Sample records for screw joint stability

  1. Influence of the implant-abutment connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyon-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jeong; Jeon, Young-Chan; Chang, Brian Myung

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the implant-abutment connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS Regular and wide-diameter implant systems with three different joint connection designs: an external butt joint, a one-stage internal cone, and a two-stage internal cone were divided into seven groups (n=5, in each group). The initial removal torque values of the abutment screw were measured with a digital torque gauge. The postload removal torque values were measured after 100,000 cycles of a 150 N and a 10 Hz cyclic load had been applied. Subsequently, the rates of the initial and postload removal torque losses were calculated to evaluate the effect of the joint connection design and diameter on the screw joint stability. Each group was compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test as post-hoc test (?=0.05). RESULTS The postload removal torque value was high in the following order with regard to magnitude: two-stage internal cone, one-stage internal cone, and external butt joint systems. In the regular-diameter group, the external butt joint and one-stage internal cone systems showed lower postload removal torque loss rates than the two-stage internal cone system. In the wide-diameter group, the external butt joint system showed a lower loss rate than the one-stage internal cone and two-stage internal cone systems. In the two-stage internal cone system, the wide-diameter group showed a significantly lower loss rate than the regular-diameter group (P<.05). CONCLUSION The results of this study showed that the external butt joint was more advantageous than the internal cone in terms of the postload removal torque loss. For the difference in the implant diameter, a wide diameter was more advantageous in terms of the torque loss rate. PMID:24843398

  2. The effect of different implant-abutment connections on screw joint stability.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Muftu, Sinan; Pissiotis, Argiris; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Dental implants with an internal connection have been designed to establish a better stress distribution when lateral external forces act on the prosthesis and minimize the forces transmitted to the fastening screw. In the present study, 10 externally and 10 internally hexed implants were tested with a compressive force applied with an Instron Universal machine. Four cycles of loading-unloading were applied to each specimen to achieve displacements of 0.5, 1, 2, and 2.5 mm. The mean loads for the first cycle were 256.70 N for the external connection and 256 N for the internal connection implants. The independent t test did not reveal any significant differences among the 2 tested groups (P = .780). For the second cycle, the mean loads needed for a displacement of 1 mm were 818.19 N and 780.20 N for the external connection and the internal connection implants, respectively. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the 2 tested groups (P < .001). In the third cycle, the mean load values for a 2-mm displacement were 1394.10 N and 1225.00 N. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the 2 tested groups (P < .001). The mean loads for the fourth cycle were 1488.00 N for the external connection and 1029.00 N for the internal connection implants. These loads were required for a displacement of 2.5 mm. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the 2 tested groups (P < .001). The results of this in vitro study suggest that the internal connection design of the examined implant system could not prevent screw loosening during overloading. No implant or prosthesis failure was noticed in either group. PMID:24779947

  3. The effect of different implant-abutment connection on screw joint stability.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Konstantinos; Calvani, Pasquale; Muftu, Sinan; Pissiotis, Argirios; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Abstract Dental implants with an internal connection have been designed in order to establish a better stress distribution when lateral external forces act on the prosthesis and minimize the forces transmitted to the fastening screw. In the present study, ten externally and ten internally hexed implants were tested with a compressive force applied with an Instron Universal machine. Four cycles of loading-unloading were applied to each specimen, in order to achieve displacements of 0.5, 1, 2 and 2.5 mm. The mean loads for the first cycle were 256.70 N for the external connection and 256 N for the internal connection implants. The independent t test did not reveal any significant differences among the two tested groups (P=.780). For the second cycle, the mean loads needed for a displacement of 1mm were 818.19 N and 780.20 N, for the external connection and the internal connection implants respectively. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the two tested groups (P<.001). In the third cycle, the mean load values for a 2mm displacement were 1394.10 N and 1225.00 N. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the two tested groups (P<.001). The mean loads for the fourth cycle were 1488.00 N for the external connection and 1029.00 N for the internal connection implants. These loads were required for a displacement of 2.5mm. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the two tested groups (P<.001). The results of this in vitro study suggest that the internal connection design of the examined implant system could not prevent screw loosening during overloading. No implant or prosthesis failure was noticed in either group. PMID:22394320

  4. Primary Stability of Interference Screw FixationInfluence of Screw Diameter and Insertion Torque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Kohn; Christoph Rose

    1994-01-01

    Interference screw fixation is frequently used in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. There have been no data available about the influence of screw diameter and insertion torque on primary stability. We designed a cadaveric study using paired knees to analyze the comparative effectiveness of 20-mm long screws of different diam eters (9 mm versus 7 mm)

  5. Influence of the coating material on the loosing of dental implant abutment screw joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Elias; D. C. Figueira; P. R. Rios

    2006-01-01

    Dental implant abutment screw joints tend to loosen and prosthesis rotation has been observed under clinical conditions. Some dental implant manufacturers suggest coated abutment screw to prevent the displacement of dental prosthesis. In the present work, the opening torque (N cm) was measured as a function of tightening torque (N cm) for dental implant abutment screws coated with four different

  6. 46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded...d) Screwed couplings are allowed for instrumentation and control piping that meets §...

  7. 46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded...d) Screwed couplings are allowed for instrumentation and control piping that meets §...

  8. 46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded...d) Screwed couplings are allowed for instrumentation and control piping that meets §...

  9. 46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded...d) Screwed couplings are allowed for instrumentation and control piping that meets §...

  10. 46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded...d) Screwed couplings are allowed for instrumentation and control piping that meets §...

  11. Screw Placement and Osteoplasty Under Computed Tomographic-Fluoroscopic Guidance in a Case of Advanced Metastatic Destruction of the Iliosacral Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Trumm, Christoph Gregor, E-mail: christoph.trumm@med.lmu.de [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology (Germany); Rubenbauer, Bianca; Piltz, Stefan [University of Munich, Department of Surgery (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    We present a case of combined surgical screw placement and osteoplasty guided by computed tomography-fluoroscopy (CTF) in a 68-year-old man with unilateral osteolytic destruction and a pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint due to a metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. The patient experienced intractable lower back pain that was refractory to analgesia. After transarterial particle and coil embolization of the tumor-feeding vessels in the angiography unit, the procedure was performed under general anesthesia by an interdisciplinary team of interventional radiologists and trauma surgeons. Under intermittent single-shot CTF, two K wires were inserted into the left iliosacral joint from a lateral transiliac approach at the S1 level followed by two self-tapping surgical screws. Continuous CTF was used for monitoring of the subsequent polymethylmethacrylate injection through two vertebroplasty cannulas for further stabilization of the screw threads within the osteolytic sacral ala. Both the screw placement and cement injection were successful, with no complications occurring during or after the procedure. With additional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and opioid medication, the patient reported a marked decrease in his lower back pain and was able to move independently again at the 3-month follow-up assessment. In our patient with intolerable back pain due to tumor destruction and consequent pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint, CTF-guided iliosacral screw placement combined with osteoplasty was successful with respect to joint stabilization and a reduction in the need for analgesic therapy.

  12. Disc-repositioning surgery of the temporomandibular joint using bioresorbable screws.

    PubMed

    Sembronio, S; Robiony, M; Politi, M

    2006-12-01

    For successful disc-repositioning surgery, following arthrotomy and disc recovery by the release of attachments, the disc must be fixed and stabilized in the correct relationship with the condyle and fossa. This report describes a new surgical technique for fixing the disc to the condyle using two resorbable screws. PMID:16962741

  13. Morphometric analysis of distal interphalangeal joint and implications for arthrodesis with a headless compression screw.

    PubMed

    Braun, Benjamin; Bogle, Andrew; Wiesler, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Using radiographs of a cross section of patients, measurements of phalanges were done to aid in surgical planning for distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) arthrodesis using a headless compression screw. Measurements were performed of the distal and middle phalanx of all fingers and the proximal and distal phalanx of the thumb. Three independent reviewers measured 50 patients. The average measurements (in mm) of anteroposterior (AP) dimensions were as follows: for the thumb P1 and P2: 5.7 and 5.5, lateral 4.2 and 3.5; for the index P2 and P3 AP: 4.2 and 3.3, lateral 2.1 and 1.8; for the long P2 and P3 AP: 4.5 and 3.5, lateral 2.2 and 1.8; for the ring P2 and P3 AP: 4.3 and 3.1, lateral 1.8 and 1.7; and for the small P2 and P3 AP: 3.7 and 2.2, lateral 1.8 and 1.5. Careful surgical planning by measuring the involved digit and knowledge of screw size is paramount to avoid complications from DIPJ arthrodesis with a compression screw. PMID:25830256

  14. A new method for the estimation of position accuracy in parallel manipulators with joint clearances by screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Frisoli; Massimiliano Solazzi; Massimo Bergamasco

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method based on screw theory for the analysis of positioning accuracy in parallel manipulators with joint clearances. A general method is introduced, and a new analytical procedure is formulated which allows to determine analytically a sub-optimal estimation of the worst case condition for positioning accuracy. Moreover this procedure can determine exactly the worst-case angular accuracy

  15. A comparison of stress distributions for different surgical procedures, screw dimensions and orientations for a Temporomandibular joint implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Roy Chowdhury; Ajay Kashi; Subrata Saha

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analysis is a useful analytical tool for the design of biomedical implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of temporomandibular joint implants with multiple design variables of the screws used for fixation of the implant. A commercially available implant with full mandible was analyzed using a finite element software package. The effects of different

  16. Stabilization for chronic sternoclavicular joint instability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Uk; Park, Il-Jung; Kim, Young-Du; Kim, Yoon-Chung; Jeong, Changhoon

    2010-12-01

    We present a surgical reconstruction technique for chronic unstable sternoclavicular (SC) joint utilizing the tendon of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and additional augmentation utilizing the palmaris longus free tendon graft to secure the medial end of the clavicle to the first rib. This double stabilization procedure may strengthen the SC joint fixation for the chronic SC joint instability. PMID:20852846

  17. Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

  18. Transarticular screw fixation for atlantoaxial instability - modified Magerl's technique in 38 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj Bahadur; Tarun Goyal; Saravdeep S Dhatt; Sujit K Tripathy

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic atlantoaxial instability needs stabilization of the atlantoaxial joint. Among the various techniques described in literature for the fixation of atlantoaxial joint, Magerl's technique of transarticular screw fixation remains the gold standard. Traditionally this technique combines placement of transarticular screws and posterior wiring construct. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes in subjects of

  19. A new screw theory method for the estimation of position accuracy in spatial parallel manipulators with revolute joint clearances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Frisoli; M. Solazzi; D. Pellegrinetti; M. Bergamasco

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method based on screw theory for the analysis of position accuracy in spatial parallel manipulators with revolute joint clearances. The method is general, and can tackle with an arbitrary pose error function, expressed as a quadratic function of the end-effector displacement.The method performs a maximization of the pose error function, based on a 2-step computational

  20. Screw-Joints and Symmetries: Designing Nucleic Acid Nanotubes as Nano-Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, William

    2005-03-01

    In 2001, Mathieu et al.^1 presented the first nanotube constructed from DNA. Similar experimental techniques can be used to build a variety of other DNA nanotubes, but finding solutions to the structural constraint equations can be difficult. We show how symmetry based analysis can be used not only to find viable tube structures, but also to identify tube based devices. Such devices can pass through several states with varying tube profiles, inner and outer radii, and lengths. The theoretical basis for actuation of the devices is the screw-joint -- two double-helical domains joined by two or more symmetric Holliday junctions and one (or more) immobile Holliday junction(s). Two of the strands in the immobile junction can be pulled out of the system and replaced with different strands. This process changes the state of the device in a controlled and reversible manner. These devices are promising as gated pores, as well as stiff mechanical manipulators. This research supported by NIGMS, ONR, and NSF. ^1 F. Mathieu, C. Mao, N. C. Seeman, Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics, 18, p.907 (2001).

  1. Pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilizers for degenerative spine: in vitro biomechanical testing and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chamoli, Uphar; Diwan, Ashish D; Tsafnat, Naomi

    2014-09-01

    Dynamic stabilization in a degenerate symptomatic spine may be advantageous compared with conventional fusion procedures, as it helps preserve motion and minimizes redistribution of loads at instrumented and adjacent segments. This article presents a systematic review of biomechanical and clinical evidence available on some of the pedicle screw based posterior dynamic stabilization (PDS) devices. Using Medline, Embase, and Scopus online databases, we identified four pedicle-screw-PDS devices for which both, biomechanical testing and clinical follow-up data are available: Graf artificial ligaments, Isobar TTL, Polyetheretherketone rods, and Dynesys. The current state-of-the-art of pedicle-screw-PDS devices is far from achieving its desired biomechanical efficacy, which has resulted in a weak support for the posited clinical benefits. Although pedicle-screw-PDS devices are useful in salvaging a moderately degenerate functionally suboptimal disc, for severe disc degeneration cases fusion is still the preferred choice. We conclude that a pedicle-screw-PDS device should aim at restoring load sharing amongst spinal elements while preserving the qualitative and quantitative nature of spinal motion, especially minimize posterior shift of the helical axis of motion. More precise and objective assessment techniques need to be standardized for in vivo evaluation of intervertebral motion and load sharing amongst spinal elements across different pedicle-screw-PDS devices. PMID:24382799

  2. Stability of APB-dissociated <111> screw superdislocations in B2-ordered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.Q. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials] [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    1995-10-01

    The stability of an infinitely long screw <111> superdislocation dissociated into APB-coupled superpartials on {l_brace}110{r_brace}, {l_brace}112{r_brace}, or a combination of both, has been analyzed under the approximation of linear elasticity theory of dislocations. In the absence of an applied load, the variation of the configurational energy of the dislocation pair in equilibrium has been examined analytically as a function of two basic material parameters, i.e. the elastic anisotropic parameter along <111>M and the ratio of {l_brace}112{r_brace} vs {l_brace}110{r_brace} APB energies {lambda} = {gamma}{sub 112}/{gamma}{sub 110}. It is found that although there is no torque force on the screw partials on both {l_brace}110{r_brace} and {l_brace}112{r_brace}, the torque force is present at intermediate angular positions and acts in the direction of stabilizing {l_brace}112{r_brace} dissociation and destabilizing {l_brace}110{r_brace} dissociation. In general dissociation on {l_brace}112{r_brace} is favored energetically if {lambda} > M{sup 1/3}. Since M > 1 in anisotropic elastic media, ranging from M = 1.09 for FeAl to M = 1.64 for AuCd, favorable {l_brace}112{r_brace} dissociation does not require {gamma}{sub 112} < {gamma}{sub 110}. For compounds with M > 1.22 ({radical}3/2), the screw superdislocation may dissociate into stable non-planar configurations with the APB lying partly on {l_brace}110{r_brace} and partly on {l_brace}112{r_brace}, forming a locked structure.

  3. Role of external background plasma and non-MHD effects for kink stability of line tied screw pinch^

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Mirnov; C. B. Forest; C. C. Hegna

    2004-01-01

    In recent kink stability studies of a line tied screw pinch, the plasma was assumed to be isolated from the external wall by a vacuum gap. Another scenario of interest has a central current channel that is surrounded by a low density plasma. For a resistive outer plasma, this is equivalent to having the current surrounded by vacuum. Under more

  4. Effect of Crosslinks on the Stability of the Spine and the Pedicle Screw Fixation.

    PubMed

    Xiang-Yu, Zhang; Feng, S U; Shi, Yan; Zhi-Min, Zhang; Pei-Nan, Zhang

    2015-06-30

    Objective To evaluate the effect of crosslinks on the stability of the spine and pedicle screws. Methods Compression fracture of the L1 vertebra was produced in 30 fresh thoracic and lumbar vertebrae samples obtained from adult sheep,which were divided into 3 groups(n=10)with lot-drawing method. Four screws were fixed onto the superior and inferior pedicles of vertebral arch close to the fractured vertebrae,with different number of crosslinks(0 in Group A,1 in Group B,and 2 in Group C)on the rods. After fixation,the samples were subject to 10 000 times of fatigue test with 1.5 Hz load on the HY-3080 computer-control electronic universal test machine and HY-1000NM computer-control torsion test machine. The axial compressive stiffness,maximum pullout strength,and range of motion(ROM)of 6 directions,i.e.,flexion,extension,left and right lateral bending,and left and right axial rotation of the 3 groups were measured and compared. Results There were no statistically significant differences in axial compressive stiffness as well as the ROM of flexion,extension,and left and right lateral bending(all P>0.05). The maximum pullout strength was significantly smaller in Group A and Group B than in Group C [(129.56±29.63)N vs.(294.67±23.25)N,P=0.000;(254.02±36.29)vs.(294.67±23.25)N,P=0.006]. The ROM of left axial rotation was the highest in Group A(13.35°±1.06°),followed by Group B(12.23°±1.06°)and Group C(11.04°±0.74°)(F=13.44,P=0.000;Group B vs. Group A,P=0.000;Group B vs. Group C,P=0.001;Group C vs. Group A,P=0.000). The ROM of right axial rotation was also the highest in Group A(13.56°±1.15°),lower in Group B(12.39°±1.01°)and the lowest in Group C(10.81°±0.51°)(F=21.91,P=0.000;Group B vs. Group A,P=0.002;Group B vs. Group C,P=0.001;Group C vs. Group A,P=0.000). Conclusion Crosslinks may reinforce the pullout strength of the screws and improve the axial stability of the spine. PMID:26149138

  5. Simulation-based particle swarm optimization and mechanical validation of screw position and number for the fixation stability of a femoral locking compression plate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chian-Her; Shih, Kao-Shang; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Cho, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Locking compression plates (LCPs) have been used to fix femoral shaft fractures. Previous studies have attempted to identify the best LCP screw positions and numbers to achieve the fixation stability. However, the determined screw positions and numbers were mainly based on the surgeons' experiences. The aim of this study was to discover the best number and positions of LCP screws to achieve acceptable fixation stability. Three-dimensional numerical models of a fractured femur with the LCP were first developed. Then, the best screw position and number of LCPs were determined by using a simulation-based particle swarm optimization algorithm. Finally, the results of the numerical study were validated by conducting biomechanical tests. The results showed that the LCP with six locking screws resulted in the necessary fixation stability, and the best combination of positions of locking screws inserted into the LCP was 1-5-6-7-8-12 (three locking screws on either side of the bone fragment with two locking screws as close as practicable to the fracture site). In addition, the numerical models and algorithms developed in this study were validated by the biomechanical tests. Both the numerical and experimental results can provide clinical suggestions to surgeons and help them to understand the biomechanics of LCP systems. PMID:24090880

  6. The use of first stage bone augmentation screws to stabilize the surgical template in the second stage.

    PubMed

    Verhamme, L M; Meijer, G J; Bergé, S J; Maal, T J J

    2015-06-01

    A new method is presented in which the osteosynthesis screws from a first stage bone augmentation of the maxilla are used to stabilize the surgical template during implant placement in the second stage. This method was evaluated in one patient and the results compared to those of previous studies. The technique presented reduces the deviations between implant planning and the final implant position due an optimal fit of the surgical template. PMID:25682461

  7. Screw Placement and Osteoplasty Under Computed Tomographic–Fluoroscopic Guidance in a Case of Advanced Metastatic Destruction of the Iliosacral Joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Gregor Trumm; Bianca Rubenbauer; Stefan Piltz; Maximilian F. Reiser; Ralf-Thorsten Hoffmann

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of combined surgical screw placement and osteoplasty guided by computed tomography–fluoroscopy (CTF) in\\u000a a 68-year-old man with unilateral osteolytic destruction and a pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint due to a metastasis\\u000a from renal cell carcinoma. The patient experienced intractable lower back pain that was refractory to analgesia. After transarterial\\u000a particle and coil embolization of the

  8. Migration pattern of cementless press fit cups in the presence of stabilizing screws in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial acetabular implant stability and late acetabular implant migration in press fit cups combined with screw fixation of the acetabular component in order to answer the question whether screws are necessary for the fixation of the acetabular component in cementless primary total hip arthroplasty. One hundred and seven hips were available for follow-up after primary THA using a cementless, porous-coated acetabular component. A total of 631 standardized radiographs were analyzed digitally by the "single-film-x-ray-analysis" method (EBRA). One hundred 'and one (94.4%) acetabular components did not show significant migration of more than 1 mm. Six (5.6%) implants showed migration of more than 1 mm. Statistical analysis did not reveal preoperative patterns that would identify predictors for future migration. Our findings suggest that the use of screw fixation for cementless porous- coated acetabular components for primary THA does not prevent cup migration. PMID:21486725

  9. Lumbosacral fixation using sacroiliac buttress screws: a modification to the Jackson technique with intrasacral rods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of intrasacral rods has been previously reported for posterior lumbosacral fixation. However, problems associated with this technique include poor stability of the rod in the sacrum, difficulty in contouring the rod to fit the lateral sacral mass, and the complicated assembly procedure for the rod and pedicle screws in the thoracolumbar segments after insertion of the rod into the sacrum. Methods We used a screw with a polyaxial head instead of an intrasacral rod, which was inserted into the lateral sacral mass and assembled to the rod connected cephalad to pedicle screws. The dorsal side of the screw was stabilized by the sacral subchondral bone at the sacroiliac joint with iliac buttress coverage, and the tip of the screw was anchored by the sacral cortex. Results Three different cases were used to illustrate lumbosacral fixation using intrasacral screws as an anchor for the spinal instrumentation. Effective resistance of flexural bending moment and fusion were achieved in these patients at the lumbosacral level. Conclusions An intrasacral screw can be stabilized by subchondral bone with iliac buttress coverage at the dorsal and ventral sacral cortex. Posterior spinal fusion with this screw technique enables easier assembly of the instrumentation and presents better stabilization than that provided by the previously reported intrasacral rod technique for correction and fusion of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis. PMID:25050132

  10. Non-fusion stabilization of the lumbar spine in the case of degenerative diseases with a dynamic pedicle screw rod Estabilização dinâmica da coluna lombar no tratamento das doenças degenerativas ARTIGO ORIGINAL \\/ ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archibald von Strempel; Christoph Stoss; Dieter Moosmann; Arno Martin

    Objective: To compare the results of the posterior non-fusion stabilizations and fusion in the treatment of painful degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Methods: Cosmic is a dynamic non-fusion pedicle screw rod system for the stabilization of the lumbar vertebral column. The hinged pedicle screw provides for the load being shared between the implant and the vertebral column and allows

  11. Modified Muscle-Sparing Paraspinal Approach for Stabilization and Interlaminar Decompression: A Minimally Invasive Technique for Pedicle Screw-Based Posterior Nonfusion Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Eli M.; Bray, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Though Wiltse developed the paraspinal muscle-splitting approach to the spine, the exact location of where and how to split the paraspinal musculature when performing this approach remains unclear. This type of approach may be particularly useful for posterior nonfusion stabilization as significantly less damage occurs with this approach than with a muscle-stripping approach. Methods We use the term “modified muscle-sparing approach” to describe our technique for following the natural cleavage plane between the multifidus and longissimus muscles to access the spine. We review the rationale behind this methodology and describe technical aspects of this approach and also demonstrate the technique on video. Results We use this technique routinely for our posterior nonfusion pedicle screw stabilization approach. Conclusions The modified muscle-sparing approach is a useful approach for insertion of pedicle screw-based posterior nonfusion stabilization. The approach can be readily performed with little blood loss and with little muscle damage. Decompression can also be performed through the same incision if needed. PMID:25802600

  12. Developments of electrical joints for aluminum-stabilized superconducting cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Cure; I. Horvath

    1999-01-01

    Electrical joints for the aluminum-stabilized conductors of the LHC experiment magnets have been studied. Two techniques have been tested: electron beam welding and MIG welding. The joint resistance was measured as a function of the magnetic field on ring shaped samples using the MA.RI.S.A. test facility, wherein current is induced in the test conductor by a varying magnetic field. The

  13. Developments of electrical joints for aluminium stabilized superconducting tables

    E-print Network

    Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Horváth, I; Musenich, R; Prian, C

    1999-01-01

    Electrical joints for the aluminum stabilized conductors of the LHC experiment magnets have been studied. Two techniques have been tested: electron beam welding and MIG welding. The joint resistance was measured as a function of the magnetic field on ring shaped samples using the MA.RI.S.A. test facility: varying the magnet field, current is induced in the sample. The resistance is obtained by measuring either the voltage drop or the decay time. Calculation and FE simulation have been performed in order to separate the effect of both the copper-aluminum contact resistivity and the aluminum resistivity from the effect due to the joint technique ( joint configuration, resistivity of the filler material, increasing of aluminum resistivity in the welding zone). The copper-aluminum contact resistivity and the current transfer length were obtained by measurements of the joint resistance of butt welded samples

  14. Developments of electrical joints for aluminum-stabilized superconducting cables

    E-print Network

    Curé, B

    1999-01-01

    Electrical joints for the aluminum-stabilized conductors of the LHC experiment magnets have been studied. Two techniques have been tested: electron beam welding and MIG welding. The joint resistance was measured as a function of the magnetic field on ring shaped samples using the MA.RI.S.A. test facility, wherein current is induced in the test conductor by a varying magnetic field. The resistance is obtained by measuring either the voltage drop or the decay time. Calculation and finite-element simulation have been performed in order to separate the effect of both the copper-aluminum contact resistivity and the aluminum resistivity from the effect due to the joint technique (joint configuration, resistivity of the filler material, increasing of aluminum resistivity in the welding zone). The copper-aluminum contact resistivity and the current transfer length were obtained by measurements of the joint resistance of butt welded samples. (2 refs).

  15. Biomechanical function of surgical procedures for acromioclavicular joint dislocations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Jari; Ryan S. Costic; Mark W. Rodosky; Richard E. Debski

    2004-01-01

    PurposeSurgical procedures for treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation replace the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments to minimize motion, allow scarring, and increase the subsequent stability of the joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical function of the surgically repaired or reconstructed (CC Sling, Rockwood Screw [DePuy Orthopaedics, Warsaw, IN], and Coracoacromial [CA] Ligament Transfer Construct) AC joint

  16. [Current status of implant-abutment--part 1: abutments for cemented versus screw retained restorations].

    PubMed

    Harel, N; Livne, S; Piek, D; Marku-Cohen, S; Ormianer, Z

    2012-01-01

    Fixed implant supported single crowns and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) have become an accepted treatment option for replacing and restoring missing teeth. Recent systematic reviews summarized excellent 5- and 10-year survival rates for both reconstruction types. In screw-retained restorations, the fastening screw provides a solid joint between the restoration and the implant abutment or between the restoration and the implant itself. With cement-retained prostheses, this restorative screw is eliminated for many reasons: esthetics, occlusal stability, and fabrication of passively fitting restorations. The purpose of this article is to review the variety of implant-abutments available for fabrication of fixed implant-supported restoration and compare between the various abutment forms (screw vs. cement retained). PMID:22991873

  17. Human-Humanoid Joint Haptic Table Carrying Task with Height Stabilization using Vision

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Human-Humanoid Joint Haptic Table Carrying Task with Height Stabilization using Vision Don Joven, a first step is taken towards using vision in human-humanoid haptic joint actions. Haptic joint actions robot. We then demonstrate all this by an experiment where a human and the HRP-2 humanoid jointly

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of an interfacet joint decompression and stabilization system.

    PubMed

    Leasure, Jeremi M; Buckley, Jenni

    2014-07-01

    A majority of the middle-aged population exhibit cervical spondylosis that may require decompression and fusion of the affected level. Minimally invasive cervical fusion is an attractive option for decreasing operative time, morbidity, and mortality rates. A novel interfacet joint spacer (DTRAX facet screw system, Providence Medical) promises minimally invasive deployment resulting in decompression of the neuroforamen and interfacet fusion. The present study investigates the effectiveness of the device in minimizing intervertebral motion to promote fusion, decompression of the nerve root during bending activity, and performance of the implant to adhere to anatomy during repeated bending loads. We observed flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation resonant overshoot mode (ROM) in cadaver models of c-spine treated with the interfacet joint spacer (FJ spacer) as stand-alone and supplementing anterior plating. The FJ spacer was deployed bilaterally at single levels. Specimens were placed at the limit of ROM in flexion, extension, axial bending, and lateral bending. 3D images of the foramen were taken and postprocessed to quantify changes in foraminal area. Stand-alone spacer specimens were subjected to 30,000 cycles at 2 Hz of nonsimultaneous flexion-extension and lateral bending under compressive load and X-ray imaged at regular cycle intervals for quantitative measurements of device loosening. The stand-alone FJ spacer increased specimen stiffness in all directions except extension. 86% of all deployments resulted in some level of foraminal distraction. The rate of effective distraction was maintained in flexed, extended, and axially rotated postures. Two specimens demonstrated no detectable implant loosening (<0.25 mm). Three showed unilateral subclinical loosening (0.4 mm maximum), and one had subclinical loosening bilaterally (0.5 mm maximum). Results of our study are comparable to previous investigations into the stiffness of other stand-alone minimally invasive technologies. The FJ spacer system effectively increased stiffness of the affected level comparable to predicate systems. Results of this study indicate the FJ spacer increases foraminal area in the cervical spine, and decompression is maintained during bending activities. Clinical studies will be necessary to determine whether the magnitude of decompression observed in this cadaveric study will effectively treat cervical radiculopathy; however, results of this study, taken in context of successful decompression treatments in the lumbar spine, are promising for the continued development of this product. Results of this biomechanical study are encouraging for the continued investigation of this device in animal and clinical trials, as they suggest the device is well fixated and mechanically competent. PMID:24389961

  19. Joint Characteristics of YBCO Coated Conductor by Removing a Metallic Stabilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki Sung Chang; Hyounkyu Kim; Dong Keun Park; Tae Kuk Ko; Min Cheol Ahn; Don-Hyung Ha; Jung-Bin Song; Sang Jin Lee; Ho Min Kim; Haigun Lee

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development status of joint method between the superconducting YBCO coated conductors (YBCO CC). In general, the YBCO-CC tape consists of an upper stabilizer, substrate, buffer, YBCO and a bottom stabilizer. It is suggested that the stabilizer between the two YBCO-CC tapes need to be removed, in order to improve the characteristics of the joints. The removing

  20. Influence of abutment materials on the implant-abutment joint stability in internal conical connection type implant systems

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jae-Young; Yang, Dong-Seok; Huh, Jung-Bo; Heo, Jae-Chan; Yun, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the influence of abutment materials on the stability of the implant-abutment joint in internal conical connection type implant systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS Internal conical connection type implants, cement-retained abutments, and tungsten carbide-coated abutment screws were used. The abutments were fabricated with commercially pure grade 3 titanium (group T3), commercially pure grade 4 titanium (group T4), or Ti-6Al-4V (group TA) (n=5, each). In order to assess the amount of settlement after abutment fixation, a 30-Ncm tightening torque was applied, then the change in length before and after tightening the abutment screw was measured, and the preload exerted was recorded. The compressive bending strength was measured under the ISO14801 conditions. In order to determine whether there were significant changes in settlement, preload, and compressive bending strength before and after abutment fixation depending on abutment materials, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post-hoc test was performed. RESULTS Group TA exhibited the smallest mean change in the combined length of the implant and abutment before and after fixation, and no difference was observed between groups T3 and T4 (P>.05). Group TA exhibited the highest preload and compressive bending strength values, followed by T4, then T3 (P<.001). CONCLUSION The abutment material can influence the stability of the interface in internal conical connection type implant systems. The strength of the abutment material was inversely correlated with settlement, and positively correlated with compressive bending strength. Preload was inversely proportional to the frictional coefficient of the abutment material. PMID:25551010

  1. A Novel Pedicle Screw with Mobile Connection: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Masashi; Ajiro, Yasumitsu; Uei, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    To prevent adjacent disc problems after spinal fusion, a pedicle screw with a mobile junction between the head and threaded shaft was newly developed. The threaded shaft of the screw has 10 degrees mobility in all directions, but its structure is to prevent abnormal translation and tilting. This screw was evaluated as follows: (1) endurance test: 106 times rotational stress was applied; (2) biological reactions: novel screws with a mobile head and conventional screws with a fixed head were inserted into the bilateral pedicles of the L3, L4, and L5 in two mini pigs with combination. Eight months after surgery, vertebral units with the screw rod constructs were collected. After CT scan, the soft and bony tissues around the screws were examined grossly and histologically. As a result, none of the screws broke during the endurance test stressing. The mean amount of abrasion wear was 0.0338?g. In the resected mini pig section, though zygapophyseal joints between fixed-head screws showed bony union, the amount of callus in the zygapophyseal joints connected with mobile-head screws was small, and joint space was confirmed by CT. No metalloses were noted around any of the screws. Novel screws were suggested to be highly durable and histologically safe. PMID:24724103

  2. Preventing proximal junctional failure in long segmental instrumented cases of adult degenerative scoliosis using a multilevel stabilization screw technique

    PubMed Central

    Sandquist, Lee; Carr, Daniel; Tong, Doris; Gonda, Roger; Soo, Teck M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The authors sought to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the multilevel stabilization screw (MLSS) technique in decreasing the incidence of proximal junctional failure in long segmental instrumented fusions for adult degenerative scoliosis. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients with adult spinal deformity who underwent the MLSS technique were analyzed. A neuro-radiologist and spine-focused neurosurgeon not involved with the surgical treatment performed radiographic analysis. Proximal junctional angle was defined as the caudal endplate of the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) to the cephalad endplate of two supradjacent vertebrae above the UIV. The UIV is defined as the most cephalad vertebra completed captured by the instrumentation. Abnormal proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) was defined as proximal junctional sagittal Cobb angle >10 degrees and proximal junction sagittal Cobb angle at least 10 degrees greater than the preoperative measurement. The presence of both is criteria necessary to be considered abnormal. Results: Twenty patients with degenerative scoliosis underwent the MLSS technique with the upper-instrumented vertebrae in the proximal thoracic spine. Fifteen patients met inclusion criteria with greater than 12 months radiographic and clinical follow up. Three patients were excluded due to lack of follow up imaging and two patients were excluded due to the inability to measure the UIV. Age range was 44–84 years with a mean of 66. Eleven of the 15 patients were over the age of 60 at the time of surgery. The male-to-female ratio was 4:11. Body mass index (BMI) range was 24–44 with a mean of 31.5 units. The follow up period ranged from 14 to 58 months with an average follow up of 30 months. The mean change in Cobb angle at the proximal junction was 4.00 degrees with a range from -0.92 to 9.13 degrees. There were no fractures or instrumentation failures at or near the proximal junction. There was no revision surgeries performed for proximal junctional failure. Retrospective clinical questionnaires revealed that surgical expectations were met in 15 of 19 patients surveyed, 79%. One patient was not reachable for a postoperative phone interview. In patients who were not satisfied with their overall experience, the change in Cobb angle ranged from -0.92 to 9.13 degrees with an average change of 3.90 degrees. Whereas patients reporting an overall positive experience had a change in Cobb angle range from -0.12 to 8.07 degrees with an average change of 4.05 degrees. Conclusion: PJK and failure are well-recognized suboptimal outcomes of long-segmental fusions of the thoracolumbar spine that can lead to significant neurological morbidity and costly revision surgeries. With no known proximal junction failures to date, the MLSS technique has shown promising results in preventing adverse proximal junctional conditions and can be safely performed under fluoroscopy guidance. Future direction includes a comparative study establishing the relative risk of developing PJK with this novel technique versus a traditional long-segmental thoracolumbar fusion.

  3. Improved screw theory using second order terms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Takamatsu; H. Kimura; Katsushi Ikeuchi

    2002-01-01

    The local displacement of an object is very useful for deciding grasp stability, generating trajectories, recognizing assembly tasks, and so on. To calculate this displacement, the screw theory is employed. It is equivalent to the first order Taylor expansion of the displacement. The screw theory is very convenient, because the displacement is formulated as simultaneous linear inequalities, and a powerful

  4. Characterization of the torque limits and clamping force relationships for small stainless steel screws in tensile loaded joints of various metals

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flores, Eugene M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This study originated during the design of ChemCam, a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and imaging instrument being developed for NASA's Mars Science Lab Rover. The mission needs for miniaturization, reduced weight, high reliability, minimal use of thread locking compounds, and the ability to handle harsh environmental conditions dictated the use of small, high strength screws to be threaded into a variety of metal alloys including Be-S200f, Al-6061-T6, Mg-ZK60A-T5, and Ti-6Al-4V The lack of a credible fastener torque database for small (No.0 through No.8) high strength stainless steel screws in various parent materials, led to the development of an experimental program to characterize the following: (A) The screw torque value versus angular rotation (which indicates yielding in the screw or parent material) as a function of screw diameter, screw head configuration, depth of thread engagement, type of parent material, type of surface treatment on parent material, presence of thread locking compound, repeatable threaded hole use, and degree of screw pedigree. (B) The relationship between fastener torque and clamping force for a subset of the above mentioned variables. The database generated from this study will serve as a design reference for utilizing small stainless steel fasteners and provide trending information for other researchers who may be interested in broadening its range of parameters. This paper reviews the related fastener torque and clamping force information from the literature, describes the experimental screw torque and clamping force monitoring equipment, presents the test matrix and experimental procedures, and discusses the empirical results.

  5. Local Dynamic Joint Stability During Human Treadmill Walking in Response to Lower Limb Segmental Loading Perturbations.

    PubMed

    Beaudette, Shawn M; Worden, Timothy A; Kamphuis, Megan; Ann Vallis, Lori; Brown, Stephen H M

    2015-09-01

    Our purpose was to quantify changes in local dynamic stability (LDS) of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle in response to changes in lower limb segment mass, as well as to quantify temporal adaptations to segment loading during treadmill walking. Results demonstrate that increased mass distal to a joint yields either the maintenance of, or increased stabilization of, that particular joint relative to the unloaded condition. Increased mass proximal to a particular joint resulted in joint destabilization. The hip and ankle LDS were observed to change temporally, independent of segment loading condition, suggesting adaptation to walking on a treadmill interface. PMID:26121663

  6. Biomechanical analysis of expansion screws and cortical screws used for ventral plate fixation on the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Bernhard; Huber, Gerd; Morlock, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Compared to bicortical screws, the surgical risk of injuring intraspinal structures can be minimized with the use of monocortical screws. However, this reduction should not be achieved at the expense of the stability of the fixation. With monocortical stabilization, the expansion screws have the potential of absorbing high loads. Therefore, they are expected to be a suitable alternative to bicortical screws for revision surgeries and in osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the stiffness of the two screw-plate systems used for ventral stabilization of the cervical spine, by focusing on the suitability of expansion screws as tools for revision treatments. The study was conducted in ten functional units of human cervical spines. The device sample stiffness was determined for four conditions using a turning moment of 2.25 N m each around one of the three principle axes. The conditions were native, destabilized, primarily stabilized with one of the screw-plate systems, followed by secondary stabilization using the expansion screw implant. The stabilized samples achieved a comparable, in most cases higher stiffness than the native samples. The samples undergoing secondary stabilization using expansion screws tend to display greater stiffness for all three axes compared to the primarily stabilized samples. The achieved tightening moment of the screws was higher than the one achieved with primary fixation. Both plates revealed similar primary stability. Revision surgeries with secondary instrumentation achieve a high stiffness of the screwed up segments. Monocortical expansion screws combined with a trapezoidal plate allow ventral stabilization of the cervical spine that is comparable to the plate fixation using bicortical screws. PMID:19588171

  7. Stability analysis of jointed rock slopes reinforced by passive, fully grouted bolts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larbi Siad

    2001-01-01

    A stability analysis of reinforced jointed rock slope based on the kinematic approach of the yield design theory using two translational failure mechanisms is performed for evaluating passive fully grouted rock bolts. In the present study, the rock slope is weakened by two sets of continuous joints and reinforced by rock bolts resisting to traction as well as to compression

  8. Characterization of the torque limits and clamping force relationships for small stainless steel screws in tensile loaded joints of various metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D Bernardin; Eugene M Flores

    2009-01-01

    This study originated during the design of ChemCam, a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and imaging instrument being developed for NASA's Mars Science Lab Rover. The mission needs for miniaturization, reduced weight, high reliability, minimal use of thread locking compounds, and the ability to handle harsh environmental conditions dictated the use of small, high strength screws to be threaded into

  9. Effect of the application of local vibration in scaption on joint stability

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da-eun; Moon, Dong-chul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the initial effect of local vibration on the stability of the shoulder joints by applying local vibration to the shoulder joints. [Subjects and Methods] For the test, the subjects held a FlexBar with one hand, at about 10?cm from one end, and performed the oscillation movement with the shoulder at 90° flexion and the elbow in the full-extension position in scaption; the vibration stimulus was set to 5?Hz. Then, the subjects underwent the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test to evaluate the stability of the shoulder joints. [Results] The moving distances in the left, right, and upper directions after the oscillation movement were increased significantly compared with the results before the oscillation movement. [Conclusion] A vibration stimulus is effective as an exercise method to increase the stability of the shoulder joints. PMID:25642051

  10. Articular and ligamentous contributions to the stability of the elbow joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard F. Morrey; Kai-Nan An

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary study of four elbow specimens inves tigates the relationship of articular geometry and liga mentous structures in providing stability to the elbow joint. A technique is presented that describes the con straining features of varus-valgus and distraction in extension and at 90° of elbow flexion. Valgus stability is equally divided among the medial collateral ligament, anterior capsule, and

  11. Internal Reduction Established by Occiput-C2 Pedicle Polyaxial Screw Stabilization in Pediatric Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deniz Belen; Serkan Simsek; Kazim Yigitkanli; Murad Bavbek

    2006-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation is an uncommon disorder of childhood, which can be treated conservatively whendiagnosed early. Although spontaneous correction occasionally occurs, most of the patients usually benefit from collar or traction therapies. If there is no intervention or if all external therapeutic modalities fail, the deformity may become chronic and irreducible. In such rare cases, surgical correction and stabilization are

  12. Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain. PMID:25642098

  13. Stability enhancement by joint phase measurements in a single cold atomic fountain

    E-print Network

    Meunier, M; Geiger, R; Guerlin, C; Alzar, C L Garrido; Landragin, A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of joint interrogation in a single atom interferometer which overcomes the dead time between consecutive measurements in standard cold atomic fountains. The joint operation enables for a faster averaging of the Dick effect associated with the local oscillator noise in clocks and with vibration noise in cold atom inertial sensors. Such an operation allows achieving the lowest stability limit due to atom shot noise. We demonstrate a multiple joint operation in which up to five clouds of atoms are interrogated simultaneously in a single setup. The essential feature of multiple joint operation, demonstrated here for a micro-wave Ramsey interrogation, can be generalized to go beyond the current stability limit associated with dead times in present-day cold atom interferometer inertial sensors.

  14. Stability enhancement by joint phase measurements in a single cold atomic fountain

    E-print Network

    M. Meunier; I. Dutta; R. Geiger; C. Guerlin; C. L. Garrido Alzar; A. Landragin

    2015-01-08

    We propose a method of joint interrogation in a single atom interferometer which overcomes the dead time between consecutive measurements in standard cold atomic fountains. The joint operation enables for a faster averaging of the Dick effect associated with the local oscillator noise in clocks and with vibration noise in cold atom inertial sensors. Such an operation allows achieving the lowest stability limit due to atom shot noise. We demonstrate a multiple joint operation in which up to five clouds of atoms are interrogated simultaneously in a single setup. The essential feature of multiple joint operation, demonstrated here for a micro-wave Ramsey interrogation, can be generalized to go beyond the current stability limit associated with dead times in present-day cold atom interferometer inertial sensors.

  15. Stability enhancement by joint phase measurements in a single cold atomic fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, M.; Dutta, I.; Geiger, R.; Guerlin, C.; Garrido Alzar, C. L.; Landragin, A.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a method of joint interrogation in a single atom interferometer which overcomes the dead time between consecutive measurements in standard cold atomic fountains. The joint operation enables for a faster averaging of the Dick effect associated with the local oscillator noise in clocks and with vibration noise in cold atom inertial sensors. Such an operation allows one to achieve the lowest stability limit due to atom shot noise. We demonstrate a multiple joint operation in which up to five clouds of atoms are interrogated simultaneously in a single setup. The essential feature of multiple joint operation, demonstrated here for a microwave Ramsey interrogation, can be generalized to go beyond the current stability limit associated with dead times in present-day cold atom interferometer inertial sensors.

  16. Nonrigid Stabilization of the Spine - Problems Observed: Screw Loosening\\/Breakage\\/Implant Failure\\/Adjacent Segment Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Heini

    \\u000a Stabilization of a lumbar motion segment without fusion appears to be an appealing treatment option with a twofold objective:\\u000a first, limit the surgical intervention by avoiding bone harvesting and bone grafting; and second, prevent adjacent level degeneration.\\u000a Although several implants are on the market and claim to be dynamic, there remain important limitations as the technical failure\\u000a rate remains high,

  17. Pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilization of the thoracolumbar spine with the Cosmic®-system: a prospective observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Stoffel; Michael Behr; Andreas Reinke; Carsten Stüer; Florian Ringel; Bernhard Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Object  The objective of the study was to generate prospective data to assess the clinical results after dynamic stabilization with\\u000a the Cosmic® system (Ulrich Medical).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Between April 2006 and December 2007, 103 consecutive patients were treated with Cosmic® for painful degenerative segmental\\u000a instability ± spinal stenosis. The preoperative workup included radiological (MRI and myelography\\/CT) and clinical parameters\\u000a (general\\/neurological examination,

  18. Numerical Synthesis of Overconstrained Mechanisms Based on Screw Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Bartkowiak; Christoph Woernle

    \\u000a An approach for the synthesis of overconstrained single-loop mechanisms with helical joints using screw theory is presented.\\u000a By expressing higher-order derivatives of the screw axes with respect to the joint coordinates a local approximation of the\\u000a closure conditions is obtained. The approximation is used to define conditions for the finite mobility of overconstrained\\u000a mechanisms.

  19. Design of Limb for Parallel Mechanism Based on Screw Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Lai; Lixin Li; Ping' an Liu

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Based on the reciprocal relationship of twist and wrench in screw theory, the mathematical model for limb of parallel manipulator\\u000a is established in this paper. According to the motion modes of mobile platform (translation or rotation), we concluded the\\u000a geometric conditions which the prismatic joint or revolute joint must meet with by analyzing the constraint screw on the platform,\\u000a which

  20. Reduced knee joint moment in ACL deficient patients at a cost of dynamic stability during landing.

    PubMed

    Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Höher, Jürgen; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2012-05-11

    The current study aimed to examine the effect of anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLd) on joint kinetics and dynamic stability control after a single leg hop test (SLHT). Twelve unilateral ACLd patients and a control subject group (n=13) performed a SLHT over a given distance with both legs. The calculation of joint kinetics was done by means of a soft-tissue artifact optimized rigid full-body model. Margin of stability (MoS) was quantified by the difference between the base of support and the extrapolated center of mass. During landing, the ACLd leg showed lower external knee flexion moments but demonstrated higher moments at the ankle and hip compared to controls (p<0.05). The main reason for the joint moment redistribution in the ACLd leg was a more anterior position of the ground reaction force (GRF) vector, which affected the moment arms of the GRF acting about the joints (p<0.05). For the ACLd leg, trunk angle was more flexed over the entire landing phase compared to controls (p<0.05) and we found a significant correlation between moment arms at the knee joint and trunk angle (r² = 0.48;p<0.01). The consequence of this altered landing strategy in ACLd legs was a more anterior position of the center of mass reducing the MoS (p<0.05). The results illustrate the interaction between trunk angle, joint kinetics and dynamic stability during landing maneuvers and provide evidence of a feedforward adaptive adjustment in ACLd patients (i.e. more flexed trunk angle) aimed at reducing knee joint moments at the cost of dynamic stability control. PMID:22440611

  1. The synergistic action of the anterior cruciate ligament and thigh muscles in maintaining joint stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Solomonow; R. Baratta; B. H. Zhou; H. Shoji; W. Bose; C. Beck; R. DAmbrosia

    1987-01-01

    The synergistic action of the ACL and the thigh muscles in maintaining joint stability was studied experimentally. The EMG from the quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups was recorded and analyzed in three separate experimental procedures in which the knee was stressed. The test revealed that direct stress of the ACL has a moderate inhibitory effect on the quadriceps, but simultaneously

  2. Muscle contribution to elbow joint valgus stability Fang Lin, DSc,a,b,c

    E-print Network

    Makhsous, Mohsen

    Muscle contribution to elbow joint valgus stability Fang Lin, DSc,a,b,c Navjot Kohli, MD,d Sam Repetitive valgus stress of the elbow can result in excessive strain or rupture of the native medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL). The flexor-pronator mass (FPM) may be particularly important for elbow valgus

  3. Stability of a Jointed FREE FREE Beam Under End Rocket Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, K. A.; Sugiyama, Y.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability of a flexible space structure subjected to an end rocket thrust. The thrust acts upon the structure as a follower non-conservative force, thus the structure can lose its stability by flutter or divergence depending on the system parameters. It is assumed that the articulated free-free beams are subjected to a tangential follower force. The model consists of two viscoelastic beams interconnected by two kinds of joints. One of the joints is composed of a rotational viscoelastic spring while another is a shear viscoelastic spring. A FEM formulation of the articulated structure is performed. Bending flutter or post-flutter divergence are shown to occur depending on the joint rigidity and the internal damping.

  4. Simple coating with fibronectin fragment enhances stainless steel screw osseointegration in healthy and osteoporotic rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rachit; González-García, Cristina; Torstrick, Brennan; Guldberg, Robert E; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel; García, Andrés J

    2015-09-01

    Metal implants are widely used to provide structural support and stability in current surgical treatments for bone fractures, spinal fusions, and joint arthroplasties as well as craniofacial and dental applications. Early implant-bone mechanical fixation is an important requirement for the successful performance of such implants. However, adequate osseointegration has been difficult to achieve especially in challenging disease states like osteoporosis due to reduced bone mass and strength. Here, we present a simple coating strategy based on passive adsorption of FN7-10, a recombinant fragment of human fibronectin encompassing the major cell adhesive, integrin-binding site, onto 316-grade stainless steel (SS). FN7-10 coating on SS surfaces promoted ?5?1 integrin-dependent adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. FN7-10-coated SS screws increased bone-implant mechanical fixation compared to uncoated screws by 30% and 45% at 1 and 3 months, respectively, in healthy rats. Importantly, FN7-10 coating significantly enhanced bone-screw fixation by 57% and 32% at 1 and 3 months, respectively, and bone-implant ingrowth by 30% at 3 months compared to uncoated screws in osteoporotic rats. These coatings are easy to apply intra-operatively, even to implants with complex geometries and structures, facilitating the potential for rapid translation to clinical settings. PMID:26100343

  5. Screw-matrix method in dynamics of multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanzhu, Liu

    1988-05-01

    In the present paper the concept of screw in classical mechanics is expressed in matrix form, in order to formulate the dynamical equations of the multibody systems. The mentioned method can retain the advantages of the screw theory and avoid the shortcomings of the dual number notation. Combining the screw-matrix method with the tool of graph theory in Roberson/Wittenberg formalism. We can expand the application of the screw theory to the general case of multibody systems. For a tree system, the dynamical equations for each j-th subsystem, composed of all the outboard bodies connected by j-th joint can be formulated without the constraint reaction forces in the joints. For a nontree system, the dynamical equations of subsystems and the kinematical consistency conditions of the joints can be derived using the loop matrix. The whole process of calculation is unified in matrix form. A three-segment manipulator is discussed as an example.

  6. Strategy for salvage pedicle screw placement: A technical note

    PubMed Central

    Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Neo, Masashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Salvage surgery for failed lumbar spine fusion with a loosened pedicle screw is challenging. In general, the strategy includes replacement with larger and longer pedicle screws, augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate cement or hydroxyapatite granules, and extension of fused segments. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new technique for pedicle screw replacement after failed lumbar spine fusion. Methods Five salvage operations were performed using a different trajectory (DT) pedicle screw replacement technique based on 3-dimensional radiological information. Position of the alternative pedicle screws was planned carefully on the computer screen of a computed tomography-based navigation system before the operation. To obtain sufficient initial stability, 1 of 2 techniques was chosen, depending on the patient. One technique created a completely new route, which did not interfere with the existing screw hole, and the other involved penetration of the existing screw hole. Results DT pedicle screws were replaced successfully according to the preoperative plan. In all patients, bony union were achieved at the final follow-up period without any instrument failure. Extension of the fused segments could be avoided by using the DT pedicle screw replacement technique combined with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Conclusions The DT pedicle screw replacement technique is a treatment option for salvage lumbar spine surgery. Clinical relevance The current technique is a treatment option for salvage operations that can both avoid extension of a fused segment and achieve successful bony union. PMID:25694906

  7. Hamstring tendon fixation using interference screws: a biomechanical study in calf tibial bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Weiler; RF Hoffmann; AC Stähelin; HJ Bail; CJ Siepe; NP Südkamp

    1998-01-01

    It has recently been shown that graft fixation close to the ACL insertion site is optimal in order to increase anterior knee stability. Hamstring tendon fixation using interference screws offers this possibility and a round threaded titanium interference screw has been previously developed. The use of a round threaded biodegradable interference screw may be equivalent. In addition, to increase initial

  8. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization: how to do it

    PubMed Central

    Sonderegger, Juerg; Grob, Karl R.; Kuster, Markus S.

    2010-01-01

    Plate osteosynthesis is one treatment option for the stabilization of long bones. It is widely accepted to achieve bone healing with a dynamic and biological fixation where the perfusion of the bone is left intact and micromotion at the fracture gap is allowed. The indications for a dynamic plate osteosynthesis include distal tibial and femoral fractures, some midshaft fractures, and adolescent tibial and femoral fractures with not fully closed growth plates. Although many lower limb shaft fractures are managed successfully with intramedullary nails, there are some important advantages of open-reduction-and-plate fixation: the risk of malalignment, anterior knee pain, or nonunion seems to be lower. The surgeon performing a plate osteosynthesis has the possibility to influence fixation strength and micromotion at the fracture gap. Long plates and oblique screws at the plate ends increase fixation strength. However, the number of screws does influence stiffness and stability. Lag screws and screws close to the fracture site reduce micromotion dramatically. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis can be achieved by applying some simple rules: long plates with only a few screws should be used. Oblique screws at the plate ends increase the pullout strength. Two or three holes at the fracture site should be omitted. Lag screws, especially through the plate, must be avoided whenever possible. Compression is not required. Locking plates are recommended only in fractures close to the joint. When respecting these basic concepts, dynamic plate osteosynthesis is a safe procedure with a high healing and a low complication rate. PMID:21808699

  9. All arthroscopic stabilization of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation with fiberwire and endobutton system

    PubMed Central

    Spoliti, Marco; De Cupis, Mauro; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction: acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation is common in athletes and in contact sports and about 9% of shoulder injuries involves this joint. The majority of these AC lesions can be successfully treated conservatively but high grade dislocation and some cases of type III dislocation need a surgical treatment. Many different operative techniques have been described over the years. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of arthroscopic stabilization of AC joint dislocation with TightRope® system. Materials and methods: nineteen patients with acute AC dislocation were treated by arthroscopic fixation with TightRope® system. Any associated lesions were repaired. All patients were assessed before surgery (T0), at 3 months (T1), at 6 months (T2) and at 1 year after the surgery (T3) using a visual analogic scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley Score (CMS). All patients were evaluated with X-ray. Results: six AC-joint dislocations involved the right shoulder and thirteen the left shoulder. Ten were type III dislocation, three were type IV and six were type V dislocation. We found a statistically significant reduction of pain (p< 0.01) at T1 compared to the pretreatment scores. The CMS measures showed an improvement between T1, T2 and T3, but the difference was statistically significant only between T1 and T3 (p= 0.017). The postoperative X-Ray of the shoulder showed a good reduction of the AC joint dislocation. We had 1 case of recurrence and 2 cases of loss of intraoperative reduction. Conclusion: arthroscopic technique for acute AC joint dislocations with the use of the TightRope® device is minimally invasive and it allows an anatomic restoration of the joint. It is a safe and effective procedure ensuring stable AC joint reconstruction and good cosmetic results. PMID:25767774

  10. Muscle Co-Contraction Modulates Damping and Joint Stability in a Three-Link Biomechanical Limb

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Stewart; Ferns, Norm; Breakspear, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Computational models of neuromotor control require forward models of limb movement that can replicate the natural relationships between muscle activation and joint dynamics without the burdens of excessive anatomical detail. We present a model of a three-link biomechanical limb that emphasizes the dynamics of limb movement within a simplified two-dimensional framework. Muscle co-contraction effects were incorporated into the model by flanking each joint with a pair of antagonist muscles that may be activated independently. Muscle co-contraction is known to alter the damping and stiffness of limb joints without altering net joint torque. Idealized muscle actuators were implemented using the Voigt muscle model which incorporates the parallel elasticity of muscle and tendon but omits series elasticity. The natural force-length-velocity relationships of contractile muscle tissue were incorporated into the actuators using ideal mathematical forms. Numerical stability analysis confirmed that co-contraction of these simplified actuators increased damping in the biomechanical limb consistent with observations of human motor control. Dynamic changes in joint stiffness were excluded by the omission of series elasticity. The analysis also revealed the unexpected finding that distinct stable (bistable) equilibrium positions can co-exist under identical levels of muscle co-contraction. We map the conditions under which bistability arises and prove analytically that monostability (equifinality) is guaranteed when the antagonist muscles are identical. Lastly we verify these analytic findings in the full biomechanical limb model. PMID:22275897

  11. Biomechanical and Histological Evaluation of Roughened Surface Titanium Screws Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Cai, Hong; Lv, Jia; Zhang, Ke; Leng, Huijie; Wang, Zhiguo; Liu, Zhongjun

    2014-01-01

    Background Various fabrication methods are used to improve the stability and osseointegration of screws within the host bone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether roughened surface titanium screws fabricated by electron beam melting can provide better stability and osseointegration as compared with smooth titanium screws in sheep cervical vertebrae. Methods Roughened surface titanium screws, fabricated by electron beam melting, and conventional smooth surface titanium screws were implanted into sheep for 6 or 12 weeks (groups A and B, respectively). Bone ingrowth and implant stability were assessed with three-dimensional imaging and reconstruction, as well as histological and biomechanical tests. Results No screws in either group showed signs of loosening. Fibrous tissue formation could be seen around the screws at 6 weeks, which was replaced with bone at 12 weeks. Bone volume/total volume, bone surface area/bone volume, and the trabecular number were significantly higher for a define region of interest surrounding the roughened screws than that surrounding the smooth screws at 12 weeks. Indeed, for roughened screws, trabecular number was significantly higher at 12 weeks than at 6 weeks. On mechanical testing, the maximum pullout strength was significantly higher at 12 weeks than at 6 weeks, as expected; however, no significant differences were found between smooth and roughened screws at either time point. The maximum torque to extract the roughened screws was higher than that required for the smooth screws. Conclusions Electron beam melting is a simple and effective method for producing a roughened surface on titanium screws. After 12 weeks, roughened titanium screws demonstrated a high degree of osseointegration and increased torsional resistance to extraction over smooth titanium screws. PMID:24788866

  12. Analysis of the Stress and Displacement Distribution of Inferior Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Injuries Repaired with Screw Fixation: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinghua; Zhang, Kun; Zhuang, Yan; Li, Zhong; Yu, Bin; Pei, Guoxian

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of syndesmosis injuries have concentrated on cadaver models. However, they are unable to obtain exact data regarding the stress and displacement distribution of various tissues, and it is difficult to compare models. We investigated the biomechanical effects of inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries (ITSIs) and screw fixation on the ankle using the finite element (FE) method. Methodology/Principal Findings A three-dimensional model of a healthy ankle complex was developed using computed tomography (CT) images. We established models of an ITSI and of screw fixation at the plane 2.5 cm above and parallel to the tibiotalar joint surface of the injured syndesmosis. Simulated loads were applied under three conditions: neutral position with single-foot standing and internal and external rotation of the ankle. ITSI reduced contact forces between the talus and fibula, helped periarticular ankle ligaments withstand more load-resisting movement, and increased the magnitude of displacement at the lower extreme of the tibia and fibula. ITSI fixation with a syndesmotic screw reduced contact forces in all joints, decreased the magnitude of displacement at the lower extreme of the tibia and fibula, and increased crural interosseous membrane stress. Conclusions/significance Severe syndesmosis injuries cause stress and displacement distribution of the ankle to change multidirectional ankle instability and should be treated by internal fixation. Though the transverse syndesmotic screw effectively stabilizes syndesmotic diastasis, it also changes stress distribution around the ankle and decreases the joint's range of motion (ROM). Therefore, fixation should not be performed for a long period of time because it is not physiologically suitable for the ankle joint. PMID:24312464

  13. JOINT UNITED STATES/IAEA PROPOSED APPROACH FOR SAFEGUARDS DURING PLUTONIUM STABILIZATION, PACKAGING, AND SHIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L. KWEI; B. SMITH; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    For safety reasons, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing to stabilize and package plutonium oxide currently subject to International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) beginning in the year 2001. The Hanford Site will also stabilize and package plutonium materials under IAEA safeguards. The U.S. and the IAEA began consultations in late 1996 to develop an approach to the application of safeguards during stabilization and packaging. With the plans to ship RFETS plutonium to Savannah River for interim storage prior to final disposition, this work has been extended to include safeguards during shipment. This paper will discuss the elements of a joint U.S./IAEA proposal for this task.

  14. Maxillary sinus perforation by orthodontic anchor screws.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Sanuki-Suzuki, Rina; Uchida, Yasuki; Saiki, Akari; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate safe placement of orthodontic anchor screws (miniscrews), we investigated the frequency of maxillary sinus perforation after screw placement and the effect of sinus perforation on screw stability. Maxillary sinus perforations involving 82 miniscrews (diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8 mm) were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. All miniscrews were placed in maxillary alveolar bone between the second premolar and first molar for anchorage for anterior retraction in patients undergoing first premolar extraction. The placement torque and screw mobility of each implant were determined using a torque tester and a Periotest device, and variability in these values in relation to sinus perforation was evaluated. Eight of the 82 miniscrews perforated the maxillary sinus. There was no case of sinusitis in patients with miniscrew perforation and no significant difference in screw mobility or placement torque between perforating and non-perforating miniscrews. The sinus floor was significantly thinner in perforated cases than in non-perforated cases. A sinus floor thickness of 6.0 mm or more is recommended in order to avoid miniscrew perforation of the maxillary sinus. (J Oral Sci 57, 95-100, 2015). PMID:26062857

  15. Running stability is enhanced by a proximo-distal gradient in joint neuromechanical control

    PubMed Central

    Daley, M. A.; Felix, G.; Biewener, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We currently know little about how animals achieve dynamic stability when running over uneven and unpredictable terrain, often characteristic of their natural environment. Here we investigate how limb and joint mechanics of an avian biped, the helmeted guinea fowl Numida meleagris, respond to an unexpected drop in terrain during running. In particular, we address how joint mechanics are coordinated to achieve whole limb dynamics. Based on muscle–tendon architecture and previous studies of steady and incline locomotion, we hypothesize a proximo-distal gradient in joint neuromechanical control. In this motor control strategy, (1) proximal muscles at the hip and knee joints are controlled primarily in a feedforward manner and exhibit load-insensitive mechanical performance, and (2) distal muscles at the ankle and tarsometatarso-phalangeal (TMP) joints are highly load-sensitive, due to intrinsic mechanical effects and rapid, higher gain proprioceptive feedback. Limb kinematics and kinetics during the unexpected perturbation reveal that limb retraction, controlled largely by the hip, remains similar to level running throughout the perturbed step, despite altered limb loading. Individual joints produce or absorb energy during both level and perturbed running steps, such that the net limb work depends on the balance of energy among the joints. The hip maintains the same mechanical role regardless of limb loading, whereas the ankle and TMP switch between spring-like or damping function depending on limb posture at ground contact. Initial knee angle sets limb posture and alters the balance of work among the joints, although the knee contributes little work itself. This distribution of joint function results in posture-dependent changes in work performance of the limb, which allow guinea fowl to rapidly produce or absorb energy in response to the perturbation. The results support the hypothesis that a proximo-distal gradient exists in limb neuromuscular performance and motor control. This control strategy allows limb cycling to remain constant, whereas limb posture, loading and energy performance are interdependent. We propose that this control strategy provides simple, rapid mechanisms for managing energy and controlling velocity when running over rough terrain. PMID:17234607

  16. Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screw and Polymethylmethacrylate-Augmented Pedicle Screw in Osteoporotic Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae: Biomechanical and Interfacial Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Xie, Qing-yun; Wang, Cai-ru; Liu, Jin-biao; Liao, Dong-fa; Jiang, Kai; Lei, Wei; Pan, Xian-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background It was reported that expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw (PMMA-PS) could be used to increase screw stability in osteoporosis. However, there are no studies comparing the two kinds of screws in vivo. Thus, we aimed to compare biomechanical and interfacial performances of EPS and PMMA-PS in osteoporotic sheep spine. Methodology/Principal Findings After successful induction of osteoporotic sheep, lumbar vertebrae in each sheep were randomly divided into three groups. The conventional pedicle screw (CPS) was inserted directly into vertebrae in CPS group; PMMA was injected prior to insertion of CPS in PMMA-PS group; and the EPS was inserted in EPS group. Sheep were killed and biomechanical tests, micro-CT analysis and histological observation were performed at both 6 and 12 weeks post-operation. At 6-week and 12-week, screw stabilities in EPS and PMMA-PS groups were significantly higher than that in CPS group, but there were no significant differences between EPS and PMMA-PS groups at two study periods. The screw stability in EPS group at 12-week was significantly higher than that at 6-week. The bone trabeculae around the expanding anterior part of EPS were more and denser than that in CPS group at 6-week and 12-week. PMMA was found without any degradation and absorption forming non-biological “screw-PMMA-bone” interface in PMMA-PS group, however, more and more bone trabeculae surrounded anterior part of EPS improving local bone quality and formed biological “screw-bone” interface. Conclusions/Significance EPS can markedly enhance screw stability with a similar effect to the traditional method of screw augmentation with PMMA in initial surgery in osteoporosis. EPS can form better biological interface between screw and bone than PMMA-PS. In addition, EPS have no risk of thermal injury, leakage and compression caused by PMMA. We propose EPS has a great application potential in augmentation of screw stability in osteoporosis in clinic. PMID:24086381

  17. Effect of cement washout on loosening of abutment screws and vice versa in screw- and cement- retained implant-supported dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Gyu; Son, Mee-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the abutment screw stability of screw- and cement-retained implant-supported dental prosthesis (SCP) after simulated cement washout as well as the stability of SCP cements after complete loosening of abutment screws. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six titanium CAD/CAM-made implant prostheses were fabricated on two implants placed in the resin models. Each prosthesis is a two-unit SCP: one screw-retained and the other cemented. After evaluating the passive fit of each prosthesis, all implant prostheses were randomly divided into 3 groups: screwed and cemented SCP (Control), screwed and noncemented SCP (Group 1), unscrewed and cemented SCP (Group 2). Each prosthesis in Control and Group 1 was screwed and/or cemented, and the preloading reverse torque value (RTV) was evaluated. SCP in Group 2 was screwed and cemented, and then unscrewed (RTV=0) after the cement was set. After cyclic loading was applied, the postloading RTV was measured. RTV loss and decementation ratios were calculated for statistical analysis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in RTV loss ratio between Control and Group 1 (P=.16). No decemented prosthesis was found among Control and Group 2. CONCLUSION Within the limits of this in vitro study, the stabilities of SCP abutment screws and cement were not significantly changed after simulated cement washout or screw loosening. PMID:26140172

  18. Does the anchorage form and depth influence the pull-out strength of screws from bone cement? An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Heller, K D; Zilkens, K W; Hammer, J; Cohen, B

    1997-01-01

    The pull-out strengths of cortical screws inserted into soft, unpolymerised Refobacin Palacos bone cement (procedure S) and into hardened polymerised cement into which a hole had been drilled and tapped (procedure P) were compared. Cortical screws 58 mm in length, outer diameter 4.5 mm and inner diameter 2.95 mm were used. Screws were inserted into cement cylinders at 5 mm incremental depths between 10 and 30 mm. At a screw depth of less than 25 mm, the screws pulled out, and at a depth of greater than 25 mm, the screws broke in both procedures. There was no statistically significant difference in pull-out strength leading to burst or break between the two procedures for screws inserted to comparable depths, but there was a statistically significant difference regarding the screwing depth regardless of the procedure of screw insertion chosen. The average material stability (sigma) of the cortical screws used was calculated to be 1191 N/mm2, and the elasticity limit was 5137 N. This study demonstrated that the material stability and not the depth of screw insertion was the limiting parameter in screw anchorage in bone cement while static testing. To avoid screw breakage due to fatigue during continuous alternate loading, the screws should not be loaded above this value. PMID:9006773

  19. Helical screw viscometer

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, J.H.; Chapman, R.N.; Kraynik, A.M.

    1983-06-30

    A helical screw viscometer for the measurement of the viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids comprising an elongated cylindrical container closed by end caps defining a circular cylindrical cavity within the container, a cylindrical rotor member having a helical screw or ribbon flight carried by the outer periphery thereof rotatably carried within the cavity whereby the fluid to be measured is confined in the cavity filling the space between the rotor and the container wall. The rotor member is supported by axle members journaled in the end caps, one axle extending through one end cap and connectable to a drive source. A pair of longitudinally spaced ports are provided through the wall of the container in communication with the cavity and a differential pressure meter is connected between the ports for measuring the pressure drop caused by the rotation of the helical screw rotor acting on the confined fluid for computing viscosity.

  20. Bioabsorbable Versus Metallic Screw Fixation for Tibiofibular Syndesmotic Ruptures: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Eng, Dorien M; Schep, Niels W L; Schepers, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Ankle fractures with syndesmotic rupture require operative treatment. In most cases, this consists of fixation of the tibiofibular joint with 1 or more screws. Bioabsorbable screws are used for the same purpose but have the advantage that screw removal is unnecessary. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of bioabsorbable and metallic syndesmotic screws. A systematic search was performed in the Ovid MEDLINE electronic database and Google Scholar. Three randomized controlled trials and one comparison study, with 260 patients, were included. The experimental group consisted of patients with syndesmotic injuries treated with bioabsorbable screws versus the control group (patients treated with metallic screws). The primary outcomes were complications and wound infections. No statistically significant difference was demonstrable in the overall number of complications between the 2 groups. In the group of patients with a bioabsorbable screw, 32 of 137 (23.4%) experienced a complication versus 7 of 123 patients (5.7%) with a metallic screw. Data on wound-related complications showed no statistically significant difference, 19.7% versus 5.7%. The average maximum range of motion in both groups was comparable. Bioabsorbable syndesmotic screws and metallic syndesmotic screws were comparable with respect to the incidence of complications and range of motion. However, the absolute number of complications was greater with bioabsorbable screws. PMID:25960058

  1. Joint cavity injection combined with manual reduction and stabilization splint treatment of anterior disc displacement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjie; Mu, Hong; Wang, Zhifeng; Lan, Jing; Zhang, Shizhou; Long, Xing; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of upper and lower joint cavity treatment (UJCT vs. LJCT) in patients with anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDw/oR) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Material and methods: A total of 56 patients with unilateral ADDw/oR were randomly divided into two groups: UJCT group and LJCT group. Manual reduction was done in all the patients after joint cavity rejection of sodium hyaluronate. Then, they were treated with stabilization splint for one or two months. At last, Friction index was calculated to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy at 6 to 12 months follow-up. Results: The maximal mouth-opening degrees in the both groups increased significantly when compared with pre-treatment group (P < 0.01), and the Friction index decreased significantly when compared with pre-treatment group (P < 0.01); In LJCT group, the degrees of maximal mouth-opening increased significantly as compared to UJCT group (P < 0.05), and Friction index were also markedly lower than that in UJCT group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In the patients with ADDw/oR of TMJ, the clinical efficacy of LJCT is superior to that of UJCT, especially in the TMJ pain relief, mouth-opening degree and mandibular movement improvement.

  2. Raman measurements and joint PDF modeling of a nonpremixed bluff-body-stabilized methane flame

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, S.M.; Gulati, A. [General Electric Research Center, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Mixture fraction, temperature, and major species in a recirculation-stabilized nonpremixed methane-air flame are (1) measured using laser Raman scattering and (2) calculated using the joint velocity-composition probability density function (PDF) model, appropriately combined with an elliptic mean flow solver. The Raman system was modified to account for the significant levels of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and incandescence encountered in the rich sooty zone of the flame. The joint PDF contains three velocity components, which are modeled by Langevin equations, and five thermochemical scalar variables with mixing given by linear deterministic relaxation to the mean and chemistry by a four-step steady-state reduced scheme. The flame is characterized by significant finite-rate chemistry, including, unlike a CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} fuel in the same apparatus, strong bimodality in the temperature-mixture fraction scatter plots. Calculations are compared with Raman data on temperature and major species. The agreement is in general reasonable, with the largest discrepancies being caused by the breakdown of the assumption of a chemical steady state for the cool fuel-rich gas at the core of the flame. Large discrepancies are found on the peak CO, as in other similar studies, confirming a need for better measurements of CO than Raman spectroscopy can provide. The model overpredicts the degree of extinction. The radial flux of the mixture fraction calculated directly from the joint PDF is compared with the flux given by an a posteriori gradient diffusion calculation, indicating no (radial) counter-gradient diffusion and a ``turbulent Schmidt number`` of about 0.4.

  3. A description of the dynamics of manipulators using screw theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, B. V.

    1985-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the derivation of Lagrange equations of the second kind for a manipulator consisting of N links each of which is coupled with the preceding link (except for the first link, which is coupled with a fixed base) through a single-degree-of-freedom joint. The joints can be translational or rotational; each joint is treated as a rigid body, and the possibility of allowing for elasticity in the hinges and joints is demonstrated. The kinetic energy is determined using the theory of kinematic screws.

  4. The Screw-worm. 

    E-print Network

    Francis, M. (Mark)

    1890-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXP II,HIMEXT Srl'ATION. BULLETIN No. 12, ~*fZkRP ** SEPTEMBER, 1890. .$, y~, 'TWORM. AGRICULTURAL' AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS. All Bulletins of this Station are issued free. Any one interested... to Director. ,nt Agriculturist. . . naala~ant in Chemistrv. . . LVL~L~OI' . . Assists . . Assista A ..-:-A- TEXAS AGYLICULTUliAL EXYEliIMEXT STATION. THE SCREW-WORM. - . . . .. .-. -- M. FRANCIS, D. V. M. ~ - - In the First Annual Report...

  5. Drill Free Screws: a new form of osteosynthesis screw.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, W; Gerlach, K L; Gröbel, K H; Köllner, H G

    1998-06-01

    Although the application of self-tapping and non self-tapping screws is virtually universal in cranio-maxillofacial surgery, the inevitable, time consuming procedure of drilling a pilot hole has some potential disadvantages, such as damage to nerves, tooth roots or tooth germs, thermal necrosis of the bone and drill bit breakage. Drill Free Screws (DFS) are a recently developed type of osteosynthesis screws, having a tip like a cork screw and specially formed cutting flutes which enable insertion of the screws without drilling. DFS 1.5 and 2 mm were inserted into discs of wood, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and porcine mandibular bone of varying thicknesses between 2 and 4 mm. The values of insertion torque and maximum torque were recorded using an electric torque tester. Thereafter, the screws were inserted with a fixed torque and uniaxial pull out tests were performed. In comparison with this, the same procedure was performed using 1.5 and 2 mm self-tapping titanium screws. Ten trials for each screw-material-combination were conducted to determine insertion torque, maximum torque and pull out analysis. The results showed that the holding power of DFS lay between 70 and 104% of the holding power of self-tapping titanium screws; only in PVC was the difference more than 15%. PMID:9702635

  6. Stabilizing function of the ?-model with the tiny moment of inertia in a single joint limb system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan Li; Zhu Kuanyi; Zhao Dan

    2007-01-01

    This short paper studies the properties of ?-model, which is a human motor control model derived from equilibrium point hypothesis. The stability of the ?-model in a single joint limb system based on Jacobian matrix is investigated, and some mathematical and simulation results are presented. Especially, the properties of the ?-model with the tiny moment of inertia are discussed. The

  7. Effect of filler metal composition on the strength of yttria stabilized zirconia joints brazed with Pd-Ag-CuOx

    SciTech Connect

    Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-09-08

    The Ag-CuOx system is of interest to be used to be used as an air braze filler metal for joining high temperature electrochemical devices. Previous work has shown that the melting temperatures can be increased by adding palladium to Ag-CuOx and it is expected that this may aid high temperature stability. This work compares the room temperature bend strength of joints made between yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) air brazed using Ag-CuOx without palladium and with 5 and 15mol% palladium additions. It has been found that in general palladium decreases joint strength, especially in low copper oxide compositions filler metals. At high copper oxide contents, brittle fracture through both copper oxide rich phases and the YSZ limits joint strength.

  8. Low noise lead screw positioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Gerald S. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A very precise and low noise lead screw positioner, for positioning a retroreflector in an interferometer is described. A gas source supplies inert pressurized gas, that flows through narrow holes into the clearance space between a nut and the lead screw. The pressurized gas keeps the nut out of contact with the screw. The gas flows axially along the clearance space, into the environment. The small amount of inert gas flowing into the environment minimizes pollution. By allowing such flow into the environment, no seals are required between the end of the nut and the screw.

  9. Joint Adaptive Mean-Variance Regularization and Variance Stabilization of High Dimensional Data

    PubMed Central

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Rao, J. Sunil

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses a common problem in the analysis of high-dimensional high-throughput “omics” data, which is parameter estimation across multiple variables in a set of data where the number of variables is much larger than the sample size. Among the problems posed by this type of data are that variable-specific estimators of variances are not reliable and variable-wise tests statistics have low power, both due to a lack of degrees of freedom. In addition, it has been observed in this type of data that the variance increases as a function of the mean. We introduce a non-parametric adaptive regularization procedure that is innovative in that : (i) it employs a novel “similarity statistic”-based clustering technique to generate local-pooled or regularized shrinkage estimators of population parameters, (ii) the regularization is done jointly on population moments, benefiting from C. Stein's result on inadmissibility, which implies that usual sample variance estimator is improved by a shrinkage estimator using information contained in the sample mean. From these joint regularized shrinkage estimators, we derived regularized t-like statistics and show in simulation studies that they offer more statistical power in hypothesis testing than their standard sample counterparts, or regular common value-shrinkage estimators, or when the information contained in the sample mean is simply ignored. Finally, we show that these estimators feature interesting properties of variance stabilization and normalization that can be used for preprocessing high-dimensional multivariate data. The method is available as an R package, called ‘MVR’ (‘Mean-Variance Regularization’), downloadable from the CRAN website. PMID:22711950

  10. Influence of Thickness and Contact Surface Geometry of Condylar Stem of TMJ Implant on Its Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, Zohreh; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Azari, Abbas

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect thickness and contact surface geometry of condylar stem of TMJ implant on its stability in total reconstruction system and evaluate the micro strain resulted in bone at fixation screw holes in jaw bone embedded with eight different designs of temporomandibular joint implants. A three dimensional model of a lower mandible of an adult were developed from a Computed Tomography scan images. Eight different TMJ implant designs and fixation screws were modeled. Three dimensional finite element models of eight implanted mandibles were analyzed. The forces assigned to the masticatory muscles for incisal clenching were applied consisting of nine important muscular loads. In chosen loading condition, The results indicated that the anatomical curvature contact surface design of TMJ implant can moderately improve the stability and the strain resulted in fixation screw holes in thinner TMJ implant was diminished in comparison with other thicknesses.

  11. Sensitivity of the stability of a waste emplacement drift to variation in assumed rock joint parameters in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the effects of variation of rock joint parameters on stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical emplacement. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for times of initial excavation and after 50 years heating. 82 refs., 93 figs.

  12. An Innovative Universal Screw Removal Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Elmada?, Mehmet; Uzer, Gökçer; Acar, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present the clinical benefits of an instrument designed to facilitate removal of polyaxial screws during revision surgery. Methods All polyaxial screws can be removed without additional materials or a large amount of debridement using our newly designed instrument. Forty-two screws were removed from five patients without any complications using this instrument. Results We removed the cap screws and rods from the 42 polyaxial screws in five patients and made them monoaxial using the new screw removal apparatus. The screws and rods were removed quickly in a minimally invasive way with no complications. No damage to the pedicle or surrounding soft tissue occurred during screw removal. No neurogenic changes developed during revision surgery after changing the screws. Conclusion This newly designed screw removal instrument was used safely and effectively to remove all polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws. PMID:25883660

  13. Stability analysis and robust composite controller synthesis for flexible joint robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Taghirad; M. A. Khosravi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the control of flexible joint manipulators is studied in detail. The model of N -axis flexible joint manipulators is derived and reformulated in the form of singular perturbation theory and an integral manifold is used to separate fast dynamics from slow dynamics. A composite control algorithm is proposed for the flexible joint robots, which consists of two

  14. Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Farid-Escorcia, Hector; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique. PMID:25336831

  15. Use of C2 spinous process screw for posterior cervical fixation as substitute for laminar screw in a patient with thin laminae

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Kosei; Baba, Satoshi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2013-01-01

    Rigid screw fixation of C2 including transarticular screw and pedicle screw contain the risk of vertebral artery (VA) injury. On the other hand, translaminar screws are considered to be safer for patients with anomalous VA. But C2 translaminar screw placement was limited in patients who have thin laminas and there is marked variation in C2 laminar thickness. Appropriate C2 fixation method for a patient who has thin laminas and high-riding VA together was controversial. Here, we present a case of an elderly Asian woman who had thin laminas and high-riding VA together with progressive myelopathy to report a first case of C2 spinous process screw insertion. Although the stability and safety of C2 spinous process screw was reported in cadaver series, there was no clinical report to our knowledge. Spinous process screw can be an option of C2 fixation for patients with high-riding VA and severe degenerated cervical spines including thin C2 laminas. PMID:23814004

  16. Treatment of fractures of the condylar head with resorbable pins or titanium screws: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Matthias; Loukota, Richard; Kuchta, Anne; Stadlinger, Bernd; Jung, Roland; Speckl, Katrin; Schmiedekampf, Robert; Eckelt, Uwe

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to compare in vivo the stability of fixation of condylar fractures in sheep using sonic bone welding and standard titanium screws. We assessed stability of the osteosynthesis and maintenance of the height of the mandibular ramus. Height decreased slightly in both groups compared with the opposite side. The volume of the condyle increased considerably in both groups mainly because callus had formed. The results showed no significant disadvantages for pin fixation compared with osteosynthesis using titanium screws. PMID:22901526

  17. The effects of impurities and core pressure on pedestal stability in Joint European Torus (JET)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarelma, S.; Järvinen, A.; Beurskens, M.; Challis, C.; Frassinetti, L.; Giroud, C.; Groth, M.; Leyland, M.; Maggi, C.; Simpson, J.

    2015-05-01

    The H-mode pedestal plays an important role in determining global confinement in tokamaks. In high triangularity H-mode experiments in Joint European Torus with the ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), significantly higher pedestal temperature and global confinement have been achieved with nitrogen seeding. The experimentally observed increase in pedestal height is inconsistent with the stability calculations using the experimental profiles. Numerically, we find that the consistency with stability improvement can be restored if we assume a shift of the pedestal inwards and increased ion dilution due to the impurity seeding. Significantly better confinement and pedestal height have been observed in JET-ILW plasmas when the core pressure is increased. The enhanced pedestal height can be linked to an improvement in edge stability arising from an increase in the Shafranov-shift, higher edge current, and pedestal widening in flux space.

  18. Stability of the stress-strain state of titanium alloy weld joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Akulov; V. F. Savel'ev; L. D. Stolyarova; É. A. Mikheev; V. I. Gavryusev

    1986-01-01

    1.Microresidual weld stresses (microdistortion ?a\\/a) in weld joints of titanium alloy VT1-0 during aging at normal and raised (125°C) temperatures spontaneously lower.2.Both the relaxation curves and deformation curves of weld joints of alloy VT1-0 may be divided into two parts.

  19. CMM probe compensation methods for measuring complex screw surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Yang, Tianlong; Yin, Xiyun

    2013-01-01

    At present, probe compensation is the key problem in measuring geometric parameters of complex screw surface with CMM due to its complicated 3D shape, aiming at this problem, some new measurement methods are proposed based on geometric feature models, expressing the screw surface and its offset surface separately. Supposing the parameter lead of a screw surface is known, it's realized by scanning one single profile to complete probe compensation and calculate out all parameters, and the probe compensation is done by two improved methods, named as modified cross product and offset surface virtual measurement respectively, the theory and detailed process of which are discussed in this paper. After performing systematic experiments of profile scan, probe compensation and error evaluation, results show that the new measurement methods provide higher precision, stability and realizability.

  20. Expandable insert serves as screw anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Expandable self-locking adapter secures components to panels having one accessible side. Mounting holes in the panels may not be threaded to accommodate screws, therefore, the adapter contains a female thread that will mate a mounting screw.

  1. Limiting the dimension of a screw-access hole with an interim screw-retained prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Chandur; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2015-06-01

    Fabricating an interim screw-retained prosthesis often involves obliteration of the abutment screw access site, which later must be exposed. This frequently results in excessive preparation of the screw access site with poor esthetics and a weaker restoration. The technique described expedites the process by locating the access site and limits the size of the screw access hole preparation. PMID:25858223

  2. Definition and classification of power system stability IEEE\\/CIGRE joint task force on stability terms and definitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kundur; J. Paserba; V. Ajjarapu; G. Andersson; A. Bose; C. Canizares; N. Hatziargyriou; D. Hill; A. Stankovic; C. Taylor; T. Van Cutsem; V. Vittal

    2004-01-01

    The problem of defining and classifying power system stability has been addressed by several previous CIGRE and IEEE Task Force reports. These earlier efforts, however, do not completely reflect current industry needs, experiences and understanding. In particular, the definitions are not precise and the classifications do not encompass all practical instability scenarios. This report developed by a Task Force, set

  3. Screw symmetry in columnar crystals

    E-print Network

    A. Mughal

    2013-06-12

    We show that the optimal packing of hard spheres in an infinitely long cylinder yields structures characterised by a screw symmetry. Each packing can be assembled by stacking a basic unit cell ad infinitum along the length of the cylinder with each subsequent unit cell rotated by the same twist angle with respect to the previous one. In this paper we quantitatively describe the nature of this screw operation for all such packings in the range 1 <= D/d <= 2.715 and also briefly discuss their helicity.

  4. Influence of abutment screw design and surface coating on the bending flexural strength of the implant set.

    PubMed

    Prado, Célio Jesus do; Neves, Flávio Domingues das; Soares, Carlos José; Dantas, Kelly Abadia; Dantas, Talita Souza; Naves, Lucas Zago

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the setting and the presence of solid lubricant on the abutment screw surface on the flexural strength of the joint implant/abutment/screw. Forty abutments were connected to external hex implants, divided into 4 groups (n = 10): FE (titanium alloy screw threaded in the extremity), LE (titanium alloy screw with solid lubricant and thread in the extremity), FT (titanium alloy screw with threaded in all its length), and LT (titanium alloy screw with solid lubricant and thread in all its length). Through the mechanical flexural test, the implant/abutment resistance was evaluated with load applied perpendicular to the long axis in a mechanical testing machine (EMIC) under a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were submitted to a statistics test, and results showed statistically significant differences between the FE group and the other groups, and the FE group showed the lowest values. The LE group showed greater values than the LT group, and the values were statistically significant. According to the methodology used, it can be concluded that within noncoated titanium screws, a screw threaded along its entire length provided greater rigidity to the implant set, while with the screw containing solid lubricant, the screw threaded in all its length provided less rigidity of the implant set than screws with the thread only on the end. Among screws with the same geometry, those with the solid lubricant are statistically higher than those which do not have threads just at the end, but those with threads along their entire length do not show statistically significant differences. PMID:22251283

  5. An eigenproblem approach to classical screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandipan Bandyopadhyay; Ashitava Ghosal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel algebraic formulation of the central problem of screw theory, namely the determination of the principal screws of a given system. Using the algebra of dual numbers, it shows that the principal screws can be determined via the solution of a generalised eigenproblem of two real, symmetric matrices. This approach allows the study of the principal

  6. Precision Stabilization Simulation of a Ball Joint Gimbaled Mirror Using Advanced MATLAB

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Orlando

    to provide precise line of sight stabilization for the seeker (mirror). The mirror is attached to four Kevlar or unwind to change the length of each Kevlar line to position the mirror appropriately. The ball is mounted to a support structure, made up of a fixed body. To maintain stability and position of the seeker, the Kevlar

  7. Stability of mechanical joints in launching vehicles: Local and global stationary values of energy density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Hwei Chue

    1987-01-01

    A method was developed for predicting the behavior of mechanical joints in launch vehicles with particular emphasis placed on how the combined effects of loading, geometry, and materials could be optimized in terms of structure instability and\\/or integrity. What was considered to be essential is the fluctuation of the volume energy density with time in the structure. The peaks and

  8. A study of the effects of water concentration on the stability of interfaces in adhesive joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.S.; Kinloch, A.J. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Gardhan, L.M.; Bowditch, M.R. [Defence Research Agency, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of water concentration on steel-epoxide joints was assessed. The 90{degrees} peel test method has been used to obtain fracture energy, G{sub c} values for adhered joints which have been previously conditioned in a range of relative humidities. Firstly, a loss of peel strength has been seen with increased water content of the adhesive. Further, a critical water concentration marking the transition from slight to pronounced loss of joint strength has been observed. Secondly, a theory for G{sub c} has been used to account for elastic and plastic deformation in the peel arm. However, the theory has not been able to fully account for changes in peel arm thickness but has for changes in the peel angle. Thirdly, apparent interfacial failure has been observed under visual inspection. Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy will be employed to (i) identify the locus of joint failure and (ii) the site and mechanisms of environmental attack by water.

  9. A screw propelling capsule robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huajin Liang; Yisheng Guan; Zhiguang Xiao; Chao Hu; Zhiyong Liu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to active capsule robot, traversing in a tubular and compliant environment containing solid-liquid mixture. One of the application fields is active capsule endoscopy intended to navigate inside the gastrointestinal tract for diagnosis and therapy. This robot is driven by a screw impeller, which converts rotation to axial motion in two ways: one is through

  10. Air-Lubricated Lead Screw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    Air lubricated lead screw and nut carefully machined to have closely matched closely fitting threads. Compressed air injected into two plenums encircle nut and flow through orifices to lubricate mating threads. Originally developed to position precisely interferometer retroreflector for airborne measurement of solar infrared radiation, device now has positioning accuracy of 0.25 micron.

  11. Influence of micro- and nano-hydroxyapatite coatings on the osteointegration of metallic (Ti6Al4 V) and bioabsorbable interference screws: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, B; Kom, M; Tosun, H B; Demirel, M

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to show and compare the fixation and osteointegration capability of metallic and bioabsorbable interference screws. For this, 8×20-mm interference screws were implanted into the bone tunnel in the proximal tibial metaphysis of sheep. The nano- (25 nm±0.8) and microscale (25 ?m±0.5) hydroxyapatite were both dip-coated on Ti6Al4 V interference screws via an in vivo study. After the initial 12 weeks of postoperative, the pullout test, histopathology, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy examinations were performed. This multidisiplined work showed that the coated screws particularly those with nano-sized-HA coating and the bioabsorbable screws enhanced fixation and provided better stabilization, bone ingrowth and osteointegration than that of uncoated and microscale HA-coated screws. The bioabsorbable screws showed better histopathologic results. PMID:23689912

  12. Early clinical results with cortically based pedicle screw trajectory for fusion of the degenerative lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Andrew Glennie, R; Dea, Nicolas; Kwon, Brian K; Street, John T

    2015-06-01

    This study reviews the outcomes and revision rates of degenerative lumbar fusion surgery using cortical trajectory pedicle screws in lieu of traditional pedicle screw instrumentation. Pedicle screw fixation can be a challenge in patients with low bone mineral density. Wide posterior approaches to the lumbar spine exposing lateral to the facet joints and onto transverse processes causes an additional degree of muscular damage and blood loss not present with a simple laminectomy. A cortical bone trajectory pedicle screw has been proposed as an alternative to prevent screw pullout and decrease the morbidity associated with the wide posterior approach to the spine. We present a series of eight consecutive patients using a cortical bone trajectory instead of traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. A retrospective review of our institutional registry data identified eight patients who had cortical screws placed with the assistance of O-arm Stealth navigation (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) from 2010-2013. We analyzed the need for revision, the maintenance of reduction and the incidence of screw pullout or breakage. Our review demonstrated that two of eight patients were revised at an average of 12months. The reasons for these revisions were pseudarthrosis and caudal adjacent segment failure. All patients who were revised had frank screw loosening. We present early clinical results of a new technique that has been shown to have a better fixation profile in laboratory testing. Our less than favorable early clinical results should be interpreted with caution and highlight important technical issues which should be considered. PMID:25769253

  13. Slope Stability Problems and Back Analysis in Heavily Jointed Rock Mass: A Case Study from Manisa, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Mutluhan

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a case study regarding slope stability problems and the remedial slope stabilization work executed during the construction of two reinforced concrete water storage tanks on a steep hill in Manisa, Turkey. Water storage tanks of different capacities were planned to be constructed, one under the other, on closely jointed and deformed shale and sandstone units. The tank on the upper elevation was constructed first and an approximately 20-m cut slope with two benches was excavated in front of this upper tank before the construction of the lower tank. The cut slope failed after a week and the failure threatened the stability of the upper water tank. In addition to re-sloping, a 15.6-m deep contiguous retaining pile wall without anchoring was built to support both the cut slope and the upper tank. Despite the construction of a retaining pile wall, a maximum of 10 mm of displacement was observed by inclinometer measurements due to the re-failure of the slope on the existing slip surface. Permanent stability was achieved after the placement of a granular fill buttress on the slope. Back analysis based on the non-linear (Hoek-Brown) failure criterion indicated that the geological strength index (GSI) value of the slope-forming material is around 21 and is compatible with the in situ-determined GSI value (24). The calculated normal-shear stress plots are also consistent with the Hoek-Brown failure envelope of the rock mass, indicating that the location of the sliding surface, GSI value estimated by back analysis, and the rock mass parameters are well defined. The long-term stability analysis illustrates a safe slope design after the placement of a permanent toe buttress.

  14. Stability evaluation and design of the PRMA joint voice data system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Sanjiv

    1994-05-01

    Packet reservation multiple access (PRMA) provides spatially dispersed voice and data terminals wireless access to a base station over a common short-range radio channel. In this paper, we present an equilibrium point analysis of the joint voice data system. The analysis leads to two coupled nonlinear equations. By a judicious change of variables, we are able to calculate the equilibrium of the joint system by finding the roots of a univariate equation. We provide expressions for voice packet dropping probability, the distribution of data packet delays and the system throughput, at equilibrium. For the joint voice data system the design problem is two dimensional. Elementary catastrophe theory leads to a bifurcation of the design space into useful and congested regions. The useful design space is further restricted by target values of the performance criteria. The study of a nominal system verifies the design methodology. Moreover, it shows that PRMA gracefully accepts low bit rate data terminals with moderate data packet delays (few hundred milliseconds), while simultaneously satisfying a 1% speech packet dropping criterion.

  15. Restoration of horizontal stability in complete acromioclavicular joint separations: surgical technique and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our purpose was to investigate the clinical efficacy of arthroscope-assisted acromioclavicular ligament reconstruction in combination with double endobutton coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction for the treatment of complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Methods During the period from February 2010 to October 2012, ten patients with Rockwood types IV and V acromioclavicular joint dislocation were hospitalized and nine were treated with acromioclavicular ligament reconstruction combined with double endobutton of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. The improvement in shoulder functions was assessed using a Constant score and visual analog scale (VAS) system. Results The mean follow-up period was 33.6?±?5.4 months. The mean Constant scores improved from 25.2?±?6.6 preoperatively to 92.4?±?6.5 postoperatively, while the mean VAS score decreased from 5.9?±?1.4 to 1.2?±?0.9; significant differences were observed. The final follow-up revealed that excellent outcomes were achieved in eight patients and good outcome in two patients. Conclusion Arthroscope-assisted acromioclavicular ligament reconstruction in combination with double endobutton of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction is an effective approach for treatment of acute complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation. PMID:24225119

  16. Retrieval of broken iliosacral screws: The power of a push screw.

    PubMed

    El Dafrawy, Mostafa H; Osgood, Greg M

    2015-07-01

    Percutaneous iliosacral screw fixation is a common technique that is widely used for unstable posterior pelvic ring disruptions. Complications of posterior percutaneous iliosacral screw fixation include implant malpositioning and hardware failure. Removal of iliosacral screws in broken or symptomatic hardware is sometimes necessary. To our knowledge, there are few reports addressing pelvic implant removal, and most of those report on anterior pelvic implants and symphyseal plates. There are no reports describing techniques for retrieval of broken iliosacral screws. We present two cases involving removal of broken sacroiliac screws, review the literature regarding iliosacral implant extraction, and identify important aspects of safe extraction of iliosacral screws and the potential complications associated with their retrieval. We further describe a novel and powerful technique to facilitate percutaneous removal of broken screw fragments, using a "push screw" to drive a broken screw fragment from a position buried in bone. PMID:25986663

  17. A Case of Pedicle Screw Loosening Treated by Modified Transpedicular Screw Augmentation with Polymethylmethacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Park, Seung Won

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of pedicle screw loosening treated by modified transpedicular screw augmentation technique using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), which used the anchoring effect of hardened PMMA. A 56-year-old man who had an L3/4/5 fusion operation 3 years ago complained of continuous low back pain after this operation. The computerized tomography showed a radiolucent halo around the pedicle screw at L5. We augmented the L5 pedicle screw with modified pedicle screw augmentation technique using PMMA and performed an L3/4/5 pedicle screw fixation without hook or operation field extension. This modified technique is a kind of transpedicular stiffness augmentation using PMMA for the dead space around the loosed screw. After filling the dead space with 1-2 cc of PMMA, we inserted a small screw. Once the PMMA hardened, we removed the small screw and inserted a thicker screw along the existing screw threading to improve the pedicle screws' pullout strength. At 10 months' follow-up, x-ray showed strong fusion of L3/4/5. The visual analogue scale (VAS) of his back pain was improved from 9 to 5. This modified transpedicular screw augmentation with PMMA using anchoring effect is a simple and effective surgical technique for pedicle screw loosening. However, clinical analyses of long-term follow-up and biomechanical studies are needed. PMID:21494370

  18. Intra-operative computer navigation guided cervical pedicle screw insertion in thirty-three complex cervical spine deformities

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, S.; Kanna, P. Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, T. Ajoy Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cervical pedicle screw fixation is challenging due to the small osseous morphometrics and the close proximity of neurovascular elements. Computer navigation has been reported to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. There are very few studies assessing its efficacy in the presence of deformity. Also cervical pedicle screw insertion in children has not been described before. We evaluated the safety and accuracy of Iso-C 3D-navigated pedicle screws in the deformed cervical spine. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients including 15 children formed the study group. One hundred and forty-five cervical pedicle screws were inserted using Iso-C 3D-based computer navigation in patients undergoing cervical spine stabilization for craniovertebral junction anomalies, cervico-thoracic deformities and cervical instabilities due to trauma, post-surgery and degenerative disorders. The accuracy and containment of screw placement was assessed from postoperative computerized tomography scans. Results: One hundred and thirty (89.7%) screws were well contained inside the pedicles. Nine (6.1%) Type A and six (4.2%) Type B pedicle breaches were observed. In 136 levels, the screws were inserted in the classical description of pedicle screw application and in nine deformed vertebra, the screws were inserted in a non-classical fashion, taking purchase of the best bone stock. None of them had a critical breach. No patient had any neurovascular complications. Conclusion: Iso-C navigation improves the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw insertion and is not only successful in achieving secure pedicle fixation but also in identifying the best available bone stock for three-column bone fixation in altered anatomy. The advantages conferred by cervical pedicle screws can be extended to the pediatric population also. PMID:20890413

  19. New phenomena concerning a screw dislocation interacting with two imperfect interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Wang; E. Pan; A. K. Roy

    2007-01-01

    Dislocation mobility and stability in nanocrystals and electronic materials are influenced by the material composition and interface conditions. Its mobility and stability then affect the mechanical behaviors of the composites. In this paper, we first address, in detail, the problem of a screw dislocation located in an annular coating layer which is imperfectly bonded to the inner circular inhomogeneity and

  20. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  1. Distal tibial physeal bridge: a complication from a tension band plate and screw construct. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Oda, Jon E; Thacker, Mihir M

    2013-05-01

    We report on a case of a tension band plate and screw construct (Eight Plate) used over the anterior distal tibia in an 9-year-old girl in an attempt to induce recurvatum of the ankle joint to correct a recalcitrant equinus deformity. With growth of the distal tibial physis, the epiphyseal screw was drawn through the physis into the distal tibial metaphysis, resulting in the creation of a transphyseal bony bar. Caution should be exercised when attempting temporary hemiepiphyseodesis using a plate and screw construct in small epiphyses or in an osteopenic bone. PMID:22158054

  2. Analysis of human mandibular mechanics based on screw theory and in vivo data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A Gal; L. M Gallo; S Palla; G Murray; I Klineberg

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the mechanics of human mandibular function is described in terms of the associated screws. The two distinct, yet related features of jaw mechanics, involving the motion itself as well as the forces, are both functions of the anatomical constraints, namely the contact areas that exist within the temporomandibular joint, and the forces of the muscles and tendons

  3. A Novel Parallel Manipulator for Rotary Humanoid Wrist Based on Screw Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoxin Zhang; Song Zhu; Dachang Zhu; Cui Wu

    2009-01-01

    A class of parallel manipulators known as Rotary Humanoid Wrist (RHW), which is actuated by six circular motors on the circular base and dose not involve any prismatic joint, is analyzed based on screw theory. Model of RHW is build by using simulink tools with constant length limbs. The mobility of RHW is analyzed and the optimal combination of the

  4. Analysis of a novel parallel manipulator for Rotary Humanoid Wrist based on screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dachang Zhu; Jianwu Zhu; Yuefa Fang

    2009-01-01

    A class of parallel manipulators known as rotary humanoid wrist (RHW), which is actuated by six circular motors on the circular base and dose not involve any prismatic joint, is analyzed based on screw theory. Model of RHW is build by using simulink tools with constant length limbs. The mobility of RHW is analyzed and the optimal combination of the

  5. Modeling mechanical layering effects on stability of underground openings in jointed sedimentary rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagan Bakun-Mazor; Yossef H. Hatzor; William S. Dershowitz

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of mechanical layering for “blocky” rock mass deformation around underground openings excavated through sedimentary rocks. The analysis is based on an integration of geologically based discrete fracture models (“geoDFN”), which incorporate “mechanical layering”, with the numerical discrete element method—the discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA). We begin with addressing limitations of classical solutions for mine roof stability

  6. Helical screw expander evaluation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R.

    1982-01-01

    A one MW helical rotary screw expander power system for electric power generation from geothermal brine was evaluated. The technology explored in the testing is simple, potentially very efficient, and ideally suited to wellhead installations in moderate to high enthalpy, liquid dominated field. A functional one MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing, operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000 kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  7. Helical screw expander evaluation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A one MW helical rotary screw expander power system for electric power generation from geothermal brine was evaluated. The technology explored in the testing is simple, potentially very efficient, and ideally suited to wellhead installations in moderate to high enthalpy, liquid dominated field. A functional one MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing, operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000 kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  8. Implant failure in a proximal femoral fracture treated with dynamic hip screw fixation

    PubMed Central

    Dabis, John; Abdul-Jabar, Hani B.; Dabis, Hosam

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic hip screw fixation is a common orthopaedic procedure and to date, still can cause difficulties to the senior trauma surgeon. We present a case where an extra-capsular fracture of the proximal femur was managed with a dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation. She proceeded to the operating theatre, where the fracture was stabilized with a 75-mm DHS and short-barrelled plate. The implant position was checked with intraoperative screening and the position accepted. Following attempted mobilization at 11 days post-operatively, the patient developed a recurrence of her preoperative pain. X-ray showed that the implant screw had separated from the barrel. Later scrutiny of the intraoperative screening films revealed that the barrel and screw were not engaged at the time of surgery. Intraoperative screening films should be carefully checked to ensure congruity of implant components. PMID:26136561

  9. Implant failure in a proximal femoral fracture treated with dynamic hip screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Dabis, John; Abdul-Jabar, Hani B; Dabis, Hosam

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic hip screw fixation is a common orthopaedic procedure and to date, still can cause difficulties to the senior trauma surgeon. We present a case where an extra-capsular fracture of the proximal femur was managed with a dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation. She proceeded to the operating theatre, where the fracture was stabilized with a 75-mm DHS and short-barrelled plate. The implant position was checked with intraoperative screening and the position accepted. Following attempted mobilization at 11 days post-operatively, the patient developed a recurrence of her preoperative pain. X-ray showed that the implant screw had separated from the barrel. Later scrutiny of the intraoperative screening films revealed that the barrel and screw were not engaged at the time of surgery. Intraoperative screening films should be carefully checked to ensure congruity of implant components. PMID:26136561

  10. Assessment of different screw augmentation techniques and screw designs in osteoporotic spines

    PubMed Central

    Chavanne, A.; Spitaler, R.; Kropik, K.; Aigner, N.; Ogon, M.; Redl, H.

    2008-01-01

    This is an experimental study on human cadaver spines. The objective of this study is to compare the pullout forces between three screw augmentation methods and two different screw designs. Surgical interventions of patients with osteoporosis increase following the epidemiological development. Biomechanically the pedicle provides the strongest screw fixation in healthy bone, whereas in osteoporosis all areas of the vertebra are affected by the disease. This explains the high screw failure rates in those patients. Therefore PMMA augmentation of screws is often mandatory. This study involved investigation of the pullout forces of augmented transpedicular screws in five human lumbar spines (L1–L4). Each spine was treated with four different methods: non-augmented unperforated (solid) screw, perforated screw with vertebroplasty augmentation, solid screw with vertebroplasty augmentation and solid screw with balloon kyphoplasty augmentation. Screws were augmented with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The pullout forces were measured for each treatment with an Instron testing device. The bone mineral density was measured for each vertebra with Micro-CT. The statistical analysis was performed with a two-sided independent student t test. Forty screws (10 per group and level) were inserted. The vertebroplasty-augmented screws showed a significant higher pullout force (mean 918.5 N, P = 0.001) than control (mean 51 N), the balloon kyphoplasty group did not improve the pullout force significantly (mean 781 N, P > 0.05). However, leakage occurred in some cases treated with perforated screws. All spines showed osteoporosis on Micro-CT. Vertebroplasty-augmented screws, augmentation of perforated screws and balloon kyphoplasty augmented screws show higher pullout resistance than non-augmented screws. Significant higher pullout forces were only reached in the vertebroplasty augmented vertebra. The perforated screw design led to epidural leakage due to the position of the perforation in the screw. The position of the most proximal perforation is critical, depending on screw design and proper insertion depth. Nevertheless, using a properly designed perforated screw will facilitate augmentation and instrumentation in osteoporotic spines. PMID:18781342

  11. Analysis of human mandibular mechanics based on screw theory and in vivo data.

    PubMed

    Gal, J A; Gallo, L M; Palla, S; Murray, G; Klineberg, I

    2004-09-01

    In this paper the mechanics of human mandibular function is described in terms of the associated screws. The two distinct, yet related features of jaw mechanics, involving the motion itself as well as the forces, are both functions of the anatomical constraints, namely the contact areas that exist within the temporomandibular joint, and the forces of the muscles and tendons that allow motion to occur. The relationships that exist between these two aspects of jaw-motion are identified in this paper showing that muscle forces can be uniquely represented in terms of the action screw. This new approach to analyzing the mechanics of jaw-motion also incorporates the previously studied motion screw or helical axis. A consistent dynamic model is formulated where the action screw is used to represent the action of the closing muscle forces while the moment arms of the muscle forces are determined about the motion screw representing mandibular kinematics. The action screw formulation is verified using in vivo motion data and MR image information for a single asymptomatic subject. The results confirm the feasibility of the method and its application in dental research. A general increase in the mechanical advantage of most muscles, in the distance between action and motion screws as well as in the expended energy towards the end of the jaw-closing phase was observed. Asymmetries in the distribution of muscle force magnitudes appeared to influence the resultant force and moment of the action screw but had little effect on its spatial location. The method presented is intended to facilitate understanding of mandibular function and dysfunction. PMID:15275848

  12. Unifying screw geometry and matrix transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, A.E.; McAree, P.R.; Hunt, K.H. (Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia))

    1991-10-01

    Transformation matrices are widely used in robotics for kinematic analysis and trajectory planning. Screw geometry offers better geometric insight into such analyses. In this article the authors unify the two approaches through the use of invariant properties of orthogonal matrices under similarity transformations. They give a complete expression for the finite screw motion in terms of the entires of a 3 {times} 3 dual-number transformation matrix. Their analysis suggests that the finite screw is suitable for trajectory planning, and they develop a concise expression that gives the transformation matrix describing the displacement at each point along the path of the finite screw motion.

  13. Biodegradable Interference Screw Fixation Exhibits Pull-Out Force and Stiffness Similar to Titanium Screws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Weiler; Henning J. Windhagen; Michael J. Raschke; Andrea Laumeyer; Reinhard F. G. Hoffmann

    1998-01-01

    Recently, increased interest in biodegradable interference screws for bone-tendon-bone graft fixation has led to numerous screws becoming available. The implants are made from different polymers and have different designs, which might influence their mechanical properties. Several studies have reported a wide range of mechanical results for these screws using different biomechanical models. The aim of the present study is to

  14. Balancing Rigidity and Safety of Pedicle Screw Fixation via a Novel Expansion Mechanism in a Severely Osteoporotic Model

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Thomas M.; Doulgeris, James J.; Gonzalez-Blohm, Sabrina A.; Lee, William E.; Vrionis, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    Many successful attempts to increase pullout strength of pedicle screws in osteoporotic bone have been accompanied with an increased risk of catastrophic damage to the patient. To avoid this, a single-armed expansive pedicle screw was designed to increase fixation strength while controlling postfailure damage away from the nerves surrounding the pedicle. The screw was then subsequently tested in two severely osteoporotic models: one representing trabecular bone (with and without the presence of polymethylmethacrylate) and the other representing a combination of trabecular and cortical bone. Maximum pullout strength, stiffness, energy to failure, energy to removal, and size of the resulting block damage were statistically compared among conditions. While expandable pedicle screws produced maximum pullout forces less than or comparable to standard screws, they required a higher amount of energy to be fully removed from both models. Furthermore, damage to the cortical layer in the composite test blocks was smaller in all measured directions for tests involving expandable pedicle screws than those involving standard pedicle screws. This indicates that while initial fixation may not differ in the presence of cortical bone, the expandable pedicle screw offers an increased level of postfailure stability and safety to patients awaiting revision surgery. PMID:25705655

  15. When Planning Screw Fracture Fixation Why the 5.5?mm Screw is the Goldilocks Screw. An Observational Computer Tomographic Study of Fifth Metatarsal Bone Anatomy in a Sample of Patients.

    PubMed

    Iselin, Lukas D; Ramawat, Sunil; Hanratty, Brian; Klammer, Georg; Stavrou, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We wanted to verify our clinical experience that the 5.5?mm screw was ideal in the majority of fifth metatarsal fracture fixation. The size of a screw is important for the successful surgical treatment of these fractures in order to obtain the maximal stability while reducing the risk for iatrogenic fracture.A sample of patients undergoing computer tomographic imaging of the foot for investigation other than fifth metatarsal pathology were recruited. The parameters of the fifth metatarsal bone anatomy were measured.These parameters of the 5.5?mm screw were correlated with this data. The upper parameter (the diameter of the threads) was 5.5 and the lower parameter (the diameter of the shank) was 4.0?mm.Twenty seven patients were recruited.The proximal third internal diameter ranged from 3.6 to 7.0?mm with a mean of 5.0?mm. 93% of the metatarsals could easily accommodate the 5.5?mm screw. Two of the metatarsals had an internal diameter of < 4?mm (7%).It is our belief that the 5.5?mm screw may be used safely in the majority of patients with fifth metatarsal fractures. PMID:25950685

  16. Twin screw granulation: steps in granule growth.

    PubMed

    Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2012-11-15

    The present work focuses on the study of the progression of granules in different compartments along the length of screws in a twin screw granulator (TSG). The effects of varying powder feed rate; liquid to solid ratio and viscosity of granulation liquid on properties of granules was studied. The bigger granules produced at the start of the process were found to change in terms of size, shape and strength along the screw length at all the conditions investigated. The granules became more spherical and their strength increased along the screw length. Tracer granules were also introduced in order to understand the role of kneading and conveying elements in the TSG. The kneading elements promoted consolidation and breakage while the conveying elements led to coalescence, breakage and some consolidation. The results presented here help to provide a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the twin screw granulation process. PMID:22960611

  17. Recurrent Laryngeal Edema Imitating Angioedema Caused by Dislocated Screw after Anterior Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wójtowicz, Piotr; Szafarowski, Tomasz; Migacz, Ewa; Krzeski, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    The anterior cervical spine surgery is a common procedure to stabilize vertebrae damaged by various diseases. The plates and screws are usually used in the spine fixation. This kind of instrumentation may detach from the bones which is a rare but well-known complication. A 77-year-old male presented to the otorhinolaryngology department with throat pain, choking, and dysphagia. At first the angioedema was diagnosed and he was treated conservatively. The endoscopy revealed laryngeal edema, being more defined on the right side with right vocal fold paresis. CT scans showed the stabilizing plate with two screws attached tightly and the back-out of the third screw toward soft tissue of the neck. In the meantime, his condition deteriorated and he needed tracheotomy. In few days the surgical removal of the dislocated screw was performed successfully. Although two-month follow-up reported no obstruction of the larynx, the vocal folds paresis with gradual functional improvement was observed. Long-term complication of anterior spine surgery sometimes may suggest laryngeal angioedema at first. If the conservative treatment is ineffective and there is a history of anterior spine surgery, the clinicians should consider the displacement of the plate or screws in differential diagnosis. PMID:25755901

  18. [Troublesome radiologic changes after reconstructive fixation of the anterior cruciate ligament with resorbable interference screws].

    PubMed

    Loubignac, F; Lecuire, F; Rubini, J; Basso, M

    1998-03-01

    The authors report worrisome radiological changes which were noted after implantation of absorbable interference screws in ligamentoplasty at the knee joint. Seventeen screws were implanted between September 1995 and July 1996, in eleven patients (average age 27) who were operated upon for chronic anterior knee instability. They underwent a modified Kenneth Jones procedure using autografts with absorbable interference screws (Acufex in 2 cases and Bio-interférix in 9 cases). Significant enlargement of bone tunnels and bony sclerosis of their edges were noted in every patient, but without any modification in the positioning of the graft. No clinical instability was observed in any of the patients, with one to two years follow-up. Publications on this topic are scarce except for one author who reported enlargement of bone tunnels after using bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts. Resorption of absorbable screws probably induces a marked inflammatory reaction, with radiological changes reminiscent of those sometimes observed after tendon allografts. Although the radiological changes reported here may not affect the graft fixation, the authors have reverted to using metallic interference screws. PMID:9586250

  19. Effectiveness of Glenohumeral-Joint Stability Braces in Limiting Active and Passive Shoulder Range of Motion in Collegiate Football Players.

    PubMed

    Weise, Keon; Sitler, Michael R.; Tierney, Ryan; Swanik, Kathleen A.

    2004-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of glenohumeral-joint stability braces in limiting active and passive shoulder abduction and external rotation in collegiate football players. DESIGN AND SETTING: A 2-factor, repeated-measures design was used. The independent variables were brace condition (Denison and Duke Wyre harness, Sawa shoulder brace) and force application (active, passive). The dependent variables were shoulder abduction (45 degrees braced limit) and external-rotation angular displacements. SUBJECTS: Fifteen National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male college football players (age = 19.9 +/- 1.37 years, height = 183.2 +/- 7.85 cm, mass = 89.9 +/- 14.79 kg) participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS: We used the PEAK Motus motion analysis system to measure angular displacements. RESULTS: Neither brace maintained the arm position at the 45 degrees braced limit during active or passive shoulder abduction (motion ranged from 56.8 degrees to 73.0 degrees ). Although we did not use a priori external-rotation limits in this study, motion ranged from 71.6 degrees to 93.9 degrees with the braces. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance indicated no significant interaction effect (P =.41), but main effects were significant for brace condition and force application (P <.001). Reported differences are statistically significant. For abduction, the Denison and Duke Wyre harness resulted in 12.3 degrees (21%) greater angular displacement than the Sawa shoulder brace, and passive abduction resulted in 3.9 degrees (6%) more angular displacement than active abduction. For external rotation, the Denison and Duke Wyre harness resulted in 6.7 degrees (9%) more angular displacement than the Sawa shoulder brace, and passive external rotation resulted in 15.6 degrees (21%) more angular displacement than active external rotation. CONCLUSIONS: Preset, braced abduction motion limits were not realized during active and passive physiologic loading of the glenohumeral joint. However, protection against the vulnerable position of 90 degrees of abduction and external rotation was attained at a preset braced limit of 45 degrees of abduction (the exception was the Denison and Duke Wyre harness during passive external rotation). The Sawa shoulder brace was most effective for this purpose. PMID:15173866

  20. Resorbable screws versus pins for optimal transplant fixation (SPOT) in anterior cruciate ligament replacement with autologous hamstring grafts: rationale and design of a randomized, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial [ISRCTN17384369

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Dirk; Matthes, Gerrit; Seifert, Julia; Tober, Volker; Mutze, Sven; Rademacher, Grit; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bauwens, Kai; Wich, Michael; Casper, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Background Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common injuries to the knee joint. Arthroscopic ACL replacement by autologous tendon grafts has established itself as a standard of care. Data from both experimental and observational studies suggest that surgical reconstruction does not fully restore knee stability. Persisting anterior laxity may lead to recurrent episodes of giving-way and cartilage damage. This might at least in part depend on the method of graft fixation in the bony tunnels. Whereas resorbable screws are easy to handle, pins may better preserve graft tension. The objective of this study is to determine whether pinning of ACL grafts reduces residual anterior laxity six months after surgery as compared to screw fixation. Design/ Methods SPOT is a randomised, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial conducted at a single academic institution. Eligible patients are scheduled to arthroscopic ACL repair with triple-stranded hamstring grafts, conducted by a single, experienced surgeon. Intraoperatively, subjects willing to engage in this study will be randomised to transplant tethering with either resorbable screws or resorbable pins. No other changes apply to locally established treatment protocols. Patients and clinical investigators will remain blinded to the assigned fixation method until the six-month follow-up examination. The primary outcome is the side-to-side (repaired to healthy knee) difference in anterior translation as measured by the KT-1000 arthrometer at a defined load (89 N) six months after surgery. A sample size of 54 patients will yield a power of 80% to detect a difference of 1.0 mm ± standard deviation 1.2 mm at a two-sided alpha of 5% with a t-test for independent samples. Secondary outcomes (generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life, magnetic resonance imaging morphology of transplants and devices) will be handled in an exploratory fashion. Conclusion SPOT aims at showing a reduction in anterior knee laxity after fixing ACL grafts by pins compared to screws. PMID:15723704

  1. A geometrical introduction to screw theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2013-05-01

    This work introduces screw theory, a venerable but little known theory aimed at describing rigid body dynamics. This formulation of mechanics unifies in the concept of screw the translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the body. It captures a remarkable mathematical analogy between mechanical momenta and linear velocities, and between forces and angular velocities. For instance, it clarifies that angular velocities should be treated as applied vectors and that, under the composition of motions, they sum with the same rules of applied forces. This work provides a short and rigorous introduction to screw theory intended for an undergraduate and general readership.

  2. A geometrical introduction to screw theory

    E-print Network

    E. Minguzzi

    2012-11-20

    This work introduces screw theory, a venerable but yet little known theory aimed at describing rigid body dynamics. This formulation of mechanics unifies in the concept of screw the translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the body. It captures a remarkable mathematical analogy between mechanical momenta and linear velocities, and between forces and angular velocities. For instance, it clarifies that angular velocities should be treated as applied vectors and that, under the composition of motions, they sum with the same rules of applied forces. This work provides a short and rigorous introduction to screw theory intended to an undergraduate and general readership.

  3. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Liermann, Dieter; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2?mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ?2?mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%]) were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator's mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system. PMID:25759814

  4. Continued growth of the hip after fixation of slipped capital femoral epiphysis using a single cannulated screw with a proximal threading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Sailhan; Aurélien Courvoisier; Océane Brunet; Franck Chotel; Jérôme Berard

    2011-01-01

    Background  The most commonly used method for unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) remains in situ fixation. Depending on\\u000a the surgeon’s preference, screws or Kirschner wires are used for stabilizing the slipped upper femoral epiphysis. The purpose\\u000a of this study was to evaluate the ability of a single cannulated screw with a proximal threading to ensure stabilization,\\u000a growth, and remodeling of

  5. Comparison between Bilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing and Unilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing, Combined with Contralateral C2 Laminar Screwing, for Atlantoaxial Posterior Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Michio; Kobayashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Abe, Eiji; Shimada, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare clinical and radiological outcomes between bilateral C2 pedicle screwing (C2PS) and unilateral C2PS, combined with contralateral C2 laminar screwing (LS), for posterior atlantoaxial fixation. Overview of Literature Posterior fixation with C1 lateral mass screwing (C1LMS) and C2PS (C1LMS-C2PS method) is an accepted procedure for rigid atlantoaxial stabilization. However, conventional bilateral C2PS is not always allowed in this method due to anatomical variations of C2 pedicles and/or asymmetry of the vertebral artery. Although unilateral C2PS plus contralateral LS (C2PS+LS) is an alternative in such cases, the efficacy of this procedure has not been evaluated in controlled studies (i.e., with bilateral C2PS as a control). Methods Clinical and radiological records of patients who underwent the C1LMS-C2PS method, using unilateral C2PS+LS (n=9), and those treated using conventional bilateral C2PS (n=10) were compared, with a minimum two years follow-up. Results Postoperative complications related to the unilateral C2PS+LS technique included one case of spontaneous spinous process fracture of C2. A C1 anterior arch fracture occurred after a fall in one patient, who underwent bilateral C2PS and C1 laminectomy. No significant differences were seen between the groups in reduction of neck pain after surgery or improvement of neurological status, as evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. A delayed union occurred in one patient each of the groups, with the final fusion rate being 100% in both groups. Conclusions Clinical and radiological outcomes of unilateral C2PS+LS were comparable with those of the bilateral C2PS fixation technique for the C1LMS-C2PS method. PMID:25558320

  6. Screw pull-out force is dependent on screw orientation in an anterior cervical plate construct.

    PubMed

    DiPaola, Christian P; Jacobson, Justin A; Awad, Hani; Conrad, Bryan P; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2007-07-01

    Two common justifications for orienting cervical screws in an angled direction is to increase pull-out strength and to allow use of longer screws. This concept is widely taught and has guided implant design. Fixed versus variable angle systems may offer strength advantages. The purpose of our study is to test the influence of screw orientation and plate design on the maximum screw pull-out load. Variable and fixed angle 4.0 x 15 mm and 4.0 x 13 mm self-tapping screws were used to affix a Medtronic Atlantis cervical plate to polyurethane foam bone samples (density 0.160/cm). This synthetic product is a model of osteoporotic cancellous bone. The fixed angle screws can only be placed at 12 degrees convergent to the midline and 12 degrees in the cephalad/caudal ("12 degrees up and in") direction. Three groups were tested: (1) all fixed angle screws, (2) variable angle, all screws 12 degrees up and in, (3) variable angle, all screws 90 degrees to the plate. Plate constructs were pulled off with an Instron DynaMight 8841 servohydrolic machine measuring for maximum screw pull-out force. There was no difference between group 1, fixed angle (288.4 +/- 37.7 N) (mean +/- SD) and 2, variable angle group (297.7 +/- 41.31 N P< or =0.73). There was a significant increase in maximum pull-out force to failure for the construct with all screws at 90 degrees (415.2+/-17.4 N) compared with all screws 12 degrees "up and in" (297.4 +/- 41.3 N, P< or =0.0016). Group 3 done with 13 mm screws, showed a trend toward better pull-out strength, compared to group 2 w/15 mm screws (345.2 +/- 20.5 vs. 297.4 +/- 41.3, P< or =0.06). In this plate pull-out model, screw orientation influences maximum force to failure. When all 4 screws are 90 degrees to the plate the construct has the greatest ability to resist pullout. Fixed angle designs show no advantage over variable angle. These findings are contrary to current teaching. PMID:17607102

  7. Rotordynamics of Twin-Screw Pumps 

    E-print Network

    Aboel Hassan Muhammed, Ameen

    2013-02-26

    geometry, the circumferential pressure field around the screws is not balanced, resulting in net dynamic and static pressures applied on the rotors. The research work presented here aims at building and verifying a model to predict both: (1) the exciting...

  8. Rotordynamics of Twin-Screw Pumps

    E-print Network

    Aboel Hassan Muhammed, Ameen

    2013-02-26

    geometry, the circumferential pressure field around the screws is not balanced, resulting in net dynamic and static pressures applied on the rotors. The research work presented here aims at building and verifying a model to predict both: (1) the exciting...

  9. Cycling Losses During Screw Air Compressor Operation 

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, J. B.; Wheeler, G.; Bushnell, D.

    1995-01-01

    Air compressors use 10-13 % of a typical industrial facilities' total electricity. Because they often operate at part load, their part load efficiency significantly affects plant energy cost. An intensive study of screw air compressor part load...

  10. Semi-Empirical Screw Compressor Chiller Model

    E-print Network

    Nelson, I. C.; Culp, C.; Graves, R. D.

    Director, Energy Systems Laboratory College Station, TX USA Rhett D. Graves, P.E. Research Associate II, Department of Mechanical Engineering Mississippi State University Starkville, MS USA ABSTRACT A screw chiller model which is based on a first...

  11. Inverse kinematics and application of a type of motion chain based on screw theory and analytic geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Shuzhen; Huang Jianlong; Kong Minxiu; Sun Lining

    2010-01-01

    For the RRRR motion chain, a kind of sub-problem which can be described as rotating about four not intersecting axes to a given point and adjacent axes are parallel or vertical intersecting or vertical skew is proposed. By combining analytic geometry and screw theory exponential product method, the inverse kinematics solution of the RRRR motion chain is derived, and joint

  12. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  13. Is the Etiology of Pretibial Cyst Formation After Absorbable Interference Screw Use Related to a Foreign Body Reaction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillem Gonzalez-Lomas; Ryan T. Cassilly; Fabrizio Remotti; William N. Levine

    2011-01-01

    Background  Arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a bioabsorbable tibial fixation screw is occasionally\\u000a complicated by pretibial cyst formation. The few case reports describing pretibial cyst formation noted several graft types\\u000a and fixation techniques, making it difficult to establish one etiology. Some literature suggests cysts form from communication\\u000a between the joint and pretibial area leading to extravasation of joint fluid,

  14. Kinematics of a five-degrees-of-freedom parallel manipulator using screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Gallardo-Alvarado; Benjamín Arroyo-Ramírez; Héctor Rojas-Garduño

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the kinematic analysis of a five-degrees-of-freedom decoupled parallel manipulator is approached by means of\\u000a the theory of screws. The architecture of the parallel manipulator under study is such that the translational motion of the\\u000a moving platform, with respect to the fixed platform, is controlled by means of a central limb provided with two active prismatic\\u000a joints while

  15. Plan to procedure: combining 3D templating with rapid prototyping to enhance pedicle screw placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Stans, Anthony A.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Matsumoto, Jane M.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2010-02-01

    Spinal fusion procedures involving the implantation of pedicle screws have steadily increased over the past decade because of demonstrated improvement in biomechanical stability of the spine. However, current methods of spinal fusion carries a risk of serious vascular, visceral, and neurological injury caused by inaccurate placement or inappropriately sized instrumentation, which may lead to patient paralysis or even fatality. 3D spine templating software developed by the Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic allows the surgeon to virtually place pedicle screws using pre-operative 3D CT image data. With the template plan incorporated, a patient-specific 3D anatomic model is produced using a commercial rapid prototyping system. The pre-surgical plan and the patient-specific model then are used in the procedure room to provide real-time visualization and quantitative guidance for accurate placement of each pedicle screw, significantly reducing risk of injury. A pilot study was conducted at Mayo Clinic by the Department of Radiology, the Department of Orthopedics, and the BIR, involving seven complicated pediatric spine cases. In each case, pre-operative 3D templating was carried out and patient specific models were generated. The plans and the models were used intra-operatively, providing precise pedicle screw starting points and trajectories. Postoperative assessment by the surgeon confirmed all seven operations were successful. Results from the study suggest that patient-specific, 3D anatomic models successfully acquired from 3D templating tools are valuable for planning and conducting pedicle screw insertion procedures.

  16. Efficacy analysis of pedicle screw internal fixation of fractured vertebrae in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijie; Luo, Tao

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the method and effect of posterior internal fixation of thoracolumbar fractures strengthened by the vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of fractured vertebrae. Patients with single thoracolumbar fractures were examined retrospectively. Fourteen patients (group A) had been treated with vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of a fractured vertebra and sixteen patients (group B) received traditional double-plate fixation, as a control. All patients were diagnosed with fresh fractures with a complete unilateral or bilateral pedicle and no explosion of the inferior half of the vertebral body or inferior endplate. In group A, patients received conventional posterior distraction and lumbar lordosis restoration, as well as pedicle screws in the fractured vertebra in a vertical direction to relieve stress to achieve a local stress balance. All patients were followed up postoperatively for 4-18 months (average, 12.6 months). The vertical stress pedicle screw fixation assisted in the reduction of vertebrae fracture, which reduced the postoperative Cobb's angle loss. There was a significant difference in the change of Cobb's angle between the two groups one year after surgery (P<0.01). Conditional application of pedicle screws in a single thoracolumbar fracture enhances the stability of the internal fixation system and is conducive to the correction of kyphosis and maintenance of the corrective effects. PMID:23407593

  17. An abutment screw loosening study of a Diamond Like Carbon-coated CP titanium implant.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Lee, J B; Koak, J Y; Heo, S J; Lee, K R; Cho, L R; Lee, S S

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of abutment screw loosening and thus understand the role of frictional and wear factors in abutment screw loosening by using a cyclic loading device to compare Diamond Like Carbon (DLC)-coated and non-coated implants. The properties of DLC films, including hardness, wear resistance, chemical stability, and biocompatibility, are similar to those of real diamond materials. In this study, a 1-mum thick DLC film served to protect and lubricate a layer of commercially-pure titanium affixed to the top of a dental implant (external hexagon-shaped implant). A cyclic loading force was then applied to the top of the prosthetic portion of the implants in order to determine the difference in looseness of the titanium abutment screw between ten DLC-coated implants and ten non-coated implants. The abutment screw loosening tests were performed with 100 N of force at a frequency of 20 Hz. Data indicate that implants with a DLC coating are more resistant to an applied force (P = 0.002) than are those without the coating. We hope these results will be useful for preventing implant abutment screw loosening. PMID:15842243

  18. The radiological feature of anterior occiput-to-axis screw fixation as it guides the screw trajectory on 3D printed models: a feasibility study on 3D images and 3D printed models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ai-Min; Wang, Sheng; Weng, Wan-Qing; Shao, Zhen-Xuan; Yang, Xin-Dong; Wang, Jian-Shun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Chi, Yong-Long

    2014-12-01

    Anterior occiput-to-axis screw fixation is more suitable than a posterior approach for some patients with a history of posterior surgery. The complex osseous anatomy between the occiput and the axis causes a high risk of injury to neurological and vascular structures, and it is important to have an accurate screw trajectory to guide anterior occiput-to-axis screw fixation. Thirty computed tomography (CT) scans of upper cervical spines were obtained for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Cylinders (1.75?mm radius) were drawn to simulate the trajectory of an anterior occiput-to-axis screw. The imitation screw was adjusted to 4 different angles and measured, as were the values of the maximized anteroposterior width and the left-right width of the occiput (C0) to the C1 and C1 to C2 joints. Then, the 3D models were printed, and an angle guide device was used to introduce the screws into the 3D models referring to the angles calculated from the 3D images. We found the screw angle ranged from ?1 (left: 4.99±4.59°; right: 4.28±5.45°) to ?2 (left: 20.22±3.61°; right: 19.63±4.94°); on the lateral view, the screw angle ranged from ?1 (left: 13.13±4.93°; right: 11.82±5.64°) to ?2 (left: 34.86±6.00°; right: 35.01±5.77°). No statistically significant difference was found between the data of the left and right sides. On the 3D printed models, all of the anterior occiput-to-axis screws were successfully introduced, and none of them penetrated outside of the cortex; the mean ?4 was 12.00±4.11 (left) and 12.25±4.05 (right), and the mean ?4 was 23.44±4.21 (left) and 22.75±4.41 (right). No significant difference was found between ?4 and ?4 on the 3D printed models and ?3 and ?3 calculated from the 3D digital images of the left and right sides. Aided with the angle guide device, we could achieve an optimal screw trajectory for anterior occiput-to-axis screw fixation on 3D printed C0 to C2 models. PMID:25526447

  19. 24 CFR 3280.605 - Joints and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...to the full depth of the solder cup or welding sockets of each fitting. Pipe threads and slip joints shall not be wrapped with string, paper, putty, or similar fillers. (2) Threaded joints. Threads for screw pipe and fittings shall conform to...

  20. Transarticular screw fixation of C1-2 for the treatment of arthropathy-associated occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Pakzaban, Peyman

    2011-02-01

    Two patients with occipital neuralgia due to severe arthropathy of the C1-2 facet joint were treated using atlantoaxial fusion with transarticular screws without decompression of the C-2 nerve root. Both patients experienced immediate postoperative relief of occipital neuralgia. The resultant motion elimination at C1-2 eradicated not only the movement-evoked pain, but also the paroxysms of true occipital neuralgia occurring at rest. A possible pathophysiological explanation for this improvement is presented in the context of the ignition theory of neuralgic pain. This represents the first report of C1-2 transarticular screw fixation for the treatment of arthropathy-associated occipital neuralgia. PMID:21214317

  1. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration. PMID:25869451

  2. Use of resorbable screws for autogenous onlay block graft fixation: a histological analysis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Stabile, Glaykon Alex Vitti; Antonini, Fernando; Nascimento, Frederico Felipe; de Moraes, Marcio; Mazzonetto, Renato

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present in vivo study is to histologically evaluate and compare the use of resorbable screws based on poly(L-co-D,L lactide) 70:30 for fixation of autogenous bone grafts in rabbit tibiae. As control group, titanium (Ti-6Al-4V Grade V) screws were used. For this purpose, 15 white New Zealand male rabbits, aged 6 months and weighing between 3.8 and 4.5 kg, were used. From each animal, 2 total-thickness bone grafts were removed from the cranial vault: one was stabilized with a resorbable screw while the other was stabilized with a metallic one. Animals were divided into 3 groups, according to the sacrifice period: 3, 8, and 16 weeks postoperatively. After histological processing, cuts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and submitted for descriptive histological analysis under light microscopy. It was found that the fixation system based on the polymer showed a histological behavior similar to metallic screws. For both groups, the bone graft was incorporated, with the presence of bone formation between the graft and receptor site. In none of the groups were undesirable inflammatory responses or foreign body reactions observed. Based on histological findings and on this experimental model, it is possible to conclude that the internal fixation system based on the poly(L-co-D,L lactide) 70:30 polymer is effective for fixation of autogenous bone grafts, with results that are comparable to the titanium fixation system. PMID:23414521

  3. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  4. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... “Warning: The safety and effectiveness of pedicle screw spinal systems have been established...requiring fusion with instrumentation. These conditions...pseudarthrosis). The safety and effectiveness of these...pedicle screw spinal systems should be...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “Warning: The safety and effectiveness of pedicle screw spinal systems have been established...requiring fusion with instrumentation. These conditions...pseudarthrosis). The safety and effectiveness of these...pedicle screw spinal systems should be...

  6. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “Warning: The safety and effectiveness of pedicle screw spinal systems have been established...requiring fusion with instrumentation. These conditions...pseudarthrosis). The safety and effectiveness of these...pedicle screw spinal systems should be...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... “Warning: The safety and effectiveness of pedicle screw spinal systems have been established...requiring fusion with instrumentation. These conditions...pseudarthrosis). The safety and effectiveness of these...pedicle screw spinal systems should be...

  8. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF LOWER MOBILITY COOPERATIVE ARMS BY SCREW THEORY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF LOWER MOBILITY COOPERATIVE ARMS BY SCREW THEORY Philip Long1 , St´ephane Caro.secondname}@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Keywords: Cooperative Manipulators:Humanoid Robots: Screw theory Abstract: This paper studies the kinematic

  9. A geometrical introduction to screw theory

    E-print Network

    Minguzzi, E

    2012-01-01

    Since the addition of applied forces must take into account the line of action, applied forces do not belong to a vector space. Screw theory removes this geometrical limitation and solves other mechanical problems by unifying, in a single concept, the translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Although venerable this theory is little known. By introducing some innovations, I show how screw theory can help us to rapidly develop several standard and less standard results in classical mechanics. The connection with the Lie algebra of the group of rigid maps is clarified.

  10. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction: complications and innovations.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C; Lubowitz, James H; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Minimally invasive anatomic reconstruction of the acromioclavicular joint is a technically challenging procedure. The repair must be sufficiently strong and reconstitute the joint as closely as possible. This includes restoration of both superior-inferior stability, and the often overlooked anterior-posterior stability, of the acromioclavicular joint. There is no gold standard treatment for acromioclavicular joint separation. PMID:25953219

  11. Screw Systems, Singular Trajectories and DarbouxType Motions

    E-print Network

    Donelan, Peter

    Screw Systems, Singular Trajectories and Darboux­Type Motions M. W. Cocke and C. G. Gibson by the associated screw system. We present a classification of screw systems based on a Lie group representation body motions abound in theory and practice. The instantaneous centre of rotation for a continuous (or

  12. Reciprocal screw theory based singularity analysis of a novel 3-DOF parallel manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hairong; Fang, Yuefa; Zhang, Ketao

    2012-07-01

    Singularity analysis is an essential issue for the development and application of parallel manipulators. Most of the existing researches focus on the singularity of parallel manipulators are carried out based on the study of Jacobian matrices. A 3-DOF parallel manipulator with symmetrical structure is presented. The novel parallel manipulator employs only revolute joints and consists of four closed-loop subchains connecting to both base and platform via revolute joints. The closed-loop subchain in each chain-leg is a spherical 6R linkage. The motion characteristics of the output link in the spherical 6R linkage with symmetrical structure are analyzed based on the interrelationships between screw systems. The constraints that are exerted on the platform by each chain-leg are investigated applying the concept of generalized kinematic pair in terms of equivalent screw system. Considering the geometric characteristics of the parallel manipulator, the singularity criteria of the parallel manipulator corresponding to different configurations are revealed based on the dependency of screw system and line geometry. The existing conditions of certain configuration that a singularity must occur are determined. This paper presents a new way of singularity analysis based on disposition of constraint forces on the geometrically identified constraint plane and the proposed approach is capable of avoiding the complexity in solving the Jacobian matrices.

  13. Joint swelling

    MedlinePLUS

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  14. Parameter estimation during automated screw insertions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mongkom Klingajay; Lakmal D. Seneviratne; Kaspar Althoefer

    2002-01-01

    Threaded fastenings are a common assembly method, accounting for over a quarter of all assembly operations. Threaded fastenings are popular because they permit easy disassembly for maintenance, repair, relocation and recycling. Screw insertions are typically carried out manually and are a difficult problem to automate. As a result there is very little published research on automating threaded fastenings, and most

  15. Computer simulation of screw dislocation in aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esterling, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The atomic structure in a 110 screw dislocation core for aluminum is obtained by computer simulation. The lattice statics technique is employed since it entails no artificially imposed elastic boundary around the defect. The interatomic potential has no adjustable parameters and was derived from pseudopotential theory. The resulting atomic displacements were allowed to relax in all three dimensions.

  16. ROBOT WELDING TRAJECTORY PLANNING USING SCREW THEORY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato Ventura; Bayan Henriques; Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Alexandre Queiroz Bracarense; Raul Guenther; Antonio O. Dourado; Daniel Martins

    This article presents a methodology for trajectory plannin g in robot welding applications, which handles parts with geometric restrictions . Differential kinematics are calc ulated using the screws theory and an optimal welding positi on (plain position) is obtained when defining the welding seque nce. The latter is the major contribution of the proposed methodology, since previous work have only

  17. A screw theory of static beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Selig; X. Ding

    2001-01-01

    We derive the deflection equation of a simple beam using the screw theory. The effects of tension, torsion and bending of the beam can be unified into a single equation. We begin by looking at the compliance matrix for small elements of the beam. This is loosely based on the work by von Mises (1924). We reproduce von Mises' results

  18. Screw Compressor Characteristics for Helium Refrigeration Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkatarao Ganni; Peter Knudsen; Jonathan Creel; Dana Arenius; Fabio Casagrande; Matt Howell

    2008-01-01

    The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression. At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system.

  19. A model for biomass screw feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Dai; John R. Grace

    2008-01-01

    Successful feeding is critical to biomass utilization processes, but trouble-free delivery is difficult due to particle heterogeneity, physical characteristics and moisture content. A model, extended from previous models in the literature, is proposed to delineate what limits screw feeding in terms of the mechanisms of blockage and to predict torque requirements for biomass materials. Predictions on feeding of wood pellets,

  20. Treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis with a cannulated-screw technique.

    PubMed

    Koval, K J; Lehman, W B; Rose, D; Koval, R P; Grant, A; Strongwater, A

    1989-10-01

    Sixty patients (eighty hips) who had slipped capital femoral epiphysis were treated by epiphyseodesis with a cannulated-screw technique. Forty-nine patients (sixty-seven hips) were available for follow-up, forty-four (sixty hips) of whom were followed for a minimum of two years. Thirty-five patients (forty-six hips) were followed until the hardware was removed. Of seventy-two hips in which contrast medium was injected, arthrographic results were obtained in three. In these three hips, there was evidence of pre-existing narrowing of the joint space. Four patients (six hips) who did not have evidence of penetration by a screw or guide-wire had evidence of either pre-existing chondrolysis or osteoarthrosis. Chondrolysis did not develop postoperatively in any patient who had no evidence of it preoperatively. PMID:2793890

  1. Foam granulation: new developments in pharmaceutical solid oral dosage forms using twin screw extrusion machinery.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M R; Weatherley, S; Pukadyil, R N; Sheskey, P J

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates foam granulation in a twin screw extruder as a new continuous wet granulation technique for pharmaceutical powder drug formulations. Foamed aqueous binder has a reportedly lower soak-to-spread ratio than drop or spray liquid addition in batch granulation. This work demonstrates a twin screw extruder configuration for foam granulation and subsequently compares the new approach against liquid injection in the granulation of ?-lactose monohydrate with a methylcellulose binder. Trials were conducted at high powder output rates (20-40 kg/h) and high screw speeds (220-320 RPM) with two screw configurations. Process stability improved with the new technique allowing granulation with less binder. The extruded mass maintained a low exit temperature, being insensitive to operating conditions unlike the liquid injection approach, where temperatures rose significantly as flow rate increased. The particle size distribution by foam granulation reflected a more uniformly wetted mass with larger granule growth noted even for conditions where dry powder exited by liquid injection. Other factors were found similar between the two binder delivery methods such as consumed mechanical energy, as well as fracture strength and compressibility of produced granules. PMID:22085462

  2. Chitosan-coated Stainless Steel Screws for Fixation in Contaminated Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Alex H.; Bumgardner, Joel D.; Yang, Yunzhi; Moseley, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Stainless steel screws and other internal fixation devices are used routinely to stabilize bacteria-contaminated bone fractures from multiple injury mechanisms. In this preliminary study, we hypothesize that a chitosan coating either unloaded or loaded with an antibiotic, gentamicin, could lessen or prevent these devices from becoming an initial nidus for infection. The questions investigated for this hypothesis were: (1) how much of the sterilized coating remains on the screw with simulated functional use; (2) is the unloaded or loaded chitosan coating bacteriostatic and biocompatible; and (3) what amount and rate does an antibiotic elute from the coating? In this study, the gentamicin eluted from the coating at a detectable level during 72 to 96 hours. The coating was retained at the 90% level in simulated bone screw fixation and the unloaded and loaded chitosan coatings had encouraging in vitro biocompatibility with fibroblasts and stem cells and were bacteriostatic against at least one strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The use of an antibiotic-loaded chitosan coating on stainless steel bone screws and internal fixation devices in contaminated bone fracture fixation may be considered after optimization of antibiotic loading and elution and more expanded in vitro and in vivo investigations with other organisms and antibiotics. PMID:18443893

  3. Biomass granular screw feeding: An experimental investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Dai; John R. Grace

    2011-01-01

    Successful feeding is critical to biomass utilization processes, but difficult due to the heterogeneity, physical properties and moisture content of the particles. The objectives of the present study were to find the mechanisms of blockage in screw feeding and to determine the effects of particle mean size (0.5–15mm), size distribution, shape, moisture content (10–60%), density and compressibility on biomass particle

  4. Novel flexible suture fixation for the distal tibiofibular syndesmotic joint injury: a cadaveric biomechanical model.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brandon E; Chong, Alexander C M; Howell, Steven J; Galvin, Joseph W; Wooley, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Syndesmotic injuries of the ankle commonly occur by an external rotation force applied to the ankle joint. Ten fresh-frozen lower extremities from cadavers were used. A specially designed apparatus was used to stabilize the specimen and rotate the ankle joint from internally rotated 25° to externally rotated 35° at a rate of 6°/s for 10 cycles. Two stages were tested (stage I, specimens intact; and stage II, simulated pronation external rotation type injury with fixation). Group 1 was fixed with a novel suture construct across the syndesmotic joint, and group 2 was fixed with a single metallic screw. The torque, rotational angle, and 3-dimensional syndesmotic diastasis readings were recorded. Three-dimensional tibiofibular diastasis was identified. The fibula of the intact specimens displaced an average of 8.6 ± 1.7, 2.4 ± 1.0, and 1.4 ± 1.0 mm in the anterior, lateral, and superior direction, respectively, when the foot was externally rotated 35°. The sectioning of the syndesmostic ligaments and deltoid ligament resulted in a significant decrease in syndesmotic diastasis and foot torsional force (p < .05). The ligament-sectioned specimen lost 57% (externally rotated) and 17% (internally rotated) torsional strength compared with the intact specimen. Groups 1 and 2 provided similar biomechanical stability in this cadaveric model of a syndesmosis deficiency. PMID:24846162

  5. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hypermobile joints have an increased risk for joint dislocation and other problems. Extra care may be needed ... the joint? Is there any history of joint dislocation, difficulty walking, or difficulty using the arms? Further ...

  6. Minimally Invasive Pedicle Screw Placement in A Case of L4 Fracture: Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Abhishek; Mizuno, Junichi; Kato, Yoko; Inoue, Tatsushi; Sano, Hirotoshi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Pedicle screw instrumentation provides a rigid construct to promote fusion in cases of spinal trauma and degenerative diseases. Minimally invasive percutaneous technique in lumbar spine is a safe and reliable procedure as compared to the well established Magerl technique. It is a straight forward alternative to open approaches or minimally invasive ones and the accuracy of screw placement is also similar to that reported for other techniques. Case Report: A 16 year old high school boy presented to us with accidental fall from third floor. He was suffering from common cold with resulting high fever. He developed low back ache with bilateral radiculopathy and weakness of dorsiflexors. Neuro-imaging revealed a burst fracture of L4 vertebral body (type A 3.3 according to Magerl/AO spine classification), with bone fragments compromising the spinal canal. Delayed surgery was planned in view of anticipated excessive bleeding from the wound site in addition to poor general condition. Using a bone impactor, the bony fragments were impacted back into the original vertebral body space. Sextant (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Tennessee, USA) percutaneous pedicle screw and rod fixation device was then used as a rigid construct to stabilize the lumbar spine. Post-operative CT scan and MRI revealed accurate pedicle screw fixation with adequately decompressed spinal canal. Conclusion: Short segment fusion with minimally invasive pedicle screwing following decompression of cauda equina was considered to be a minimally invasive approach for this case. PMID:22028760

  7. Screw dislocations in the field theory of elastoplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Markus

    2002-10-01

    A (microscopic) static elastoplastic field theory of dislocations with moment and force stresses is considered. The relationship between the moment stress and the Nye tensor is used for the dislocation Lagrangian. We discuss the stress field of an infinitely long screw dislocation in a cylinder, a dipole of screw dislocations and a coaxial screw dislocation in a finite cylinder. The stress fields have no singularities in the dislocation core and they are modified in the core due to the presence of localized moment stress. Additionally, we calculated the elastoplastic energies for the screw dislocation in a cylinder and the coaxial screw dislocation. For the coaxial screw dislocation we find a modified formula for the so-called Eshelby twist which depends on a specific intrinsic material length.

  8. Screw dislocations in the field theory of elastoplasticity

    E-print Network

    Markus Lazar

    2002-09-30

    A (microscopic) static elastoplastic field theory of dislocations with moment and force stresses is considered. The relationship between the moment stress and the Nye tensor is used for the dislocation Lagrangian. We discuss the stress field of an infinitely long screw dislocation in a cylinder, a dipole of screw dislocations and a coaxial screw dislocation in a finite cylinder. The stress fields have no singularities in the dislocation core and they are modified in the core due to the presence of localized moment stress. Additionally, we calculated the elastoplastic energies for the screw dislocation in a cylinder and the coaxial screw dislocation. For the coaxial screw dislocation we find a modified formula for the so-called Eshelby twist which depends on a specific intrinsic material length.

  9. Examination of the suitability of alpha-tocopherol as a stabilizer for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene used for articulating surfaces in joint endoprostheses.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C; Krivec, T; Blassnig, J; Lederer, K; Schneider, W

    2002-02-01

    The lifetime of articulating surfaces in joint endoprostheses made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), especially of UHMW-PE-cups of hip-endoprostheses, is usually limited to 10-15 years due to material failure as a result of oxidation of the UHMW-PE in vivo. In this study the suitability of the natural antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) as a stabilizer for UHMW-PE in these applications was investigated. Specimens with 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% w/w alpha-tocopherol as well as unstabilized samples were sintered and sterilized with gamma-rays at 25 kGy in accordance with standard processing methods of cups for total hip-endoprostheses. These specimens were aged in pure oxygen at 70 degrees C and 5 bar as well as in aqueous H2O2 at 50 degrees C. The degree of oxidation was observed by means of FTIR-spectroscopy, DSC analysis and mechanical testing. The FTIR-measurements showed that alpha-tocopherol can prolong the lifetime of UHMW-PE in an oxidative environment by a factor of more than 2.5. In the mechanical tests no embrittlement could be observed with the stabilized samples. A comparison with the standard antioxidant system Irganox 1010/Irgafos 168 (Ciba-Geigy, Switzerland) was carried out and revealed that alpha-tocopherol can even exceed the stabilization effect of this widely-used antioxidant system. PMID:15348641

  10. Open reduction and internal fixation of patellar fractures with tension band wiring through cannulated screws.

    PubMed

    Malik, Mudasir; Halwai, Manzoor Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a relatively new technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures with tension band wiring (TBW) through parallel cannulated compression screws. A total of 30 patients with displaced transverse patellar fracture were enrolled in this prospective study. Of the 30 patients, 20 patients had trauma due to fall, 5 due to road traffic accident, 2 due to fall of heavy object on the knee, 2 due to forced flexion of knee, and 1 had fracture due to being beaten. All 30 patients were treated with vertical skin exposure, fracture open reduction, and internal fixation by anterior TBW through 4.0?mm cannulated screws. The postoperative rehabilitation protocol was standardized. The patients were followed postsurgery to evaluate time required for radiographic bone union, knee joint range of motion (ROM), loss of fracture reduction, material failure, and the overall functional result of knee using Bostman scoring. All the fractures healed radiologically, at an average time of 10.7 weeks (range, 8-12 weeks). The average ROM arc was 129.7 degrees (range, 115-140 degrees). No patient had loss of fracture reduction, implant migration, or material failure. The average Bostman score was 28.6 out of 30. Anterior TBW through cannulated screws for displaced transverse fractures is safe and effective alternative treatment. Good functional results and recovery can be expected. PMID:24414389

  11. The gauge theory of dislocations: A nonuniformly moving screw dislocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Markus

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the nonuniform motion of a straight screw dislocation in infinite media in the framework of the translational gauge theory of dislocations. The equations of motion are derived for an arbitrarily moving screw dislocation. The fields of the elastic velocity, elastic distortion, dislocation density and dislocation current surrounding the arbitrarily moving screw dislocation are derived explicitly in the form of integral representations. We calculate the radiation fields and the fields depending on the dislocation velocities.

  12. Screw theoretic view on dynamics of spatially compliant beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi-lun Ding; J. M. Selig

    2010-01-01

    Beams with spatial compliance can be deformed as bending in a plane, twisting, and extending. In terms of the screw theory\\u000a on rigid body motions, the concept of “deflection screw” is introduced, a spatial compliant beam theory via the deflection\\u000a screw is proposed, and the spatial compliance of such a beam system is presented and analysed based on the material

  13. Theory of intrinsic and H-passivated screw dislocations in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrup, John E.

    2002-07-01

    The relative stabilities of specific atomic models of the b=c[0001] screw dislocation in GaN are calculated using density-functional theory. The calculations show that the dislocation core structure and electrical activity changes as the chemical potential of Ga varies across the thermodynamically allowed range. In Ga-rich conditions, the core region is filled with Ga atoms and these atoms form a pair of helical chains. In N-rich conditions, a core structure containing both Ga and N atoms is most stable. Both types of dislocations give rise to bands of electronic states deep inside the gap. The conditions required for H to passivate the screw dislocation are determined.

  14. Minimally Invasive Technique for PMMA Augmentation of Fenestrated Screws

    PubMed Central

    Kogias, Evangelos; Sircar, Ronen; Krüger, Marie T.; Volz, Florian; Scheiwe, Christian; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the minimally invasive technique for cement augmentation of cannulated and fenestrated screws using an injection cannula as well as to report its safety and efficacy. Methods. A total of 157 cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws had been cement-augmented during minimally invasive posterior screw-rod spondylodesis in 35 patients from January to December 2012. Retrospective evaluation of cement extravasation and screw loosening was carried out in postoperative plain radiographs and thin-sliced triplanar computed tomography scans. Results. Twenty-seven, largely prevertebral cement extravasations were detected in 157 screws (17.2%). None of the cement extravasations was causing a clinical sequela like a new neurological deficit. One screw loosening was noted (0.6%) after a mean follow-up of 12.8 months. We observed no cementation-associated complication like pulmonary embolism or hemodynamic insufficiency. Conclusions. The presented minimally invasive cement augmentation technique using an injection cannula facilitates convenient and safe cement delivery through polyaxial cannulated and fenestrated screws during minimally invasive screw-rod spondylodesis. Nevertheless, the optimal injection technique and design of fenestrated screws have yet to be identified. This trial is registered with German Clinical Trials DRKS00006726.

  15. Comparative clinical study of locking screws versus smooth locking pegs in volar plating of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Boretto, J G; Pacher, N; Giunta, D; Gallucci, G L; Alfie, V; De Carli, P

    2014-09-01

    The present study was performed to test the null hypothesis on no difference in stability of fixation after volar plating of intra-articular distal radius fractures (AO C2-C3) with either locking smooth pegs or locking screws in a clinical setting. A retrospective evaluation included adult patients with C2-C3 AO fractures treated with a volar plate with locking smooth pegs or locking screws. Radiographic assessment was performed to evaluate extra- and intra-articular parameters in the early postoperative period and after bone union. Twenty-seven consecutive patients were included. Thirteen cases had fixation with locking screws and 14 had fixation with locking smooth pegs. Both groups had bone fragment displacement after fixation. However, there were no significant differences between the groups either in extra- or intra-articular parameters defined by Kreder et al. (1996). Our study shows that, in a clinical setting, there is no difference in stability fixation between locking screws or smooth locking pegs in C2-C3 distal radius fractures. PMID:24401740

  16. Postfusion pullout strength comparison of a novel pedicle screw with classical pedicle screws on synthetic foams.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Arslan K; Demir, Teyfik; Ormeci, Mehmet F; Camu?cu, Necip; Türeyen, Kudret

    2013-02-01

    Pullout is a very common failure mode on the use of pedicle screws. Numerous studies were completed to increase the pullout strength of pedicle screws especially for osteoporotic bones. In this study, a previously designed pedicle screw type was tested before and after fusion condition. Synthetic polyurethane foams were used in all tests. Three different grades of foams were used in tests to simulate severely osteoporotic, osteoporotic, and healthy bones. Test blocks were produced and characterized in our clinical biomechanics laboratory. Foaming of polyurethane was accepted as fusion process (bone in growth). Pedicle screw including radial holes (new design) was tested both before and after the fusion. It also exhibited remarkably higher pullout strength after fusion than before fusion and most of other alternatives stated in the literature. In total, 70% higher pullout strength was achieved with new design after fusion. On the other hand, new design did not dominate other alternatives when comparison was carried out on severely osteoporotic and healthy bones. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study investigating the postfusion properties on synthetic foams. PMID:23513982

  17. Wet granulation in a twin-screw extruder: implications of screw design.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M R; Sun, J

    2010-04-01

    Wet granulation in twin-screw extrusion machinery is an attractive technology for the continuous processing of pharmaceuticals. The performance of this machinery is integrally tied to its screw design yet little fundamental knowledge exists in this emerging field for granulation to intelligently create, troubleshoot, and scale-up such processes. This study endeavored to systematically examine the influence of different commercially available screw elements on the flow behavior and granulation mechanics of lactose monohydrate saturated at low concentration (5-12%, w/w) with an aqueous polyvinyl-pyrrolidone binder. The results of the work showed that current screw elements could be successfully incorporated into designs for wet granulation, to tailor the particle size as well as particle shape of an agglomerate product. Conveying elements for cohesive granular flows were shown to perform similar to their use in polymer processing, as effective transport units with low specific mechanical energy input. The conveying zones provided little significant change to the particle size or shape, though the degree of channel fill in these sections had a significant influence on the more energy-intensive mixing elements studied. The standard mixing elements for this machine, kneading blocks and comb mixers, were found to be effective for generating coarser particles, though their mechanisms of granulation differed significantly. PMID:19890935

  18. Modeling bicortical screws under a cantilever bending load.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas P; Andrade, Brendan A

    2013-12-01

    Cyclic loading of surgical plating constructs can precipitate bone screw failure. As the frictional contact between the plate and the bone is lost, cantilever bending loads are transferred from the plate to the head of the screw, which over time causes fatigue fracture from cyclic bending. In this research, analytical models using beam mechanics theory were developed to describe the elastic deflection of a bicortical screw under a statically applied load. Four analytical models were developed to simulate the various restraint conditions applicable to bicortical support of the screw. In three of the models, the cortical bone near the tip of the screw was simulated by classical beam constraints (1) simply supported, (2) cantilever, and (3) split distributed load. In the final analytical model, the cortices were treated as an elastic foundation, whereby the response of the constraint was proportional to screw deflection. To test the predictive ability of the new analytical models, 3.5?mm cortical bone screws were tested in a synthetic bone substitute. A novel instrument was developed to measure the bending deflection of screws under radial loads (225?N, 445?N, and 670?N) applied by a surrogate surgical plate at the head of the screw. Of the four cases considered, the analytical model utilizing an elastic foundation most accurately predicted deflection at the screw head, with an average difference of 19% between the measured and predicted results. Determination of the bending moments from the elastic foundation model revealed that a maximum moment of 2.3?N m occurred near the middle of the cortical wall closest to the plate. The location of the maximum bending moment along the screw axis was consistent with the fracture location commonly observed in clinical practice. PMID:24105350

  19. A testing technique allowing cyclic application of axial, bending, and torque loads to fracture plates to examine screw loosening.

    PubMed

    Szivek, J A; Yapp, R A

    1989-04-01

    Orthopaedic internal fracture fixation plates are subjected to combined axial, bending, and torsional loads in vivo which can cause screw loosening and implant failure. This paper outlines a relatively simple technique which allows controlled application of combined axial, bending, and torsional loading to examine the loosening rate of cortical screws used to attach these plates. Fiber reinforced polycarbonate rods with a tensile strength similar to that of cortical bone were cut at half their length to simulate fractured tibii. These were compression plated using a standardized technique and placed in a loading fixture. Joint loads at the knee determined from force plate analysis and statics were applied to a plated fixture during testing. The design of the fixture allowed adjustment of the proportion of bending and torsional loads applied to the test samples. It also allowed a reproducible means of applying a predetermined axial, bending, and torsional load. Screw loosening following cyclical loading was evaluated by measuring the amount of angular displacement required to retighten screws to a prescribed torque value. A torque wrench was modified to allow the measurement of these displacements. PMID:2722901

  20. Screw-type pump for coal feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbert, J.D. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    This article describes the Type-M pumps system, which provides the reliable and accurate coal feeding needed for the success of fluidized-bed combustion and other coal-firing requirements. The Type-M pump feed unit provides the safety feature with its internal flapper valve to prevent the possibility of blowback. It features bearing supports at both ends of the screw impeller shaft which permits smooth running and maintenance-free operation under variable feed and light load conditions. It has demonstrated its capability to handle not only finely pulverized coal but also coarse coal as well as a mixture of coarse coal and 1/8 x 0 limestone.

  1. Injection of coal by screw feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of the screw feeder for injecting solids through a 20 to 30 psi barrier is common practice in the cement making industry. An analytical extrapolation of that design, accounting for pressure holding characteristics of a column of solids, shows that coal can be fed to zones at several hundred psi with minimal or no loss of gas. A series of curves showing the calculated pressure gradient through a moving column of solids is presented. Mean particle size, solids velocity, and column length are parameters. Further study of this system to evaluate practicality is recommended.

  2. Computer-Aided Surgery Does Not Increase the Accuracy of Dorsal Pedicle Screw Placement in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine: A Retrospective Analysis of 2,003 Pedicle Screws in a Level I Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Michael; Weiskopf, Julia; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Krischak, Gert; Gebhard, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?A retrospective analysis of a prospective database. Objective?Meta-analyses suggest that computer-assisted systems can increase the accuracy of pedicle screw placement for dorsal spinal fusion procedures. The results of further meta-analyses report that in the thoracic spine, both the methods have comparable placement accuracy. These studies are limited due to an abundance of screw classification systems. The aim of this study was to assess the placement accuracy and potentially influencing factors of three-dimensionally navigated versus conventionally inserted pedicle screws. Methods?This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective database at a level I trauma center of pedicle screw placement (computer-navigated versus traditionally placed) for dorsal spinal stabilizations. The cases spanned a 5.5-year study period (January 1, 2005, to June 30, 2010). The perforations of the pedicle were differentiated in three grades based on the postoperative computed tomography. Results?The overall placement accuracy was 86% in the conventional group versus 79% in the computer-navigated group (grade 0). The computer-navigated procedures were superior in the lumbar spine and the conventional procedures were superior in the thoracic spine, but both failed to be of statistical significance. The level of experience of the performing surgeon and the patient's body mass index did not influence the placement accuracy. The only significant influence was the spinal segment: the higher the spinal level where the fusion was performed, the more likely the screw was displaced. Conclusions?The computer-navigated and conventional methods are both safe procedures to place transpedicular screws at the traumatized thoracic and lumbar spine. At the moment, three-dimensionally based navigation does not significantly increase the placement accuracy. PMID:25844281

  3. Decoupled Parallel Manipulator with Universal Joints and Additional Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid Tyves; Victor Glazunov; Pavel Danilin; Nguyen Minh Thanh

    \\u000a Decoupled parallel manipulator with three parallel kinematic chains is considered. Each kinematic chain contains two universal\\u000a joints with additional constraints. The synthesis of this manipulator is carried out by means of screw groups. This approach\\u000a allows avoiding completed equations by synthesis and singularity analysis of mechanisms.

  4. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanny V. Griffin; Robert M Harris; Joseph J Zubak

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature failure of either the nail and\\/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision

  5. Screw dislocation in zirconium: an ab initio study Emmanuel Clouet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Screw dislocation in zirconium: an ab initio study Emmanuel Clouet CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches in zirconium is controlled by 1/3 1¯210 screw dislocations gliding in the prism planes of the hexagonal close zirconium and is known to be related to the number of valence electrons in the d band. We use ab initio

  6. Accuracy analysis of SCARA industrial robot based on screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Liang; Su Meng; Diao Changkun

    2011-01-01

    Based on an analysis of error sources of industrial robots, we build a pose error model of industrial robots with screw theory, which overcomes the defect that the error on the y-axis could not be reflected by the classical D-H parameter method. Given the error sources which influence the end- executor's accuracy, we established a screw representation of the static

  7. Screw prominences related to palmar locking plating of distal radius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Sügün; N. Karabay; Y. Gürbüz; K. Özaksar; T. Toros; M. Kayalar

    2011-01-01

    Fixation of unstable distal radius fractures with palmar locking plates provides a stable reduction and early return of function, but complications arising from unrecognized dorsally prominent screws penetrating the extensor compartments are increasingly reported. Standard radiographs and fluoroscopy may not adequately visualize screw lengths, owing to the complex shape of the dorsum of the distal radius. We examined 46 distal

  8. Manufacturing of the composite screw rotors by resin transfer molding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Goo Kim; Dai Gil Lee; Park Kyoun Oh

    1995-01-01

    A screw-type pump with at least two rotors that are composed of male and female rotors with helical extending lands and grooves is increasingly used because it has a smaller weight to power ratio and produces less noise and vibration compared to conventional reciprocating pumps.Most male and female rotors of the screw type pump have been manufactured by machining. The

  9. CT-based morphometric analysis of C1 laminar dimensions: C1 translaminar screw fixation is a feasible technique for salvage of atlantoaxial fusions

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Andrew; Lu, Derek; Lu, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Translaminar screw fixation has become an alternative in the fixation of the axial and subaxial cervical spine. We report utilization of this approach in the atlas as a salvage technique for atlantoaxial stabilization when C1 lateral mass screws are precluded. To assess the feasibility of translaminar fixation at the atlas, we have characterized the dimensions of the C1 lamina in the general adult population using computed tomography (CT)-based morphometry. Methods: A 46-year-old male with symptomatic atlantoaxial instability secondary to os odontoideum underwent bilateral C1 and C2 translaminar screw/rod fixation as C1 lateral mass fixation was precluded by an anomalous vertebral artery. The follow-up evaluation 2½ years postoperatively revealed an asymptomatic patient without recurrent neck/shoulder pain or clinical signs of instability. To better assess the feasibility of utilizing this approach in the general population, we retrospectively analyzed 502 consecutive cervical CT scans performed over a 3-month period in patients aged over 18 years at a single institution. Measurements of C1 bicortical diameter, bilateral laminar length, height, and angulation were performed. Laminar and screw dimensions were compared to assess instrumentation feasibility. Results: Review of CT imaging found that 75.9% of C1 lamina had a sufficient bicortical diameter, and 63.7% of C1 lamina had sufficient height to accept bilateral translaminar screw placement. Conclusions: CT-based measurement of atlas morphology in the general population revealed that a majority of C1 lamina had sufficient dimensions to accept translaminar screw placement. Although these screws appear to be a feasible alternative when lateral mass screws are precluded, further research is required to determine if they provide comparable fixation strength versus traditional instrumentation methods. PMID:26005585

  10. Screw dislocations in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Washburn, Jack; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-02-15

    GaN has received much attention over the past few years because of several new applications, including light emitting diodes, blue laser diodes and high-power microwave transistors. One of the biggest problems is a high density of structural defects, mostly dislocations, due to a lack of a suitable lattice-matched substrate since bulk GaN is difficult to grow in large sizes. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been applied to study defects in plan-view and cross-sections on samples prepared by conventional techniques such as mechanical thinning and precision ion milling. The density of dislocations close to the sample surface of a 1 mm-thick HVPE sample was in the range of 3x109 cm-2. All three types of dislocations were present in these samples, and almost 50 percent were screw dislocations. Our studies suggest that the core structure of screw dislocations in the same material might differ when the material is grown by different methods.

  11. Basic study for ultrasound-based navigation for pedicle screw insertion using transmission and backscattered methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziqiang; Wu, Bing; Zhai, Xiao; Bai, Yushu; Zhu, Xiaodong; Luo, Beier; Chen, Xiao; Li, Chao; Yang, Mingyuan; Xu, Kailiang; Liu, Chengcheng; Wang, Chuanfeng; Zhao, Yingchuan; Wei, Xianzhao; Chen, Kai; Yang, Wu; Ta, Dean; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the acoustic properties of human vertebral cancellous bone and to study the feasibility of ultrasound-based navigation for posterior pedicle screw fixation in spinal fusion surgery. Fourteen human vertebral specimens were disarticulated from seven un-embalmed cadavers (four males, three females, 73.14 ± 9.87 years, two specimens from each cadaver). Seven specimens were used to measure the transmission, including tests of attenuation and phase velocity, while the other seven specimens were used for backscattered measurements to inspect the depth of penetration and A-Mode signals. Five pairs of unfocused broadband ultrasonic transducers were used for the detection, with center frequencies of 0.5 MHz, 1 MHz, 1.5 MHz, 2.25 MHz, and 3.5 MHz. As a result, good and stable results were documented. With increased frequency, the attenuation increased (P<0.05), stability of the speed of sound improved (P<0.05), and penetration distance decreased (P>0.05). At about 0.6 cm away from the cortical bone, warning signals were easily observed from the backscattered measurements. In conclusion, the ultrasonic system proved to be an effective, moveable, and real-time imaging navigation system. However, how ultrasonic navigation will benefit pedicle screw insertion in spinal surgery needs to be determined. Therefore, ultrasound-guided pedicle screw implantation is theoretically effective and promising. PMID:25861053

  12. Lateral Movement of Screw Dislocations During Homoepitaxial Growth and Devices Yielded Therefrom Free of the Detrimental Effects of Screw Dislocations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention is related to a method that enables and improves wide bandgap homoepitaxial layers to be grown on axis single crystal substrates, particularly SiC. The lateral positions of the screw dislocations in epitaxial layers are predetermined instead of random, which allows devices to be reproducibly patterned to avoid performance degrading crystal defects normally created by screw dislocations.

  13. Cortical screw trajectory for instrumentation and fusion in the setting of osteopathic compression fracture allows for percutaneous kyphoplasty for adjacent level compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Donato; Kim, Irene; Wilson, Taylor A; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Spinal fixation in the osteoporotic patient can be challenging due to the poor trabecular bone quality of the vertebral body. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures are at risk for future compression fractures at adjacent levels, especially after cement augmentation. The purpose of this technical report is to describe the utilization of a cortical screw trajectory along with kyphoplasty for a patient with an osteoporotic compression fracture as well as degenerative spinal disease. This trajectory allows for the possibility of percutaneous pedicle access in the event of future compression fractures. Our patient underwent a decompressive laminectomy and kyphoplasty at the level of an osteoporotic compression fracture. The fracture was stabilized with cortical screw instrumentation and fusion at a level above and a level below the fracture. Subsequently the patient developed an adjacent level fracture within the fusion construct. Due to the utilization of a cortical screw trajectory for the initial fusion, the traditional pedicle trajectory was still accessible. As a result, the new fracture was treated with a percutaneous kyphoplasty through a standard pedicle trajectory. In conclusion, the use of a cortical screw trajectory for stabilization of osteoporotic compression fractures provides for a stronger bone screw interface and avoids osteoporotic trabecular vertebral body bone. At the same time this trajectory allows for future percutaneous pedicular access in the event that the patient suffers future compression fractures. PMID:25724313

  14. Anterior transpedicular screw fixation of cervical spine: Is it safe? Morphological feasibility, technical properties, and accuracy of manual insertion.

    PubMed

    Koktekir, Ender; Toktas, Zafer Orkun; Seker, Askin; Akakin, Akin; Konya, Deniz; Kilic, Turker

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Due to lack of construct stability of the current anterior cervical approaches, supplemental posterior cervical approaches are frequently employed. The use of an anterior-only approach with anterior transpedicular screws (ATPSs) has been proposed as a means of providing 3-column fixation. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation of cervical spine, to obtain the morphological measurements for technical prerequisites, and to evaluate the accuracy of the ATPS using fluoroscopy. METHODS The study included both radiological and anatomical investigations. The radiological investigations were based on data from cervical spine CT scans performed in 65 patients. Technical prerequisites of ATPS were calculated using OsiriX for Mac OS. In the anatomical part of the study, 30 pedicles (C3-7) from 6 formalin-preserved cadavers were manually instrumented. Measurements obtained included pedicle width (PW), pedicle height (PH), pedicle transverse angle (PTA), distance of the entry point from the midline (DEPM), and distance of the entry point from the superior endplate (DEPSEP). The authors also analyzed screw position in the manually instrumented vertebrae. RESULTS The mean PW and PH values showed a tendency to increase from C-3 to C-7 in both males and females. The means were significantly larger for both PW and PH in males than in females at all levels (p = 0.001). The overall mean PTA value was significantly lower at C-7 (p < 0.0001). The mean value for the distance of entry point from the midline (DEPM) represented a point at the contralateral side of the pedicle for every level except C-7. The mean DEPSEP values showed significant differences between all levels (p < 0.0001). Seven of the 30 screws were identified as breaching the pedicle (23.3%); these screw malplacements were seen at C-3 (3 screws), C-4 (2 screws), and C-5 (2 screws). CONCLUSIONS The morphological measurements of this study demonstrated that ATPS fixation is feasible in selected cases. They indicate that ATPS insertion using a fluoroscopy-assisted pedicle axis view is safe at the C-6 and C-7 levels, but the results at the other levels did not prove the safety of this technique. PMID:25815805

  15. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Avda., Department of Neuroradiology (Spain)], E-mail: jmendezce@hotmail.com; Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco [Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Avda., Deparment of Neurosurgery (Spain)

    2005-01-15

    We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion.

  16. In vitro study of accuracy of cervical pedicle screw insertion using an electronic conductivity device (ATPS part III)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Koller; Wolfgang Hitzl; Frank Acosta; Mark Tauber; Juliane Zenner; Herbert Resch; Yasutsugu Yukawa; Oliver Meier; Rene Schmidt; Michael Mayer

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction of the highly unstable, anteriorly decompressed cervical spine poses biomechanical challenges to current stabilization\\u000a strategies, including circumferential instrumented fusion, to prevent failure. To avoid secondary posterior surgery, particularly\\u000a in the elderly population, while increasing primary construct rigidity of anterior-only reconstructions, the authors introduced\\u000a the concept of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation and plating. We demonstrated its morphological feasibility, its

  17. Salvaging the pullout strength of stripped screws in osteoporotic bone.

    PubMed

    Pechon, Pierre H M; Mears, Simon C; Langdale, Evan R; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2013-06-01

    Our goal was to determine whether the pullout strength of stripped screw holes in osteoporotic bone could be increased with readily available materials from the operating room. We inserted 3.5-mm stainless steel nonlocking self-tapping cortical screws bicortically into 5 osteoporotic humeri. Each screw was first stripped by rotating it 1 full turn past maximum torque. In the control group, the screw was pulled out using an MTS machine (858; MTS Inc, Eden Prairie, Minnesota). In the treatment groups, the screw was removed, the hole was augmented with 1 of the 3 materials (stainless steel wire, polysorb suture, or polyethylene terephthalate glycol plastic sheet), and the screws were replaced and then pulled out. The effect of material on pullout strength was checked for significance (P < .05) using a general linearized latent and mixed model (Stata10; StataCorp, College Station, Texas). The mean (95% confidence interval) pullout strength for the unaugmented hole was 138 N (range 88-189), whereas the holes augmented with plastic, suture, or wire had mean pullout strengths of 255 N (range 177-333), 228 N (range 149-308), and 396 N (range 244-548), respectively. Although wire augmentation resulted in pullout strength that was significantly greater than that of the unaugmented screw, it was still below that of the intact construct. PMID:24093076

  18. Salvaging the Pullout Strength of Stripped Screws in Osteoporotic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Pechon, Pierre H. M.; Mears, Simon C.; Langdale, Evan R.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to determine whether the pullout strength of stripped screw holes in osteoporotic bone could be increased with readily available materials from the operating room. We inserted 3.5-mm stainless steel nonlocking self-tapping cortical screws bicortically into 5 osteoporotic humeri. Each screw was first stripped by rotating it 1 full turn past maximum torque. In the control group, the screw was pulled out using an MTS machine (858; MTS Inc, Eden Prairie, Minnesota). In the treatment groups, the screw was removed, the hole was augmented with 1 of the 3 materials (stainless steel wire, polysorb suture, or polyethylene terephthalate glycol plastic sheet), and the screws were replaced and then pulled out. The effect of material on pullout strength was checked for significance (P < .05) using a general linearized latent and mixed model (Stata10; StataCorp, College Station, Texas). The mean (95% confidence interval) pullout strength for the unaugmented hole was 138 N (range 88-189), whereas the holes augmented with plastic, suture, or wire had mean pullout strengths of 255 N (range 177-333), 228 N (range 149-308), and 396 N (range 244-548), respectively. Although wire augmentation resulted in pullout strength that was significantly greater than that of the unaugmented screw, it was still below that of the intact construct. PMID:24093076

  19. Dynamic-locking-screw (DLS)–leads to less secondary screw perforations in proximal humerus fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loss of reduction and screw perforation causes high failure rates in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the early postoperative complications using modern Dynamic Locking Screws (DLS 3.7) for plating of proximal humerus fractures. Methods Between 03/2009 and 12/2010, 64 patients with acute proximal humerus fractures were treated by angular stable plate fixation using DLSs in a limited multi-centre study. Follow-up examinations were performed three, six, twelve and twenty-four weeks postoperatively and any complications were carefully collected. Results 56 of 64 patients were examined at the six-month follow-up. Complications were observed in 12 patients (22%). In five cases (9%), a perforation of the DLS 3.7 occurred. Conclusions Despite the use of modern DLS 3.7, the early complications after plating of proximal humerus fractures remain high. The potential advantage of the DLS 3.7 regarding secondary screw perforation has to be confirmed by future randomized controlled trials. PMID:24894637

  20. Clinical Comparison of Fixation Methods for Patellar Bone Quadriceps Tendon Autografts in Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionAbsorbable Cross-pins Versus Absorbable Screws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ottmar Gorschewsky; Robert Stapf; Laurent Geiser; Ulrich Geitner; Wolfram Neumann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Recently, the use of the quadriceps tendon transplant with bone block (patellar bone quadriceps tendon autografts) for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has increasingly been reported.Hypothesis: Clinical results after the implantation of a patellar bone quadriceps tendon autograft fixed with cross-pins or screws will show no significant difference between the 2 techniques with regard to stability, function, and subjective satisfaction.

  1. Helical screw rheometer: a new concept in rotational rheometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kraynik, A.M.; Aubert, J.H.; Chapman, R.N.; Gyure, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The helical screw rheometer represents a new concept in viscometry: a rotational instrument that generates a pressure difference and therefore does not require torque measurement. The device is basically a metering screw that operates with no discharge. The results that are necessary to obtain the power-law constitutive parameters from pressure drop and rotation rate data are presented along with comparisons between theory and experiment for a prototype instrument operated at ambient conditions. The helical screw rheometer may offer advantages over conventional instruments for: 1) high-pressure measurements, 2) chemically-reacting fluids, 3) heterogeneous fluids and 4) on-line measurements.

  2. Analysis of Material Flow in Screw Extrusion of Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, Bjoern; Oernskar, Magnus; Welo, Torgeir; Wideroee, Fredrik [Department of Engineering Design and Materials, NTNU (Norway)

    2010-06-15

    Screw extrusion of aluminum is a new process for production of aluminum profiles. The commercial potential could be large. Little experimental and numerical work has been done with respect to this process.The material flow of hot aluminum in a screw extruder has been analyzed using finite element formulations for the non-Newtonian Navier-Stokes equations. Aluminum material properties are modeled using the Zener-Holloman material model. Effects of stick-slip conditions are investigated with respect to pressure build up and mixing quality of the extrusion process.The numerical results are compared with physical experiments using an experimental screw extruder.

  3. Noninvasive method for retrieval of broken dental implant abutment screw.

    PubMed

    Gooty, Jagadish Reddy; Palakuru, Sunil Kumar; Guntakalla, Vikram Reddy; Nera, Mahipal

    2014-04-01

    Dental implants made of titanium for replacement of missing teeth are widely used because of ease of technical procedure and high success rate, but are not free of complications and may fail. Fracturing of the prosthetic screw continues to be a problem in restorative practice and great challenge to remove the fractured screw conservatively. This case report describes and demonstrates the technique of using an ultrasonic scaler in the removal of the fracture screw fragment as a noninvasive method without damaging the hex of implants. PMID:24963261

  4. Joints in a Cornstarch Analog

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juliet Crider

    Joints are very important to problems in applied geology (fluid flow, slope stability), but three-dimensional exposures of simple joint sets are not readily accessible from my campus. I developed this exercise based on the experiments of Miller (2001) to give students hands-on practice describing and interpreting joints. For the exercise, I prepare a cornstarch-water mixture a few days in advance and pour it into plastic petri dishes. I add a "flaw" to each dish (typically a small pebble). As the cornstarch dries, vertical joints develop. In class, each group of 3-4 students is provided a petri dish of desiccated cornstarch. Students are asked to draw a map of the joints, paying particular attention to intersection angles. (The joints curve to intersect at 90 degrees.) They determine relative ages of the joints using abutting relationships. (Typically 3-6 generations of joints.) Students next dissect the sample and describe the surface textures of the larger joints and the location of the flaw. The cornstarch produces beautiful plumose structure (hackles). Students then interpret the joint propagation direction from the surface textures, and note the origin of the joint. (Typically, a first- or second-generation joint initiates at the flaw.) Students discuss the role of flaws in the initiation of joints in their groups.

  5. Optically driven Archimedes micro-screws for micropump applications: multiple blade design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Chin-Te; Chung, Tien-Tung; Bouriau, Michel; Vitrant, Guy

    2011-10-01

    We study the rotation of photo-driven Archimedes screw with multiple blades. The micron-sized Archimedes screws are readily made by the two-photon polymerization technique. Free-floating screws that are trapped by optical tweezers align in the laser irradiation direction, and rotate spontaneously. In this study we demonstrate that the rotation speeds of two-blade-screws is twice the rotation speed of one-blade-screw. However, more complex 3-blade-screws rotate slower than 2-blade-screws due to their limited geometry resolution at this micron scale.

  6. Efficiency and stability of self-organizing cooperation networks: roles of a cost allocation scheme for regional joint water distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Okada; Koichi Takano; Hiroyuki Sakakibara; Hirokazu Tatano

    1998-01-01

    With a focus on a regional joint water distribution system, this paper proposes a cost allocation scheme which guarantees an equilibrium reached by participating regions (players) who are self-organized to form appropriate cooperative relations (coalitions). Two critical properties of regional joint water distribution systems are discussed, i.e., physical and social networks. Characteristics of cost functions are closely examined by referring

  7. 21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...4880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...4880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a)...

  9. A Screw -Theoretic Framework for Musculoskeletal System Modeling and Analysis

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    A Screw -Theoretic Framework for Musculoskeletal System Modeling and Analysis by Michael J. Del of tools for musculoskeletal system analysis, leveraging methodologies which have revolutionized can model, simulate, and analyze a redundant musculoskeletal system with (i) an adequate degree

  10. Screw anchors economically control pipeline buoyancy in muskeg

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.; Curle, R. [NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-04-24

    To control buoyancy of large-diameter pipelines that cross such wet areas as muskeg swamps in Alberta Province, Canada, NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary, for more than 6 years investigated alternatives to traditional concrete weights. The company`s research indicated that helical screw anchors offer cost-effective buoyancy control for natural-gas pipelines 20-in. OD and larger. Muskegs are organic soils with high water tables, low shear strengths, and low densities (specific gravity of 1.04). NOVA`s experience demonstrated practical and cost benefits of screw anchors to resist uplift forces. And among other benefits, substitution of screw anchors for concrete weights significantly reduced the number of heavy trucks that must be moved across the muskeg. The paper discusses buoyancy control, pipeline adaptation, pipe stresses and corrosion, pipeline construction and screw-anchor installation, economics and other benefits.

  11. Wet-gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pumps 

    E-print Network

    Chan, Evan

    2009-05-15

    encountered when operating under conditions with high gas volume fractions (GVF). Twin-screw multiphase pumps experience a severe decrease in efficiency when operating under wet-gas conditions, GVF over 95%. Field operations have revealed severe vibration...

  12. Wet-gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pumps

    E-print Network

    Chan, Evan

    2009-05-15

    Multiphase pumping with twin-screw pumps is a relatively new technology that has been proven successful in a variety of field applications. By using these pumps to add energy to the combined gas and liquid wellstream with minimal separation...

  13. Biomechanical Analysis of Fusion Segment Rigidity Upon Stress at Both the Fusion and Adjacent Segments: A Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of unilateral pedicle screw fixation on the fusion segment and the superior adjacent segment after one segment lumbar fusion using validated finite element models. Materials and Methods Four L3-4 fusion models were simulated according to the extent of decompression and the method of pedicle screws fixation in L3-4 lumbar fusion. These models included hemi-laminectomy with bilateral pedicle screw fixation in the L3-4 segment (BF-HL model), total laminectomy with bilateral pedicle screw fixation (BF-TL model), hemi-laminectomy with unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UF-HL model), and total laminectomy with unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UF-TL model). In each scenario, intradiscal pressures, annulus stress, and range of motion at the L2-3 and L3-4 segments were analyzed under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments. Results Under four pure moments, the unilateral fixation leads to a reduction in increment of range of motion at the adjacent segment, but larger motions were noted at the fusion segment (L3-4) in the unilateral fixation (UF-HL and UF-TL) models when compared to bilateral fixation. The maximal von Mises stress showed similar patterns to range of motion at both superior adjacent L2-3 segments and fusion segment. Conclusion The current study suggests that unilateral pedicle screw fixation seems to be unable to afford sufficient biomechanical stability in case of bilateral total laminectomy. Conversely, in the case of hemi-laminectomy, unilateral fixation could be an alternative option, which also has potential benefit to reduce the stress of the adjacent segment. PMID:25048501

  14. Finite displacements of points, planes, and lines via screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Parkin

    1995-01-01

    Geometrical elements, namely point, directed plane, and directed line, are here taken in isolation from any rigid body to which they may belong. The available finite screws are fully determined for a general finite displacement of each element. Each screw carries a quasi-pitch, or “quatch”, that reduces to the commonly-accepted pitch when a displacement becomes infinitesimal. Each element-displacement has its

  15. Crystal geometry of screw dislocation glide in tungsten nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanov, E. V.

    2015-02-01

    A zigzag pattern of low-temperature dislocation glide occurring in tungsten nanocrystals in the intersecting planes {110} and {211}, which belong to the <111> crystallographic zone, has been revealed using field ion microscopy. It has been shown that cores of 1/2[111] screw dislocations are undissociated within the limits of the resolution of the field ion microscope. It has been found experimentally that surface atoms are displaced into metastable positions in the region of the trace of screw dislocation motion.

  16. Cervical screw missing secondary to delayed esophageal fistula: case report.

    PubMed

    Cagli, Sedat; Isik, H Serdar; Zileli, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    Although anterior surgical approaches to the cervical spine have become popular and safe in recent years, they also have some complications. We present a case of loss of an anterior cervical plate screw by the natural tracts. The patient was a 47- year-old woman who was operated on for cervical spondylotic myelopathy at another institution. Surgical interference included two levels of anterior discectomy, iliac graft placement and fixation using plate and screws. Two years later, plate dislocation and partial migration of the upper screws were observed. After 7 years the patient complained of dysphagia and she accepted removal of the osteosynthesis. Radiographical examination showed that one of the upper screws was missing and two lower screws were broken. Esophageal perforation was found during the surgery and repaired. Further progress was favourable. Complications associated with esophageal perforation may range from massive infection and death to spontaneous recovery. Erosion of the esophageal wall due to extruded bulky constructs may lead to a persistent fistula, abscess or septic diffusion. Spontaneous perforation of the esophagus and screw loss via the gastrointestinal tract make this case interesting.. PMID:19847769

  17. Backflow in twin-screw-type multiphase pump

    SciTech Connect

    Egashira, Kazuyuki; Shoda, Shinji; Tochikawa, Tetsuro [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Furukawa, Akinori [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The performance of a twin-screw-type multiphase pump was investigated from the viewpoints of backflow in a gap along the twin-screw shafts and of scaleup parameters. Although both the backflow and the scaleup parameters have been recognized as important factors in developing multiphase pumps, they have not yet been clarified. The twin-screw pump was equipped with pressure sensors, set in the multiphase-test facility, and experimented with under various conditions to clarify the relationship between backflow rates and factors such as differential pressure, gas-void fractions (GVF`s), and the rotation speed of the shaft. A physical model was proposed with the empirical relationship of pressure distribution along the screw, and was successfully associated with scaleup parameters, such as the geometrical data of the twin-screw pump. Then it was used successfully to simulate the backflow in twin-screw pumps on relatively broad experimental conditions, judging from the comparison between the model and the experimental data.

  18. m=1 ideal kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch with finite plasma pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Svidzinski, V. A.; Li, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mirnov, V. V. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A new method for computing ideal magnetohydrodynamic linear eigenmodes in a cylindrical screw pinch with line-tying boundary conditions at the axial ends is presented. In this method, plasma volume is reflected over one of the end planes, and equations and field components are continued into the extended volume with the continuation rules prescribed by the line-tying boundary conditions. Field components in the combined volume are expanded in Fourier series in the axial coordinate. The resulting set of coupled differential equations is solved numerically in the radial coordinate by a finite difference method yielding growth rates and eigenmodes for the system. An example of an m=1 (m is the poloidal wave number) internal kink instability in a force-free plasma equilibrium with uniform pressure is considered. In contrast to a periodic screw pinch, marginally stable perturbations are essentially compressible in the line-tied geometry. Finite compressibility makes the mode more stable in addition to the usual line-tying stabilization in zero pressure plasma. The critical length corresponding to the marginal stability increases with the increase of plasma beta. A universal axial dependence for marginally stable density perturbations {rho}(r,z)={rho}(r)exp[-iz{mu}(r)] is predicted analytically and confirmed numerically, where {mu}(r) depends on the equilibrium magnetic field components as {mu}(r)=B{sub {theta}}/rB{sub z}.

  19. A Biomechanical Comparison of Intralaminar C7 Screw Constructs with and without Offset Connector Used for C6-7 Cervical Spine Immobilization : A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Muhammad; Natarajan, Raghu N.; An, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The offset connector can allow medial and lateral variability and facilitate intralaminar screw incorporation into the construct. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without offset connector using a three dimensional finite element model of a C6-7 cervical spine segment. Methods Finite element models representing C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without the offset connector were developed. Range of motion (ROM) and maximum von Mises stresses in the vertebra for the two techniques were compared under pure moments in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Results ROM for intralaminar screw construct with offset connector was less than the construct without the offset connector in the three principal directions. The maximum von Misses stress was observed in the C7 vertebra around the pedicle in both constructs. Maximum von Mises stress in the construct without offset connector was found to be 12-30% higher than the corresponding stresses in the construct with offset connector in the three principal directions. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the intralaminar screw fixation with offset connector is better than the construct without offset connector in terms of biomechanical stability. Construct with the offset connector reduces the ROM of C6-7 segment more significantly compared to the construct without the offset connector and causes lower stresses around the C7 pedicle-vertebral body complex. PMID:24003366

  20. Self-tapping versus standard tapped titanium screw fixation in the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Bickley, M B; Hanel, D P

    1998-03-01

    Most screws used in fracture fixation necessitate a separate step for tapping of the screw hole. Titanium screw systems have been developed in which the screws can be inserted directly after a drill hole is made. These self-tapping screws thereby eliminate an operative step. A retrospective study was conducted that evaluated all wrist and hand procedures performed between January 1992 and December 1994 by 1 surgeon using screw fixation. The results of 39 cases treated with standard tapped titanium screws were compared with 28 cases treated with self-tapping titanium screws. Nearly identical union and complication rates were obtained in each group. Comparable results can be obtained with self-tapping screw fixation, which limits the number of instruments needed, eliminates an operative step, and thereby may diminish operative risk and shorten operative time. PMID:9556274

  1. Anatomical study of axis for odontoid screw thickness, length, and angle

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Kagan; Cemil, Berker; Yorubulut, Mehmet; Karahan, S. Tuna; Tekdemir, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Anterior odontoid screw fixation is a safe and effective method for treatment of odontoid fractures. The screw treads should fit into the odontoid medulla, should pass the fracture line, and should pull fractured odontoid tip against body of axis in order to achieve optimum screw placement and treatment. This study has demonstrated optimal anterior odontoid screw thickness, length, and optimal angle for safe and strong anterior odontoid screw placement. Dry bone axis vertebrae were evaluated by direct measurements, X-ray measurements, and computerized tomography (CT) measurements. The screw thickness (inner diameter of the odontoid) was measured as well as screw length (distance between anterior-inferior point body of axis and tip of odontoid), and screw angle (the angle between basis of axis and tip of odontoid). The inner diameter of odontoid bone was measured as 6.5 ± 1.9 mm, the screw length was 37.6 ± 3.3 mm, and the screw angle was 62.4 ± 4.7 on CT. There was no statistical difference between X-ray and CT in the measurements of screw thickness and angle. X-ray and CT measurements are both safe methods to determine the inner odontoid diameter and angle preoperatively. Screw length should be measured on CT only. To provide safe and strong anterior odontoid screw fixation, screw thickness, length, and angle should be known preoperatively, and these can be measured on X-ray and CT. PMID:19005694

  2. Understanding of edge and screw dislocations in nanostructures by modeling and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontsova, Evgeniya

    The role of the extended dislocation defects in nanostructures only recently began to be explored. In bulk materials, dislocations are modeled only away from their cores within the framework of the continuum mechanics. It is known that applying continuum modeling in the core region leads to divergences. In nanostructures, the core region dominates and new investigation methods are needed. This work contributes to the fundamental understanding of the role of dislocations in important carbon and zinc oxide nanostructures, by using atomistic investigation methods. In quasi-zero-dimensional structures, thesis describes the first attempt to rationalize dislocation processes in carbon nano-onions. Experiments show that carbon nano-onions exhibit an unusual dislocation dynamics with unexpected attraction of outer edge dislocation towards the core. Atomistic calculations combined with rigorous energy analysis attribute this behavior to an unusual inward driving force on the outer edge dislocation associated with a reduction in the number of dangling bonds. Moving on to quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures, we study the stability of screw-dislocated zinc oxide structures in the wurtzite phase with a symmetry-adapted molecular dynamics methodology, which introduces a significant simplification in the simulation domain size by accounting for the helical symmetry explicitly. The goal is to provide the theoretical support for a universal screw-dislocation-driven growth mechanism suggested by recent experiments. Moreover, the effects of axial screw dislocations on the electronic properties in helical zinc oxide nanowires and nanotubes are explored. We demonstrate significant screw-dislocation-induced band gap modifications that originate in the highly distorted cores. Finally, using the same objective technique, we investigate the stability against torsional deformations of quasi-one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons with bare, F-, and OH-saturated armchair edges. The prevalence of twisted nanoribbons prompted the construction of a simple phenomenological model inspired from the Landau phase transition theory, which is based on the atomistic data and gives the structural parameters of the nanoribbon as functions of its edge chemistry and axial strain.

  3. Adaptive backstepping sliding mode control of flexible ball screw drives with time-varying parametric uncertainties and disturbances.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Tang, Wen Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to model and design servo controllers for flexible ball screw drives with dynamic variations. A mathematical model describing the structural flexibility of the ball screw drive containing time-varying uncertainties and disturbances with unknown bounds is proposed. A mode-compensating adaptive backstepping sliding mode controller is designed to suppress the vibration. The time-varying uncertainties and disturbances represented in finite-term Fourier series can be estimated by updating the Fourier coefficients through function approximation technique. Adaptive laws are obtained from Lyapunov approach to guarantee the convergence and stability of the closed loop system. The simulation results indicate that the tracking accuracy is improved considerably with the proposed scheme when the time-varying parametric uncertainties and disturbances exist. PMID:24053935

  4. C1-C3 Lateral Mass Screw-Rod Fixation and Fusion for C2 Pathologies and Hangman's Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammod Raziul

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective clinical study. Purpose We report our experience of eight patients treated with C1-C3 lateral mass rod-screw stabilization and fusion in the treatment of Hangman's fracture and other axis pathologies. Overview of Literature Different surgical approaches, both anterior and posterior, have been described for treating Hangman's fracture and other pathologies where surgery is indicated. Methods All patients who underwent surgical treatment for Hangman's fracture and axial pathology where C1-C3 lateral mass screw-rod stabilization and fusion done, following reduction of the fracture or removal of the pathology were included in this series. The recorded patient management data was retrospectively studied. Results There were 8 cases in total. All were male, with an average age of 40.75 years. Hangman's fracture occurred in 6 cases (75%), one with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma and the remaining with plasmocytoma. Among the Hangman's fractures 4 (66.66%) had no neuro-deficit. Reduction and bilateral C1-C3 lateral mass screw and rod fixation with posterior fusion by bone graft was performed in all cases. In 2 cases, a C2 body tumor was removed transorally. All patients with neuro-deficit fully recovered, except one who expired in the early post-operative period. Rest of all patients were leading a normal life till last follow up. Conclusions Although the number of cases was very small with a relatively short follow up period, C1 and C3 lateral mass screw-rod fixation followed by fusion showed promise as an effective and biomechanically sound way for the treatment of properly selected Hangman's fracture cases, and may also be suitable in other axial pathologies. PMID:25558315

  5. Posterior talar fracture with dislocation of both talo-navicular and subtalar joints: a variant type II of the Sneppens classification.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulos, Ilias; Fogg, Quentin; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 63-year-old man fell from a ladder, thus causing an axial compression injury to the right ankle. Severe deformity was evident and the ankle could not be reduced by simple manipulation. The skin was tented and appearing critically contused. Radiographs revealed an oblique fracture of the posterior aspect of the talar body with dislocation of both the talo-navicular and subtalar joints, an injury previously not described in the literature. The fracture-dislocation was anatomically reduced within 3 h of presentation and stability achieved with two headless buried compression screws. CT scan confirmed anatomical reduction and the patient remained non-weight bearing in a cast for 6 weeks. One year postoperatively, the patient remains pain-free with no radiological signs of avascular necrosis of the talus. This injury is unique and despite its severity and soft tissue compromise good quality reduction and internal fixation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome. PMID:22847568

  6. Locking screw apparatus and method for underwater remote replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, L.J.

    1987-07-28

    A method is described for locking in place a screw which secures together first and second structures in the internal region of a nuclear reactor core. The first structure has a screw bore with a counterbore portion formed in an outer surface. The method comprises the steps of: forming a lateral recess in the counterbore portion and spaced from the outer surface, providing an elongated screw having an enlarged shoulder flange and an angular drive head with a lateral width substantially less than that of the counterbore portion, disposing the screw through the screw bore in threaded engagement with the second structure and with the shoulder rotatably seated in the counterbore portion. This provides a locking member having an angular opening and disposing it in the counterbore portion against the flange with the drive head received in the opening for engagement with the locking member to prevent rotation. This deforms a portion of the locking member into the recess for engagement to prevent movement of the locking member with respect to the first structure.

  7. Bilateral atlas laminar hook combined with transarticular screw fixation for an unstable bursting atlantal fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Guo; Bin Ni; Mingfei Wang; Jian Wang; Songkai Li; Fengjin Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  The unstable atlas burst fracture (“Jefferson fracture”) is a fracture of the anterior and posterior atlantal arch with rupture\\u000a of the transverse atlantal ligament and an incongruence of the atlanto-occipital and the atlanto-axial joint facets. The posterior\\u000a atlantoaxial fusion is frequently used to reconstruct the stability of atlantoaxial joint. Conventional posterior atlantoaxial\\u000a fixations are associated with high rates of pseudoarthrosis

  8. Absorbable Screws Versus Metallic Screws for Distal Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Injuries: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanlong; Cai, Lin; Deng, Zhouming; Ran, Bing; Hu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the outcomes between absorbable screw (AS) and metallic screw (MS) fixation for distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries (DTSIs). Randomized controlled trials comparing AS versus MS fixation in DTSIs were searched systematically, and the outcomes were analyzed using Review Manager Software, version 5.2. The risk ratio (RR) or mean difference with the 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the fixed effects or random effects model. A total of 16 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between AS and MS fixation in excellent and good functional recovery rate (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.23, I(2) = 60%, p = .06), infection (RR 1.66, 95% CI 0.73 to 3.79, I(2) = 0%, p = .23), incidence of pain (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.92, I(2) = 12%, p = .47), screw broken (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.93, I(2) = %, p = .31), heterotopic ossification (RR 1.93, 95% CI 0.21 to 17.62, I(2) = 51%, p = .56; 472 cases in 4 studies), fracture healing time (mean difference -1.88, 95% CI -3.51 to -0.26, I(2) = 93%, p = .02,), duration of operation time (mean difference 7.64, 95% CI -3.80 to 19.09, I(2) = 98%, p = .19). The incidence of foreign body reaction was higher with AS fixation (RR 6.07, 95% CI 2.54 to 14.50, I(2) = 0%, p < .001). The reoperation rate was higher with MS fixation (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.18, I(2) = 77%, p < .01). The functional outcomes of AS were as good as those with MS for DTSIs. Other than the foreign body reaction, the complications occurring after AS fixation were not as serious as those with MS fixation. AS fixation might be a preferable alternative for reconstruction of DTSIs. PMID:25956019

  9. Stability and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Bone Formation in Longitudinally Fluted Miniscrew Implants 

    E-print Network

    Truong, An Van

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of longitudinal flutes on mini-screw implant (MSI) bone healing and stability. Using 11 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, 33 longitudinally fluted and ...

  10. Dynamics of free, straight dislocation pairs. I. Screw dislocations

    SciTech Connect

    Eykholt, R.; Trugman, S.A.; Srolovitz, D.J.

    1989-06-01

    Analytic expressions are derived for the motion of a pair of interacting, straight, parallel (or antiparallel) screw dislocations in an applied stress field. Analysis of the equations of motion of the dislocations shows that, under most circumstances, the velocity of a dislocation is proportional to the driving force (i.e., the motion is overdamped), and, in this limit, the results are exact. However, when the two dislocations are very close together, inertial terms begin to play a role, and the resultant ''finite-mass'' corrections are treated perturbatively. For the case of antiparallel screw dislocations, a capture cross section exists and is given by the product of the shear modulus and the Burgers vector over the applied stress. Based on these results, a simple statistical analysis of the motion of a large number of screw dislocations is presented.

  11. Optically driven Archimedes micro-screws for micropump application.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Vitrant, Guy; Bouriau, Michel; Casalegno, Roger; Baldeck, Patrice L

    2011-04-25

    Archimedes micro-screws have been fabricated by three-dimensional two-photon polymerization using a Nd:YAG Q-switched microchip laser at 532nm. Due to their small sizes they can be easily manipulated, and made to rotate using low power optical tweezers. Rotation rates up to 40 Hz are obtained with a laser power of 200 mW, i.e. 0.2 Hz/mW. A photo-driven micropump action in a microfluidic channel is demonstrated with a non-optimized flow rate of 6 pL/min. The optofluidic properties of such type of Archimedes micro-screws are quantitatively described by the conservation of momentum that occurs when the laser photons are reflected on the helical micro-screw surface. PMID:21643076

  12. Tunable helium bubble superlattice ordered by screw dislocation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Zengfeng; Bai, Xian-Ming; Wei, Qiangmin; Won, Jonghan; Hoagland, Richard G.; Wang, Yongqiang; Misra, Amit; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Nastasi, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Helium bubble nucleation at low-angle twist boundaries in gold has been investigated. It is found that the helium bubbles preferentially nucleate at screw dislocation nodal points and result in helium bubble superlattice formation, which is completely isomorphic with the screw dislocation network along the twist-grain boundary. Molecular statics calculations reveal that defect formation/solution energies along the screw dislocations, especially at the nodal points, are lower than their bulk counterparts. It is believed that this driving force is responsible for the helium bubble superlattice formation. Our study suggests that grain boundary engineering via adjustable twist angles in parallel boundaries to form tunable 3D bubble superlattices could afford a very promising approach for design of radiation tolerant materials.

  13. Simple technique for removing broken pedicular screw with plain and serviceable screwdriver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet H. Kaya; Adnan Dagcinar; Fahrettin Celik; Alparslan Senel

    2008-01-01

    Removing the broken pedicular screw after spinal hardware failure is usually problematic. A specially designed simple screwdriver\\u000a and easy removal technique of broken pedicular screw with this screwdriver are described in this article.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section 1926.305...Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. ...otherwise secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing...

  15. Interface effects on elastic behavior of a screw dislocation around double nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Fang, Qihong; Liu, Youwen

    2014-06-01

    The elastic behavior of a screw dislocation around double nanowires (NWs) is addressed with taking into account the interface stress effect in controlling mechanical response of nanoscale structures. The stress boundary conditions at the interface of the NWs are modified by incorporating surface/interface stress. The analytic solution of complex functions of the right NW, the infinite matrix and the left NW are obtained by applying the complex variable method. The equilibrium positions and the image force acting on the dislocation of a screw dislocation near one of the NWs are discussed in detail and compared with those obtained within the classical theory of elasticity. It is shown that the NWs possess a significant local softening or hardening at the interface, which can change the nature of the equilibrium positions for the dislocation. The radius ratio between NWs has profound effects on the equilibrium position. Additionally, the soft NW with the positive interface stress inhibits the dislocation motion to enhance its own structural stability.

  16. Biodegradation of Inion fast-absorbing biodegradable plates and screws.

    PubMed

    Losken, H Wolfgang; van Aalst, John A; Mooney, Mark P; Godfrey, Virginia L; Burt, Tripti; Teotia, Sumeet; Dean, Shay B; Moss, Jonathan R; Rahbar, Reza

    2008-05-01

    Biodegradable plates and screws are recommended for use in surgery of the craniofacial skeleton of children. To be effective and not interfere with growth of the child's skull, the plates must biodegrade sufficiently to release the holding power of the plate and screw within 1 year. It is also essential that excessive foreign body reaction and cyst formation does not occur when the plates and screws biodegrade. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the rate of biodegradation of Inion CPS Baby biodegradable plates and screws under different clinical circumstances in the rabbit craniofacial skeleton and evaluate their efficacy for use in pediatric craniofacial surgery. Foreign body reaction would be evaluated. Inion baby plates and screws were tested in a rabbit model. Plates were applied to the frontal bone, over a bony defect of the parietal bone, to a nasal bone fracture, and inserted in the subcutaneous space over the occipital bone in thirty 6-week-old rabbits. Six rabbits were euthanized at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months' postoperative time point and examined for residual plates and screws. Bone from each surgical site was excised, fixed by immersion in 10% neutral-buffered formalin, decalcified in Immunocal solution, and examined by 7-microm paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. At 9 months, the plates and screws had effectively biodegraded and no longer had holding power on the bones. Fragmentation of the implant material was noted. Residual implant material was still present on gross and histologic examination in rabbits at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months. Residue of a screw was still palpable in 1 rabbit at 18 months. There was no evidence of cyst formation in any of the examined specimens. Macrophages and giant cells were present in most of the specimens at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months. Findings from the current study revealed a relative short resorption time (9 mo) and normal inflammatory sequelae in an adult rabbit model. These findings suggest that these plates may be used safely in fixing the pediatric craniofacial skeleton. PMID:18520394

  17. Determination of the of rate cross slip of screw dislocations

    PubMed

    Vegge; Rasmussen; Leffers; Pedersen; Jacobsen

    2000-10-30

    The rate for cross slip of screw dislocations during annihilation of screw dipoles in copper is determined by molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the rate is seen to obey an Arrhenius behavior in the investigated temperature range: 225-375 K. The activation energy and the effective attempt frequency can therefore be extracted from the simulations. The transition state energy for the annihilation process is calculated by identifying the transition state using the nudged elastic band path technique. The two activation energies agree very well, indicating that transition state theory is applicable for this type of process. PMID:11041947

  18. Virtual estimates of fastening strength for pedicle screw implantation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Camp, Jon J.; Augustine, Kurt E.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Robb, Richard A.; Holmes, David R.

    2014-03-01

    Traditional 2D images provide limited use for accurate planning of spine interventions, mainly due to the complex 3D anatomy of the spine and close proximity of nerve bundles and vascular structures that must be avoided during the procedure. Our previously developed clinician-friendly platform for spine surgery planning takes advantage of 3D pre-operative images, to enable oblique reformatting and 3D rendering of individual or multiple vertebrae, interactive templating, and placement of virtual pedicle implants. Here we extend the capabilities of the planning platform and demonstrate how the virtual templating approach not only assists with the selection of the optimal implant size and trajectory, but can also be augmented to provide surrogate estimates of the fastening strength of the implanted pedicle screws based on implant dimension and bone mineral density of the displaced bone substrate. According to the failure theories, each screw withstands a maximum holding power that is directly proportional to the screw diameter (D), the length of the in-bone segm,ent of the screw (L), and the density (i.e., bone mineral density) of the pedicle body. In this application, voxel intensity is used as a surrogate measure of the bone mineral density (BMD) of the pedicle body segment displaced by the screw. We conducted an initial assessment of the developed platform using retrospective pre- and post-operative clinical 3D CT data from four patients who underwent spine surgery, consisting of a total of 26 pedicle screws implanted in the lumbar spine. The Fastening Strength of the planned implants was directly assessed by estimating the intensity - area product across the pedicle volume displaced by the virtually implanted screw. For post-operative assessment, each vertebra was registered to its homologous counterpart in the pre-operative image using an intensity-based rigid registration followed by manual adjustment. Following registration, the Fastening Strength was computed for each displaced bone segment. According to our preliminary clinical study, a comparison between Fastening Strength, displaced bone volume and mean voxel intensity showed similar results (p < 0.1) between the virtually templated plans and the post-operative outcome following the traditional clinical approach. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the platform in providing estimates the pedicle screw fastening strength via virtual implantation, given the intrinsic vertebral geometry and bone mineral density, enabling the selection of the optimal implant dimension adn trajectory for improved strength.

  19. Screw- versus cement-retained implant restorations: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angie; Okayasu, Kozue; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2010-02-01

    The debate between screw- versus cement-retained implant prostheses has long been discussed but the best type of implant prosthesis remains controversial among practitioners. An understanding of their properties will help the clinician in selecting the ideal prosthesis for each clinical case while promoting final esthetic outcomes. With the evolving technology and knowledge, an update of the current trends is necessary. This article provides an overview of the different characteristics of screw- and cement-retained implant restorations, and how they may influence the esthetics, retrievability, retention, passivity, occlusion, accessibility, cost, and provisional restorations. Problems and complications frequently encountered are discussed and treatment solutions are proposed. PMID:20147811

  20. A Retrospective Analysis of Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joint Fusion as a Treatment Option for Hammertoe Pathology Associated with Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Joseph; Kevin Schroeder; Marc Greenberg

    Complex hammer digit deformity is commonly associated with instability of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Restoring joint stability is critical for digit alignment and function and can be challenging and unpredictable. Lesser metatarsophalangeal joint fusion might be an alternative treatment to the current soft tissue balancing, repair, and extra-articular osseous procedures used to treat joint instability. The present study was a retrospective

  1. A novel approach toward pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Thalgott; Mark Kabins; James Giuffre

    2002-01-01

    Purpose of study: Because of the smaller size of the thoracic pedicle, primarily in the coronal plane, most surgeons have opted to avoid the used of transpedicular screws in the thoracic spine. A new technique for placement of screws through thoracic pedicles with and without lateral wall violation is described.Methods used: From April 1992 through February 1999, 1,064 pedicle screws

  2. Bone cement or bone substitute augmentation of pedicle screws improves pullout strength in posterior spinal fixation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Evans; C. M. Hunt; S. Ahuja

    2002-01-01

    Pedicle screws are widely used to fix posterior spinal implants. However, in some situations, such as at the ends of long constructs in scoliosis correction, the screws may pull out of the pedicles. This limits the use of pedicle screw fixation where bone quality is poor. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using either a

  3. MECHANICS OF THE TAPER INTEGRATED SCREWED-IN (TIS) ABUTMENTS USED IN DENTAL IMPLANTS

    E-print Network

    Müftü, Sinan

    1 MECHANICS OF THE TAPER INTEGRATED SCREWED-IN (TIS) ABUTMENTS USED IN DENTAL IMPLANTS by Dinçer. Keywords: Dental implants; Taper lock; Morse taper; Conical interference fit; Tapered screw; Screw mechanics; Loosening torque, Tightening torque #12;3 INTRODUCTION A dental implant system serves

  4. On Screw-Transform Manifolds Russell A. Manning Charles R. Dyer

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Charles R.

    describes the mathematical theory of screw-transform manifolds and their use in camera self cali- brationOn Screw-Transform Manifolds Russell A. Manning Charles R. Dyer Department of Computer Sciences transformation that moves the camera from the first location to the second location is equivalent to a screw

  5. Improved Screw Theory using Second Order Terms Jun Takamatsu Hiroshi Kimurat Katsushi Ikeuchi

    E-print Network

    Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    Improved Screw Theory using Second Order Terms Jun Takamatsu Hiroshi Kimurat Katsushi Ikeuchi this displacement, the screw theory is employed. It is equivalent to the first order Taylor expansion of the displacement. The screw theory is very convenient, because the displacement is formulated as simulta- neous

  6. Calculating Possible Local Displacement of Curve Objects using Improved Screw Theory

    E-print Network

    Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    Calculating Possible Local Displacement of Curve Objects using Improved Screw Theory Jun Takamatsu of objects have been pro- posed. To calculate this displacement, the screw theory is employed polyhedral objects only. Because the screw theory cannot treat curvature information of objects

  7. The singularity study of spatial hybrid mechanisms based on screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-S. Zhao; K. Zhou; Z.-J. Feng; Z.-Y. Tan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology based on screw theory to study the singularity of spatial hybrid mechanisms is presented. According to the physical meaning of inverse screws, we introduce the equivalent kinematic screws to replace the function of those of the parallel limbs, and therefore the hybrid branch can be transformed into a pure series kinematic chain which can

  8. Gauge-field-theory solution of the elastic state of a screw dislocation in a dispersive

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Pradeep

    Gauge-field-theory solution of the elastic state of a screw dislocation in a dispersive (non the solution of most screw dislocation problems in the gauge non-local theory of defects, provided, NY 12309, USA The relaxed state of a type of topological defect (screw dislocation) located

  9. Collision Prediction for Polyhedra under Screw Motions Byungmoon Kim Jarek Rossignac

    E-print Network

    Rossignac, Jarek

    General Terms Theory Keywords Collision Detection, Screw Motion, Polyhedra Permission to make digitalCollision Prediction for Polyhedra under Screw Motions Byungmoon Kim Jarek Rossignac bmkim the relative motion between pairs of objects by a sequence of screw motion segments, each defined

  10. Screw-theoretic analysis models for felid jaw mechanisms Michael J. Delsignore, Venkat N. Krovi *

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Screw-theory; Musculoskeletal systems; Optimization; CableScrew-theoretic analysis models for felid jaw mechanisms Michael J. Delsignore, Venkat N. Krovi of quasi-static computational models for musculoskeletal analysis, leverag- ing screw-theoretic techniques

  11. Outcome After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. KUO; N. C. TEJWANI; C. W. DIGIOVANNI; S. K. HOLT; S. K. BENIRSCHKE; S. T. HANSEN; B. J. SANGEORZAN

    2000-01-01

    Background: Open reduction and internal fixation has been recommended as the treatment for most un- stable injuries of the Lisfranc (tarsometatarsal) joint. It has been thought that purely ligamentous injuries have a poor outcome despite such surgical management. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent open reduction and screw fixa- tion of a Lisfranc injury in a

  12. Calculation of axial forces on the screw in rubber extruders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Konclrakov; M. S. Samoilov; N. V. Tyabin; A. G. Govsha

    1972-01-01

    A special hydraulic thrust bearing (Fig. 1) was developed for measuring the axial forces of the screw. The thrust bearing consists of a body 7, a guiding collar 4, a rubber collar 6, assembled in one unit using a clamping nut 5. The cavity formed between the body 7 and the collar 6, and also the connecting pipe 9 and

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF JAMES HARRIS CUTTING SCREW THREADS INTO THE INTERIOR OF FITTINGS ON ONE IN A BANK OF TAPPING MACHINES, EACH OPERATED BY THE SAME WORKER SIMULTANEOUSLY BUT TIMED TO REQUIRE WORKER ACTION AT INTERVALS THAT DO NOT INTERFERE WITH THE OTHER MACHINES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Tapping Room, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Twin-screw extrusion of ‘Pesta’-encapsulated biocontrol agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Daigle; W. J. Connick; C. D. Boyette; M. P. Lovisa; K. S. Williams; M. Watson

    1997-01-01

    ‘Pesta’ granules in which fungal propagules are encapsulated in a wheat gluten matrix were prepared in multipound quantities by twin-screw extrusion and fluid bed drying. Dough formulations for extrusion contained wheat flour and kaolin, or wheat flour, kaolin and rice flour, plus water and fungal inoculum. Conidial inoculum of Colletotrichum truncatum, a pathogen of the weed hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata),

  15. Some refinements of the theory of the viscous screw pump.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, H. G.

    1972-01-01

    Recently performed analysis for herringbone thrust bearings has been incorporated into the theory of the viscous screw pump for Newtonian fluids. In addition, certain earlier corrections for sidewall and channel curvature effects have been simplified. The result is a single, refined formula for the prediction of the pressure-flow relation for these pumps.

  16. Successive Screw Approximation in Ising Lattice Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumori, H.

    1984-01-01

    Kramers and Wannier's successive screw technique is applied to the three-dimensional Ising lattice gauge theory. The largest eigenvalue of the transfer matrix is directly calculated on a computer, independently of Monte Carlo simulation. Anomalous behavior of the specific heat implies the existence of a phase transition.

  17. Force between two parallel screw dislocations - gauge theory result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsakumar, M. C.; Sahoo, Debendranath

    1996-02-01

    The expression for the force between two parallel screw dislocations is derived in the framework of the Yang-Mills-type gauge theory of dislocations earlier proposed by Kadic and Edelen [A gauge theory of dislocations and disclinations (Springer, Berlin, 1983)] and later developed by Valsakumar and Sahoo [Bull. Mater. Sci. 10 (1988) 3].

  18. Dynamics of parallel manipulators by means of screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gallardo; J. M. Rico; A. Frisoli; D. Checcacci; M. Bergamasco

    2003-01-01

    An approach to the dynamic analysis of parallel manipulators is presented. The proposed method, based on the theory of screws and on the principle of virtual work, allows a straightforward calculation of the actuator forces as a function of the external applied forces and the imposed trajectory. In order to show the generality of such a methodology, two case studies

  19. Jerk Influence Coefficients, via Screw Theory, of Closed Chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gallardo-Alvarado; J. M. Rico-Martinez

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a novel method for determining the kinematic influence coefficients up to the jerk analysis of closed chains with multiple degrees of freedom by means of screw theory, also known as motor algebra, is introduced. A closed chain is obtained by rigidly attaching the end-effector of a serial chain to the base link. This condition ensures that the

  20. Force between two parallel screw dislocations — gauge theory result

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Valsakumar; Debendranath Sahoo

    1996-01-01

    The expression for the force between two parallel screw dislocations is derived in the framework of the Yang-Mills-type gauge theory of dislocations earlier proposed by Kadic and Edelen [A gauge theory of dislocations and disclinations (Springer, Berlin, 1983)] and later developed by Valsakumar and Sahoo [Bull. Mater. Sci. 10 (1988) 3].

  1. A computational analysis of screw transformations in robotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANEZ FUNDA; RICHARD P. PAUL

    1990-01-01

    A computational analysis and a comparison of line-oriented representations of general (i.e. rotational and translational) spatial displacements of rigid bodies are presented. Four mathematical formalisms for effecting a general spatial screw displacement are discussed and analyzed in terms of computational efficiency in performing common operations needed in kinematic analysis of multilinked spatial mechanisms. The corresponding algorithms are analyzed in terms

  2. 39. VIEW OF VESSEL STERNON IN DRYDOCK. NOTE TWIN SCREWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF VESSEL STERN-ON IN DRYDOCK. NOTE TWIN SCREWS AND RUDDER. GENTLEMEN IN VIEW UNKNOWN Original 5'x5' photograph taken by Robert S. Douglas in 1966 - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  3. The empirical modeling of a Lysholm screw expander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Stiedel; K. A. Brown; D. H. Pankow

    1983-01-01

    This is a description of the development of an engine model for the prediction of mass flow rate, power, efficiency and exhaust quality for a Lysholm Screw Expander at a given set of operating conditions. The testing of an expander having a rotor diameter of 130 mm (5.12 inches) and an expansion ratio of 5.3 was performed with simulated geothermal

  4. Screw Type Steam Compressors for Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) Systems 

    E-print Network

    Kawamura, K.; Apaloo, Thomas-L.

    1986-01-01

    the low pressure steam to a usable pressure for reinjection into the process stream. Mycom has developed, designed and installed two large MVR systems using screw compressors: one for a brewery and the other for a whiskey plant. This paper discusses...

  5. Outpatient percutaneous screw fixation of the acute Jones fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Mindrebo; K. Donald Shelbourne; Charles D. Van Meter; Arthur C. Rettig

    1993-01-01

    Nine patients (8 men and 1 woman, ranging in age from 17 to 22 years) who sustained a Jones fracture were treated with percutaneous intramedullary screw fixation as outpatients. All of the patients were varsity athletes. Seven were Division I scholarship athletes. Beginning at 7 to 10 days after surgery, all patients were allowed weightbearing as tolerated with a CAM

  6. Review Article: Screw Compressors in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikola Stoši?

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in the techniques for manufacturing vital parts, such as rotors and bearings, have enabled improvements to be made to screw compressors that were difficult to imagine only a few years ago. This has inevitably influenced the prospects for these machines in refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Some aspects of this are presented, together with well known but not always

  7. A Screw Syzygy with Applications to Robot Singularity Computation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Selig; Peter Donelan

    A syzygy is a relation between invariants. In this paper a syzygy is presented between invariants of sequences of six screws\\u000a under the action of the Euclidean group. This relation is useful in simplifying the computation of the determinant of a robot\\u000a Jacobian and hence can be used to investigate the singularities of robot manipulators.

  8. Interpolating gain-scheduled H? loop shaping design for high speed ball screw feed drives.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Tang, WenCheng; Bao, DaFei

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a method to design servo controllers for flexible ball screw drives with time-varying dynamics, which are mainly due to the time-varying table position and the workpiece mass. A gain-scheduled H? loop shaping controller is designed to achieve high tracking performance against the dynamic variations. H? loop shaping design procedure incorporates open loop shaping by a set of compensators to obtain performance/robust stability tradeoffs. The interpolating gain-scheduled controller is obtained by interpolating the state space model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) controllers estimated for fixed values of the scheduling parameters and a linear least squares problem can be solved. The proposed controller has been compared with P/PI with velocity and acceleration feedforward and adaptive backstepping sliding mode control experimentally. The experimental results indicate that the tracking performance has been improved and the robustness for time-varying dynamics has been achieved with the proposed scheme. PMID:25592980

  9. Tomographic analysis for C2 screw placement in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Astolfi, Rodrigo Schroll; Tachibana, Wilson Tadao; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2012-01-01

    Objective A morphological analysis of the bone structure of C2 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in order to enhance the security of the stabilization procedures for this vertebra. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 20 CT scans of the cervical spine performed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; the following parameters were measured: spinolaminar angle, thickness and length of C2 lamina. Results The mean values are: 5.92mm and 5.87mm for thickness of right and left laminae retrospectively, 27.75mm for right lamina length and 27.94mm for left lamina length, and 44.7º for spinolaminar angle. Conclusion The values obtained are consistent with studies in normal subjects published by other groups, with no apparent need for change in the screw placement technique. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453603

  10. Percutaneous Cannulated Screws with Tension Band Wiring Technique in Patella Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Most patellar fractures are transverse involving the central third. Open reduction and stabilization of transverse patellar fractures is indicated if there is more than 2-3 mm of fragment separation and/or articular incongruity. Surgical Technique This study describes a percutaneous 2 cannulated screws and modified tension band wiring technique to treat transverse patellar fractures. Materials and Methods We performed 30 cases of displaced transverse patellar fractures with this technique. The clinical outcomes of these patients were evaluated with simple radiographs, range of motion and Lyshom score. Results This technique has shown to provide satisfactory clinical results and excellent knee functions. Conclusions This technique provide stable fixation, allows early motion exercise by minimizing injury to extensor mechanism and reduce cosmetic problem in scar. PMID:24369000

  11. Arthritis at the shoulder joint.

    PubMed

    Sankaye, Prashant; Ostlere, Simon

    2015-07-01

    The shoulder is a complex joint with numerous structures contributing to mobility and stability. Shoulder pain is a common clinical complaint that may be due to a wide spectrum of disorders including rotator cuff disease, instability, and arthropathy. Primary osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is uncommon because it is a non-weight-bearing joint. Significant osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint is unusual in the absence of trauma, and the detection of advanced degenerative changes in patients without a known history of trauma should alert the clinician to search for other disorders. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and key imaging findings of the common categories of the arthritis affecting the glenohumeral joint. PMID:26021591

  12. Covering the screw-access holes of implant restorations in the esthetic zone: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Saboury, Abolfazl; Gooya, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Screw-retained implant restorations have an advantage of predictable retention as well as retrievability, and obviate the risk of excessive sub-gingival cement commonly associated with cement retained implant restorations. Screw-retained restorations generally have screw access holes, which can compromise esthetics and weaken the porcelain around the holes. The purpose of this study is to describe the use of a separate overcasting crown design to cover the screw access hole of implant screw-retained prosthesis for improved esthetics. PMID:25628703

  13. Comparison between the rigidity of bicortical screws and a miniplate for fixation of a mandibular setback after a simulated bilateral sagittal split osteotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wichit Tharanon

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation compared the biomechanical stability of three bicortical screws with that of a single four-hole miniplate after 5-mm mandibular setback after a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in cadaver mandibles.Materials and Methods: Thirty human cadaver hemimandibles underwent BSSO followed by two different rigid fixation techniques. All specimens had no third molar, bony pathology, or evidence of mandibular fracture,

  14. The general theory of blade screws including propellers, fans, helicopter screws, helicoidal pumps, turbo-motors, and different kinds of helicoidal blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Bothezat, George

    1920-01-01

    Report presents a theory which gives a complete picture and an exact quantitative analysis of the whole phenomenon of the working of blade screws, but also unites in a continuous whole the entire scale of states of work conceivable for a blade screw. Chapter 1 is devoted to the establishment of the system of fundamental equations relating to the blade screw. Chapter 2 contains the general discussion of the 16 states of work which may establish themselves for a blade screw. The existence of the vortex ring state and the whirling phenomenon are established. All the fundamental functions which enter the blade-screw theory are submitted to a general analytical discussion. The general outline of the curve of the specific function is examined. Two limited cases of the work of the screw, the screw with a zero constructive pitch and the screw with an infinite constructive pitch, are pointed out. Chapter 3 is devoted to the study of the propulsive screw or propeller. (author)

  15. Easy retrieval of polyaxial tulip-head pedicle screws by “U” rod technique

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Cengiz; Altinel, Levent; Ates, Ali; Ozdemir, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The number of fusion surgeries increase each year which also increase the need for implant removal. In some cases, it can be extremely hard to remove a pedicle screw especially when there is a mismatch of the screw and the screwdriver. Also the screwdrivers can be contaminated during the operation, and this will cause a delay till the instruments are re-sterilized. There is a need for the removal of screws without special instruments. We describe a method for removing tulip-head polyaxial pedicle screws without special instruments. The screws are removed using an Allen key, a rod bender and a “U” shaped rod. We successfully removed 76 screws in 11 recent cases without any complications. The “U” rod technique is a simple and useful technique for the removal of tulip-head polyaxial screws. PMID:19618219

  16. Handbook on dynamics of jointed structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Nicoli M.; Lauffer, James P.; Jew, Michael D.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Gregory, Danny Lynn; Starr, Michael James; Resor, Brian Ray

    2009-07-01

    The problem of understanding and modeling the complicated physics underlying the action and response of the interfaces in typical structures under dynamic loading conditions has occupied researchers for many decades. This handbook presents an integrated approach to the goal of dynamic modeling of typical jointed structures, beginning with a mathematical assessment of experimental or simulation data, development of constitutive models to account for load histories to deformation, establishment of kinematic models coupling to the continuum models, and application of finite element analysis leading to dynamic structural simulation. In addition, formulations are discussed to mitigate the very short simulation time steps that appear to be required in numerical simulation for problems such as this. This handbook satisfies the commitment to DOE that Sandia will develop the technical content and write a Joints Handbook. The content will include: (1) Methods for characterizing the nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation for typical joints used in mechanical systems and components. (2) The methodology will include practical guidance on experiments, and reduced order models that can be used to characterize joint behavior. (3) Examples for typical bolted and screw joints will be provided.

  17. The role of the kneading paddle and the effects of screw revolution speed and water content on the preparation of solid dispersions using a twin-screw extruder.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Kouichi; Nakano, Tomio; Yasuura, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Shogo; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2002-07-25

    The twin-screw hot-melt extrusion process is useful for preparing solid dispersions which can improve the dissolution and absorption of drugs. The kneading paddle elements of the screws play an important role in changing the crystallinity and dissolution properties of a solid dispersion of kneaded nifedipine-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate (NP-HPMCP). After operating the machine, a small amount of kneaded material adhering to the screws was collected and its physicochemical properties examined. Samples from the kneading paddle with a twist angle of 60 degrees were transparent and exhibited super-saturation on dissolution testing. When the kneading paddle elements were detached from the screws and only the feed screw elements were operated, the physicochemical properties of the extruded material were significantly influenced by the operating conditions of the machine e.g. revolution rate of screws, and the amount of water added to the feed materials. Slow revolution of the screws and the addition of a suitable amount of water to the mixture increased the rate of drug dissolution, although no super-saturation occurred. As the kneading paddle elements can retain the mixture in the machine for a longer period under intense shear, desired solid dispersions can be prepared routinely irrespective of the operating conditions. Moreover, a capillary rheometer can be useful to predetermine the amount of water added and the temperature for the preparation of solid dispersions using a twin-screw extruder. PMID:12100848

  18. Prevention of arthrofibrosis after arthroscopic screw fixation of tibial spine fracture in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Shital N; Myer, David; Eismann, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Arthrofibrosis is a major complication of tibial spine fracture treatment in children, potentially resulting in knee pain, quadriceps weakness, altered gait, decreased function, inability to return to sports, and long-term osteoarthritis. Thus, prevention rather than treatment of arthrofibrosis is desirable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an aggressive postoperative rehabilitation and early intervention approach to prevent permanent arthrofibrosis after tibial spine fracture treatment and to compare epiphyseal and transphyseal screws for fixation. A consecutive series of 24 patients younger than age 18 with displaced type II and III tibial spine fractures who underwent arthroscopic reduction and screw fixation between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Final range of motion was compared between patients with epiphyseal (n=12) and transphyseal (n=9) screws. One-third (4 of 12) of patients with epiphyseal screws underwent arthroscopic debridement and screw removal approximately 3 months postoperatively; 3 patients lacked 5° to 15° of extension, 1 experienced pain with extension, and 1 had radiographic evidence of screw pullout, loss of reduction, and resultant malunion. In the transphyseal screw group, 3 patients had 10° loss of extension, and all corrected after arthroscopic debridement and screw removal. The two groups did not significantly differ in time to hardware removal or return to sports or final range of motion. No growth disturbances were identified in patients after transphyseal screw removal. An aggressive approach of postoperative rehabilitation and early intervention after arthroscopic reduction and screw fixation of tibial spine fractures in children was successful in preventing permanent arthrofibrosis. PMID:24683658

  19. Keeping international joint ventures stable and profitable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Beamish; Andrew C. Inkpen

    1995-01-01

    If international joint ventures are inherently unstable organizational forms, as researchers and managers have suggested, why do some ventures survive and prosper for many years? This article argues that foreign partners' knowledge of the local economic, political, and cultural environments is a critical factor in the stability of international joint ventures. When the foreign partner is no longer satisfied with

  20. CRITICAL POINT ANALYSIS OF JOINT DIAGONALIZATION CRITERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gen Hori; Jonathan H. Manton

    2003-01-01

    The stability and sensitivity of joint diagonalization criteria are analyzed using the Hessian of the criteria at their critical points. The sensitivity of some known joint diagonalization criteria is shown to be weak when they are applied to the matrices with closely placed eigenvalues. In such a situation, a large deviation in the diagonalizer cause a slight change in the

  1. Structure of screw dislocation core in Ta at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaofeng, E-mail: sfwang@cqu.edu.cn; Jiang, Na; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Ying [Institute for Structure and Function and Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2014-03-07

    The core structure and Peierls stress of the 1/2 ?111?(110) screw dislocation in Ta have been investigated theoretically using the modified Peierls–Nabarro theory that takes into account the discreteness effect of crystal. The lattice constants, the elastic properties, and the generalized-stacking-fault energy(?-surface) under the different pressures have been calculated from the electron density functional theory. The core structure of dislocation is determined by the modified Peierls equation, and the Peierls stress is evaluated from the dislocation energy that varies periodically as dislocation moves. The results show the core width and Peierls stress in Ta are weakly dependent of the pressure up to 100?GPa when the length and stress are measured separately by the Burgers vector b and shear modulus ?. This indicates that core structure is approximately scaling invariant for the screw dislocation in Ta. The scaled plasticity of Ta changes little in high pressure environment.

  2. Analysis of Eyring-Powell Fluid in Helical Screw Rheometer

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, A. M.; Haroon, T.; Zeb, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the flow of an incompressible, isothermal Eyring-Powell fluid in a helical screw rheometer. The complicated geometry of the helical screw rheometer is simplified by “unwrapping or flattening” the channel, lands, and the outside rotating barrel, assuming the width of the channel is larger as compared to the depth. The developed second order nonlinear differential equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. Analytical expressions are obtained for the velocity profiles, shear stresses, shear at wall, force exerted on fluid, volume flow rates, and average velocity. The effect of non-Newtonian parameters, pressure gradients, and flight angle on the velocity profiles is noticed with the help of graphical representation. The observation confirmed the vital role of involved parameters during the extrusion process. PMID:24707194

  3. Structure of screw dislocation core in Ta at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaofeng; Jiang, Na; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Ying

    2014-03-01

    The core structure and Peierls stress of the 1/2?111?{110} screw dislocation in Ta have been investigated theoretically using the modified Peierls-Nabarro theory that takes into account the discreteness effect of crystal. The lattice constants, the elastic properties, and the generalized-stacking-fault energy(?-surface) under the different pressures have been calculated from the electron density functional theory. The core structure of dislocation is determined by the modified Peierls equation, and the Peierls stress is evaluated from the dislocation energy that varies periodically as dislocation moves. The results show the core width and Peierls stress in Ta are weakly dependent of the pressure up to 100 GPa when the length and stress are measured separately by the Burgers vector b and shear modulus ?. This indicates that core structure is approximately scaling invariant for the screw dislocation in Ta. The scaled plasticity of Ta changes little in high pressure environment.

  4. Double-sided fiber laser beam welding process of T-joints for aluminum aircraft fuselage panels: Filler wire melting behavior, process stability, and their effects on porosity defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wang; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Yanbin; Li, Liqun; Jiang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Yunlong

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum alloy T-joints for aircraft fuselage panels were fabricated by double-sided fiber laser beam welding with filler wire, and the influence of the wire feeding posture on the welding process stability was investigated. A CMOS high speed video system was used to observe the wire melting behavior and the weld pool dynamics in real time during the welding process by using a bandpass red laser with an emission wavelength of 808 nm as backlight source to illuminate the welding zone. The weld porosity defects were analyzed by X-ray radiography. The effects of wire feeding posture on the wire melting behavior, process stability, and porosity defects were investigated. The experimental results indicated that three distinct filler material transfer modes were identified under different wire feeding positions: liquid bridge transfer mode, droplet transfer mode, and spreading transfer mode. The liquid bridge transfer mode could guarantee a stable welding process, and result in the lowest porosity. Compared with wire feeding in the leading direction, the process was not stable and porosity increased when wire feeding in the trailing direction. Increased in the wire feeding angle was disadvantage for pores to escape from the weld molten pool, meanwhile, it made the welding process window smaller due to increasing the centering precision requirement for adjusting the filler wire.

  5. Subaxial subluxation after atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation in rheumatoid patients

    PubMed Central

    Neo, Masashi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    The most common cervical abnormality associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is atlantoaxial subluxation, and atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation has proved to be one of the most reliable, stable fixation techniques for treating atlantoaxial subluxation. Following C1–C2 fixation, however, subaxial subluxation reportedly can bring about neurological deterioration and require secondary operative interventions. Rheumatoid patients appear to have a higher risk, but there has been no systematic comparison between rheumatoid and non-rheumatoid patients. Contributing radiological factors to the subluxation have also not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate subaxial subluxation after atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation in patients with and without RA and to find contributing factors. Forty-three patients who submitted to atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation without any concomitant operation were followed up for more than 1 year. Subaxial subluxation and related radiological factors were evaluated by functional X-ray measurements. Statistical analyses showed that aggravations of subluxation of 2.5 mm or greater were more likely to occur in RA patients than in non-RA patients over an average of 4.2 years of follow-up, and postoperative subluxation occurred in the anterior direction in the upper cervical spine. X-ray evaluations revealed that such patients had a significantly smaller postoperative C2–C7 angle, and that the postoperative AA angle correlated negatively with this. Furthermore, anterior subluxation aggravation was significantly correlated with the perioperative atlantoaxial and C2–C7 angle changes, and these two changes were strongly correlated to each other. In conclusion, after atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation, rheumatoid patients have a greater risk of developing subaxial subluxations. The increase of the atlantoaxial angel at the operation can lead to a decrease in the C2–C7 angle, followed by anterior subluxation of the upper cervical spine and possibly neurological deterioration. PMID:19337758

  6. Kinematics of a Hybrid Manipulator by Means of Screw Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. GALLARDO-ALVARADO

    2005-01-01

    In this work the kinematics of a hybrid manipulator, namely a fully parallel-serial manipulator, with a particular topology\\u000a is approached by means of the theory of screws. Given the length of the six independent limbs, the forward position analysis\\u000a of the mechanism under study, indeed the computation of the resulting pose, position and orientation, of the end-platform\\u000a with respect to

  7. A magnetoelectric screw dislocation interacting with a circular layered inclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Ho Shen

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of the linear theory of magnetoelectroelasticity, the problem of a circular layered inclusion interacting with a generalized screw dislocation under remote anti-plane shear stress and in-plane magnetoelectric loads is investigated in this paper. The generalized dislocation can be located either in the matrix or in the circular layered inclusion. The layers are coaxial cylinders of annular cross-sections

  8. Comparison of healing process in open osteotomy model and open fracture model: Delayed healing of osteotomies after intramedullary screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Moritz; Stieger, Andrea; Stenger, David; Scheuer, Claudia; Holstein, Jörg H; Pohlemann, Tim; Menger, Michael D; Histing, Tina

    2015-07-01

    Murine osteotomy and fracture models have become the standard to study molecular mechanisms of bone healing. Because there is little information whether the healing of osteotomies differs from that of fractures, we herein studied in mice the healing of femur osteotomies compared to femur fractures. Twenty CD-1 mice underwent a standardized open femur osteotomy. Another 20 mice received a standardized open femur fracture. Stabilization was performed by an intramedullary screw. Bone healing was studied by micro-CT, biomechanical, histomorphometric and protein expression analyses. Osteotomies revealed a significantly lower biomechanical stiffness compared to fractures. Micro-CT showed a reduced bone/tissue volume within the callus of the osteotomies. Histomorphometric analyses demonstrated also a significantly lower amount of osseous tissue in the callus of osteotomies (26% and 88% after 2 and 5 weeks) compared to fractures (50% and 100%). This was associated with a delayed remodeling. Western blot analyses demonstrated comparable BMP-2 and BMP-4 expression, but higher levels of collagen-2, CYR61 and VEGF after osteotomy. Therefore, we conclude that open femur osteotomies in mice show a markedly delayed healing when stabilized less rigidly with an intramedullary screw. This should be considered when choosing a model for studying the mechanisms of bone healing in mice. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:971-978, 2015. PMID:25732349

  9. Effect of Micrometer-Scale Roughness of the Surface of Ti6Al4V Pedicle Screws in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Zvi; Raz, Perry; Zhao, Ge; Barak, Yael; Tauber, Michael; Yao, Hai; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Titanium implants that have been grit-blasted and acid-etched to produce a rough microtopography support more bone integration than do smooth-surfaced implants. In vitro studies have suggested that this is due to a stimulatory effect on osteoblasts. It is not known if grit-blasted and acid-etched Ti6Al4V implants also stimulate osteoblasts and increase bone formation clinically. In this study, we examined the effects of micrometer-scale-structured Ti6Al4V surfaces on cell responses in vitro and on tissue responses in vivo. Methods: Ti6Al4V disks were either machined to produce smooth surfaces with an average roughness (Ra) of 0.2 ?m or grit-blasted, resulting in an Ra of 2.0, 3.0, or 3.3 ?m. Human osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the disks and on tissue culture polystyrene. The cell number, markers of osteoblast differentiation, and levels of local factors in the conditioned media were determined at confluence. In addition, Ti6Al4V pedicle screws with smooth or rough surfaces were implanted into the L4 and L5 vertebrae of fifteen two-year-old sheep. Osteointegration was evaluated at twelve weeks with histomorphometry and on the basis of removal torque. Results: The cell numbers on the Ti6Al4V surfaces were lower than those on the tissue culture polystyrene; the effect was greatest on the roughest surface. The alkaline-phosphatase-specific activity of cell lysates was decreased in a surface-dependent manner, whereas osteocalcin, prostaglandin E2, transforming growth factor-?1, and osteoprotegerin levels were higher on the rough surfaces. Bone-implant contact was greater around the rough-surfaced Ti6Al4V screws, and the torque needed to remove the rough screws from the bone was more than twice that required to remove the smooth screws. Conclusions: Increased micrometer-scale surface roughness increases osteoblast differentiation and local factor production in vitro, which may contribute to increased bone formation and osteointegration in vivo. There was a correlation between in vitro and in vivo observations, indicating that the use of screws with rough surfaces will result in better bone-implant contact and implant stability. Clinical Relevance: The osteointegration of screws with rough microtopographies is likely to be better than that of screws with smoother surfaces. PMID:18978418

  10. Continuous expression of slurry in a screw press

    SciTech Connect

    Shirato, M.; Hayashi, N.; Iwata, M.; Murase, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate method is described for predicting the steadystate performance of a screw press for the continuous expression of a slurry, with the worm channel being modified as the path between two flat plates. Screw expression of a slurry involves two mechanisms of dewatering which, for a batch operation, can be analyzed by the variable-pressure, variable-rate theory of filtration and by consolidation theory. By assuming that the expression consists of a succession of batch processes, basic equations are derived for the relationship between the dehydration rate, the feed rate, and the expression pressure distribution in a constant-pitch, straighttaper screw press. The thickness of the filter cake in the worm channel and the flow distribution in the consolidated cake are calculated for a given pressure distribution and feed rate, and the solids concentration and rate of discharge of the cake are estimated. The critical speed of rotation of the worm, at which the slurry becomes highly deliquored, is strongly influenced by the external diameter and helical angle of the worm. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental data for clay slurries with a concentration of 0.31-0.46 in the feed.

  11. Bone registration method for robot assisted surgery: pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, K; McGowan, D P; Goel, V K; Kowalski, D; Smith, S B

    1997-01-01

    A registration method that identifies bone geometry with respect to a robotic manipulator arm is presented. Although the method is generally applicable to many orthopaedic internal fixation procedures, it was only demonstrated for the insertion of pedicle screws in vertebral bodies for spine fixation. The method relies upon obtaining an impression of the vertebral bodies. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of both vertebrae and mould are reconstructed using a computer aided engineering (CAE) system. From the reconstructions, the surgeon is able to do preoperative planning including selection of pedicle screw diameter, direction of screw through pedicle, point of entry and length of engagement. The three-dimensional models are than meshed to determine positions of the surgeon's preoperative plan relative to the mould. Intra-operative positions are defined in space by a mechanical fixture rigidly attached to the mould and designed to allow a manipulator end-effector to recognize the global coordinates of the in vivo spine. The theory and methodology were validated using a five-axis manipulator arm. This initial presentation assumes and allows no relative motion between vertebrae in vivo. PMID:9255999

  12. Atlanto-axial subluxation after pyogenic spondylitis of the atlanto-occipital joint.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Kazuhiko; Iizuka, Haku; Sorimachi, Yasunori; Ara, Tsuyoshi; Nishinome, Masahiro; Takechi, Yasuhiko; Takagishi, Kenji

    2011-07-01

    This report presents a case of atlanto-axial subluxation after treatment of pyogenic spondylitis of the atlanto-occipital joint. A 60-year-old male had 1-month history of neck pain with fever. Magnetic resonance imaging showed inflammation around the odontoid process. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was administrated immediately. After 6 weeks, CRP had returned almost to normal. After 4 months, laboratory data was still normal, but the patient experienced increasing neck pain. Lateral cervical radiography in the neutral position showed instability between C1 and C2. Computed tomography showed a bony union of the atlanto-occipital joint and severe destruction of the atlanto-axial joint on the left side. Transarticular screw fixation for the atlanto-axial joint was performed. A lateral cervical radiograph in the neutral position after surgery showed a solid bony union. Neck pain improved following surgery. We speculate that spondylitis of the atlanto-occipital joint induced a loosening of the transverse ligament and articulation of the atlanto-axial joint. A bony fusion of the atlanto-occipital joint after antibiotic treatment resolved the pyogenic inflammation concentrated stress to the damaged atlanto-axial joint, resulting in further damage. The atlanto-axial instability was finally managed by the insertion of a transarticular screw. PMID:21140176

  13. Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d {ital rz}-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere`s law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods.

  14. Joint Projects / Joint Seminars October 2013

    E-print Network

    Fuchs, Clemens

    Joint Projects / Joint Seminars October 2013 Information Sheet Bilateral Programs (MoU) ­ Joint Projects (JP) / Joint Seminars (JS) FWF has signed bilateral agreements ­ so called "Memorandums of Understanding" (MoU) ­ with several international partner organisations. These agreements usually aim at jointly

  15. Imaging screw dislocations at atomic resolution by aberration-corrected electron optical sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H.; Lozano, J. G.; Pennycook, T. J.; Jones, L.; Hirsch, P. B.; Nellist, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    Screw dislocations play an important role in materials' mechanical, electrical and optical properties. However, imaging the atomic displacements in screw dislocations remains challenging. Although advanced electron microscopy techniques have allowed atomic-scale characterization of edge dislocations from the conventional end-on view, for screw dislocations, the atoms are predominantly displaced parallel to the dislocation line, and therefore the screw displacements are parallel to the electron beam and become invisible when viewed end-on. Here we show that screw displacements can be imaged directly with the dislocation lying in a plane transverse to the electron beam by optical sectioning using annular dark field imaging in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Applying this technique to a mixed [a+c] dislocation in GaN allows direct imaging of a screw dissociation with a 1.65-nm dissociation distance, thereby demonstrating a new method for characterizing dislocation core structures. PMID:26041257

  16. Research on energy conversion mechanism of a screw centrifugal pump under the water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, H.; Li, R. N.; Su, Q. M.; Han, W.; Cheng, X. R.; Shen, Z. J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to research screw centrifugal pump impeller power capability and energy conversion mechanism, we used Navier-Stokes equation and standard k-? equation turbulence model on the basis of the Euler equations to carry out screw centrifugal pump internal flow numerical simulation. This was explored by simulating specific design conditions; the medium is water, variation of speed and pressure of flow filed under the action of the impeller, and the screw centrifugal impeller shroud line and wheel line segment take monitoring sites. The monitoring points are between dynamic head and static head change to analyze the energy conversion capability along the impeller corners of screw centrifugal pump. The results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by spiral segment, the spiral segment in front of the impeller has played a multi-level role, it has significant reference value to research the energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump under solid-liquid two phase.

  17. A technique for repairing a loosening abutment screw for a cement-retained implant prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G

    2011-12-01

    Prostheses may be attached to implants or implant abutments using screw retention or cementation. With the increased use of cement-retained, implant-supported restorations for the replacement of missing teeth, clinicians may choose to use a definitive cement to lute the definitive restoration. Loosening of an abutment screw is a challenging complication of cement-retained, implant-supported prosthetic restorations. Often, the abutment screw becomes loose from the implant body, whereas the crown remains cemented to the abutment. In such situations, separating the cemented crown from the underlying abutment or locating the abutment-screw access for removal of the restoration is a difficult task. The purpose of this report is to describe a simple technique for locating the abutment-screw access in the event of its loosening. The advantage of this technique is that it can facilitate easy location of the abutment screw, thus minimizing damage to the existing restoration and allowing it to be reused. PMID:21883632

  18. Imaging screw dislocations at atomic resolution by aberration-corrected electron optical sectioning.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Lozano, J G; Pennycook, T J; Jones, L; Hirsch, P B; Nellist, P D

    2015-01-01

    Screw dislocations play an important role in materials' mechanical, electrical and optical properties. However, imaging the atomic displacements in screw dislocations remains challenging. Although advanced electron microscopy techniques have allowed atomic-scale characterization of edge dislocations from the conventional end-on view, for screw dislocations, the atoms are predominantly displaced parallel to the dislocation line, and therefore the screw displacements are parallel to the electron beam and become invisible when viewed end-on. Here we show that screw displacements can be imaged directly with the dislocation lying in a plane transverse to the electron beam by optical sectioning using annular dark field imaging in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Applying this technique to a mixed [a+c] dislocation in GaN allows direct imaging of a screw dissociation with a 1.65-nm dissociation distance, thereby demonstrating a new method for characterizing dislocation core structures. PMID:26041257

  19. Surgical Strategies to Improve Fixation in the Osteoporotic Spine: The Effects of Tapping, Cement Augmentation, and Screw Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Craig A.; Reiter, Michael; Pfeiffer, Ferris; Choma, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design?Biomechanical study of pedicle screw fixation in osteoporotic bone. Objective?To investigate whether it is better to tap or not tap osteoporotic bone prior to placing a cement-augmented pedicle screw. Methods?Initially, we evaluated load to failure of screws placed in cancellous bone blocks with or without prior tapping as well as after varying the depths of tapping prior to screw insertion. Then we evaluated load to failure of screws placed in bone block models with a straight-ahead screw trajectory as well as with screws having a 23-degree cephalad trajectory (toward the end plate). These techniques were tested with nonaugmented (NA) screws as well as with bioactive cement (BioC) augmentation prior to screw insertion. Results?In the NA group, pretapping decreased fixation strength in a dose-dependent fashion. In the BioC group, the tapped screws had significantly greater loads to failure (p?screw orientation, the screws oriented at 23 degrees cephalad had a significantly higher failure force than their respective counterparts at 0 degrees (p?screw fixation is often inadequate in the osteoporotic spine, but this study suggests tapping prior to cement augmentation will substantially improve fixation when compared with not tapping. Angulating screws more cephalad also seems to enhance aging spine fixation. PMID:24494181

  20. Mechanics of the passive knee joint. Part 2: interaction between the ligaments and the articular surfaces in guiding the joint motion.

    PubMed

    Amiri, S; Cooke, D; Kim, I Y; Wyss, U

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how the interaction between ligament tensions and contact forces guides the knee joint through its specific pattern of passive motion. A computer model was built based on cadaver data. The passive motion and the ligament lengthening and force patterns predicted by the model were verified with data from the literature. The contribution of each ligament and contact force was measured in terms of the rotational moment that it produced about the tibial medial plateau and the anterior-posterior (AP) force that it exerted on the tibia. The high tension of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the geometric constraints of the anterior horns of the menisci were found to be key features that stabilized the knee at full extension. The mutual effect of the cruciates was found as the reason for the screw-home mechanism at early flexion. Past 300, the AP component of contact force on the convex geometry of the lateral tibial plateau and tension of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) were identified as elements that control the joint motion. From 60 degrees to 90 degrees, reduction in the tension of the ACL was determined as a reason for continuation of the tibial anterior translation. From 90 degrees to 120 degrees, increase in the tension of the posterior cruciate ligament and the AP component of the contact force on the convex geometry of the lateral tibial plateau pushed the tibia more anteriorly. This anterior translation was limited by the constraining effects of the ACL tension and the AP component of the contact force on the medial meniscus. The important guiding role observed for the LCL suggests that it should not be overlooked in knee models. PMID:18161242

  1. Investigation on Kane dynamic equations based on screw theory for open-chain manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Wu-fa; Gong Zhen-bang; Wang Qin-que

    2005-01-01

    First, screw theory, product of exponential formulas and Jacobian matrix are introduced. Then definitions are given about\\u000a active force wrench, inertial force wrench, partial velocity twist, generalized active force, and generalized inertial force\\u000a according to screw theory. After that Kane dynamic equations based on screw theory for open-chain manipulators have been derived.\\u000a Later on how to compute the partial velocity

  2. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy, Quick, and Safe Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Amit; Garg, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Removal of jammed titanium screws can be difficult due to the problem of stripping of the hexagonal heads of the screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri-implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 years back. The technique is quick, safe, and cost effective. PMID:25013544

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of plasmas with radial motion

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, E.A. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The stability of a screw-pinch plasma with radial motion is explored. The linear theory of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (NHD) stability for stationary equilibrium has been generalized to include radial motion. This generalization results in the force operator, F, being non-self-adjoint and the widely used energy principle being no longer useful in this case. Because of this, a set of seven complex, first-order, simultaneous ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to determine the stability. The equations are solved subject to appropriate boundary conditions using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg. The eigenvalues for the set of equations are also complex, with the imaginary part of the eigenvalue corresponding to the exponential growth or decay of the instability. While the method derived can be used for any cylindrical equilibrium profiles, the results will be presented for imploding screw-pinch plasmas.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of plasmas with radial motion

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, E.A. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The stability of a screw-pinch plasma with radial motion is explored. The linear theory of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (NHD) stability for stationary equilibrium has been generalized to include radial motion. This generalization results in the force operator, F, being non-self-adjoint and the widely used energy principle being no longer useful in this case. Because of this, a set of seven complex, first-order, simultaneous ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to determine the stability. The equations are solved subject to appropriate boundary conditions using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg. The eigenvalues for the set of equations are also complex, with the imaginary part of the eigenvalue corresponding to the exponential growth or decay of the instability. While the method derived can be used for any cylindrical equilibrium profiles, the results will be presented for imploding screw-pinch plasmas.

  5. Stress analysis of the distal locking screws for femoral interlocking nailing.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Lin, S J; Chen, P Q; Yang, S H

    2001-01-01

    In femoral locked nailing, the distal locking screws are vulnerable to mechanical failure. Biomechanical studies have shown that the stress on these screws is substantially affected by the fit of the nail in the medullary canal. In this study, a "closed form" mathematical model based on elastic beam-column theory was developed to investigate how the nail-cortical contact, which was simulated by a linear elastic foundation, affected the stress on the distal locking screws. Providing data for the model was a construct of a fractured femur with an intramedullary locked nail loaded by an eccentric vertical load. The stress on the locking screw was analyzed as a function of the distance from the fracture to the locking screw in the distal fragment under two situations: with and without nail-cortical contact in the distal fragment. With nail-cortical contact, the screw stress decreased as the length of nail-cortical contact and the distance between the distal locking screw and the fracture site increased, but this stress contrarily increased when the nail reached the femoral region at which the screw length increased. The screw stress was much higher without nail-cortical contact than with contact and continued to increase as the nail was inserted further. The mathematical model developed here can be a convenient means of rapid stress evaluation and parametric analysis for locked femoral nailing. It may be used to improve the design of interlocking nails and surgical technique. PMID:11332621

  6. Implant abutment screw reverse torque values before and after plasma cleaning.

    PubMed

    Micarelli, Costanza; Canullo, Luigi; Baldissara, Paolo; Clementini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This in vitro study analyzed the reverse torque (RevT) of abutment screws following different cleaning treatments. A convenience sample of 50 customized titanium abutment screw complexes was divided into five groups: cleaning by steam (control group), cleaning by Argon plasma (test groups 1 and 2 [with chlorhexidine gel]), and replacement of old screws with new ones (test groups 3 and 4 [with chlorhexidine gel]). Abutments were screwed onto implants and tested for RevT. The RevT of the test groups was significantly higher than that of the control group. No statistically significant difference between test groups was noted except between groups 2 and 3. PMID:23837162

  7. Access to abutment screw in cement retained restorations: a clinical tip.

    PubMed

    Kheur, Mohit; Harianawala, Husain; Kantharia, Nidhi; Sethi, Tania; Jambhekar, Shantanu

    2015-02-01

    Abutment screw loosening has been reported to be the most common prosthetic complications occurring in screw retained as well as cement retained implant restorations. Different methods to treat this issue have been reported in the literature so far; however these have their own short-comings. Retrievability of an implant restoration intact becomes a clinical challenge when the restoration is cement retained especially with an angulated abutment. This technique is aimed at accurately determining the position of the abutment screw in 3 dimensional relationships using a vacuum formed clear stent. This technique can be used as a viable protocol for management of screw loosening in cement retained implant restorations. PMID:25859535

  8. Conservative Surgical Treatment of Infected Ulceration of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint With Osteomyelitis in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Dalla Paola, Luca; Carone, Anna; Morisi, Claudio; Cardillo, Sara; Pattavina, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Ulceration of the plantar aspect of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is a common localization in the diabetic foot. Conservative treatment of this lesion is a challenging problem, performed through the soft tissues and osseous debridement. The present study included a cohort of 28 patients affected by diabetes mellitus and a first ray lesion penetrating the bone. After surgical debridement with removal of the infected bone, we positioned antibiotic-loaded bone cement and stabilized the treated area with an external fixator. All patients with critical limb ischemia had their vascular disease treated before the procedure. The mean follow-up was 12.2 ± 6.9 months. Four patients developed a relapse of the ulceration after the procedure. In the postoperative period, 1 patient (3.57%) developed dehiscence of the surgical site and underwent a second procedure. In the follow-up period, 2 patients (7.14%) experienced bone cement dislocation. In 1 of these patients, a new ulceration was observed dorsally to the surgical site. The approach was surgical revision with bone cement replacement and stabilization with a new external fixator. In the other patient, given the absence of ulcerations, the cement was removed, and arthrodesis with internal stabilization using 2 cannulated screws was performed. One patient (3.57%), who had developed a relapse of ulceration after recurrent critical ischemia, underwent a percutaneous revascularization procedure and transmetatarsal amputation. During the follow-up period, no ulceration recurrences, transfer ulcerations, shoe fit problems, or gait abnormalities were detected in the other 24 patients. Our study presents the results of a technique requiring a 1-stage surgical approach to a relatively common problem, which is often difficult to solve. PMID:25249400

  9. Prevention of excessive medialisation of trochanteric fracture by a buttress screw: a novel method and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Riansuwan, Kongkhet; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel method of using an antero-posterior buttress screw at the distal fragment just below the fracture site in conjunction with the sliding hip screw (SHS) to resist excessive femoral medialisation. A virtual assessment of the effectiveness of this new method was performed using the finite element analysis. The results indicate that the use ofa sliding hip screw (SHS) combined with a buttress screw can help resistfemoral medialisation better than using an SHS with no buttress screw. The von Mises equivalent stress (EQ ) was found to be in a safe range, which indicates increased integrity of the lateral wall with the addition of the buttress screw. PMID:25365905

  10. Analysis of failure following anterior screw fixation of Type II odontoid fractures in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Philipp, Helmut; Meusburger, Berthold; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2011-11-01

    Anterior screw fixation of Type II odontoid fractures has been recommended. Only few publications analyse the mechanism of failure in geriatric patients. We reviewed 18 male and 15 female patients aged 65 and above for parameters that influence the development of postoperative loss of correction, delayed union or non-union. Patients were stratified in two groups: 21 cases in Group A (union) and 12 patients in Group B (loss of correction, delayed union, non-union, revision surgery). Statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) could be detected between failure to heal and: (1) degenerative changes in the atlanto-odontoid joint, (2) severity of osteoporosis in the odontoid process, (3) posterior oblique fracture type, (4) suboptimal fracture reduction, (5) suboptimal position of implant following demanding intraoperative conditions, (6) quality of fracture compression and (7) severity of fracture comminution. The overall morbidity and mortality rates were 29.0 and 8.6%, respectively. Our results indicate that these factors should be addressed regarding the selection of the operative treatment method in the geriatric patient. PMID:21728075

  11. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  12. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    PubMed

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8?N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264?N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890?N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective. PMID:25991716

  13. The Warwick Hip Trauma Evaluation One -an abridged protocol for the WHiTE One Study: An embedded randomised trial comparing the X-bolt with slidinghip screw fixation in extracapsular hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Griffin, X L; McArthur, J; Achten, J; Parsons, N; Costa, M L

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur are one of the greatest challenges facing the medical community, constituting a heavy socioeconomic burden worldwide. Controversy exists regarding the optimal treatment for patients with unstable trochanteric proximal femoral fractures. The recognised treatment alternatives are extramedullary fixation usually with a sliding hip screw and intramedullary fixation with a cephalomedullary nail. Current evidence suggests that best results and lowest complication rates occur using a sliding hip screw. Complications in these difficult fractures are relatively common regardless of type of treatment. We believe that a novel device, the X-Bolt dynamic plating system, may offer superior fixation over a sliding hip screw with lower reoperation risk and better function. We therefore propose to investigate the clinical effectiveness of the X-bolt dynamic plating system compared with standard sliding hip screw fixation within the framework of a the larger WHiTE (Warwick Hip Trauma Evaluation) Comprehensive Cohort Study. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:206-9. PMID:24089290

  14. Load transfer in Christensen(®) TMJ in alloplastic total joint replacement for two different mouth apertures.

    PubMed

    Ramos, António; Mesnard, Michel

    2014-10-01

    This study analyses load transfer in the fossa component based on two numerical models of total temporomandibular joint (TMJ) implants for two mouth openings. The TMJ articulation is a very complex system with muscles, ligaments and cartilage. Until now, studies of TMJ implants have analysed only condylar behaviour. The finite element models were constructed based on CT scans of a cadaveric mandible and cranium, considering the bone geometry and position. The influence of five principal muscle actions was simulated for two mouth positions, 5 mm and 15 mm openings at the incisive tooth support. Strain distributions into the surrounding bone tissue were analysed in both models in the condyle and fossa components. The results demonstrate that in Christensen(®) TJR of the temporomandibular joint the fossa component is the more critical part, presenting more stress near the screw holes and contact regions with the cranium. The most critical region is around the first two screws and the least critical is in the condyle component. For the mandible condyle reconstructed with a Christensen(®) prosthesis, the 15 mm mouth opening was more critical, as compression was increased, but for the fossa component the most critical situation occurred with the 5 mm opening. The micromovements observed suggest that the number of screws could be reduced to increase osteointegration of screws in the mandible condyle. PMID:24954763

  15. Oral Extrusion of Screw after Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Soo; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Han, Jong Woo

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of delayed oral extrusion of a screw after anterior cervical interbody fusion in a 68-year-old man with osteoporosis. Fifteen months earlier, he had undergone C5 corpectomy and anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-6 for multiple spinal stenoses. The patient was nearly asymptomatic, except for a foreign body sensation in his throat. We conclude that the use of a mesh graft or other instrument in elderly patients and those with osteoporosis or problematic bone quality should be considered carefully and that if surgery were to be performed, periodic postoperative follow-up evaluations are mandatory. PMID:19096688

  16. Helical rotary screw expanders to generate electricity from geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-09-01

    A 1-megawatt, self-contained, helical rotary screw expander power plant to generate electricity of a geothermal brine wellhead was evaluated. The test support equipment, including a computer-controlled data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kilowatt, variable bank were investigated. It was stated that the power was technically feasible although it operated at only about 45% average efficiency. Its technology transfer testing program involved Mexico, Italy, and New Zealand. The mineral laden geothermal brines of Mexico are more prone to scale formation than the Utah brine, and the power plant showed an increase in efficiency to a maximum of 62%.

  17. New Tools for Computational Geometry and Rejuvenation of Screw Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestenes, David

    Conformal Geometric Algebraic (CGA) provides ideal mathematical tools for construction, analysis, and integration of classical Euclidean, Inversive & Projective Geometries, with practical applications to computer science, engineering, and physics. This paper is a comprehensive introduction to a CGA tool kit. Synthetic statements in classical geometry translate directly to coordinate-free algebraic forms. Invariant and covariant methods are coordinated by conformal splits, which are readily related to the literature using methods of matrix algebra, biquaternions, and screw theory. Designs for a complete system of powerful tools for the mechanics of linked rigid bodies are presented.

  18. Electromyogram synergy control of a dexterous artificial hand to unscrew and screw objects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to their limited dexterity, it is currently not possible to use a commercially available prosthetic hand to unscrew or screw objects without using elbow and shoulder movements. For these tasks, prosthetic hands function like a wrench, which is unnatural and limits their use in tight working environments. Results from timed rotational tasks with human subjects demonstrate the clinical need for increased dexterity of prosthetic hands, and a clinically viable solution to this problem is presented for an anthropomorphic artificial hand. Methods Initially, a human hand motion analysis was performed during a rotational task. From these data, human hand synergies were derived and mapped to an anthropomorphic artificial hand. The synergy for the artificial hand is controlled using conventional dual site electromyogram (EMG) signals. These EMG signals were mapped to the developed synergy to control four joints of the dexterous artificial hand simultaneously. Five limb absent and ten able-bodied test subjects participated in a comparison study to complete a timed rotational task as quickly as possible with their natural hands (except for one subject with a bilateral hand absence), eight commercially available prosthetic hands, and the proposed synergy controller. Each test subject used two to four different artificial hands. Results With the able-bodied subjects, the developed synergy controller reduced task completion time by 177% on average. The limb absent subjects completed the task faster on average than with their own prostheses by 46%. There was a statistically significant improvement in task completion time with the synergy controller for three of the four limb absent participants with integrated prostheses, and was not statistically different for the fourth. Conclusions The proposed synergy controller reduced average task completion time compared to commercially available prostheses. Additionally, the synergy controller is able to function in a small workspace and requires less physical effort since arm movements are not required. The synergy controller is driven by conventional dual site EMG signals that are commonly used for prosthetic hand control, offering a viable solution for people with an upper limb absence to use a more dexterous artificial hand to screw or unscrew objects. PMID:24655413

  19. Determining the residence time distribution of various screw elements in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder by means of fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepschi, Alexander; Gerstorfer, Gregor; Miethlinger, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    The Residence Time Distribution (RTD) is key to optimizing the mixing ability of an extruder. For both sensitive and reactive materials, it is important to know how long particles remain in the barrel and how long the polymer remains, for instance, in a kneading element. To assess the influence of different screw configurations on the RTD, a low-concentration tracer particle was injected into the feeding section and measured inline by fluorescence spectroscopy1 both inside the barrel and at the extruder exit. The measurements were conducted using polypropylene with different amounts of organic peroxide. Measuring the residence time at various positions along the screw allows the RTD to be determined for just one screw element. Furthermore, we show the influence of different screw configurations on the polydispersity of polypropylene.

  20. Continuous twin screw melt granulation of glyceryl behenate: Development of controlled release tramadol hydrochloride tablets for improved safety.

    PubMed

    Keen, Justin M; Foley, Connor J; Hughey, Justin R; Bennett, Ryan C; Jannin, Vincent; Rosiaux, Yvonne; Marchaud, Delphine; McGinity, James W

    2015-06-20

    Interest in granulation processes using twin screw extrusion machines is rapidly growing. The primary objectives of this study were to develop a continuous granulation process for direct production of granules using this technique with glyceryl behenate as a binder, evaluate the properties of the resulting granules and develop controlled release tablets containing tramadol HCl. In addition, the granulation mechanism was probed and the polymorphic form of the lipid and drug release rate were evaluated on stability. Granules were prepared using a Leistritz NANO16 twin screw extruder operated without a constricting die. The solid state of the granules were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Formulated tablets were studied in 0.1N HCl containing 0-40% ethanol to investigate propensity for alcohol induced dose dumping. The extrusion barrel temperature profile and feed rate were determined to be the primary factors influencing the particle size distribution. Granules were formed by a combination immersion/distribution mechanism, did not require subsequent milling, and were observed to contain desirable polymorphic forms of glyceryl behenate. Drug release from tablets was complete and controlled over 16h and the tablets were determined to be resistant to alcohol induced dose dumping. The drug release rate from the tablets was found to be stable at 40°C and 75% relative humidity for the duration of a 3 month study. PMID:25839417

  1. Fabrication of a screw-retained fixed provisional prosthesis supported by dental implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Murat Kökat; K?vanç Akça

    2004-01-01

    Screw-retained provisional implant-supported prostheses may have advantages over cement-retained prostheses in certain situations. This article describes a technique for fabrication of screw-retained provisional acrylic resin implant-supported prostheses from the modified metal components provided with the implant.

  2. Value Proposition: Previous physical limitations of use of the screw pump

    E-print Network

    Haller-Dintelmann, Robert

    Value Proposition: · Previous physical limitations of use of the screw pump technology do not apply drive Field of Application: The technology is interesting for all pump manufacturers, who supply pumps the functionality of the screw pump State of the art: · Pressure operation limit is function of rotating speed, oil

  3. Theoretical analysis of screw dislocations and image forces in anisotropic multilayered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chien-Ching; Lu, Hsin-Tai

    2006-04-01

    The elastic field induced by a screw dislocation embedded in an anisotropic elastic multilayered medium is presented in this study. A linear coordinate transformation is introduced in this study to simplify the problem. The explicit complete solutions of shear stresses and displacement for this problem consist only of the simplest solutions for a screw dislocation in an infinite homogeneous medium. The physical meaning of the solution is the image method and the magnitudes and locations of image screw dislocations are determined automatically from the mathematical method presented in this study. With the aid of the Peach-Koehler equation, the explicit forms of image forces exerted on screw dislocations are easily derived from the full-field solutions of stresses. Numerical results for full-field stress distributions in multilayered media subjected to a screw dislocation are presented. The image forces and equilibrium positions of a screw dislocation, two screw dislocations, and an array of screw dislocations are presented by numerical calculations and are discussed in detail.

  4. Application of screw theory to motion analysis of assemblies of rigid parts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Adams; Salvatore Gerbino; Daniel E. Whitney

    1999-01-01

    Screw theory is well known to do kinematic computations. Recently it has been used to create kinematic models of assembly features so allowing assembly analysis. Motion limit analysis uses the mathematics of screw theory to model the ability of mechanical assembly features to allow or constrain rigid body motions in six degrees of freedom. A user of this theory is

  5. Depinning transition for a screw dislocation in a model solid solution S. Patinet and L. Proville

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Depinning transition for a screw dislocation in a model solid solution S. Patinet and L. Proville: November 2, 2008) On the basis of the classical dislocation theory, the solid solution hardening (SSH associated with a screw dislocation in a random Ni(Al) single crystal has same order as the edge one

  6. The effect of Dirac phase on acoustic vortex in media with screw dislocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi, Reza; Rezaei, Zahra

    2013-10-01

    We study acoustic vortex in media with screw dislocation using the Katanaev-Volovich theory of defects. It is shown that the screw dislocation affects the beam's orbital angular momentum and changes the acoustic vortex strength. This change is a manifestation of topological Dirac phase and is robust against fluctuations in the system.

  7. A lattice-dynamics model of an oscillating screw dislocation N. E. Glass (*)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    741 A lattice-dynamics model of an oscillating screw dislocation N. E. Glass (*) Institut de génie-force, or Kanzaki force, for a static screw dislocation is extended to describe a moving dislocation 2014. In the case of dislocation statics, the inadequacy of linear elastic continuum-theory to describe the core

  8. Peierls stress of a screw dislocation in a piezoelectric medium Shaofan Lia)

    E-print Network

    Li, Shaofan

    Peierls stress of a screw dislocation in a piezoelectric medium Shaofan Lia) and Anurag Gupta to describe dislocation mobility in piezoelectric materials. The Peierls stress of a screw dislocation in a piezoelectric material is calculated based on the generalized PN model and linear piezoelectricity theory

  9. Calculating possible local displacement of curve objects using improved screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Takamatsu; Koichi Ogawara; Hiroshi Kimura; Katsushi Ikeuchi

    2003-01-01

    Various methods to recognize assembly tasks using possible local displacement of objects have been pro- posed. To calculate this displacement, the screw theory is employed. It is equivalent to the first order Taylor expansion of the displacement. However, such methods can treat polyhedral objects only. Because the screw theory cannot treat curvature information of objects. In this paper, we propose

  10. Experimental evidence for helical instability of screw dislocation lines in a smectic A phase

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-319 Experimental evidence for helical instability of screw dislocation lines in a smectic A phase of helical instabilities of the screw dislocations which, although metastable, are always present of the sample. Experiment matches with the theory developed in [9] for static deformations and extended here

  11. Non-invasive ultrasound based temperature measurements at reciprocating screw plastication units: Methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Klaus; Praher, Bernhard; Steinbichler, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Previous attempts to accurately measure the real polymer melt temperature in the screw chamber as well as in the screw channels have failed on account of the challenging metrological boundary conditions (high pressure, high temperature, rotational and axial screw movement). We developed a novel ultrasound system - based on reflection measurements - for the online determination of these important process parameters. Using available pressure-volume-temperature (pvT) data from a polymer it is possible to estimate the density and adiabatic compressibility of the material and therefore the pressure and temperature depending longitudinal ultrasound velocity. From the measured ultrasonic reflection time from the screw root and barrel wall and the pressure it is possible to calculate the mean temperature in the screw channel or in the chamber in front of the screw (in opposition to flush mounted infrared or thermocouple probes). By means of the above described system we are able to measure axial profiles of the mean temperature in the screw chamber. The data gathered by the measurement system can be used to develop control strategies for the plastication process to reduce temperature gradients within the screw chamber or as input data for injection moulding simulation.

  12. Investigation of a Multiphase Twin-screw Pump Operating at High Gas Volume Fractions 

    E-print Network

    Kroupa, Ryan Daniel

    2012-07-16

    The use of twin-screw pumps for moving fluids is not new technology but its application to wet gas compression (high gas volume fraction [GVF]) is still considered relatively new. There are many advantages for using twin-screw pumps for oil field...

  13. Interaction between a screw dislocation and an elastic elliptical inhomogeneity with interfacial cracks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qihong Fang; Youwen Liu; Chiping Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The elastic interaction between a screw dislocation and an elliptical inhomogeneity with interfacial cracks is studied. The screw dislocation may be located outside or inside the inhomogeneity. An efficient complex variable method for the complex multiply connected region is developed, and the general solutions to the problem are derived. As illustrative examples, solutions in explicit series form for complex potentials

  14. Three-dimensional location of the retaining screw axis for a cemented single tooth implant restoration.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Russell; Shintaku, Werner H; Johnson, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Retrievability is a major concern with cemented versus screw-retained implant restorations. This article describes the use of cone beam radiography to help target and create a precise screw access opening for a loosened implant-supported single crown retained by cement to its abutment. PMID:22823426

  15. A method for restoring facially inclined implants with a screw-retained restoration.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Kazunari; Lee, Joung Min; Sedler, Anatoly; Aalam, Alina Krivitsky

    2013-04-01

    Cement-retained implant restorations have 2 major disadvantages: they have a submucosal cement line and the prosthesis is difficult to retrieve. Although a screw-retained implant restoration negates both of these concerns, anatomic limitations can hinder its use. This article describes a simple technique for restoring a buccally inclined dental implant with a screw-retained restoration. PMID:23566609

  16. Initial fixation strength of polylactic acid interference screws in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JA Abate; PD Fadale; MJ Hulstyn; WR Walsh

    1998-01-01

    The initial fixation properties of bioresorbable polylactic acid (PLA) interference screws designed for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were evaluated using an in vitro bovine model. The surgical technique of interference screw fixation of the bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft complex performed clinically was reproduced in an adult bovine model. The reconstructed knee was tested oriented in 30 degrees of flexion to allow

  17. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section...CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section...CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section...CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section...CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General...

  1. Application of FRP screw anchor and geosynthetics in repairing of canal slope of expansive soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xiequn; Lu Jianwei; Wang Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The application of FRP screw anchor, geogrid, geofoam slab and geosynthetics clay liner (GCL) in repairing slide of canal slope of expansive soils has been introduced in this paper. The FRP screw anchor was used to anchor the concrete frame girder above the berm and concrete slab below the beam, the geogrid improved the factor of safety against complete sliding

  2. Standing placement of transphyseal screw in the distal radius in 8 Thoroughbred yearlings.

    PubMed

    Modesto, Rolf B; Rodgerson, Dwayne H; Masciarelli, Amanda E; Spirito, Michael

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study describes placement of distal radial transphyseal screws in Thoroughbred yearlings with carpal varus deformities while standing, and identifes short- and long-term complications following the procedure. Data gathered from 2009 to 2013 identified 8 yearlings that met the inclusion criteria. Horses were sedated intravenously and a single 4.5-mm cortical screw was placed in the distal lateral radial physis following application of local anesthetic and surgical preparation of a pre-placed hole. All horses were evaluated weekly after surgery and screw removal was performed standing and under sedation when correction of the angular limb deformity was achieved. The mean time for screw removal was 46 days. No short- or long-term complications were identified. Findings indicate that placing a single transphyseal screw in the lateral aspect of the distal radial physis with the horse standing is a viable option to treat varus angular limb deformity of the carpus in horses. PMID:26028683

  3. Theoretical study of kinks on screw dislocation in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzagalli, L.; Pedersen, A.; Arnaldsson, A.; Jónsson, H.; Beauchamp, P.

    2008-02-01

    Theoretical calculations of the structure, formation, and migration of kinks on a nondissociated screw dislocation in silicon have been carried out using density functional theory calculations as well as calculations based on interatomic potential functions. The results show that the structure of a single kink is characterized by a narrow core and highly stretched bonds between some of the atoms. The formation energy of a single kink ranges from 0.9to1.36eV , and is of the same order as that for kinks on partial dislocations. However, the kinks migrate almost freely along the line of an undissociated dislocation unlike what is found for partial dislocations. The effect of stress has also been investigated in order to compare with previous silicon deformation experiments which have been carried out at low temperature and high stress. The energy barrier associated with the formation of a stable kink pair becomes as low as 0.65eV for an applied stress on the order of 1GPa , indicating that displacements of screw dislocations likely occur via thermally activated formation of kink pairs at room temperature.

  4. Pinning of spiral fluxons by giant screw dislocations in YBa2Cu3O7 - ? single crystals: Josephson analog of the fishtail effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeenkov, S.; Cichetto, L.; Rivera, V. A. G.; Stari, C.; Marega, E.; Cardoso, C. A.; Araujo-Moreira, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    By using a highly sensitive homemade AC magnetic susceptibility technique, the magnetic flux penetration has been measured in YBa2Cu3O7 - ? single crystals with giant screw dislocations (having the structure of the Archimedean spirals) exhibiting a = 3 spiral turnings, the pitch b = 18.7 ?m and the step height c = 1.2 nm (the last parameter is responsible for creation of extended weak-link structure around the giant defects). The magnetic field applied parallel to the surface enters winding around the weak-link regions of the screw in the form of the so-called spiral Josephson fluxons characterized by the temperature dependent pitch b f ( T). For a given temperature, a stabilization of the fluxon structure occurs when b f ( T) matches b (meaning an optimal pinning by the screw dislocations) and manifests itself as a pronounced low-field peak in the dependence of the susceptibility on magnetic field (applied normally to the surface) in the form resembling the high-field (Abrikosov) fishtail effect.

  5. EMA 611 Advanced Mechanical Testing of Materials, University of Wisconsin Experiment 1: Tests with screw-driven testing machines

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    with screw-driven testing machines Pre-lab assignment Review your prior work (if any) with the screw of the test frame. If it is necessary to change grips make sure to tighten the collar toward the screw end Discuss your results, their implications, and comparison with theory. §7 Questions Answers should go

  6. Hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite coatings on dental screws: effects of blast coating process and biological response.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Conor F; Twomey, Barry; Kelly, Ciara; Simpson, Jeremy C; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluorapatite (FA) onto titanium dental screws using a novel ambient temperature coating technique named CoBlast. The process utilises a coating medium and a blast medium sprayed simultaneously at the substrate surface. The blast medium was a sintered apatite (sHA) and two particles sizes (<106 and <180 µm) were used to assess their influence on the coating process. The influence of the coating process on the coating composition, coating adhesion, screw morphology and screw microstructure was examined. XRD analysis revealed the coating crystallinity was the same as the original HA and FA feedstock powders. Examining the screw's morphology, the threads of the CoBlasted screws exhibited rounding compared to the unmodified screw. This is due to the abrasive nature of the CoBlast process. The degree of rounding was more significant for the screws blasted with the 180 µm sHA than the 106 µm sHA. The blast media particle size significantly influences the surface roughness of both the substrate and coating and the microstructure of the substrate. The screws did not exhibit any loss of coating after insertion into a model bone material, indicating that the coating was strongly adhered to the substrate. There was no statistically significant difference in cell attachment and cell morphology on the unmodified substrates compared to the coated substrates. In conclusion, the CoBlast process can be used to deposit HA and FA onto complex geometries such as dental screws. The choice of blast medium particle size influences the screws morphology. The coating process does not negatively impact on the cell attachment and morphology in vitro. PMID:25578701

  7. Validation of an improved method to calculate the orientation and magnitude of pedicle screw bending moments.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew L; Fahim, Mina S; Bechtold, Joan E

    2012-10-01

    Previous methods of pedicle screw strain measurement have utilized complex, time consuming methods of strain gauge application, experience high failure rates, do not effectively measure resultant bending moments, and cannot predict moment orientation. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to validate an improved method of quantifying pedicle screw bending moment orientation and magnitude. Pedicle screws were instrumented to measure biplanar screw bending moments by positioning four strain gauges on flat, machined surfaces below the screw head. Screws were calibrated to measure bending moments by hanging certified weights a known distance from the strain gauges. Loads were applied in 30?deg increments at 12 different angles while recording data from two independent strain channels. The data were then analyzed to calculate the predicted orientation and magnitude of the resultant bending moment. Finally, flexibility tests were performed on a cadaveric motion segment implanted with the instrumented screws to demonstrate the implementation of this technique. The difference between the applied and calculated orientation of the bending moments averaged (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) 0.3?±?0.1?deg across the four screws for all rotations and loading conditions. The calculated resultant bending moments deviated from the actual magnitudes by an average of 0.00?±?0.00 Nm for all loading conditions. During cadaveric testing, the bending moment orientations were medial/lateral in flexion-extension, variable in lateral bending, and diagonal in axial torsion. The technique developed in this study provides an accurate method of calculating the orientation and magnitude of screw bending moments and can be utilized with any pedicle screw fixation system. PMID:23083202

  8. Threaded joint with high gas-leak-tightness for oil and gas well pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Akase; Y. Inoue; F. Kohyama

    1983-01-01

    A threaded joint with high gas-leak-tightness for oil and gas well pipe comprises a box having an internal female thread and a pin having an external male thread, the box and pin being screwed together in use. On a non-threaded tip portion of the pin, a front shoulder formed stepwisely and a tip shoulder are provided, and between these shoulders,

  9. Proximal screws placement in intertrochanteric fractures treated with external fixation: comparison of two different techniques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To compare two different techniques of proximal pin placement for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients utilizing the Orthofix Pertrochanteric Fixator. Methods Seventy elderly high-risk patients with an average age of 81 years were treated surgically for intertrochanteric fracture, resulting from a low energy trauma. Patients were randomly divided in two groups regarding to the proximal pin placement technique. In Group A the proximal pins were inserted in a convergent way, while in Group B were inserted in parallel. Results All fractures healed uneventfully after a mean time of 98 days. The fixator was well accepted and no patient had significant difficulties while sitting or lying. The mean VAS score was 5.4 in group A and 5.7 in group B. At 12 months after surgery, in group A the average Harris Hip Score and the Palmer and Parker mobility score was 67 and 5.8, respectively. In group B, the average Harris Hip Score and the Palmer and Parker mobility score was 62 and 5.6, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the functional outcome. The mean radiographic exposure during pin insertion in Group A and Group B was 15 and 6 seconds, respectively. The difference between the two groups, regarding the radiographic exposure, was found to be significant. Conclusion Proximal screw placement in a parallel way is simple, with significant less radiation exposure and shorter intraoperative duration. In addition, fixation stability is equal compared to convergent pin placement. PMID:21939534

  10. Chondrocyte response to in vitro mechanical injury and co-culture with joint capsule tissue

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jennifer H. (Jennifer Henrica)

    2005-01-01

    Acute traumatic joint injury in young adults leads to an increased risk for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) later in life irrespective of surgical intervention to stabilize the injured joint. Although the mechanism ...

  11. [Experimental study on the effects of cage-squeezing screw on tendon-bone healing in a rabbit model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Ping; Lu, Xiping

    2011-06-01

    This investigation was to study the effects of cage-squeezing screw on tendon-bone healing in rabbits. The tendons of Twenty four rabbits were severed and fixed with cage-squeezing screw or ordinary squeezing screw on its tibia, and the interface of tendon-bone was tested at the ends of 3, 6 and 12 weeks after operations, respectively. The cage-squeezing screw can accelerate bone tunel healing and strengthen the graft intension. The experiments proved that the cage-squeezing screw could help the restructuring process of the graft after the beginning of reconstruction. PMID:21774210

  12. Use of self-tapping metal screws for temporary fixation of a resorbable plate system in maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Omura, Susumu; Aoki, Noriaki; Tohnai, Iwai

    2015-05-01

    Resorbable plate systems have been used in maxillofacial surgery to obviate the need for plate removal. However, resorbable plates and screws are very costly, and refixation with additional screws may be necessary when reduction or repositioning of the bone segment is inaccurate. Here we report the use of self-tapping metal screws for temporary fixation of a resorbable plating system in maxillofacial surgery to avoid the use of additional screws following inaccurate fixation or the reuse of resorbable screws, which may result in loosening. PMID:25974798

  13. Early fracture of a bioabsorbable tibial interference screw after ACL reconstruction with subsequent chondral injury.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael P; Hergan, David M; Sherman, Orrin H

    2009-03-01

    Graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is commonly performed with bioabsorbable devices. This article presents a case of a broken bioabsorbable tibial interference screw (Gentle Threads; Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) that presented as an intra-articular loose body 4 months after ACL reconstruction with posterior tibialis tendon allograft. A 19-year-old man presented with symptoms of pain and catching for 1 week but reported no history of trauma. The broken screw tip was identified on magnetic resonance imaging examination, and the remaining screw appeared to be overinserted into the tibia. During arthroscopic removal, a 10-mm screw tip was found in the lateral gutter. The ACL graft was found to be well fixed, but small areas of chondral damage were found in the patellofemoral and medial compartment. The patient's symptoms resolved postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the earliest report of a broken bioabsorbable interference screw and only the second report of subsequent chondral injury due to intra-articular migration. Although rare, late breakage and intra-articular migration of bioabsorbable interference screws should be considered during the postoperative evaluation of any patient with pain or mechanical symptoms, regardless of trauma. This case also supports the importance of both measurement of tibial tunnel length and inspection of the intercondylar notch following interference screw insertion. Orthopedic surgeons performing ACL reconstruction must be aware of this possible complication and its potential for devastating chondral injury. PMID:19309052

  14. Use of Cortical Bone Screws in Maxillofacial Surgery - A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Satish, Madatanapalli; Rahman, NM Mujeeb; Reddy, V Sridhar; Yuvaraj, A; Muliyar, Sabir; Razak, P Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the various applications of cortical bone screws in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital located in, Bangalore, India, on 20 patients. These patients were categorized into three groups depending on the applications of these screws like, for achieving intermaxillary fixation in Group-1, for treatment of simple, undisplaced fractures by “Tension wire” method in Group-2, and further application of these screws were evaluated in Group-3. Different parameters were used to evaluate the efficacy of these screws. Results: In Group-1(n=12) there was satisfactory occlusion in all the patients with minimal incidence of complications. In Group-2 (n=4) post-operative reduction and fixation was satisfactory and in Group-3 (n=4) the function of these screws was satisfactory when it was used for vestibuloplasty and also as a suspension wiring in treatment of comminuted fracture of zygoma with minimal incidence of complications. Conclusion: Use of cortical bone screws is a valid alternative for achieving intermaxillary fixation, reduction and fixation of simple, undisplaced or minimally displaced fractures through Tension wire method owing to its simplicity, economy and ease of use, and as a fixation method for apically positioned flap in vestibuloplasty procedure. How to cite the article: Satish M, Rahman NM, Reddy VS, Yuvaraj A, Muliyar S, Razak PA. Use of Cortical Bone Screws in Maxillofacial Surgery - A Prospective Study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):62-7. PMID:24876704

  15. Occipital condyle screw placement and occipitocervical instrumentation using three-dimensional image-guided navigation.

    PubMed

    Le, Tien V; Burkett, Clint; Ramos, Edwin; Uribe, Juan S

    2012-05-01

    Occipital condyle (OC) screws are an alternative cephalad fixation point in occipitocervical fusion. Safe placement of occipital, C1 lateral mass, and C2 pars screws have been described previously, but not OC screws. The craniocervical junction is complex, and a thorough understanding of the anatomy is needed. Three-dimensional (3D) image-guided navigation was used in six patients. There were no complications related to image-guided navigation during the placement of 12 OC screws and we found that this navigation can serve as a useful adjunct when placing an OC screw. Technical considerations of placing OC and C1 lateral mass screws are discussed with particular reference to patient positioning and the StealthStation® S7™ image-guided navigational platform (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). The reference arc is attached to the head-clamp and faces forward. The optical camera and monitor are positioned at the head of the table for a direct, non-obstructed line-of-sight. To minimize intersegmental movement, the OC should not be drilled until all other screws have been placed. We conclude that 3D image-guided navigation is a useful adjunct that can be safely and effectively used for placement of instrumentation of the upper cervical spine including the OC. PMID:22356730

  16. Placement of C2 laminar screws using three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based image guidance

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Andrew B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of C2 laminar screws in posterior cervical fusion is a relatively new technique that provides rigid fixation of the axis with minimal risk to the vertebral artery. The techniques of C2 laminar screw placement described in the literature rely solely on anatomical landmarks to guide screw insertion. The authors report on their experience with placement of C2 laminar screws using three-dimensional (3D) fluoroscopy-based image-guidance in eight patients undergoing posterior cervical fusion. Overall, fifteen C2 laminar screws were placed. There were no complications in any of the patients. Average follow-up was 10 months (range 3–14 months). Postoperative computed tomographic (CT) scanning was available for seven patients allowing evaluation of placement of thirteen C2 laminar screws, all of which were in good position with no spinal canal violation. The intraoperative planning function of the image-guided system allowed for 4-mm diameter screws to be placed in all cases. Using modified Odom’s criteria, excellent or good relief of preoperative symptoms was noted in all patients at final follow-up. PMID:18034268

  17. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  18. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the joint. It is usually due to a bacterial infection in the joint. Joint aspiration helps to diagnose ... at the time of the test. If a bacterial infection such as septic arthritis is suspected, a culture ...

  19. Arthroscopically assisted acromioclavicular joint reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Keith M; Altchek, David W; Cordasco, Frank A

    2006-02-01

    Arthroscopically assisted acromioclavicular joint reconstruction avoids the large incisions necessary with open reconstructions. This acromioclavicular joint reconstruction technique via the subacromial space does not violate the rotator interval or require screw removal. The patient is placed in a modified beach-chair position. The arthroscope is placed into the subacromial space, and a bursectomy is performed through a lateral subacromial portal. The coracoacromial ligament is released from the acromion with an electrocautery and an arthroscopic elevator. A nonabsorbable suture is passed through the coracoacromial ligament with a suture passer, and an arthroscopic suture grasper is used to deliver both ends of the suture out through the lateral portal. The coracoid is identified and isolated using a radiofrequency ablator placed through the anterior portal while visualizing through the lateral portal. A percutaneous shuttle device is passed through the skin superomedial to the coracoid. The shuttle is visualized entering superior to the coracoid and is passed just medial to the coracoid. Once the tip of the shuttle can be visualized in the recess inferior to the coracoid, the shuttle loop is advanced. A suture grasper is used to deliver both ends of the shuttle out through the anterior portal. A semitendinosus allograft is used to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligament. A nonabsorbable suture is passed through both ends of the allograft. Three strands of nonabsorbable suture are braided together. The tendon and the braided suture are shuttled around the coracoid. At this point, both the braided suture and the allograft tendon enter the anterior portal, wrap around the coracoid base, and exit the anterior portal. A 3-cm incision is made over the distal clavicle. A hole is drilled through the clavicle with a 5-mm drill. A loop of 22-gauge wire is passed through the hole in the clavicle, and a looped suture is shuttled through the hole. A curved clamp is used to create a tunnel from the acromioclavicular joint, under the deltoid, to the anterior portal. The ends of the braided suture and the tendon sutures are grasped by the clamp and pulled out the acromioclavicular joint incision. The limbs of the braided suture and the tendon suture that pass medial to the coracoid are shuttled through the hole in the clavicle using the looped suture that was previously passed through the clavicle. The acromioclavicular joint is reduced by pushing down on the distal clavicle with a bone tamp while simultaneously lifting the acromion upward by superiorly loading the humerus at the elbow. Once the acromioclavicular joint is reduced or slightly over-reduced, the braided suture is tied down securely. The acromioclavicular joint should remain reduced even after the manual reduction maneuver is released. The semitendinosus allograft is tensioned around the distal end of the clavicle and sutured to itself with a nonabsorbable suture. The released coracoacromial ligament is retrieved from the clavicular incision and sutured to the distal clavicle and semitendinosus allograft. The incision is closed in standard fashion, and a sling is applied. PMID:16458813

  20. Fracture risk and initial fixation of a cementless glenoid implant: the effect of numbers and types of screws.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Daniel R; Valstar, Edward R; Rozing, Piet M; van Keulen, Fred

    2013-10-01

    The initial fixation of an anatomical cementless glenoid component, provided by different numbers and types of screws, and the risk of bone fracture were evaluated by estimating the bone-implant interface micromotions and the principal strains around the prosthesis. Four different fixation configurations using locking or compression screws were tested. Estimation of the micromotions at the bone-implant interface was performed both experimentally, using an in vitro model, and computationally, using a numerical model. Principal bone strains were estimated using the numerical model. Subject variability was included by modelling two different bone qualities (healthy and rheumatoid bone). For the fixation configurations that used two screws, experimental and modelling results found that the micromotions at the bone-implant interface did not change with screw type. However, screw type had a significant effect on fixation when only one screw was used; in this case, a locking screw resulted in less micromotion at the bone-implant interface compared with the compression screw. Bone strains were predicted by the numerical model, and strains were found to be independent of the screw type; however, the predicted strain levels calculated in rheumatoid bone were larger than the strain levels that may cause bone damage for most considered arm positions. Predicted bone strain in healthy bone did not reach this level. While proper initial component fixation that allows biological fixation can be achieved by using additional screws, the risk of bone failure around the screws must be considered, especially in cases of weak bone. PMID:23804951

  1. [The Herbert screw in pseudoarthrosis of the carpal scaphoid].

    PubMed

    Massart, P; Tazi, F; Finet, P; Bèzes, H

    1990-01-01

    For nearly three years, the authors have ensured scaphoid union by fixation with a double thread T.J. Herbert's screw. In these 25 cases a cancellous bone graft was used to fill the defect which would have left shortening of the scaphoid Twenty-two of the 25 cases, obtained rapid union, and 20 had a good or very good clinical result. One doubtful union and two cases of non-union occurred. One of these non-unions required revision. The main advantage of this procedure is to allow early mobilization of the wrist. This early is very appreciated by the patients who were immobilized several months by conservative treatment for their initial fracture. PMID:1703425

  2. Rigid-drift magnetohydrodynamic equilibria for cylindrical screw pinches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L.

    1979-01-01

    The rigid-drift equations of MHD equilibria in cylindrical geometry are solved analytically in terms of an infinite series of hypergeometric functions for the case where the pressure is proportional to the square of number density and the current density is arbitrarily pitched. Solutions are obtained for a pure Z pinch, a pure theta pinch, and a general screw pinch. It is found that the shapes of the pressure and magnetic-field profiles are completely determined by the model once two parameters are specified: the local plasma beta on the axis and a quantity related to the pitch of the current density. A set of profiles that resemble those observed experimentally in reversed-field pinches is presented. The results also indicate that hollow pressure profiles and reversed Bz profiles can occur either simultaneously or independently and that the pressure always falls to zero at a finite value of the radius.

  3. [Mechanical circulatory assist using a miniaturized Archimedes screw].

    PubMed

    von Segesser, L K; Bisang, B; Leskosek, B; Turina, M

    1991-01-01

    An axial flow blood pump (Archimedes screw) for intraarterial left ventricular assist was evaluated in comparison to standard roller pump left heart bypass (LHBP) in 13 bovine experiments (bodyweight 74 +/- 15 kg). Full systemic heparinization (ACT greater than 500 s) was used for LHBP in comparison to limited systemic heparinization (ACT greater than 180 s) for axial. A standard battery of blood samples was taken before and at regular intervals throughout perfusion: (table; see text) Transarterial access and relatively limited blood trauma appear to be the main advantages of the evaluated axial flow blood pump. However, the impossibility to assess the pump flow may be a major problem for the management of the failing left ventricle. PMID:2050534

  4. The helical screw expander evaluation project. [for geothermal wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A positive-displacement helical-screw expander of the Lysholm type has been adapted for geothermal service and successfully demonstrated in a 50 kW prototype power system. Evaluation of the expander by tests of a new model in a 1 MW power system under wellhead conditions in selected liquid-dominated geothermal fields is proposed. The objectives are to determine the performance characteristics of the expander and power system over a broad range of operating conditions and also to examine the concept of wellhead power plants. Throttling and fractionation of the fluids from the test wells is planned to simulate a wide range of wellhead pressures and steam fractions. Variation in the expander exhaust pressure is also planned. The investigation will include expander efficiency, corrosion, erosion, scale formation and control, and endurance testing. Interaction studies with the wells and an electric grid are also proposed.

  5. Radiation-free Insertion of Distal Interlocking Screw in Tibial and Femur Nailing: A Simple Technique

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Ritesh Kumar; Mehta, Surender Mohan; Awasthi, Bhanu; Singh, Janith Lal; Kumar, Amit; Thakur, Lokesh; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Distal interlocking screw insertion in intramedullary nailing of long-bone fracture is a challenging task for orthopedic surgeons. It is difficult particularly when the surgeon is in his learning stage or when image intensifier is not available. We describe a radiation-free technique of distal interlocking screw insertion which is easy and practicable. Materials and Methods: In this technique, a same length nail is placed over the skin (outer nail) and through its distal-most screw hole, a 3.2 mm drill bit is inserted to drill the distal locking screw hole of the intramedullary nail (inner nail). With a small skin incision over the distal screw holes, the distal-most screw hole is identified; the bone window overlying the screw hole is widened with an awl and a locking bolt is inserted with a washer under direct visualization. The other distal interlocking screw is simply drilled by matching the other three holes of the outer and inner nails. We have operated 86 patients (39 femoral shaft fracture and 47 tibial shaft fracture) in 1 year where this technique was used. There were 41 open fracture and 45 closed fracture. Results: Within 6 months of follow-up, bony union was achieved in 36 of 39 femur fractures and 45 of 47 tibial fractures. No unwanted complications were observed during the postoperative period and in follow-up. Conclusion: This method of radiation-free distal interlocking screw insertion is simple and can be used in third world country where image intensifier facility is not available. However, surgeons are encouraged to use image intensifier facility where the facility is available. PMID:23066456

  6. Subtrochanteric femur fracture after removal of screws for femoral neck fracture in a child.

    PubMed

    Song, Kwang Soon; Lee, Si Wook

    2015-01-01

    Displaced femoral neck fractures are rare in children and are associated with a high rate of complications. Subtrochanteric fractures after cannulated screw fixation of femoral neck fractures in adults are well recognized, and there are several reports on the topic. However, there are no reports on complications related to hardware or subtrochanteric fractures after removal of the screws in the treatment of femoral neck fractures in children. Here we report the case of a 10-year-old boy who sustained a subtrochanteric fracture after the screw removal and healing that followed a femoral neck fracture. PMID:25566556

  7. Screw-access marking: a technique to simplify retrieval of cement-retained implant prostheses.

    PubMed

    Schoenbaum, Todd R; Chang, Yi-Yuan; Klokkevold, Perry R

    2013-03-01

    One of the commonly cited disadvantages of cement-retained implant prostheses is their inability to be retrievable. The screw-access marking technique discussed in this article allows for any clinician, at any time, to simply and predictably retrieve the cemented implant prosthesis. By applying a discrete, but easily recognizable, marking on the occlusal surface of the restoration, the entry point into the screw-access chamber can be precisely and safely created. The screw-access marking technique is efficient, effective, and widely applicable. PMID:23931268

  8. [Conception and first results of the Spiron cementless femoral neck screw prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Birkenhauer, B; Kistmacher, H; Ries, J

    2004-11-01

    The Spiron cementless femoral neck prosthesis is based on the idea of proximal force transmission. The concept of osseous anchorages has been proven successful various times. The prosthesis is a conical, self-cutting screw that is inserted without cement into the prepared subcapital implant bearing. It is produced from a corundum blasted titanium-vanadium alloy and is covered with a second-generation calcium phosphate coating. The coating and the form of the thread increase the implant's surface and help to optimize osseointegration. From February 2003 to April 2003, 38 Spiron prostheses were implanted at the DRK hospital in Neuwied (Germany) in 34 patients. Four patients received it for the replacement of both hip joints. The average age of the patients was 60.1 years at the time of the implantation (43-73 years); 20 male and 14 female patients received the prosthesis. We implanted 19 left-sided and 19 right-sided arthroplasties. The preoperative Harris hip score (HHS) was 51 (24-76), n=38. After 1 year, HHS(1) was 94 (86-100), n=20 (of 23 implants). Until now, we have not discovered any prosthesis-specific complications; the rehabilitation time shows a tendency to be shorter than after stem arthroplasty. Revision was necessary in one case because of an early infection. After 3 months, the radiological follow-up examinations showed the development of increasing trabecular reinforcement of the femoral neck and pertrochanteric regions. Until now, there is no evidence of any varus tendency of the Spiron prosthesis. PMID:15375654

  9. Salvage of failed osteosynthesis of an intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck using two cannulated compression screws and a vascularised iliac crest bone graft.

    PubMed

    Xiaobing, Y; Dewei, Z

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the outcome of treatment of nonunion of an intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck in young patients using two cannulated screws and a vascularised bone graft. A total of 32 patients (15 women and 17 men, with a mean age of 36.5 years; 20 to 50) with failed internal fixation of an intracapsular fracture were included in the study. Following removal of the primary fixation, two cannulated compression screws were inserted with a vascularised iliac crest bone graft based on the ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery. At a mean follow-up of 6.8 years (4 to 10), union was achieved in 27 hips (84%). A total of five patients with a mean age of 40.5 years (35 to 50) had a persistent nonunion and underwent total hip arthroplasty as also did two patients whose fracture united but who developed osteonecrosis of the femoral head two years post-operatively. Statistical analysis showed that younger patients achieved earlier and more reliable union (p < 0.001). The functional outcome, as assessed by the Harris Hip score, was better in patients aged < 45 years compared with those aged > 45 years (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that further fixation using two cannulated compression screws and a vascularised iliac crest bone graft is an effective salvage treatment in patients aged < 45 years, in whom osteosynthesis of a displaced intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck has failed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:988-91. PMID:26130357

  10. the dominant force associated with the mo-tion of such screw dislocations (19). At the

    E-print Network

    Jacobel, Robert W.

    the dominant force associated with the mo- tion of such screw dislocations (19). At the onset of condensed matter. References and Notes 1. J. P. Hirth, J. Lothe, Theory of Dislocations (Wiley, New York, ed

  11. Variational equivalence between Ginzburg-Landau, XY spin systems and screw dislocations energies

    E-print Network

    Alicandro, R; Ponsiglione, M

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and discuss discrete two-dimensional models for XY spin systems and screw dislocations in crystals. We prove that, as the lattice spacing $\\e$ tends to zero, the relevant energies in these models behave like a free energy in the complex Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, justifying in a rigorous mathematical language the analogies between screw dislocations in crystals and vortices in superconductors. To this purpose, we introduce a notion of asymptotic variational equivalence between families of functionals in the framework of $\\Gamma$-convergence. We then prove that, in several scaling regimes, the complex Ginzburg-Landau, the XY spin system and the screw dislocation energy functionals are variationally equivalent. Exploiting such an equivalence between dislocations and vortices, we can show new results concerning the asymptotic behavior of screw dislocations in the $|\\log\\e|^2$ energetic regime.

  12. Variational equivalence between Ginzburg-Landau, XY spin systems and screw dislocations energies

    E-print Network

    R. Alicandro; M. Cicalese; M. Ponsiglione

    2009-07-31

    We introduce and discuss discrete two-dimensional models for XY spin systems and screw dislocations in crystals. We prove that, as the lattice spacing $\\e$ tends to zero, the relevant energies in these models behave like a free energy in the complex Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, justifying in a rigorous mathematical language the analogies between screw dislocations in crystals and vortices in superconductors. To this purpose, we introduce a notion of asymptotic variational equivalence between families of functionals in the framework of $\\Gamma$-convergence. We then prove that, in several scaling regimes, the complex Ginzburg-Landau, the XY spin system and the screw dislocation energy functionals are variationally equivalent. Exploiting such an equivalence between dislocations and vortices, we can show new results concerning the asymptotic behavior of screw dislocations in the $|\\log\\e|^2$ energetic regime.

  13. Superconducting transition and electrical current in a crystal containing a screw dislocation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovskii, I.M.

    1982-04-01

    Development of a superconducting filament near a screw dislocation, transition into the superconducting state of a crystal containing a screw dislocation, and the superconducting current distribution in a crystal containing such a dislocation are considered using the Ginzburg--Landau and London equations. It is shown that conditions for development of the superconducting filament near the screw dislocation depend significantly on the behavior of the order parameter in the dislocation core. It is noted that appearance of the superconducting filament is not a true phase transition, which in fact takes place in a three-dimensional frame of such filaments. It is shown that passage of a current along the screw dislocation leads to the development of a related turbulent filament, which does not disappear when the transport current is switched off.

  14. Modeling of wet gas compression in twin-screw multiphase pump

    E-print Network

    Xu, Jian

    2009-05-15

    Twin-screw multiphase pumps experience a severe decrease in efficiency, even the breakdown of pumping function, when operating under wet gas conditions. Additionally, field operations have revealed significant vibration and thermal issues which can...

  15. Performance Evaluation and CFD Simulation of Multiphase Twin-Screw Pumps 

    E-print Network

    Patil, Abhay

    2013-05-16

    Twin-screw pumps are economical alternatives to the conventional multiphase system and are increasingly used in the oil and gas industry due to their versatility in transferring the multiphase mixture with varying Gas Void Fraction (GVF). Present...

  16. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint 5 Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, R. C.; Stratton, T. C.; LaMont, D. T.

    2003-01-01

    Torque tension testing of a newly designed Reusable Solid Rocket Motor nozzle bolted assembly was successfully completed. Test results showed that the 3-sigma preload variation was as expected at the required input torque level and the preload relaxation were within the engineering limits. A shim installation technique was demonstrated as a simple process to fill a shear lip gap between nozzle housings in the joint region. A new automated torque system was successfully demonstrated in this test. This torque control tool was found to be very precise and accurate. The bolted assembly performance was further evaluated using the Nozzle Structural Test Bed. Both current socket head cap screw and proposed multiphase alloy bolt configurations were tested. Results indicated that joint skip and bolt bending were significantly reduced with the new multiphase alloy bolt design. This paper summarizes all the test results completed to date.

  17. Combined acromioclavicular joint dislocation and coracoid avulsion in an adult.

    PubMed

    Naik, Monappa; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Goyal, Saumitra; Rao, Sarath K

    2015-01-01

    Avulsion fracture of coracoid process with acromioclavicular joint dislocation is extremely rare. We report a case of coracoid avulsion with acromioclavicular disruption in a 24-year-old man who sustained injuries in a road traffic accident. Although acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation was obvious from an initial radiograph, coracoid avulsion was picked up in a CT scan. Open reduction and internal fixations of the coracoid with a 4?mm cannulated screw, an AC joint with two K-wires and an anchor suture, resulted in rapid recovery. The patient had complete range of shoulder movements at the end of 3?months and he resumed his professional activities. After 1?year, he had normal shoulder movement without any functional limitations. PMID:25994429

  18. The joint intersection probability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Hatzor; A. Feintuch

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a practical method to apply block theory is presented. Block theory provides the removable joint pyramids from a given free surface regardless of the number of joints in any joint intersection. While robust, the application of the theory in real practice is hampered by the large outcome space of possibly removable joint pyramids consisting of k mutually

  19. Late-Onset Screw Migration into Iliac Vessels 21 years after Hip Arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Taishi; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Takakagawa, Shu; Yukizawa, Yohei; Ike, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries to the vascular system are a rare but serious complication of hip surgery. We report a case of an 83-year-old man who presented with intrapelvic migration of a screw into the space between the external iliac artery and vein 21 years after hip arthrodesis. The patient was treated with laparotomy, and the damaged artery was excised and sutured. This is the first case of a late vascular complication secondary to screw migration after hip arthrodesis. PMID:25336996

  20. Small screw study: Interim report on fastener tensile strength and optimum thread depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Diegert; L. R. Dorrell; R. T. Reese; L. J. Lazarus

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes about 1260 tests performed on small threaded fasteners (equal to or less than 1\\/4 inch in diameter and designated as 1\\/4-20 UNC, {number sign}4-40 UNC, {number sign}2-56 UNC, and 1.0 UNM). Tests determined the tensile strengths of the screws, the lengths of engagement needed to develop the full tensile strengths when the screws were engaged in 6061-T6

  1. A proposed methodology for the design and characterisation of concrete screw anchors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Stuart; D. K. Harrison; B. M. Wood; M. Maclachlan

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the construction fixings industry has begun to look to the concrete screw anchor to alleviate lengthy installation\\u000a cycles and expansion issues, whilst introducing temporary fixing capability and suitability for use in cracked concrete. The\\u000a screw anchor, often used in heavy-duty structural applications, operates on a mechanical interlock principle by creating a\\u000a threaded cut in the substrate. Previous

  2. Horizontal ridge expansion and implant placement using screws: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Implants are typically placed after performing ridge expansion by inserting screws of gradually increasing thickness and good clinical outcomes are often obtained. We placed 11 implants in 6 patients, and one implant failed during osseointegration but it was replaced immediately after removal and successful prosthetic treatments were completed. During these surgeries, buccal cortical plate complete fractures do not occur. Inserting screws for ridge expansion is a successful and predictable technique for implant placement in narrow alveolar bone. PMID:25368836

  3. Piezoelectric screw dislocations interacting with a circular inclusion with imperfect interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Jin; Q. H. Fang

    2008-01-01

    The electroelastic coupling interaction between multiple screw dislocations and a circular inclusion with an imperfect interface\\u000a in a piezoelectric solid is investigated. The appointed screw dislocation may be located either outside or inside the inclusion\\u000a and is subjected to a line charge and a line force at the core. The analytic solutions of electroelastic fields are obtained\\u000a by means of

  4. Interaction between screw dislocations and inclusions with imperfect interfaces in fiber-reinforced composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. H. Fang; B. Jin; Y. Liu

    2009-01-01

    A three-phase composite cylinder model is utilized to study the elastic interaction between screw dislocations and embedded\\u000a multiple circular cross-section inclusions (fibers) with imperfect interfaces in composites. By means of complex variable\\u000a techniques, the explicit solutions of stress and displacement fields are obtained. With the aid of the Peach–Koehler formula,\\u000a the explicit expressions of image forces exerted on screw dislocations

  5. The interaction between a screw dislocation and a piezoelectric fiber composite with a wedge crack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Ho Shen; Shih-Nung Chen; Che-Ping Lin

    The interaction problem between a screw dislocation and a piezoelectric fiber composite with a semi-infinite wedge crack is\\u000a investigated in this paper. The piezoelectric media are assumed to be transversely isotropic with the poling direction along\\u000a the x\\u000a 3 direction. The screw dislocation considered here involves a Burgers vector parallel to the poling direction with a line force\\u000a and a

  6. Screw-retained crown restorations of single implants: A step-by-step clinical guide

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, Mohammad; Gharbyeh, Alaa’ Z. Abu

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the clinical steps for preparing a screw-retained crown for the restoration of a single implant. Impression-taking using open-tray technique and delivery of the crown is presented in a step-by-step manner elucidated by detailed photographs. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of screw-retained crowns are discussed in comparison with the cemented restorations. PMID:25512742

  7. Thermodynamic modeling and optimization of a screw compressor chiller and cooling tower system

    E-print Network

    Graves, Rhett David

    2004-09-30

    THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF A SCREW COMPRESSOR CHILLER AND COOLING TOWER SYSTEM A Thesis by RHETT DAVID GRAVES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF A SCREW COMPRESSOR CHILLER AND COOLING TOWER SYSTEM A Thesis by RHETT DAVID GRAVES Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

  8. Design and Construction of a High Pressure System for Evaluating Multiphase Twin-Screw Pumps

    E-print Network

    Hatch, Theodore Isaac

    2013-08-26

    DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING MULTIPHASE TWIN-SCREW PUMPS A Thesis by THEODORE ISAAC HATCH Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... 2013 Theodore Isaac Hatch ABSTRACT Twin-screw pumps are currently sold by manufacturers without adequate data predicting the pump behavior when pumping multiphase mixtures. In light of the fact that pump behavior is known to change...

  9. Development of a high speed extrusion concept using a floating screw sleeve for solid-melt-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrenberg, Gregor; Wortberg, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    The High-Speed-S-Truder with floating screw sleeve is an alternative extrusion concept with solid-melt-separation. A fairly conventional 35 mm screw with a length of 21 D, which is accelerated by a 75 kW gearless, water cooled synchronous drive, conveys the resin into a 60 mm screw sleeve with a length of 10 D. Inside the sleeve the material is plasticizied and discharged into the outer screw channel of the sleeve through radial bores. Only the solid bed remains inside. The development of a melt pool - and thus a decrease of the plasticizing capacity - is avoided. The sleeve is rotated by drag forces only (approximately 10 - 15 % of the screw speed). Due to the low speed of the screw sleeve molten material is conveyed to a 4 D Dynamic Mixing Ring in a gentle manner. The DMRs floating ring and the screw sleeve are directly coupled. The granules in the screw channel are stopped by a barrier on the screw in front of the mixing device. So nearly no unmelted material can pass the system. For temperature management in the plastification and mixing zone a 3-zone heating/air-cooling system is used. Various kinds of experiments with the High-Speed S-Truder were conducted. Reachable throughputs with different types of material (LDPE, LLDPE, PP, PS) have been tested. Also three screw geometries, which are mainly varying in the channel depth, were compared. Experimental results and theoretical background will be described in this paper.

  10. Pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine: a comparison study of computer-assisted navigation and conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Han, Wu; Gao, Zhong-li; Wang, Jin-cheng; Li, Ying-pu; Peng, Xia; Rui, Jiang; Jun, Wei

    2010-08-01

    The technique of computer-assisted pedicle screw installation and its clinical benefit as compared with conventional pedicle screw installation was evaluated. Twenty-two patients had thoracic screw insertion under 3-dimentional computer-assisted navigation (92 screws) and 20 patients under conventional fluoroscopic control (84 screws). The 2 groups were compared for accuracy of screw placement, screw insertion time by postoperative thin-cut computed tomography scans, and statistical analysis. The cortical perforations were graded by 2-mm increments. In the computer group, 88 (95.65%) were grade I (good), 4 (4.35%) were grade II (<2 mm), and 0 were grade III (>2 mm) violations. There were 4 cortical violations (3.57%). In the conventional group, there were 14 cortical violations (16.67%), 70 (83.33%) were grade I (good), 11 (13.1%) were grade II (<2 mm), and 3 (3.57%) were grade III (>2 mm) violations (P<.001). The number (19.57%) of upper thoracic pedicle screws (T1-T4) inserted under 3-dimensional computer-assisted navigation was significantly higher than that (3.57%) by conventional fluoroscopic control (P<.001). Average screw insertion time in the conventional group was more than in the computer group (P<.001). Three-dimensional computer-assisted navigation pedicle screw placement can increase accuracy, reduce surgical time, and be performed safely and effectively at all levels of the thoracic spine, particularly the upper thoracic spine. PMID:20704105

  11. The Biocompatibility of Degradable Magnesium Interference Screws: An Experimental Study with Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Thormann, Ulrich; Alt, Volker; Heimann, Lydia; Gasquere, Cyrille; Heiss, Christian; Szalay, Gabor; Franke, Jörg; Schnettler, Reinhard; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Screws for ligament reconstruction are nowadays mostly made of poly-L-lactide (PLLA). However, magnesium-based biomaterials are gathering increased interest in this research field because of their good mechanical property and osteoanabolic influence on bone metabolism. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of an interference screw for ligament reconstruction made of magnesium alloy W4 by diecasting and milling and using different PEO-coatings with calcium phosphates. PLLA and titanium screws were used as control samples. The screws were implanted in the femur condyle of the hind leg of a merino sheep. The observation period was six and twelve weeks and one year. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and molecular biological evaluation were conducted. Further TEM analysis was done. In all magnesium screws a clinically relevant gas formation in the vicinity of the biomaterial was observed. Except for the PLLA and titanium control samples, no screw was fully integrated in the surrounding bone tissue. Regarding the fabrication process, milling seems to produce less gas liberation and has a better influence on bone metabolism than diecasting. Coating by PEO with calcium phosphates could not reduce the initial gas liberation but rather reduced the bone metabolism in the vicinity of the biomaterial. PMID:25717474

  12. The biocompatibility of degradable magnesium interference screws: an experimental study with sheep.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Ulrich; Alt, Volker; Heimann, Lydia; Gasquere, Cyrille; Heiss, Christian; Szalay, Gabor; Franke, Jörg; Schnettler, Reinhard; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Screws for ligament reconstruction are nowadays mostly made of poly-L-lactide (PLLA). However, magnesium-based biomaterials are gathering increased interest in this research field because of their good mechanical property and osteoanabolic influence on bone metabolism. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of an interference screw for ligament reconstruction made of magnesium alloy W4 by diecasting and milling and using different PEO-coatings with calcium phosphates. PLLA and titanium screws were used as control samples. The screws were implanted in the femur condyle of the hind leg of a merino sheep. The observation period was six and twelve weeks and one year. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and molecular biological evaluation were conducted. Further TEM analysis was done. In all magnesium screws a clinically relevant gas formation in the vicinity of the biomaterial was observed. Except for the PLLA and titanium control samples, no screw was fully integrated in the surrounding bone tissue. Regarding the fabrication process, milling seems to produce less gas liberation and has a better influence on bone metabolism than diecasting. Coating by PEO with calcium phosphates could not reduce the initial gas liberation but rather reduced the bone metabolism in the vicinity of the biomaterial. PMID:25717474

  13. The Peierls stress of the moving [Formula: see text] screw dislocation in Ta.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiping; Wang, Shaofeng; Wu, Xiaozhi

    2009-08-26

    The Peierls stress of the moving [Formula: see text] screw dislocation with a planar and non-dissociated core structure in Ta has been calculated. The elastic strain energy which is associated with the discrete effect of the lattice and ignored in classical Peierls-Nabarro (P-N) theory has been taken into account in calculating the Peierls stress, and it can make the Peierls stress become smaller. The Peierls stress we obtain is very close to the experimental data. As shown in the numerical calculations and atomistic simulations, the core structure of the screw dislocation undergoes significant changes under the explicit stress before the screw dislocation moves. Moreover, the mechanism of the screw dislocation is revealed by our results and the experimental data that the screw dislocation retracts its extension in three {110} planes and transforms its dissociated core structure into a planar configuration. Therefore, the core structure of the moving [Formula: see text] screw dislocation in Ta is proposed to be planar. PMID:21715784

  14. Recognizing knee pathologies by classifying instantaneous screws of the six degrees-of-freedom knee motion.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Alon; Degani, Amir

    2007-05-01

    We address the problem of knee pathology assessment by using screw theory to describe the knee motion and by using the screw representation of the motion as an input to a machine learning classifier. The flexions of knees with different pathologies are tracked using an optical tracking system. The instantaneous screw parameters which describe the transformation of the tibia with respect to the femur in each two successive observation is represented as the instantaneous screw axis of the motion given in its Plücker line coordinates along with its corresponding pitch. The set of instantaneous screw parameters associated with a particular knee with a given pathology is then identified and clustered in R(6) to form a "signature" of the motion for the given pathology. Sawbones model and two cadaver knees with different pathologies were tracked, and the resulting screws were used to train a classifier system. The system was then tested successfully with new, never-trained-before data. The classifier demonstrated a very high success rate in identifying the knee pathology. PMID:17440763

  15. Conceptual framework for model-based analysis of residence time distribution in twin-screw granulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Toiviainen, Maunu; Panouillot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Juuti, Mikko; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2015-04-25

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising continuous alternative for traditional batchwise wet granulation processes. The twin-screw granulator (TSG) screws consist of transport and kneading element modules. Therefore, the granulation to a large extent is governed by the residence time distribution within each module where different granulation rate processes dominate over others. Currently, experimental data is used to determine the residence time distributions. In this study, a conceptual model based on classical chemical engineering methods is proposed to better understand and simulate the residence time distribution in a TSG. The experimental data were compared with the proposed most suitable conceptual model to estimate the parameters of the model and to analyse and predict the effects of changes in number of kneading discs and their stagger angle, screw speed and powder feed rate on residence time. The study established that the kneading block in the screw configuration acts as a plug-flow zone inside the granulator. Furthermore, it was found that a balance between the throughput force and conveying rate is required to obtain a good axial mixing inside the twin-screw granulator. Although the granulation behaviour is different for other excipients, the experimental data collection and modelling methods applied in this study are generic and can be adapted to other excipients. PMID:25698071

  16. Posterior pelvic ring fractures: Closed reduction and percutaneous CT-guided sacroiliac screw fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland); Messmer, Peter [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Department of Surgery (Switzerland); Stock, Klaus-Wilhelm [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland); Suhm, Norbert [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Department of Surgery (Switzerland); Baumann, Bernard [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland); Regazzoni, Pietro [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Department of Surgery (Switzerland); Steinbrich, Wolfgang [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland)

    1997-07-15

    Purpose. To assess the midterm results of closed reduction and percutaneous fixation (CRPF) with computed tomography (CT)-guided sacroiliac screw fixation in longitudinal posterior pelvic ring fractures. Methods. Thirteen patients with 15 fractures were treated. Eleven patients received a unilateral, two a bilateral, screw fixation. Twenty-seven screws were implanted. Continuous on-table traction was used in six cases. Mean radiological follow-up was 13 months. Results. Twenty-five (93%) screws were placed correctly. There was no impingement of screws on neurovascular structures. Union occurred in 12 (80%), delayed union in 2 (13%), and nonunion in 1 of 15 (7%) fractures. There was one screw breakage and two axial dislocations. Conclusion. Sacroiliac CRPF of longitudinal fractures of the posterior pelvic ring is technically simple, minimally invasive, well localized, and stable. It should be done by an interventional/surgical team. CT is an excellent guiding modality. Closed reduction may be a problem and succeeds best when performed as early as possible.

  17. Refracture of proximal fifth metatarsal (Jones) fracture after intramedullary screw fixation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Wright, R W; Fischer, D A; Shively, R A; Heidt, R S; Nuber, G W

    2000-01-01

    This study details six instances of refracture of clinically and radiographically healed fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal after intramedullary screw fixation. Four professional football players, one college basketball player, and one recreational athlete underwent intramedullary screw fixation of fifth metatarsal fractures. The athletes were released to full activities an average of 8.5 weeks (range, 5.5 to 12) after fixation, when healing was clinically and radiographically documented. Three football players developed refracture within 1 day of return to full activity. The other three athletes refractured at 2.5, 4, and 4.5 months after return to activity. Two football players underwent repeat fixation with larger screws and returned to play in the same season. The college basketball player underwent bone grafting and returned to play in subsequent seasons. The other three athletes underwent nonoperative management and healed uneventfully over 6 to 8 weeks. On the basis of this series, we recommend that 1) screw fixation using a large-diameter screw should be given careful consideration for patients with large body mass for whom early return to activity is important; 2) functional bracing, shoe modification, or an orthosis should be considered for return to play; 3) if refracture occurs, exchange to a larger screw may allow return to play in the same season; and 4) alternative imaging should be considered to help document complete healing. PMID:11032233

  18. Optical and Exciton Dynamical Properties of a Screw-Dislocation-Driven ZnO:Sn Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Lu, Junfeng; Wang, Fang; Guo, Jiyuan; Gu, Ning; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-06-17

    Screw dislocation plays a critical role in crystal growth and significantly affects the carrier dynamics process of luminescent semiconductor materials. In this paper, we report a novel screw-dislocation-induced ZnO:Sn hillock microstructure. The detailed growth process and possible formation mechanism of screw dislocation are demonstrated. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence reveals the free exciton recombination emission mechanism of the ZnO:Sn hillock microstructure. By comparing time-resolved photoluminescence spectra with those of two other samples without screw dislocations, it is found that the screw dislocation in the ZnO:Sn microstructures effectively decreases the carrier lifetime. In addition, UV Fabry-Perot lasing action is observed from the ZnO:Sn hillock microstructure, and the numerical simulation of the standing wave pattern and light intensity distribution further confirm the Fabry-Perot lasing mechanism. Therefore, ZnO:Sn can be utilized as a UV laser gain medium, and its optical properties can be modulated by screw dislocation. PMID:26011860

  19. Development of solid-lubricated ball-screws for use in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiba, Masatoshi; Gyougi, Toru; Nishimura, Makoto; Seki, Katsumi

    1991-01-01

    Ball-screws lubricated by solid lubricant films containing molybdenum disulphide are developed. The ball-screws (shaft diameter: phi 25 mm, length: 667 mm) were operated under a load of 40 to 120 N at a speed of 1.5 to 200 rpm at 10(exp -5) Pa. First, ball-screws made of stainless steel SUS 440C were studied using test equipment originally designed for this study. To reduce weight, the next step taken was to develop a ball-screw made of 6Al-4V-titanium. Long wear-life of more than 1 x 10(exp 7) revolutions was achieved with solid lubricated ball-screws made of SUS 440C and 6Al-4V-titanium in a hard vacuum. According to the surface profile of the shaft measured after 1 x 10(exp 7) revolutions, more solid lubricant remained on the surface of 6Al-4V-titanium than that of stainless steel. Auger and EPMA analysis confirmed lubrication was maintained by solid lubricant on nuts and screws after the lubricant films on the balls were worn off.

  20. Acroplate--a modern solution for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Cîrstoiu, C; R?dulescu, R; Popescu, D; Ene, R; Circot?, G; B?diceanu, Corina

    2009-01-01

    Two main ways to fix the reduction were imposed in surgical treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocations: fixation with trans acromioclavicular pin (Phemister method) and fixation with plate and screws type acroplate. The purpose of the present paper work is to compare immediate and later postoperative results between the two types of surgical interventions. During 2005-2007, 37 surgical reductions and fixation of acromioclavicular joint dislocations were performed in the Orthopedic-Traumatology Clinic of SUUB. In 17 cases a fixation with screws and plates type acroplate has been performed and in 20 cases with pins using the Phemister method. Sex ratio: 31 men and 8 women. Patients were aged between 17 and 56 years old. Follow up at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 18 post-operatory months. Osteosintesis material removing was done postoperatively, at 4 weeks in case of acroplate's and at 6 weeks in case of the pins. All patients treated of fixation with plate and screws acroplate type had a favorable evolution/development, starting with the shoulder joint mobilization at 24 hours postoperatively, with a complete recovery 4 weeks after the operation, at the same time with the ablation, and without immediate other late complications. As far as the patients treated by using the Phemister method are concerned, they were applied an immobilization, postoperatively. Desault bandage or the scarf for a period between 1 and 3 weeks, beginning with the shoulder joint mobilization later on and a full recovery after a minimum of 6 weeks. However, 3 of the cases showed a migration of one or both pins. Following the study, a more rapid recovery resulted, complete, and without complications of mobility in the shoulder joint, when using plate type acroplate vs pin. PMID:20108536

  1. Electro-Thermal Simulation Studies of SiC Junction Diodes Containing Screw Dislocations Under High Reverse-Bias Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, R. P.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work was to conduct a modeling study of SiC P-N junction diodes operating under high reverse biased conditions. Analytical models and numerical simulation capabilities were to be developed for self-consistent electro-thermal analysis of the diode current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Data from GRC indicate that screw dislocations are unavoidable in large area SiC devices, and lead to changes in the SiC diode electrical response characteristics under high field conditions. For example, device instability and failures linked to internal current filamentation have been observed. The physical origin of these processes is not well understood, and quantitative projections of the electrical behavior under high field and temperature conditions are lacking. Thermal calculations for SiC devices have not been reported in the literature either. So estimates or projections of peak device temperatures and power limitations do not exist. This numerical study and simulation analysis was aimed at resolving some of the above issues. The following tasks were successfully accomplished: (1) Development of physically based models using one- and two-dimensional drift-diffusion theory for the transport behavior and I-V characteristics; (2) One- and two-dimensional heat flow to account for internal device heating. This led to calculations of the internal temperature profiles, which in turn, were used to update the electrical transport parameters for a self-consistent analysis. The temperature profiles and the peak values were thus obtainable for a given device operating condition; (3) Inclusion of traps assumed to model the presence of internal screw dislocations running along the longitudinal direction; (4) Predictions of the operating characteristics with and without heating as a function of applied bias with and without traps. Both one and two-dimensional cases were implemented; (5) Assessment of device stability based on the operating characteristics. The presence of internal non-uniformities, particularly filamentary structures, was probed and demonstrated; (6) Cause and physical origins of filamentary behavior and unstable I-V characteristics were made transparent; (7) It was demonstrated that diodes containing defects would be more prone to thermal breakdown associated with the temperature dependent decrease in the thermal conductivity; and (8) Finally, negative differential resistance (S-shaped NDR) which can potential lead to device instability and filamentary behavior was shown to occur for diodes containing a line of defects such as could be associated with a screw dislocation line.

  2. Effect of nonablative laser energy on joint capsular properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kei Hayashi; Mark D. Markel; George Thabit; John J. Bogdanske; Robert J. Thielke

    1995-01-01

    Recent scientific studies evaluating laser energy for tissue welding and thermokeratoplasty have demonstrated that the application of laser energy at non-ablative levels can alter collagen's structural and biochemical properties. The application of non-ablative laser to the human shoulder joint capsule in patients with glenohumeral instability has been found to enhance stability of the joint. Based on the collective findings of

  3. Treatment of acromioclavicular joint separation: Suture or suture anchors?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J Breslow; Laith M Jazrawi; Adam D Bernstein; Frederick J Kummer; Andrew S Rokito

    2002-01-01

    This investigation compared the stability of 2 methods of fixation for acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations. A complete AC joint separation was simulated in 6 matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders. One specimen from each pair was repaired with two No. 5 nonabsorbable braided sutures passed around the base of the coracoid and the other with 2 suture anchors preloaded

  4. A simple PD controller for robots with elastic joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Tomei

    1991-01-01

    The point-to-point control of manipulators having elastic joints is considered. It is shown that a simple PD (proportional plus derivative) controller, similar to that used for rigid robots, suffices to globally stabilize the elastic joint robots about a reference position. A robustness analysis is also given with respect to uncertainties on the robot parameters. The results of numerical simulation tests

  5. Robot control by using only joint position measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nicosia; P. Tomei

    1990-01-01

    An observer for reconstructing the joint velocities of rigid-joint robots is proposed. The approach consists of exploiting the structural properties of the robot dynamics. The associated error dynamics are shown to be asymptotically stable. The observer furnishes the state estimate directly in the physical coordinates, so that no transformation is needed. The stability of some state feedback controllers having the

  6. Mechanical behavior of the female sacroiliac joint and influence of the anterior and posterior sacroiliac ligaments under sagittal loads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wang; G. A. Dumas

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanical behaviour of the female sacroiliac joint and the effects of its two major ligaments to joint stability.Design. A cadaveric model was used to study the mechanical behaviour of the sacroiliac joints, and sequential dissection was performed to examine the contribution of the anterior and posterior sacroiliac ligaments in joint

  7. Surgical Outcomes and Complications after Occipito-Cervical Fusion Using the Screw-Rod System in Craniocervical Instability

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Ho; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung; Yoo, Chan Jong; Son, Seong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although there is no consensus on the ideal treatment of the craniocervical instability, biomechanical stabilization and bone fusion can be induced through occipito-cervical fusion (OCF). The authors conducted this study to evaluate efficacy of OCF, as well as to explore methods in reducing complications. Methods A total of 16 cases with craniocervical instability underwent OCF since the year 2002. The mean age of the patients was 51.5 years with a mean follow-up period of 34.9 months. The subjects were compared using lateral X-ray taken before the operation, after the operation, and during last follow-up. The Nurick score was used to assess neurological function pre and postoperatively. Results All patients showed improvements in myelopathic symptoms after the operation. The mean preoperative Nurick score was 3.1. At the end of follow-up after surgery, the mean Nurick score was 2.0. After surgery, most patients' posterior occipito-cervical angle entered the normal range as the pre operation angle decresed from 121 to 114 degree. There were three cases with complications, such as, vertebral artery injury, occipital screw failure and wound infection. In two cases with cerebral palsy, occipital screw failures occurred. But, reoperation was performed in one case. Conclusion OCF is an effective method in treating craniocervical instability. However, the complication rate can be quite high when performing OCF in patients with cerebral palsy, rheumatoid arthritis. Much precaution should be taken when performing this procedure on high risk patients. PMID:23826478

  8. Conducting-polymer-driven actively shaped propellers and screws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, John D.; Schmid, Bryan; Lafontaine, Serge R.; Madden, Peter G. A.; Hover, Franz S.; McLetchie, Karl; Hunter, Ian W.

    2003-07-01

    Conducting polymer actuators are employed to create actively shaped hydrodynamic foils. The active foils are designed to allow control over camber, much like the ailerons of an airplane wing. Control of camber promises to enable variable thrust in propellers and screws, increased maneuverability, and improved stealth. The design and fabrication of the active foils are presented, the forces are measured and operation is demonstrated both in still air and water. The foils have a "wing" span of 240 mm, and an average chord length (width) of 70 mm. The trailing 30 mm of the foil is composed of a thin polypyrrole actuator that curls chordwise to achieve variable camber. The actuator consists of two 30 ?m thick sheets of hexafluorophosphate doped polypyrrole separated from each other by a gel electrolyte. A polymer layer encapsulates the entire structure. Potentials are applied between the polymer layers to induce reversible bending by approximately 35 degrees, and generating forces of 0.15 N. These forces and displacements are expected to enable operation in water at flow rates of > 1 m/s and ~ 30 m/s in air.

  9. Applied thermal pyrolysis of cogongrass in twin screw reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promdee, K.; Vitidsant, T.

    2014-08-01

    Thermal pyrolysis by heat transfer model can be solved the control temperature in twin screw feeder for produce bio-oil from Cogongrass by novel continuous pyrolysis reactor. In this study, all yield were expressed on a dry and their values were taken as the average of the thermal controlled. Thermal of pyrolysis were carried out at 400-500°C. The products yield calculation showed that the liquid yield of Cogongrass by pyrolysis was higher than that solid and gas yield, as highest of 52.62%, at 500°C, and the other of liquid yield obtained from Cogongrass were 40.56, and 46.45%, at 400, and 450°C, respectively. When separate liquid phase be composed of the bio-oil was highest 37.39%, at 500°C. Indicated that biomass from Cogongrass had good received yields because of low solid yield average and gas yield and high liquid yield average. The compounds detected in bio-oil from Cogongrass showed the functional group, especially; Phenol, Phenol 2,5-dimethyl, Benzene 1-ethyl-4-methoxy, 2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 2,3-dimethyl, Benzene 1-ethyl-3-methyl.

  10. Empirical modeling of a Lysholm helical screw expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. A.

    1984-06-01

    Testing of a Lysholm helical screw expander having a rotor diameter of 5.12 inches and an expansion ratio of 5.3 was performed with simulated geothermal fluid at an inlet pressure of 120 psia. The inlet quality, engine speed and pressure ratio were independently varied to produce a three-dimensional data matrix of 104 data points. Statistical curve fitting methods were adapted to produce equations for mass flow rate and power output in terms of the three variables associated with the data matrix. These explicit equations were combined with a steam table subroutine to produce a computer model for prediction of mass flow rate, power, efficiency and exhaust quality at a given set of operating conditions. The predictive ability observed during validation of the model is adequate for use in modeling of hybrid geothermal energy conversion systems. Mass flow rates were predicted to within 2.7% of the measured values. For most conditions, predictions of power were within 3.3% of the measured values. Predictions of efficiency reflected the combined errors in prediction of power and mass flow rate.

  11. A Novel Surgical Technique for Removing Buried Cannulated Screws Using a Guidewire and Countersink: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongsheng; Giri, Krishna Prasad; Pearce, Christopher Jon

    2015-01-01

    Removal of metal implants is a common procedure that is performed for a variety of indications. However, problems such as a buried screw head may occasionally arise and render hardware removal difficult or even impossible. The problem is further compounded when the initial screw was inserted percutaneously or via a minimally-invasive (MIS) technique. In the present paper, we introduce a novel, minimally invasive technique to remove buried cannulated screws which obviates the need for excessive extension of the skin incision, surgical exploration, soft tissue dissection or excess bone removal, which surgeons may otherwise have to undertake to uncover the buried screw head. This technique is especially useful in removing cannulated screws which have been inserted using small stab incisions and MIS techniques initially. This technique can be applied to the removal of buried cannulated screws which are placed into any bone in the body.

  12. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screw fixation plus contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation in lumbar degenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fubing; Jiang, Chun; Cao, Yuanwu; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Feng, Zhenzhou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been used in lumbar degenerative diseases. Some researchers have applied unilateral fixation in TLIF to reduce operational trauma without compromising the clinical outcome, but it is always suspected biomechanically unstable. The supplementary contralateral translaminar facet screw (cTLFS) seemed to be able to overcome the inherent drawbacks of unilateral pedicle screw (uPS) fixation theoretically. This study evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy of TLIF using uPS with cTLFS fixation in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD). Materials and Methods: 50 patients (29 male) underwent the aforementioned surgical technique for their LDD between December 2009 and April 2012. The results were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS) of the leg and back, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded. The radiographic examinations in form of X-ray, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used for comparison between the preoperative values and postoperative counterparts. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Among 50 patients, 22 received one level fusion and 28 two level's, with corresponding operation time and estimated blood loss being approximately 90 min, 150 ml and 120 min, 200 ml, respectively. No severe complications happened perioperatively. The mean VAS (back, leg) scores dropped from (7.6, 7.5) preoperatively to (2.1, 0.6) at 12 months’ followup, ODI from 49.1 preoperatively to 5.6 and JOA score raised from 10.6 preoperatively to 28.5, all P < 0.001, suggesting of good clinical outcome. From the three-dimensional reconstructed CT, 62 out of 70 segments displayed solid fusion with fusion rate of 88.6% at 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions: TLIF using uPS fixation plus cTLFS fixation is a safe, feasible and effective technique in the treatment of one or two level lumbar degenerative diseases short termly. PMID:25143640

  13. The surgical learning curve and accuracy of minimally invasive lumbar pedicle screw placement using CT based computer-assisted navigation plus continuous electromyography monitoring – a retrospective review of 627 screws in 150 patients

    PubMed Central

    McMillen, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study retrospectively assessed the accuracy of placement of lumbar pedicle screws placed by a single surgeon using a minimally-invasive, intra-operative CT-based computer navigated technique in combination with continuous electromyography (EMG) monitoring. The rates of incorrectly positioned screws were reviewed in the context of the surgeon's experience and learning curve. Methods Data was retrospectively reviewed from all consecutive minimally invasive lumbar fusions performed by the primary author over a period of over 4 years from April 2008 until October 2012. All cases that had utilized computer-assisted intra-operative CT-based image guidance and continuous EMG monitoring to guide percutaneous pedicle screw placement were analysed for the rates of malposition of the pedicle screws. Pedicle screw malposition was defined as having occurred if the screw trajectory was adjusted intraoperatively due to positive EMG responses, or due to breach of the pedicle cortex by more than 2mm on intraoperative CT imaging performed at the end of the instrumentation procedure. Further analysis of the data was undertaken to determine if the rates of malposition changed with the surgeon's experience with the technique. Results Six hundred and twenty-seven pedicle screws were placed in one hundred and fifty patients. The overall rate of intraoperative malposition and subsequent adjustment of pedicle screw placement was 3.8% (24 of 627 screws). Screw malposition was detected by intraoperative CT imaging. Warning of potential screw misplacement was provided by use of the EMG monitoring. With increased experience with the technique, rates of intraoperative pedicle screw malposition were found to decrease from 5.1% of screws in the first fifty patients, to 2.0% in the last 50 patients. Only one screw was suboptimally placed at the end of surgery, which did not result in a neurological deficit. Conclusion The use of CT-based computer-assisted navigation in combination with continuous EMG monitoring during percutaneous transpedicular screw placement results in very low rates of malposition and neural injury that compare favourably with previously reported rates. Pedicle screw placement accuracy continues to improve as the surgeon becomes more experienced with the technique. PMID:25694919

  14. Subsidence of metal interbody cage after posterior lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Ajiro, Yasumitsu; Umezawa, Natsuki

    2009-04-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion is considered to be an excellent fusion procedure to stabilize anterior support, correct alignment in the sagittal and coronal plane, and achieve foraminal decompression by lifting the disk height. The metal interbody cage in posterior lumbar interbody fusion is thought to be useful to prevent collapse of the graft bone and to correct and maintain disk height; however, some studies have noted a gradual decrease of disk height due to cage subsidence. Therefore, to investigate the significance of cage subsidence, 86 disk levels radiographically confirmed to have good union in 66 patients with posterior lumbar interbody fusion combined with pedicle screw fixation and a single metal cage for degenerative lumbar disease were retrospectively evaluated. The follow-up period ranged from 3 years to 10 years 3 months, with a mean of 7 years 9 months. Cage subsidence often showed a gradual increase over time. At final follow-up, subsidence averaged 4.0 mm on the cranial surface and 2.7 mm on the caudal surface. Although the average increase of disk height was 3.2 mm immediately postoperatively, the final disk height decreased by 4.2 mm on average from that time. The degree of cage subsidence and decrease of disk height were not correlated with the final clinical results. Subsidence was not correlated with bone mineral density in the vertebral body, body weight, or site of the insertion. On the other hand, the wedge shape of the cage and the thickness of the resected endplate had a significant influence on cage subsidence. PMID:19388615

  15. Evaluation of roundness error using a new method based on a small displacement screw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouira, Hichem; Bourdet, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    In relation to industrial need and the progress of technology, LNE would like to improve the measurement of its primary pressure, spherical and flick standards. The spherical and flick standards are respectively used to calibrate the spindle motion error and the probe which equips commercial conventional cylindricity measuring machines. The primary pressure standards are obtained using pressure balances equipped with rotary pistons with an uncertainty of 5 nm for a piston diameter of 10 mm. Conventional machines are not able to reach such an uncertainty level. That is why the development of a new machine is necessary. To ensure such a level of uncertainty, both stability and performance of the machine are not sufficient, and the data processing should also be done with accuracy less than a nanometre. In this paper, a new method based on the small displacement screw (SDS) model is proposed. A first validation of this method is proposed on a theoretical dataset published by the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) in report no 3327. Then, an experiment is prepared in order to validate the new method on real datasets. Specific environment conditions are taken into account and many precautions are considered. The new method is applied to analyse the least-squares circle, minimum zone circle, maximum inscribed circle and minimum circumscribed circle. The results are compared to those done by the reference Chebyshev best-fit method and reveal perfect agreement. The sensibilities of the SDS and Chebyshev methodologies are investigated, and it is revealed that results remain unchanged when the value of the diameter exceeds 700 times the form error.

  16. Minimally invasive arthrodesis for chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction using the SImmetry SI Joint Fusion system

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint-related low back pain (LBP) is a common, yet under-diagnosed and undertreated condition due to difficulties in accurate diagnosis and highly variable treatment practices. In patients with debilitating SI-related LBP for at least 6 months duration who have failed conservative management, arthrodesis is a viable option. The SImmetry® SI Joint Fusion System is a novel therapy for SI joint fusion, not just fixation, which utilizes a minimally invasive surgical approach, instrumented fixation for immediate stability, and joint preparation with bone grafting for a secure construct in the long term. The purpose of this report is to describe the minimally invasive SI Joint Fusion System, including patient selection criteria, implant characteristics, surgical technique, postoperative recovery, and biomechanical testing results. Advantages and limitations of this system will be discussed. PMID:24851059

  17. A Comparison of Functional Outcomes After Metallic and Bioabsorbable Interference Screw Fixations in Arthroscopic ACL Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Deepak K; Kannampilly, Antony J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is as one of the most frequently injured ligaments in the modern contact sports scenario. Graft fixations can be achieved during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions by using either bioabsorbable screws or metal screws. The objective of this study was to compare the functional outcomes after bioabsorbable and metallic interference screw fixations in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions done by using hamstring grafts. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized study. Patients in Group 1 received bioabsorbable interference screws and patients in Group 2 received metallic interference screws. Arthroscopic assisted, anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with the use of hamstring grafts which were fixed proximally with endobuttons and distally with bioabsorbable or metallic interference screws, were undertaken. Progress in functional outcomes was assessed by using Mann Whitney U- test. Functional outcomes in the two groups were compared by using independent t-test. Observation and Results: In each group, there were statistically significant improvements in functional outcomes over successive follow-ups, which were seen on basis on Mann-Whitney U-test. The comparison of functional outcomes between the two groups, done by using independent t-test, showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year of follow-up. p-value <0.05 was considered to be significant in our study. Conclusion: In our prospective study of comparison of functional outcomes between bioabsorbable and metallic interference screws in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstuctions, which were evaluated by using Tegner activity scale and Lysholm knee scoring scale for a period of 1 year, no statistically significant difference was found. However, further authentication is required by doing long term studies. PMID:24959468

  18. Feasibility of Translaminar Screw Placement in Korean Population: Morphometric Analysis of Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyuk; Kurniawan, Ferry; Lee, Junho; Jeon, Jae Kyun; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement in Koran population, and compare the acceptance rate using previously reported data in American population. Materials and Methods The translaminar lengths, thickness, heights, and sagittal-diagonal measurements were performed. The feasibility analysis was performed using unilateral and bilateral 3.5 mm cervical screw placement on the CT scans within 0.5 mm of safety margin. We also performed radiographic analysis of the morphometric dimensions and the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement at C3-C7. Results Korean population had similar or significantly shorter translaminar lengths and thickness (lengths and thickness in C7 among males; lengths in C6-C7 and thickness in C4 among females) than American population, but had similar or significantly longer translaminar heights and sagittal-diagonal measurements (heights in C3-C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C6 among males; heights in C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C7 among females). Unilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C4-C6 were significantly smaller between Korean and American female population. Bilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3 and C5-C6 were significantly larger between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American female population. Conclusion The feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement is different depending on different ethnics. Subaxial cervical unilateral translaminar screw placement among Korean male population and bilateral placement at C4-C7 among Korean female population are more acceptable than American population. PMID:25510760

  19. [Possibilities for improving fatigue properties of interlocking screws of solid tibial nails. A mathematical model with practical conclusions].

    PubMed

    Holper, B; Tschegg, E K; Stanzl-Tschegg, S; Gäbler, C

    2002-02-01

    One major problem using small diameter nails in the treatment of tibial fractures is the high rate of fatigue fractures of the locking screws. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model for analysis of the stress concentration factor as well as edge fibre stress. This would allow an analysis of the stress peaks caused by the thread of the screw as well as showing ways to increase the fatigue limits of the screws. The main consideration was the fact that a thread can be calculated like a relief notch used in theory of strength to relieve the strain on building materials. The transformation from one notch to multiple notches obviously reduces the stress concentration factor. To improve the fatigue limit of locking screws one has to modify the stress concentration factor or the edge fibre stress on the implant. Absence of a thread at the location where the screw contacts the nail's aperture (where the main load is transmitted to the screw and where the screw therefore usually tends to break) may double the fatigue strength and fatigue limit by avoiding the negative notch effect of the screw's thread. If this option is not possible one has to consider that the optimal threaded screw should have a minimal edge distance, a high notch radius and a minimal edge depth. PMID:11968541

  20. Trans-iliac pin/bolt/screw internal fixation for sacroiliac luxation or separation in cats: six cases.

    PubMed

    Yap, Fui W; Dunn, Andrew L; Farrell, Michael; Calvo, Ignacio

    2014-04-01

    Trans-iliac pin, bolt or screw stabilisation was performed on six cats with sacroiliac (SI) luxation and separation. For the purpose of this study, SI luxation is defined as the separation of the iliac wing from the sacrum without fracture of the sacral or iliac wing; SI separation is defined as the separation of the iliac wing from the sacrum secondary to fracture of the sacrum and/or the iliac wing. Complications, surgical time and medium-to-long-term outcome were assessed by a retrospective review of the clinical records and owner questionnaires. Postoperative reduction of the SI joint was good-to-excellent in all cases and the outcome was considered good-excellent in all cats apart from one, where the trans-iliac bolt migrated dorsally from the iliac wing. This cat had bilateral SI luxations. Based on our results, trans-iliac fixation of SI luxation/separation is associated with good clinical outcome and should be considered as a treatment option in unilateral SI luxation in cats. Caution should be exercised in the use of trans-iliac pin/bolt as the sole method of stabilisation in bilateral SI luxations. PMID:24043721

  1. Comparison of the tissue response to absorbable self-reinforced polylactide screws and metallic screws in the fixation of cancellous bone osteotomies: an experimental study on the rabbit distal femur.

    PubMed

    Viljanen, J T; Pihlajamäki, H K; Törmälä, P O; Rokkanen, P U

    1997-05-01

    The availability of absorbable fracture-fixation devices for clinical use calls for better knowledge of the reaction of bone tissue to absorbable polyester implants as compared with similar metallic devices. To examine and compare the tissue response to biodegradable and metallic screws within cancellous bone, a transverse transcondylar osteotomy of the distal femur was fixed with absorbable self-reinforced polylevolactide screws in 35 rabbits and with stainless-steel screws in 35 rabbits. New bone formation and consolidation of the osteotomy were examined histologically, histomorphometrically, and microradiographically within standardized sample fields 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks postoperatively. The intact contralateral femur served as the control. A vigorous osteoconductive response to the polylevolactide screws was observed at 3 weeks postoperatively, and the osteoid surface fraction was significantly higher in all follow-ups than in the contralateral femora. In the femora with metallic screws, new bone formation was seen 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively, but at 24, 36, and 48 weeks the osteoid surface fraction did not differ significantly from that of the intact control femora. The total bone area was significantly larger in the femora with self-reinforced polylevolactide screws than in the control bone 6-48 weeks postoperatively; in the femora with metallic screws, this was found only at 6 and 12 weeks. After 48 weeks, the femora fixed with metallic screws had statistically smaller total bone area than the intact control femora. Solid bone union was seen in 84% of the osteotomies in the self-reinforced polylevolactide group and in 76% of those in the metallic group after 3 weeks or more. No signs of degradation of the self-reinforced polyleuolactide implant and only a mild foreign-body reaction with no accumulations of inflammatory cells to either self-reinforced polylevolactide or metallic screws were observed during the follow-up period. Both types of screws seemed to induce an osteostimulatory response around their threads. This phenomenon was transient for metallic screws but lasted for at least 48 weeks for self-reinforced polylevolactide screws. The polylevolactide screw does not seem to cause osteopenia at the implantation site. The fixation properties of both self-reinforced polylevolactide screws and metallic screws appear to be sufficient for the fixation of small fragments of cancellous bone. PMID:9246086

  2. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  3. Intraoperative Computed Tomography Navigation for Transpedicular Screw Fixation to Treat Unstable Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Fractures: Clinical Analysis of a Case Series (CARE-Compliant).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Yu; Wu, Meng-Huang; Li, Yen-Yao; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Chu-Hsiang; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Transpedicular screw (TPS) fixation in unstable thoracic and lumbar (TL) spine fractures remains technically difficult because of destroyed anatomical landmarks, unstable gross segments, and discrepancies in anatomic orientation using conventional anatomic landmarks, fluoroscopic guidance, or computed tomography (CT)-based navigation. In this study, we evaluated the safety and accuracy of TPS placement under intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) navigation in managing unstable TL spine fractures.From 2010 to 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the Spine Operation Registry records of patients who underwent posterior instrumented fusion to treat unstable TL spine fractures via the iCT navigation system. An unstable spine fracture was identified as AO/Magerl classification type B or type C.In all, 316 screws in 37 patients with unstable TL spine fractures were evaluated and involved 7 thoracic, 23 thoracolumbar junctional, and 7 lumbar fractures. The accuracy of TPS positioning in the pedicle without breach was 98% (310/316). The average number of iCT scans per patient was 2.1 (range 2-3). The average total radiation dose to patients was 15.8?mSv; the dose per single level exposure was 2.7?mSv. The TPS intraoperative revision rate was 0.6% (2/316) and no neurovascular sequela was observed. TPS fixation using the iCT navigation system obtained a 98% accuracy in stabilizing unstable TL spine fractures. A malplaced TPS could be revised during real-time confirmation of the TPS position, and no secondary operation was required to revise malplaced screws.The iCT navigation system provides accurate and safe management of unstable TL spine fractures. In addition, operating room personnel, including surgeons and nurses, did not need to wear heavy lead aprons as they were not exposed to radiation. PMID:25997042

  4. Adhesively-bonded joints in metallic alloys, polymers and composite materials: Mechanical and environmental durability performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Baldan

    2004-01-01

    The factors affecting the mechanical and environmental durability (or stability), and performance of the adhesively bonded joints in various adherends including metallic alloys, polymers and composite materials are studied in detail. The primary function of a joint is to transfer load from one structural member to another. In most bonded joints the load transfer takes place through interfacial shear. At

  5. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to ... For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that ...

  6. Effect of Misfit on Preload Maintenance of Retention Screws of Implant-Supported Prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Gomes, Érica Alves; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Tabata, Lucas Fernando

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of unilateral misfit at different levels on a crown-implant-retention screw system of implant-supported crowns. Hexagon castable UCLA abutments were cast in Co-Cr alloy to fabricate 48 metallic crowns divided into four groups ( n = 12). Group A: crowns did not present misfit; Groups B, C and D: crowns were fabricated with unilateral misfit of 50, 100, and 200 ?m, respectively. The crowns were attached by titanium retention screw with 30 N/cm to external hexagonal osseointegrated implants embedded in acrylic resin. After 2 min, the retention screw of each replica was submitted to detorque evaluation by an analogic torque gauge. Three retention screws were used to perform detorque evaluation at each replica and the procedure was repeated twice with each screw. Each group was submitted to 72 detorque measurements. Data were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey test ( P < 0.05). All groups exhibited significant decrease ( P < 0.05) in preload and the lowest decrease occurred in Group A. Groups B, C, and D were statistically significant different from Group A ( P < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between Groups B and D ( P > 0.05). Crowns with unilateral misfit presented higher preload decrease than crowns completely fitted to osseointegrated implants.

  7. Biocompatibility testing of NiTi screws using immunohistochemistry on sections containing metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Berger-Gorbet, M; Broxup, B; Rivard, C; Yahia, L H

    1996-10-01

    NiTi is one of the most innovative concepts to have appeared in the field of metallic biomaterials in recent years but its biocompatibility remains controversial. We evaluated the biocompatibility of Nitinol screws using immunohistochemistry to observe the distribution of bone proteins during bone remodeling process around NiTi implant. Results were compared with screws made of Vitallium, c.p. titanium, Duplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steel (SAF), and Stainless Steel 316L. Screws were implanted in rabbit tibia for 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Embedding was performed in the hard resin Technovit, and for the immunohistochemical procedure undecalcified sections with bone-anchored implants could thus be used. The immunostaining method developed seemed to be a reliable technique to stain proteins in undecalcified sections. Biocompatibility results of the NiTi screws compared with the other screws showed a slower osteogenesis process characterized by no close contact between implant and bone, disorganized migration of osteoblasts around the implant, and a lower activity of osteonectin synthesis. PMID:8884502

  8. Designs and Techniques That Improve the Pullout Strength of Pedicle Screws in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Thomas M.; Laun, Jake; Gonzalez-Blohm, Sabrina A.; Doulgeris, James J.; Lee, William E.; Vrionis, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion) is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant's trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device's effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein. PMID:24724097

  9. Experimental investigations for mechanical joint strength following ultrasonically welded pin osteosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Meissner; Eckart Pilling; Gert Richter; Rainer Koch; Uwe Eckelt; Bernd Reitemeier

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether fixation of cranial bone segments using ultrasonically welded pin osteosynthesis\\u000a showed differences in mechanical stability as compared to fixation of cranial bone segments using screw osteosynthesis. Right\\u000a and left cranial bone segments from each of 16 young sheep were obtained by craniotomy and re-fixed: on the right with a mesh\\u000a plate

  10. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe the place where the sacrum and the iliac bones join. The ... The main purpose of the joint is to connect the spine and the pelvis. As a result, there is very little movement at the sacroiliac joint. Listed ...

  11. Evaluation of tantalum 316 stainless steel transition joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Tubular transition joints providing a metallurgically bonded connection between tantalum and 316 stainless steel pipe sections were comparatively evaluated for durability under thermal cycling conditions approximating the operation of a SNAP-8 mercury boiler. Both coextruded and vacuum brazed transition joints of 50mm (2 inch) diameter were tested by thermal cycling 100 times between 730 C and 120 C(1350 F and 250 F) in a high vacuum environment. The twelve evaluated transition joints survived the full test sequence without developing leaks, although liquid penetrant bond line indications eventually developed in all specimens. The brazed transition joints exhibited the best dimensional stability and bond line durability.

  12. Short-Term Results of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Pedicle Screw with Cortical Bone Trajectory Compared with Conventional Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Shimada, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Purpose To evaluate clinical and radiological results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) performed with cortical bone trajectory (CBT) pedicle screw insertion with those of TLIF using 'conventional' or percutaneous pedicle screw insertion. Overview of Literature CBT is a new trajectory for pedicle screw insertion in the lumbar spine; clinical and radiological results of TLIF using pedicle screws inserted with CBT are unclear. Methods In total, 26 patients (11 males, 15 females) were enrolled in this retrospective study and divided into three groups: TLIF with pedicle screw insertion by conventional minimally invasive methods via the Wiltse approach (M-TLIF, n=10), TLIF with percutaneous pedicle screw insertion (P-TLIF, n=6), and TLIF with pedicle screw insertion with CBT (CBT-TLIF, n=10). Surgical results and preand postoperative radiological findings were evaluated and compared. Results Intraoperative blood loss was significantly less with CBT-TLIF (p=0.03) than with M-TLIF. Postoperative lordotic angles did not differ significantly among the three groups. Complete fusions were obtained in 10 of 12 levels (83%) with M-TLIF, in seven levels (100%) with P-TLIF, and in 10 of 11 levels (91%) with CBT-TLIF. On postoperative computed tomography, correct positioning was seen in 84.1% of M-TLIF screws, 88.5% of P-TLIF screws, and 90% of CBT-TLIF screws. Conclusions CBT-TLIF resulted in less blood loss and a shorter operative duration than M-TLIF or P-TLIF. Postoperative rates of bone union, maintenance of lordotic angles, and accuracy of pedicle screw positions were similar among the three groups. PMID:26097661

  13. Stability and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Bone Formation in Longitudinally Fluted Miniscrew Implants

    E-print Network

    Truong, An Van

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of longitudinal flutes on mini-screw implant (MSI) bone healing and stability. Using 11 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, 33 longitudinally fluted and 33 non-fluted MSIs were...

  14. Amrita Sling Technique: A novel method of foot and ankle stabilization in the deformed Charcot foot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harish Kumar

    Salvage fusions of the foot and ankle present a unique set of problems to the Podiatric surgeon. Although there have been numerous advances in surgical techniques during the past few years, many of the adaptations involved the use of internal or external fixation devices to stabilize the bony construct while awaiting consolidation. These devices have included screws, plates, intramedullary nails,

  15. A piezoelectric screw dislocation near an elliptical inhomogeneity containing a confocal rigid line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. Z.; Zhao, Y. X.; Liu, Y. W.

    2012-09-01

    The interaction between a piezoelectric screw dislocation and an elliptical inhomogeneity in piezoelectric composite material which contains an electrically conductive confocal rigid line is studied, especially analyzing the shielding effect of a piezoelectric screw dislocation near an elliptical inhomogeneity. By applying the complex variable method, the analytical solution to the elastic field and the electric field, the field intensity factors at the tip of the rigid line are derived. The image force acting on the piezoelectric screw dislocation is calculated by using the generalized Peach-Koehler formula. Accordingly, the location and the orientation of the dislocation, the material properties upon the shielding or anti-shielding effect on the stress intensity factors, as well as the effects of the rigid line and the electroelastic properties of the piezoelectric materials on the image force are discussed.

  16. Peierls potential of screw dislocations in bcc transition metals: Predictions from density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Christopher R.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Foiles, Stephen M.

    2013-02-01

    It is well known that screw dislocation motion dominates the plastic deformation in body-centered-cubic metals at low temperatures. The nature of the nonplanar structure of screw dislocations gives rise to high lattice friction, which results in strong temperature and strain rate dependence of plastic flow. Thus the nature of the Peierls potential, which is responsible for the high lattice resistance, is an important physical property of the material. However, current empirical potentials give a complicated picture of the Peierls potential. Here, we investigate the nature of the Peierls potential using density functional theory in the bcc transition metals. The results show that the shape of the Peierls potential is sinusoidal for every material investigated. Furthermore, we show that the magnitude of the potential scales strongly with the energy per unit length of the screw dislocation in the material.

  17. A novel modeling approach to the mixing process in twin-screw extruders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Amedu Osaighe; Penlington, Roger; Busawon, Krishna; Morgan, Andy

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model for the mixing process in a self-wiping co-rotating twin screw extruder by combination of statistical techniques and mechanistic modelling has been proposed. The approach was to examine the mixing process in the local zones via residence time distribution and the flow dynamics, from which predictive models of the mean residence time and mean time delay were determined. Increase in feed rate at constant screw speed was found to narrow the shape of the residence time distribution curve, reduction in the mean residence time and time delay and increase in the degree of fill. Increase in screw speed at constant feed rate was found to narrow the shape of the residence time distribution curve, decrease in the degree of fill in the extruder and thus an increase in the time delay. Experimental investigation was also done to validate the modeling approach.

  18. Electrically active screw dislocations in helical ZnO and Si nanowires and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Akatyeva, Evgeniya; Kou, Liangzhi; Nikiforov, Ilia; Frauenheim, Thomas; Dumitric?, Traian

    2012-11-27

    While the presence of axial screw dislocations in helical nanowires and nanotubes is known to be due to the growth process, their effect on the electronic properties remains unexplored. Relying on objective molecular dynamics simulations coupled to density functional tight-binding models for ZnO and Si, and supporting density functional theory calculations, we predict significant screw-dislocation-induced band gap modifications in both materials. The effect originates in the highly distorted cores and should be present at radii larger than those considered in our simulations (maximum ?2 nm) as well as in other materials. The observed band gap dependences on the size of the Burgers vector and wall thickness could motivate new strategies for growing, via the screw dislocation mechanism, stable nanostructures with desired band gaps. PMID:23046425

  19. Void-induced cross slip of screw dislocations in fcc copper

    E-print Network

    Takahiro Hatano; Tetsuya Kaneko; Yousuke Abe; Hideki Matsui

    2007-12-19

    Pinning interaction between a screw dislocation and a void in fcc copper is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulation. A screw dislocation bows out to undergo depinning on the original glide plane at low temperatures, where the behavior of the depinning stress is consistent with that obtained by a continuum model. If the temperature is higher than 300 K, the motion of a screw dislocation is no longer restricted to a single glide plane due to cross slip on the void surface. Several depinning mechanisms that involve multiple glide planes are found. In particular, a depinning mechanism that produces an intrinsic prismatic loop is found. We show that these complex depinning mechanisms significantly increase the depinning stress.

  20. A computational study on the effect of fracture intrusion distance in three- and four-part trochanteric fractures treated with Gamma nail and sliding hip screw.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Jérôme M; Pankaj, Pankaj; Simpson, A Hamish

    2014-01-01

    Using finite element analysis, the behaviors of the Gamma nail and the sliding hip screw (SHS) were compared in an osteoporotic bone model for the fixation of three- and four-part trochanteric fractures (31-A2 in the AO classification, types IV and V in Evans' classification). The size of the medial fragment was varied based on clinical data, and the case of a fractured greater trochanter was also considered. Our results showed that for Evans' type V stabilized with a Gamma nail and for Evans' types IV and V with the SHS, cancellous bone around the lag screw is susceptible to yielding, thus indicating a risk of cut-out. The volume of bone susceptible to yielding increases with an increase in size of the medial fragment. Conversely, Evans' type IV with a Gamma nail was not predicted to cut out. Our findings suggest that future clinical trials investigating fixation of unstable proximal fractures should include the size of the medial fragment and the integrity of the greater trochanter as covariables and be powered to evaluate whether intramedullary devices are superior to SHSs for Evans' type IV fractures and inferior/equivalent for type V. PMID:24123306

  1. Degradation behaviour of LAE442-based plate-screw-systems in an in vitro bone model.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Leonie; Besdo, Silke; Angrisani, Nina; Wriggers, Peter; Hering, Britta; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Reifenrath, Janin

    2015-04-01

    The use of absorbable implant materials for fixation after bone fracture helps to avoid a second surgery for implant removal and the risks and costs involved. Magnesium (Mg) is well known as a potential metallic material for degradable implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate if degradable LAE442-based magnesium plate-screw-systems are suitable candidates for osteosynthesis implants in load-bearing bones. The corrosion behaviour was tested concerning the influence of different surface treatments, coatings and screw torques. Steel plates and screws of the same size served as control. Plates without special treatment screwed on up to a specified torque of 15cNm or 7cNm, NaOH treated plates (15cNm), magnesium fluoride coated plates (15cNm) and steel plates as control (15cNm) were examined in pH-buffered, temperature-controlled SBF solution for two weeks. The experimental results indicate that the LAE442 plates and screws coated with magnesium fluoride revealed a lower hydrogen evolution in SBF solution as well as a lower weight loss and volume decrease in ?-computed tomography (?CT). The nanoindentation and SEM/EDX measurements at several plate areas showed no significant differences. Summarized, the different screw torques did not affect the corrosion behaviour differently. Also the NaOH treatment seemed to have no essential influence on the degradation kinetics. The plates coated with magnesium fluoride showed a decreased corrosion rate. Hence, it is recommended to consider this coating for the next in vivo study. PMID:25686954

  2. A novel dual-screw coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.C.

    1993-06-15

    In this project, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw feeder reactor. (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data. (3) Study of the devolatilization and the desulfurization kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters. (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-screw feeder reactor. (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization. (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis using a TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer). (7) Study of the coal desulfurization using a tube oven. (8) Setting up a combustor. (9) Study of the combustion characteristics of the pyrolysis products from the dual-screw feeder reactor. (10) Process simulation of the dual-screw feeder reactor. The experimental results of devolatilization and desulfurization of an Ohio {number_sign}8 coal demonstrate that an increasing the temperature in mild coal pyrolysis leads to the increase of both the devolatilization yield and the desulfurization yield. Under the experimental conditions, mainly the organic sulfur releases in the form of H{sub 2}S. Both the devolatilization and the desulfurization processes can be described by using the first-order-reaction model which gives the activation energy values for pyrolysis and desulfurization of 170,021 kJ/mol and 78,783 kJ/mol, indicating the sulfur is easier to release than volatiles. The outer screw region of CaO pellets also demonstrated almost a complete removal of hydrogen sulfide from volatiles. At a temperature of 475{degree}C and a residence time of 6 minutes, 73.1% of the organic sulfur was removed in the screw feeder reactor. The investigation of the combustion characteristics of the pyrolysis products showed a negligible reduction of the total heating value of the char and volatile products.

  3. Comparison Between Gearshift And Drill Techniques For Pedicle Screw Placement By Resident Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jonathan; Akpolat, Yusuf T.; Kishan, Shyam; Peppers, Tim; Asgarzadie, Farbod

    2015-01-01

    Background Various techniques have been described for pedicle screw placement with established clinical and radiological success. Suboptimal screw trajectories can compromise bony purchase and, worse yet, cause neurological and vascular injuries. Thus, it is of paramount importance to achieve maximum accuracy of screw placement. Our objective is to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement in the thoracolumbar spine by resident surgeons. Two popular techniques, gearshift versus drill, were compared. Methods This is a a cadaveric surgical technique comparison study. Six resident surgeons instrumented the spine from T1 to S1 using both gearshift and drill techniques. Each pedicle was randomly assigned to either of the techniques. Pedicle screws were placed freehand without radiographic guidance. Violations (medial, lateral, anterior, superior and inferior) were recorded by studying the computerized tomographic scans of instrumented cadavers by blinded observers. Critical perforations were defined as greater than 2mm breach of the pedicle wall. Results A total of 100 vertebrae (200 pedicles) were instrumented in the six cadavers. 103 pedicles were breached (51.5% of total pedicles). Lateral violations were the most encountered (65% of violations, 67 total, 48 critical, 19 noncritical) followed by medial (24%, 25 total, 13 critical, 12 noncritical), and the rest were anterior (3%), superior (4%) and inferior (4%). There was no overall difference in violations comparing the gearshift technique (49.5%, 51 total, 37 critical, 14 noncritical) with drill technique (50.5%, 52 total, 33 critical, 19 noncritical). Analyzing the breaches at individual vertebra indicated most violations at T6 (11), T5 (10), followed by T3 (9) and T4 (9), decreasing towards the lumbosacral vertebrae. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the gearshift and drill techniques for placement of pedicle screws in the thoracolumbar spine fare similarly with regards to risk of breach when applied by resident surgeons. PMID:26196030

  4. The anatomic study on replacement of artificial atlanto-odontoid joint through transoral approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Yang, Shuhua; Xie, Hui; He, Xianfeng; Xu, Rongming; Ma, Weihu; Feng, Jianxiang; Chen, Qiu

    2008-06-01

    In order to provide anatomical basis for transoral approach (TOA) in dealing with the ventro lesions of craniocervical junction, and the design and application of artificial atlanto-odontoid joint, microsurgical dissecting was performed on 8 fresh craniocervical specimens layer by layer through transoropharyngeal approach. The stratification of posterior pharyngeal wall, course of vertebral artery, adjacent relationship of atlas and axis and correlative anatomical parameters of replacement of artificial atlanto-odontoid joint were observed. Besides, 32 sets of atlanto-axial joint in adults' fresh bony specimens were measured with a digital caliper and a goniometer, including the width of bony window of anterior arch of atlas, the width of bony window of axis vertebra, the distance between superior and inferior two atlas screw inserting points, the distance between two axis screw inserting points etc. It was found that the width of atlas and axis which could be exposed were 40.2+/-3.5 mm and 39.3+/-3.7 mm respectively. The width and height of posterior pharyngeal wall which could be exposed were 40.1+/-5.2 mm and 50.2+/-4.6 mm respectively. The distance between superior and inferior two atlas screw inserting points was 28.0+/-2.9 mm and 24.0+/-3.5 mm respectively, and the distance of bilateral axis screw inserting points was 18.0+/-1.2 mm. The operative exposure position through TOA ranged from inferior part of the clivus to the superior part of the C3 vertebral body. Posterior pharyngeal wall consisted of 5 layers and two interspaces: mucosa, submucosa, superficial muscular layer, anterior fascia of vertebrae, anterior muscular layer of vertebrae and posterior interspace of pharynx, anterior interspace of vertebrae. This study revealed that it had the advantages of short operative distance, good exposure and sufficient decompression in dealing with the ventro lesions from the upper cervical to the lower clivus through the TOA. The replacement of artificial atlanto-odontoid joint is suitable and feasible. The design of artificial atlanto-odontoid joint should be based on the above data. PMID:18563334

  5. Percutaneous Cement-Augmented Screws Fixation in the Fractures of the Aging Spine: Is It the Solution?

    PubMed Central

    Pesenti, Sébastien; Peltier, Emilie; Adetchessi, Tarek; Dufour, Henry; Fuentes, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Management of elderly patients with thoracolumbar fractures is still challenging due to frequent osteoporosis and risk of screws pull-out. The aim of this study was to evaluate results of a percutaneous-only procedure to treat these fragile patients using cement-augmented screws. Methods. 12 patients diagnosed with a thoracolumbar fracture associated with an important loss of bone stock were included in this prospective study. Surgical procedure included systematically a percutaneous osteosynthesis using cemented fenestrated screws. When necessary, additional anterior support was performed using a kyphoplasty procedure. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed using CT scan. Results. On the whole series, 15 fractures were diagnosed and 96 cemented screws were inserted. The difference between the pre- and postoperative vertebral kyphosis was statistically significant (12.9° versus 4.4°, P = 0.0006). No extrapedicular screw was reported and one patient was diagnosed with a cement-related pulmonary embolism. During follow-up period, no infectious complications, implant failures, or pull-out screws were noticed. Discussion. Aging spine is becoming an increasing public health issue. Management of these patients requires specific attention due to the augmented risk of complications. Using percutaneous-only screws fixation with cemented screw provides satisfactory results. A rigorous technique is mandatory in order to achieve best outcomes. PMID:24696858

  6. hal-00274424,version1-18Apr2008 report number Theoretical study of kinks on screw dislocation in silicon

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hal-00274424,version1-18Apr2008 report number Theoretical study of kinks on screw dislocation) Theoretical calculations of the structure, formation and migration of kinks on a non-dissociated screw dislocation in silicon have been carried out using density functional theory calculations as well

  7. Computation of the configuration degree of freedom of a spatial parallel mechanism by using reciprocal screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-Shan Zhao; Zhi-Jing Feng; Jing-Xin Dong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a programmable algorithm to investigate the configuration degree of freedom (CDOF) of a spatial parallel mechanism in one Cartesian coordinate system with reciprocal screw theory. According to the physical meaning of reciprocal screws, we first obtain the terminal constraints of every kinematic chain which connects the end-effector with the fixed base, and then gain the

  8. Substitutional Al solute interaction with edge and screw dislocation in Ni: a comparison between atomistic computation and continuum elastic theory

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Substitutional Al solute interaction with edge and screw dislocation in Ni: a comparison between atomistic computation and continuum elastic theory S. Patinet1 1 Service de Recherches de Métallurgie the slip plane, we find that both edge and screw dislocations experiment a non-negligible binding energy

  9. To Determine the Percentage of Copper in a Brass Screw Using a Computer Interface with a Colorimeter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Joan; Hedge, Robyn

    1997-01-01

    Year 11 students investigated the real-world problem of whether screws are really brass. It allowed them to use the colorimeter and computer interface in a way that was easily understood and models normal practice in testing laboratories. Screws were dissolved in nitric acid and their absorbance of red light was compared with a standard curve.…

  10. The EndoPearl device increases fixation strength and eliminates construct slippage of hamstring tendon grafts with interference screw fixation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Weiler; Manuel Richter; Gerhard Schmidmaier; Frank Kandziora; Norbert P. Südkamp

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The EndoPearl (Linvatec, Largo, FL), a biodegradable device to augment the femoral interference screw fixation of hamstring tendon grafts has been developed. The first objective of this study was to compare the initial fixation strength of quadrupled hamstring tendons and biodegradable interference screw fixation with and without the application of the EndoPearl device. The second objective was to determine

  11. Carbon nanotube composites prepared by ultrasonically assisted twin screw extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Todd

    Two ultrasonic twin screw extrusion systems were designed and manufactured for the ultrasonic dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in viscous polymer matrices at residence times of the order of seconds in the ultrasonic treatment zones. The first design consisted of an ultrasonic slit die attachment in which nanocomposites were treated. A second design incorporated an ultrasonic treatment section into the barrel of the extruder to utilize the shearing of the polymer during extrusion while simultaneously applying treatment. High performance, high temperature thermoset phenylethynyl terminate imide oligomer (PETI-330) and two different polyetherether ketones (PEEK) were evaluated at CNT loadings up to 10 wt%. The effects of CNT loading and ultrasonic amplitude on the processing characteristics and rheological, mechanical, electrical, thermal and morphological properties of nanocomposites were investigated. PETI and PEEK nanocomposites showed a decrease in resistivity, an increase in modulus and strength and a decrease in strain at break and toughness with increased CNT loading. Ultrasonically treated samples showed a decrease in die pressure and extruder torque with increasing ultrasonic treatment and an increase in complex viscosity and storage modulus at certain ultrasonic treatment levels. Optical microscopy showed enhanced dispersion of the CNT bundles in ultrasonically treated samples. However, no significant improvement of mechanical properties was observed with ultrasonic treatment due to lack of adhesion between the CNT and matrix in the solid state. A curing model for PETI-330 was proposed that includes the induction and curing stages to predict the degree of cure of PETI-330 under non-isothermal conditions. Induction time parameters, rate constant and reaction order of the model were obtained based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data. The model correctly predicted experimentally measured degrees of cure of compression molded plaques cured to various degrees. An apparatus for high temperature resin transfer molding (HT-RTM) was designed and built to produce PETI-8 and PETI-330/carbon fabric composite panels. Performance of the panels was tested at various temperatures. The produced panels exhibited low void content in wetted areas and had higher short beam shear properties in comparison with vacuum assisted resin transfer moldings. To investigate the environmental aspects of nanomaterials, a testing apparatus was designed and manufactured to study the effectiveness of particulate respirators at filtering CNTs. Three different grades of respirators were evaluated for their effectiveness to prevent the inhalation of CNTs. Dust masks, commonly used in a processing environment, were found to be highly ineffective at preventing the inhalation of CNTs. However, respirators with a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) rating of P95 or greater were shown to prevent the inhalation of CNTs under normal breathing conditions.

  12. Characteristics of Skin-Electrode Impedance for a Novel Screw Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wenyan; Wu, Jiamin; Gao, Di; Sun, Mingui

    2014-01-01

    Our group has developed a novel dry electrode, the skin screw electrode, for EEG measurement. This electrode can be conveniently and rapidly installed on the human scalp requiring no electrolyte application and skin preparation. In this paper, we further evaluate the performance of this electrode by investigating its frequency-dependent electrical impedance at the skin-electrode interface. Comparing with the traditional disc electrode, we found that the two types of electrodes showed very different spectral properties. We also found that the impedance of the screw electrode decreases after coating with gold. PMID:25642128

  13. A new technique for retaining double crowns on implants via custom-positioned vertical screws.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Eberhard; Ziebolz, Dirk; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Rinke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the use of custom-positioned vertical screws (CVS) to attach primary telescopic crowns to implant abutments. In a private practice setting, 37 patients with 40 double crown-retained implant overdentures (IODs) with a clearance fit (Marburg double crowns) were followed. All primary crowns on the 120 implant abutments were retained using CVS. After a mean followup period of 3.55 ± 1.37 years (range: 1.5 to 6.3 years), one abutment screwloosening incident was reported (incidence: 0.08%). No loosening of any of the screw-retained primary crowns occurred. CVS may represent a viable fixation concept for IODs. PMID:25390875

  14. A complete absorption mechanism of stacking fault tetrahedron by screw dislocation in copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haidong; Wang, Qingyuan

    2013-10-01

    It was frequently observed in experiments that stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) can be completely absorbed by dislocation and generate defect-free channels in irradiated materials, but the mechanism is still open. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) was used to explore the dislocation mechanism of reaction between SFT and screw dislocation in copper. Our computational results reveal that, at high temperature, the SFT is completely absorbed by screw dislocation with the help of Lomer-Cottrell (LC) lock transforming into Lomer dislocation. This complete absorption mechanism is very helpful to understand the defect-free channels in irradiated materials.

  15. Vertebral body compression fracture after percutaneous pedicle screw removal in a young man.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, M; De Iure, F; Amendola, L; Martucci, A

    2014-11-23

    Hazards and potential complications associated with pedicle screw insertions have been reported. In contrast, complications due to implant removal are rarely described. An unreported case of acute vertebral body compression fracture following pedicle screw removal in a young man occurred during an episode of forceful coughing. Spinal implants need to be removed in cases of complications, pain or tissue irritation, and removal is mandatory when fixation involves L2 or the lower segments. Complications associated with spinal implant removal are rare but possible, and patients must be informed of this potential risk. PMID:25417175

  16. Luttinger Liquid in the Core of a Screw Dislocation in Helium-4

    SciTech Connect

    Boninsegni, M. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Kuklov, A. B. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, CUNY, Staten Island, New York 10314 (United States); Pollet, L.; Troyer, M. [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-20

    On the basis of first-principles Monte Carlo simulations we find that the screw dislocation along the hexagonal axis of an hcp {sup 4}He crystal features a superfluid (at T{yields}0) core. This is the first example of a regular quasi-one-dimensional supersolid--the phase featuring both translational and superfluid orders, and one of the cleanest cases of a Luttinger-liquid system. In contrast, the same type of screw dislocation in solid H{sub 2} is insulating.

  17. Comparison of plate-screw systems used in mandibular fracture reduction: finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Lovald, Scott T; Khraishi, Tariq; Wagner, Jon; Baack, Bret; Kelly, James; Wood, John

    2006-10-01

    A finite element model of the human dentate mandible has been developed to provide a comparison of fixation systems used currently for fracture reduction. Volume domains for cortical bone, cancellous bone, and teeth were created and meshed in ANSYS 8.0 based on IGES curves created from computerized tomography data. A unilateral molar clench was loaded on the model with a fracture gap simulated along the symphysis. Results based on Von Mises stress in cortical and cancellous bone surrounding the screws, and on fracture surface spatial fixation, show some relative differences between different screw-plate systems, yet all were judged to be appropriate in their reduction potential. PMID:16995751

  18. Residence Time Distribution (RTD) in a Single Screw Extrusion of African Breadfruit Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Titus U. Nwabueze; Maduebibisi O. Iwe

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne), corn, and defatted soybean were extruded in a single-screw Brabender laboratory extruder at process variables derived\\u000a from a second-order central composite design. The variables consisted of feed composition (0–100% breadfruit, 0–55% soybean,\\u000a and 0 or 5% corn); fed moisture (15–27%), and screw speed (100–180 rpm). Effects of these variables on residence time distribution\\u000a were

  19. The stabilizing function of passive shoulder restraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn C. Terry; Dan Hammon; Paul France; Lyle A. Norwood

    1991-01-01

    The static restraints of the scapulohumeral joint provide stability for the humeral head in the glenoid cavity, limit extremes of motion of the glenohumeral joint, and guide positioning of the humerus during normal shoulder movement.Eleven fresh-frozen cadaver shoulders of unknown age were attached to a shoulder motion device that allowed measurement of motion in three planes with an accuracy to

  20. Dolder bar joint mandibular overdenture: a technique for nonparallel abutment teeth.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, G L

    1976-07-01

    A mandibular overdenture technique has been presented that utilizes the Dolder bar joint attachment. Endodontically treated lower canines were retained as abutments. Two techniques for attaching the bar to teeth with divergent root canals were discussed: (1) the Schubiger screw system for those teeth with extremely divergent canals and (2) the Stutz pivots system for teeth with only slightly divergent root canals. The use of the Dolder bar joint offers periodontally involved teeth an improved crown/root ratio and splinting of the teeth. Because the bar is close to the alveolar bone, forces of mastication exert much less leverage to the teeth. Finally, the bar joint offers slight vertical and rotational movement of the denture as well as a stressbreaker action. PMID:787496

  1. Cement Embolism into the Venous System after Pedicle Screw Fixation: Case Report, Literature Review, and Prevention Tips

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Ghassan; Ruedinger, Claus; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2013-01-01

    The strength of pedicle screws attachment to the vertebrae is an important factor affecting their motion resistance and long term performance. Low bone quality, e.g. in osteopenic patients, keeps the screw bone interface at risk for subsidence and dislocation. In such cases, bone cement could be used to augment pedicle screw fixation. But its use is not free of risk. Therefore, clinicians, especially spine surgeons, radiologists, and internists should become increasingly aware of cement migration and embolism as possible complications. Here, we present an instructive case of cement embolism into the venous system after augmented screw fixation with fortunately asymptomatic clinical course. In addition we discuss pathophysiology and prevention methods as well as therapeutic management of this potentially life-threatening complication in a comprehensive review of the literature. However, only a few case reports of cement embolism into the venous system were published after augmented screw fixation. PMID:24191184

  2. Arthroscopic lateral ankle stabilization.

    PubMed

    Kashuk, K B; Landsman, A S; Werd, M B; Hanft, J R; Roberts, M

    1994-07-01

    The indications for arthroscopic stabilization include those patients with isolated ruptures or strains of the ATF. The procedure is particularly convenient for patients with ankle joint pathology that is already most commonly treated arthroscopically, such as chronic instability, in which inflamed synovium or meniscoid bodies are to be excised. Although significant stability can be gained with this technique, injuries that result in damage to the calcaneofibular ligament may require additional open surgery, since this ligament cannot be visualized arthroscopically. However, the anchoring techniques described in this article can still be used when performing open surgery. PMID:7954209

  3. Short segment pedicle screw instrumentation with an index level screw and cantilevered hyperlordotic reduction in the treatment of type-A fractures of the thoracolumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Kose, K C; Inanmaz, M E; Isik, C; Basar, H; Caliskan, I; Bal, E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of short segment pedicle screw instrumentation and an intermediate screw (SSPI+IS) on the radiological outcome of type A thoracolumbar fractures, as judged by the load-sharing classification, percentage canal area reduction and remodelling. We retrospectively evaluated 39 patients who had undergone hyperlordotic SSPI+IS for an AO-Magerl Type-A thoracolumbar fracture. Their mean age was 35.1 (16 to 60) and the mean follow-up was 22.9 months (12 to 36). There were 26 men and 13 women in the study group. In total, 18 patients had a load-sharing classification score of seven and 21 a score of six. All radiographs and CT scans were evaluated for sagittal index, anterior body height compression (%ABC), spinal canal area and encroachment. There were no significant differences between the low and high score groups with respect to age, duration of follow-up, pre-operative sagittal index or pre-operative anterior body height compression (p = 0.217, 0.104, 0.104, and 0.109 respectively). The mean pre-operative sagittal index was 19.6° (12° to 28°) which was corrected to -1.8° (-5° to 3°) post-operatively and 2.4° (0° to 8°) at final follow-up (p = 0.835 for sagittal deformity). No patient needed revision for loss of correction or failure of instrumentation. Hyperlordotic reduction and short segment pedicle screw instrumentation and an intermediate screw is a safe and effective method of treating burst fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. It gives excellent radiological results with a very low rate of failure regardless of whether the fractures have a high or low load-sharing classification score. PMID:24692625

  4. Complex fractures of the distal radius treated with angular stability plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Frattini; Giovanni Soncini; Maurizio Corradi; Bruno Panno; Silvio Tocco; Francesco Pogliacomi

    2009-01-01

    Complex fractures of the distal radius are articular lesions and comminuted at the level of the epiphysis and metaphysis.\\u000a Their treatment is difficult and in most cases surgical. Of all the different osteosynthesis methods available, internal fixation\\u000a with plate and screws is the most commonly used. In particular, angular stability plates are superior in terms of rigidity\\u000a and stability to

  5. Mechanics of Suture Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaning; Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary; Ortiz group/DMSE/MIT Team; Boyce group/ME/MIT Team

    2011-03-01

    Biological sutures are joints which connect two stiff skeletal or skeletal-like components. These joints possess a wavy geometry with a thin organic layer providing adhesion. Examples of biological sutures include mammalian skulls, the pelvic assembly of the armored fish Gasterosteus aculeatus (the three-spined stickleback), and the suture joints in the shell of the red-eared slider turtle. Biological sutures allow for movement and compliance, control stress concentrations, transmit loads, reduce fatigue stress and absorb energy. In this investigation, the mechanics of the role of suture geometry in providing a naturally optimized joint is explored. In particular, analytical and numerical micromechanical models of the suture joint are constructed. The anisotropic mechanical stiffness and strength are studied as a function of suture wavelength, amplitude and the material properties of the skeletal and organic components, revealing key insights into the optimized nature of these ubiquitous natural joints.

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of a medial knee reconstruction with comparison of bioabsorbable interference screw constructs and optimization with a cortical button.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Coen A; Brand, Emily J; Nuckley, David J; Johansen, Steinar; LaPrade, Robert F; Engebretsen, Lars

    2010-11-01

    Current fixation techniques in medial knee reconstructions predominantly utilize interference screws alone for soft tissue graft fixation. The use of concurrent fixation techniques as part of a hybrid fixation technique has also been suggested to strengthen soft tissue fixation, although these hybrid fixation techniques have not been biomechanically validated. The purpose was to biomechanically evaluate two distal tibial superficial MCL graft fixation techniques that consisted of an interference screw alone and in combination with a cortical button. Furthermore, the aim was to compare interference screws of different constructs. Twenty-four porcine tibias (average bone mineral density of 1.3 ± 0.2 g/cm(2); range, 1.0-1.6 g/cm(2), measured by DEXA scan) were divided into 4 groups of six specimens each. Group Ia consisted of a 7 × 23-mm poly-L-lactide (PLLA) interference screw. Group Ib utilized a PLLA interference screw in combination with a cortical button. Group IIa consisted of a 7 × 23-mm composite 70% poly(L-lactide-co-D, L-lactide) and 30% biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) interference screw. Group IIb also utilized a composite interference screw in combination with a cortical button. The specimens were biomechanically tested with cyclic (500 cycles, 50-250 N, 1 Hz) and load-to-failure (20 mm/min) parameters. During cyclic loading, a significant increase in stiffness was seen for the PLLA hybrid 29.6 (±6.9) N/mm fixation compared to the PLLA screw-only 21.2 (±3.8) N/mm group (P < 0.05). Failure loads were 407.8 (±77.9) N for the composite screw, 445 (±72.2) N for the PLLA screw-only, 473.9 (±69.6) N for the composite hybrid fixation, and 511.0 (±78.5) N for the PLLA hybrid fixation. The PLLA screw alone was found to provide adequate fixation for a superficial MCL reconstruction, and the use of a cortical suture button combined with the PLLA screw resulted in a stiffer fixation during cyclic loading. The current reconstruction superficial MCL graft fixation technique utilizing a PLLA interference screw alone serves as an adequate recreation of the native tibial superficial MCL strength. In addition, a hybrid fixation with a cortical button which lends additional cyclic stiffness to its fixation would be advisable for use in suboptimal fixation cases. PMID:20563561

  7. Micropipes and the Closure of Axial Screw Dislocation Cores in Silicon Carbide Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter,W.; Dudley, M.

    2004-01-01

    Micropipes in 6H, 4H, and 15R-SiC semiconductor wafers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The screw dislocations intersecting wafers surface were located by etch pitting, and their Burgers vectors determined by x-ray topography. The etch pits were eroded into smooth craters by ion milling to expose levels of dislocation line from inside the samples bulk, so that the micropipes diameters were removed from the influence of prior surface treatments and surface relaxation effects. The bases of these craters were examined by SEM and AFM to determine whether hollow dislocation cores (micropipes) were present. In the case of 6H-SiC, hollow cores were never observed at the base of the craters whose screw dislocations had Burgers vectors of magnitude two multiples of the c-lattice parameter or less. In the 4H polytype, most 3c screw dislocations displayed hollow cores, but one was observed that did not. All axial screw dislocations in 15R-SiC crystals, because of this polytypes larger c-lattice parameter, had hollow cores.

  8. Twin screw oil-free wet compressor for compression–absorption cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Infante Ferreira; C. Zamfirescu; D. Zaytsev

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a twin screw compressor operating under wet (two-phase) compression conditions in an ammonia–water compression absorption heat pump cycle is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The paper reports on the influence of the location of liquid intake or, depending what applies, injection angle and mass flow rate of the injected liquid on compressor performance. Labyrinth seals separate the

  9. Serial lead impedance measurements confirm fixation of helical screw electrodes during pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Roelke, M; Bernstein, A D; Parsonnet, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether serial measurements of helical screw pacemaker lead impedance could reliably confirm electrode fixation in the right atrium and right ventricle. Fixation is generally assessed fluoroscopically, which can be misleading because the myocardium is radiolucent. Alternatively, because the electrical conductivity of blood is greater than that of myocardium, serial measurements of the lead impedance might be expected to show an impedance increase with appropriate fixation of the pacemaker electrode when the electrode becomes embedded in myocardial tissue. Impedance measurements were made during the placement of 23 atrial and 28 ventricular active fixation electrodes in 31 consecutive patients. Impedance measurements were recorded in unipolar and bipolar electrode configurations with the electrode free floating in the chamber, unfixed (with exposed screws) but touching the endocardial surface, and after fixation. No significant impedance differences were found between free-floating and unfixed electrode positions. With fixation, the lead impedance increased significantly in the ventricle (P = 0.0001, unipolar and bipolar) and the atrium (P = 0.0069 unipolar and 0.0052 bipolar). Typical increases, reflected by median values, were 197 ohms unipolar and 203 ohms bipolar in the ventricle and 47 ohms unipolar and 53 ohms bipolar in the atrium for electrodes with permanently exposed or retractable screw designs. Comparing serial measurements of lead impedance before and after electrode fixation is a valid electrical method of confirming appropriate fixation of helical screw electrodes. PMID:10793439

  10. The Effect of Noise on the Dirac Phase of Electron in The Presence of Screw Dislocation

    E-print Network

    Reza Torabi

    2011-10-26

    The effect of noise on the Dirac phase of electron in the presence of screw dislocation is studied. An uncorrelated noise, which coincides with the nature of thermal fluctuations, is adopted. Results indicate that the Dirac phase is robust against existing noise in the system.

  11. A study of the bone healing kinetics of plateau versus screw root design titanium dental implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Leonard; Paulo Coelho; Ioannis Polyzois; Leo Stassen; Noel Claffey

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to compare the bone healing process around plateau root from (PRF) and screw root from (SRF) titanium dental implants over the immediate 12 week healing period post implant placement. Material and methods: 32PRF and 32SRF implants were placed in 8 beagle dogs at 12, 8, 5 and 3 weeks prior to enthanisation using a bilaterally

  12. Theory of Threading Edge and Screw Dislocations in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, J.; Jones, R.; Sitch, P. K.; Porezag, V. D.; Elstner, M.; Frauenheim, Th.; Heggie, M. I.; Öberg, S.; Briddon, P. R.

    1997-11-01

    The atomic structures, electrical properties, and line energies for threading screw and threading edge dislocations of wurtzite GaN are calculated within the local-density approximation. Both dislocations are electrically inactive with a band gap free from deep levels. These results are understood to arise from relaxed core structures which are similar to ( 101¯0) surfaces.

  13. Kinematics and dynamics of deployable structures with scissor-like-elements based on screw theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuantao; Wang, Sanmin; Mills, James K.; Zhi, Changjian

    2014-07-01

    Because the deployable structures are complex multi-loop structures and methods of derivation which lead to simpler kinematic and dynamic equations of motion are the subject of research effort, the kinematics and dynamics of deployable structures with scissor-like-elements are presented based on screw theory and the principle of virtual work respectively. According to the geometric characteristic of the deployable structure examined, the basic structural unit is the common scissor-like-element(SLE). First, a spatial deployable structure, comprised of three SLEs, is defined, and the constraint topology graph is obtained. The equations of motion are then derived based on screw theory and the geometric nature of scissor elements. Second, to develop the dynamics of the whole deployable structure, the local coordinates of the SLEs and the Jacobian matrices of the center of mass of the deployable structure are derived. Then, the equivalent forces are assembled and added in the equations of motion based on the principle of virtual work. Finally, dynamic behavior and unfolded process of the deployable structure are simulated. Its figures of velocity, acceleration and input torque are obtained based on the simulate results. Screw theory not only provides an efficient solution formulation and theory guidance for complex multi-closed loop deployable structures, but also extends the method to solve dynamics of deployable structures. As an efficient mathematical tool, the simper equations of motion are derived based on screw theory.

  14. Kinematics of an asymmetrical three-legged parallel manipulator by means of the screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Gallardo-Alvarado; Agustín Ramírez-Agundis; Héctor Rojas-Garduño; Benjamín Arroyo-Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    In this work the kinematics of a three-legged parallel manipulator with asymmetrical limbs and decoupled motions over its moving platform is investigated by means of the theory of screws. The solution of the forward displacement analysis (FDA) is presented in echelon-form solution using a novel procedure based on simple geometric constraints, thus all the feasible locations of the moving platform,

  15. Kinematics and singularity analyses of a 4-dof parallel manipulator using screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Gallardo-Alvarado; José María Rico-Martínez; Gürsel Alici

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the kinematics and singularity analyses of a four degrees of freedom parallel manipulator are investigated using the theory of screws. As an initial step, the forward position analysis is carried out and forward position equations are obtained in a closed form, thanks to the simplicity of the architecture of the proposed mechanism. Afterwards, simple and compact expressions

  16. Screw theory and higher order kinematic analysis of open serial and closed chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Rico; J. Gallardo; J. Duffy

    1999-01-01

    In a pair of recent contributions by the authors of this paper, it has been shown that screw theory can be successfully employed in the acceleration analysis of open and closed spatial chains. In this contribution, a novel method for the velocity, acceleration, and jerk analysis of spatial chains is introduced. The method is based in obtaining recursive expressions for

  17. Mobility analysis of lower-mobility parallel manipulators based on screw theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinchuan Li; Zhen Huang

    2003-01-01

    Mobility analysis of lower-mobility parallel manipulators is of great importance in the context of analysis and design. A method is proposed for the mobility analysis of lower-mobility parallel manipulators based on screw theory. The limb structural constraint acting on the moving platform is first analyzed. Then the combined effect of all limb structural constraints is obtained by investigating the geometrical

  18. Application of screw theory to constraint analysis of assemblies of rigid parts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Adams; Daniel E. Whitney

    1999-01-01

    Screw theory is used to provide mathematical models of assembly features, allowing the determination of positioning constraints imposed on one part in an assembly by another part based on the geometry of the features that join them. Seventeen feature types have been modeled. A user of this theory is able to combine members of this set to join two parts

  19. The Helical Screw Rheometer: An advance in instrumentation for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.N.; Kraynik, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Sandia has developed and tested the novel Helical Screw Rheometer to study gelling and vacuum bottoms in direct liquefaction processes. This device, which is essentially an extruder, has inherent advantages over conventional rheometers because it eliminates flow rate and torque measurements. Theory and representative data are presented.

  20. Comparison of dynamic hip screw and gamma nail: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Butt; S. J. Krikler; S. Nafie; M. S. Ali

    1995-01-01

    We report a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, comparing the results of treatment with a dynamic hip screw (DHS) and a gamma nail in 95 consecutive patients with peri-trochanteric fractures of the femur. The DHS was used in 48 patients, the gamma nail in 47. Clinical and radiological outcomes were similar, but the gamma nail was associated with a higher incidence