cleaning and sterilization, as well as unused sterile screws were studied by scanning electron microscopy and implanted in the rat abdominal wall for 6 weeks. Irrespective of cleaning procedure, the heads of the clinically retrieved screws were covered by numerous contaminants not present on the unused screws. The reimplanted screws elicited a different tissue response than the unused screws. The tissue response to the contaminated screws was characterized by a significantly thicker fibrous capsule and by a significantly larger number of macrophages located close to the implant. Moreover, judging from their ultrastructure, studied with transmission electron microscopy, the macrophages appeared to be in a more active state when compared to those located adjacent to unused screws. PMID:2700746

Sennerby, L; Lekholm, U; Ericson, L E

1989-01-01

293

Determination of the of Rate Cross Slip of Screw Dislocations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate for cross slip of screw dislocations during annihilation of screw dipoles in copper is determined by molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the rate is seen to obey an Arrhenius behavior in the investigated temperature range: 225-375 K. The activation energy and the effective attempt frequency can therefore be extracted from the simulations. The transition state energy for the annihilation process is calculated by identifying the transition state using the nudged elastic band path technique. The two activation energies agree very well, indicating that transition state theory is applicable for this type of process.

Vegge, T.; Rasmussen, T.; Leffers, T.; Pedersen, O. B.; Jacobsen, K. W.

2000-10-01

294

Virtual estimates of fastening strength for pedicle screw implantation procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional 2D images provide limited use for accurate planning of spine interventions, mainly due to the complex 3D anatomy of the spine and close proximity of nerve bundles and vascular structures that must be avoided during the procedure. Our previously developed clinician-friendly platform for spine surgery planning takes advantage of 3D pre-operative images, to enable oblique reformatting and 3D rendering of individual or multiple vertebrae, interactive templating, and placement of virtual pedicle implants. Here we extend the capabilities of the planning platform and demonstrate how the virtual templating approach not only assists with the selection of the optimal implant size and trajectory, but can also be augmented to provide surrogate estimates of the fastening strength of the implanted pedicle screws based on implant dimension and bone mineral density of the displaced bone substrate. According to the failure theories, each screw withstands a maximum holding power that is directly proportional to the screw diameter (D), the length of the in-bone segm,ent of the screw (L), and the density (i.e., bone mineral density) of the pedicle body. In this application, voxel intensity is used as a surrogate measure of the bone mineral density (BMD) of the pedicle body segment displaced by the screw. We conducted an initial assessment of the developed platform using retrospective pre- and post-operative clinical 3D CT data from four patients who underwent spine surgery, consisting of a total of 26 pedicle screws implanted in the lumbar spine. The Fastening Strength of the planned implants was directly assessed by estimating the intensity - area product across the pedicle volume displaced by the virtually implanted screw. For post-operative assessment, each vertebra was registered to its homologous counterpart in the pre-operative image using an intensity-based rigid registration followed by manual adjustment. Following registration, the Fastening Strength was computed for each displaced bone segment. According to our preliminary clinical study, a comparison between Fastening Strength, displaced bone volume and mean voxel intensity showed similar results (p < 0.1) between the virtually templated plans and the post-operative outcome following the traditional clinical approach. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the platform in providing estimates the pedicle screw fastening strength via virtual implantation, given the intrinsic vertebral geometry and bone mineral density, enabling the selection of the optimal implant dimension adn trajectory for improved strength.

Linte, Cristian A.; Camp, Jon J.; Augustine, Kurt E.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Robb, Richard A.; Holmes, David R.

2014-03-01

295

Long-term results of cemented and screwed acetabular components.  

PubMed

The authors report their experience in the use of various types of acetabular components (cemented and screwed) in 253 hip prostheses with "Biodirect" femoral component and ceramic femoral head. A long-term follow-up of 148 hip prostheses (58.5% of the total) was carried out, 36 Müller type polyethylene and 61 Biolox ceramic acetabular components, and 51 screwed sockets of various models were used. From a clinical and radiographical standpoint, the ceramic acetabular component proved the most valid in the short and medium term, confirming the favourable biomechanical conditions which derive from ceramic/ceramic coupling. PMID:8567260

Agrifoglio, E; Federici, A; Sanguineti, F; Maxena, S; Giacchè, P

1993-01-01

296

First Order Pyramidal Slip of Screw Dislocations in Zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomistic simulations, based either on an empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio calculations, are used to study the pyramidal glide of a 1/3 <1-210> screw dislocation in hexagonal close-packed zirconium. Generalized stacking fault calculations reveal a metastable stacking fault in the first order pyramidal {10-11} plane, which corresponds to an elementary pyramidal twin. This fault is at the origin of a metastable configuration of the screw dislocation in zirconium, which spontaneously appears when the dislocation glides in the pyramidal plane.

Chaari, Nermine; Clouet, Emmanuel; Rodney, David

2014-12-01

297

[Odontoid fracture: Long-term subarachnoid hemorrhage after anterior screw fixation. Case report and literature review].  

PubMed

Odontoid fractures have been classified by Anderson and D'Alonzo into three main categories. The most unstable injuries, type II fractures involve the base of the odontoid peg at the junction with the C2 body. Due to the proximity of vital neural structures, fracture of the odontoid process may result in instability and fatal neurological damage. Treatment aims to re-establish stability of the atlanto-axial complex by restoring the odontoid process. This may be achieved by conservative or surgical treatment. Anterior screw fixation of the odontoid peg is an interresting alternative surgical option but this technique has a significant complication rate. However, vascular injury is very rare with three case reported in the literature: one case of an intracranial vertebral artery (VA) injury, one case of a cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) injury and one case of anterior pseudoaneurysm of the spinal artery branch. We report a new case of long term vascular injury after screw fixation revealed by a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We discuss the incidence, the mechanisms of injury and the conditions necessary for the occurrence of this complication. PMID:22683208

Le Corre, M; Suleiman, N; Lonjon, N

2012-12-01

298

Optimization of Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders Using Pareto Local Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A Pareto Local Search (PLS) algorithm was developed and applied to the screw configuration of co-rotating twin-screw extruders.\\u000a This problem can be seen as a sequencing problem where a set of different screw elements are to be sequentially positioned\\u000a along the screw in order to maximize the extruder performance. The results obtained were compared with previous results obtained\\u000a with a

Cristina Teixeira; José Covas; Thomas Stützle; António Gaspar-Cunha

299

PROCESS GAS APPLICATIONS WHERE API 619 SCREW COMPRESSORS REPLACED RECIPROCATING AND CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-free screw compressors have been used for process gas application since the 1970s. Oil-flooded screw compressors have been used in many process related applications since the 1980s. Oil-flooded screw compressors are covered in the latest edition of API Standard 619 issued in 2004. Both oil-free and oil-flooded screw compressors have been expanding into process gas com- pression applications. It is

Takao Ohama; Yoshinori Kurioka; Takao Koga

300

A new twin-screw press design for oil extraction of dehulled sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of material in a single-screw press depends mainly on friction between the material and the barrel’s inner surface\\u000a and the screw surface during screw rotation. Thus, a solid core component, like seed hulls, is often necessary to produce\\u000a the fraction. This sometimes causes excess frictional heat, large energy consumption and oil deterioration. Furthermore, if\\u000a single-screw presses are not configured

S. Isobe; F. Zuber; K. Uemura; A. Noguchi

1992-01-01

301

Bioabsorbable Interference Screws for Graft Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The central one third of the patellar tendon autograft is popular because the bone-tendon-bone (BTB) construct provides several graft fixation options, robust graft incorporation, and a mechanically sufficient substitute. Interference screw fixation is one method used to secure the graft. Bioabsorbable interference screws may offer advantages over metal interference screws. Bioabsorbable screws are made from poly L-lactic acid (PLLA)

David A. McGuire; F. Alan Barber; Burton F. Elrod; Lonnie E. Paulos

1999-01-01

302

Real-Time Estimation of Ball-Screw Thermal Elongation Based upon Temperature Distribution of Ball-Screw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical telemeter system has been developed, which converts the temperature of rotating spindle to the digital data and carries the digital data from LED on the rotating side toward PD on the stationary side by the optical data transmission. Based upon the temperature distribution of hollow ball-screw obtained by the telemeter system, the thermal elongation of the ball-screw is estimated as the one-dimensional thermal elongation. Estimation accuracy, which is the difference between the estimated thermal elongation and the measured thermal elongation, is -3.1∼+3.2µ m for the thermal elongation of 50-60µ m over the length of 935.5mm of the ball-screw.

Kodera, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhiro; Miyaguchi, Kazuo; Nagai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Takamasa; Masuda, Masami; Yazawa, Takanori

303

Anatomic study of individualized and improved pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore a safe, reliable, and effective method for pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine. Recently, a number of studies have shown that cervical pedicle screw fixation is better than roadside steel plate after cervical screw internal fixation within the scope of its indications. However, the difficulty of the former surgery technology is relatively higher and it is much easier to cause many complications. Therefore, domestic and foreign scholars have been positively exploring safer, easier operations and cheaper methods of pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine. The lower cervical spine areas (C3-C7) of 7 adult cadavers were carried out with computed tomography (CT) scans of 1-mm slices. The entry point, angle, and length of the screws were determined by the measurement of CT images in a picture archiving and communication system. The pedicle screws were implanted with the technique of improved Abumi pedicle screw placement in the lab. The accuracy of the screws was evaluated by the Andrew CT classification criteria of pedicle screw position and gross observation after the experiment. A total of 66 screws were implanted in the lower cervical spine, and 90.9% of the screws inserted were found to be in an optimal position. The method of individualized and improved pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine is relatively safe and reliable, which can be considered to be used in the clinic. PMID:25692438

Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Bin; Dai, Min; Xiong, Han-Chu; Gao, Song; Li, Bin-Hua; Yao, Hao-Qun; Cao, Kai; Liu, Zhi-Li

2015-02-01

304

ThermoMechanical Model of Ball Screw With Non-Steady Heat Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ball screw system is widely used for rapid translating precise motion because of its high efficiency and long lifetime. However, a high-speed ball screw drive system naturally produces heat through friction at contact areas, which thereby causes thermal expansion, which adversely affects machining accuracy. In order to achieve high accuracy and great stiffness, the ball screw preload is common

O. Horejs

2007-01-01

305

Nano Positioning Drive with Piezoelectric Actuator Integrated into Support Bearing Unit of Ball Screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new fine positioning device with a piezoelectric actuator integrated into the support-bearing unit of a ball screw. By moving the outer race of the support bearing, the piezoelectric actuator gives a preload to the bearings, which translates the screw shaft and table. Since the rotation of the screw shaft gives coarse motion to the table, the

A. Matsubara; T. Fujita; D. Kono; N. Tanaka; Y. Watanabe

306

Dynamic response of a rotating ball screw subject to a moving regenerative force in grinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the dynamic response of a rotating ball screw subjected to a moving regenerative force. The rotating ball screw is modeled as a rotating Timoshenko shaft with simply supports. The moving regenerative force describes the nonlinear interactions including the effects of wheel wear, time-delay, and the possibility of contact loss between the grinding wheel head and screw. The

T. N. Shiau; K. H. Huang; F. C. Wang; K. H. Chen; C. P. Kuo

2010-01-01

307

Twin Screw Extrusion Processing of Energetic Materials AIChE Annual Meeting  

E-print Network

of the quality of the energetic grains. Key words: Extrusion, energetics, twin screw, continuous processing #12;I-rotating twin screw extrusion process. Continuous processing allows better control of the microstructureTwin Screw Extrusion Processing of Energetic Materials AIChE Annual Meeting San Francisco, CA

308

A posterior approach for inspection of reduction of sacroiliac joint disruption.  

PubMed

This anatomic study was undertaken to describe a new posterior approach enabling direct inspection of reduction of sacroiliac joint disruption (SIJD), and guidance of iliosacral screw placement. The reduction of SIJD is usually monitored by inspection of the opposing sacrum and ilium at the posterior margin of the greater sciatic notch and there is a relative lack of information concerning inspection of reduction of SIJD from the posterosuperior aspect of the sacroiliac joint surface. Ten cadavers were dissected to determine the possibility of inspecting reduction of SIJD from the posterosuperior aspect of the sacroiliac joint by means of a posterior approach which passed immediately lateral to the deep back muscles and the fifth lumbar transverse process. The results indicated that the posterosuperior aspect of the sacroiliac joint surface and sacral ala can be directly palpated or visualised. This approach facilitates improved access for inspection of reduction of SIJD and guidance of iliosacral screw placement. PMID:10635092

Ebraheim, N A; Lu, J; Heck, B E; Yeasting, R A

1999-01-01

309

Distal radioulnar joint injuries  

PubMed Central

Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140

Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

2012-01-01

310

Outcome After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Lisfranc Joint Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Open reduction and internal fixation has been recommended as the treatment for most un- stable injuries of the Lisfranc (tarsometatarsal) joint. It has been thought that purely ligamentous injuries have a poor outcome despite such surgical management. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent open reduction and screw fixa- tion of a Lisfranc injury in a

R. S. KUO; N. C. TEJWANI; C. W. DIGIOVANNI; S. K. HOLT; S. K. BENIRSCHKE; S. T. HANSEN; B. J. SANGEORZAN

2000-01-01

311

A posterior approach for inspection of reduction of sacroiliac joint disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This anatomic study was undertaken to describe a new posterior approach enabling direct inspection of reduction of sacroiliac joint disruption (SIJD), and guidance of iliosacral screw placement. The reduction of SIJD is usually monitored by inspection of the opposing sacrum and ilium at the posterior margin of the greater sciatic notch and there is a relative lack of information concerning

N. A. Ebraheim; J. Lu; B. E. Heckand; R. A. Yeasting

2000-01-01

312

A posterior approach for inspection of reduction of sacroiliac joint disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This anatomic study was undertaken to describe a new posterior approach enabling direct inspection of reduction of sacroiliac joint disruption (SIJD), and guidance of iliosacral screw placement. The reduction of SIJD is usually monitored by inspection of the opposing sacrum and ilium at the posterior margin of the greater sciatic notch and there is a relative lack of information

N. A. Ebraheim; J. Lu; B. E. Heck; R. A. Yeasting

1999-01-01

313

The Use of Small Titanium Screws for Orthodontic Anchorage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of conventional dental implants for orthodontic anchorage is limited by their large size. The purpose of this study was to quantify the histomorphometric properties of the bone-implant interface to analyze the use of small titanium screws as an orthodontic anchorage and to establish an adequate healing period. Overall, successful rigid osseous fixation was achieved by 97% of the

T. Deguchi; T. Takano-Yamamoto; R. Kanomi; J. K. Hartsfield; W. E. Roberts; L. P. Garetto

2003-01-01

314

KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF LOWER MOBILITY COOPERATIVE ARMS BY SCREW THEORY  

E-print Network

.secondname}@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Keywords: Cooperative Manipulators:Humanoid Robots: Screw theory Abstract: This paper studies the kinematic. In this paper the cooperative system is the dual arm of the humanoid Nao robot, where the serial structure a cooperative system dis- tributes a heavy load among several smaller robots. Similarly if the object

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Conducting-polymer-driven actively shaped propellers and screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducting polymer actuators are employed to create actively shaped hydrodynamic foils. The active foils are designed to allow control over camber, much like the ailerons of an airplane wing. Control of camber promises to enable variable thrust in propellers and screws, increased maneuverability, and improved stealth. The design and fabrication of the active foils are presented, the forces are measured

John D. Madden; Bryan Schmid; Serge R. Lafontaine; Peter G. A. Madden; Franz S. Hover; Karl McLetchie; Ian W. Hunter

2003-01-01

316

ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried  

E-print Network

policies based on moving the US towards greater energy independence from fossil fuels, renewable biofuel+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2011 Abstract Increases in global aquaculture production, com- pounded . Physical properties . Protein . Twin-screw extruder Introduction As a consequence of changes in energy

317

Analysis of a ball screw with a preload and lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical analyses of the kinematics of a single-nut double-cycle ball screw are made in the present study. An adjustment in the preload can be achieved by generating an offset ? on the center pitch of two ball tracks. The critical load, which is very slightly higher than the preload, becomes the border of two axial load subregions. The contact kinematics

Chin Chung Wei; Jen Fin Lin; Jeng-Haur Horng

2009-01-01

318

Finite Element Modelling of Ball Screw Feed Drive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For full realization of the feasible drive performance on machine tools, the dynamic behaviour of the entire mechatronic system must be analysed and optimized integrally during design of the machine. To permit complete modelling of the machine tool frame structure with integral ball screw feed drive systems by means of the finite element method (FEM) a specific model approach for

M. F. Zaeh; Th. Oertli; J. Milberg

2004-01-01

319

Ultraprecision Positioning by Preload Change of Lead Screws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraprecision positioning is examined for a fine feed system utilizing the elastic deformation of lead screws accompanying the change in the preload in a double nut. The nonlinear deformation due to Hertzian contact of the ball screw can be ignored within a feed of 1?m under an dequate initial preload. No effect of table load on nanometer-order displacement is observed in the range from 10 to 50 kg. The table displacement obtained under an increase in the preload coincides well with the result under a decrease in the preload. Feed control with preload change based on a one-to-one correspondence of preload change and displacement is effective for avoiding the hysterisis phenomenon of the piezoelectric acturator adopted as a deformable spacing part in a double nut. In addition, the preload can be used as a measure to detect the table displacement in place of a position sensor which sometimes shows unreliability owing to unstable performance in the nanometer region. The minimum step feed deduced from preload change is 1nm for a sliding screw and 5nm for a ball screw.

Nakashima, Katuhiro; Tamaru, Yuuma; Takafuji, Kazuki

320

Postoperative Computed Tomography–Based Control of Syndesmotic Screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ab stract Purpose: Skeletal reconstruction and position of osteosynthetic devices, especially of the syndesmotic screws, were controlled postoperatively in order to check the accuracy of surgical intervention and of intraoperative C-arm control. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective, nonrandomized study of a closed series of 37 patients with ankle fractures AO type B and C who were treated according

Nikolaus Schwarz; Erwin Köfer

2005-01-01

321

Atomistic modeling of helium interacting with screw dislocations in ?-Fe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation energies, binding energies, and migration energies of interstitial He atoms in and near the core of an a\\/2?111? screw dislocation in ?-Fe are determined in atomistic simulations using molecular statics employing conjugate gradient relaxation and the dimer method for determining saddle point energies. The set of interatomic potentials employed is the same as used in many recent static and

H. L. Heinisch; F. Gao; R. J. Kurtz

2007-01-01

322

Two Turns of the Screw: Feminism and the Humanities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that the humanities get "screwed" in the academy because they are feminized. Explores this process of "feminization," focusing on college English departments. Offers a different view of the relationship between "soft" humanities and "hard" disciplines, reconceived from a feminist perspective. (SR)

Heinzelman, Susan Sage

1988-01-01

323

INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE INTERIOR OF FITTINGS ON ONE IN A BANK OF TAPPING MACHINES, EACH OPERATED BY THE SAME WORKER SIMULTANEOUSLY BUT TIMED TO REQUIRE WORKER ACTION AT INTERVALS THAT DO NOT INTERFERE WITH THE OTHER MACHINES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Tapping Room, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

324

Interpolating gain-scheduled H? loop shaping design for high speed ball screw feed drives.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method to design servo controllers for flexible ball screw drives with time-varying dynamics, which are mainly due to the time-varying table position and the workpiece mass. A gain-scheduled H? loop shaping controller is designed to achieve high tracking performance against the dynamic variations. H? loop shaping design procedure incorporates open loop shaping by a set of compensators to obtain performance/robust stability tradeoffs. The interpolating gain-scheduled controller is obtained by interpolating the state space model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) controllers estimated for fixed values of the scheduling parameters and a linear least squares problem can be solved. The proposed controller has been compared with P/PI with velocity and acceleration feedforward and adaptive backstepping sliding mode control experimentally. The experimental results indicate that the tracking performance has been improved and the robustness for time-varying dynamics has been achieved with the proposed scheme. PMID:25592980

Dong, Liang; Tang, WenCheng; Bao, DaFei

2015-03-01

325

Tomographic analysis for C2 screw placement in rheumatoid arthritis patients  

PubMed Central

Objective A morphological analysis of the bone structure of C2 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in order to enhance the security of the stabilization procedures for this vertebra. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 20 CT scans of the cervical spine performed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; the following parameters were measured: spinolaminar angle, thickness and length of C2 lamina. Results The mean values are: 5.92mm and 5.87mm for thickness of right and left laminae retrospectively, 27.75mm for right lamina length and 27.94mm for left lamina length, and 44.7º for spinolaminar angle. Conclusion The values obtained are consistent with studies in normal subjects published by other groups, with no apparent need for change in the screw placement technique. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453603

Astolfi, Rodrigo Schroll; Tachibana, Wilson Tadao; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

2012-01-01

326

Compliant joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

Eklund, Wayne D. (inventor); Kerley, James J. (inventor)

1990-01-01

327

Superior fixation of pegged trabecular metal over screw-fixed pegged porous titanium fiber mesh  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Lasting stability of cementless implants depends on osseointegration into the implant surface, and long-term implant fixation can be predicted using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) with short-term follow-up. We hypothesized that there would be improved fixation of high-porosity trabecular metal (TM) tibial components compared to low-porosity titanium pegged porous fiber-metal (Ti) polyethylene metal backings. Methods In a prospective, parallel-group, randomized unblinded clinical trial, we compared cementless tibial components in patients aged 70 years and younger with osteoarthritis. The pre-study sample size calculation was 22 patients per group. 25 TM tibial components were fixed press-fit by 2 hexagonal pegs (TM group) and 25 Ti tibial components were fixed press-fit and by 4 supplemental screws (Ti group). Stereo radiographs for evaluation of absolute component migration (primary effect size) and single-direction absolute component migration (secondary effect size) were obtained within the first postoperative week and at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. American Knee Society score was used for clinical assessment preoperatively, and at 1 and 2 years. Results There were no intraoperative complications, and no postoperative infections or revisions. All patients had improved function and regained full extension. All tibial components migrated initially. Most migration of the TM components (n = 24) occurred within the first 3 months after surgery whereas migration of the Ti components (n = 22) appeared to stabilize first after 1 year. The TM components migrated less than the Ti components at 1 year (p = 0.01) and 2 years (p = 0.004). Interpretation We conclude that the mechanical fixation of TM tibial components is superior to that of screw-fixed Ti tibial components. We expect long-term implant survival to be better with the TM tibial component. PMID:21434781

2011-01-01

328

The influence of screw geometry on hamstring tendon interference fit fixation.  

PubMed

We used a standardized model of calf tibial bone to investigate the influence of screw diameter and length on interference fit fixation of a three-stranded semitendinosus tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Biodegradable poly-(L-lactide) interference screws with a diameter of 7, 8, and 9 mm and a length of 23 and 28 mm were used. We examined results in three groups of 10 specimens each: group 1, screw diameter equaled graft diameter and screw length was 23 mm; group 2, screw diameter equaled graft diameter plus 1 mm and screw length was 23 mm; group 3, screw diameter equaled graft diameter and screw length was 28 mm. The mean pull-out forces in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 367.2+/-78 N, 479.1+/-111.1 N, and 537.4+/-139.1 N, respectively. The force data from groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher than those from group 1. These results indicate that screw geometry has a significant influence on hamstring tendon interference fit fixation. Increasing screw length improves fixation strength more than oversizing the screw diameter. This is important, especially for increasing tibial fixation strength because the tibial graft fixation site has been considered to be the weak link of such a reconstruction. PMID:10843127

Weiler, A; Hoffmann, R F; Siepe, C J; Kolbeck, S F; Südkamp, N P

2000-01-01

329

Bioresorbable screws reinforced with phosphate glass fibre: manufacturing and mechanical property characterisation.  

PubMed

Use of bioresorbable screws could eliminate disadvantages associated with metals such as removal operations, corrosion, MRI interference and stress shielding. Mechanical properties of bioresorbable polymers alone are insufficient for load bearing applications application as screws. Thus, reinforcement is necessary to try and match or surpass the mechanical properties of cortical bone. Phosphate based glass fibres were used to reinforce polylactic acid (PLA) in order to produce unidirectionally aligned (UD) and unidirectionally plus randomly distributed (UD/RM) composite screws (P40 UD and P40 UD/RM). The maximum flexural and push-out properties for the composite screws (P40 UD and P40 UD/RM) increased by almost 100% in comparison with the PLA screws. While the pull-out strength and stiffness of the headless composite screws were ?80% (strength) and ?130% (stiffness) higher than for PLA, those with heads exhibited properties lower than those for PLA alone as a result of failure at the heads. An increase in the maximum shear load and stiffness for the composite screws (?30% and ?40%) in comparison to the PLA screws was also seen. Maximum torque for the PLA screws was ?1000 mN m, while that for the composite screws were slightly lower. The SEM micrographs for P40 UD and P40 UD/RM screws revealed small gaps around the fibres, which were suggested to be due to buckling of the UD fibres during the manufacturing process. PMID:23122715

Felfel, R M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Rudd, C D

2013-01-01

330

Impact of posterior tibial nail malpositioning on iatrogenic injuries by distal medio-lateral interlocking screws. A cadaveric study on plastinated specimens.  

PubMed

In intramedullary tibial nailing, multi-planar locking makes stabilization of proximal and distal metaphyseal fractures possible. A known complication in intramedullary nailing of the tibia is iatrogenic injury to neuro-vascular structures caused by the insertion of locking screws. As shown in previous studies, the distal positioning of the nail is important, as it determines the course of the locking bolts. The goal of the present study was to display the consequences of posterior nail malpositioning with respect to the safety of the distal medio-lateral locking screws and the available options. Human cadaveric legs were plastinated according to the sequential plastination technique after intramedullary nailing of the tibia and were then cut transversely. The tibial nails were placed centrally or posteriorly. Macroscopic analysis showed a distinct drawback of posterior nail positioning, with diminished options for the placement of the locking screws and thereby a risk of damaging the anterior and posterior neuro-vascular bundles by distal medio-lateral locking screws. PMID:23409576

Wegmann, Kilian; Burkhart, Klaus Josef; Buhl, Jörg; Gausepohl, Thomas; Koebke, Jürgen; Müller, Lars Peter

2012-12-01

331

Handbook on dynamics of jointed structures.  

SciTech Connect

The problem of understanding and modeling the complicated physics underlying the action and response of the interfaces in typical structures under dynamic loading conditions has occupied researchers for many decades. This handbook presents an integrated approach to the goal of dynamic modeling of typical jointed structures, beginning with a mathematical assessment of experimental or simulation data, development of constitutive models to account for load histories to deformation, establishment of kinematic models coupling to the continuum models, and application of finite element analysis leading to dynamic structural simulation. In addition, formulations are discussed to mitigate the very short simulation time steps that appear to be required in numerical simulation for problems such as this. This handbook satisfies the commitment to DOE that Sandia will develop the technical content and write a Joints Handbook. The content will include: (1) Methods for characterizing the nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation for typical joints used in mechanical systems and components. (2) The methodology will include practical guidance on experiments, and reduced order models that can be used to characterize joint behavior. (3) Examples for typical bolted and screw joints will be provided.

Ames, Nicoli M.; Lauffer, James P.; Jew, Michael D.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Gregory, Danny Lynn; Starr, Michael James; Resor, Brian Ray

2009-07-01

332

Double-sided fiber laser beam welding process of T-joints for aluminum aircraft fuselage panels: Filler wire melting behavior, process stability, and their effects on porosity defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum alloy T-joints for aircraft fuselage panels were fabricated by double-sided fiber laser beam welding with filler wire, and the influence of the wire feeding posture on the welding process stability was investigated. A CMOS high speed video system was used to observe the wire melting behavior and the weld pool dynamics in real time during the welding process by using a bandpass red laser with an emission wavelength of 808 nm as backlight source to illuminate the welding zone. The weld porosity defects were analyzed by X-ray radiography. The effects of wire feeding posture on the wire melting behavior, process stability, and porosity defects were investigated. The experimental results indicated that three distinct filler material transfer modes were identified under different wire feeding positions: liquid bridge transfer mode, droplet transfer mode, and spreading transfer mode. The liquid bridge transfer mode could guarantee a stable welding process, and result in the lowest porosity. Compared with wire feeding in the leading direction, the process was not stable and porosity increased when wire feeding in the trailing direction. Increased in the wire feeding angle was disadvantage for pores to escape from the weld molten pool, meanwhile, it made the welding process window smaller due to increasing the centering precision requirement for adjusting the filler wire.

Tao, Wang; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Yanbin; Li, Liqun; Jiang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Yunlong

2013-11-01

333

Diffusion in a smectic liquid crystal with screw dislocations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Screw dislocations provide barrier-free pathways that enhance interlayer diffusion in smectic liquid crystals and other layered materials. To explore this contribution to interlayer diffusion we study a ``random parking garage'' model in which a random walker can move between layers only by circling a dislocation core. We find that in such a layered system with a density of ? screw dislocations per unit area, with randomly chosen position, Burgers vector and phase, the ratio of interlayer to intralayer diffusion coefficients is D||/D?=(?b2/4?)ln R/a. Here b is the layer spacing, R is the layer radius, and a is the dislocation core size. Monte Carlo simulations are in agreement with this result. We discuss implications for both molecular simulation and experimental studies of diffusion in smectics.

Blumberg Selinger, Robin L.

2002-05-01

334

Structure of screw dislocation core in Ta at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

The core structure and Peierls stress of the 1/2 ?111?(110) screw dislocation in Ta have been investigated theoretically using the modified Peierls–Nabarro theory that takes into account the discreteness effect of crystal. The lattice constants, the elastic properties, and the generalized-stacking-fault energy(?-surface) under the different pressures have been calculated from the electron density functional theory. The core structure of dislocation is determined by the modified Peierls equation, and the Peierls stress is evaluated from the dislocation energy that varies periodically as dislocation moves. The results show the core width and Peierls stress in Ta are weakly dependent of the pressure up to 100?GPa when the length and stress are measured separately by the Burgers vector b and shear modulus ?. This indicates that core structure is approximately scaling invariant for the screw dislocation in Ta. The scaled plasticity of Ta changes little in high pressure environment.

Wang, Shaofeng, E-mail: sfwang@cqu.edu.cn; Jiang, Na; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Ying [Institute for Structure and Function and Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

2014-03-07

335

Analysis of Eyring-Powell Fluid in Helical Screw Rheometer  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to study the flow of an incompressible, isothermal Eyring-Powell fluid in a helical screw rheometer. The complicated geometry of the helical screw rheometer is simplified by “unwrapping or flattening” the channel, lands, and the outside rotating barrel, assuming the width of the channel is larger as compared to the depth. The developed second order nonlinear differential equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. Analytical expressions are obtained for the velocity profiles, shear stresses, shear at wall, force exerted on fluid, volume flow rates, and average velocity. The effect of non-Newtonian parameters, pressure gradients, and flight angle on the velocity profiles is noticed with the help of graphical representation. The observation confirmed the vital role of involved parameters during the extrusion process. PMID:24707194

Siddiqui, A. M.; Haroon, T.; Zeb, M.

2014-01-01

336

Detecting thrust bearing failure within a screw compressor  

SciTech Connect

A 3 1/2 mile ring of over 1000 superconducting magnets are needed to focus and drive the world`s highest energy particle smasher. 24 Refrigerators supply liquid helium to the magnets; 34 high pressure oil flooded screw compressors supply 285 psig helium gas to the refrigerators. The 400 h.p. screws are reliable machines that use 45 gallons of oil per minute to seal and lubricate the rotors, lubricate the bearings, and remove the heat of compression. These machines are spaced out in seven buildings over four miles. A minimum of 28 machines must be operating at all times. A contingent of operators start, stop, and monitor any machine from a distant control room. The 34 compressors have an average of 32,000 hours; 9 machines have over 40,000 hours; the highest is 55,000 hours.

Pallaver, C.

1994-05-01

337

Structure of screw dislocation core in Ta at high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core structure and Peierls stress of the 1/2?111?{110} screw dislocation in Ta have been investigated theoretically using the modified Peierls-Nabarro theory that takes into account the discreteness effect of crystal. The lattice constants, the elastic properties, and the generalized-stacking-fault energy(?-surface) under the different pressures have been calculated from the electron density functional theory. The core structure of dislocation is determined by the modified Peierls equation, and the Peierls stress is evaluated from the dislocation energy that varies periodically as dislocation moves. The results show the core width and Peierls stress in Ta are weakly dependent of the pressure up to 100 GPa when the length and stress are measured separately by the Burgers vector b and shear modulus ?. This indicates that core structure is approximately scaling invariant for the screw dislocation in Ta. The scaled plasticity of Ta changes little in high pressure environment.

Wang, Shaofeng; Jiang, Na; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Ying

2014-03-01

338

Diffusion in a smectic liquid crystal with screw dislocations.  

PubMed

Screw dislocations provide barrier-free pathways that enhance interlayer diffusion in smectic liquid crystals and other layered materials. To explore this contribution to interlayer diffusion we study a "random parking garage" model in which a random walker can move between layers only by circling a dislocation core. We find that in such a layered system with a density of rho screw dislocations per unit area, with randomly chosen position, Burgers vector and phase, the ratio of interlayer to intralayer diffusion coefficients is D//D(perpendicular)=(rho(b2)/4pi)ln R/a. Here b is the layer spacing, R is the layer radius, and a is the dislocation core size. Monte Carlo simulations are in agreement with this result. We discuss implications for both molecular simulation and experimental studies of diffusion in smectics. PMID:12059572

Blumberg Selinger, Robin L

2002-05-01

339

Delayed perforation of the aorta by a thoracic pedicle screw  

PubMed Central

Pedicle screw instrumentation has become increasingly popular during the past 20 years and a vast selection of products is available on the market. With rising implantation rates, reports about specific complications also have increased. The main reason for these complications is the fact that the course of the pedicle and in turn the positioning of the pedicle screw cannot be adequately controlled visually. Based on the anatomy of the surrounding structures, complications caused by malpositioning can be divided into three main groups: mechanical, neurological and vascular. Beyond mechanical limitations of spinal motion, nerve injury can lead to neurological problems while injuries to vascular structures usually cause hemorrhage. These typical problems in general become apparent intraoperatively or in the immediate postoperative course. We report on a rare delayed complication and analyze the factors that led to it. In addition, we outline our treatment strategy. The goal has to be to avoid such problems in the future by using suitable navigational aids. PMID:18622634

Birkenmaier, Christof; Fottner, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Dürr, Hans Roland

2008-01-01

340

Paraxial propagation in amorphous optical media with screw dislocation  

E-print Network

We study paraxial beam propagation parallel to the screw axis of a dislocated amorphous medium that is optically weakly inhomogeneous and isotropic. The effect of the screw dislocation on the beam's orbital angular momentum is shown to change the optical vortex strength, rendering vortex annihilation or generation possible. Furthermore, the dislocation is shown to induce a weak \\textit{biaxial} anisotropy in the medium due to the elasto-optic effect, which changes the beam's spin angular momentum as well as causing precession of the polarization. We derive the equations of motion of the beam and demonstrate the optical Hall effect in the dislocated medium. Its application with regard to determining the Burgers vector as well as the elasto-optic coefficients of the medium is explained.

Mashhadi, L; 10.1088/2040-8978/12/3/035703

2010-01-01

341

Direct Access to Polyisocyanide Screw Sense Using Vibrational Circular Dichroism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the screw sense of polyisocyanide helices can be determined in a simple manner from the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) of their CN-stretching mode. The relation between VCD and molecular structure is obtained using the coupled-oscillator approximation. It is shown that since the C?N groups point approximately radially outward from the helical axis, the CN-stretch region of the

Erik Schwartz; Sergio R. Domingos; Alexander Vdovin; Matthieu Koepf; Wybren Jan Buma; Jeroen J. L. M. Cornelissen; Alan E. Rowan; Roeland J. M. Nolte; Sander Woutersen

2010-01-01

342

Direct access to polyisocyanide screw sense using vibrational circular dichroism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the screw sense of polyisocyanide helices can be determined in a simple manner from the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) of their CN-stretching mode. The relation between VCD and molecular structure is obtained using the coupled-oscillator approximation. It is shown that since the C?N groups point approximately radially outward from the helical axis, the CN-stretch region of the

E. Schwartz; S. R. Domingos; A. Vdovin; M. Koepf; W. J. Buma; J. J. L. M. Cornelissen; A. E. Rowan; R. J. M. Nolte; S. Woutersen

2010-01-01

343

Modeling and vibration mode analysis of a ball screw drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positioning systems for machine tools are generally driven by ball screws due to their high stiffness and low sensitivity\\u000a to external perturbations. However, as modern machine tools increase their velocity and acceleration of positioning, the resonant\\u000a modes of these systems could be excited degrading the trajectory tracking accuracy. Therefore, a dynamic model including the\\u000a vibration modes is required for machine

Diego A. Vicente; Rogelio L. Hecker; Fernando J. Villegas; Gustavo M. Flores

344

Joint chondrolysis.  

PubMed

Although the disease was first described in the hip, reports of chondrolysis in nearly all diarthrodial joints have since emerged with considerable variations in the literature.Despite speculation among clinicians and researchers about the implicit causal pathways and etiologic contributors associated with chondrolysis, definitive answers remain elusive.The term chondrolysis has been applied to varied levels of joint cartilage destruction from focal chondral defects to diffuse cartilage loss, revealing a lack of consistency in the application of diagnostic criteria to guide differential disease classification.Differentiating between the various potential etiologies associated with chondrolysis provides opportunities for the prevention of the disease. PMID:22048100

Provencher, Matthew T; Navaie, Maryam; Solomon, Daniel J; Smith, Jessica C; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J

2011-11-01

345

Pull-out strength of Caspar cervical screws.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical instrumentation as an adjunct to bone fusion has an important role in cervical spine surgery. Posterior vertebral body cortex purchase is strongly recommended in the use of the Caspar system, although few biomechanical data exist to validate this requirement. In this study, Caspar screws were placed in 43 human cadaveric cervical vertebral bodies, either putting them into the posterior vertebral cortex as identified radiographically or penetrating it by 2 mm as recommended in the literature. Pull-out tests were conducted with tension applied to a connected plate at 0.25 mm/s, and force-deformation data were obtained. Failure typically occurred with clean pull-out; in most instances, cancellous bone remained attached to screw threads. Mean load without posterior cortical purchase was 375 +/- 53 N; with penetration it was 411 +/- 70 N. These differences were nonsignificant. Average deformation to failure was 1.41 +/- 0.10 mm in the group without posterior cortical penetration. In the posterior penetration group, mean deformation was 1.56 +/- 0.16 mm. Again, differences were not significant. Posterior cortical penetration does not improve the pull-out strength of Caspar screws in an isolated vertebral body model, but other biomechanical studies need to be done before insertion methods are altered. PMID:1470320

Maiman, D J; Pintar, F A; Yoganandan, N; Reinartz, J; Toselli, R; Woodward, E; Haid, R

1992-12-01

346

Use of a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system during formulation development and process optimization.  

PubMed

Since small scale is key for successful introduction of continuous techniques in the pharmaceutical industry to allow its use during formulation development and process optimization, it is essential to determine whether the product quality is similar when small quantities of materials are processed compared to the continuous processing of larger quantities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether material processed in a single cell of the six-segmented fluid bed dryer of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system introduced by GEA Pharma Systems, Collette™, Wommelgem, Belgium) is predictive of granule and tablet quality during full-scale manufacturing when all drying cells are filled. Furthermore, the performance of the ConsiGma™-1 system (a mobile laboratory unit) was evaluated and compared to the ConsiGma™-25 system. A premix of two active ingredients, powdered cellulose, maize starch, pregelatinized starch and sodium starch glycolate was granulated with distilled water. After drying and milling (1000?m, 800rpm), granules were blended with magnesium stearate and compressed using a Modul™ P tablet press (tablet weight: 430mg, main compression force: 12kN). Single cell experiments using the ConsiGma™-25 system and ConsiGma™-1 system were performed in triplicate. Additionally, a 1h continuous run using the ConsiGma™-25 system was executed. Process outcomes (torque, barrel wall temperature, product temperature during drying) and granule (residual moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk and tapped density, hausner ratio, friability) as well as tablet (hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality attributes were evaluated. By performing a 1h continuous run, it was detected that a stabilization period was needed for torque and barrel wall temperature due to initial layering of the screws and the screw chamber walls with material. Consequently, slightly deviating granule and tablet quality attributes were obtained during the start-up phase of the 1h run. For the single cell runs, granule and tablet properties were comparable with results obtained during the second part of the 1h run (after start-up). Although deviating granule quality (particle size distribution and Hausner ratio) was observed due to the divergent design of the ConsiGma™-1 unit and the ConsiGma™-25 system (horizontal set-up) used in this study, tablet quality produced from granules processed with the ConsiGma™-1 system was predictive for tablet quality obtained during continuous production using the ConsiGma™-25 system. PMID:25528462

Vercruysse, J; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

2015-01-01

347

The effect of stem material and surface treatment on the torsional stability at the metal-cement interface of upper limb joint replacement systems.  

PubMed

Stem surface treatment and material are two design factors that may affect the onset of implant loosening. For upper limb applications, no known in vitro studies have addressed the role of these two factors on cemented implant stability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the torsional stability of cemented titanium and cobalt chrome stems with varying surface treatments in vitro. Thirty implant stems of circular cross-section (Ø = 8mm) were machined from cobalt chrome (n = 15) and titanium (n = 15). For each type, stems were subdivided into three groups for application of clinically relevant surface treatments: smooth, sintered beads, or plasma spray. Stems were potted in bone cement, allowed 24 h to cure, and placed in a materials testing machine. Stems were tested under cyclic torsion (1-30 Nm), using a staircase loading protocol. Failure was defined as either the first rapid increase in stem rotation without resistance, or attaining a maximum torque of 30 Nm. Implant stems with non-smooth surfaces offered greater resistance to torsion (p < 0.05), with the plasma spray treatment outlasting the beaded and smooth stems (p < 0.05). Titanium offered superior interface strength (p < 0.05) but reduced resistance to motion (p < 0.05) when compared to cobalt chrome. Therefore, these design features should be considered during upper limb implant design. PMID:24644238

Hosein, Yara K; King, Graham J W; Dunning, Cynthia E

2014-08-01

348

Hip joint replacement  

MedlinePLUS

... made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis . ... thromboembolic disease in patients undergoing elective hip and ... joint arthroplasties: current concepts of patient outcomes after ...

349

Effect of Micrometer-Scale Roughness of the Surface of Ti6Al4V Pedicle Screws in Vitro and in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background: Titanium implants that have been grit-blasted and acid-etched to produce a rough microtopography support more bone integration than do smooth-surfaced implants. In vitro studies have suggested that this is due to a stimulatory effect on osteoblasts. It is not known if grit-blasted and acid-etched Ti6Al4V implants also stimulate osteoblasts and increase bone formation clinically. In this study, we examined the effects of micrometer-scale-structured Ti6Al4V surfaces on cell responses in vitro and on tissue responses in vivo. Methods: Ti6Al4V disks were either machined to produce smooth surfaces with an average roughness (Ra) of 0.2 ?m or grit-blasted, resulting in an Ra of 2.0, 3.0, or 3.3 ?m. Human osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the disks and on tissue culture polystyrene. The cell number, markers of osteoblast differentiation, and levels of local factors in the conditioned media were determined at confluence. In addition, Ti6Al4V pedicle screws with smooth or rough surfaces were implanted into the L4 and L5 vertebrae of fifteen two-year-old sheep. Osteointegration was evaluated at twelve weeks with histomorphometry and on the basis of removal torque. Results: The cell numbers on the Ti6Al4V surfaces were lower than those on the tissue culture polystyrene; the effect was greatest on the roughest surface. The alkaline-phosphatase-specific activity of cell lysates was decreased in a surface-dependent manner, whereas osteocalcin, prostaglandin E2, transforming growth factor-?1, and osteoprotegerin levels were higher on the rough surfaces. Bone-implant contact was greater around the rough-surfaced Ti6Al4V screws, and the torque needed to remove the rough screws from the bone was more than twice that required to remove the smooth screws. Conclusions: Increased micrometer-scale surface roughness increases osteoblast differentiation and local factor production in vitro, which may contribute to increased bone formation and osteointegration in vivo. There was a correlation between in vitro and in vivo observations, indicating that the use of screws with rough surfaces will result in better bone-implant contact and implant stability. Clinical Relevance: The osteointegration of screws with rough microtopographies is likely to be better than that of screws with smoother surfaces. PMID:18978418

Schwartz, Zvi; Raz, Perry; Zhao, Ge; Barak, Yael; Tauber, Michael; Yao, Hai; Boyan, Barbara D.

2008-01-01

350

Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods  

SciTech Connect

An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d {ital rz}-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere`s law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods.

Lambert, M.A.

1996-06-01

351

A new technique for lag screw placement in the dynamic hip screw fixation of intertrochanteric fractures: decreasing radiation time dramatically  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to confirm the decrease in radiation time required for a new technique to place dynamic hip screws (DHS) in intertrochanteric fractures. Seventy-six patients were treated with DHS by either the new technique (NT) or the conventional technique (CT). The width of femoral shaft, the length of the hip screw to be implanted into the injured side, and the distance between the tip of the greater trochanter and the entry point of the guide wire were measured at the uninjured side on the anteroposterior pelvic radiograph preoperatively, and the actual width of the injured femoral shaft was measured intra-operatively. Finally, the entry point and the length of hip screw were obtained through an equation. Mean radiation time of the NT patients (24.57?±?7.80 s) was significantly shorter than the CT patients (54.2?±?18.26 s) (P??

Sheng, Wei-Chao; Li, Jia-Zhen; Chen, Sheng-Hua

2008-01-01

352

Research on energy conversion mechanism of a screw centrifugal pump under the water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to research screw centrifugal pump impeller power capability and energy conversion mechanism, we used Navier-Stokes equation and standard k-? equation turbulence model on the basis of the Euler equations to carry out screw centrifugal pump internal flow numerical simulation. This was explored by simulating specific design conditions; the medium is water, variation of speed and pressure of flow filed under the action of the impeller, and the screw centrifugal impeller shroud line and wheel line segment take monitoring sites. The monitoring points are between dynamic head and static head change to analyze the energy conversion capability along the impeller corners of screw centrifugal pump. The results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by spiral segment, the spiral segment in front of the impeller has played a multi-level role, it has significant reference value to research the energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump under solid-liquid two phase.

Quan, H.; Li, R. N.; Su, Q. M.; Han, W.; Cheng, X. R.; Shen, Z. J.

2013-12-01

353

Atlanto-axial subluxation after pyogenic spondylitis of the atlanto-occipital joint.  

PubMed

This report presents a case of atlanto-axial subluxation after treatment of pyogenic spondylitis of the atlanto-occipital joint. A 60-year-old male had 1-month history of neck pain with fever. Magnetic resonance imaging showed inflammation around the odontoid process. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was administrated immediately. After 6 weeks, CRP had returned almost to normal. After 4 months, laboratory data was still normal, but the patient experienced increasing neck pain. Lateral cervical radiography in the neutral position showed instability between C1 and C2. Computed tomography showed a bony union of the atlanto-occipital joint and severe destruction of the atlanto-axial joint on the left side. Transarticular screw fixation for the atlanto-axial joint was performed. A lateral cervical radiograph in the neutral position after surgery showed a solid bony union. Neck pain improved following surgery. We speculate that spondylitis of the atlanto-occipital joint induced a loosening of the transverse ligament and articulation of the atlanto-axial joint. A bony fusion of the atlanto-occipital joint after antibiotic treatment resolved the pyogenic inflammation concentrated stress to the damaged atlanto-axial joint, resulting in further damage. The atlanto-axial instability was finally managed by the insertion of a transarticular screw. PMID:21140176

Tsunoda, Kazuhiko; Iizuka, Haku; Sorimachi, Yasunori; Ara, Tsuyoshi; Nishinome, Masahiro; Takechi, Yasuhiko; Takagishi, Kenji

2011-07-01

354

Surgical Strategies to Improve Fixation in the Osteoporotic Spine: The Effects of Tapping, Cement Augmentation, and Screw Trajectory  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Biomechanical study of pedicle screw fixation in osteoporotic bone. Objective?To investigate whether it is better to tap or not tap osteoporotic bone prior to placing a cement-augmented pedicle screw. Methods?Initially, we evaluated load to failure of screws placed in cancellous bone blocks with or without prior tapping as well as after varying the depths of tapping prior to screw insertion. Then we evaluated load to failure of screws placed in bone block models with a straight-ahead screw trajectory as well as with screws having a 23-degree cephalad trajectory (toward the end plate). These techniques were tested with nonaugmented (NA) screws as well as with bioactive cement (BioC) augmentation prior to screw insertion. Results?In the NA group, pretapping decreased fixation strength in a dose-dependent fashion. In the BioC group, the tapped screws had significantly greater loads to failure (p?screw orientation, the screws oriented at 23 degrees cephalad had a significantly higher failure force than their respective counterparts at 0 degrees (p?screw fixation is often inadequate in the osteoporotic spine, but this study suggests tapping prior to cement augmentation will substantially improve fixation when compared with not tapping. Angulating screws more cephalad also seems to enhance aging spine fixation. PMID:24494181

Kuhns, Craig A.; Reiter, Michael; Pfeiffer, Ferris; Choma, Theodore J.

2013-01-01

355

Surgical strategies to improve fixation in the osteoporotic spine: the effects of tapping, cement augmentation, and screw trajectory.  

PubMed

Study Design?Biomechanical study of pedicle screw fixation in osteoporotic bone. Objective?To investigate whether it is better to tap or not tap osteoporotic bone prior to placing a cement-augmented pedicle screw. Methods?Initially, we evaluated load to failure of screws placed in cancellous bone blocks with or without prior tapping as well as after varying the depths of tapping prior to screw insertion. Then we evaluated load to failure of screws placed in bone block models with a straight-ahead screw trajectory as well as with screws having a 23-degree cephalad trajectory (toward the end plate). These techniques were tested with nonaugmented (NA) screws as well as with bioactive cement (BioC) augmentation prior to screw insertion. Results?In the NA group, pretapping decreased fixation strength in a dose-dependent fashion. In the BioC group, the tapped screws had significantly greater loads to failure (p?screw orientation, the screws oriented at 23 degrees cephalad had a significantly higher failure force than their respective counterparts at 0 degrees (p?screw fixation is often inadequate in the osteoporotic spine, but this study suggests tapping prior to cement augmentation will substantially improve fixation when compared with not tapping. Angulating screws more cephalad also seems to enhance aging spine fixation. PMID:24494181

Kuhns, Craig A; Reiter, Michael; Pfeiffer, Ferris; Choma, Theodore J

2014-02-01

356

Analysis of load redistribution in diaphyseal bone following staged screw removal from bone plates  

E-print Network

discussions with a veterinary orthopedic surgeon (14). After removing certain screws, the bone was gradually loaded from zero to forty pounds and the resultant strains stored on a floppy disk using a Hewlett-Packard computer, a compatible data acquisition... the loading, preferably without removing the bone from the Instron. After this is completed, the screws would be replaced, the bone reloaded as a control check, and then another screw pattern analyzed. Since the experimental group is being compared...

Nixon, Joseph Craig

1987-01-01

357

Investigation of melting in a modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first patent regarding the co-rotating twin screw extruder was published in 1869, the co-rotating twin screw extruder has evolved into a high performance extruder, having self wiping capability, modular screw configuration, starved feed zone, kneading disc block elements, and special mixing devices. For this device, flow studies began in the mid 1960's but melting studies started in the

Ho-Chul Jung

2004-01-01

358

Wear and corrosion of sliding counterparts of stainless-steel hip screw-plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wear of the lag screw and barrel of stainless-steel sliding hip screw-plates (SHSP) produces particles and corrosion that jam the sliding screw. This alters the mechanics of the SHSP causing failure and difficulty in removal. We examined 15 surgically-removed SHSP for the extent of wear and corrosion of metal, and damage to the surrounding tissue. SHSP implants were in place

B. F Shahgaldi; J Compson

2000-01-01

359

Evaluation of solid-lubricated ball-screw in a vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ball screws lubricated by solid lubricants are a key component for large space constructions with linearly moving parts. This paper reports a study aimed at understanding lubricating performance and lifetime of ball screws lubricated by solid lubricant films continuing molybednum disulfide under a simulated space environment. It is found that ball screws made of bearing steel SUS 440C and 6Al-4V-titanium

Masatoshi Chiba; Toru Gyogi; Makoto Nishimura; Katsumi Seki

1990-01-01

360

The effect of dynamic behavior on surface roughness of ball screw under the grinding force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic behavior of a ball screw under a moving grinding force and the resulting ball screw surface roughness are investigated.\\u000a The system includes a ball screw, a headstock, a tailstock, a steady rest, a grinding wheel, and a wheel head. Equations of\\u000a motion of the system are derived through Lagrangian approach combined with global assumed mode method in this

Ting-Nung Shiau; Kuan-Hung Chen; Fu-Ching Wang; Chui-Te Chio; Wei-Chun Hsu

2011-01-01

361

Multibody Dynamics Simulation of Balls Impact-Contact Mechanics in Ball Screw Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-speed\\/high-precision ball screw transmitting systems, the re-circulating mechanism of ball screws is used for providing the path for steel balls rolling in screw grooves generally. Forces caused by the impact activity between the steel ball and re-circulating mechanism has resulted in a series of troublesome problems, such as violent vibration, strong noise, etc.. In order to investigate the impact-contact

Hongkui Jiang; Xianchun Song; Xiangrong Xu; Wencheng Tang; Chunling Zhang; Yuming Han

2010-01-01

362

Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy, Quick, and Safe Technique  

PubMed Central

Removal of jammed titanium screws can be difficult due to the problem of stripping of the hexagonal heads of the screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri-implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 years back. The technique is quick, safe, and cost effective. PMID:25013544

Gupta, Ravi; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Amit; Garg, Sudhir

2014-01-01

363

Clinical degradation and biocompatibility of different bioabsorbable interference screws: A report of six cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical biocompatibility and degradation of bioabsorbable interference screws of different polymer composition is described in this report for six patients who underwent repeat arthroscopy after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Bioabsorbable interference screws were used for bone plug fixation of bone—patellar tendon—bone (BPTB) autografts. Poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) interference screws were used in one case, poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLLA-co-PGA) in two

Andreas C. Stähelin; Andreas Weiler; Hansjörg Rüfenacht; Reinhard Hoffmann; Alfred Geissmann; Richard Feinstein

1997-01-01

364

Screw in the aorta: minimally invasive graft replacement for chronic aortic erosion by spinal instrument.  

PubMed

Intra-and early post-operative aortic injury by pedicle screw is not a rare complication in orthopedic surgery, but aortic penetration by a screw head over a long time period is considered as an uncommon case. There are various surgical management options for thoracic aortic injury caused by malpositioned spinal instruments. We report a case of a patient who underwent minimally invasive graft replacement of the descending thoracic artery for pedicle screw penetration. PMID:23232300

Fukuda, Wakako; Aoki, Chikashi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ikuo

2013-01-01

365

Access to Abutment Screw in Cement Retained Restorations: A Clinical Tip  

PubMed Central

Abutment screw loosening has been reported to be the most common prosthetic complications occurring in screw retained as well as cement retained implant restorations. Different methods to treat this issue have been reported in the literature so far; however these have their own short-comings. Retrievability of an implant restoration intact becomes a clinical challenge when the restoration is cement retained especially with an angulated abutment. This technique is aimed at accurately determining the position of the abutment screw in 3 dimensional relationships using a vacuum formed clear stent. This technique can be used as a viable protocol for management of screw loosening in cement retained implant restorations. PMID:25859535

Harianawala, Husain; Kantharia, Nidhi; Sethi, Tania; Jambhekar, Shantanu

2015-01-01

366

Understanding wet granulation in the kneading block of twin screw extruders  

E-print Network

Accepted 8 March 2014 Available online 14 March 2014 Keywords: Extrusion Granulation Particle formation With growing interest in continuous granulation technologies like twin screw granulation, the majority

Thompson, Michael

367

Implant abutment screw reverse torque values before and after plasma cleaning.  

PubMed

This in vitro study analyzed the reverse torque (RevT) of abutment screws following different cleaning treatments. A convenience sample of 50 customized titanium abutment screw complexes was divided into five groups: cleaning by steam (control group), cleaning by Argon plasma (test groups 1 and 2 [with chlorhexidine gel]), and replacement of old screws with new ones (test groups 3 and 4 [with chlorhexidine gel]). Abutments were screwed onto implants and tested for RevT. The RevT of the test groups was significantly higher than that of the control group. No statistically significant difference between test groups was noted except between groups 2 and 3. PMID:23837162

Micarelli, Costanza; Canullo, Luigi; Baldissara, Paolo; Clementini, Marco

2013-01-01

368

Joint assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

2010-01-01

369

Prevention of excessive medialisation of trochanteric fracture by a buttress screw: a novel method and finite element analysis.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel method of using an antero-posterior buttress screw at the distal fragment just below the fracture site in conjunction with the sliding hip screw (SHS) to resist excessive femoral medialisation. A virtual assessment of the effectiveness of this new method was performed using the finite element analysis. The results indicate that the use ofa sliding hip screw (SHS) combined with a buttress screw can help resistfemoral medialisation better than using an SHS with no buttress screw. The von Mises equivalent stress (EQ ) was found to be in a safe range, which indicates increased integrity of the lateral wall with the addition of the buttress screw. PMID:25365905

Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Riansuwan, Kongkhet; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai

2014-09-01

370

Accuracy of Free Hand Pedicle Screw Installation in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine by a Young Surgeon: An Analysis of the First Consecutive 306 Screws Using Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and safety of free-hand pedicle screw insertion performed by a young surgeon. Overview of Literature Few articles exist regarding the safety of the free-hand technique without inspection by an experienced spine surgeon. Methods The index surgeon has performed spinal surgery for 2 years by himself. He performed fluoroscopy-assisted pedicle screw installation for his first year. Since then, he has used the free-hand technique. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all consecutive patients undergoing pedicle screw installation using the free-hand technique without fluoroscopy in the thoracic or lumbar spine by the index surgeon. Incidence and extent of cortical breach by misplaced pedicle screw was determined by a review of postoperative computed tomography (CT) images. Results A total of 36 patients received 306 free-hand placed pedicle screws in the thoracic or lumbar spine. A total of 12 screws (3.9%) were identified as breaching the pedicle in 9 patients. Upper thoracic spine was the most frequent location of screw breach (10.8%). Lateral breach (2.3%) was more frequent than any other direction. Screw breach on the right side (9 patients) was more common than that on the left side (3 patients) (p<0.01). Conclusions An analysis by CT scan shows that young spine surgeons who have trained under the supervision of an experienced surgeon can safely place free-hand pedicle screws with an acceptable breach rate through repetitive confirmatory steps. PMID:24967036

Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Yongjung J; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2014-01-01

371

Conservative Surgical Treatment of Infected Ulceration of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint With Osteomyelitis in Diabetic Patients.  

PubMed

Ulceration of the plantar aspect of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is a common localization in the diabetic foot. Conservative treatment of this lesion is a challenging problem, performed through the soft tissues and osseous debridement. The present study included a cohort of 28 patients affected by diabetes mellitus and a first ray lesion penetrating the bone. After surgical debridement with removal of the infected bone, we positioned antibiotic-loaded bone cement and stabilized the treated area with an external fixator. All patients with critical limb ischemia had their vascular disease treated before the procedure. The mean follow-up was 12.2 ± 6.9 months. Four patients developed a relapse of the ulceration after the procedure. In the postoperative period, 1 patient (3.57%) developed dehiscence of the surgical site and underwent a second procedure. In the follow-up period, 2 patients (7.14%) experienced bone cement dislocation. In 1 of these patients, a new ulceration was observed dorsally to the surgical site. The approach was surgical revision with bone cement replacement and stabilization with a new external fixator. In the other patient, given the absence of ulcerations, the cement was removed, and arthrodesis with internal stabilization using 2 cannulated screws was performed. One patient (3.57%), who had developed a relapse of ulceration after recurrent critical ischemia, underwent a percutaneous revascularization procedure and transmetatarsal amputation. During the follow-up period, no ulceration recurrences, transfer ulcerations, shoe fit problems, or gait abnormalities were detected in the other 24 patients. Our study presents the results of a technique requiring a 1-stage surgical approach to a relatively common problem, which is often difficult to solve. PMID:25249400

Dalla Paola, Luca; Carone, Anna; Morisi, Claudio; Cardillo, Sara; Pattavina, Marco

2014-09-20

372

Joint Stability Characteristics of the Ankle Complex in Female Athletes With Histories of Lateral Ankle Sprain, Part II: Clinical Experience Using Arthrometric Measurement  

PubMed Central

Context: This is part II of a 2-part series discussing stability characteristics of the ankle complex. In part I, we used a cadaver model to examine the effects of sectioning the lateral ankle ligaments on anterior and inversion motion and stiffness of the ankle complex. In part II, we wanted to build on and apply these findings to the clinical assessment of ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with a history of unilateral ankle sprain. Objective: To examine ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with reported history of lateral ankle sprain. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five female college athletes (age = 19.4 ± 1.4 years, height = 170.2 ± 7.4 cm, mass = 67.3 ± 10.0 kg) with histories of unilateral ankle sprain. Intervention(s): All ankles underwent loading with an ankle arthrometer. Ankles were tested bilaterally. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were anterior displacement, anterior end-range stiffness, inversion rotation, and inversion end-range stiffness. Results: Anterior displacement of the ankle complex did not differ between the uninjured and sprained ankles (P = .37), whereas ankle-complex rotation was greater for the sprained ankles (P = .03). The sprained ankles had less anterior and inversion end-range stiffness than the uninjured ankles (P < .01). Conclusions: Changes in ankle-complex laxity and end-range stiffness were detected in ankles with histories of sprain. These results indicate the presence of altered mechanical characteristics in the soft tissues of the sprained ankles. PMID:24568223

Kovaleski, John E.; Heitman, Robert J.; Gurchiek, Larry R.; Hollis, J. M.; Liu, Wei; IV, Albert W. Pearsall

2014-01-01

373

Pedicle screw placement at the sacrum: anatomical characterization and limitations at S1.  

PubMed

Anatomical and biomechanical data have suggested that pedicle screw fixation at the sacrum is optimum in the anteromedial direction into the S1 vertebral body, yet the possibility of posterior iliac crest interference with this screw pathway has been considered but not defined. This study aimed to determine if the anteromedial direction of screw placement into the vertebral body is possible in all cases at S1 and to assess the limiting effect of the posterior iliac crest. Computed tomography scans of the upper sacrum at the S1 pedicle parallel to the sacral endplate were examined in 100 patients. Analysis using a digitizer allowed characterization of an ideal screw pathway with variable screw and screw head diameters in an anteromedial direction into the S vertebral body. The effects of the posterior iliac crest upon these pathways were studied. The study demonstrated that anteromedial placement with bicortical fixation at the vertebral body was theoretically possible in almost all (98.5%) cases. Because the sacral body is often wider than the sacral spinal canal, a straight-ahead screw direction will often achieve placement into the S1 vertebral body, if the starting point for the screw allows screw placement adjacent to the medial border of the S1 pedicle with only 1.5 mm of cortical bone separating the canal and the screw. The space between the posterior iliac crest and the lateral aspect of the screw corridor ranges from a maximum of 52.4 mm to a minimum of 12.8, 6.2, and 0 mm for the 7-, 10-, and 12.5-mm screw corridors. On only three occasions (1.5%) was the ideal screw corridor not possible because of posterior iliac crest overlap. In each case, this occurred only unilaterally and when the widest of the screw corridors (12.5 mm) was used. Both the distance between the posterior iliac crests and the space available for optimum screw placement are greater in females than males. PMID:10382776

Robertson, P A; Plank, L D

1999-06-01

374

Interobserver reliability in evaluation of pedicle screw positions inserted with a modified technique.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate a new technique for insertion of pedicle screws. The position of the screws was assessed on postoperative plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans, and the interobserver reliability in evaluation of the pedicle screw positions was studied. The technique was applied to insert 201 pedicle screws in 27 patients with various spine conditions. The positions of the screws were evaluated blindly by two independent orthopaedic surgeons and two independent radiologists. Interobserver reliability was evaluated separately for analysis of plain radiographs and CT scans, as well as for the different spinal segments and for the different spine conditions treated. The rate of malpositioned screws was between 6.5% and 32.8% in plain radiographs and between 3.5% and 6.5% in CT scans according to the different observers. In plain radiographs, the rates of malpositioned screws in the upper thoracic, lower thoracic and lumbosacral spine segments were between 3.8%-39.6%, 10.0%-36.3%, 4.4%-23.5%, respectively. In CT scans, the rates of malpositioned screws in the upper thoracic, lower thoracic and lumbosacral spine segments were between 3.8%-13.2%, 2.5%-8.8%, and 0%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was found to be poor in radiographs and fair in CT scans. The technique used for insertion of pedicle screws was found to be simple and reproducible. Assessment of the screw positions with only plain radiographs was not found reliable. A detailed and standard classification system should be developed in order to improve interobserver reliability in assessing the positions of the screws. PMID:17939480

Ozer, Ozgur; Ozturk, Cagatay; Akesen, Burak; Aydinli, Ufuk

2007-08-01

375

Helical rotary screw expanders to generate electricity from geothermal brines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-megawatt, self-contained, helical rotary screw expander power plant to generate electricity of a geothermal brine wellhead was evaluated. The test support equipment, including a computer-controlled data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kilowatt, variable bank were investigated. It was stated that the power was technically feasible although it operated at only about 45% average efficiency. Its technology transfer testing program involved Mexico, Italy, and New Zealand. The mineral laden geothermal brines of Mexico are more prone to scale formation than the Utah brine, and the power plant showed an increase in efficiency to a maximum of 62%.

1983-09-01

376

Contribution to the ideal efficiency of screw propellers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stipulation of best thrust distribution is applied to the annular elements of the screw propeller with infinitely many blades in frictionless, incompressible flow and an ideal jet propulsion system derived possessing hyperbolic angular velocity distribution along the blade radius and combining the advantage of uniform thrust distribution over the section with minimum slipstream and rotation losses. This system is then compared with a propeller possessing the same angular velocity at all blade elements and the best possible thrust distribution secured by means of an induced efficiency varying uniformly over the radius. Lastly, the case of the lightly loaded propeller also is discussed.

Hoff, Wilhelm

1942-01-01

377

Model Fusion and Joint Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverse problems are inherently non-unique, and regularization is needed to obtain stable and reasonable solutions. The regularization adds information to the problem and determines which solution, out of the infinitely many, is obtained. In this paper, we review and discuss the case when a priori information exists in the form of either known structure or in the form of another inverse problem for a different property. The challenge is to include such information in the inversion process. To use existing known structure, we review the concept of model fusion, where we build a regularization functional that fuses the inverted model to a known one. The fusion is achieved by four different techniques. Joint inversion of two data sets is achieved by using iterative data fusion. The paper discusses four different methods for joint inversion. We discuss the use of correspondence maps or the petrophysics of the rocks, as well as structure. In particular, we suggest to further stabilize the well-known gradient cross product and suggest a new technique, Joint Total Variation, to solve the problem. The Joint Total Variation is a convex functional for joint inversion and, as such, has favorable optimization properties. We experiment with the techniques on the DC resistivity problem and the borehole tomography and show how model fusion and joint inversion can significantly improve over existing techniques.

Haber, Eldad; Holtzman Gazit, Michal

2013-09-01

378

Electromyogram synergy control of a dexterous artificial hand to unscrew and screw objects  

PubMed Central

Background Due to their limited dexterity, it is currently not possible to use a commercially available prosthetic hand to unscrew or screw objects without using elbow and shoulder movements. For these tasks, prosthetic hands function like a wrench, which is unnatural and limits their use in tight working environments. Results from timed rotational tasks with human subjects demonstrate the clinical need for increased dexterity of prosthetic hands, and a clinically viable solution to this problem is presented for an anthropomorphic artificial hand. Methods Initially, a human hand motion analysis was performed during a rotational task. From these data, human hand synergies were derived and mapped to an anthropomorphic artificial hand. The synergy for the artificial hand is controlled using conventional dual site electromyogram (EMG) signals. These EMG signals were mapped to the developed synergy to control four joints of the dexterous artificial hand simultaneously. Five limb absent and ten able-bodied test subjects participated in a comparison study to complete a timed rotational task as quickly as possible with their natural hands (except for one subject with a bilateral hand absence), eight commercially available prosthetic hands, and the proposed synergy controller. Each test subject used two to four different artificial hands. Results With the able-bodied subjects, the developed synergy controller reduced task completion time by 177% on average. The limb absent subjects completed the task faster on average than with their own prostheses by 46%. There was a statistically significant improvement in task completion time with the synergy controller for three of the four limb absent participants with integrated prostheses, and was not statistically different for the fourth. Conclusions The proposed synergy controller reduced average task completion time compared to commercially available prostheses. Additionally, the synergy controller is able to function in a small workspace and requires less physical effort since arm movements are not required. The synergy controller is driven by conventional dual site EMG signals that are commonly used for prosthetic hand control, offering a viable solution for people with an upper limb absence to use a more dexterous artificial hand to screw or unscrew objects. PMID:24655413

2014-01-01

379

Terramechanics-based propulsive characteristics of mobile robot driven by Archimedean screw mechanism on soft soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mathematical modeling and the propulsive characteristics of a novel robot driven by Archimedean screw mechanisms, named Screw Drive Rover. For secure locomotion on soft soil, the proposed rover would become one of the good solutions because of its robustness to slipping and getting stuck in the soil. Furthermore, the rover is expected to move in various

Kenji Nagaoka; Masatsugu Otsuki; Takashi Kubota; Satoshi Tanaka

2010-01-01

380

The Research of Screw Thread Parameter Measurement Based on Position Sensitive Detector and Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique and system of measuring screw thread parameter based on the theory of laser measurement is presented in this paper, which can be carried out the automated measurement of screw thread parameter. An inspection instrument was designed and produced, which included exterior imaging system of optical path, transverse displacement measurement system, axial displacement measurement system, and a module to deal with, control and assess the data in the upper system. The inspection and estimate of the screw thread contour curve were completed by using position sensitive device (PSD) as photoelectric detector to measure the coordinate data of the screw thread contour curve in the transverse section, and using precise raster to measure the axial displacement of the precision worktable under the screw thread test criterion., computer can gives a measured result according to coordinate data of the screw thread obtained by PSD. The relation between measured spot and image is established, and optimum design of the system organization are introduced, including the image length of receiving lens focal length optical system and the choice of PSD , and some main factor affected measuring precision are analyzed. The experimental results show that the measurement uncertainty of screw thread minor diameter can reach 0. 5?m, which can meet most requests for the measurement of screw thread parameter.

Tong, Q. B.; Ding, Z. L.; Chen, J. C.; Ai, L. L.; Yuan, F.

2006-10-01

381

Refracture of Proximal Fifth Metatarsal (Jones) Fracture After Intramedullary Screw Fixation in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study details six instances of refracture of clinically and radiographically healed fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal after intramedullary screw fixation. Four professional football players, one college basketball player, and one recreational athlete underwent intramedullary screw fixation of fifth metatarsal fractures. The athletes were released to full activities an average of 8.5 weeks (range, 5.5 to 12)

Rick W. Wright; David A. Fischer; Robert A. Shively; Robert S. Heidt; Gordon W. Nuber

2000-01-01

382

IN-LINE ULTRASONIC MONITORING OF POLYMER BLENDING IN A TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer blending using a twin-screw extruder is a widely used process in polymer processing industry by which more than one polymers are blended under molten state to achieve properties that are not available with each of the individual polymer. In the current work, high temperature ultrasonic sensors have been installed at several locations on a twin-screw extruder to monitor the

Z. Sun; J. Tatibouët; C.-K. Jen; H. L. Liang; C.-Y. Su

383

Finite element simulation of flow in twin screw extruder mixing elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the plastics industry, twin screw extruders are widely used for melting, dispersing and homogenizing polymers. There are a diversity of designs employed throughout the polymer industry, each one having different operating principles and applications. Among the different arrangements of twin screw systems, the intermeshing co- rotating configuration has been found to be one of the most efficient mixers and

Victor Sananes Bravo

1998-01-01

384

Numerical simulation of flow characteristics in new co-rotating triangle arrayed triple screw extruders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triangle arrayed triple screw extruder (TATSE) is a new equipment of polymer processing, which is different from traditional single and twin-screw extruder in flow and mixing characteristics. The studies about TATSE are very limited and all have been in the conditions of qualitative analysis due to its complicated geometry. In order to understand the flow rule of polymer melt and

X. Z. Zhu; H. Q. Yuan; W. Q. Wang

2009-01-01

385

Verification of the position of pedicle screws in lumbar spinal fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medial or lateral pedicle screw penetration with the potential to affect neural structures in a well-known and frequent problem associated with posterior spinal fusion. We evaluated the placement of pedicle screws (n = 141) in 36 patients following posterior lumbar spinal fusion with Socon or Kluger instrumentation via a lateral transpedicular approach. The examination was based on CT and MR

R. G. Haaker; U. Eickhoff; E. Schopphoff; R. Steffen; M. Jergas; J. Krämer

1997-01-01

386

Use of the intraosseous screw for unilateral upper molar distalization and found well balanced occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to present a temporary anchorage device with intraosseous screw for unilateral molar distalization to make a space for the impacted premolar and to found well balanced occlusion in a case. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old male who have an impacted premolar is presented with skeletal Class I and dental Class 2 relationship. The screw

Ibrahim Erhan Gelgor; Ali Ihya Karaman; Tamer Buyukyilmaz

2006-01-01

387

Impact failure analysis of re-circulating mechanism in ball screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ball screw driven mechanism is a major component in high-speed\\/high-precision transmitting systems. In such a mechanism, the return tube has been designed to provide the path for a steel ball rolling in screw grooves. As the driven shaft in the mechanism operates at high rotating speed, forces caused by the impact activity between the steel ball and return tube

Jui-Pin Hung; James Shih-Shyn Wu; Jerry Y. Chiu

2004-01-01

388

Development of a new lapping method for high precision ball screw (2nd report)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach in lapping process in making appropriate condition to improve the manufacturing operations for ball screw. After grinding, high precision ball screw is lapped by highly skilled operators. These operators have the ability to control and maintain the lapping conditions by sensing the lapping torque manually. Prior to lapping process, the effective diameter must be

Dominic S. Guevarra; Akira Kyusojin; Hiromi Isobe; Yoshiaki Kaneko

2002-01-01

389

Real-time estimation of temperature distribution in a ball-screw system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ball screw is usually preloaded for high rigidity and accuracy, thus increasing the frictional resistance. Subsequently its temperatures and positioning error are significantly raised. When it comes to high speed or high precision, this thermal error becomes more serious and dominates the total error. In this paper, two-dimensional temperature distributions of a ball-screw system preloaded in the axial direction

S. K. Kim; D. W. Cho

1997-01-01

390

Speed function design for improving acceleration characteristic of ball-screw systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to design a rotating speed function of a ball-screw system with the aim of lowering the peak acceleration value of the slider. For the purpose of analyzing the kinematic characteristics of the system, the normalized motion equations of the ball-screw system were derived. From the analysis, a set of design rules was devised and

Meng-Hui Hsu; Syun-Cheng Lin; Jui-Chimr Chang; Chan-Yao Chen

2012-01-01

391

Analysis of a model to forecast thermal deformation of ball screw feed drive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In machine tools with semi-closed loop numerical control, the thermal deformation of the ball screw directly produces the position error of the feed drive system. In this work the method of multiple regression is used to analyze the thermal deformation of a ball screw feed drive system. Key points of thermal source (front bearing, nut and back bearing) were selected

Shyh-Chour Huang

1995-01-01

392

Tracking Control of Flexible Ball Screw Drives With Runout Effect and Mass Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most machine tools rely on precision ball screw drives to accurately position the workpiece relative to the tool. The quality of the machining outcome depends significantly on the tracking performance of the workpiece position over a desired trajectory. This paper addresses the minimization of the tracking error in a ball screw drive system in the presence of dynamic variations. Three

Daniel Sepasi; Ryozo Nagamune; Farrokh Sassani

2012-01-01

393

Advantages and Characteristics of a Dynamic Feeds Axis with Ball Screw Drive and Driven Nut  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the advantages and characteristics of a Dynamic feed axis with ball screw drive and driven nut in comparison with the conventional electromechanical drive. In contrast to the classical drive the ball screw leadscrew is rigidly located at both ends and the nut is driven by a servomotor. The investigation considers two drive variants: the indirect drive with

H. Weule; T. Frank

1999-01-01

394

Minimization of energy dissipated in a ball screw-nut with all kinds of friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to reduce the energy dissipated even in a mechatronic system. The present paper proposes an optimal velocity function in a position control and an optimal lead of a ball screw-nut in a linear actuator. The linear actuator system is composed of a motor, a ball screw-nut and a load. The system has three kinds of friction, rolling

Teruyuki Izumi; Zuowei Li; Hai Zhou; Masashi Kanesaka

2008-01-01

395

Stress analysis of the distal locking screws for femoral interlocking nailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In femoral locked nailing, the distal locking screws are vulnerable to mechanical failure. Biomechanical studies have shown that the stress on these screws is substantially affected by the fit of the nail in the medullary canal. In this study, a “closed form” mathematical model based on elastic beam-column theory was developed to investigate how the nail–cortical contact, which was simulated

Jinn Lin; Son-Jyh Lin; Po-Quang Chen; Shu-Hua Yang

2001-01-01

396

Successful laparoscopic exploration and screw extraction for intractable pain after anterior iliosacral arthrodesis.  

PubMed

We report on the case of a patient suffering from L5 radicular pain after previous anterior sacroiliac arthrodesis using 2, 4-hole plates. Technical investigations indicated loosening and migration of a screw from the upper sacroiliac plate, irritating the L5 nerve root. The problem was managed by removal of the screw using an anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic approach. PMID:20871241

Peeters, Geert; Geert, Peeters; Govaers, Kris; Kris, Govaers; Himpens, Jacques; Jacques, Himpens

2010-10-01

397

Calcium phosphate cement augmentation of cancellous bone screws can compensate for the absence of cortical fixation  

E-print Network

Calcium phosphate cement augmentation of cancellous bone screws can compensate for the absence Keywords: Screw fixation Pullout force Calcium phosphate cement Osteoporotic bone a b s t r a c with cement. Previous studies have shown that bone augmentation with Calcium Phosphate (CaP) cement

Guerraoui, Rachid

398

29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section...CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General...

2012-07-01

399

29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section...CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General...

2011-07-01

400

29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section...CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General...

2014-07-01

401

29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section...CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General...

2013-07-01

402

Late diagnosis of perforation of the aorta by a pedicle screw.  

PubMed

Although the clinical and biomechanical advantages of pedicle screws are well documented, the accuracy of their insertion is always a concern.Injury of neurovascular structures could be devastating. Perforation of the aorta from posteriorly placed screws is fortunately rare but could end up being lethal. We present a review of the current literature along with two illustrative cases with aorta perforation from posterior pedicle screws. An 82-year-old female with a history of thoracic kyphosis and a 26-year-old female with scoliotic deformity were referred to our institution owing to back pain. Both patients had undergone correction of their deformities and posterior fixation using posterior pedicle screws and rods 5 years previously. During the diagnostic work-up, which included CT scans, we incidentally found one pedicle screw to be malpositioned, exiting the vertebral body and perforating the aorta. The patients were offered a combined orthopaedic and vascular procedure, including screw removal and endovascular stenting of the aorta. Potential complications from the presence of a screw inside the pulsatile aorta, and the complexity of revision surgery should be well considered before proceeding to such a difficult surgical procedure. Systemic postoperative follow-up imaging and safer intraoperative practices during screw placement are important. PMID:24205763

Soultanis, Konstantinos Chr; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Starantzis, Konstantinos A; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2013-08-01

403

Study of Residence Time Distribution in a Pilot-Scale Screw Conveyor Dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The screw conveyor dryer (SCD) finds varied applications in the process industries either as a pre-dryer or for post-drying operation. In certain cases, it can be used as the main dryer. The full potential of SCD has not been exploited for the lack of its understanding. The conveying of paste or particles through a screw conveyor may follow a near

S. S. Waje; A. K. Patel; B. N. Thorat; A. S. Mujumdar

2007-01-01

404

Moving follower rest design using vibration absorbers for ball screw grinding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel design of follower rest used in ball screw grinding machine is proposed. Installed on the grinding wheel holder and moving along the ball screw, the follower rest is designed to be a vibration absorber with its driving point attached on the ball screw close to the grinding zone. It is used not only to suppress the ball screw vibration at the position close to the grinding zone but also to avoid the occurrence of chatter. It provides an auxiliary in counteracting the ball screw vibration during a grinding process besides the traditional steady rest fixed on the machine bed. The mechanisms in ball screw vibration reduction as well as in avoiding the chatter using the absorber are formulated and studied using the impedance method. Influences of design parameters of the absorber, i.e. the absorber mass and the absorber damping, on the chatter and the transient response of the ball screw are examined in detail. Results show that increasing the mass of the absorber is the most effective way with respect to vibration reduction at the grinding position as well as avoiding the chatter. On the other hand, the absorber damping has a negative effect both on the vibration reduction of ball screw and avoiding the chatter because it reduces the driving point impedance of absorber at resonance, which is contrary to the structural damping of the ball screw that has a positive effect in avoiding the chatter. Moreover the absorber damping has little influence on the frequency bandwidth in which the ball screw vibration is suppressed by the absorber.

Cheng, C. C.; Kuo, C. P.; Wang, F. C.; Cheng, W. N.

2009-09-01

405

Hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite coatings on dental screws: effects of blast coating process and biological response.  

PubMed

This paper describes the deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluorapatite (FA) onto titanium dental screws using a novel ambient temperature coating technique named CoBlast. The process utilises a coating medium and a blast medium sprayed simultaneously at the substrate surface. The blast medium was a sintered apatite (sHA) and two particles sizes (<106 and <180 µm) were used to assess their influence on the coating process. The influence of the coating process on the coating composition, coating adhesion, screw morphology and screw microstructure was examined. XRD analysis revealed the coating crystallinity was the same as the original HA and FA feedstock powders. Examining the screw's morphology, the threads of the CoBlasted screws exhibited rounding compared to the unmodified screw. This is due to the abrasive nature of the CoBlast process. The degree of rounding was more significant for the screws blasted with the 180 µm sHA than the 106 µm sHA. The blast media particle size significantly influences the surface roughness of both the substrate and coating and the microstructure of the substrate. The screws did not exhibit any loss of coating after insertion into a model bone material, indicating that the coating was strongly adhered to the substrate. There was no statistically significant difference in cell attachment and cell morphology on the unmodified substrates compared to the coated substrates. In conclusion, the CoBlast process can be used to deposit HA and FA onto complex geometries such as dental screws. The choice of blast medium particle size influences the screws morphology. The coating process does not negatively impact on the cell attachment and morphology in vitro. PMID:25578701

Dunne, Conor F; Twomey, Barry; Kelly, Ciara; Simpson, Jeremy C; Stanton, Kenneth T

2015-01-01

406

Evaluation of a new approach for modelling the screw-bone interface in a locking plate fixation: a corroboration study.  

PubMed

Computational modelling of the screw-bone interface in fracture fixation constructs is challenging. While incorporating screw threads would be a more realistic representation of the physics, this approach can be computationally expensive. Several studies have instead suppressed the threads and modelled the screw shaft with fixed conditions assumed at the screw-bone interface. This study assessed the sensitivity of the computational results to modelling approaches at the screw-bone interface. A new approach for modelling this interface was proposed, and it was tested on two locking screw designs in a diaphyseal bridge plating configuration. Computational models of locked plating and far cortical locking constructs were generated and compared to in vitro models described in prior literature to corroborate the outcomes. The new approach led to closer agreement between the computational and the experimental stiffness data, while the fixed approach led to overestimation of the stiffness predictions. Using the new approach, the pattern of load distribution and the magnitude of the axial forces, experienced by each screw, were compared between the locked plating and far cortical locking constructs. The computational models suggested that under more severe loading conditions, far cortical locking screws might be under higher risk of screw pull-out than the locking screws. The proposed approach for modelling the screw-bone interface can be applied to any fixation involved application of screws. PMID:23636756

Moazen, Mehran; Mak, Jonathan H; Jones, Alison C; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth K; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

2013-07-01

407

Experimental analysis and simulation of nonlinear microscopic behavior of ball screw mechanism for ultra-precision positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, microscopic behavior of a preloaded ball screw supported by ball bearings is discussed based on experimental results and simulation. An experimental apparatus is specially designed and constructed to independently measure the torques of ball screw, ball bearings supporting the screw shaft and driving motor. It is clarified experimentally that the nonlinear microscopic behavior of a positioning mechanism

Shigeo Fukada; Bin Fang; Akira Shigeno

2011-01-01

408

Submitted to Composites A: Applied Science and Manufacturing Graded Polymer Composites Using Twin Screw Extrusion: A Combinatorial  

E-print Network

. In particular, a continuous processing technique known as twin screw extrusion has been particularly attractive Twin Screw Extrusion: A Combinatorial Approach to Developing New Energetic Materials Frederick M. Recently, a manufacturing technology known as Twin Screw Extrusion (TSE), has been demonstrated to increase

Maryland at College Park, University of

409

Technical Report of Free Hand Pedicle Screw Placement using the Entry Points with Junction of Proximal Edge of Transverse Process and Lamina in Lumbar Spine: Analysis of 2601 Consecutive Screws  

PubMed Central

Objective A variety of different pedicle screws entry point techniques are used for the lumbar pedicle screws placement. This study reported Kim's entry point of lumbar pedicle screws with free hand technique and the accuracy of this technique. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the 584 cases with free hand placed lumbar pedicle screw placement. The diagnosis included 491 cases with degenerative spine, 59 cases with trauma, 29 cases with metastatic disease, and 5 cases with scoliosis. A total of 2601 lumbar pedicle screws were placed, and the entry points of lumbar pedicle screws were the junction of proximal edge of transverse process and lamina. Incidence and extent of cortical breach by misplaced pedicle screw was determined by review of intra-operative and post-operative radiographs and/or computed tomography. Results Among the total 2601 lumbar free hand placed pedicle screws, 114 screws (4.4%) in 79 patients (13.5%) were repositioned screws with suspected screw malposition during operation, and 37 screws (1.4%) in 31 patients (5.3%) were identified as moderate to severe breaching the pedicle after post-operative imaging studies. Among the patient with malpositioned screws, 3 patients showed nerve irritation sign of the lesion, and 2 cases were symptom improved after nerve block and conservative management, and 1 case was removed the screw after the failure of the treatment. Conclusion Free hand pedicle screw placement based on external landmark with the junction of proximal edge of transverse process and lamina showed acceptable safety and accuracy and avoidance of radiation exposure. PMID:24757450

Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Yongjung J.; Hyun, Dongkeun; Park, Hyeong-Chun

2013-01-01

410

Minimally-invasive posterior lumbar stabilization for degenerative low back pain and sciatica. A review.  

PubMed

The most diffused surgical techniques for stabilization of the painful degenerated and instable lumbar spine, represented by transpedicular screws and rods instrumentation with or without interbody cages or disk replacements, require widely open and/or difficult and poorly anatomical accesses. However, such surgical techniques and approaches, although still considered "standard of care", are burdened by high costs, long recovery times and several potential complications. Hence the effort to open new minimally-invasive surgical approaches to eliminate painful abnormal motion. The surgical and radiological communities are exploring, since more than a decade, alternative, minimally-invasive or even percutaneous techniques to fuse and lock an instable lumbar segment. Another promising line of research is represented by the so-called dynamic stabilization (non-fusion or motion preservation back surgery), which aims to provide stabilization to the lumbar spinal units (SUs), while maintaining their mobility and function. Risk of potential complications of traditional fusion methods (infection, CSF leaks, harvest site pain, instrumentation failure) are reduced, particularly transitional disease (i.e., the biomechanical stresses imposed on the adjacent segments, resulting in delayed degenerative changes in adjacent facet joints and discs). Dynamic stabilization modifies the distribution of loads within the SU, moving them away from sensitive (painful) areas of the SU. Basic biomechanics of the SU will be discussed, to clarify the mode of action of the different posterior stabilization devices. Most devices are minimally invasive or percutaneous, thus accessible to radiologists' interventional practice. Devices will be described, together with indications for patient selection, surgical approaches and possible complications. PMID:24906245

Bonaldi, G; Brembilla, C; Cianfoni, A

2015-05-01

411

Propulsive and maneuvering performance of two joints biorobotic autonomous undersea vehicle SPC-III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biorobotic autonomous undersea vehicle SPC-III, developed by Robotics institute, BeiHang University, is a mission-scale autonomous submersible vehicle. The submersible vehicle possesses a torpedo-shape rigid hull. The aft section is a two joints caudal fin thruster driven by two servo motors, which may be substituted by a screw propeller maintaining the same body shape. The accurate motion of the caudal fin

Jianhong Liang; Weifeng Zheng; Li Wen; Tianmiao Wang; Chengyin Xie

2009-01-01

412

Use of dual Euler angles to quantify the three-dimensional joint motion and its application to the ankle joint complex.  

PubMed

This paper presents a modified Euler angles method, dual Euler angles approach, to describe general spatial human joint motions. In dual Euler angles approach, the three-dimensional joint motion is considered as three successive screw motions with respect to the axes of the moving segment coordinate system; accordingly, the screw motion displacements are represented by dual Euler angles. The algorithm for calculating dual Euler angles from coordinates of markers on the moving segment is also provided in this study. As an example, the proposed method is applied to describe motions of ankle joint complex during dorsiflexion-plantarflexion. A Flock of Birds electromagnetic tracking device (FOB) was used to measure joint motion in vivo. Preliminary accuracy tests on a gimbal structure demonstrate that the mean errors of dual Euler angles evaluated by using source data from FOB are less than 1 degrees for rotations and 1mm for translations, respectively. Based on the pilot study, FOB is feasible for quantifying human joint motions using dual Euler angles approach. PMID:12445618

Ying, Ning; Kim, Wangdo

2002-12-01

413

Wall-locking of kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch with a rotating walla)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of rotating conducting walls on mode-locking is studied in a line-tied, linear screw pinch experiment and then compared to a torque balance model which has been extended to include differential wall rotation. Wall rotation is predicted to asymmetrically affect the mode-unlocking threshold, with fast rotation eliminating the locking bifurcation. Static error fields are observed to lock the resistive wall mode (RWM) variant of the current driven kink instability by modifying the electromagnetic torque. Using locked modes, the stabilizing effect of wall rotation on the RWM is experimentally demonstrated by illustrating a reduction of the RWM growth rate and an extension of the RWM-stable operation window.

Paz-Soldan, C.; Brookhart, M. I.; Hegna, C. C.; Forest, C. B.

2012-05-01

414

Fixation strength of biocomposite wedge interference screw in ACL reconstruction: effect of screw length and tunnel\\/screw ratio. A controlled laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Primary stability of the graft is essential in anterior cruciate ligament surgery. An optimal method of fixation should be easy to insert and provide great resistance against pull-out forces. A controlled laboratory study was designed to test the primary stability of ACL tendinous grafts in the tibial tunnel. The correlation between resistance to traction forces and the cross-section and

Antonio Herrera; Fernando Martínez; Daniel Iglesias; José Cegoñino; Elena Ibarz; Luis Gracia

2010-01-01

415

The helical screw expander evaluation project. [for geothermal wells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A positive-displacement helical-screw expander of the Lysholm type has been adapted for geothermal service and successfully demonstrated in a 50 kW prototype power system. Evaluation of the expander by tests of a new model in a 1 MW power system under wellhead conditions in selected liquid-dominated geothermal fields is proposed. The objectives are to determine the performance characteristics of the expander and power system over a broad range of operating conditions and also to examine the concept of wellhead power plants. Throttling and fractionation of the fluids from the test wells is planned to simulate a wide range of wellhead pressures and steam fractions. Variation in the expander exhaust pressure is also planned. The investigation will include expander efficiency, corrosion, erosion, scale formation and control, and endurance testing. Interaction studies with the wells and an electric grid are also proposed.

Mckay, R. A.

1977-01-01

416

Gear-Cutting Tool for Screw-Compressor Rotors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A built-up hob for a screw-compressor rotor is proposed. The hob is composed of cutter blades and a hob head. The blade is cut out from a tempered planar plate of high speed tool steel by wire-cut electrodischarge machining (EDM). During the wire cutting process, the wire electrode has a fixed angle to ensure both the side and the end relief angle of the cutting edge, so that the rake face regrinding sharpens the cutting edge without changing the profile of the rake face. In other words, theoretically, the hob has no accuracy deterioration due to rake face regrinding. The formulae of rack tooth profile are derived from the female rotor tooth profile experssed by numerical formulae. Next, the fundamental helicoid of the hob the profile of the cutting edge of the blade are calculated. The hob was fabricated and the rotor hobbing was carried out.

Kaneko, Katsumi; Kawasaki, Kazumasa; Tamura, Hisashi

417

The numerical analysis of labyrinth screw pump and seal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main part of a labyrinth screw pump and seal is composed of both threads on the axle and the sleeve, which intersect at an oblique angle. A unit element surrounded by the two sets of threads has been taken as an isolated calculating area. Based on the N-S equation and the continuity equation, the centrifugal force and curvature effect have been neglected. Due to the periodical property along z-direction, it is reasonable to neglect the terms (d/dz) in the equations on the entrance and the middle cross section of the unit element. Thus, the set of equations could be reduced in a simpler form, and the coupling of x-y plane flow with z-direction could be eliminated. Therefore a quasi-state three-dimensional velocity field in the unit element space can be calculated by numerical solutions. Thus the corresponding characteristics of the labyrinth pump and seal may be obtained.

Zhu, Yizheng; Luo, Jin; Han, Guojun

1991-08-01

418

Use of Cortical Bone Screws in Maxillofacial Surgery - A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the various applications of cortical bone screws in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital located in, Bangalore, India, on 20 patients. These patients were categorized into three groups depending on the applications of these screws like, for achieving intermaxillary fixation in Group-1, for treatment of simple, undisplaced fractures by “Tension wire” method in Group-2, and further application of these screws were evaluated in Group-3. Different parameters were used to evaluate the efficacy of these screws. Results: In Group-1(n=12) there was satisfactory occlusion in all the patients with minimal incidence of complications. In Group-2 (n=4) post-operative reduction and fixation was satisfactory and in Group-3 (n=4) the function of these screws was satisfactory when it was used for vestibuloplasty and also as a suspension wiring in treatment of comminuted fracture of zygoma with minimal incidence of complications. Conclusion: Use of cortical bone screws is a valid alternative for achieving intermaxillary fixation, reduction and fixation of simple, undisplaced or minimally displaced fractures through Tension wire method owing to its simplicity, economy and ease of use, and as a fixation method for apically positioned flap in vestibuloplasty procedure. How to cite the article: Satish M, Rahman NM, Reddy VS, Yuvaraj A, Muliyar S, Razak PA. Use of Cortical Bone Screws in Maxillofacial Surgery - A Prospective Study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):62-7. PMID:24876704

Satish, Madatanapalli; Rahman, NM Mujeeb; Reddy, V Sridhar; Yuvaraj, A; Muliyar, Sabir; Razak, P Abdul

2014-01-01

419

Does screw-bone interface modelling matter in finite element analyses?  

PubMed

The effect of screw-bone interface modelling strategies was evaluated in the setting of a tibial mid-shaft fracture stabilised using locking plates. Three interface models were examined: fully bonded interface; screw with sliding contact with bone; and screw with sliding contact with bone in an undersized pilot hole. For the simulation of the last interface condition we used a novel thermal expansion approach to generate the pre-stress that the bone would be exposed to during screw insertion. The study finds that the global load-deformation response is not influenced by the interface modelling approach employed; the deformation varied by less than 1% between different interaction models. However, interface modelling is found to have a considerable impact on the local stress-strain environment within the bone in the vicinity of the screws. Frictional and tied representations did not have significantly different peak strain values (<5% difference); the frictional interface had higher peak compressive strains while the tied interface had higher tensile strains. The undersized pilot hole simulation produced the largest strains. The peak minimum principal strains for the frictional interface were 26% of those for the undersized pilot hole simulation at a load of 770 N. It is concluded that the commonly used tie constraint can be used effectively when the only interest is the global load-deformation behaviour. Different contact interface models, however, alter the mechanical response around screw holes leading to different predictions for screw loosening, bone damage and stress shielding. PMID:22537570

MacLeod, Alisdair R; Pankaj, Pankaj; Simpson, A Hamish R W

2012-06-01

420

Wear and corrosion of sliding counterparts of stainless-steel hip screw-plates.  

PubMed

Wear of the lag screw and barrel of stainless-steel sliding hip screw-plates (SHSP) produces particles and corrosion that jam the sliding screw. This alters the mechanics of the SHSP causing failure and difficulty in removal. We examined 15 surgically-removed SHSP for the extent of wear and corrosion of metal, and damage to the surrounding tissue. SHSP implants were in place from 2 months to 11 years (average 38.9 months) and they were removed because of fracture non-union, implant fracture or pain. None was infected. Electron microscopy was used to examine the implant surfaces and to determine the chemistry of corrosion products both on the metal and in the tissue. The distal ends of all the lag screws and inside walls of the barrels showed wear and corrosion. The severity of corrosion increased with increasing duration of implant use. Surfaces of the inside walls of the barrels were rough from the manufacturing process. This had contributed to wear. Better manufacturing practice to improve surface smoothness of the lag screws and inside wall of the barrels is needed. Use of cobalt-chromium alloys would improve hardness and resistance to corrosion compared with the stainless steel presently used, which would be an advantage for sliding hip screw-plates in younger patients. Deliberate texturing of screws is counter productive and should be avoided. PMID:10748810

Shahgaldi, B F; Compson, J

2000-03-01

421

The Development of using the digital projection method to measure the contact angle of ball screw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ball screw frequently used to drive or translate the parts on the precision machine, such as machine tool and motorized stage. Therefore they were most frequently used on the precision machine, semiconductor equipment, medical instrument and aero industry. The main parts of ball screw are screw, ball and nut. The contact angle between the screw, ball and nut will affect the performance (include loading and noise) and lifecycle of a ball screw. If the actual contact angle and the designed contact angle are not the same, the friction between the ball, screw and nut will increase and it will result in the thermal increase and lifecycle decrease. This paper combines the traditional profile projector and commercial digital camera to build an imaging based and noncontact measurements system. It can implement the contact angle measurement quickly and accurately. Three different pitch angles of ball screws were completed tests in this paper. The angle resolution of this measurement system is about 0.001 degree and its accuracy is about 0.05 degree.

Chen, Chun-Jen; Jywe, Wenyuh; Liu, Yu-Chun; Jwo, Hsin-Hong

422

[Biomechanical properties of bioabsorbable cannulated screws for surgical fixation of dislocated epiphysiolysis capitis femoris].  

PubMed

Bioabsorbable materials are well suited for fixation of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) as they are resorbable, compatible with magnetic resonance imaging, and well tolerated by the pediatric population. We compared cannulated 4.5-mm bioabsorbable screws made of self-reinforced polylevolactic acid (SR-PLLA) to cannulated 4.5-mm steel and titanium screws for their resistance to shear stress and ability to generate compression in a polyurethane foam model of SCFE fixation. The maximum shear stress resisted by the three screw types was similar (SR-PLLA 371 +/- 146, steel 442 +/- 43, titanium 470 +/- 91 MPa, NS). The maximum compression generated by both the SR-PLLA screw (68.5 +/- 3.3 N) and the steel screw (63.3 +/- 5.9 N) was greater than that for the titanium screw (3.0 +/- 1.4 N, p < 0.05). These data suggest that cannulated SR-PLLA screws have sufficient biomechanical strength to be used in the treatment of SCFE. PMID:12149928

Kröber, M W; Rovinsky, D; Lotz, J; Carstens, C; Otsuka, N Y

2002-06-01

423

Biomechanical effects of plate area and locking screw on medial open tibial osteotomy.  

PubMed

Medial open high tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been used to treat osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee. However, weaker plate strength, unstable plate/screw junction and improper surgery technique are highly related to the HTO outcomes. Two ?-shape plates were designed and eight variations (two supporting area × four locking stiffness) were compared by finite-element method. The computed tomography-based tibia was reconstructed and both wedge micromotion and implant stresses were chosen as the comparison indices. The construct was subjected to surgical and physiological loads. The medial-posterior region is the most loaded region and the load through the posterior leg is about four times that through the anterior leg. This indicates that the two-leg design can form a force-couple mechanism to effectively reduce the implant stresses. The use of locking screws significantly decrease the screw and hole stresses. However, the extending plate reduces the stresses of screws and holes above the wedge but makes the distal screws and holes much stressed. Wedge micromotion is affected by extending plate rather than locking screw. Three factors contribute to effective stabilisation of unstable HTO wedge: (1) intimate tibia-plate contact at medial-posterior regions, (2) sufficient rigidity at plate-screw junctions and (3) effective moment-balancing design at distal tibia-plate interfaces. PMID:24617553

Luo, Chu-An; Lin, Shang-Chih; Hwa, Su-Yang; Chen, Chun-Ming; Tseng, Ching-Shiow

2015-01-01

424

Early Results from Posterior Cervical Fusion with a Screw-Rod System  

PubMed Central

Purpose We performed 65 cases of posterior fusion surgery for cervical and/or high thoracic lesions using a polyaxial screw-rod system. Patients and Methods A total of 486 screws were implanted in 65 patients. Results Fixation of the screws was carried out over an average of 2.9 spinal segments. Upon evaluation by postoperative CT scans, twelve (2.5%) screws had suboptimal trajectories but two of these revealed radiculopathy in one patient and required screw repositioning. No vascular sequelae resulted. There has been no segmental motion in any of the cases to date. As for other complications, there was one case of dural tearing and two cases of lateral mass fractures. There were no infections or other wound healing problems or hardware failures. No patients had neurological deterioration after surgery. There were statistically significant improvements in the mean Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores in the preoperative and late postoperative follow-up evaluations. Although further studies are required to establish the long-term results of fusion rates and clinical outcomes. Conclusion We cautiously suggest that the posterior polyaxial screw-rod system can be safely used as a primary or additional fusion method in this risky region. The successful and safe use of this method is dependent on a precise preoperative surgical plan and tactics for ensuring safe screw fixation. PMID:17594152

Kim, Sang Hyun; Shin, Dong Ah; Yi, Seung; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Keung Nyun

2007-01-01

425

Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment for fermentable sugar production  

PubMed Central

Background The inevitable depletion of fossil fuels has resulted in an increasing worldwide interest in exploring alternative and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulose, which is the most abundant biomass on earth, is widely regarded as a promising raw material to produce fuel ethanol. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic matrix for enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production. This paper established an ATSE (alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment) process using a specially designed twin-screw extruder in the presence of alkaline solution to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover for the production of fermentable sugars. Results The ATSE pretreatment was conducted with a biomass/liquid ratio of 1/2 (w/w) at a temperature of 99°C without heating equipment. The results indicated that ATSE pretreatment is effective in improving the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Sodium hydroxide loading is more influential factor affecting both sugar yield and lignin degradation than heat preservation time. After ATSE pretreatment under the proper conditions (NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass during ATSE and 1 hour heat preservation after extrusion), 71% lignin removal was achieved and the conversions of glucan and xylan in the pretreated biomass can reach to 83% and 89% respectively via subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-biomass and substrate consistency of 2%). About 78% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars. Conclusions With the physicochemical functions in extrusion, the ATSE method can effectively overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover. This process can be considered as a promising pretreatment method due to its relatively low temperature (99°C), high biomass/liquid ratio (1/2) and satisfied total sugar yield (78%), despite further study is needed for process optimization and cost reduction. PMID:23834726

2013-01-01

426

Chondrocyte response to in vitro mechanical injury and co-culture with joint capsule tissue  

E-print Network

Acute traumatic joint injury in young adults leads to an increased risk for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) later in life irrespective of surgical intervention to stabilize the injured joint. Although the mechanism ...

Lee, Jennifer H. (Jennifer Henrica)

2005-01-01

427

Effects of anterior lumbar spinal fusion on the distribution of nerve endings and mechanoreceptors in the rabbit facet joint: quantitative histological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the density and distribution of neural endings in rabbit lumbar facet joints after anterior spinal fusion and to evaluate the effects of intervertebral immobilization. An extraperitoneal approach was applied, and L5\\/6 was fixed with a plate and screws. Bilateral L4\\/5, L5\\/6, and L6\\/7 facet joint capsules were harvested from the rabbits 4,

Takeshi Onodera; Yasumasa Shirai; Masabumi Miyamoto; Yoshikazu Genbun

2003-01-01

428

Use of screws and cement in revision TKA with primary or revision specific prosthesis with up to 17 years followup.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use for screws and cement, and primary and revision specific prosthesis for revision TKA. Between July 1989 and February 2010, 839 consecutive revision TKAs were performed, with 609 knees meeting inclusion criteria. At 17 years followup, Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 0.9859 for revision specific prosthesis with screws and cement, 0.9848 for revision prosthesis with no screws, 0.9118 for primary prosthesis with screws, and 0.9424 for primary prosthesis with no screws. Revision TKAs using screws had greater defects (P<.0001). Use of revision prosthesis along with screws and cement to correct largely defective revision TKAs is highly recommended. PMID:25151092

Berend, Michael E; Ritter, Merrill A; Keating, E Michael; Jackson, Michael D; Davis, Kenneth E; Malinzak, Robert A

2015-01-01

429

Modelling Flow and Heat Transfer in Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a modelling routine of co-rotating twin-screw extrusion, from hopper to die. The program accounts for a sequence of individual stages linked together by boundary conditions, namely starve-fed solids conveying, solids conveying under pressure, delay, melting, melt conveying without pressure and melt conveying under pressure. It predicts the evolution along the screw and die of temperature, shear rate, residence time, viscosity, mechanical power consumption, pressure and fill ratio. The results obtained showed adequate sensitivity to changes in operating conditions and screw geometry and are in agreement with current theoretical and experimental knowledge.

Teixeira, C.; Faria, R.; Covas, J. A.; Gaspar-Cunha, A.

2007-04-01

430

SPECT-CT Assessment of Pseudarthrosis after Spinal Fusion: Diagnostic Pitfall due to a Broken Screw.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old drug addicted female was referred for a L5-S1 posterolateral in situ fixation with autologous graft because of an L5/S1 severe discopathy with listhesis. After six months, low back pain recurred. A Tc-99m HDP SPECT-CT diagnosed a pseudarthrosis with intense uptake of the L5-S1 endplates and a fracture of the right S1 screw just outside the metal-bone interface without any uptake or bone resorption around the screw. The absence of uptake around a broken screw is a pitfall that the physician should be aware of. PMID:24159394

Rager, Olivier; Amzalag, Gaël; Varoquaux, Arthur; Schaller, Karl; Ratib, Osman; Tessitore, Enrico

2013-01-01

431

SPECT-CT Assessment of Pseudarthrosis after Spinal Fusion: Diagnostic Pitfall due to a Broken Screw  

PubMed Central

A 43-year-old drug addicted female was referred for a L5-S1 posterolateral in situ fixation with autologous graft because of an L5/S1 severe discopathy with listhesis. After six months, low back pain recurred. A Tc-99m HDP SPECT-CT diagnosed a pseudarthrosis with intense uptake of the L5-S1 endplates and a fracture of the right S1 screw just outside the metal-bone interface without any uptake or bone resorption around the screw. The absence of uptake around a broken screw is a pitfall that the physician should be aware of. PMID:24159394

Rager, Olivier; Amzalag, Gaël; Varoquaux, Arthur; Schaller, Karl; Ratib, Osman; Tessitore, Enrico

2013-01-01

432

Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement for safe removal of a malpositioned pedicle screw.  

PubMed

We describe a case of percutaneous placement of a thoracic aortic stent-graft for safe removal of a malpositioned pedicle screw in a 52-year-old man. The patient had undergone posterior thoracic spinal instrumentation for pyogenic spondylitis and spinal deformity 8 months previously. Follow-up CT images showed a malpositioned pedicle screw which was abutting the thoracic aorta at the T5 level. After percutaneous stent-graft placement, the malpositioned pedicle screw was safely and successfully removed. PMID:20033688

Hu, Hong-Tao; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Cho, Young Jun; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

2010-10-01